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Sample records for understanding relative motion

  1. Motion and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Infeld, Leopold

    1960-01-01

    Motion and Relativity focuses on the methodologies, solutions, and approaches involved in the study of motion and relativity, including the general relativity theory, gravitation, and approximation.The publication first offers information on notation and gravitational interaction and the general theory of motion. Discussions focus on the notation of the general relativity theory, field values on the world-lines, general statement of the physical problem, Newton's theory of gravitation, and forms for the equation of motion of the second kind. The text then takes a look at the approximation meth

  2. Predictive Navigation by Understanding Human Motion Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yun Chung

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To make robots coexist and share the environments with humans, robots should understand the behaviors or the intentions of humans and further predict their motions. In this paper, an A*-based predictive motion planner is represented for navigation tasks. A generalized pedestrian motion model is proposed and trained by the statistical learning method. To deal with the uncertainty, a localization, tracking and prediction framework is also introduced. The corresponding recursive Bayesian formula represented as DBNs (Dynamic Bayesian Networks is derived for real time operation. Finally, the simulations and experiments are shown to validate the idea of this paper.

  3. Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Menache, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The power of today's motion capture technology has taken animated characters and special effects to amazing new levels of reality. And with the release of blockbusters like Avatar and Tin-Tin, audiences continually expect more from each new release. To live up to these expectations, film and game makers, particularly technical animators and directors, need to be at the forefront of motion capture technology. In this extensively updated edition of Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation and Video Games, an industry insider explains the latest research developments in digital design

  4. A Hybrid Framework for Understanding and Predicting Human Reaching Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur S. Oguz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Robots collaborating naturally with a human partner in a confined workspace need to understand and predict human motions. For understanding, a model-based approach is required as the human motor control system relies on the biomechanical properties to control and execute actions. The model-based control models explain human motions descriptively, which in turn enables predicting and analyzing human movement behaviors. In motor control, reaching motions are framed as an optimization problem. However, different optimality criteria predict disparate motion behavior. Therefore, the inverse problem—finding the optimality criterion from a given arm motion trajectory—is not unique. This paper implements an inverse optimal control (IOC approach to determine the combination of cost functions that governs a motion execution. The results indicate that reaching motions depend on a trade-off between kinematics and dynamics related cost functions. However, the computational efficiency is not sufficient for online prediction to be utilized for HRI. In order to predict human reaching motions with high efficiency and accuracy, we combine the IOC approach with a probabilistic movement primitives formulation. This hybrid model allows an online-capable prediction while taking into account motor variability and the interpersonal differences. The proposed framework affords a descriptive and a generative model of human reaching motions which can be effectively utilized online for human-in-the-loop robot control and task execution.

  5. Investigating student understanding of simple harmonic motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somroob, S.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate students’ understanding and develop instructional material on a topic of simple harmonic motion. Participants were 60 students taking a course on vibrations and wave and 46 students taking a course on Physics 2 and 28 students taking a course on Fundamental Physics 2 on the 2nd semester of an academic year 2016. A 16-question conceptual test and tutorial activities had been developed from previous research findings and evaluated by three physics experts in teaching mechanics before using in a real classroom. Data collection included both qualitative and quantitative methods. Item analysis and whole-test analysis were determined from student responses in the conceptual test. As results, most students had misconceptions about restoring force and they had problems connecting mathematical solutions to real motions, especially phase angle. Moreover, they had problems with interpreting mechanical energy from graphs and diagrams of the motion. These results were used to develop effective instructional materials to enhance student abilities in understanding simple harmonic motion in term of multiple representations.

  6. Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding and Model of Understanding about Newton's Laws of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul; Devecioglu, Yasemin

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the level of student teachers' understandings of Newton's laws of motion and relating these levels to identify student teachers' models of understanding. An achievement test composed of two parts comprising 12 open ended questions was constructed and given to 45 pre-service classroom teachers. The first part…

  7. Homothetic motions in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, C.B.G.

    1976-01-01

    Properties of homothetic or self-similar motions in general relativity are examined with particular reference to vacuum and perfect-fluid space-times. The role of the homothetic bivector with components Hsub((a;b)) formed from the homothetic vector H is discussed in some detail. It is proved that a vacuum space-time only admits a nontrivial homothetic motion if the homothetic vector field is non-null and is not hypersurface orthogonal. As a subcase of a more general result it is shown that a perfect-fluid space-time cannot admit a non-trivial homothetic vector which is orthogonal to the fluid velocity 4-vector. (author)

  8. Motion Control along Relative Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is control of mechanical systems as they evolve along the steady motions called relative equilibria. These trajectories are of interest in theory and applications and have the characterizing property that the system's body-fixed velocity is constant. For example, constant......-speed rotation about a principal axis is a relative equilibrium of a rigid body in three dimensions. We focus our study on simple mechanical control systems on Lie groups, i.e., mechanical systems with the following properties: the configuration manifold is a matrix Lie group, the total energy is equal...... on a Lie group is locally controllable along a relative equilibrium. These conditions subsume the well-known local controllability conditions for equilibrium points. Second, for systems that have fewer controls than degrees of freedom, we present a novel algorithm to control simple mechanical control...

  9. An Architectural Model of Visual Motion Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    Gizzi, and William T. Newsome, "The Analysis of Moving Visual Patterns," In C. Chagas R. Gattass C. Gross. editor, Experimental Brain Research...Issue on Vi- sual Motion," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 11(5):449-450, May 1989. [Tiana et al.. 1989] Carlo Tiana

  10. Pre-service Elementary Teachers Understanding on Force and Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggoro, S.; Widodo, A.; Suhandi, A.

    2017-09-01

    The research is done to investigate the understanding on the subtopic of Force and Motion that exists among the pre-services elementary teachers. The participants were 71 Elementary Teachers Study Program students in 6th and 77 one in 2nd semester at private university. Research instrument consisted of background information of respondents, belief of preconception and 8 questions that relates to Force and Motion with four alternative answers and their explained. Descriptive statistics such as percentage and bar chart were used for analyzing the data collected. Research findings have shown many participants have some misunderstand or misconception conception especially in free fall object, rest object, buoyant force and gravitation. This research recommends learning progression pre-services teachers to be exposed with conflict cognitive strategy for science conceptual change.

  11. Relative Motion Modeling and Autonomous Navigation Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    the use of nonsingular elements, this version of relative motion STM has singularities for reference orbits that lie in the equatorial plane ...improved by including the lunar orbit’s eccentricity and inclination in the studies presented in References [17-19]. Since the perturbed relative motion ...satellites are equipped with solar flaps or aerodynamic flaps. By appropriate rotation of these flaps, it is possible to influence the relative motion

  12. Using Great Circles to Understand Motion on a Rotating Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, David H.

    2000-05-01

    The Coriolis and centrifugal forces are fictitious forces introduced to explain motion in a rotating reference frame. However, the vector cross products and coupled differential equations required to make use of these forces generally provide little physical insight into the motion. To facilitate the understanding of these fictitious forces, I consider the motion from the inertial point of view and then transform to the rotating frame. This is a common approach to explain two-dimensional turntable motion, so I discuss motion on a rotating sphere. In this case, the inertial motion is along a great circle fixed in that frame, in analogy with simple straight-line motion in the turntable example. This great circle description is used to discuss ice hockey on a frozen, spherical earth. This simple "straight-line" viewpoint of the inertial observer is reconciled with the view of the rotating observer that requires fictitious forces to explain the motion. By using the great circles to discuss some simple examples, I isolate and illustrate the Coriolis and centrifugal forces, as well as effects due to the curvature of the earth.

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Equations of Motion in General Relativity Equations of Motion in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Gerhard

    2012-03-01

    Devoted exclusively to the problem of motion in general relativity, this book by H. Asada, T. Futamase, and P. A. Hogan is highly welcome to close up a gap in the book sector presenting a concise account of theoretical developments and results on gravitational equations of motion achieved since the discovery of the binary neutron star system PSR 1913+16 in 1974. For the most part, the book is concerned with the development and application of the important post-Newtonian approximation (PNA) framework which allows for highly efficient approximate analytic solutions of the Einstein field equations for many-body systems in terms of a slow-motion and weak-field ordering parameter. That approximation scheme is shown to be applicable also to the external motion of strongly self-gravitating objects if their internal dynamics is frozen in (strong field point particle limit) and the external conditions fit. Relying on the expertise of the authors, the PNA framework is presented in a form which, at the 1PNA level, had become famous through the work by Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann in 1938; therein, surface integrals over gravitational field expressions in the outside-body regime play a crucial role. Other approaches which also succeeded with the highest achieved PNA level so far are mentioned too, if not fully exhaustively with respect to the highest, the 3.5PNA level which contains the inverse power of the speed of light to the seventh order. Regarding the 3PNA, the reader gains a clear understanding of how the equations of motion for binary systems with compact components come about. Remarkably, no deviation from four-dimensional space-time is needed. Various explicit analytic expressions are derived for binary systems: the periastron advance and the orbital period at the 2PNA, the orbital decay through gravitational radiation reaction at the 2.5PNA, and effects of the gravitational spin-orbit and spin-spin couplings on the orbital motion. Also the propagation of light

  14. Dynamics of relative motion of test particles in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanski, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Several variational principles which lead to the first and the second geodesic deviation equations, recently formulated by the author and used for the description of the relative motion of test particles in general relativity are presented. Relations between these principles are investigated and exhibited. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is also studied for these generalized deviations and the conservation laws appearing here are discussed

  15. Curvilinear coordinate transformations for relative motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallado, David A.; Alfano, Salvatore

    2014-03-01

    Relative motion improvements have traditionally focused on inserting additional force models into existing formulations to achieve greater fidelity, or complex expansions to admit eccentric orbits for propagation. A simpler approach may be numerically integrating the two satellite positions and then converting to a modified equidistant cylindrical frame for comparison in a Hill's-like frame. Recent works have introduced some approaches for this transformation within the Hill's construct, and examined the accuracy of the transformation. Still others have introduced transformations as they apply to covariance operations. Each of these has some orbital or force model limitations and defines an approximate circular reference dimension. We develop a precise transformation between the Cartesian and curvilinear frame along the actual satellite orbit and test the results for various orbital classes. The transformation has wide applicability.

  16. Captured by Motion: Dance, Action Understanding, and Social Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevdalis, Vassilis; Keller, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    In this review article, we summarize the main findings from empirical studies that used dance-related forms of rhythmical full body movement as a research tool for investigating action understanding and social cognition. This work has proven to be informative about behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate links between perceptual and motor…

  17. Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Take the mystery out of motion. Our resource gives you everything you need to teach young scientists about motion. Students will learn about linear, accelerating, rotating and oscillating motion, and how these relate to everyday life - and even the solar system. Measuring and graphing motion is easy, and the concepts of speed, velocity and acceleration are clearly explained. Reading passages, comprehension questions, color mini posters and lots of hands-on activities all help teach and reinforce key concepts. Vocabulary and language are simplified in our resource to make them accessible to str

  18. The Role of Motion Concepts in Understanding Non-Motion Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatin-Zadeh, Omid; Banaruee, Hassan; Khoshsima, Hooshang; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses a specific type of metaphor in which an abstract non-motion domain is described in terms of a motion event. Abstract non-motion domains are inherently different from concrete motion domains. However, motion domains are used to describe abstract non-motion domains in many metaphors. Three main reasons are suggested for the suitability of motion events in such metaphorical descriptions. Firstly, motion events usually have high degrees of concreteness. Secondly, motion events are highly imageable. Thirdly, components of any motion event can be imagined almost simultaneously within a three-dimensional space. These three characteristics make motion events suitable domains for describing abstract non-motion domains, and facilitate the process of online comprehension throughout language processing. Extending the main point into the field of mathematics, this article discusses the process of transforming abstract mathematical problems into imageable geometric representations within the three-dimensional space. This strategy is widely used by mathematicians to solve highly abstract and complex problems. PMID:29240715

  19. Understanding empathy and related phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamasundar, C

    1999-01-01

    Over a period of time, the author arrived at a few tentative postulates concerning empathy and related processes based on some of his experiences and observations. The central theme of these postulates is, firstly, that interpersonal interaction is an interaction of the personal-space fields. Secondly, empathy, therapeutic benefit, and the professional stress are all related to the same process of interpersonal interaction. This interaction takes place as an enmeshment of personal spaces of the interacting individuals, and involves transfer of a wide range of information in the affective, cognitive, and other areas. This is because the personal spaces have fieldlike qualities analogous to what Kurt Lewin described. Thus, such phenomena as empathy, therapeutic benefit, professional stress are all consequences of the same process. It is possible to substantiate these postulates by diverse evidences in the published literature. The natural consequences of such an interpersonal interaction are empathic understanding, transfer of mood states (like hope, distress or expectancy), affective states (like anxiety, sadness, anger or hostility), ideas, images and even attitudes and values, etc. This phenomenon of transfer can explain such processes as therapeutic benefit in individual and group settings, professional stress, shared delusions, and even experimenter bias. Whether one becomes aware of such transferred information or not depends upon the intent and sensitivity of the participants.

  20. From naive to scientific understanding of motion and its causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascari, A.; Corni, F.; Ceroni, G.; Fuchs, Hans U.

    2015-01-01

    The difference in the descriptions of motion phenomena made by pupils in the first grades of secondary school and physicists is quite evident. Conceptual metaphors hidden in language suggest that there is continuity between the conceptual structure involved in the description and the interpretation of motion of experts and lay persons. In this paper the presence of such a continuity is shown through a metaphor analysis of linguistic expressions from both groups.

  1. From naive to scientific understanding of motion and its causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascari, Alessandro; Corni, Federico; Ceroni, Gabriele; Fuchs, Hans U.

    2016-05-01

    The difference in the descriptions of motion phenomena made by pupils in the first grades of secondary school and physicists is quite evident. Conceptual metaphors hidden in language suggest that there is continuity between the conceptual structure involved in the description and the interpretation of motion of experts and laypersons. In this paper the presence of such a continuity is shown through a metaphor analysis of linguistic expressions from both groups.

  2. Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-immersive Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop virtual environment (DVE) conditions. Our results show that after the simulation activities, both IVE and DVE groups exhibited a significant shift toward a scientific understanding in their conceptual models and epistemological beliefs about the nature of relative motion, and also a significant improvement on relative motion problem-solving tests. In addition, we analyzed students' performance on one-dimensional and two-dimensional questions in the relative motion problem-solving test separately and found that after training in the simulation, the IVE group performed significantly better than the DVE group on solving two-dimensional relative motion problems. We suggest that egocentric encoding of the scene in IVE (where the learner constitutes a part of a scene they are immersed in), as compared to allocentric encoding on a computer screen in DVE (where the learner is looking at the scene from "outside"), is more beneficial than DVE for studying more complex (two-dimensional) relative motion problems. Overall, our findings suggest that such aspects of virtual realities as immersivity, first-hand experience, and the possibility of changing different frames of reference can facilitate understanding abstract scientific phenomena and help in displacing intuitive misconceptions with more accurate mental models.

  3. Analysis of accelerated motion in the theory of relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    Conventional treatments of accelerated motion in the theory of relativity have led to certain difficulties of interpretation. Certain reversals in the apparent gravitational field of an accelerated body may be avoided by simpler analysis based on the use of restricted conformal transformations. In the conformal theory the velocity of light remains constant even for experimenters in accelerated motion. The problem considered is that of rectilinear motion with a variable velocity. The motion takes place along the x or x' axis of two coordinate systems.

  4. Forces and Motion: How Young Children Understand Causal Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksun, Tilbe; George, Nathan R.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M.

    2013-01-01

    How do children evaluate complex causal events? This study investigates preschoolers' representation of "force dynamics" in causal scenes, asking whether (a) children understand how single and dual forces impact an object's movement and (b) this understanding varies across cause types (Cause, Enable, Prevent). Three-and-a half- to…

  5. Kinematics of relative motion of test particles in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanski, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed mathematical study of the concept of geodesic deviation in pseudo-riemannian geometry is presented. A generalization of this concept to geodesic deviations of a higher order is then introduced and the second geodesic deviation is investigated in some detail. A geometric interpretation of the set of generalized geodesic deviations is given and applied in general relativity to determine a covariant and local description (with a desired order of accuracy) of test motions which take place in a certain finite neighbourhood of a given world line of an observer. The proper time evolution of two other objects related to geodesic deviation is also discussed: the space separation vector and the telescopic vector. This last name is given here to a field of null vectors along observer's world line which always point towards the same adjacent world line. The telescopic equations allow to determine the evolution of the frequency shift of electromagnetic radiation sent from and received on neighbouring world lines. On the basis of these equations also certain relations have been derived which connect the frequencies or frequency shifts with the curvature of space-time

  6. The equations of relative motion in the orbital reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casotto, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of relative motion of two spacecraft in Earth-bound orbits is usually carried out on the basis of simplifying assumptions. In particular, the reference spacecraft is assumed to follow a circular orbit, in which case the equations of relative motion are governed by the well-known Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations. Circular motion is not, however, a solution when the Earth's flattening is accounted for, except for equatorial orbits, where in any case the acceleration term is not Newtonian. Several attempts have been made to account for the J_2 effects, either by ingeniously taking advantage of their differential effects, or by cleverly introducing ad-hoc terms in the equations of motion on the basis of geometrical analysis of the J_2 perturbing effects. Analysis of relative motion about an unperturbed elliptical orbit is the next step in complexity. Relative motion about a J_2-perturbed elliptic reference trajectory is clearly a challenging problem, which has received little attention. All these problems are based on either the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations for circular reference motion, or the de Vries/Tschauner-Hempel equations for elliptical reference motion, which are both approximate versions of the exact equations of relative motion. The main difference between the exact and approximate forms of these equations consists in the expression for the angular velocity and the angular acceleration of the rotating reference frame with respect to an inertial reference frame. The rotating reference frame is invariably taken as the local orbital frame, i.e., the RTN frame generated by the radial, the transverse, and the normal directions along the primary spacecraft orbit. Some authors have tried to account for the non-constant nature of the angular velocity vector, but have limited their correction to a mean motion value consistent with the J_2 perturbation terms. However, the angular velocity vector is also affected in direction, which causes precession

  7. Vision System for Relative Motion Estimation from Optical Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M. Sokolov

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For the recent years there was an increasing interest in different methods of motion analysis based on visual data acquisition. Vision systems, intended to obtain quantitative data regarding motion in real time are especially in demand. This paper talks about the vision systems that allow the receipt of information on relative object motion in real time. It is shown, that the algorithms solving a wide range of practical problems by definition of relative movement can be generated on the basis of the known algorithms of an optical flow calculation. One of the system's goals is the creation of economically efficient intellectual sensor prototype in order to estimate relative objects motion based on optic flow. The results of the experiments with a prototype system model are shown.

  8. Thai student existing understanding about the solar system model and the motion of the stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantasook, Sakanan; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    The paper examined Thai student existing understanding about the solar system model and the motion of the stars. The participants included 141 Grade 9 students in four different schools of the Surin province, Thailand. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. The tool of interpretation included the Student Celestial Motion Conception Questionnaire (SCMCQ) and informal interview. Given understandings in the SCMCQ were read through and categorized according to students' understandings. Then, students were further probed as informal interview. Students' understandings in each category were counted and percentages computed. Finally, students' understandings across four different schools were compared and contrasted using the percentage of student responses in each category. The findings revealed that most students understand about Sun-Moon-Earth (SME) system and solar system model as well, they can use scientific explanations to explain the celestial objects in solar system and how they orbiting. Unfortunately, most of students (more than 70%) never know about the Polaris, the North Star, and 90.1% of them never know about the ecliptic, and probably also the 12 zodiac constellations. These existing understanding suggested some ideas of teaching and learning about solar system model and the motion of the stars. The paper, then, discussed some learning activities to enhance students to further construct meaning about solar system model and the motion of the stars.

  9. Features of projectile motion in the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, Ghassan Y

    2006-01-01

    A relativistic projectile motion in a vacuum is examined by means of elementary consequences of special relativity. Exact analytical expressions were found for the kinematics variables using basic mathematical tools. The trajectory equation was established and the area under the trajectory traversed by the relativistic projectile was determined. It was found that, unlike non-relativistic projectile motion, the launching angles that maximize both the horizontal range as well as the area under the trajectory are functions of the initial speed. It is anticipated that this paper will be consistent with the intuition of students and serve as a resource for further problems usually encountered in the special theory of relativity

  10. Human heart rate variability relation is unchanged during motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, T. J.; Berger, R. D.; Oman, C. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    In a study of 18 human subjects, we applied a new technique, estimation of the transfer function between instantaneous lung volume (ILV) and instantaneous heart rate (HR), to assess autonomic activity during motion sickness. Two control recordings of ILV and electrocardiogram (ECG) were made prior to the development of motion sickness. During the first, subjects were seated motionless, and during the second they were seated rotating sinusoidally about an earth vertical axis. Subjects then wore prism goggles that reverse the left-right visual field and performed manual tasks until they developed moderate motion sickness. Finally, ILV and ECG were recorded while subjects maintained a relatively constant level of sickness by intermittent eye closure during rotation with the goggles. Based on analyses of ILV to HR transfer functions from the three conditions, we were unable to demonstrate a change in autonomic control of heart rate due to rotation alone or due to motion sickness. These findings do not support the notion that moderate motion sickness is manifested as a generalized autonomic response.

  11. Measurement of accessory motion: critical issues and related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, D L

    1992-12-01

    The term "manual therapy" has traditionally been associated with physical therapists who examine and treat patients who have disorders related to the musculoskeletal system. In addition to using instruments to collect patient data, these therapists use a large variety of manually applied examination procedures. Range-of-motion tests, manual muscle tests, neurological tests, and palpation tests are just a few of the categories of tests these therapists use as part of the clinical decision-making process. The major sources of error that can affect the usefulness of manually obtained measurements are discussed. The literature that provides the theoretical and clinical bases for the assessment of joint surface movement is thoroughly reviewed. Conclusions are made about what is currently known about the usefulness of accessory motion tests. Suggestions are made for future research needs in order to clarify and enhance the usefulness of accessory motion tests and other examination procedures used by manual therapists.

  12. Relative motion characteristics of 2 near-Earth Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    The stability of the nonlinear dynamical system of two GRAVSAT - type satellites was investigated by performing several numerical experiments which provide the simulations of the relative motion characteristics between the two satellites for various specified time intervals. The simulations included the relative range, range-rate, and relative acceleration magnitude. These simulations were generated with respect to appropriate initial orbital elements which were obtained such that the instantaneous separation distance between the two satellites has small fluctuations from a specified constant separation distance. The simulation results indicate that the behavior of the relative motions is very sensitive to the initial orbital elements of the satellites and that for a specified time interval of interest. A stable behavior is possible only with the use of an appropriate set of initial orbital elements compatible with the gravity field used to derive them.

  13. Motion sensors in mathematics teaching: learning tools for understanding general math concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban-Woldron, Hildegard

    2015-05-01

    Incorporating technology tools into the mathematics classroom adds a new dimension to the teaching of mathematics concepts and establishes a whole new approach to mathematics learning. In particular, gathering data in a hands-on and real-time method helps classrooms coming alive. The focus of this paper is on bringing forward important mathematics concepts such as functions and rate of change with the motion detector. Findings from the author's studies suggest that the motion detector can be introduced from a very early age and used to enliven classes at any level. Using real-world data to present the main functions invites an experimental approach to mathematics and encourages students to engage actively in their learning. By emphasizing learning experiences with computer-based motion detectors and aiming to involve students in mathematical representations of real-world phenomena, six learning activities, which were developed in previous research studies, will be presented. Students use motion sensors to collect physical data that are graphed in real time and then manipulate and analyse them. Because data are presented in an immediately understandable graphical form, students are allowed to take an active role in their learning by constructing mathematical knowledge from observation of the physical world. By utilizing a predict-observe-explain format, students learn about slope, determining slope and distance vs. time graphs through motion-filled activities. Furthermore, exploring the meaning of slope, viewed as the rate of change, students acquire competencies for reading, understanding and interpreting kinematics graphs involving a multitude of mathematical representations. Consequently, the students are empowered to efficiently move among tabular, graphical and symbolic representation to analyse patterns and discover the relationships between different representations of motion. In fact, there is a need for further research to explore how mathematics teachers

  14. The difference between the perception of absolute and relative motion: A reaction time study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.J. Smeets (Jeroen); E. Brenner (Eli)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe used a reaction-time paradigm to examine the extent to which motion detection depends on relative motion. In the absence of relative motion, the responses could be described by a simple model based on the detection of a fixed change in position. If relative motion was present, the

  15. Dynamics and control of Lorentz-augmented spacecraft relative motion

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Ye; Yang, Yueneng

    2017-01-01

    This book develops a dynamical model of the orbital motion of Lorentz spacecraft in both unperturbed and J2-perturbed environments. It explicitly discusses three kinds of typical space missions involving relative orbital control: spacecraft hovering, rendezvous, and formation flying. Subsequently, it puts forward designs for both open-loop and closed-loop control schemes propelled or augmented by the geomagnetic Lorentz force. These control schemes are entirely novel and represent a significantly departure from previous approaches.

  16. Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Motion is all around us. Learn how it is used in art, technology, and engineering. Five easy-to-read chapters explain the science behind motion, as well as its real-world applications. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  17. Children's conceptions of physical events: explicit and tacit understanding of horizontal motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Christine; Taylor Tavares, Joana; Devine, Amy

    2014-06-01

    The conceptual understanding that children display when predicting physical events has been shown to be inferior to the understanding they display when recognizing whether events proceed naturally. This has often been attributed to differences between the explicit engagement with conceptual knowledge required for prediction and the tacit engagement that suffices for recognition, and contrasting theories have been formulated to characterize the differences. Focusing on a theory that emphasizes omission at the explicit level of conceptual elements that are tacitly understood, the paper reports two studies that attempt clarification. The studies are concerned with 6- to 10-year-old children's understanding of, respectively, the direction (141 children) and speed (132 children) of motion in a horizontal direction. Using computer-presented billiards scenarios, the children predicted how balls would move (prediction task) and judged whether or not simulated motion was correct (recognition task). Results indicate that the conceptions underpinning prediction are sometimes interpretable as partial versions of the conceptions underpinning recognition, as the omission hypothesis would imply. However, there are also qualitative differences, which suggest partial dissociation between explicit and tacit understanding. It is suggested that a theoretical perspective that acknowledges this dissociation would provide the optimal framework for future research. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  18. About ideal relative motions of rigid heavy body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae MARCOV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Consider an origin which is fixed at the Earth’s surface, and a rectangular celestial coordinates axes with this origin. The gravity acceleration is the approximate sum of the centrifugal acceleration of the origin relatively to the Earth’s center and the Newton’s gravitational acceleration due to the Earth’s attraction. Thus the selected reference frame is formally an inertial frame. The origin is also a point of a rigid heavy body. The dynamical differential system of absolute motion of the three degrees-of- freedom body is given. Some notable solutions of this system are calculated relatively to a moving laboratory frame with the angular velocity of the Earth.

  19. Geometrical determination of the constant of motion in General Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catoni, F.; Cannata, R.; Zampetti, P.

    2009-01-01

    In recent time a theorem, due to E. Beltrami, through which the integration of the geodesic equations of a curved manifold is obtained by means of a merely geometric method, has been revisited. This way of dealing with the problem is well in accordance with the geometric spirit of the Theory of General Relativity. In this paper we show another relevant consequence of this method. Actually, the constants of the motion, introduced in this geometrical way that is completely independent of Newton theory, are related to the conservation laws for test particles in the Einstein theory. These conservation laws may be compared with the conservation laws of Newton. In particular, by the conservation of energy (E) and the L z component of angular momentum, the equivalence of the conservation laws for the Schwarzschild field is verified and the difference between Newton and Einstein theories for the rotating bodies (Kerr metric) is obtained in a straightforward way.

  20. Understanding and Visualizing Multitasking and Task Switching Activities: A Time Motion Study to Capture Nursing Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Po-Yin; Kelley, Marjorie; Lopetegui, Marcelo; Rosado, Amber L; Migliore, Elaina M; Chipps, Esther M; Buck, Jacalyn

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of multitasking within nursing workflow is important in today's dynamic and complex healthcare environment. We conducted a time motion study to understand nursing workflow, specifically multitasking and task switching activities. We used TimeCaT, a comprehensive electronic time capture tool, to capture observational data. We established inter-observer reliability prior to data collection. We completed 56 hours of observation of 10 registered nurses. We found, on average, nurses had 124 communications and 208 hands-on tasks per 4-hour block of time. They multitasked (having communication and hands-on tasks simultaneously) 131 times, representing 39.48% of all times; the total multitasking duration ranges from 14.6 minutes to 109 minutes, 44.98 minutes (18.63%) on average. We also reviewed workflow visualization to uncover the multitasking events. Our study design and methods provide a practical and reliable approach to conducting and analyzing time motion studies from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives.

  1. Applications of relative motion models using curvilinear coordinate frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alex C.

    An angles-only initial relative orbit determination aglorithm is derived using three line-of-sight observations or six angle measurements. This is accomplished by taking a Singular Value Decomposition of a 6x6 matrix to get a right singular vector approximately in the direction of the initial line-of-sight vector. Then an approximate initial relative orbit determination algorithm is derived that computes the range from the chief to the deputy vehicle. This involves the approximate solution of 6 poylnomial equations in 6 unknowns. An iterative improvement is also derived that provides the exact solution, to numerical precision, of the 6 polynomial equations in 6 unknowns. The initial relative orbit algorithm is also expanded for more than three line-of-sight observations with an iterative improvement algorithm for more than three line-of-sight observations. The algorithm is tested for a range of relative motion cases in low earth orbit and geosynchronous orbit, with and without the inclusion of J2 perturbations and with camera measurement errors.

  2. Relative Motion Compensation for Cargo Handling Operations -- Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    5-5 Development of Motion Compensating Cranes for Rouch Sea Operations 5-5 Wind Waves: Their Generation and Propagation on the Ocean Surface...can provide container offload capability in Sea State 3 with significant crane ship motions when lighterage can be sheltered in the lee ct the crane...Aug 1962). Keefer, B. G., "Development of Motion Compensating Cranes for Rouch Sea Operations," Synopsis for Oceanology International, B. C. Research

  3. Motion Simulation Research Related Short Term Training Attachment to TARDEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This page is intentionally blank UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-GD-0740 Acronyms 3D Three Dimensional 3DOF Three Degrees...as can be seen by Figure 8. Each post is capable of three degrees of freedom ( 3DOF ) motion, in the linear motion axes, that is the x, y and z axes. An

  4. Vection and visually induced motion sickness: How are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang eKeshavarz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of visually induced motion sickness has been frequently linked to the sensation of illusory self-motion (so-called vection, however, the precise nature of this relationship is still not fully understood. To date, it is still a matter of debate whether or not vection is a necessary prerequisite for visually induced motion sickness (VIMS. That is, can there be visually induced motion sickness without any sensation of self-motion? In this paper, we will describe the possible nature of this relationship, review the literature that may speak to this relationship (including theoretical accounts of vection and VIMS, and offer suggestions with respect to operationally defining and reporting these phenomena in future.

  5. Learning Grasp Strategies Composed of Contact Relative Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Robert, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Of central importance to grasp synthesis algorithms are the assumptions made about the object to be grasped and the sensory information that is available. Many approaches avoid the issue of sensing entirely by assuming that complete information is available. In contrast, this paper proposes an approach to grasp synthesis expressed in terms of units of control that simultaneously change the contact configuration and sense information about the object and the relative manipulator-object pose. These units of control, known as contact relative motions (CRMs), allow the grasp synthesis problem to be recast as an optimal control problem where the goal is to find a strategy for executing CRMs that leads to a grasp in the shortest number of steps. An experiment is described that uses Robonaut, the NASA-JSC space humanoid, to show that CRMs are a viable means of synthesizing grasps. However, because of the limited amount of information that a single CRM can sense, the optimal control problem may be partially observable. This paper proposes expressing the problem as a k-order Markov Decision Process (MDP) and solving it using Reinforcement Learning. This approach is tested in a simulation of a two-contact manipulator that learns to grasp an object. Grasp strategies learned in simulation are tested on the physical Robonaut platform and found to lead to grasp configurations consistently.

  6. Narrative Therapy's Relational Understanding of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Gene; Freedman, Jill

    2016-06-01

    We describe how we think of identity as relational, distributed, performed, and fluid, and we illustrate the use of this conceptualization within a narrative worldview. Drawing on the work of Michael White, we describe how this relational view of identity leads to therapeutic responses that give value to interconnection across multiple contexts and that focus on becoming rather than on being. We show how a narrative worldview helps focus on the relational, co-evolving perspective that was the basis of our early attraction to family therapy. We offer detailed examples from our work of practices that help us stay firmly situated in a relational worldview that is counter to the pervasive influence of individualism in our contemporary culture. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  7. Thick 2D relations for document understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Smeulders, Arnold M.W.

    2004-01-01

    We use a propositional language of qualitative rectangle relations to detect the reading order from document images. To this end, we define the notion of a document encoding rule and we analyze possible formalisms to express document encoding rules such as LaTeX and SGML. Document encoding rules

  8. It's about time understanding Einstein's relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Mermin, N David

    2005-01-01

    In It's About Time, N. David Mermin asserts that relativity ought to be an important part of everyone's education--after all, it is largely about time, a subject with which all are familiar. The book reveals that some of our most intuitive notions about time are shockingly wrong, and that the real nature of time discovered by Einstein can be rigorously explained without advanced mathematics. This readable exposition of the nature of time as addressed in Einstein's theory of relativity is accessible to anyone who remembers a little high school algebra and elementary plane geometry. The book evolved as Mermin taught the subject to diverse groups of undergraduates at Cornell University, none of them science majors, over three and a half decades. Mermin's approach is imaginative, yet accurate and complete. Clear, lively, and informal, the book will appeal to intellectually curious readers of all kinds, including even professional physicists, who will be intrigued by its highly original approach.

  9. Texas Science Teacher Characteristics and Conceptual Understanding of Newton's Laws of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Karin Burk

    Misconceptions of Newtonian mechanics and other physical science concepts are well documented in primary and pre-service teacher populations (Burgoon, Heddle, & Duran, 2009; Allen & Coole, 2012; Kruger, Summers, & Palacio, 1990; Ginns & Watters, 1995; Trumper, 1999; Asikainen & Hirovonen, 2014). These misconceptions match the misconceptions held by students, leaving teachers ill-equipped to rectify these concepts in the classroom (Kind, 2014; Kruger et al., 1990; Cochran & Jones, 1998). Little research has been devoted to misconceptions held by in-service secondary teachers, the population responsible for teaching Newtonian mechanics. This study focuses on Texas in-service science teachers in middle school and high school science, specifically sixth grade science, seventh grade science, eighth grade science, integrated physics and chemistry, and physics teachers. This study utilizes two instruments to gauge conceptual understanding of Newton's laws of motion: the Force Concept Inventory [FCI] (Hestenes, Wells, & Swackhamer, 1992) and a custom instrument developed for the Texas Regional Collaboratives for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Teaching (Urquhart, M., e-mail, April 4, 2017). Use of each instrument had its strengths and limitations. In the initial work of this study, the FCI was given to middle and high school teacher volunteers in two urban school districts in the Dallas- Fort Worth area to assess current conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. Along with the FCI, each participant was asked to complete a demographic survey. Demographic data collected included participant's sex, years of service in teaching position, current teaching position, degrees, certification type, and current certifications for science education. Correlations between variables and overall average on the FCI were determined by t-tests and ANOVA tests with a post-hoc Holm-Bonferroni correction test. Test questions pertaining to each of Newton's three laws of motion were

  10. Evolutionary understanding of the concept "Public relations"

    OpenAIRE

    Кам’янецька, О.В.

    2013-01-01

    The considered approaches to determination of notion of «public relations» different research and practical workers. The analyzed stages of development of communications with public and described their signs. Розглянуті підходи до визначення поняття «паблік рілейшнз» різних науковців та практиків. Проаналізовані етапи розвитку підходів до зв’язків з громадськістю та охарактеризовані їх ознаки....

  11. Thai primary students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) in learning about force and motion for explicit NOS through STS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimakorn, Narakorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This paper aimed to study of primary school students' understanding of nature of science in learning about force and motion for Explicit Nature of Science through science technology and society (STS) approach. Participants were 11 Grade 5 students who study in Baan Khongtaphet, Bothong, Chonburi, Thailand. This research regarded interpretive paradigm. The intervention of STS physics provided 4 weeks of teaching about force and motion through Yuenyong (2006) science technology and society (STS) approach. The issues of making skate board was brought into the class in order to enhance students learning about force and motion and applying knowledge for designing skate board. The intervention was also designed to allow students explicitly mentioning their ideas about nature of science related to learning activities of STS force and motion. Students' understanding of nature of science was interpreted through students' worksheets, participant observation, students' journal writing and informal interview. The findings revealed that majority of students could reflect their ideas related to many aspects of nature of science. This included Science demands and relies on empirical evidence; knowledge production in science shares many common factors and shared habits of mind, norms, logical thinking and methods; tentative of scientific knowledge; historical, cultural and social influences on science; historical, cultural and social influences on science; science and its methods cannot answer all questions. The study has implications for NOS teaching in Thailand primary school.

  12. Stochastic calculus for fractional Brownian motion and related processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mishura, Yuliya S

    2008-01-01

    The theory of fractional Brownian motion and other long-memory processes are addressed in this volume. Interesting topics for PhD students and specialists in probability theory, stochastic analysis and financial mathematics demonstrate the modern level of this field. Among these are results about Levy characterization of fractional Brownian motion, maximal moment inequalities for Wiener integrals including the values 0

  13. Geometric Relations for CYLEX Test Tube-Wall Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Larry

    2015-06-01

    The CYLinder EXpansion (CYLEX) test is a (precision, instrumented, high-purity annealed copper) pipe bomb. Its essential measured quantities are detonation speed and tube-wall motion. Its main purpose is to calibrate detonation product equations of state (EOS) by measuring how product fluid pushes metal. In its full complexity, CYLEX is an integral test, for which EOS calibration requires the entire system to be computationally modeled and compared to salient data. Stripped to its essence, CYLEX is a non-integral test for which one may perform the inverse problem, to infer the EOS directly from data. CYLEX analysis can be simplified by the fact that the test constituents achieve a steady traveling wave structure; this allows derivation of several useful geometric relationships regarding tube wall motion. The first such treatment was by G.I. Taylor. Although his analysis was limited to small wall deflection angles, he asserted that the results remain valid for arbitrary ones. I confirm this attribute and present additional useful relationships. In the past decade, CYLEX wall-motion instrumentation has migrated almost entirely from streak camera to PDV, yet discrepancies remain between the two methods. I further present geometric relationships that shed light on this issue. Work supported by the U.S. DOE.

  14. Three-dimensional analysis of relationship between relative orientation and motion modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Shijie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Target motion modes have a close relationship with the relative orientation of missile-to-target in three-dimensional highly maneuvering target interception. From the perspective of relationship between the sensor coordinate system and the target body coordinate system, a basic model of sensor is stated and the definition of relative angular velocity between the two coordinate systems is introduced firstly. Then, the three-dimensional analytic expressions of relative angular velocity for different motion modes are derived and simplified by analyzing the influences of target centroid motion, rotation around centroid and relative motion. Finally, the relationships of the relative angular velocity directions and values with motion modes are discussed. Simulation results validate the rationality of the theoretical analysis. It is demonstrated that there are significant differences of the relative orientation in different motion modes which include luxuriant information about motion modes. The conclusions are significant for the research of motion mode identification, maneuver detection, maneuvering target tracking and interception using target signatures.

  15. Some understandings on radial motion at transition in the Fermilab Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xi

    2007-01-01

    The transition crossing is space charge dominated in the Fermilab Booster. Since the longitudinal space charge forces are defocusing below transition and focusing above transition, they generate the mismatch at transition, which causes the longitudinal emittance growth above transition. It's proved by numerical simulation that such mismatch can be partially compensated by a particular radial motion at transition, which is operationally favored by the high intensity beam. The transition crossing in Booster is space charge dominated. Usually, the nonlinear chromatic effect can cause the emittance growth during transition because particles with different energies cross transition at different times. The transition time is set by the synchronous particle; below transition, particles with positive energies relative to the synchronous particle become unstable since they are in the wrong phase, and above transition, particles with negative energies are unstable. The dependence of the transition energy upon the momentum deviation can be adjusted via different sextupole corrector settings such that the emittance growth due to the chromatic nonlinear effect can be greatly reduced. Fortunately, at the corrector setting of I sextl = -97 A and I sexts = 97 A, the dependence can be removed, see Figure 1. Space charge forces are mainly responsible for the longitudinal emittance growth at transition

  16. Lorentz Contraction, Bell's Spaceships and Rigid Body Motion in Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2010-01-01

    The meaning of Lorentz contraction in special relativity and its connection with Bell's spaceships parable is discussed. The motion of Bell's spaceships is then compared with the accelerated motion of a rigid body. We have tried to write this in a simple form that could be used to correct students' misconceptions due to conflicting earlier…

  17. Lorentz contraction, Bell's spaceships and rigid body motion in special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2010-01-01

    The meaning of Lorentz contraction in special relativity and its connection with Bell's spaceships parable is discussed. The motion of Bell's spaceships is then compared with the accelerated motion of a rigid body. We have tried to write this in a simple form that could be used to correct students' misconceptions due to conflicting earlier treatments.

  18. UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS AMY MCGOVERN, TIMOTHY SUPINIE, DAVID JOHN GAGNE II, NATHANIEL TROUTMAN,...

  19. Approximate solutions of non-linear circular orbit relative motion in curvilinear coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardelli, Claudio; Gonzalo, Juan Luis; Roa, Javier

    2017-01-01

    A compact, time-explicit, approximate solution of the highly non-linear relative motion in curvilinear coordinates is provided under the assumption of circular orbit for the chief spacecraft. The rather compact, three-dimensional solution is obtained by algebraic manipulation of the individual Keplerian motions in curvilinear, rather than Cartesian coordinates, and provides analytical expressions for the secular, constant and periodic terms of each coordinate as a function of the initial relative motion conditions or relative orbital elements. Numerical test cases are conducted to show that the approximate solution can be effectively employed to extend the classical linear Clohessy-Wiltshire solution to include non-linear relative motion without significant loss of accuracy up to a limit of 0.4-0.45 in eccentricity and 40-45° in relative inclination for the follower. A very simple, quadratic extension of the classical Clohessy-Wiltshire solution in curvilinear coordinates is also presented.

  20. Analytical investigation of relative motion of contamination particles in gravitational cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Терьохін

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical investigation of relative motion of contamination particles in liquids when cleaned in gravitation cleaner is practically absent, i.e. the transmission power inertia F™ is balanced by horizontal constituent of Stoke's resistance power

  1. Explaining Newton's Laws of Motion: Using Student Reasoning through Representations to Develop Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrip, Bruce; Prain, Vaughan; Sellings, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The development of students' reasoning and argumentation skills in school science is currently attracting strong research interest. In this paper we report on a study where we aimed to investigate student learning on the topic of motion when students, guided by their teacher, responded to a sequence of representational challenges in which their…

  2. Understanding motion of twin boundary - a key to magnetic shape memory effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heczko, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 11 (2014), s. 2505807 ISSN 0018-9464 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/0391 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic field-induced strain * magnetic field-induced twin boundary motion * magnetoelasticity * magnetomechanical effects * martensitic transformation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2014

  3. Using Excel to Simulate Pendulum Motion and Maybe Understand Calculus a Little Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Michael

    2004-01-01

    As part of a first-year college Introductory Physics course, I have students construct an Excel[R]: spreadsheet based on the differential equation for pendulum motion (we take a pendulum having a light bar rather than a string, so it can go "over the top"). In extensive discussions with the students, I find that forcing them to make the…

  4. An Interactive Computer Model for Improved Student Understanding of Random Particle Motion and Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottonau, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Effectively teaching the concepts of osmosis to college-level students is a major obstacle in biological education. Therefore, a novel computer model is presented that allows students to observe the random nature of particle motion simultaneously with the seemingly directed net flow of water across a semipermeable membrane during osmotic…

  5. Overview of the relations earthquake source parameters and the specification of strong ground motion for design purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.

    1977-08-01

    One of the most important steps in the seismic design process is the specification of the appropriate ground motion to be input into the design analysis. From the point-of-view of engineering design analysis, the important parameters are peak ground acceleration, spectral shape and peak spectral levels. In a few cases, ground displacement is a useful parameter. The earthquake is usually specified by giving its magnitude and either the epicentral distance or the distance of the closest point on the causitive fault to the site. Typically, the appropriate ground motion parameters are obtained using the specified magnitude and distance in equations obtained from regression analysis among the appropriate variables. Two major difficulties with such an approach are: magnitude is not the best parameter to use to define the strength of an earthquake, and little near-field data is available to establish the appropriate form for the attenuation of the ground motion with distance, source size and strength. These difficulties are important for designing a critical facility; i.e., one for which a very low risk of exceeding the design ground motion is required. Examples of such structures are nuclear power plants, schools and hospitals. for such facilities, a better understanding of the relation between the ground motion and the important earthquake source parameters could be very useful for several reasons

  6. The Southern Double Stars of Carl Rümker II: Their Relative Rectilinear Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchford, Roderick; White, Graeme; Ernest, Allan

    2018-04-01

    A description of the relative rectilinear motion of double stars provides an important clue to the relationship of the components. The aim is to provide an objective method of obtaining Rectilinear Elements. We present a simplified method to calculate relative rectilinear motion, relying on the data obtained from the HIPPARCOS and GAIA DR1 missions, together with their uncertainties. As examples, we present the Rectilinear Elements of RMK 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 17, 20, 25, 27, and 28.

  7. The effectiveness of the Constructing Physics Understanding (CPU) pedagogy on middle school students' learning of force and motion concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Nancy L.

    This study explores the effectiveness of the Constructing Physics Understanding (CPU) pedagogy versus traditional instruction for teaching middle school students Newtonian force and motion concepts. Students from 16 seventh grade classrooms (n = 358) were selected for this study based on three criteria: (a) each regular education classroom taught force and motion concepts as required by the district curriculum; (b) each classroom teacher was identified by the school principal as being an exemplary teacher; and (c) the teachers were self-reported as either using a constructivist CPU pedagogy (8 classrooms) or a non-CPU, more traditional pedagogy (8 classrooms). To control for teacher adherence to instructional method (CPU vs. non-CPU), each teacher was randomly observed and rated by three independent raters on the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) instrument. Descriptive statistics showed that the self-reported CPU teachers scored a higher mean in each section of the RTOP indicating that the CPU teachers, as rated by the observers, used a more constructivist approach to teaching force and motion to their students than the non-CPU teachers. Students were pre and post tested on a 20-item force and motion conceptual test covering concepts in motion, Newton's 1st Law, Newton's 2nd Law and Newton's 3rd Law. Hypothesis testing was conducted using a repeated measures ANOVA to further analyze the interaction between teaching method (CPU vs. Non-CPU) and force and motion knowledge gain. Results showed significantly higher gains for the CPU group in total score (p Newton's Third Law questions (p Newton's Third Law. Results for questions on Newton's First and Second Laws showed higher post means in the CPU group; however, the gains were not significant (p > 0.05) indicating very little difference between the CPU and non-CPU groups in students' knowledge gain in these areas.

  8. History of High Motion Sickness Susceptibility Predicts Vestibular Dysfunction Following Sport/Recreation-Related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrinko, Alicia M; Kegel, Nathan E; Mucha, Anne; Collins, Michael W; Kontos, Anthony P

    2017-11-20

    To compare vestibular dysfunction at 1 to 10 and 11 to 20 days following sport/recreation-related concussion (SRC) in athletes with and without history of motion sickness susceptibility. Secondary aims of this study were to investigate differences in neurocognitive performance and affective symptoms in these groups. Cross-sectional. Concussion Specialty Clinic. One hundred twenty-four adolescents and adults (82 males, 42 females) aged 14 to 26 (16.36 ± 2.10) years, diagnosed with SRC in the past 10 (4.56 ± 2.54) days; 47 participants composed the sample for quartile analyses. Motion sickness susceptibility questionnaire short form score. Computerized neurocognitive test scores, vestibular/oculomotor screening scores (VOMS), and symptom factor scores from a standardized concussion symptom inventory. There was no association between history of motion sickness susceptibility and VOMS scores (above or below clinical cutoff) at 1 to 10 days after injury, although at 11 to 20 days after injury there was an association between high motion sickness susceptibility and symptoms above clinical cutoff on 5 of the 6 VOMS items (P values 0.01-0.04). The high motion sickness group had more affective symptoms on the symptom inventory than the no motion sickness group (P = 0.002) at 1 to 10 days after injury. Groups did not differ on computerized neurocognitive testing (P = 0.11). Athletes with a preexisting history of motion sensitivity may exhibit more prolonged vestibular dysfunction following SRC, and may experience more affective symptoms early in recovery.

  9. Building an Understanding: What Motivates Teachers to use Science in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuck, Karen M.

    Science education reform documents call for instructional practices that include scientific equipment and materials. Often, these types of resources are inaccessible for schools, especially those which are rural and socio-economically challenged, due largely to budgetary considerations. Science outreach partnerships are able to bridge the gap between what is called for in science education reform documents and the realities of many schools. Science in Motion is a science outreach partnership project located in rural Northwestern Pennsylvania, supported by state funds, that provides equipment, curricular materials, and professional development free of charge for area science educators. Teacher participation in this project is completely voluntary. Not a grassroots initiative, nor a top down mandated project, why do teachers decide to use this project? This study examined the volitional use of the Science in Motion project at Clarion University of Pennsylvania. Qualitative research methods were used to answer the following research question: what are the reasons for project use reported by teachers who use the project on a regular basis? Sub research questions were: what is it about the teacher that encouraged her/him to initiate Science in Motion services, and what is it about the teacher that encourages her/him to continue using Science in Motion services? Two focus group interviews as well as a paper/pencil questionnaire were used to collect data from teacher participants who use the project on a regular basis. A phenomenological lens was used to examine data. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze data. Research findings reveal teachers initiated use because: the project provided opportunities for teaching and learning that otherwise were inaccessible, the project was perceived as user friendly and easy to access, the project embedded professional development provided the support needed to encourage initial use, and the project resources were perceived as

  10. [Understanding social interaction in children with autism spectrum disorders: does whole-body motion mean anything to them?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centelles, L; Assaiante, C; Etchegoyhen, K; Bouvard, M; Schmitz, C

    2012-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by difficulties in social interaction and verbal and non verbal reciprocal communication. Face and gaze direction, which participate in non verbal communication, are described as atypical in ASD. Also body movements carry multiple social cues. Under certain circumstances, for instance when seeing two persons from far, they constitute the only support that allows the grasping of a social content. Here, we investigated the contribution of whole-body motion processing in social understanding. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether children with ASD make use of information carried by body motion to categorize dynamic visual scenes that portrayed social interactions. In 1973, Johansson devised a technique for studying the perception of biological motion that minimizes static form information from the stimulus, but retains motion information. In these point-light displays, the movement figure, such as a body, is represented by a small number of illuminated dots positioned to highlight the motion of the body parts. We used Johansson's model to explore the ability of children with ASD to understand social interactions based on human movement analysis. Three-second silent point-light displays were created by videotaping two actors. The two actors were either interacting together or moving side by side without interacting. A large range of social interaction displays were used to cover social scenes depicting social norms (conventional gestures and courteous attitudes), emotional situations (carrying positive or negative valences) and scenes from games (sports, dance, etc.). Children were asked to carefully watch the stimuli and to classify them according to the question "Are the two persons communicating or not?". Four sessions of 3 minutes were performed by each child. Children with ASD were compared with typically developing control children matched with either non verbal mental age or chronological age. Response and

  11. A Live-Time Relation: Motion Graphics meets Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    In our digital age, we frequently meet fine examples of live performances of classical music with accompanying visuals. Yet, we find very little theoretical or analytical work on the relation between classical music and digital temporal visuals, nor on the process of creating them. In this paper, I...... to be experienced interconnected and simultaneously with live music. These cases have been created in connection with an on-going EU funded inter-regional project (Interreg), which e.g. aims to show examples of ways in which digital technologies can be integrated in live performances of classical music...... and practice derived from the extensive domain of visual music. The other stems from perception theories related to concepts of liveness. Finally I look into how theories and terminology from these fields might contribute to the evolving design model....

  12. The rotational motion of an earth orbiting gyroscope according to the Einstein theory of general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoots, F. R.; Fitzpatrick, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    The classical Poisson equations of rotational motion are used to study the attitude motions of an earth orbiting, rapidly spinning gyroscope perturbed by the effects of general relativity (Einstein theory). The center of mass of the gyroscope is assumed to move about a rotating oblate earth in an evolving elliptic orbit which includes all first-order oblateness effects produced by the earth. A method of averaging is used to obtain a transformation of variables, for the nonresonance case, which significantly simplifies the Poisson differential equations of motion of the gyroscope. Long-term solutions are obtained by an exact analytical integration of the simplified transformed equations. These solutions may be used to predict both the orientation of the gyroscope and the motion of its rotational angular momentum vector as viewed from its center of mass. The results are valid for all eccentricities and all inclinations not near the critical inclination.

  13. Spacecraft Formation Control and Estimation Via Improved Relative Motion Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    represent  tx as           tv tr tx (2) The instantaneous Line-of-sight (LOS) from observer to RSO is the unit vector along the relative...tRK a tV Geo     (38) where K̂  is the unit vector in the direction of Earth’s polar axis. To select from the two possible parallel directions...Space-Based Visible Program,” Lincoln Laboratory Journal , Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 205––238, 1998. 7. Fujimoto, K. and Scheeres, D. J.; “Short-Arc

  14. University students' understanding level about words related to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oiso, Shinichi; Watabe, Motoki

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a survey of university students' understanding level about words related to nuclear power before and after Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant accident, and analyzed the difference between before and after the accident. The results show that university students' understanding level improved after the accident, especially in the case of reported words by mass media. Understanding level of some nuclear power security words which were not reported so much by mass media also improved. That may be caused by rising of people's concern about nuclear power generation after the accident, and there is a possibility that the accident motivated people to access such words via internet, journals, etc. (author)

  15. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  16. A review of some basic aspects related to integration of airplane’s equations of motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan TURCANU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical integration of the airplane’s equations of motion has long been considered among the most fundamental calculations in airplane’s analysis. Numerical algorithms have been implemented and experimentally validated. However, the need for superior speed and accuracy is still very topical, as, nowadays, various optimization algorithms rely heavily on data generated from the integration of the equations of motion and having access to larger amounts of data can increase the quality of the optimization. Now, for a number of decades, engineers have relied heavily on commercial codes based on automatically selected integration steps. However, optimally chosen constant integration steps can save time and allows for larger numbers of integrations to be performed. Yet, the basic papers that presented the fundamentals of numerical integration, as applied to airplane’s equations of motion are nowadays not easy to locate. Consequently, this paper presents a review of basic aspects related to the integration of airplane’s equation of motion. The discussion covers fundamentals of longitudinal and lateral-directional motion as well as the implementation of some numerical integration methods. The relation between numerical integration steps, accuracy, computational resource usage, numerical stability and their relation with the parameters describing the dynamic response of the airplane is considered and suggestions are presented for a faster yet accurate numerical integration.

  17. Characterization of Non-Linearized Spacecraft Relative Motion using Nonlinear Normal Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    of the LVLH frame with respect to an inertial frame, expressed in LVLH coordinates, is given by ω = [0, 0, n]T ∈ R3, where n = √ µ/r3c is the mean ...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0182 TR-2015-0182 CHARACTERIZATION OF NON-LINEARIZED SPACECRAFT RELATIVE MOTION USING NONLINEAR NORMAL MODES Eric...Non-Linearized Spacecraft Relative Motion using Nonlinear Normal Modes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F

  18. Can headway reduction in fog be explained by impaired perception of relative motion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Stéphane; Cavallo, Viola; Marendaz, Christian; Boer, Erwin R; Vienne, Fabrice

    2009-06-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a better understanding of driver behavior in fog. Impaired perception of changes in headway is hypothesized to be one of the reasons for shorter following distances in foggy conditions as compared with clear weather. In the experiments described here, we measured response time for discriminating between whether the vehicle ahead is getting closer or farther away. Several visibility conditions were studied, ranging from a no-fog condition to a condition in which the vehicle could be seen only by its rear fog lights. Fog conditions increased response times when the outline of the vehicle was barely visible or not visible at all. The longer response times in fog were attributable to the low contrast of the vehicle outline when still visible and to the smaller spacing between the two lights when the outline could not be properly perceived. Moreover, response times were found to be shorter for shorter following distances and for faster accelerations. Reducing headway could be a way for drivers to achieve faster discrimination of relative motion in foggy weather. More specifically, shortening one's following distance until visibility of the lead vehicle changes from bad to good may have a perceptual control benefit, insofar as the response time gain compensates for the reduction in headway under these conditions. Potential applications include improving traffic safety. The results provide a possible explanation for close following in fog and point out the importance of rear-light design under these conditions.

  19. Fast and reliable analysis of molecular motion using proximity relations and dimensionality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaku, Erion; Stamati, Hernán; Clementi, Cecilia; Kavraki, Lydia E

    2007-06-01

    The analysis of molecular motion starting from extensive sampling of molecular configurations remains an important and challenging task in computational biology. Existing methods require a significant amount of time to extract the most relevant motion information from such data sets. In this work, we provide a practical tool for molecular motion analysis. The proposed method builds upon the recent ScIMAP (Scalable Isomap) method, which, by using proximity relations and dimensionality reduction, has been shown to reliably extract from simulation data a few parameters that capture the main, linear and/or nonlinear, modes of motion of a molecular system. The results we present in the context of protein folding reveal that the proposed method characterizes the folding process essentially as well as ScIMAP. At the same time, by projecting the simulation data and computing proximity relations in a low-dimensional Euclidean space, it renders such analysis computationally practical. In many instances, the proposed method reduces the computational cost from several CPU months to just a few CPU hours, making it possible to analyze extensive simulation data in a matter of a few hours using only a single processor. These results establish the proposed method as a reliable and practical tool for analyzing motions of considerably large molecular systems and proteins with complex folding mechanisms. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Cueing attention by relative motion in the periphery of the visual field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggel, Dorothe A; Strasburger, Hans; MacKeben, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Sudden changes of visual stimulation attract attention. The observer's body motion generates retinal-flow field patterns containing information about his/her own speed and trajectory and relative motion of other objects. We investigated the effectiveness of relative motion as an attentional cue and compared it with conventional cueing by appearance of a frame in the far periphery of the visual field. In a group of ten subjects, contrast thresholds for the perception of static Gabor grating orientation [four alternative non-forced-choice (4ANFC)] task were determined at 20 degrees, 30 degrees, 40 degrees, and 60 degrees eccentricity. Subsequently, near-threshold discrimination performance of Gabor pattern orientation without versus with a ring-shaped cue was measured at the same positions. The same Gabor patterns were then presented embedded in a random-dot flow field, and uncued discrimination performance was compared with performance after presentation of a relative-motion cue (RMC), ie a small random-dot field with motion in the opposite direction of the flow field. Both the conventional ring cue and the RMC induced significantly increased discrimination performance at all test locations. With the parameters chosen for this study, the RMC was slightly less effective than the conventional cue, but its effects were somewhat more pronounced in the far periphery of the visual field. Thus, relative motion is a powerful cue to attract attention to peripheral visual objects and improves performance as effectively as a conventional ring cue. The findings have practical relevance for everyday life, in particular for tasks like driving and navigation.

  1. Understanding the Relative Strength of the Motives that Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the Relative Strength of the Motives that Influence Acquisition Strategy: Evidence from an Emerging Market. ... This paper argues that part of the reason why most Acquisitions fail is because the motives that drive the strategy are not critically examined. ... Keywords: Mergers, Acquisition, Ghana, Motives ...

  2. Secondary Students' Understanding of Basic Ideas of Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadi, Kyriaki; Halkia, Krystallia

    2012-01-01

    A major topic that has marked "modern physics" is the theory of special relativity (TSR). The present work focuses on the possibility of teaching the basic ideas of the TSR to students at the upper secondary level in such a way that they are able to understand and learn the ideas. Its aim is to investigate students' learning processes towards the…

  3. Aspects of Skill in Understanding High-Order Semantic Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-25

    adversative relation. ’p 2.2.4 Critical clause For presentation purposes, the passages were divided into clauses on the basis of two pragmatic criteria...Understanding anaphora . Rules used by readers in assigning , pronominal referents. Discourse Processes, 4, 323-347. Frederiksen J.R. and Warren, B.M

  4. Understanding HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article argues that the Ehlers & Clark (2000) cognitive model of PTSD provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding HIV-related PTSD in South Africa. The model emphasises the role of trauma appraisals in the development and maintenance of PTSD, which can also be usefully applied to some of the other ...

  5. Understanding plate-motion changes over the past 100 Myr with quantitative models of the coupled lithosphere/mantle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Ingo; Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Rhodri Davies, D.

    2015-04-01

    impact of the mantle time-evolving buoyancy-field on lithospheric plate-motions; and (ii) explore the dynamics of lithosphere/mantle interactions by using the geological record as constraint, focusing on regions featuring cratonic lithosphere, dynamic topography or high topographic features. This progress allows us to self-consistently simulate any tectonic scenario from the late Cretaceous -- through the Cenozoic -- to the present-day. Our work will aid with better understanding the processes that govern the coupled lithosphere/mantle system.

  6. Parkinson-Related Changes of Activation in Visuomotor Brain Regions during Perceived Forward Self-Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Renken, Remco J.; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2014-01-01

    Radial expanding optic flow is a visual consequence of forward locomotion. Presented on screen, it generates illusionary forward self-motion, pointing at a close vision-gait interrelation. As particularly parkinsonian gait is vulnerable to external stimuli, effects of optic flow on motor-related

  7. Predicted Attenuation Relation and Observed Ground Motion of Gorkha Nepal Earthquake of 25 April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Ahmad, R.

    2015-12-01

    A comparison of recent observed ground motion parameters of recent Gorkha Nepal earthquake of 25 April 2015 (Mw 7.8) with the predicted ground motion parameters using exitsing attenuation relation of the Himalayan region will be presented. The recent earthquake took about 8000 lives and destroyed thousands of poor quality of buildings and the earthquake was felt by millions of people living in Nepal, China, India, Bangladesh, and Bhutan. The knowledge of ground parameters are very important in developing seismic code of seismic prone regions like Himalaya for better design of buildings. The ground parameters recorded in recent earthquake event and aftershocks are compared with attenuation relations for the Himalayan region, the predicted ground motion parameters show good correlation with the observed ground parameters. The results will be of great use to Civil engineers in updating existing building codes in the Himlayan and surrounding regions and also for the evaluation of seismic hazards. The results clearly show that the attenuation relation developed for the Himalayan region should be only used, other attenuation relations based on other regions fail to provide good estimate of observed ground motion parameters.

  8. The accommodation of relative motion at depth on the San Andreas fault system in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, W. H.; Nur, A.

    1981-01-01

    Plate motion below the seismogenic layer along the San Andreas fault system in California is assumed to form by aseismic slip along a deeper extension of the fault or may result from lateral distribution of deformation below the seismogenic layer. The shallow depth of California earthquakes, the depth of the coseismic slip during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, and the presence of widely separated parallel faults indicate that relative motion is distributed below the seismogenic zone, occurring by inelastic flow rather than by aseismic slip on discrete fault planes.

  9. Contribution to the Understanding of Particle Motion Perception in Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Michel; Kaifu, Kenzo; Solé, Marta; van der Schaar, Mike; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Balastegui, Andreu; Sánchez, Antonio M; Castell, Joan V

    2016-01-01

    Marine invertebrates potentially represent a group of species whose ecology may be influenced by artificial noise. Exposure to anthropogenic sound sources could have a direct consequence on the functionality and sensitivity of their sensory organs, the statocysts, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. The availability of novel laser Doppler vibrometer techniques has recently opened the possibility of measuring whole body (distance, velocity, and acceleration) vibration as a direct stimulus eliciting statocyst response, offering the scientific community a new level of understanding of the marine invertebrate hearing mechanism.

  10. Absence of direction-specific cross-modal visual-auditory adaptation in motion-onset event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeschik, Ramona; Lewald, Jörg; Verhey, Jesko L; Hoffmann, Michael B; Getzmann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to visual or auditory motion affects within-modality motion processing as reflected by visual or auditory free-field motion-onset evoked potentials (VEPs, AEPs). Here, a visual-auditory motion adaptation paradigm was used to investigate the effect of visual motion adaptation on VEPs and AEPs to leftward motion-onset test stimuli. Effects of visual adaptation to (i) scattered light flashes, and motion in the (ii) same or in the (iii) opposite direction of the test stimulus were compared. For the motion-onset VEPs, i.e. the intra-modal adaptation conditions, direction-specific adaptation was observed--the change-N2 (cN2) and change-P2 (cP2) amplitudes were significantly smaller after motion adaptation in the same than in the opposite direction. For the motion-onset AEPs, i.e. the cross-modal adaptation condition, there was an effect of motion history only in the change-P1 (cP1), and this effect was not direction-specific--cP1 was smaller after scatter than after motion adaptation to either direction. No effects were found for later components of motion-onset AEPs. While the VEP results provided clear evidence for the existence of a direction-specific effect of motion adaptation within the visual modality, the AEP findings suggested merely a motion-related, but not a direction-specific effect. In conclusion, the adaptation of veridical auditory motion detectors by visual motion is not reflected by the AEPs of the present study. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Universal flow-density relation of single-file bicycle, pedestrian and car motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J., E-mail: ju.zhang@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Mehner, W., E-mail: w.mehner@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Holl, S., E-mail: st.holl@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Boltes, M., E-mail: m.boltes@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Andresen, E., E-mail: e.andresen@uni-wuppertal.de [Department of Computer Simulation for Fire Safety and Pedestrian Traffic, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, 42285 Wuppertal (Germany); Schadschneider, A., E-mail: as@thp.uni-koeln.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität zu Köln, 50937 Köln (Germany); Seyfried, A., E-mail: a.seyfried@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Computer Simulation for Fire Safety and Pedestrian Traffic, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, 42285 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2014-09-12

    The relation between flow and density is an essential quantitative characteristic to describe the efficiency of traffic systems. We have performed experiments with single-file motion of bicycles and compared the results with previous studies for car and pedestrian motion in similar setups. In the space–time diagrams we observe three different states of motion (free flow state, jammed state and stop-and-go waves) in all these systems. Despite their obvious differences they are described by a universal fundamental diagram after proper rescaling of space and time which takes into account the size and free velocity of the three kinds of agents. This indicates that the similarities between the systems go deeper than expected.

  12. Understanding the distribution of strong motions and the damage caused during the September 19th, 2017 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Leonardo Suárez, M.; Quintanar, L.

    2017-12-01

    On September 19, 2017, a normal fault earthquake of magnitude Mw 7.1 occurred 120 km from Mexico City. The quake generated large accelerations, more than 200 cm/s*s at least in two stations in Mexico City, where there was extensive damage. The damage pattern, which includes more than 40 building collapses, differs from the one induced by the 1985 Michoacan earthquake. While the observed accelerations in stations located in the Hill and Transition zones are the largest ever recorded, in the Lake zone the intensities were lower than those recorded in 1985. Even though the proximity of the epicenter could partially explain the accelerations, other factors need to be explored to understand the nuances of the ground motion. Unlike 1985, there is a substantially larger number of acceleration records in Mexico City, operated and maintained by different institutions. In this paper, we present the analysis of acceleration records and 3D numerical simulations to understand if effects such as focusing and directionality participate in the amplified motion. Finally, transfer functions between Lake and Hill zones and response and design spectral values are analyzed in regions where the building code requirements were exceeded. Acknowledgments: Records used in this research are obtained, processed and maintained by the National Autonomous University of Mexico through the Seismic Instrumentation Unit of the Institute of Engineering and the National Seismological Service of the Institute of Geophysics. The Centro de Intrumentacion y Registro Sismico A.C. (CIRES) kindly provided their records. This Project was funded in part by the Secretaria de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SECITI) of Mexico City. Project SECITI/073/2016.

  13. Parkinson-related changes of activation in visuomotor brain regions during perceived forward self-motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk van der Hoorn

    Full Text Available Radial expanding optic flow is a visual consequence of forward locomotion. Presented on screen, it generates illusionary forward self-motion, pointing at a close vision-gait interrelation. As particularly parkinsonian gait is vulnerable to external stimuli, effects of optic flow on motor-related cerebral circuitry were explored with functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy controls (HC and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Fifteen HC and 22 PD patients, of which 7 experienced freezing of gait (FOG, watched wide-field flow, interruptions by narrowing or deceleration and equivalent control conditions with static dots. Statistical parametric mapping revealed that wide-field flow interruption evoked activation of the (pre-supplementary motor area (SMA in HC, which was decreased in PD. During wide-field flow, dorsal occipito-parietal activations were reduced in PD relative to HC, with stronger functional connectivity between right visual motion area V5, pre-SMA and cerebellum (in PD without FOG. Non-specific 'changes' in stimulus patterns activated dorsolateral fronto-parietal regions and the fusiform gyrus. This attention-associated network was stronger activated in HC than in PD. PD patients thus appeared compromised in recruiting medial frontal regions facilitating internally generated virtual locomotion when visual motion support falls away. Reduced dorsal visual and parietal activations during wide-field optic flow in PD were explained by impaired feedforward visual and visuomotor processing within a magnocellular (visual motion functional chain. Compensation of impaired feedforward processing by distant fronto-cerebellar circuitry in PD is consistent with motor responses to visual motion stimuli being either too strong or too weak. The 'change'-related activations pointed at covert (stimulus-driven attention.

  14. Teaching Physics for Conceptual Understanding Exemplified for Einstein's Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undreiu, Lucian M.

    2006-12-01

    In most liberal arts colleges the prerequisites for College Physics, Introductory or Calculus based, are strictly related to Mathematics. As a state of fact, the majorities of the students perceive Physics as a conglomerate of mathematical equations, a collection of facts to be memorized and they regard Physics as one of the most difficult subjects. A change of this attitude towards Physics, and Science in general, is intrinsically connected with the promotion of conceptual understanding and stimulation of critical thinking. In such an environment, the educators are facilitators, rather than the source of knowledge. One good way of doing this is to challenge the students to think about what they see around them and to connect physics with the real world. Motivation occurs when students realize that what was learned is interesting and relevant. Visual teaching aids such as educational videos or computer simulations, as well as computer-assisted experiments, can greatly enhance the effectiveness of a science lecture or laboratory. Difficult topics can be discussed through animated analogies. Special Relativity is recognized as a challenging topic and is probably one of the most misunderstood theories of Physics. While understanding Special Relativity requires a detachment from ordinary perception and every day life notions, animated analogies can prove to be very successful in making difficult topics accessible.

  15. Modeling the effects of multicontextual physics instruction on learner expectations and understanding of force and motion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deese Becht, Sara-Maria Francis

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold involving both practical and theoretical modeling components. The practical component, an experiential-learning phase, investigated a study population for effects that increasing levels of multicontextual physics activities have on student understanding of Newtonian systems of motion. This contextual-learning model measured learner convictions and non-response gaps and analyzed learner response trends on context, technology, challenge, growth, and success. The theoretical component, a model-building phase, designed a dynamic-knowing model for learning along a range of experiential tasks, from low to high context, monitored for indicators of learning in science and mathematics: learner academic performance and ability, learner control and academic attitude, and a learner non- response gap. This knowing model characterized a learner's process-of-knowing on a less to more expert- like learner-response continuum using performance and perspective indices associated with level of contextual- imagery referent system. Data for the contextual-learning model were collected on 180 secondary subjects: 72 middle and 108 high, with 36 physics subjects as local experts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups differing only on context level of force and motion activities. Three levels of information were presented through context-based tasks: momentum constancy as inertia, momentum change as impulse, and momentum rate of change as force. The statistical analysis used a multi-level factorial design with repeated measures and discriminate analysis of response-conviction items. Subject grouping criteria included school level, ability level in science and mathematics, gender and race. Assessment criteria used pre/post performance scores, confidence level in physics concepts held, and attitude towards science, mathematics, and technology. Learner indices were computed from logit- transforms applied to learner outcomes

  16. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the "teaching games for understanding" (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches' learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools.

  17. Motion sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bles, Willem; Bos, Jelte E.; Kruit, Hans

    2000-01-01

    The number of recently published papers on motion sickness may convey the impression that motion sickness is far from being understood. The current review focusses on a concept which tends to unify the different manifestations and theories of motion sickness. The paper highlights the relations

  18. Special relativity and the Karhunen-Loeve expansion of Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccone, C.

    1987-01-01

    The connection between special relativity and the theory of the time-rescaled Gaussian stochastic processes is brought to light. It is given the general expression of the Karhunen-Loewe expansion for the Brownian motion whose variable is the proper time. The relevant eigenfunctions are proved to be Bessel functions, and their stability is discussed. The eigenvalues are shown to be the zeros of certain linear combinations of the Bessel functions and their partials. The energy distribution of such a class of processes is investigated, and it is given explicit formulae for both its mean value and variance. Finally it is studied in detail the Karhumen-Loeve expansion for a case of relativistic decelerated motion whose analysis is feasible in closed form

  19. Topology of the Relative Motion: Circular and Eccentric Reference Orbit Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    FontdecabaiBaig, Jordi; Metris, Gilles; Exertier, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the topology of the relative trajectories in flight formations. The purpose is to study the different types of relative trajectories, their degrees of freedom, and to give an adapted parameterization. The paper also deals with the research of local circular motions. Even if they exist only when the reference orbit is circular, we extrapolate initial conditions to the eccentric reference orbit case.This alternative approach is complementary with traditional approaches in terms of cartesian coordinates or differences of orbital elements.

  20. Teaching relational understandings of sustainability in engineering education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    and the availability of this source in specific locations. Another example is how the importance of material composition depends on the expected lifetime and the fate of the materials in the local end-of-life system. Such idealised and abstract descriptions where the contextual relations of production, use...... and disposal systems are omitted, lead to a fragmented understanding of actual sustainability challenges. On the positive side such parametric descriptions of sustainability issues make them comparable to other disciplines like material science, where a very extensive parameterisation already exists....... This paper explores how such alternative descriptions are pursued in different courses of the Sustainable Design engineering program at Aalborg University. These approaches include meta-descriptions of sustainability assessment methods, descriptions of technology as elements in socio-technical regimes...

  1. A Multidisciplinary Research Agenda for Understanding Vaccine-Related Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Sevdalis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasingly broad global recognition of the need to better understand determinants of vaccine acceptance. Fifteen social science, communication, health, and medical professionals (the “Motors of Trust in Vaccination” (MOTIV think tank explored factors relating to vaccination decision-making as a step to building a multidisciplinary research agenda. One hundred and forty seven factors impacting decisions made by consumers, professionals, and policy makers on vaccine acceptance, delay, or refusal were identified and grouped into three major categories: cognition and decision-making; groups and social norms; and communication and engagement. These factors should help frame a multidisciplinary research agenda to build an evidence base on the determinants of vaccine acceptance to inform the development of interventions and vaccination policies.

  2. A Multidisciplinary Research Agenda for Understanding Vaccine-Related Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi; Leask, Julie; Aggett, Sian; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomson, Angus

    2013-07-18

    There is increasingly broad global recognition of the need to better understand determinants of vaccine acceptance. Fifteen social science, communication, health, and medical professionals (the "Motors of Trust in Vaccination" (MOTIV) think tank) explored factors relating to vaccination decision-making as a step to building a multidisciplinary research agenda. One hundred and forty seven factors impacting decisions made by consumers, professionals, and policy makers on vaccine acceptance, delay, or refusal were identified and grouped into three major categories: cognition and decision-making; groups and social norms; and communication and engagement. These factors should help frame a multidisciplinary research agenda to build an evidence base on the determinants of vaccine acceptance to inform the development of interventions and vaccination policies.

  3. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the “teaching games for understanding” (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches’ learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools. PMID:26452580

  4. Gravity Cues Embedded in the Kinematics of Human Motion Are Detected in Form-from-Motion Areas of the Visual System and in Motor-Related Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignetti, Fabien; Chabeauti, Pierre-Yves; Menant, Jasmine; Anton, Jean-Luc J J; Schmitz, Christina; Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Assaiante, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the cortical areas engaged in the perception of graviceptive information embedded in biological motion (BM). To this end, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the cortical areas active during the observation of human movements performed under normogravity and microgravity (parabolic flight). Movements were defined by motion cues alone using point-light displays. We found that gravity modulated the activation of a restricted set of regions of the network subtending BM perception, including form-from-motion areas of the visual system (kinetic occipital region, lingual gyrus, cuneus) and motor-related areas (primary motor and somatosensory cortices). These findings suggest that compliance of observed movements with normal gravity was carried out by mapping them onto the observer's motor system and by extracting their overall form from local motion of the moving light points. We propose that judgment on graviceptive information embedded in BM can be established based on motor resonance and visual familiarity mechanisms and not necessarily by accessing the internal model of gravitational motion stored in the vestibular cortex.

  5. Experimenting relations between artists and scientists : the appropriation of motion sensors by dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne MARTIN-JUCHAT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We want to show here how recent innovations called Motion Capture, still being tested in laboratory on their potential uses, invite us to change our way to relate to the “technique”. We don’t want to question what the technique does to the social, nor what the social structures does to the technique, but we want to highlight the shifting principles that define interactions between technologies and humans. We therefore underline how using these motion sensors gives birth to different human modes of being present, co-present, or in a sensory and thymic interaction with technology. This article is based on experimental use tests, convoking both artists and engineers, questioning differently the relationship between technology, human and the interaction order. Our result is to question how using and being with these motion sensors, as a dancer, displace epistemological oppositions such as person/machine. It finally sheds light on how some others classical models can move, especially the semiotic decomposition of interaction processes and status.

  6. On stability relative to vector elements of the orbit in general relativity motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdil'din, M.M.; Bejsenova, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    In this work a question of a new type of stability - stability relative to vector elements of the orbit is considered in general relativity mechanics in case of the Lenze-Thirring and two body rotation. (author)

  7. The use of symmetrized valence and relative motion coordinates for crystal potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurry, H. L.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    1980-01-01

    Symmetrized valence coordinates are linear combinations of conventional valence coordinates which display the symmetry of a set of atoms bound by the valence bonds. Relative motion coordinates are relative translations, or relative rotations, of two or more strongly bonded groups of atoms among...... which relatively weak forces act. They are useful for expressing interactions between molecules in molecular crystals and should be chosen, also, to reflect the symmetry of the interacting groups. Since coordinates defined by these procedures possess elements of symmetry in common with the bonding...... interaction constants coupling coordinates of unlike symmetry with regard to the crystal point group are necessarily zero. They may be small, also, for coordinates which belong to different representations of the local symmetry when this is not the same as for the crystal. Procedures are given for defining...

  8. Effect of task-related continuous auditory feedback during learning of tracking motion exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosati Giulio

    2012-10-01

    visuomotor perturbation, whereas controller-task-related sound feedback did not. This result was particularly interesting, as the subjects relied more on auditory augmentation of the visualized target motion (which was altered with respect to arm motion by the visuomotor perturbation, rather than on sound feedback provided in the controller space, i.e., information directly related to the effective target motion of their arm. Conclusions Our results indicate that auditory augmentation of visual feedback can be beneficial during the execution of upper limb movement exercises. In particular, we found that continuous task-related information provided through sound, in addition to visual feedback can improve not only performance but also the learning of a novel visuomotor perturbation. However, error-related information provided through sound did not improve performance and negatively affected learning in the presence of the visuomotor perturbation.

  9. Low Thrust Relative Motion Control of Satellite Formations in Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prioroc, Claudiu-Lucian; Mikkola, Seppo

    The problem of placing and controlling a formation of satellites on a Halo orbit is studied. The Earth-Sun circular restricted three body problem is considered. A family of artificial Halo orbits with the same periods, around the L 1 and L 2 Lagrange points in the Earth-Sun system is found using the pseudo-arc-length continuation method. The orbits are used are reference trajectories for satellites to track. The problem of orbit stability, bounding and controlling the relative motion by means of nonlinear control is addressed.

  10. Understanding Keystroke Dynamics for Smartphone Users Authentication and Keystroke Dynamics on Smartphones Built-In Motion Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungu Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal Identification Numbers (PINs and pattern drawing have been used as common authentication methods especially on smartphones. Such methods, however, are very vulnerable to the shoulder surfing attack. Thus, keystroke dynamics that authenticate legitimate users based on their typing manner have been studied for years. However, many of the studies have focused on PC keyboard keystrokes. More studies on mobile and smartphones keystroke dynamics are warranted; as smartphones make progress in both hardware and software, features from smartphones have been diversified. In this paper, using various features including keystroke data such as time interval and motion data such as accelerometers and rotation values, we evaluate features with motion data and without motion data. We also compare 5 formulas for motion data, respectively. We also demonstrate that opposite gender match between a legitimate user and impostors has influence on authenticating by our experiment results.

  11. Relative Attitude Estimation for a Uniform Motion and Slowly Rotating Noncooperative Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel relative attitude estimation approach for a uniform motion and slowly rotating noncooperative spacecraft. It is assumed that the uniform motion and slowly rotating noncooperative chief spacecraft is in failure or out of control and there is no a priori rotation rate information. We utilize a very fast binary descriptor based on binary robust independent elementary features (BRIEF to obtain the features of the target, which are rotational invariance and resistance to noise. And then, we propose a novel combination of single candidate random sample consensus (RANSAC with extended Kalman filter (EKF that makes use of the available prior probabilistic information from the EKF in the RANSAC model hypothesis stage. The advantage of this combination obviously reduces the sample size to only one, which results in large computational savings without the loss of accuracy. Experimental results from real image sequence of a real model target show that the relative angular error is about 3.5% and the mean angular velocity error is about 0.1 deg/s.

  12. A satellite relative motion model including J_2 and J_3 via Vinti's intermediary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biria, Ashley D.; Russell, Ryan P.

    2018-03-01

    Vinti's potential is revisited for analytical propagation of the main satellite problem, this time in the context of relative motion. A particular version of Vinti's spheroidal method is chosen that is valid for arbitrary elliptical orbits, encapsulating J_2, J_3, and generally a partial J_4 in an orbit propagation theory without recourse to perturbation methods. As a child of Vinti's solution, the proposed relative motion model inherits these properties. Furthermore, the problem is solved in oblate spheroidal elements, leading to large regions of validity for the linearization approximation. After offering several enhancements to Vinti's solution, including boosts in accuracy and removal of some singularities, the proposed model is derived and subsequently reformulated so that Vinti's solution is piecewise differentiable. While the model is valid for the critical inclination and nonsingular in the element space, singularities remain in the linear transformation from Earth-centered inertial coordinates to spheroidal elements when the eccentricity is zero or for nearly equatorial orbits. The new state transition matrix is evaluated against numerical solutions including the J_2 through J_5 terms for a wide range of chief orbits and separation distances. The solution is also compared with side-by-side simulations of the original Gim-Alfriend state transition matrix, which considers the J_2 perturbation. Code for computing the resulting state transition matrix and associated reference frame and coordinate transformations is provided online as supplementary material.

  13. Special relativity and superluminal motions: a discussion of some recent experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recami, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy)]|[Bergamo Univ., Bergamo (Italy). Fac. di Ingegneria]|[State Univ. of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Fontana, F. [Pirelli Cavi, Milan (Italy). R and D sector; Garavaglia, R. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dell' Informazione

    2000-03-01

    Some experiments, performed at Berkeley, Cologne, Florence, Vienna, Orsay and Rennes led to the claim that something seems to travel with a group velocity larger than the speed c of light in vacuum. Various other experimental results seem to point in the same direction. For instance, localized wavelet-type solutions of Maxwell equations have been found, both theoretically and experimentally, that travel with superluminal speed. Even mounic and electronic neutrinos - it has been proposed - might be tachyons, since their square mass appears to be negative. With regard to the first mentioned experiments, it was very recently claimed by Guenter Nimtz that those results with evanescent waves or tunnelling photons - implying superluminal signal and impulse transmission - violate Einstein causality. This note, on the contrary, discusses that all such results do not place relativistic causality in jeopardy, even if they refer to actual tachyonic motions. In fact, special relativity can cope even with also the known paradoxes , devised for faster than light motion, even if this is not widely recognized. Here the paper shows, in detail and rigorously, how to solve the oldest casual paradox. originally proposed by Tolman, which is the kernel of many further tachyon paradoxes. The key to the solution is a careful application of tachyon mechanics, as it unambiguously follows from special relativity.

  14. VORTICAL MOTIONS OF BARYONIC GAS IN THE COSMIC WEB: GROWTH HISTORY AND SCALING RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Weishan; Feng, Long-long [Institute of Astronomy and Space Science, Sun Yat-Sen University (SYSU), Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2015-10-01

    The vortical motions of the baryonic gas residing in large-scale structures are investigated by cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. Proceeding in the formation of the cosmic web, the vortical motions of baryonic matter are pumped up by baroclinity in two stages, i.e., the formation of sheets and filaments. The mean curl velocities are about <1, 1–10, 10–150, and 5–50 km s{sup −1} in voids, sheets, filaments, and knots at z = 0, respectively. The scaling of the vortical velocity of gas can be well described by the She–Leveque hierarchical turbulence model in the range of l < 0.65(1.50) h{sup −1} Mpc in a simulation with a box of size 25(100) h{sup −1} Mpc. The fractal Hausdorff dimension of vortical motions, d, revealed by velocity structure functions, is ∼2.1–2.3(∼1.8–2.1). It is slightly larger than the fractal dimension of mass distribution in filaments, D{sup f} ∼ 1.9–2.2, and smaller than the fractal dimension of sheets, D{sup s} ∼ 2.4–2.7. The vortical kinetic energy of baryonic gas is mainly transported by filaments. Both scalings of mass distribution and vortical velocity increments show distinctive transitions at the turning scale of ∼0.65(1.50) h{sup −1} Mpc, which may be closely related to the characteristic radius of density filaments.

  15. Relational benefits and quality of relation – towards understanding of the ties between science and business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grzegorczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to answer the question in what way relational marketing and in particular, the concept of relational benefits, as well as quality of relation may influence the transfer of knowledge and technologies from universities to business. Another goal is to highlight significant, future directions of research in this area. Integration of the theory of relational marketing and technology transfer may create a new framework for fuller understanding of the ties between science and business. Research in this area may contribute to the expansion and development of the theory of relational marketing, which until now was limited to the analysis of relations within a single sector. The results of conducted research show that ties characterized by high relational engagement are common, recognized by both academic and business environment as precious and play an important role in stimulating innovations. The quality of relations and relational benefits may play an important role in building long-term ties between universities and the industry. Integration of behavioural theories with the theory of technology transfer may contribute to a better understanding of the behaviour of particular participants of the transfer on the individual level.

  16. Relative Vessel Motion Tracking using Sensor Fusion, Aruco Markers, and MRU Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondre Sanden Tordal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach for estimating the relative motion between two moving offshore vessels. The method is based on a sensor fusion algorithm including a vision system and two motion reference units (MRUs. The vision system makes use of the open-source computer vision library OpenCV and a cube with Aruco markers placed onto each of the cube sides. The Extended Quaternion Kalman Filter (EQKF is used for bad pose rejection for the vision system. The presented sensor fusion algorithm is based on the Indirect Feedforward Kalman Filter for error estimation. The system is self-calibrating in the sense that the Aruco cube can be placed in an arbitrary location on the secondary vessel. Experimental 6-DOF results demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed sensor fusion method compared with the internal joint sensors of two Stewart platforms and the industrial robot. The standard deviation error was found to be 31mm or better when the Arcuo cube was placed at three different locations.

  17. Universal current-velocity relation of skyrmion motion in chiral magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Junichi; Mochizuki, Masahito; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2013-03-01

    Current-driven motion of the magnetic domain wall requires large critical current density jc ~109 -1012 A/m2, at which the joule heating is a serious problem. The skyrmions recently discovered in chiral magnets, on the other hand, have much smaller critical current of jc ~105 -106 A/m2. We present a numerical simulation of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, which reveals a remarkably robust and universal current-velocity relation of the slyrmion motion driven by the spin transfer torque unaffected by either impurities or nonadiabatic effect in sharp contrast to the case of domain wall or spin helix (HL). Simulation results are analyzed using a theory based on Thiele's equation, and it is concluded that this surprising behavior is due to the Magnus force and flexible shape-deformation of individual skyrmions and skyrmion crystal (SkX), which enable them to avoid pinning centers and then weaken the net pinning force. Dynamical deformation of SkX leads to the fluctuation of Bragg peak with large amplitude, which can be detected by the recent neutron-scattering experiment.

  18. Review of seismicity and ground motion studies related to development of seismic design at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, D.E.; Acree, J.R.

    1990-04-01

    The NRC response spectra developed in Reg. Guide 1.60 is being used in the studies related to restarting of the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors. Because it envelopes all the other site specific spectra which have been developed for SRS, it provides significant conservatism in the design and analysis of the reactor systems for ground motions of this value or with these probability levels. This spectral shape is also the shape used for the design of the recently licensed Vogtle Nuclear Station, located south of the Savannah River from the SRS. This report provides a summary of the data base used to develop the design basis earthquake. This includes the seismicity, rates of occurrence, magnitudes, and attenuation relationships. A summary is provided for the studies performed and methodologies used to establish the design basis earthquake for SRS. The ground motion response spectra developed from the various studies are also summarized. The seismic hazard and PGA's developed for other critical facilities in the region are discussed, and the SRS seismic instrumentation is presented. The programs for resolving outstanding issues are discussed and conclusions are presented

  19. Semi-idealized modeling of lightning initiation related to vertical air motion and cloud microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Yijun; Zheng, Dong; Xu, Liangtao; Zhang, Wenjuan; Meng, Qing

    2017-10-01

    A three-dimensional charge-discharge numerical model is used, in a semi-idealized mode, to simulate a thunder-storm cell. Characteristics of the graupel microphysics and vertical air motion associated with the lightning initiation are revealed, which could be useful in retrieving charge strength during lightning when no charge-discharge model is available. The results show that the vertical air motion at the lightning initiation sites ( W ini) has a cubic polynomial correlation with the maximum updraft of the storm cell ( W cell-max), with the adjusted regression coefficient R 2 of approximately 0.97. Meanwhile, the graupel mixing ratio at the lightning initiation sites ( q g-ini) has a linear correlation with the maximum graupel mixing ratio of the storm cell ( q g-cell-max) and the initiation height ( z ini), with the coefficients being 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These linear correlations are more significant during the middle and late stages of lightning activity. A zero-charge zone, namely, the area with very low net charge density between the main positive and negative charge layers, appears above the area of q g-cell-max and below the upper edge of the graupel region, and is found to be an important area for lightning initiation. Inside the zero-charge zone, large electric intensity forms, and the ratio of q ice (ice crystal mixing ratio) to q g (graupel mixing ratio) illustrates an exponential relationship to q g-ini. These relationships provide valuable clues to more accurately locating the high-risk area of lightning initiation in thunderstorms when only dual-polarization radar data or outputs from numerical models without charging/discharging schemes are available. The results can also help understand the environmental conditions at lightning initiation sites.

  20. Focusing of relative plate motion at a continental transform fault: Cenozoic dextral displacement >700 km on New Zealand's Alpine Fault, reversing >225 km of Late Cretaceous sinistral motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Simon; Mortimer, Nick; Smith, Euan; Turner, Gillian

    2016-03-01

    The widely accepted ˜450 km Cenozoic dextral strike-slip displacement on New Zealand's Alpine Fault is large for continental strike-slip faults, but it is still less than 60% of the Cenozoic relative plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates through Zealandia, with the remaining motion assumed to be taken up by rotation and displacement on other faults in a zone up to 300 km wide. We show here that the 450 km total displacement across the Alpine Fault is an artifact of assumptions about the geometry of New Zealand's basement terranes in the Eocene, and the actual Cenozoic dextral displacement across the active trace is greater than 665 km, with more than 700 km (and 94%) of the relative plate motion in the last 25 Ma at an average rate in excess of 28 mm/yr. It reverses more than 225 km (and Zealandia in the Late Cretaceous, when Zealandia lay on the margin of Gondwana, providing a direct constraint on the kinematics of extension between East and West Antarctica at this time.

  1. Three-dimensional organization of vestibular related eye movements to rotational motion in pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, J. D.; Beyer, M.; Hess, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    During rotational motions, compensatory eye movement adjustments must continually occur in order to maintain objects of visual interest as stable images on the retina. In the present study, the three-dimensional organization of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in pigeons was quantitatively examined. Rotations about different head axes produced horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements, whose component magnitude was dependent upon the cosine of the stimulus axis relative to the animal's visual axis. Thus, the three-dimensional organization of the VOR in pigeons appears to be compensatory for any direction of head rotation. Frequency responses of the horizontal, vertical, and torsional slow phase components exhibited high pass filter properties with dominant time constants of approximately 3 s.

  2. Modeling orbital relative motion to enable formation design from application requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Giancarmine; D'Errico, Marco

    2009-11-01

    While trajectory design for single satellite Earth observation missions is usually performed by means of analytical and relatively simple models of orbital dynamics including the main perturbations for the considered cases, most literature on formation flying dynamics is devoted to control issues rather than mission design. This work aims at bridging the gap between mission requirements and relative dynamics in multi-platform missions by means of an analytical model that describes relative motion for satellites moving on near circular low Earth orbits. The development is based on the orbital parameters approach and both the cases of close and large formations are taken into account. Secular Earth oblateness effects are included in the derivation. Modeling accuracy, when compared to a nonlinear model with two body and J2 forces, is shown to be of the order of 0.1% of relative coordinates for timescales of hundreds of orbits. An example of formation design is briefly described shaping a two-satellite formation on the basis of geometric requirements for synthetic aperture radar interferometry.

  3. Understanding News Values: Secret to Good Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Rita Haugh

    1981-01-01

    Explains the news values that journalists use. Shows English teachers and administrators how they can apply this knowledge of news media to improve public relations between the school and the community. (RL)

  4. Health care labor relations law--understanding the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, S P; Keith, C L

    1981-01-01

    The 1974 amendments to the Labor Management Relations Act have created new problems of statutory interpretation in the rapidly evolving area of health care labor law. By including nonprofit hospitals under the auspices of the Act, the amendments have opened up a new area for unionization and have given rise to questions concerning the types of bargaining units that are appropriate in health care facilities. In the following article, the authors discuss these questions and other current issues in health care labor relations law. The issues include the determination of relevant bargaining units, the status of state nursing associations as labor organizations, and the ten-day strike notice requirement of the Labor Management Relations Act.

  5. Understanding dyadic promoter-stakeholder relations in complex projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janita Vos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a Bilateral Double Motive framework of stakeholder cooperation in complex projects. The framework analyses and explains dyadic promoter-stakeholder relationships at a micro level by acknowledging both transactional and relational motives. We demonstrate the framework’s usefulness by illustrating its explanatory power in two instances of cooperation and two of non-cooperation within two health information technology projects. The study contributes to project management theory through its combined focus on transactional and relational motives. Further, the study contributes to practice by providing a tool for planning and evaluating cooperation in health Information Technology projects and similar complex multi-stakeholder environments.

  6. Auditory event-related potentials associated with perceptual reversals of bistable pitch motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Gray D; Pitts, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) experiments have consistently identified two components associated with perceptual transitions of bistable visual stimuli, the "reversal negativity" (RN) and the "late positive complex" (LPC). The RN (~200 ms post-stimulus, bilateral occipital-parietal distribution) is thought to reflect transitions between neural representations that form the moment-to-moment contents of conscious perception, while the LPC (~400 ms, central-parietal) is considered an index of post-perceptual processing related to accessing and reporting one's percept. To explore the generality of these components across sensory modalities, the present experiment utilized a novel bistable auditory stimulus. Pairs of complex tones with ambiguous pitch relationships were presented sequentially while subjects reported whether they perceived the tone pairs as ascending or descending in pitch. ERPs elicited by the tones were compared according to whether perceived pitch motion changed direction or remained the same across successive trials. An auditory reversal negativity (aRN) component was evident at ~170 ms post-stimulus over bilateral fronto-central scalp locations. An auditory LPC component (aLPC) was evident at subsequent latencies (~350 ms, fronto-central distribution). These two components may be auditory analogs of the visual RN and LPC, suggesting functionally equivalent but anatomically distinct processes in auditory vs. visual bistable perception.

  7. Nuisance Flooding and Relative Sea-Level Rise: the Importance of Present-Day Land Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karegar, Makan A; Dixon, Timothy H; Malservisi, Rocco; Kusche, Jürgen; Engelhart, Simon E

    2017-09-11

    Sea-level rise is beginning to cause increased inundation of many low-lying coastal areas. While most of Earth's coastal areas are at risk, areas that will be affected first are characterized by several additional factors. These include regional oceanographic and meteorological effects and/or land subsidence that cause relative sea level to rise faster than the global average. For catastrophic coastal flooding, when wind-driven storm surge inundates large areas, the relative contribution of sea-level rise to the frequency of these events is difficult to evaluate. For small scale "nuisance flooding," often associated with high tides, recent increases in frequency are more clearly linked to sea-level rise and global warming. While both types of flooding are likely to increase in the future, only nuisance flooding is an early indicator of areas that will eventually experience increased catastrophic flooding and land loss. Here we assess the frequency and location of nuisance flooding along the eastern seaboard of North America. We show that vertical land motion induced by recent anthropogenic activity and glacial isostatic adjustment are contributing factors for increased nuisance flooding. Our results have implications for flood susceptibility, forecasting and mitigation, including management of groundwater extraction from coastal aquifers.

  8. Auditory event-related potentials associated with perceptual reversals of bistable pitch motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray D. Davidson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous event-related potential (ERP experiments have consistently identified two components associated with perceptual transitions of bistable visual stimuli, the reversal negativity (RN and the late positive complex (LPC. The RN (~200ms post-stimulus, bilateral occipital-parietal distribution is thought to reflect transitions between neural representations that form the moment-to-moment contents of conscious perception, while the LPC (~400ms, central-parietal is considered an index of post-perceptual processing related to accessing and reporting one’s percept. To explore the generality of these components across sensory modalities, the present experiment utilized a novel bistable auditory stimulus. Pairs of complex tones with ambiguous pitch relationships were presented sequentially while subjects reported whether they perceived the tone pairs as ascending or descending in pitch. ERPs elicited by the tones were compared according to whether perceived pitch motion changed direction or remained the same across successive trials. An auditory RN component (aRN was evident at ~170ms post-stimulus over bilateral fronto-central scalp locations. An auditory LPC component (aLPC was evident at subsequent latencies (~350ms, fronto-central distribution. These two components may be auditory analogs of the visual RN and LPC, suggesting functionally equivalent but anatomically distinct processes in auditory versus visual bistable perception.

  9. Understanding abortion-related stigma and incidence of unsafe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young unmarried women bore the brunt of being stigmatized. They reported a lack of a supportive environment that provides guidance on correct information on how to prevent unwanted pregnancy and where to get help. Abortion-related stigma plays a major role in women's decision on whether to have a safe or unsafe ...

  10. Learning to Understand Others through Relationally Oriented Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Judith; Tonge, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Children with reading difficulties often face social and emotional challenges as well. These struggles may be particularly taxing for these children as classrooms increase in diversity and they encounter fewer people like themselves. In response to these issues, we developed an approach to teaching reading called Relationally Oriented Reading…

  11. Probing Students' Understanding of Some Conceptual Themes in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    This work is an attempt to see how physics undergraduates view the basic ideas of general relativity when they are exposed to the topic in a standard introductory course. Since the subject is conceptually and technically difficult, we adopted a "case studies" approach, focusing in depth on about six students who had just finished a one semester…

  12. Understanding dyadic promoter-stakeholder relations in complex projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Janita F.J.; Boonstra, Albert; Achterkamp, Marjolein C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a Bilateral Double Motive framework of stakeholder cooperation in complex projects. The framework analyses and explains dyadic promoter-stakeholder relationships at a micro level by acknowledging both transactional and relational motives. We demonstrate the framework’s

  13. Basic understanding of the lanthanide related upconversion emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Sun, Ling-Dong; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2013-06-01

    With abundant energy levels of 4f electron configurations, trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+) are endowed with unique and fascinating luminescent properties. Inheriting the native transition behaviour of the lanthanide ions, Ln3+ based nanomaterials have aroused great interest for a wide range of applications, including lighting and displays, optical fibers and amplifiers, responsive luminescent stains for biomedical analysis, in vivo and in vitro imaging, and enhancement for silicon solar cell devices. It should be noted that the application depends completely on the corresponding luminescent behaviour. To deepen the understanding of the luminescent mechanism is important for the developing of the field and the design of new Ln3+ based luminescent materials toward applications. In this review, we focused mainly on the recent developments on upconversion (UC) emission studies. Firstly, the emphasis was put on the introduction of basic luminescent properties of Ln3+ with f-f transitions, and then the corresponding mechanisms and properties of UC emission were discussed in detail, the potential researches with respect to UC mechanisms and properties were finally outlined.

  14. Understanding relations between pastoralism and its changing natural environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tamou, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The competition for land has become an issue of major concern and cause of conflict, especially between pastoralists and crop farmers, but also between pastoralists and nature conservation institutions. The Biosphere Reserve of W in Benin Republic (WBR) and its surrounding lands are located in the agro-pastoral contact zone in West Africa, enabling competition for land, and affecting the relations between pastoralism and its environment. The general aim of this thesis, therefore, was to under...

  15. Peculiarities of motion at low velocities. Motion in space and motion in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheludev, I.S.

    1982-01-01

    Motion referred to certain space coordinate x and described by space-time relationships of the special theory of relativity, is interpreted as a motion in space. The concept of motion referred to the certain moment of time t, is introduced and called as a motion in time. Space-time relationships for the latter case are followed from the transformations x→t, t→x, v→α (α=1/v, mod(αsub(t))=mod(vsub(s))), c→αsub(max)=1/c 0 , mod(c)=mod(αsub(max)). The invariable characteristic of inertial motion in time is determined by a given equation. The peculiar features of motion in time are found at low velocities (α→αsub(max)). The combined approach is based on both limiting quantities c and αsub(max). If the space coordinate x is measured through motion in space and time t through motion in time (parity frame-reference), all inertial movements have the same velocity, velocity of self-divergence v 0 = √cc 0 . There is no distortion of spatial and temporal scales when the motion is described in the parity frame-reference. The use of different intervals characterizing invariable quantities of inertial motion in space and times makes it possible to understand some problems of cosmological expansion of non-interacting galaxies (Hubble's law v = HR and, the ''low of limited distances'', v = R/t characterizing linear dimension of Universe etc.). (Auth.)

  16. Uniform circular motion in general relativity: existence and extendibility of the trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Daniel; Romero, Alfonso; Torres, Pedro J.

    2017-06-01

    The concept of uniform circular motion in a general spacetime is introduced as a particular case of a planar motion. The initial value problem of the corresponding differential equation is analysed in detail. Geometrically, an observer that obeys a uniform circular motion is characterized as a Lorentzian helix. The completeness of inextensible trajectories is studied in generalized Robertson-Walker spacetimes and in a relevant family of pp-wave spacetimes. Under reasonable assumptions, the physical interpretation of such results is that a uniform circular observer lives forever, providing the absence of the singularities defined by these timelike curves.

  17. Understanding the relative sensitivity of radiographic screens to scattered radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, K L; Whiting, B R; Kocher, T E; Trauernicht, D P; Van Metter, R L

    1996-10-01

    This study compared the relative response of various screen-film and computed radiography (CR) systems to diagnostic radiation exposure. An analytic model was developed to calculate the total energy deposition within the depth of screen and the readout signal generated from this energy for the x-ray detection system. The model was used to predict the relative sensitivity of several screen-film and CR systems to scattered radiation as a function of various parameters, such as x-ray spectra, phantom thickness, phosphor composition, screen thickness, screen configuration (single front screen, single back screen, screen pair), and readout conditions. In addition, measurements of the scatter degradation factor (SDF) for different screen systems by using the beam stop technique with water phantoms were made to verify the model results. Theoretically calculated values of SDF were in good agreement with experimental data. These results are consistent with the common observation that rare-earth screens generally produce better image quality than calcium tungstate screens and the CR screen.

  18. Three levels of understanding physical relativity: Galileo's relativity, Up-to-date Galileo's relativity and Einstein's relativity: A historical survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenstein, Bernhard; Nafornita, Corina

    2004-01-01

    We present a way of teaching Einstein's special relativity. It starts with Galileo's relativity, the learners know from previous lectures. The lecture underlines that we can have three transformation equations for the space-time coordinates of the same event, which lead to absolute clock readings, time intervals and lengths (Galileo's relativity), to absolute clock readings but to relative time intervals and lengths (up-to-date Galileo transformations) and to relative clock readings time inte...

  19. Joint Command & Control Ship: Literature Survey on Motion Effects and Related Environmental Effects on Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-26

    Institute, Report TM-98-A068, December 1998. 95 Allen G. Proposed limits for exposure to whole-body vibration. In: von Gierke HE ed. Vibration and...Ergonomics. 1976; 19(6):719-726. 112 von Gierke HE, McCloskey K, Albery WB. Military performance in sustained acceleration and vibration environments. In...namely motion sickness, has been documented throughout history. Motion sickness is not a disease , nor is it a sign of physical or mental weakness

  20. Friction of Teflon-S-coated Ti-6Al-4V under conditions of oscillatory relative motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, D.J.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; de Gee, A.W.J.

    1990-01-01

    An extendable prosthesis for implantation in a human leg has been developed. The friction forces during extension of the prosthesis must be low, so a coating of Teflon-S was applied to the sliding surfaces. During walking, damage can occur as a result of oscillatory relative motion. Therefore

  1. HP-9810A calculator programs for plotting the 2-dimensional motion of cyclindrical payloads relative to the shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    The HP-9810A calculator programs described provide the capability to generate HP-9862A plotter displays which depict the apparent motion of a free-flying cyclindrical payload relative to the shuttle orbiter body axes by projecting the payload geometry into the orbiter plane of symmetry at regular time intervals.

  2. The Storytelling Aspect of Interpersonal Relations: Understanding "Relating" from a Mentalization Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J Mark; Tuch, Richard

    Improving a patient's ability to form and maintain satisfactory interpersonal relations is an important goal in many therapies. A mentalization-based approach to treatment is ideally suited to achieve this end to the extent it's designed to help improve a patient's ability to form more nuanced guesses about why others act as they do, based on a more accurate "read" of that individual's beliefs and desires. Interpersonal difficulties often issue when patients remain insistent on their own interpretation of another's motives that fly in the face of that individual's understanding of what is "driving" them. Helping patients explore the basis upon which they'd formed their conclusions about others goes a ways toward opening their mind to the possibility that things are a bit more complicated than first imaged. This in turn leads to greater curiosity and willingness to explore their own narratives and perceptions.

  3. Children’s looking preference for biological motion may be related to an affinity for mathematical chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua eHaworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of biological motion is pervasive in early child development. Further, viewing the movement behavior of others is a primary component of a child’s acquisition of complex, robust movement repertoires, through imitation and real-time coordinated action. We theorize that inherent to biological movements are particular qualities of mathematical chaos and complexity. We further posit that this character affords the rich and complex inter-dynamics throughout early motor development. Specifically, we explored whether children’s preference for biological motion may be related to an affinity for mathematical chaos. Cross Recurrence Quantification Analysis (cRQA was used to investigate the coordination of gaze and posture with various temporal structures (periodic, chaotic, and aperiodic of the motion of an oscillating visual stimulus. Children appear to competently perceive and respond to chaotic motion, both in rate (cRQA-percent determinism and duration (cRQA-maxline of coordination. We interpret this to indicate that children not only recognize chaotic motion structures, but also have a preference for coordination with them. Further, stratification of our sample (by age uncovers the suggestion that this preference may become refined with age.

  4. A Simple Time Domain Collocation Method to Precisely Search for the Periodic Orbits of Satellite Relative Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokui Yue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical approach for obtaining periodic orbits of satellite relative motion is proposed, based on using the time domain collocation (TDC method to search for the periodic solutions of an exact J2 nonlinear relative model. The initial conditions for periodic relative orbits of the Clohessy-Wiltshire (C-W equations or Tschauner-Hempel (T-H equations can be refined with this approach to generate nearly bounded orbits. With these orbits, a method based on the least-squares principle is then proposed to generate projected closed orbit (PCO, which is a reference for the relative motion control. Numerical simulations reveal that the presented TDC searching scheme is effective and simple, and the projected closed orbit is very fuel saving.

  5. Effect of motion coherence on time perception relates to perceived speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kentaro; Miura, Kayo

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the effect of coherence of moving visual objects on time perception. Participants observed stimuli composed of four line segments moving behind or in front of occluders. The line segments appeared to move either coherently as a diamond outline or incoherently, depending on the occlusion. Results from the temporal bisection task indicated that the duration of the coherently moving stimulus was perceived longer or shorter compared to the duration of the incoherently moving stimulus depending on the stimulus configurations. The speed comparison task revealed that the trend of the difference in perceived speed between the coherent and incoherent motions in each stimulus configuration was consistent with that of the difference in perceived duration between them. These results demonstrate the effect of motion coherence on perceived duration, and that this effect may be mediated by changes in perceived speed. Our finding provides evidence supporting the involvement of global motion processing in time perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SU-E-T-133: Dosimetric Impact of Scan Orientation Relative to Target Motion During Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, J; Summers, P; Li, X; Gomez, D; Sahoo, N; Zhu, X; Gillin, M [MD Anderson Cancer Ctr., Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to evaluate the dosimetric effects of intra-fraction motion during spot scanning proton beam therapy as a function of beam-scan orientation and target motion amplitude. Method: Multiple 4DCT scans were collected of a dynamic anthropomorphic phantom mimicking respiration amplitudes of 0 (static), 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm. A spot-scanning treatment plan was developed on the maximum intensity projection image set, using an inverse-planning approach. Dynamic phantom motion was continuous throughout treatment plan delivery.The target nodule was designed to accommodate film and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Film and TLDs were uniquely labeled by location within the target. The phantom was localized on the treatment table using the clinically available orthogonal kV on-board imaging device. Film inserts provided data for dose uniformity; TLDs provided a 3% precision estimate of absolute dose. An inhouse script was developed to modify the delivery order of the beam spots, to orient the scanning direction parallel or perpendicular to target motion.TLD detector characterization and analysis was performed by the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core group (IROC)-Houston. Film inserts, exhibiting a spatial resolution of 1mm, were analyzed to determine dose homogeneity within the radiation target. Results: Parallel scanning and target motions exhibited reduced target dose heterogeneity, relative to perpendicular scanning orientation. The average percent deviation in absolute dose for the motion deliveries relative to the static delivery was 4.9±1.1% for parallel scanning, and 11.7±3.5% (p<<0.05) for perpendicularly oriented scanning. Individual delivery dose deviations were not necessarily correlated to amplitude of motion for either scan orientation. Conclusions: Results demonstrate a quantifiable difference in dose heterogeneity as a function of scan orientation, more so than target amplitude. Comparison to the analyzed planar dose of a single

  7. Motion sickness in migraine sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Dawn A; Furman, Joseph M; Balaban, Carey D

    2005-12-01

    Motion sickness commonly occurs after exposure to actual motion, such as car or amusement park rides, or virtual motion, such as panoramic movies. Motion sickness symptoms may be disabling, significantly limiting business, travel and leisure activities. Motion sickness occurs in approximately 50% of migraine sufferers. Understanding motion sickness in migraine patients may improve understanding of the physiology of both conditions. Recent literature suggests important relationships between the trigeminal system and vestibular nuclei that may have implications for both motion sickness and migraine. Studies demonstrating an important relationship between serotonin receptors and motion sickness susceptibility in both rodents and humans suggest possible new motion sickness prevention therapies.

  8. Relations between the solar inertial motion, solar activity and geomagnetic index aa since the year 1844

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Charvátová, Ivanka; Střeštík, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 40, - (2007), s. 1026-1031 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300120608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : solar motion * solar activity * geomagnetic activity Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.774, year: 2007

  9. Comparison of impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in surfing-related landing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Raymond, Ellen; Secomb, Josh L; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in five different landing tasks that are used in training and testing for competitive surfing athletes, to assist coaches in the prescription of landing task progression and monitoring training load. Eleven competitive surfing athletes aged 24 ± 7 years participated, and inertial motion sensors were fixed to the anterior aspect of the feet, mid-tibial shafts, sacrum and eighth thoracic vertebrae on these athletes. Three tasks were performed landing on force plates and two tasks in a modified gymnastics set-up used for land-based aerial training. Peak landing force, resultant peak acceleration and front and rear side ankle dorsiflexion ranges of motion during landing were determined. The peak acceleration was approximately 50% higher when performing aerial training using a mini-trampoline and landing on a soft-density foam board, compared to a similar landing off a 50 cm box. Furthermore, the ankle ranges of motion during the gymnastic type landings were significantly lower than the other landing types (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.001), for front and rear sides, respectively. Conclusively, increased task complexity and specificity of the sport increased the tibial peak acceleration, indicating greater training load.

  10. Impaired heel to toe progression during gait is related to reduced ankle range of motion in people with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarakis, Michael; Greene, David; Moresi, Mark; Baker, Michael; Stubbs, Peter; Brodie, Matthew; Lord, Stephen; Hoang, Phu

    2017-11-01

    Gait impairment in people with Multiple Sclerosis results from neurological impairment, muscle weakness and reduced range of motion. Restrictions in passive ankle range of motion can result in abnormal heel-to-toe progression (weight transfer) and inefficient gait patterns in people with Multiple Sclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between gait impairment, heel-to-toe progression and ankle range of motion in people with Multiple Sclerosis. Twelve participants with Multiple Sclerosis and twelve healthy age-matched participants were assessed. Spatiotemporal parameters of gait and individual footprint data were used to investigate group differences. A pressure sensitive walkway was used to divide each footprint into three phases (contact, mid-stance, propulsive) and calculate the heel-to-toe progression during the stance phase of gait. Compared to healthy controls, people with Multiple Sclerosis spent relatively less time in contact phase (7.8% vs 25.1%) and more time in the mid stance phase of gait (57.3% vs 33.7%). Inter-limb differences were observed in people with Multiple Sclerosis between the affected and non-affected sides for contact (7.8% vs 15.3%) and mid stance (57.3% and 47.1%) phases. Differences in heel-to-toe progression remained significant after adjusting for walking speed and were correlated with walking distance and ankle range of motion. Impaired heel-to-toe progression was related to poor ankle range of motion in people with Multiple Sclerosis. Heel-to-toe progression provided a sensitive measure for assessing gait impairments that were not detectable using standard spatiotemporal gait parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transient severe motion artifact related to gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI. Frequency and risk evaluation at a German institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Well, Lennart; Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver; Bannas, Peter [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2017-07-15

    Varying frequencies (5 - 18%) of contrast-related transient severe motion (TSM) imaging artifacts during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced arterial phase liver MRI have been reported. Since previous reports originated from the United States and Japan, we aimed to determine the frequency of TSM at a German institution and to correlate it with potential risk factors and previously published results. Two age- and sex-matched groups were retrospectively selected (gadoxetate disodium n = 89; gadobenate dimeglumine n = 89) from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations in a single center. Respiratory motion-related artifacts in non-enhanced and dynamic phases were assessed independently by two readers blinded to contrast agents on a 4-point scale. Scores of ≥3 were considered as severe motion artifacts. Severe motion artifacts in arterial phases were considered as TSM if scores in all other phases were < 3. Potential risk factors for TSM were evaluated via logistic regression analysis. For gadoxetate disodium, the mean score for respiratory motion artifacts was significantly higher in the arterial phase (2.2 ± 0.9) compared to all other phases (1.6 ± 0.7) (p < 0.05). The frequency of TSM was significantly higher with gadoxetate disodium (n = 19; 21.1 %) than with gadobenate dimeglumine (n = 1; 1.1%) (p < 0.001). The frequency of TSM at our institution is similar to some, but not all previously published findings. Logistic regression analysis did not show any significant correlation between TSM and risk factors (all p>0.05). We revealed a high frequency of TSM after injection of gadoxetate disodium at a German institution, substantiating the importance of a diagnosis-limiting phenomenon that so far has only been reported from the United States and Japan. In accordance with previous studies, we did not identify associated risk factors for TSM.

  12. A revised kinematic model for the relative motion between Pacific oceanic plates and North America since the Late Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Tarduno, John A.

    2008-12-01

    The convergence between the Pacific, Farallon, and Kula oceanic plates and the North American plate has provided a driving force for tectonic processes that have shaped the western margin of North America. Yet reconstructions of plate motion in the Pacific basin have traditionally relied on the assumption of fixed hot spots. In the last decade, substantial Cretaceous to Paleogene motion between the Pacific and Atlantic hot spots has been recognized, providing motivation to reevaluate the history of relative motion between Pacific oceanic plates and North America by means of plate circuit reconstructions. This paper presents new kinematic models based on two alternative plate circuits linking the Pacific plate to North America since Late Cretaceous time. When compared to models relying on fixity of Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hot spots, our reconstructions suggest that the Pacific-Kula and Pacific-Farallon ridges were ˜600-1000 km closer to the western margin of North America and hence that the Farallon and Kula plates were smaller in Late Cretaceous to middle Eocene time. These findings cast significant doubt on the viability of a configuration of the Farallon-Kula ridge that juxtaposes the Kula plate with the southern part of the paleo-North American margin during this time interval. The results of our new reconstructions also suggest more oblique convergence between the Farallon (or Kula) plate and North America from the Late Cretaceous to the middle Eocene related to the combination of dominantly northwest motion of the Pacific plate and steady southwest motion of North America. This provides an efficient mechanism for the coast-parallel translation of some accreted terranes of North America. It may also explain the structure of geological units in western North America, such as the Central Belt of the Franciscan Complex, which show a dominant coast-parallel fabric formed during an interval coeval with the episode of oblique convergence.

  13. Children's Interpretive Understanding, Moral Judgments, and Emotion Attributions: Relations to Social Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…

  14. Preschool-aged children’s understanding of gratitude: Relations with emotion and mental state knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children’s early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children were tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of gratitude-eliciting situations. A model-building path analysis approach was used to examine longitudinal relations among early emotion and mental state knowledge and later understanding of gratitude. Children with a better early understanding of emotions and mental states understand more about gratitude. Mental state knowledge at age 4 mediated the relation between emotion knowledge at age 3 and gratitude understanding at age 5. The current study contributes to the scant literature on the early emergence of children’s understanding of gratitude. PMID:23331105

  15. Model development of SAS4A and investigation on the initiating phase consequences in LMFRs related with material motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on an analytical aspect of the initiating phase scenario and consequences of postulated core disruptive accident in liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. An analytical code, SAS4A, has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory, and introduced to PNC. Improvement and validation effort have been performed for the mixed-oxide version of SAS4A at PNC. This paper describes firstly recent development of SAS4A's material motion related models briefly. A fission gas mass transfer model and solid fuel chunk jamming model are developed and introduced to SAS4A, and validated using CABRI-2 E13 experimental data. Secondly, an investigation of the mechanism of energetics in the initiating phase of an unprotected loss-of-flow accident has identified major control parameters which are intimately related to core design parameters and material motion phenomena. (author)

  16. Relating lateralization of eye use to body motion in the avoidance behavior of the chameleon (Chamaeleo chameleon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avichai Lustig

    Full Text Available Lateralization is mostly analyzed for single traits, but seldom for two or more traits while performing a given task (e.g. object manipulation. We examined lateralization in eye use and in body motion that co-occur during avoidance behaviour of the common chameleon, Chamaeleo chameleon. A chameleon facing a moving threat smoothly repositions its body on the side of its perch distal to the threat, to minimize its visual exposure. We previously demonstrated that during the response (i eye use and body motion were, each, lateralized at the tested group level (N = 26, (ii in body motion, we observed two similar-sized sub-groups, one exhibiting a greater reduction in body exposure to threat approaching from the left and one--to threat approaching from the right (left- and right-biased subgroups, (iii the left-biased sub-group exhibited weak lateralization of body exposure under binocular threat viewing and none under monocular viewing while the right-biased sub-group exhibited strong lateralization under both monocular and binocular threat viewing. In avoidance, how is eye use related to body motion at the entire group and at the sub-group levels? We demonstrate that (i in the left-biased sub-group, eye use is not lateralized, (ii in the right-biased sub-group, eye use is lateralized under binocular, but not monocular viewing of the threat, (iii the dominance of the right-biased sub-group determines the lateralization of the entire group tested. We conclude that in chameleons, patterns of lateralization of visual function and body motion are inter-related at a subtle level. Presently, the patterns cannot be compared with humans' or related to the unique visual system of chameleons, with highly independent eye movements, complete optic nerve decussation and relatively few inter-hemispheric commissures. We present a model to explain the possible inter-hemispheric differences in dominance in chameleons' visual control of body motion during avoidance.

  17. Relating lateralization of eye use to body motion in the avoidance behavior of the chameleon (Chamaeleo chameleon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Avichai; Ketter-Katz, Hadas; Katzir, Gadi

    2013-01-01

    Lateralization is mostly analyzed for single traits, but seldom for two or more traits while performing a given task (e.g. object manipulation). We examined lateralization in eye use and in body motion that co-occur during avoidance behaviour of the common chameleon, Chamaeleo chameleon. A chameleon facing a moving threat smoothly repositions its body on the side of its perch distal to the threat, to minimize its visual exposure. We previously demonstrated that during the response (i) eye use and body motion were, each, lateralized at the tested group level (N = 26), (ii) in body motion, we observed two similar-sized sub-groups, one exhibiting a greater reduction in body exposure to threat approaching from the left and one--to threat approaching from the right (left- and right-biased subgroups), (iii) the left-biased sub-group exhibited weak lateralization of body exposure under binocular threat viewing and none under monocular viewing while the right-biased sub-group exhibited strong lateralization under both monocular and binocular threat viewing. In avoidance, how is eye use related to body motion at the entire group and at the sub-group levels? We demonstrate that (i) in the left-biased sub-group, eye use is not lateralized, (ii) in the right-biased sub-group, eye use is lateralized under binocular, but not monocular viewing of the threat, (iii) the dominance of the right-biased sub-group determines the lateralization of the entire group tested. We conclude that in chameleons, patterns of lateralization of visual function and body motion are inter-related at a subtle level. Presently, the patterns cannot be compared with humans' or related to the unique visual system of chameleons, with highly independent eye movements, complete optic nerve decussation and relatively few inter-hemispheric commissures. We present a model to explain the possible inter-hemispheric differences in dominance in chameleons' visual control of body motion during avoidance.

  18. 252Cf spontaneous prompt fission neutron spectrum measured at 0 degree and 180 degree relative to the fragment motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Shanglian; Liu Jinquan; Batenkov, O.I.; Blinov, M.V.; Smirnov, S.N.

    1994-09-01

    The 252 Cf spontaneous prompt fission neutron spectrum at 0 degree and 180 degree relative to the motion direction of corresponding fission fragments was measured. High angular resolution for fragment measurements and high energy resolution for neutron measurements were obtained using multi-parameter TOF spectrometer. The results showed that there is a symmetric distribution of 'forward' and 'backward' for low energy in C.M.S. neutrons, which was an evidence of nonequilibrium neutrons existed in fission process

  19. Empirical ground-motion relations for subduction-zone earthquakes and their application to Cascadia and other regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G.M.; Boore, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-motion relations for earthquakes that occur in subduction zones are an important input to seismic-hazard analyses in many parts of the world. In the Cascadia region (Washington, Oregon, northern California, and British Columbia), for example, there is a significant hazard from megathrust earthquakes along the subduction interface and from large events within the subducting slab. These hazards are in addition to the hazard from shallow earthquakes in the overlying crust. We have compiled a response spectra database from thousands of strong-motion recordings from events of moment magnitude (M) 5-8.3 occurring in subduction zones around the world, including both interface and in-slab events. The 2001 M 6.8 Nisqually and 1999 M 5.9 Satsop earthquakes are included in the database, as are many records from subduction zones in Japan (Kyoshin-Net data), Mexico (Guerrero data), and Central America. The size of the database is four times larger than that available for previous empirical regressions to determine ground-motion relations for subduction-zone earthquakes. The large dataset enables improved determination of attenuation parameters and magnitude scaling, for both interface and in-slab events. Soil response parameters are also better determined by the data. We use the database to develop global ground-motion relations for interface and in-slab earthquakes, using a maximum likelihood regression method. We analyze regional variability of ground-motion amplitudes across the global database and find that there are significant regional differences. In particular, amplitudes in Cascadia differ by more than a factor of 2 from those in Japan for the same magnitude, distance, event type, and National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) soil class. This is believed to be due to regional differences in the depth of the soil profile, which are not captured by the NEHRP site classification scheme. Regional correction factors to account for these differences are

  20. Mathematical Representation by Students in Building Relational Understanding on Concepts of Area and Perimeter of Rectangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Rahmad Bustanul; Yuwono, Ipung; As'ari, Abdur Rahman; Sisworo; Dwi, Rahmawati

    2016-01-01

    Representation is an important aspect of learners in building a relational understanding of mathematical concepts. But the ability of a mathematical representation of students in building relational understanding is still very limited. The purpose of this research is to description of mathematical representation of students who appear in building…

  1. Hilbert-Space-Valued Super-Brownian Motion and Related Evolution Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallianpur, G.; Sundar, P.

    2000-01-01

    A stochastic partial differential equation in which the square root of the solution appears as the diffusion coefficient is studied as a particular case of stochastic evolution equations. Weak existence of a solution is proved by the Euler approximation scheme. The super-Brownian motion on [0, 1] is also studied as a Hilbert-space-valued equation. In this set up, weak existence, pathwise uniqueness, and positivity of solutions are obtained in any dimension d

  2. Isla Guadalupe, Mexico (GUAX, SCIGN/PBO) a Relative Constraint for California Borderland and Northern Gulf of California Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    Using ITRF2000 as a common reference frame link, I analyzed survey mode and permanent GPS published results, together with SOPAC public data and results (http://sopac.ucsd.edu), in order to evaluate relative present day crustal deformation in California and northern Mexico. The crustal velocity field of Mexico (Marquez-Azua and DeMets, 2003) obtained from continuous GPS measurements conducted by Instituto Nacional de Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) for 1993-2001, was partially used. The preferred model for an instantaneous rigid motion between North-America and Pacific plates (NAPA), is obtained using results of Isla Guadalupe GPS surveys (1991-2002) giving a new constraint for Pacific plate (PA) motion (Gonzalez-Garcia et al., 2003). It produces an apparent reduction of 1 mm/yr in the absolute motion in the border zone between PA and North-America (NA) plates in this region, as compared with other GPS models (v.g. Prawirodirdjo and Bock, 2004); and it is 3 mm/yr higher than NNRNUVEL-1A. In the PA reference frame, westernmost islands from San Francisco (FARB), Los Angeles (MIG1), and Ensenada (GUAX); give current residuals of 1.8, 1.7 and 0.9 mm/yr and azimuths that are consistent with local tectonic setting, respectively. In the NA reference frame, besides the confirmation of 2 mm/yr E-W extension for the southern Basin and Range province in northern Mexico; a present day deformation rate of 40.5 mm/yr between San Felipe, Baja California (SFBC) and Hermosillo, Sonora, is obtained. This rate agrees with a 6.3 to 6.7 Ma for the "initiation of a full sea-floor spreading" in the northern Gulf of California. SFBC has a 7 mm/yr motion in the PA reference frame, giving then, a full NAPA theoretical absolute motion of 47.5 mm/yr. For Puerto Penasco, Sonora (PENA) there is a NAPA motion of 46.2 mm/yr and a residual of 1.2 mm/yr in the NA reference frame, this site is located only 75 km to the northeast from the Wagner basin center. For southern Isla Guadalupe (GUAX) there

  3. Developmental Relational Counseling: A Model for Self-Understanding in Relation to Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Thelma; Haberstroh, Shane

    2012-01-01

    Developmental relational counseling (DRC) is an integrative framework designed to help clients develop personal awareness and relational functioning and conceptualize personal growth. DRC emerged from both authors' clinical work and was significantly influenced by relational-cultural theory and guided by the Enneagram personality typology and…

  4. Lower Extremity Strength and the Range of Motion in Relation to Squat Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Si-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine which variables of the range of motion (ROM and strength of the hip, and ankle are associated with squat depth. In total, 101 healthy subjects (64 males, 37 females participated in the study. Outcome measures consisted of the ROM of hip flexion, hip internal rotation, external rotation, ankle dorsiflexion with an extended and flexed knee joint, and strength of the hip flexor and ankle dorsiflexor. Squat depth was measured using SIMI motion analysis software. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between variables and squat depth. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine variables associated with squat depth. The multiple regression model indicated that ankle dorsiflexion with a flexed knee and the hip flexion ROM were significantly associated with squat depth in male subjects (R2 = 0.435 and ankle dorsiflexion with an extended knee and dorsiflexor strength were significantly associated with squat depth in female subjects (R2 = 0.324. Thus, exercises to increase the ROM of the ankle dorsiflexion, hip flexion, and dorsiflexor strength can be recommended to improve squat performance. Future studies should assess an increased ROM of the ankle dorsiflexion, hip flexion, or dorsiflexor strength effect on deep squat performance.

  5. An Exploration of the Perception of Dance and Its Relation to Biomechanical Motion: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Michael; Halaki, Mark; Adams, Roger; Cobley, Stephen; Lee, Kwee-Yum; O'Dwyer, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In dance, the goals of actions are not always clearly defined. Investigations into the perceived quality of dance actions and their relation to biomechanical motion should give insight into the performance of dance actions and their goals. The purpose of this review was to explore and document current literature concerning dance perception and its relation to the biomechanics of motion. Seven studies were included in the review. The study results showed systematic differences between expert, non-expert, and novice dancers in biomechanical and perceptual measures, both of which also varied according to the actions expressed in dance. Biomechanical and perceptual variables were found to be correlated in all the studies in the review. Significant relations were observed between kinematic variables such as amplitude, speed, and variability of movement, and perceptual measures of beauty and performance quality. However, in general, there were no clear trends in these relations. Instead, the evidence suggests that perceptual ratings of dance may be specific to both the task (the skill of the particular action) and the context (the music and staging). The results also suggest that the human perceptual system is sensitive to skillful movements and neuromuscular coordination. Since the value perceived by audiences appears to be related to dance action goals and the coordination of dance elements, practitioners could place a priority on development and execution of those factors.

  6. An Investigation of Age-Related Differences in Understanding of Empathy and Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Kuske, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated age-related differences in social cognition, emotional understanding, Theory of Mind (ToM) and empathy. A new task assessing different aspects of social cognition (ToM, emotional understanding, knowledge/understanding of social rules) using cartoon-strip stories was applied in conjunction with established measures of emotion recognition (‘the faces task’, or FEEST), ToM (‘Reading the mind in the eyes task’), empathy (IRI) and executive functions (Bri...

  7. Human motion characteristics in relation to feeling familiar or frightened during an announced short interaction with a proactive humanoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddoura, Ritta; Venture, Gentiane

    2014-01-01

    During an unannounced encounter between two humans and a proactive humanoid (NAO, Aldebaran Robotics), we study the dependencies between the human partners' affective experience (measured via the answers to a questionnaire) particularly regarding feeling familiar and feeling frightened, and their arm and head motion [frequency and smoothness using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU)]. NAO starts and ends its interaction with its partners by non-verbally greeting them hello (bowing) and goodbye (moving its arm). The robot is invested with a real and useful task to perform: handing each participant an envelope containing a questionnaire they need to answer. NAO's behavior varies from one partner to the other (Smooth with X vs. Resisting with Y). The results show high positive correlations between feeling familiar while interacting with the robot and: the frequency and smoothness of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye, as well as the smoothness of the head during the whole encounter. Results also show a negative dependency between feeling frightened and the frequency of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye. The principal component analysis (PCA) suggests that, in regards to the various motion measures examined in this paper, the head smoothness and the goodbye gesture frequency are the most reliable measures when it comes to considering the familiar experienced by the participants. The PCA also points out the irrelevance of the goodbye motion frequency when investigating the participants' experience of fear in its relation to their motion characteristics. The results are discussed in light of the major findings of studies on body movements and postures accompanying specific emotions. PMID:24688466

  8. Human motion characteristics in relation to feeling familiar or frightened during an announced short interaction with a proactive humanoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritta eBaddoura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During an unannounced encounter between two humans and a proactive humanoid (called NAO, we study the dependencies between the human partners’ affective experience (measured via the answers to a questionnaire particularly regarding feeling familiar and feeling frightened, and their arm and head motion (frequency and smoothness using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU. NAO starts and ends its interaction with its partners by non-verbally greeting them hello (bowing and goodbye (moving its arm. The robot is invested with a real and useful task to perform: handing each participant an envelope containing a questionnaire they need to answer. NAO’s behavior varies from one partner to the other (Smooth with X vs. Resisting with Y. The results show high positive correlations between feeling familiar while interacting with the robot and: the frequency and smoothness of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye, as well as the smoothness of the head during the whole encounter. Results also show a strong negative dependency between feeling frightened and the frequency of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA suggests that, in regards to the various motion measures examined in this paper, the head smoothness and the goodbye gesture frequency are the most reliable measures when it comes to considering the familiar experienced by the participants. The PCA also points out the irrelevance of the goodbye motion frequency when investigating the participants’ experience of fear in its relation to their motion characteristics. The results are discussed in light of the major findings of studies on body movements and postures accompanying specific emotions.

  9. Prospective Elementary Teacher Understandings of Pest-Related Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Cary J.; Heinze, Kirk L.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical interviews with eight preservice elementary teachers elicited their understanding of pest-related benchmarks. Those with out-of-school experience were better able to articulate their understanding. Many were unable to make connections between scientific, societal and technological concepts. (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  10. Children's understanding of Aesop's fables: relations to reading comprehension and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Janette; Beatty, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined children's developing understanding of Aesop's fables in relation to reading comprehension and to theory of mind. Study 1 included 172 children from Junior Kindergarten through Grade 6 in a school-wide examination of the relation between reading comprehension skills and understanding of Aesop's fables told orally. Study 2 examined the relation between theory of mind and fables understanding among 186 Junior (4-year-old) and Senior (5-year-old) Kindergarten children. Study 1 results showed a developmental progression in fables understanding with children's responses becoming increasingly decontextualized as they were able to extract the life lesson. After general vocabulary, passage comprehension predicted fables understanding. Study 2 results showed a relation between young children's theory of mind development and their understanding of fables. After general vocabulary, second-order theory of mind predicted children's fables understanding. Findings point to the importance of developing mental state awareness in children's ability to judge characters' intentions and to understand the deeper message embedded in fables.

  11. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States Relates to Desire Language and Emotion Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between mother mental state language and child desire language and emotion understanding in 15--24-month-olds. At both times point, mothers described pictures to their infants and mother talk was coded for mental and nonmental state language. Children were administered 2 emotion understanding tasks and their mental…

  12. Relational Understanding of the Derivative Concept through Mathematical Modeling: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Zulal; Aydogan Yenmez, Arzu; Erbas, Ayhan Kursat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three second-year graduate students' awareness and understanding of the relationships among the "big ideas" that underlie the concept of derivative through modeling tasks and Skemp's distinction between relational and instrumental understanding. The modeling tasks consisting of warm-up,…

  13. A Macro-Micro-Symbolic Teaching to Promote Relational Understanding of Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Lama Ziad; Boujaoude, Saouma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is threefold: (1) to identify the difficulties that Grade 10 students in a Lebanese school have that hinder their conceptual understanding at the micro-macro-symbolic interface in chemistry, (2) to investigate the effect of a macro-micro-symbolic teaching approach on students' relational understanding of chemical…

  14. Public relations and public understanding in the nuclear industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Michel, A. [Belgonucleaire, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-31

    Before talking about public understanding and public relations in the nuclear industry in Europe, a word about the mosaic structure of the European energy policy and public is required because a similar structure will be found in the European public understanding policy. Afterwards, we explain what communications tools are available and how the different European countries apply them.

  15. Student Understanding of Time in Special Relativity: Simultaneity and Reference Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2001-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of students' understanding of the concept of time in special relativity. Discusses a series of research tasks to illustrate how student reasoning of fundamental concepts of relativity was probed. Indicates that after standard instruction, students have serious difficulties with the relativity of simultaneity and the…

  16. A simple model to understand the role of membrane shear elasticity and stress-free shape on the motion of red blood cells in shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Abkarian, Manouk; Dupire, Jules

    2015-11-01

    The analytical model presented by Keller and Skalak on the dynamics of red blood cells in shear flow described the cell as a fluid ellipsoid of fixed shape. It was extended to introduce shear elasticity of the cell membrane. We further extend the model when the cell discoid physiological shape is not a stress-free shape. We show that spheroid stress-free shapes enables fitting experimental data with values of shear elasticity typical to that found with micropipettes and optical tweezers. For moderate shear rates (when RBCs keep their discoid shape) this model enables to quantitatively determine an effective cell viscosity, that combines membrane and hemoglobin viscosities and an effective shear modulus of the membrane that combines shear modulus and stress-free shape. This model allows determining RBC mechanical parameters both in the tanktreading regime for cells suspended in a high viscosity medium, and in the tumbling regime for cells suspended in a low viscosity medium. In this regime,a transition is predicted between a rigid-like tumbling motion and a fluid-like tumbling motion above a critical shear rate, which is directly related to the mechanical parameters of the cell. A*MIDEX (n ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) funded by the ''Investissements d'Avenir'', Region Languedoc-Roussillon, Labex NUMEV (ANR-10-LABX-20), BPI France project DataDiag.

  17. Motion monitoring during a course of lung radiotherapy with anchored electromagnetic transponders. Quantification of inter- and intrafraction motion and variability of relative transponder positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Daniela [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology (NCRO), Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology (NCRO), Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Joint Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Roeder, Falk [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Clinical Cooperation Unit Molecular Radiooncology, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Munich (LMU), Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Gompelmann, Daniela; Herth, Felix [University of Heidelberg, Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); German Center for Lung Research, Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    Anchored electromagnetic transponders for tumor motion monitoring during lung radiotherapy were clinically evaluated. First, intrafractional motion patterns were analyzed as well as their interfractional variations. Second, intra- and interfractional changes of the geometric transponder positions were investigated. Intrafractional motion data from 7 patients with an upper or middle lobe tumor and three implanted transponders each was used to calculate breathing amplitudes, overall motion amount and motion midlines in three mutual perpendicular directions and three-dimensionally (3D) for 162 fractions. For 6 patients intra- and interfractional variations in transponder distances and in the size of the triangle defined by the transponder locations over the treatment course were determined. Mean 3D values of all fractions were up to 4.0, 4.6 and 3.4 mm per patient for amplitude, overall motion amount and midline deviation, respectively. Intrafractional transponder distances varied with standard deviations up to 3.2 mm, while a maximal triangle shrinkage of 36.5% over 39 days was observed. Electromagnetic real-time motion monitoring was feasible for all patients. Detected respiratory motion was on average modest in this small cohort without lower lobe tumors, but changes in motion midline were of the same size as the amplitudes and greater midline motion can be observed in some fractions. Intra- and interfractional variations of the geometric transponder positions can be large, so for reliable motion management correlation between transponder and tumor motion needs to be evaluated per patient. (orig.) [German] Verankerte, elektromagnetische Transponder fuer die Bewegungserkennung des Tumors waehrend der Strahlentherapie der Lunge wurden klinisch evaluiert. Dafuer wurden intrafraktionelle Bewegungsmuster und ihre interfraktionellen Variationen analysiert und intra- und interfraktionelle Veraenderungen der geometrischen Transponderpositionen untersucht. Intrafraktionelle

  18. Child language and parent discipline mediate the relation between family income and false belief understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Virginia; Logan, Jessica A R; Blosser, Daniel F; Duffy, Kaylin

    2017-06-01

    Achieving false belief understanding is an important cognitive milestone that allows children to understand that thoughts and reality can differ. Researchers have found that low-income children score significantly lower than middle-income children on false belief understanding but have not examined why this difference exists. We hypothesized that children's language and parent discipline mediate the income-false belief relation. Participants were 174 3- to 6-year-olds. False belief understanding was significantly correlated with family income, children's vocabulary, parents' self-reported discussion of children's behavior, discussion of emotions, and power assertion. Family income had a significant indirect effect on false belief understanding through children's vocabulary and parent discipline when examined independently, but only through children's vocabulary when using parallel multiple mediation. This study contributes to our knowledge of individual differences in false belief understanding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Consumer understanding, interpretation and perceived levels of personal responsibility in relation to satiety-related claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilman, E.M.; Kleef, van E.; Mela, D.J.; Hulshof, T.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore (a) whether and how consumers may (over-) interpret satiety claims, and (b) whether and to what extent consumers recognize that personal efforts are required to realize possible satiety-related or weight loss benefits. Following means-end chain theory, we

  20. Dynamic social adaptation of motion-related neurons in primate parietal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naotaka Fujii

    Full Text Available Social brain function, which allows us to adapt our behavior to social context, is poorly understood at the single-cell level due largely to technical limitations. But the questions involved are vital: How do neurons recognize and modulate their activity in response to social context? To probe the mechanisms involved, we developed a novel recording technique, called multi-dimensional recording, and applied it simultaneously in the left parietal cortices of two monkeys while they shared a common social space. When the monkeys sat near each other but did not interact, each monkey's parietal activity showed robust response preference to action by his own right arm and almost no response to action by the other's arm. But the preference was broken if social conflict emerged between the monkeys-specifically, if both were able to reach for the same food item placed on the table between them. Under these circumstances, parietal neurons started to show complex combinatorial responses to motion of self and other. Parietal cortex adapted its response properties in the social context by discarding and recruiting different neural populations. Our results suggest that parietal neurons can recognize social events in the environment linked with current social context and form part of a larger social brain network.

  1. From Collapse to Relationality Improv: High School Stories in Motion for Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Morgan K.; Scarth, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Youth live storied lives (made up of intersecting stories of school, home, peers, and other aspects of lived experience). Therefore, the ways in which youth construct and tell their high school stories are vital for understanding their experiences as first authors (primary creators, constructors, and tellers of their own stories) and protagonists…

  2. The effects of complex exercise on shoulder range of motion and pain for women with breast cancer-related lymphedema: a single-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Hyuck

    2017-07-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of complex exercise on shoulder range of motion and pain for women with breast cancer-related lymphedema. 69 women participated in this study and then they were randomly allocated to complex exercise group (n = 35) or the conventional decongestive therapy group (n = 34). All subjects received 8 sessions for 4 weeks. To identify the effects on shoulder range of motion and pain, goniometer and visual analog scale were used, respectively. The outcome measurements were performed before and after the 4 week intervention. After 4 weeks, complex exercise group had greater improvements in shoulder range of motion and pain compared with the conventional decongestive therapy group (p women with breast cancer-related lymphedema. Complex exercise would be useful to improve shoulder range of motion and pain of the women with breast cancer-related lymphedema.

  3. Impact of respiratory motion on variable relative biological effectiveness in 4D-dose distributions of proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Silke; Wieser, Hans-Peter; Cao, Wenhua; Mohan, Radhe; Bangert, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Organ motion during radiation therapy with scanned protons leads to deviations between the planned and the delivered physical dose. Using a constant relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1 linearly maps these deviations into RBE-weighted dose. However, a constant value cannot account for potential nonlinear variations in RBE suggested by variable RBE models. Here, we study the impact of motion on recalculations of RBE-weighted dose distributions using a phenomenological variable RBE model. 4D-dose calculation including variable RBE was implemented in the open source treatment planning toolkit matRad. Four scenarios were compared for one field and two field proton treatments for a liver cancer patient assuming (α∕β) x  = 2 Gy and (α∕β) x  = 10 Gy: (A) the optimized static dose distribution with constant RBE, (B) a static recalculation with variable RBE, (C) a 4D-dose recalculation with constant RBE and (D) a 4D-dose recalculation with variable RBE. For (B) and (D), the variable RBE was calculated by the model proposed by McNamara. For (C), the physical dose was accumulated with direct dose mapping; for (D), dose-weighted radio-sensitivity parameters of the linear quadratic model were accumulated to model synergistic irradiation effects on RBE. Dose recalculation with variable RBE led to an elevated biological dose at the end of the proton field, while 4D-dose recalculation exhibited random deviations everywhere in the radiation field depending on the interplay of beam delivery and organ motion. For a single beam treatment assuming (α∕β) x  = 2 Gy, D 95 % was 1.98 Gy (RBE) (A), 2.15 Gy (RBE) (B), 1.81 Gy (RBE) (C) and 1.98 Gy (RBE) (D). The homogeneity index was 1.04 (A), 1.08 (B), 1.23 (C) and 1.25 (D). For the studied liver case, intrafractional motion did not reduce the modulation of the RBE-weighted dose postulated by variable RBE models for proton treatments.

  4. Conserved linear dynamics of single-molecule Brownian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serag, Maged F.; Habuchi, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    Macromolecular diffusion in homogeneous fluid at length scales greater than the size of the molecule is regarded as a random process. The mean-squared displacement (MSD) of molecules in this regime increases linearly with time. Here we show that non-random motion of DNA molecules in this regime that is undetectable by the MSD analysis can be quantified by characterizing the molecular motion relative to a latticed frame of reference. Our lattice occupancy analysis reveals unexpected sub-modes of motion of DNA that deviate from expected random motion in the linear, diffusive regime. We demonstrate that a subtle interplay between these sub-modes causes the overall diffusive motion of DNA to appear to conform to the linear regime. Our results show that apparently random motion of macromolecules could be governed by non-random dynamics that are detectable only by their relative motion. Our analytical approach should advance broad understanding of diffusion processes of fundamental relevance.

  5. Conserved linear dynamics of single-molecule Brownian motion

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.

    2017-06-06

    Macromolecular diffusion in homogeneous fluid at length scales greater than the size of the molecule is regarded as a random process. The mean-squared displacement (MSD) of molecules in this regime increases linearly with time. Here we show that non-random motion of DNA molecules in this regime that is undetectable by the MSD analysis can be quantified by characterizing the molecular motion relative to a latticed frame of reference. Our lattice occupancy analysis reveals unexpected sub-modes of motion of DNA that deviate from expected random motion in the linear, diffusive regime. We demonstrate that a subtle interplay between these sub-modes causes the overall diffusive motion of DNA to appear to conform to the linear regime. Our results show that apparently random motion of macromolecules could be governed by non-random dynamics that are detectable only by their relative motion. Our analytical approach should advance broad understanding of diffusion processes of fundamental relevance.

  6. From rational numbers to algebra: separable contributions of decimal magnitude and relational understanding of fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J

    2015-05-01

    To understand the development of mathematical cognition and to improve instructional practices, it is critical to identify early predictors of difficulty in learning complex mathematical topics such as algebra. Recent work has shown that performance with fractions on a number line estimation task predicts algebra performance, whereas performance with whole numbers on similar estimation tasks does not. We sought to distinguish more specific precursors to algebra by measuring multiple aspects of knowledge about rational numbers. Because fractions are the first numbers that are relational expressions to which students are exposed, we investigated how understanding the relational bipartite format (a/b) of fractions might connect to later algebra performance. We presented middle school students with a battery of tests designed to measure relational understanding of fractions, procedural knowledge of fractions, and placement of fractions, decimals, and whole numbers onto number lines as well as algebra performance. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the best predictors of algebra performance were measures of relational fraction knowledge and ability to place decimals (not fractions or whole numbers) onto number lines. These findings suggest that at least two specific components of knowledge about rational numbers--relational understanding (best captured by fractions) and grasp of unidimensional magnitude (best captured by decimals)--can be linked to early success with algebraic expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Helping foster parents understand the foster child's perspective: a relational learning framework for foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Wendy; Salmon, Karen

    2014-10-01

    The behaviour of children in foster care is influenced by a variety of factors including previous experiences of maltreatment and adverse parenting, as well as the impact of separation from birth parents and placement in care. These factors make it difficult for foster parents to accurately interpret the child's behavioural cues, a necessary precursor to sensitive parenting. The relational learning framework introduced in this article, drawing on attachment theory, facilitates the foster parents' access to some features of the child's mental representations, or internal working model, which may be pivotal in understanding the child's behaviour and therefore successfully managing it. Recent studies suggest that parents' ability to understand the child's psychological perspective, or mental state, is related to the child's cognitive and social development. This article presents a method to enhance the foster parents' understanding of the child's psychological perspective. The model is currently being evaluated for use with foster parents, mental health and social work practitioners. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Video-cued narrative reflection: a research approach for articulating tacit, relational, and embodied understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raingruber, Bonnie

    2003-10-01

    The author's purpose in this article is to describe the effectiveness of video-cued narrative reflection as a research approach for accessing relational, practice-based, and lived understandings. Video-cued narrative reflection provides moment-by-moment access to tacit experience. The immediate nature of the videotape captures emotional nuances, embodied perceptions, spatial influences, relational understandings, situational factors, and temporal manifestations. By watching videotaped interactions, participants are able to re-collect, re-experience, and interpret their life world. Video-cued narrative reflection allows participants to be simultaneously engaged and reflective while describing significant understandings. By inserting audiotaped reflective commentary of participants into the original videotape transcript, contextual meanings can be located and articulated more easily. Although not appropriate for all types of research, this approach offers promise for certain studies.

  9. Effective Sensing Regions and Connectivity of Agents Undergoing Periodic Relative Motions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swain, D.; Cao, M.; Leonard, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    Time-varying graphs are widely used to model communication and sensing in multi-agent systems such as mobile sensor networks and dynamic animal groups. Connectivity is often determined by the presence of neighbors in a sensing region defined by relative position and/or bearing. We present a method

  10. Understanding decreases in land relative humidity with global warming: conceptual model and GCM simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Michael P.; O'Gorman, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate models simulate a strong land-ocean contrast in the response of near-surface relative humidity to global warming: relative humidity tends to increase slightly over oceans but decrease substantially over land. Surface energy balance arguments have been used to understand the response over ocean but are difficult to apply over more complex land surfaces. Here, a conceptual box model is introduced, involving moisture transport between the land and ocean boundary layers and evapotranspira...

  11. Counterrotating prop-fan simulations which feature a relative-motion multiblock grid decomposition enabling arbitrary time-steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, J. Mark; Whitfield, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Improvements are presented of a computer algorithm developed for the time-accurate flow analysis of rotating machines. The flow model is a finite volume method utilizing a high-resolution approximate Riemann solver for interface flux definitions. The numerical scheme is a block LU implicit iterative-refinement method which possesses apparent unconditional stability. Multiblock composite gridding is used to orderly partition the field into a specified arrangement of blocks exhibiting varying degrees of similarity. Block-block relative motion is achieved using local grid distortion to reduce grid skewness and accommodate arbitrary time step selection. A general high-order numerical scheme is applied to satisfy the geometric conservation law. An even-blade-count counterrotating unducted fan configuration is chosen for a computational study comparing solutions resulting from altering parameters such as time step size and iteration count. The solutions are compared with measured data.

  12. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: Current understanding and preventive strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaar, A. P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the most serious complication of transfusion medicine. TRALI is defined as the onset of acute hypoxia within 6 hours of a blood transfusion in the absence of hydrostatic pulmonary oedema. The past decades have resulted in a better understanding of the

  13. Modelling Joint Decision Making Processes Involving Emotion-Related Valuing and Mutual Empathic Understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a social agent model for joint decision making is presented addressing the role of mutually acknowledged empathic understanding in the decision making. The model is based on principles from recent neurological theories on mirror neurons, internal simulation, and emotion-related

  14. Towards the understanding of microbial metabolism in relation to microbial enhanced oil recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Bacillus licheniformis 421 was used as a model organism to understand the effects of microbial cell growth and metabolite production under anaerobic conditions in relation to microbial enhanced oil recovery. The bacterium was able to grow anaerobically on different carbon compounds...

  15. Understanding Nature-Related Behaviors among Children through a Theory of Reasoned Action Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotch, Chad; Hall, Troy

    2004-01-01

    The Theory of Reasoned Action has proven to be a valuable tool for predicting and understanding behavior and, as such, provides a potentially important basis for environmental education program design. This study used a Theory of Reasoned Action approach to examine a unique type of behavior (nature-related activities) and a unique population…

  16. Students' Understandings of Religious Identities and Relations: Issues of Social Cohesion and Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this article is on issues of social cohesion and citizenship as they relate to students' understandings of religion and religious identity. The article draws on data gathered from a study conducted at a highly diverse English comprehensive school and is set amid broader anxieties about religion, community disharmony and national…

  17. Understanding Structure-Property Relations of Compressed Glasses through Relaxation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Svenson, Mouritz Nolsøe; Youngman, Randall E.

    When a glassy material or its liquid state is subjected to sufficiently high pressure, significant changes can take place in the short- and medium-range structure, vibrational density of states, and physical properties. It is crucial to determine and understand the structure-property relations un...

  18. Photogrammetry System and Method for Determining Relative Motion Between Two Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Samuel A. (Inventor); Severance, Kurt (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A photogrammetry system and method provide for determining the relative position between two objects. The system utilizes one or more imaging devices, such as high speed cameras, that are mounted on a first body, and three or more photogrammetry targets of a known location on a second body. The system and method can be utilized with cameras having fish-eye, hyperbolic, omnidirectional, or other lenses. The system and method do not require overlapping fields-of-view if two or more cameras are utilized. The system and method derive relative orientation by equally weighting information from an arbitrary number of heterogeneous cameras, all with non-overlapping fields-of-view. Furthermore, the system can make the measurements with arbitrary wide-angle lenses on the cameras.

  19. Connection device of an apparatus in a system with structures subject to relative motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barneoud, R.E.; Guer, M.

    1975-01-01

    The invention relates to a system of sealed connection intended for sodium pumps of LMFBR type reactors. Said fastening system is characterized in that said pump immersed in the liquid metal has its upper part suspended to the closure slab of the reactor shell through a first knee-joint system, and its lower part fastened by means of a second swivel-joint to a steady frame rigidly connected to the reactor vessel [fr

  20. Relative Time Compression for Slow-Motion Stimuli through Rapid Recalibration

    OpenAIRE

    Kashiwakura, Saya; Motoyoshi, Isamu

    2017-01-01

    A number of psychophysical studies have shown that moving stimuli appear to last longer than static stimuli. Here, we report that the perceived duration for slow moving stimuli can be shorter than for static stimuli under specific circumstances. Observers were tested using natural movies presented at various speeds (0.0× = static, 0.25× = slow, or 1.9× = fast, relative to original speed) and indicated whether test duration was perceived as longer or shorter than comparison movies presented at...

  1. Beyond Normal Competencies: Understanding Organisation Designs to Develop and Sustain IT-Related Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acklesh Prasad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is apparent that IT resources are important for organisations. It is also clear that organisations unique competencies, their IT-related capabilities, leverage the IT resources uniquely to create and sustain competitive advantage. However, IT resources are dynamic, and evolve at an exponential rate. This means that organisations will need to sustain their competencies to leverage opportunities offered by new IT resources. Research on ways to sustain IT-related capabilities is limited and a deeper understanding of this situation is important. Amongst other factors, a possible reason for this lack of progress in this area could be due to the lack of validated measurement items of the theoretical constructs to conduct such studies. We suggest an environment in which organisations could build new and sustain their existing IT-related capabilities. We then report on the development of valid and reliable measures for this environment. The validated measures would be useful in extending our understanding on how firms could sustain their IT-related capabilities. This effort will provide a deeper understanding of how firms can secure sustainable IT-related business value from their acquired IT resources.

  2. Belief, Knowledge and Understanding. How to Deal with the Relations Between Different Cultural Perspectives in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-dos-Santos, Frederik; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-05-01

    This article discusses how to deal with the relations between different cultural perspectives in classrooms, based on a proposal for considering understanding and knowledge as goals of science education, inspired by Dewey's naturalistic humanism. It thus combines educational and philosophical interests. In educational terms, our concerns relate to how science teachers position themselves in multicultural classrooms. In philosophical terms, we are interested in discussing the relations between belief, understanding, and knowledge under the light of Dewey's philosophy. We present a synthesis of Dewey's theory of inquiry through his naturalistic humanism and discuss its implications for the concepts of belief, understanding, and knowledge, as well as for the goals of science teaching. In particular, we highlight problems arising in the context of possible conflicts between scientific and religious claims in the school environment that result from totalitarian positions. We characterize an individual's position as totalitarian if he or she takes some way of thinking as the only one capable of expressing the truth about all that exists in the world, lacks open-mindedness to understand different interpretative perspectives, and attempts to impose her or his interpretation about the facts to others by violent means or not. From this stance, any other perspective is taken to be false a priori and, accordingly, as a putative target to be suppressed or adapted to the privileged way of thinking. We argue, instead, for a more fallibilist evaluation of our own beliefs and a more respectful appraisal of the diversity of students' beliefs by both students and teachers.

  3. Energy Through Motion: An Activity Intervention for Cancer-Related Fatigue in an Ambulatory Infusion Center
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Linda; Hooke, Mary Catherine

    2017-10-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) occurs in most people with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Physical activity (PA) is safe and effective in reducing CRF in people with cancer. 
. This project involved the implementation and evaluation of a three-month PA program to maintain or improve CRF and quality of life.
. Activity trackers and resistance bands were provided to participants. Verbal instruction, printed material, activity videos, and text messages were used in this program. Participants completed a fatigue assessment; self-reported PA measure; and measure of attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge about sustaining regular PA pre- and postimplementation.
. 51 patients enrolled in the study, and 39 completed the program. Participants' fatigue did not worsen significantly during the three months, and self-reported activity levels increased, but not significantly. The activity tracker, text messages, and personal connection with nursing staff were reported to be helpful.

  4. Relative Time Compression for Slow-Motion Stimuli through Rapid Recalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saya Kashiwakura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of psychophysical studies have shown that moving stimuli appear to last longer than static stimuli. Here, we report that the perceived duration for slow moving stimuli can be shorter than for static stimuli under specific circumstances. Observers were tested using natural movies presented at various speeds (0.0× = static, 0.25× = slow, or 1.9× = fast, relative to original speed and indicated whether test duration was perceived as longer or shorter than comparison movies presented at their original speed. While fast movies were perceived as longer than slow and static movies (in accordance with previous studies, we found that slow movies were perceived as shorter (i.e., time compressed compared to static images. Similar results were obtained for artificial stimuli consisting of drifting gratings. However, time compression for slow stimuli disappeared if comparison stimuli were replaced by a white static disk that removed repetitive exposures to moving stimuli. Results suggest that duration estimation is modulated by contextual effects induced by the specific diet – or distribution – of prior visual stimuli to which observers are exposed. A simple model, which includes a rapid recalibration of human time estimation via adaptation to preceding stimuli, succeeds in reproducing our experimental data.

  5. EXAMINING THE STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING LEVEL TOWARDS THE CONCEPTS OF SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Özcan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Special theory of relativity is one of the difficult subjects of physics to be understood by the students. The current research designed as a qualitative research aim to determine the pre-service physics teachers’ understanding level and the alternative conceptions about three core concepts of special theory of relativity, such as time dilatation, length contraction and reference frames. The data were collected through semi structured interviews and were analyzed by using content analysis. At the end of the analysis process the understanding level of the students was determined to be “complete understanding”, “incomplete understanding” and “misunderstanding”. In order to achieve this, the students’ conceptual frameworks based on the operational definitions made by the students were determined firstly. The findings obtained in this research indicate that high school teachers as well as university instructors should take special care with some points in the teaching of the subjects related with special theory of relativity. This research might be useful to other studies to be done in the future, especially for investigating the students’ mental models related to special theory of relativity.

  6. Talking about objects in motion: investigating the meaning of in front of, behind, leading and following

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Motion has been shown to generate a front-back axis in objects that people can use to talk about object location: e.g., the red billiard ball is following the white billiard ball. However, we have only recently become to understand some of the factors that generate a front-back axis during motion (Coventry & Frias-Lindquist, 2005). We investigated the relative contribution of three factors: Translation, the co-ordinate changes of objects through space, Intrinsic Motion, the motion...

  7. Toying with Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  8. Understanding Basic Temporal Relations in Primary School Pupils with Hearing Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulcić, Adinda; Bakota, Koraljka; Saler, Zrinka

    2015-09-01

    Time can be observed as a subjective, as well as an objective phenomenon which is a component of our life, and due to its communicational needs, it is standardized by temporal signs and symbols. The aim of this study was to determine the understanding of basic temporal relations of pupils with hearing impairments. We assumed that the knowledge of basic time relations is a precondition for the acquisition of knowledge that is connected with the understanding of the syllabus in regular school programs. Three groups of pupils have been examined: pupils with hearing impairments who attend the primary school of SUVAG Polyclinic under special condition, integrated hearing impaired pupils with minor additional difficulties who attend regular primary schools in Zagreb with a prolonged expert procedure and pupils of the control group. The subjects have been examined with a measuring instrument constructed by the expert team of the Polyclinic Suvag. Twenty nine subjects have been questioned, chronologically aged between 10 and 12.

  9. The Importance of Understanding Hierarchical Relations between High Order Mental Functions in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto Farina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The state-of-the-art in studies on mentalization suggests that capacity to understand other minds (mindreading, self introspection and consciousness, mental time travel in the past and the present, linguistic communication, are different components of a hierarchical organization of several functions reflecting the evolutionary development of the specie and integrates increasingly complex, mutually coordinated brain levels. The understanding of the precise hierarchical relations between them, that reflect the phylo- and ontogenetic evolutionary pathway for adaptation to the complex interpersonal and socio-cultural environment, has an essential application in psychopathology and psychotherapy, in particular for those clinical conditions where the normal integration of high order mental functions is hampered by developmental relational trauma.

  10. Relative Difficulty of Understanding Foreign Accents as a Marker of Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; van Heugten, Marieke; Peperkamp, Sharon

    2017-05-01

    Foreign-accented speech is generally harder to understand than native-accented speech. This difficulty is reduced for non-native listeners who share their first language with the non-native speaker. It is currently unclear, however, how non-native listeners deal with foreign-accented speech produced by speakers of a different language. We show that the process of (second) language acquisition is associated with an increase in the relative difficulty of processing foreign-accented speech. Therefore, experiencing greater relative difficulty with foreign-accented speech compared with native speech is a marker of language proficiency. These results contribute to our understanding of how phonological categories are acquired during second language learning. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. DETERMINATION OF RELATIONAL CLASSIFICATION AMONG HULL FORM PARAMETERS AND SHIP MOTIONS PERFORMANCE FOR A SET OF SMALL VESSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Sayli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Data science for engineers is the most recent research area which suggests to analyse large data sets in order to find data analytics and use them for better designing and modelling. Ship design practice reveals that conceptual ship design is critically important for a successful basic design. Conceptual ship design needs to identify the true set of design variables influencing vessel performance and costs to define the best possible basic design by the use of performance prediction model. This model can be constructed by design engineers. The main idea of this paper comes from this crucial idea to determine relational classification of a set of small vessels using their hull form parameters and performance characteristics defined by transfer functions of heave and pitch motions and of absolute vertical acceleration, by our in-house software application based on K-Means algorithm from data mining. This application is implemented in the C# programming language on Microsoft SQL Server database. We also use the Elbow method to estimate the true number of clusters for K-Means algorithm. The computational results show that the considered set of small vessels can be clustered in three categories according to their functional relations of their hull form parameters and transfer functions considering all cases of three loading conditions, seven ship speeds as non-dimensional Froude numbers (Fn and nine wave-length to ship-length values (λ/L.

  12. Dose/volume–response relations for rectal morbidity using planned and simulated motion-inclusive dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thor, Maria; Apte, Aditya; Deasy, Joseph O.; Karlsdóttir, Àsa; Moiseenko, Vitali; Liu, Mitchell; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Many dose-limiting normal tissues in radiotherapy (RT) display considerable internal motion between fractions over a course of treatment, potentially reducing the appropriateness of using planned dose distributions to predict morbidity. Accounting explicitly for rectal motion could improve the predictive power of modelling rectal morbidity. To test this, we simulated the effect of motion in two cohorts. Materials and methods: The included patients (232 and 159 cases) received RT for prostate cancer to 70 and 74 Gy. Motion-inclusive dose distributions were introduced as simulations of random or systematic motion to the planned dose distributions. Six rectal morbidity endpoints were analysed. A probit model using the QUANTEC recommended parameters was also applied to the cohorts. Results: The differences in associations using the planned over the motion-inclusive dose distributions were modest. Statistically significant associations were obtained with four of the endpoints, mainly at high doses (55–70 Gy), using both the planned and the motion-inclusive dose distributions, primarily when simulating random motion. The strongest associations were observed for GI toxicity and rectal bleeding (Rs = 0.12–0.21; Rs = 0.11–0.20). Applying the probit model, significant associations were found for tenesmus and rectal bleeding (Rs = 0.13, p = 0.02). Conclusion: Equally strong associations with rectal morbidity were observed at high doses (>55 Gy), for the planned and the simulated dose distributions including in particular random rectal motion. Future studies should explore patient-specific descriptions of rectal motion to achieve improved predictive power

  13. Understanding energy-related regimes: A participatory approach from central Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foran, Tira; Fleming, David; Spandonide, Bruno; Williams, Rachel; Race, Digby

    2016-01-01

    For a particular community, what energy-related innovations constitute no-regrets strategies? We present a methodology to understand how alternative energy consuming activities and policy regimes impact on current and future liveability of socio-culturally diverse communities facing climate change. Our methodology augments the energy policy literature by harnessing three concepts (collaborative governance, innovation and political economic regime of provisioning) to support dialogue around changing energy-related activities. We convened workshops in Alice Springs, Australia to build capability to identify no-regrets energy-related housing or transport activities and strategies. In preparation, we interviewed policy actors and constructed three new housing-related future scenarios. After discussing the scenarios, policy and research actors prioritised five socio-technical activities or strategies. Evaluations indicate participants enjoyed opportunities given by the methodology to have focussed discussions about activities and innovation, while requesting more socially nuanced scenario storylines. We discuss implications for theory and technique development. - Highlights: •Energy-related activities and regimes frustrate pro-sustainability action. •Participatory workshops increased understanding of activities and regimes. •Workshops used a novel combination of governance and social theories. •Results justify inclusive dialogue around building energy standards and transport options.

  14. HP-9825A HFRMP trajectory processor (#TRAJ), detailed description. [relative motion of the space shuttle orbiter and a free-flying payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindall, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    The computer code for the trajectory processor (#TRAJ) of the high fidelity relative motion program is described. The #TRAJ processor is a 12-degrees-of-freedom trajectory integrator (6 degrees of freedom for each of two vehicles) which can be used to generate digital and graphical data describing the relative motion of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and a free-flying cylindrical payload. A listing of the code, coding standards and conventions, detailed flow charts, and discussions of the computational logic are included.

  15. Understanding Medical Students' Experience with Stress and Its Related Constructs: A Focus Group Study from Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Julia; Lie, Desiree; Chan, Angelique; Ow, Mandy; Vidyarthi, Arpana

    2018-02-01

    In order to protect medical students from burnout and its untoward psychiatric effects, it is imperative to understand their stress, burnout, coping, and resilience experiences. This study aimed to derive collective definitions from the medical student perspective, to identify common themes of students' experiences, and to distinguish pre-clinical and clinical year students' experiences relating to these four constructs. The authors conducted focus groups of medical students in Singapore across 4 years using a semi-structured question guide. Participants shared their understanding, experiences, and the relationships between stress, burnout, coping, and resilience. Coders independently evaluated construct definitions and derived common themes through an iterative process, and compared transcripts of pre-clinical and clinical year students to determine differences in experience over time. Nine focus groups (54 students, 28 females, mean age 24.3) were conducted. Students identified common definitions for each construct. Nine themes emerged within three domains: (1) relating constructs to personal experience, (2) interrelating stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, and (3) understanding the necessity of stress. Compared to clinical students, pre-clinical students reported theory-based rather than reality-based experiences and exam-induced stress, defined constructs using present rather than future situations, and described constructs as independent rather than interrelated. This sample of medical students in Singapore shares a common understanding of stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, but experiences these uniquely. They perceive a positive role for stress. These findings build upon prior literature, suggesting an interrelationship between stress and its related constructs and adding the novel perspective of students from an Asian country.

  16. Relational factors in understanding satisfaction in the lasting relationships of same sex and heterosexual couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Richard A; Diemer, Matthew A; O'Brien, Bernard A

    2004-01-01

    Satisfying relationships are important to the well-being of individuals and families. Because of increased longevity, many couples are staying together for extended periods of time. Thus, it is valuable to understand the factors that contribute to a sense of satisfaction among partners in lasting relationships. Relatively little attention has been paid in the research literature to relationships among older couples who have remained together for many years. Even less attention has been paid to the lasting relationships of couples of color and to gay male and lesbian couples. This paper focuses on understanding the factors that contribute to satisfaction of partners in the long-term relationships of a purposive sample of heterosexual and same-sex couples. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with 216 partners in 108 relationships that had lasted an average of 30 years. Using logistic regression analysis, two factors were identified as predictive of satisfaction during the recent years of these relationships: containment of relational conflict and psychologically intimate communication between partners. Based on these findings, a theoretical model for understanding satisfaction in lasting relationships is discussed.

  17. Understanding the Dialectical Relations Between Everyday Concepts and Scientific Concepts Within Play-Based Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2009-03-01

    In recent times there has been an enormous interest in Vygotsky’s writing on conceptual development, particularly his insights on the differences between everyday and scientific thinking. In drawing upon cultural-historical theory, this paper seeks to examine the relations between everyday concepts and scientific concepts within playful contexts, such as preschools, with a view to better understanding how very young children develop conceptual understandings in science. This paper presents an overview of a study which sought to map the transformation and appropriation of scientific concepts within two early childhood settings. Approximately ten weeks of data gathering took place, with video recordings, field notes, photographic documentation, and child and teacher interviews for recording child concept formation within these naturalistic settings. The findings indicate that when teacher programs are more oriented towards concepts rather than materials, children’s play is focused on conceptual connections. Importantly, the study showed that: It was possible to map the multiple and dynamic levels or stratas of thinking that a child or group of children may exhibit within play-based contexts; An analysis of ‘unorganised heaps’ and ‘complexive thinking’ evident in conceptually or materially oriented play-based programs can be determined; the dialectical relations between everyday concepts and scientific concepts in play-based programs can be understood; and greater understanding about the nature of concept formation in situated playful contexts have been possible.

  18. Mediation, moderation, and context: Understanding complex relations among cognition, affect, and health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Ellis, Erin M; Hall, Marissa G; Moss, Jennifer L; Lillie, Sarah E; Brewer, Noel T; Klein, William M P

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have historically treated cognition and affect as separate constructs in motivating health behaviour. We present a framework and empirical evidence for complex relations between cognition and affect in predicting health behaviour. Main Outcome, Design and Results: First, affect and cognition can mediate each other's relation to health behaviour. Second, affect and cognition can moderate the other's impact. Third, context can change the interplay of affect and cognition. Fourth, affect and cognition may be indelibly fused in some psychological constructs (e.g. worry, anticipated regret and reactance). These four propositions in our framework are not mutually exclusive. Examination of the types of complex relations described here can benefit theory development, empirical testing of theories and intervention design. Doing so will advance the understanding of mechanisms involved in regulation of health behaviours and the effectiveness of interventions to change health behaviours.

  19. Understanding and accounting for relational context is critical for social neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Polner, Elizabeth; Clark, Margaret S

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all) do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1) all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger), and (2) relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: (a) we describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others' emotions, providing help, and receiving help) that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. (b) We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research.

  20. Understanding and taking relational context into account is critical for social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eClark-Polner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1 all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger, and (2 relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: a We describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others’ emotions, providing help and receiving help that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. b We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research.

  1. Altered Coupling between Motion-Related Activation and Resting-State Brain Activity in the Ipsilesional Sensorimotor Cortex after Cerebral Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity maps using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI can closely resemble task fMRI activation patterns, suggesting that resting-state brain activity may predict task-evoked activation or behavioral performance. However, this conclusion was mostly drawn upon a healthy population. It remains unclear whether the predictive ability of resting-state brain activity for task-evoked activation would change under different pathological conditions. This study investigated dynamic changes of coupling between patterns of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC and motion-related activation in different stages of cerebral stroke. Twenty stroke patients with hand motor function impairment were involved. rs-fMRI and hand motion-related fMRI data were acquired in the acute, subacute, and early chronic stages of cerebral stroke on a 3-T magnetic resonance (MR scanner. Sixteen healthy participants were enrolled as controls. For each subject, an activation map of the affected hand was first created using general linear model analysis on task fMRI data, and then an RSFC map was determined by seeding at the peak region of hand motion activation during the intact hand task. We then measured the extent of coupling between the RSFC maps and motion-related activation maps. Dynamic changes of the coupling between the two fMRI maps were estimated using one-way repeated measures analysis of variance across the three stages. Moreover, imaging parameters were correlated with motor performances. Data analysis showed that there were different coupling patterns between motion-related activation and RSFC maps associating with the affected motor regions during the acute, subacute, and early chronic stages of stroke. Coupling strengths increased as the recovery from stroke progressed. Coupling strengths were correlated with hand motion performance in the acute stage, while coupling recovery was negatively correlated with the recovery

  2. Cascading hazards: Understanding triggering relations between wet tropical cyclones, landslides, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowinski, S.; Peng, Z.; Ferrier, K.; Lin, C. H.; Hsu, Y. J.; Shyu, J. B. H.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquakes, landslides, and tropical cyclones are extreme hazards that pose significant threats to human life and property. Some of the couplings between these hazards are well known. For example, sudden, widespread landsliding can be triggered by large earthquakes and by extreme rainfall events like tropical cyclones. Recent studies have also shown that earthquakes can be triggered by erosional unloading over 100-year timescales. In a NASA supported project, titled "Cascading hazards: Understanding triggering relations between wet tropical cyclones, landslides, and earthquake", we study triggering relations between these hazard types. The project focuses on such triggering relations in Taiwan, which is subjected to very wet tropical storms, landslides, and earthquakes. One example for such triggering relations is the 2009 Morakot typhoon, which was the wettest recorded typhoon in Taiwan (2850 mm of rain in 100 hours). The typhoon caused widespread flooding and triggered more than 20,000 landslides, including the devastating Hsiaolin landslide. Six months later, the same area was hit by the 2010 M=6.4 Jiashian earthquake near Kaohsiung city, which added to the infrastructure damage induced by the typhoon and the landslides. Preliminary analysis of temporal relations between main-shock earthquakes and the six wettest typhoons in Taiwan's past 50 years reveals similar temporal relations between M≥5 events and wet typhoons. Future work in the project will include remote sensing analysis of landsliding, seismic and geodetic monitoring of landslides, detection of microseismicity and tremor activities, and mechanical modeling of crustal stress changes due to surface unloading.

  3. Morphology and kinematics of the rifted margin of West Antarctica in relation to separation from Zealandia and Bellingshausen plate motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobbe, F.; Gohl, K.; Chambord, A.; Sutherland, R.

    2012-04-01

    The final breakup of Gondwana occurred during Late Cretaceous time as rifted continental crust of New Zealand separated from West Antarctica. Geophysical data acquired using R/V Polarstern constrain the structure and age of Antarctica's rifted oceanic margin. The Marie Byrd Land sector resembles a typical magma-poor margin with a narrow steep slope and a 145 km wide continent-ocean transition zone (COTZ). Our transect modelled from gravity and seismic reflection data indicates initial continental crust of thickness 24 km that was stretched 90 km. The Bellingshausen sector, east of the Antipodes Fault, is broad and complex with abundant evidence for later volcanism. The COTZ is ~670 km wide and substantial uncertainty remains as to the nature of crust within the COTZ. Extension estimates fall in the range of 106-304 km for this sector. Seafloor magnetic anomalies adjacent to the Marie Byrd Land sector at the longitude of the Pahemo Fracture Zone indicate a full-spreading rate during c33-c31 (80-68 Myr) of 60 mm/yr, increasing to 74 mm/yr at c27 (62 Myr), and then dropping to 22 mm/yr by c22 (50 Myr). Spreading rates were lower to the west. Extrapolation towards the continental margin indicates that initial oceanic crust formation was at ~c34y (84 Myr). The high extension rate of 30-60 mm/yr during the initial margin formation is consistent with the relatively sharp and symmetrical margin morphology, but subsequent motion of the Bellingshausen plate relative to Antarctica was slow and complex, and modified the rift morphology through migrating deformation and volcanic centres to create a broad and complex COTZ.

  4. Recent advances in understanding and treating COPD related to α1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao, Maria Paula; Craig, Timothy J

    2016-12-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an orphan disease that predisposes individuals to COPD and liver disease. The following is a comprehensive review of AATD from epidemiology to treatment for physicians who treat COPD or asthma. Areas covered: In this comprehensive review of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, we describe the historical perspective, genetics, epidemiology, clinical presentation and symptoms, screening and diagnosis, and treatments of the condition. Expert commentary: The two most important directions for advancing the understanding of AATD involve improving detection of the condition, especially in asymptomatic patients, and advancing knowledge of treatments directed specifically at AATD-related conditions. With regard to treatment for AATD-related conditions, research must continue to explore the implications and importance of augmentation therapy as well as consider new implementations that may prove more successful taking into consideration not only factors of pulmonary function and liver health, but also product availability and financial viability.

  5. Time to re-think picky eating?: a relational approach to understanding picky eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kathryn; Kuczynski, Leon; Haycraft, Emma; Breen, Andrea; Haines, Jess

    2017-05-05

    Estimates of picky eating are quite high among young children, with 14-50% of parents identifying their preschoolers as picky eaters. Dietary intake and preferences during the preschool years are characterized by slowing growth rates and children developing a sense of autonomy over their feeding and food selection. We argue that the current conceptualization of picky eating defines acts of resistance or expressions of preference (acts of autonomy) by a child as deviant behaviour. This conceptualization has guided research that uses a unidirectional, parent to child approach to understanding parent-child feeding interactions. By reviewing the current feeding literature and drawing parallels from the rich body of child socialization literature, we argue that there is a need to both re-examine the concept and parent/clinician perspectives on picky eating. Thus, the objective of this paper is two-fold: 1) We argue for a reconceptualization of picky eating whereby child agency is considered in terms of eating preferences rather than categorized as compliant or non-compliant behaviour, and 2) We advocate the use of bi-directional relational models of causality and appropriate methodology to understanding the parent-child feeding relationship. Researchers are often interested in understanding how members in the parent-child dyad affect one another. Although many tend to focus on the parent to child direction of these associations, findings from child socialization research suggest that influence is bidirectional and non-linear such that parents influence the actions and cognitions of children and children influence the actions and cognitions of parents. Bi-directional models of causality are needed to correctly understand parent-child feeding interactions. A reconceptualization of picky eating may elucidate the influence that parental feeding practices and child eating habits have on each other. This may allow health professionals to more effectively support parents in

  6. Elementary education preservice teachers' understanding of biotechnology and its related processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2011-07-01

    This study examined preservice teachers' understanding of biotechnology and its related processes. A sample comprised 88 elementary education preservice teachers at a large university in the Midwest of the USA. A total of 60 and 28 of the participants were enrolled in introductory and advanced science methods courses, respectively. Most participants had taken two integrated science courses at the college level. Data were collected using a questionnaire, which had open-ended items and which required participants to write the definitions and examples of the following terms: biotechnology, genetic engineering, cloning and genetically modified foods. The results indicate that preservice teachers had limited understanding of biotechnology and its related processes. The majority of the preservice teachers provided poor definitions, explanations, and examples of biotechnology, genetic engineering and genetically modified foods. Surprisingly, however, a moderate number of preservice teachers correctly defined cloning and provided correct examples of cloning. Implications for science teacher education, science curriculum, as well as recommendations for further research are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

  8. Moral distress: a comparative analysis of theoretical understandings and inter-related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützén, Kim; Kvist, Beatrice Ewalds

    2012-03-01

    Research on ethical dilemmas in health care has become increasingly salient during the last two decades resulting in confusion about the concept of moral distress. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview and a comparative analysis of the theoretical understandings of moral distress and related concepts. The focus is on five concepts: moral distress, moral stress, stress of conscience, moral sensitivity and ethical climate. It is suggested that moral distress connects mainly to a psychological perspective; stress of conscience more to a theological-philosophical standpoint; and moral stress mostly to a physiological perspective. Further analysis indicates that these thoughts can be linked to the concepts of moral sensitivity and ethical climate through a relationship to moral agency. Moral agency comprises a moral awareness of moral problems and moral responsibility for others. It is suggested that moral distress may serve as a positive catalyst in exercising moral agency. An interdisciplinary approach in research and practice broadens our understanding of moral distress and its impact on health care personnel and patient care.

  9. Understanding of action-related and abstract verbs in comparison: a behavioral and TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Alessandro; De Stefani, Elisa; Sestito, Mariateresa; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    Does the comprehension of both action-related and abstract verbs rely on motor simulation? In a behavioral experiment, in which a semantic task was used, response times to hand-action-related verbs were briefer than those to abstract verbs and both decreased with repetition of presentation. In a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment, single-pulse stimulation was randomly delivered over hand motor area of the left primary motor cortex to measure cortical-spinal excitability at 300 or 500 ms after verb presentation. Two blocks of trials were run. In each block, the same verbs were randomly presented. In the first block, stimulation induced an increase in motor evoked potentials only when TMS was applied 300 ms after action-related verb presentation. In the second block, no modulation of motor cortex was found according to type of verb and stimulation-delay. These results confirm that motor simulation can be used to understand action rather than abstract verbs. Moreover, they suggest that with repetition, the semantic processing for action verbs does not require activation of primary motor cortex anymore.

  10. A Contextual Behavior Science Framework for Understanding How Behavioral Flexibility Relates to Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm Reed, Kathleen M; Cameron, Amy Y; Ameral, Victoria E

    2017-09-01

    There is a growing literature focusing on the emerging idea that behavioral flexibility, rather than particular emotion regulation strategies per se, provides greater promise in predicting and influencing anxiety-related psychopathology. Yet this line of research and theoretical analysis appear to be plagued by its own challenges. For example, middle-level constructs, such as behavioral flexibility, are difficult to define, difficult to measure, and difficult to interpret in relation to clinical interventions. A key point that some researchers have made is that previous studies examining flexible use of emotion regulation strategies (or, more broadly, coping) have failed due to a lack of focus on context. That is, examining strategies in isolation of the context in which they are used provides limited information on the suitability, rigid adherence, or effectiveness of a given strategy in that situation. Several of these researchers have proposed the development of new models to define and measure various types of behavioral flexibility. We would like to suggest that an explanation of the phenomenon already exists and that we can go back to our behavioral roots to understand this phenomenon rather than focusing on defining and capturing a new process. Indeed, thorough contextual behavioral analyses already yield a useful account of what has been observed. We will articulate a model explaining behavioral flexibility using a functional, contextual framework, with anxiety-related disorders as an example.

  11. Understanding HIV-Related Stigma Among Women in the Southern United States: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Caroline K; Hutson, Sadie P

    2017-01-01

    Societal stigmatization of HIV/AIDS due to assumptions about transmission and associated behaviors plays a substantial role in the psychosocial well-being of people living with this chronic illness, particularly for women in traditionally conservative geographic regions. Known for social conservatism, the Southern United States (US) holds the highest incidence rate of HIV infection in the US. A systematic search of four databases was used to identify 27 relevant scientific articles pertaining to HIV-related stigma among women living with HIV/AIDS in the Southern US. These studies revealed a rudimentary understanding of stigma sources, effects, and stigma-reduction interventions in this population. Due to the cultural specificity of stigma, further differentiation of stigma in discrete sectors of the South as well as a dialogue about the moral implications of stigma is necessary to lay the groundwork for patient-centered interventions to mitigate the destructive effects of stigma experienced by women in this region.

  12. On the characteristics of the equations of motion for a bubbly flow and the related problem of critical flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea; van Wijngaarden, L.

    1976-01-01

    For the study of transients in gas-liquid flows, the equations of the so-called separated flow model are inadequate, because they possess, in the general case where gas and liquid move at different velocities, complex characteristics. This paper is concerned with the equations of motion for bubbly

  13. Towards a better understanding of the overall health impact of the game of squash: automatic and high-resolution motion analysis from a single camera view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brumann Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a method for locating and tracking players in the game of squash using Gaussian mixture model background subtraction and agglomerative contour clustering from a calibrated single camera view. Furthermore, we describe a method for player re-identification after near total occlusion, based on stored color- and region-descriptors. For camera calibration, no additional pattern is needed, as the squash court itself can serve as a 3D calibration object. In order to exclude non-rally situations from motion analysis, we further classify each video frame into game phases using a multilayer perceptron. By considering a player’s position as well as the current game phase we are able to visualize player-individual motion patterns expressed as court coverage using pseudo colored heat-maps. In total, we analyzed two matches (six games, 1:28h of high quality commercial videos used in sports broadcasting and compute high resolution (1cm per pixel heat-maps. 130184 manually labeled frames (game phases and player identification show an identification correctness of 79.28±8.99% (mean±std. Game phase classification is correct in 60.87±7.62% and the heat-map visualization correctness is 72.47±7.27%.

  14. Development of preservice elementary teachers' science self- efficacy beliefs and its relation to science conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika

    Self-efficacy beliefs that relate to teachers' motivation and performance have been an important area of concern for preservice teacher education. This study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the changes in preservice elementary teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs and the factors associated in a specialized elementary physics content course. In addition, the study is one of few to investigate the relationship between the changes in science self-efficacy beliefs and changes in physical science conceptual understanding. Participants included fifty-one preservice elementary teachers enrolled in two term of the physical science content course. Data collection and analysis procedures included both qualitative and quantitative measures. Data collection included implementation of Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (STEBI-B) (Bleicher, 2004) and Physical Science Concept Test as pre- and post-test, two semi-structured interviews with 18 participants (nine each semester), classroom observations and artifacts. A pre-post, repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) design was used to test the significance of differences between the pre- and post-surveys across time. Results indicated statistically significant gains in participants' science self-efficacy beliefs on both scales of STEBI-B - personal science teaching beliefs and outcome expectancy beliefs. Additionally, a positive moderate relationship between science conceptual understandings and personal science teaching efficacy beliefs was found. Post-hoc analysis of the STEBI-B data was used to select 18 participants for interviews. The participants belonged to each group representing the low, medium and high initial levels of self-efficacy beliefs. Participants' responses indicated positive shifts in their science teacher self-image and confidence to teach science in future. Four categories that represented the course-related factors contributing towards science self

  15. Kinematics of Mid-Ocean Ridge Relative Motions in the Indo-Atlantic Frame of Reference: Passive and Active Spreading Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, C. J.; Rowley, D. B.; Forte, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    A kinematic analysis of the motions of mid-ocean ridges is presented in the Indo-Atlantic hotspot frame of reference. Relative motions of all major divergent plate boundaries are computed, including an assessment of uncertainties in their motions, back to 83 Ma (C34ny). As is expected from the general assumption that ridges are passive components of the plate boundary and mantle convective system, most ridges migrate across the underlying mantle along simple paths, largely perpendicular to the trend of the ridge. In the Indo-Atlantic reference frame, the Nansen-Gakkel ridge has migrated away from Europe by ~800 km along a NE trajectory. The Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) just north of the Azores triple junction (TJ) has moved away from Europe by ~1800km towards the WNW. South of the Azores TJ the MAR has moved away from Africa by ~1600 km towards the W. The slow to ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge has migrated slightly away from Antarctica, with a considerable fraction of the motion approximately parallel to the ridge trend. The Carlsberg Ridge has moved ~3400 km away from Africa towards the NNE in the past 65 Ma, while the Mid-Indian Ridge has migrated to the NNE away from Africa by ~3950 km over 83 Ma. The Southeast Indian Ridge, west of the 90°E ridge (Capricorn-Australia-East Antarctica TJ), has migrated ~3950 km to the NE away from Antarctica. Farther east, divergence between Australia and Antarctica has resulted in ~1800 km of northward motion of the ridge away from Antarctica. The Southwest Pacific Ridge, between the Pacific and West Antarctic plates has migrated ~1500 km to the NW away from west Antarctica. These motions are entirely consistent with intuition, given that Africa and Antarctica are largely surrounded by spreading systems. In contrast to the rest of the global ridge system, despite its high spreading rate the East Pacific Ridge has undergone essentially no (ridge perpendicular (E-W) migration in the past 80 Ma, and neglible ridge parallel

  16. Understanding gambling related harm: a proposed definition, conceptual framework, and taxonomy of harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langham, Erika; Thorne, Hannah; Browne, Matthew; Donaldson, Phillip; Rose, Judy; Rockloff, Matthew

    2016-01-27

    Harm from gambling is known to impact individuals, families, and communities; and these harms are not restricted to people with a gambling disorder. Currently, there is no robust and inclusive internationally agreed upon definition of gambling harm. In addition, the current landscape of gambling policy and research uses inadequate proxy measures of harm, such as problem gambling symptomology, that contribute to a limited understanding of gambling harms. These issues impede efforts to address gambling from a public health perspective. Data regarding harms from gambling was gathered using four separate methodologies, a literature review, focus groups and interviews with professionals involved in the support and treatment of gambling problems, interviews with people who gamble and their affected others, and an analysis of public forum posts for people experiencing problems with gambling and their affected others. The experience of harm related to gambling was examined to generate a conceptual framework. The catalogue of harms experienced were organised as a taxonomy. The current paper proposes a definition and conceptual framework of gambling related harm that captures the full breadth of harms that gambling can contribute to; as well as a taxonomy of harms to facilitate the development of more appropriate measures of harm. Our aim is to create a dialogue that will lead to a more coherent interpretation of gambling harm across treatment providers, policy makers and researchers.

  17. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  18. Applying Within-Family Differences Approaches to Enhance Understanding of the Complexity of Intergenerational Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suitor, J Jill; Gilligan, Megan; Pillemer, Karl; Fingerman, Karen L; Kim, Kyungmin; Silverstein, Merril; Bengtson, Vern L

    2017-12-15

    The role of family relationships in the lives of older adults has received substantial attention in recent decades. Scholars have increasingly looked beyond simple models of family relations to approaches that recognize the complex and sometimes contradictory nature of these ties. One of the most exciting conceptual and methodological developments is the application of within-family differences approaches. In this paper, we focus on the ways in which such within-family approaches can extend the understanding of patterns and consequences of intergenerational ties in adulthood. Following a review of the conceptual underpinnings of within-family differences approaches, we provide empirical illustrations of these approaches from three projects conducted in the United States: the Family Exchanges Study (FES), the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSOG), and the Within-Family Differences Study (WFDS). Analyses from the FES, LSOG, and WFDS reveal differences in the consequences of patterns of intergenerational relations found when using within-family compared to between-family approaches. In particular, these analyses demonstrate considerable variation within families that shapes patterns and consequences of parent-adult child ties that is masked when such variations are not taken into account. Within-family differences approaches have been shown to shed new light on intergenerational relations. Despite the value of within-family designs, their use may be limited by the higher investment of finances and time required to implement such studies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Measuring Relative Motions Across a Fault Using Seafloor Transponders Installed at Close Range to each Other Based on Differential GPS/Acoustic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, M.; Ashi, J.; Tsuji, T.; Tomita, F.

    2016-12-01

    Seafloor geodesy based on acoustic ranging technique is getting popular means to reveal crustal deformation beneath the ocean. GPS/acoustic technique can be applied to monitoring regional deformation or absolute position, while direct-path acoustic ranging can be applied to detecting localized strain or relative motion in a short distance ( 1-10 km). However the latter observation sometimes fails to keep the clearance of an acoustic path between the seafloor transponders because of topographic obstacle or of downward bending nature of the path due to vertical gradient of sound speed in deep-ocean. Especially at steep fault scarp, it is almost impossible to keep direct path between the top and bottom of the fault scarp. Even in such a situation, acoustic path to the sea surface might be always clear. Then we propose a new approach to monitor the relative motion of across a fault scarp using "differential" GPS/acoustic measurement, which account only for traveltime differences among the transponders. The advantages of this method are that: (1) uncertainty in sound speed in shallow water is almost canceled; (2) possible GPS error is also canceled; (3) picking error in traveltime detection is almost canceled; (4) only a pair of transponders can fully describe relative 3-dimensional motion. On the other hand the disadvantages are that: (5) data is not continuous but only campaign; (6) most advantages are only effective only for very short baseline (carefully installed three transponders across this scarp using a NSS system, which can remotely navigate instrument near the seafloor from a mother vessel based on video camera image. Baseline lengths among the transponders are 200-300 m at 3500 m depth. Initial campaign data shows that the detectable level of relative motion is sub-centimeter. So we expect that if the fault moves more than 1 cm within three years (battery life for pup-up recovery), it can be monitored in our system.

  20. ON THE PRINCIPLES OF MATTER MOTION IN SPACE AND TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Dimitrie CAZACU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available One reconsiders the well-known principles of matter motion in space and time, retaining for the inertia principle the name of motion conservation principle and introducing a new principle of the space treble entity, that explain the composition and decomposition theorem of the vectorial magnitudes and permit a good understanding of the equations transformation, necessary to the relative motions. These considerations have a special importance in our recent studies after the years 1990, concerning the relative motions of the real fluids in mobile trihedrons being in a rotational or translation motion with respect to a fix trihedron, with outstanding results in the theory of turbo machines, of ocean currents and magnetic terrestrial poles, pipe vibration, tire hydroplaning, wave propagation, etc.

  1. Motion of the MMS Spacecraft Relative to the Magnetic Reconnection Structure Observed on 16 October 2015 at 1307 UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, R. E.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Hasegawa, H.; Phan, T. D.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R.; Giles, B. L.; Gershman, D.; Torbert, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze a magnetopause crossing by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft at 1307 UT on 16 October 2016 that showed features of electron-scale reconnection. For this event, we find orthonormal LMN coordinates from the magnetic field, with N and L varying respectively along the maximum gradient and maximum variance directions. We find the motion along N from the Spatio-Temporal Difference analysis and motion along L from measured particle velocities. We locate the position of the magnetic X point, finding that MMS-4 passed within about 1A km from the X point and that MMS-3 and MMS-2 passed within about 1.7 km and 2.4 km, respectively, from the position of maximum out of plane current.

  2. The body motion in gravitational field of a spherically symmetrical configuration with scalar field in General relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, V.; Stashko, O.

    2016-12-01

    We study exact special solutions of the joint system of Einstein equations and scalar field equations with a non-zero self-interaction potential, which describe spherically symmetric static configurations. The space-time is asymptotically flat with a naked singularity at the center. The testbody motion is analyzed; we found conditions for existence of non-connected regions of stable circular orbits. We show the existence of static trajectories of particles that hang above the configuration.

  3. Motion control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sabanovic, Asif

    2011-01-01

    "Presents a unified approach to the fundamental issues in motion control, starting from the basics and moving through single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom systems In Motion Control Systems, Šabanovic and Ohnishi present a unified approach to very diverse issues covered in motion control systems, offering know-how accumulated through work on very diverse problems into a comprehensive, integrated approach suitable for application in high demanding high-tech products. It covers material from single degree of freedom systems to complex multi-body non-redundant and redundant systems. The discussion of the main subject is based on original research results and will give treatment of the issues in motion control in the framework of the acceleration control method with disturbance rejection technique. This allows consistent unification of different issues in motion control ranging from simple trajectory tracking to topics related to haptics and bilateral control without and with delay in the measure...

  4. Integrative relational machine-learning for understanding drug side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresso, Emmanuel; Grisoni, Renaud; Marchetti, Gino; Karaboga, Arnaud Sinan; Souchet, Michel; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2013-06-26

    Drug side effects represent a common reason for stopping drug development during clinical trials. Improving our ability to understand drug side effects is necessary to reduce attrition rates during drug development as well as the risk of discovering novel side effects in available drugs. Today, most investigations deal with isolated side effects and overlook possible redundancy and their frequent co-occurrence. In this work, drug annotations are collected from SIDER and DrugBank databases. Terms describing individual side effects reported in SIDER are clustered with a semantic similarity measure into term clusters (TCs). Maximal frequent itemsets are extracted from the resulting drug x TC binary table, leading to the identification of what we call side-effect profiles (SEPs). A SEP is defined as the longest combination of TCs which are shared by a significant number of drugs. Frequent SEPs are explored on the basis of integrated drug and target descriptors using two machine learning methods: decision-trees and inductive-logic programming. Although both methods yield explicit models, inductive-logic programming method performs relational learning and is able to exploit not only drug properties but also background knowledge. Learning efficiency is evaluated by cross-validation and direct testing with new molecules. Comparison of the two machine-learning methods shows that the inductive-logic-programming method displays a greater sensitivity than decision trees and successfully exploit background knowledge such as functional annotations and pathways of drug targets, thereby producing rich and expressive rules. All models and theories are available on a dedicated web site. Side effect profiles covering significant number of drugs have been extracted from a drug ×side-effect association table. Integration of background knowledge concerning both chemical and biological spaces has been combined with a relational learning method for discovering rules which explicitly

  5. Patterns of adult cross-racial friendships: A context for understanding contemporary race relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Deborah L; Stone, Rosalie Torres; Powell, Lauren; Allison, Jeroan

    2016-10-01

    This study examined patterns, characteristics, and predictors of cross-racial friendships as the context for understanding contemporary race relations. A national survey included 1,055 respondents, of whom 55% were white, 32% were black, and 74% were female; ages ranged from 18 to ≥65 years. Focus groups were conducted to assess societal and personal benefits. Participants (n = 31) were racially diverse and aged 20 to 66 years. After accounting for multiple covariates, regression analysis revealed that Asians, Hispanics, and multiracial individuals are more likely than their white and black counterparts to have cross-racial friends. Females were less likely than males to have 8 or more cross-racial friends. Regression analysis revealed that the depth of cross-racial friendships was greater for women than men and for those who shared more life experiences. Increasing age was associated with lower cross-racial friendship depth. Qualitative analysis of open-ended questions and focus group data established the social context as directly relevant to the number and depth of friendships. Despite the level of depth in cross-racial friendships, respondents described a general reluctance to discuss any racially charged societal events, such as police shootings of unarmed black men. This study identified salient characteristics of individuals associated with cross-racial friendships and highlighted the influence of the social, historical, and political context in shaping such friendships. Our findings suggest that contemporary race relations reflect progress as well as polarization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Laypersons' understanding of relative risk reductions: Randomised cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansen Ivar S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing recognition of the importance of involving patients in decisions on preventive healthcare interventions, little is known about how well patients understand and utilise information provided on the relative benefits from these interventions. The aim of this study was to explore whether lay people can discriminate between preventive interventions when effectiveness is presented in terms of relative risk reduction (RRR, and whether such discrimination is influenced by presentation of baseline risk. Methods The study was a randomised cross-sectional interview survey of a representative sample (n = 1,519 of lay people with mean age 59 (range 40–98 years in Denmark. In addition to demographic information, respondents were asked to consider a hypothetical drug treatment to prevent heart attack. Its effectiveness was randomly presented as RRR of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 percent, and half of the respondents were presented with quantitative information on the baseline risk of heart attack. The respondents had also been asked whether they were diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia or had experienced a heart attack. Results In total, 873 (58% of the respondents consented to the hypothetical treatment. While 49% accepted the treatment when RRR = 10%, the acceptance rate was 58–60% for RRR>10. There was no significant difference in acceptance rates across respondents irrespective of whether they had been presented with quantitative information on baseline risk or not. Conclusion In this study, lay people's decisions about therapy were only slightly influenced by the magnitude of the effect when it was presented in terms of RRR. The results may indicate that lay people have difficulties in discriminating between levels of effectiveness when they are presented in terms of RRR.

  7. Understanding the role of mind wandering in stress-related working memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan B; Boals, Adriel

    2017-08-01

    Mind wandering has been identified as a possible cause for stress-related working memory (WM) task impairments following laboratory stressors. The current study attempted to induce mind wandering regarding negative, positive, or neutral events using an expressive writing task and examined the impact on WM task performance. We examined the role of mind wandering in understanding the impact of life stress on WM. Additionally, we explored the role of thought suppression on the relationship between mind wandering and WM. One hundred and fifty participants completed WM measures before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) the writing manipulation. The writing manipulation did not alter mind wandering or WM task performance. Time 1 WM predicted mind wandering during the Time 2 WM task, which subsequently predicted poorer Time 2 WM task performance. The impact of daily life stress on WM was mediated by mind wandering. Trait levels of thought suppression moderated the impact of mind wandering on WM. Specifically, higher levels of suppression resulted in stronger negative impact of mind wandering on WM task performance. Findings are discussed in terms of the impact of mind wandering on WM task performance.

  8. How does undergraduate college biology students' level of understanding, in regard to the role of the seed plant root system, relate to their level of understanding of photosynthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeng'ere, James Gicheha

    This research study investigated how undergraduate college biology students' level of understanding of the role of the seed plant root system relates to their level of understanding of photosynthesis. This research was conducted with 65 undergraduate non-majors biology who had completed 1 year of biology at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge and Southeastern Louisiana University in Hammond. A root probe instrument was developed from some scientifically acceptable propositional statements about the root system, the process of photosynthesis, as well as the holistic nature of the tree. These were derived from research reviews of the science education and the arboriculture literature. This was administered to 65 students selected randomly from class lists of the two institutions. Most of the root probe's items were based on the Live Oak tree. An in-depth, clinical interview-based analysis was conducted with 12 of those tested students. A team of root experts participated by designing, validating and answering the same questions that the students were asked. A "systems" lens as defined by a team of college instructors, root experts (Shigo, 1991), and this researcher was used to interpret the results. A correlational coefficient determining students' level of understanding of the root system and their level of understanding of the process of photosynthesis was established by means of Pearson's r correlation (r = 0.328) using the SAS statistical analysis (SAS, 1987). From this a coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.104) was determined. Students' level of understanding of the Live Oak root system (mean score 5.94) was not statistically different from their level of understanding of the process of photosynthesis (mean score 5.54) as assessed by the root probe, t (129) = 0.137, p > 0.05 one tailed-test. This suggests that, to some degree, level of the root system limits level of understanding of photosynthesis and vice versa. Analysis of quantitative and qualitative

  9. Making Sense of Abstract Algebra: Exploring Secondary Teachers' Understandings of Inverse Functions in Relation to Its Group Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2017-01-01

    This article draws on semi-structured, task-based interviews to explore secondary teachers' (N = 7) understandings of inverse functions in relation to abstract algebra. In particular, a concept map task is used to understand the degree to which participants, having recently taken an abstract algebra course, situated inverse functions within its…

  10. Children’s understanding of Aesop’s fables: Relations to reading comprehension and theory of mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Patricia Pelletier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined children’s developing understanding of Aesop’s fables in relation to reading comprehension and to theory of mind. Study 1 included 172 children from Junior Kindergarten through Grade 6 in a school-wide examination of the relation between reading comprehension skills and understanding of Aesop’s fables told orally. Study 2 examined the relation between theory of mind and fables understanding among 186 Junior (4-year-old and Senior (5-year-old Kindergarten children. Study 1 results showed a developmental progression in fables understanding with children’s responses becoming increasingly decontextualized as they were able to extract the life lesson. After general vocabulary, passage comprehension predicted fables understanding. Study 2 results showed a relation between young children’s theory of mind development and their understanding of fables. After general vocabulary, second-order theory of mind predicted children’s fables understanding. Findings point to the importance of developing mental state awareness in children’s ability to judge characters’ intentions and to understand the deeper message embedded in fables.

  11. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shielding tensors of phosphorylethanolamine, lecithin, and related compounds: Applications to head-group motion in model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, S J; Klein, M P

    1976-03-09

    31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) powder spectra have been used to obtain the principal values of the chemical shielding tensors of dipalmitoyellecithin (DPL), dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine, and several related organophosphate mono- and diesters. In addition, the principal values and orientation of the phosphorylethanolamine shielding tensor were determined from 31P NMR spectra of a single crystal. In all compounds studied the shielding tensors were clearly monaxial. The monoester spectra are typified by the spectrum of phosphorylethanolamine with principal values of -67, -13, and 69 ppm relative to H3PO4. The diesters have a larger total anisotrophy, as indicated by the DPL values of -81, -25, and 108 ppm. These data as well as the orientation of the phosphorylethanolamine shielding tensor are correlated with the electron density distribution as determined by the bonding pattern of the phosphate. The spectrum of a DPL-water (1:1) mixture at 52 degrees C has a shift anisotrophy of 30 ppm and displays a shape characteristic of an axial tensor. This change from the rigid lattice DPL pattern is explained in terms of motional narrowing, and the shielding tensor data are used to interpret the motion of the phospholipid head group. Simple rotation about the P-O(glycerol) bond is excluded, and a more complex motion involving rotation about both the P-O (glycerol) and glycerol C(2)-C(3) bonds is postulated.

  12. /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shielding tensors of phosphorylethanolamine, lecithin, and related compounds: applications to head-group motion in model membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, S.J.; Klein, M.P.

    1976-03-09

    /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) power spectra have been used to obtain the principal values of the chemical shielding tensors of dipalmitoyllecithin (DPL), dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine, and several related organophosphate mono- and diesters. In addition, the principal values and orientation of the phosphorylethanolamine shielding tensor were determined from /sup 31/P NMR spectra of a single crystal. In all compounds studied the shielding tensors were clearly nonaxial. The monoester spectra are typified by the spectrum of phosphorylethanolamine with principal values of -67, -13, and 69 ppm relative to H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. The diesters have a larger total anisotropy, as indicated by the DPL values of -81, -25, and 108 ppm. These data as well as the orientation of the phosphorylethanolamine shielding tensor are correlated with the electron density distribution as determined by the bonding pattern of the phosphate. The spectrum of a DPL--water (1:1) mixture at 52/sup 0/C has a shift anisotropy of 30 ppm and displays a shape characteristic of an axial tensor. This change from the rigid lattice DPL pattern is explained in terms of motional narrowing, and the shielding tensor data are used to interpret the motion of the phospholipid head group. Simple rotation about the P--O(glycerol) bond is excluded, and a more complex motion involving rotation about both the P--O(glycerol) and glycerol C(2)--C(3) bonds is postulated. (auth)

  13. Consideration on the relation between dynamic seismic motion and static seismic coefficient for the earthquake proof design of slope around nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Hirata, Kazuta

    1986-01-01

    When the large cutting slopes are constructed closed to around nuclear power plants, it is important to evaluate the stability of the slopes during the strong earthquake. In the evaluation, it may be useful to clarify relationship between the static seismic coefficient and dynamic seismic force corresponded to the basic seismic motion which is specified for designing the nuclear power facilities. To investigate this relation some numerical analyses are conducted in this paper. As the results, it is found that dynamic forces considering the amplified responses of the slopes subjected to the basic seismic motion with a peak acceleration of 500 gals at the toe of the slopes, are approximately equal to static seismic force which generates in the slopes when the seismic coefficients of k = 0.3 is applied. (author)

  14. A Class of Bridges of Iterated Integrals of Brownian Motion Related to Various Boundary Value Problems Involving the One-Dimensional Polyharmonic Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimé Lachal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let ((∈[0,1] be the linear Brownian motion and ((∈[0,1] the (−1-fold integral of Brownian motion, with being a positive integer: ∫(=0((−−1/(−1!d( for any ∈[0,1]. In this paper we construct several bridges between times 0 and 1 of the process ((∈[0,1] involving conditions on the successive derivatives of at times 0 and 1. For this family of bridges, we make a correspondence with certain boundary value problems related to the one-dimensional polyharmonic operator. We also study the classical problem of prediction. Our results involve various Hermite interpolation polynomials.

  15. Unit-related factors that affect nursing time with patients: spatial analysis of the time and motion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrich, Ann; Chow, Marilyn P; Bafna, Sonit; Choudhary, Ruchi; Heo, Yeonsook; Skierczynski, Boguslaw A

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that nurses adopt distinct movement strategies based on features of unit topology and nurse assignments. The secondary goal was to identify aspects of unit layout or organization that influence the amount of time nurses spend in the patient room. Previous research has demonstrated a link between nursing hours and patient outcomes. Unit layout may affect direct patient care time by determining aspects of nurse behavior, such as the amount of time nurses spend walking. The recent nurses' Time and Motion study employed multiple technologies to track the movements and activities of 767 medical-surgical nurses. With regard to unit layout, initial analysis of the data set did not detect differences between types of units and time spent in the patient room. The analysis reported here applies novel techniques to this data set to examine the relationship between unit layout and nurse behavior. Techniques of spatial analysis, borrowed from the architectural theory of spatial syntax, were applied to the Time and Motion data set. Motion data from radio-frequency identification tracking of nurses was combined with architectural drawings of the study units and clinical information such as nurse-patient assignment. Spatial analytic techniques were used to determine the average integration or centrality of nurse assignments for each shift. Nurse assignments with greater average centrality to all assigned rooms were associated with a higher number of entries to patient rooms, as well as to the nurse station. Number of entries to patient rooms was negatively correlated with average time per visit, but positively correlated with total time spent in patient rooms. The data describe two overall strategies of nurse mobility patterns: fewer, longer visits versus more frequent, shorter visits. Results suggest that the spatial qualities of nurse assignments and unit layout affect nurse strategies for moving through units and affect

  16. Human motion simulation predictive dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Malek, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Simulate realistic human motion in a virtual world with an optimization-based approach to motion prediction. With this approach, motion is governed by human performance measures, such as speed and energy, which act as objective functions to be optimized. Constraints on joint torques and angles are imposed quite easily. Predicting motion in this way allows one to use avatars to study how and why humans move the way they do, given specific scenarios. It also enables avatars to react to infinitely many scenarios with substantial autonomy. With this approach it is possible to predict dynamic motion without having to integrate equations of motion -- rather than solving equations of motion, this approach solves for a continuous time-dependent curve characterizing joint variables (also called joint profiles) for every degree of freedom. Introduces rigorous mathematical methods for digital human modelling and simulation Focuses on understanding and representing spatial relationships (3D) of biomechanics Develops an i...

  17. Children's understanding of cancer and views on health-related behaviour: a 'draw and write' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighting, K; Rowa-Dewar, N; Malcolm, C; Kearney, N; Gibson, F

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have explored young children's understanding of cancer and health-related behaviours yet this is essential to develop health promotion initiatives that build on young children's current knowledge levels and awareness. An exploratory descriptive design using the 'draw and write' technique was used to investigate children's views of cancer and health behaviours. The sample included 195 children aged eight to 11 years from five schools in deprived, affluent and rural locations in Scotland. When asked about cancer children demonstrated a good level of awareness by responding with text and drawings about the what they understood cancer to be; types of cancer; causes of cancer; what happens to people who have cancer; their personal experience of cancer and the emotions they associated with cancer. Older children, and children attending affluent schools, have more defined ideas about the causes of cancer and awareness of broader issues such as the risk of passive smoking or the potential impact on the family. Factors such as alcohol and illegal drugs were only reported by children attending schools in deprived locations. Children demonstrated considerable knowledge about healthy and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours; however, it is not clear whether this knowledge translates into their behaviours or the choices offered within their home environment. Children view cancer in a negative way from an early age, even without personal experience. There is a need to demystify cancer in terms of its causes, how to recognize it, how it is treated and to publicize improved survival rates. There is a need for targeted and developmentally appropriate approaches to be taken to health education in schools, with an awareness of the influence of the media on children's information. Strategies should take into consideration the socio-economic and cultural contexts of children's lives which influence their choices and behaviours. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The importance of stimulus noise analysis for self-motion studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Nesti

    Full Text Available Motion simulators are widely employed in basic and applied research to study the neural mechanisms of perception and action during inertial stimulation. In these studies, uncontrolled simulator-introduced noise inevitably leads to a disparity between the reproduced motion and the trajectories meticulously designed by the experimenter, possibly resulting in undesired motion cues to the investigated system. Understanding actual simulator responses to different motion commands is therefore a crucial yet often underestimated step towards the interpretation of experimental results. In this work, we developed analysis methods based on signal processing techniques to quantify the noise in the actual motion, and its deterministic and stochastic components. Our methods allow comparisons between commanded and actual motion as well as between different actual motion profiles. A specific practical example from one of our studies is used to illustrate the methodologies and their relevance, but this does not detract from its general applicability. Analyses of the simulator's inertial recordings show direction-dependent noise and nonlinearity related to the command amplitude. The Signal-to-Noise Ratio is one order of magnitude higher for the larger motion amplitudes we tested, compared to the smaller motion amplitudes. Simulator-introduced noise is found to be primarily of deterministic nature, particularly for the stronger motion intensities. The effect of simulator noise on quantification of animal/human motion sensitivity is discussed. We conclude that accurate recording and characterization of executed simulator motion are a crucial prerequisite for the investigation of uncertainty in self-motion perception.

  19. Motion of the esophagus due to cardiac motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Palmer

    Full Text Available When imaging studies (e.g. CT are used to quantify morphological changes in an anatomical structure, it is necessary to understand the extent and source of motion which can give imaging artifacts (e.g. blurring or local distortion. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of esophageal motion due to cardiac motion. We used retrospective electrocardiogram-gated contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography images for this study. The anatomic region from the carina to the bottom of the heart was taken at deep-inspiration breath hold with the patients' arms raised above their shoulders, in a position similar to that used for radiation therapy. The esophagus was delineated on the diastolic phase of cardiac motion, and deformable registration was used to sequentially deform the images in nearest-neighbor phases among the 10 cardiac phases, starting from the diastolic phase. Using the 10 deformation fields generated from the deformable registration, the magnitude of the extreme displacements was then calculated for each voxel, and the mean and maximum displacement was calculated for each computed tomography slice for each patient. The average maximum esophageal displacement due to cardiac motion for all patients was 5.8 mm (standard deviation: 1.6 mm, maximum: 10.0 mm in the transverse direction. For 21 of 26 patients, the largest esophageal motion was found in the inferior region of the heart; for the other patients, esophageal motion was approximately independent of superior-inferior position. The esophagus motion was larger at cardiac phases where the electrocardiogram R-wave occurs. In conclusion, the magnitude of esophageal motion near the heart due to cardiac motion is similar to that due to other sources of motion, including respiratory motion and intra-fraction motion. A larger cardiac motion will result into larger esophagus motion in a cardiac cycle.

  20. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  1. GPS-determination of along-strike variation in Cascadia margin kinematics: Implications for relative plate motion, subduction zone coupling, and permanent deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Meghan; Johnson, Daniel J.; Rubin, Charles M.; Dragert, Herb; Wang, Kelin; Qamar, Anthony; Goldfinger, Chris

    2001-04-01

    High-precision GPS geodesy in the Pacific Northwest provides the first synoptic view of the along-strike variation in Cascadia margin kinematics. These results constrain interfering deformation fields in a region where typical earthquake recurrence intervals are one or more orders of magnitude longer than the decades-long history of seismic monitoring and where geologic studies are sparse. Interseismic strain accumulation contributes greatly to GPS station velocities along the coast. After correction for a simple elastic dislocation model, important residual motions remain, especially south of the international border. The magnitude of northward forearc motion increases southward from western Washington (3-7 mm/yr) to northern and central Oregon (˜9 mm/yr), consistent with oblique convergence and geologic constraints on permanent deformation. The margin-parallel strain gradient, concentrated in western Washington across the populated Puget Lowlands, compares in magnitude to shortening across the Los Angeles Basin. Thus crustal faulting also contributes to seismic hazard. Farther south in southern Oregon, north-westward velocities reflect the influence of Pacific-North America motion and impingement of the Sierra Nevada block on the Pacific Northwest. In contrast to previous notions, some deformation related to the Eastern California shear zone crosses northernmost California in the vicinity of the Klamath Mountains and feeds out to the Gorda plate margin.

  2. Children's emotion understanding in relation to attachment to mother and father.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychogiou, Lamprini; Nath, Selina; Kallitsoglou, Angeliki; Dimatis, Konstantinos; Parry, Elizabeth; Russell, Abigail Emma; Yilmaz, Merve; Kuyken, Willem; Moberly, Nicholas J

    2018-03-02

    Although attachment plays a key role in children's socio-emotional development, little attention has been paid to the role of children's attachment to their father. This study examined whether insecure attachment to each parent was associated with reduced emotion understanding in children and whether children showed consistent attachments to their mother and father. We measured children's attachment to each parent using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task and child emotion understanding using the Test of Emotion Comprehension (children's M age  = 5.64 years, SD = 0.84). The results indicated that insecure father-child attachment and insecure mother-child attachment were each associated with lower emotion understanding in children after controlling for parent's depressive symptoms and children's age. There was significant concordance of child attachment to mother and father. The findings provide support for convergence of children's attachment across parents and suggest that father-child attachment is an important factor to consider when examining children's emotion understanding. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Secure mother-child attachment is positively associated with children's emotional competence. Children form similar representations of attachment to their mother and father. What the present study adds Both mother-child and father-child attachment are associated with children's emotion understanding. The study's findings highlight the importance of father-child attachment in their children's emotion understanding. The study provides support for concordance of children's attachment across parents. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  3. 3D motion analysis via energy minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedel, Andreas

    2009-10-16

    This work deals with 3D motion analysis from stereo image sequences for driver assistance systems. It consists of two parts: the estimation of motion from the image data and the segmentation of moving objects in the input images. The content can be summarized with the technical term machine visual kinesthesia, the sensation or perception and cognition of motion. In the first three chapters, the importance of motion information is discussed for driver assistance systems, for machine vision in general, and for the estimation of ego motion. The next two chapters delineate on motion perception, analyzing the apparent movement of pixels in image sequences for both a monocular and binocular camera setup. Then, the obtained motion information is used to segment moving objects in the input video. Thus, one can clearly identify the thread from analyzing the input images to describing the input images by means of stationary and moving objects. Finally, I present possibilities for future applications based on the contents of this thesis. Previous work in each case is presented in the respective chapters. Although the overarching issue of motion estimation from image sequences is related to practice, there is nothing as practical as a good theory (Kurt Lewin). Several problems in computer vision are formulated as intricate energy minimization problems. In this thesis, motion analysis in image sequences is thoroughly investigated, showing that splitting an original complex problem into simplified sub-problems yields improved accuracy, increased robustness, and a clear and accessible approach to state-of-the-art motion estimation techniques. In Chapter 4, optical flow is considered. Optical flow is commonly estimated by minimizing the combined energy, consisting of a data term and a smoothness term. These two parts are decoupled, yielding a novel and iterative approach to optical flow. The derived Refinement Optical Flow framework is a clear and straight-forward approach to

  4. Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

  5. Beyond Cue Reactivity: Non-Drug-Related Motivationally Relevant Stimuli Are Necessary to Understand Reactivity to Drug-Related Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Deweese, Menton M; Robinson, Jason D; Green, Charles E; Lam, Cho Y; Minnix, Jennifer A; Karam-Hage, Maher A; Wetter, David W; Schembre, Susan M; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2017-06-01

    Neurobiological models of addiction posit that drug use can alter reward processes in two ways: (1) by increasing the motivational relevance of drugs and drug-related cues and (2) by reducing the motivational relevance of non-drug-related rewards. Here, we discuss the results from a series of neuroimaging studies in which we assessed the extent to which these hypotheses apply to nicotine dependence. In these studies, we recorded smokers’ and nonsmokers’ brain responses to a wide array of motivationally relevant visual stimuli that included pleasant, unpleasant, cigarette-related, and neutral images. Based on these findings, we highlight the flaws of the traditional cue reactivity paradigm and we conclude that responses to non-drug-related motivationally relevant stimuli should be used to appropriately gauge the motivational relevance of cigarette-related cues and to identify smokers attributing higher motivational relevance to drug-related cues than to non-drug-related rewards. Identifying these individuals is clinically relevant as they achieve lower rates of long-term smoking abstinence when attempting to quit. Finally, we show how this approach may be extended beyond nicotine dependence to inform theoretical and clinical research in the study of obesity. The cue reactivity paradigm (ie, comparing responses evoked by drug-related cues to those evoked by neutral cues) cannot provide conclusive information about the motivational relevance of drug-related cues. Responses to non-drug-related motivationally relevant stimuli should be used to appropriately gauge the level of motivational relevance that substance-dependent individuals attribute to drug-related cues. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Cancer-Related Genetic Testing and Personalized Medicine for Adolescents: A Narrative Review of Impact and Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetsch, Janine; Wakefield, Claire E; Warby, Meera; Tucker, Katherine; Patterson, Pandora; McGill, Brittany C; Metcalfe, Alison; Cohn, Richard J; Fardell, Joanna E

    2018-01-16

    Genetic testing is becoming increasingly available for adolescents who are undergoing cancer treatment or at risk of cancer predisposition syndromes. With this narrative review, we aimed to synthesize the evidence on psychosocial outcomes and adolescents' understanding of genetic testing-thus far, an underresearched topic. Both psychological benefits and harms of predictive testing were reported in adolescents from high-risk families. Harms were mainly related to cancer-specific distress and increased worries. Findings on genetic understanding were sparse. Future studies should focus on psychosocial outcomes and adolescents' understanding undergoing genetic testing and enabling access to genetic counseling pre-testing and post-testing.

  7. Rural Elementary Students' Understanding of Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks Related to Meat and Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meischen, Deanna L.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2003-01-01

    Seven fifth-graders developed concept maps depicting their knowledge of meat product development. Despite their rural background, they lacked understanding of agriculture concepts and had mixed knowledge of agricultural literacy benchmarks concerning food products. Their language did not reflect scientific terminology in the benchmarks. (Contains…

  8. Preschoolers' Implicit and Explicit False-Belief Understanding: Relations with Complex Syntactical Mastery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Three studies were carried out to investigate sentential complements being the critical device that allows for false-belief understanding in 3- and 4-year-olds (N = 102). Participants across studies accurately gazed in anticipation of a character's mistaken belief in a predictive looking task despite erring on verbal responses for direct…

  9. Determination of Factors Related to Students' Understandings of Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationships between high school students' learning approaches and logical thinking abilities and their understandings of heat, temperature and internal energy concepts. Learning Approach Questionnaire, Test of Logical Thinking and Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Test were used…

  10. Managing Resources and Relations in Higher Education Institutions: A Framework for Understanding Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sophia Shi-Huei; Peng, Michael Yao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Changes in social systems demonstrate that various structural disadvantages have jointly led to increasing competition among higher education institutions (HEIs) in many countries, especially Taiwan. Institutional administrators must recognize the need to understand how to improve performance and consistently outperform other institutions.…

  11. Effectiveness of Understanding Relations between Community, Home, and School for Future Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Claudia; Galaviz, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    As educators committed to preparing teachers to teach effectively across differences and in ways that actively resist perpetuating injustices, we have found that designing opportunities that take teachers into the children's community is the best way to learn about the cultural wealth existing in homes and to understand the importance of including…

  12. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Climate Change and the Chemistry Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versprille, Ashley N.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    While much is known about secondary students' perspectives of climate change, rather less is known about undergraduate students' perspectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. Findings that emerged from the analysis of the 24 interviews indicate that…

  13. Expanded Understanding of IS/IT Related Challenges in Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppenberg, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Organizational Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As) occur at an increasingly frequent pace in today’s business life. Paralleling this development, M&As has increasingly attracted attention from the Information Systems (IS) domain. This emerging line of research has started form an understanding...

  14. Toward a better understanding of the relation between music preference, listening behavior, and personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunn, P.G.; Ruyter, B.E.R. de; Bouwhuis, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research relating personality and music preferences has often measured such reported preferences according to genre labels. To support previous research, the current paper has expanded investigation of the relation between personality and music preferences to include direct measurement of

  15. Leap Motion development essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegelmock, Mischa

    2013-01-01

    This book is a fast-paced guide with practical examples that aims to help you understand and master the Leap Motion SDK.This book is for developers who are either involved in game development or who are looking to utilize Leap Motion technology in order to create brand new user interaction experiences to distinguish their products from the mass market. You should be comfortable with high-level languages and object-oriented development concepts in order to get the most out of this book.

  16. Understanding Vehicle Related Crime to Elaborate on Countermeasures Based on ADAS and V2X Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapik, Peter; Schoch, Elmar; Müller, Maik; Kargl, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Among numerous types of criminal activities, vehicle related crime contributes to personal injury as well as to economic losses. Over the last 10 years vehicle related crime continuously constitutes over 10% of all crime in Germany. However, vehicle related crime is not particularly a German

  17. The Relevance of the Social Information Processing Model for Understanding Relational Aggression in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Marcelle M.; Finch, Cambra L.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined whether social information-processing variables predict relational aggression in girls. In Study 1, fourth- through sixth-grade girls reported their intent attributions, social goals, outcome expectancies for relational aggression, and the likelihood that they would choose a relationally aggressive response in response to…

  18. Understanding heavy-oil molecular functionality and relations to fluid properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, S.I. [Schlumberger, DBR Technology Center, Edmonton AB (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, knowing oil properties is important to optimizing recovery, transport and refinery. Nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen compounds (NSOs) have an important impact on these properties but this is often overlooked. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of functional groups in connection with heavy oil and asphaltenes. Experiments were carried out with asphaltenes altered by chemical surgery that removed specific functional interactions. Titration calorimetry and fluorescence spectroscopy were then done. Results highlighted the fact that functional groups are of key importance in the determination of heavy oil properties and that acidity can be considered the most important interaction. This paper demonstrated that the determination of specific interactions could be more important in assessing heavy oil properties than understanding their hydrocarbon structure; further work is needed to fully understand the role of sulfur and nitrogen species.

  19. Standpoint: Using Bourdieu to Understand IE and the Researcher's Relation with Knowledge Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, James

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter I highlight the need to turn the IE lens of enquiry onto IE itself and consequently the importance for institutional; ethnographers to attend to their standpoint in taking up and activating their understanding IE. Many, including Wise and Stanley (1990) and Walby (2007), celebrate Smith’s sociology but raise important ontological and epistemological questions about IE’s own recursive power. While IE has developed from a critique of wider sociological inquiry it is troubled by ...

  20. Rigid body motion in stereo 3D simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the difficulties experienced by first-grade students studying rigid body motion at Sofia University. Most quantities describing the rigid body are in relations that the students find hard to visualize and understand. They also lose the notion of cause-result relations between vector quantities, such as the relation between torque and angular momentum. Consequently, the understanding of physical laws and conservation principles in free rigid body motion is hampered. This paper presents the capabilities of a 3D simulation, which aims to clarify these questions to the students, who are taught mechanics in the general physics course. The rigid body motion simulations may be observed at http://ialms.net/sim/, and are intended to complement traditional learning practices, not replace them, as the author shares the opinion that no simulation may fully resemble reality.

  1. Age and Task-Related Effects on Young Children's Understanding of a Complex Picture Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Denyse; Schneider, Phyllis; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examined age- and task-related effects in story schema knowledge across an independent narrative task (story formulations) and a supported narrative task (answering questions). We also examined age-related changes to questions about the story as a whole. Participants were typically developing English-speaking children aged 4, 5,…

  2. Understanding HIV-Related Stigma and Discrimination in a "Blameless" Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaobin; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Xu, Jie; Wu, Zunyou

    2006-01-01

    HIV-related stigma and discrimination are major barriers to the successful control of HIV. Stigma is associated with the disease as well as the behaviors that lead to infection. A qualitative study was conducted to identify the reasons, sources, and types of HIV-related stigma prevalent in rural China. Eighty in-depth interviews were conducted…

  3. Understanding work-related social media use: An extension of theory of planned behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express

  4. Organizational Justice as a Framework for Understanding Union-Management Relations in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Wendy L.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I have conceptualized union-management relations using an organizational justice framework. I consider organizational justice theory, including distributive, procedural, interactional, and what I call relational justice perspectives. Utilizing examples from my experience and research, I illustrate and discuss various forms of…

  5. How Hypertext Reading Sequences Affect Understanding of Causal and Temporal Relations in Story Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakami, Jacqueline; Krems, Josef F.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the comprehension of global causal and temporal relations between events that are represented in single hypertext documents. In two experiments we examined how reading sequences of hypertext nodes affects the establishment of event relations and how this process can be supported by advanced organizers that…

  6. Application of a Relational Model to Understanding Body Image in College Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanftner, Jennifer L.; Ryan, William J.; Pierce, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Relational cultural theory was examined in relation to body image in two samples of college women (n = 102) and men (n = 78) from a Midwestern university. Participants completed measures of mutuality and body image satisfaction. Results revealed that low mutuality with mothers and fathers predicted body dissatisfaction in both men and women, and…

  7. Understanding and Using the Relationships between Business and Professional Communication and Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrose, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of research and pedagogy from the public relations discipline can benefit the business and professional communication instructor seeking new dimensions for the business and professional communication classroom. Elements of public relations (PR) found in Association for Business Communication articles and journals may be incorporated in the…

  8. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Difficulties in Understanding Special Relativity Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü Yavas, Pervin; Kizilcik, Hasan Sahin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the reasons why pre-service physics teachers have difficulties related to special relativity topics. In this study conducted with 25 pre-service physics teachers, the case study method, which is a qualitative research method, was used. Interviews were held with the participants about their reasons for…

  9. Understanding Work-Related Stress and Practice of Professional Self-Care--An Innovative Pedagogical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    Social workers experience tremendous work-related stress--particularly among those providing direct services in healthcare settings. A review of related literature summarized several critical challenges faced by social workers who work with highly difficult clients in these settings, including (a) clients who engage in manipulative high-risk…

  10. Applying GPS to enhance understanding of transport-related physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Badland, Hannah M; Mummery, W Kerry

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the paper is to review the utility of the global positioning system (GPS) in the study of health-related physical activity. The paper draws from existing literature to outline the current work performed using GPS to examine transport-related physical activity, with a focus on the relative utility of the approach when combined with geographic information system (GIS) and other data sources including accelerometers. The paper argues that GPS, especially when used in combination with GIS and accelerometery, offers great promise in objectively measuring and studying the relationship of numerous environmental attributes to human behaviour in terms of physical activity and transport-related activity. Limitations to the use of GPS for the purpose of monitoring health-related physical activity are presented, and recommendations for future avenues of research are discussed.

  11. Automatic Video-based Analysis of Human Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben

    The human motion contains valuable information in many situations and people frequently perform an unconscious analysis of the motion of other people to understand their actions, intentions, and state of mind. An automatic analysis of human motion will facilitate many applications and thus has...... bring the solution of fully automatic analysis and understanding of human motion closer....

  12. Advancing Understanding on Industrial Relations in Multinational Companies: Key Research Challenges and the INTREPID Contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnigle, Patrick; Valeria, Pulignano; Edwards, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This paper has three principal aims. It firstly provides some theoretical background on the key current research issues and challenges in regard to industrial relations in multinational companies. It then presents a concise review of scholarship to date on industrial relations in multinational...... companies using INTREPID (Investigation of Transnationals’ Employment Practices: an International Database) data. Finally, the paper identifies some of the main industrial relations issues that remain to be addressed, in effect charting a form of research agenda for future work using the INTREPID data...

  13. Understanding the gender differences in pathways to social deviancy: relational aggression and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Bonnie H

    2010-02-01

    This study explored the associations among childhood emotion regulation, overt aggression, relational aggression, and adolescent deviant social behaviors. Data were drawn from the Family Health Project, a longitudinal study conducted over 4 years. The sample consisted of 111 children at Time 1 who ranged in age from 51/2 to 12 years at Time 1 and 8 to 14 years at Time 3. A significant finding was that, for girls, lower emotion regulation predicted later relational aggression (beta = -2.95, P skills coupled with relational aggression were associated with deviant social behaviors. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding IMF Bz and Space Weather Relations Near Geomagnetic Equator Related to Non-Radial Solar Wind Flows (P35)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, F.; Girish, T. E.

    2006-11-01

    We have reported earlier some new results related to the seasonal and solar cycle changes in the north-south component of IMF (Bz) observed near 1 A.U. A relationship between geomagnetic activity and non-radial solar wind flows were reported recently. In this connection, we are planning some studies for IHY 2007. We propose to identify non-radial flow structures in the interplanetary medium using IPS observations and predict the associated IMF Bz structures. The effect of geomagnetic storms near magnetic equator associated with non-radial solar wind flows will be studied using magnetometer observations in Trivandrum.

  15. Understanding Health and Health-Related Behavior of Users of Internet Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimble, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about how actual use of Internet health-related information is associated with health or health-related behavior. Using a nationally representative sample of 34,525 from 2012, this study examined the demographics of users of Internet health-related information (users), reports estimates of association with several health and behavioral outcomes adjusting for demographic factors, and analyzed the sample by education level, race, gender, and age. Analysis of a large nationally representative sample shows evidence that users of health-related information (users) on the Internet are younger, more educated, more likely to be insured, more likely to be female, and less likely to be African American. After adjusting for demographic differences, users are more likely to have been diagnosed with hypertension, cancer, stroke, and high cholesterol, but no evidence of current hypertension, weight-related issues, or being in fair or poor health. Users are less likely to smoke and among smokers are more likely to attempt quitting. Users are more likely to exercise, get a flu shot, pap smear, mammogram, HIV test, colon cancer screening, blood pressure check, and cholesterol check, but likely to be heavy drinkers. With few exceptions, results appear robust across gender, age groups, level of education, and ethnicity. Use is generally positively associated with prior diagnosis for several conditions and behaviors related to improved health, but I find no relationship with existing health status. The association between use of health-related Internet information and health-related behavior seems robust across levels of education, age, gender, and race.

  16. Student Understanding of the First Law of Thermodynamics: Relating Work to the Adiabatic Compression of an Ideal Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loverude, Michael E.; Kautz, Christian H.; Heron, Paula R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of student understanding of the first law of thermodynamics. Involves students from a first-year university physics course and a second-year thermal physics course. Focuses on the ability of students to relate the first law to the adiabatic physics course. Discusses implications for thermal physics and mechanics…

  17. Addressing Pre-Service Teachers' Understandings and Difficulties with Some Core Concepts in the Special Theory of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and…

  18. "Understanding my ALS". Experiences and reflections of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives on participation in peer group rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    with joint inclusion of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives. Implications for Rehabilitation Peer group rehabilitation may facilitate an increased and personalised understanding of what it means to live with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A programme design with six months of sequential...

  19. MHD accelerated motion on a body placed symmetrical to the flow in the presence of transverse magnetic field fixed relative to the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Mamta; Bansal, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The growth of the boundary layer in an accelerated flow of an electricity conducting fluid past a symmetrical placed body in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field fixed relative to the body has been studied. The boundary layer equation has been solved by using a method previously developed by Pozzi, based on expressing the unknown velocity in term of an error function and on using differential and integral relations obtained from the balance equation. As examples, the impulsive flow past a circular cylinder and uniformly accelerated flow over a flat plate are considered. It is found that the effect of the magnetic field is to decelerate the fluid motion which results in an earlier boundary layer separation in the impulsive flow past a circular cylinder. The results show a good agreement with the numerical data available in the literature. (author). 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Engineering description of the OMS/RCS/DAP modes used in the HP-9825A High Fidelity Relative Motion Program (HFRMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Simplified mathematical models are reported for the space shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), Reaction Control System (RCS), and on-orbit Digital Autopilot (DAP) that have been incorporated in the High-Fidelity Relative Motion Program (HFRMP) for the HP-9825A desk-top calculator. Comparisons were made between data generated by the HFRMP and by the Space Shuttle Functional Simulator (SSFS), which models the cited shuttle systems in much greater detail. These data include propellant requirements for representative translational maneuvers, rotational maneuvers, and attitude maintenance options. Also included are data relating to on-orbit trajectory deviations induced by RCS translational cross coupling. Potential close-range stationkeeping problems that are suggested by HFRMP simulations of 80 millisecond (as opposed to 40 millisecond) DAP cycle effects are described. The principal function of the HFRMP is to serve as a flight design tool in the area of proximity operations.

  1. One-dimensional drift-flux model and constitutive equations for relative motion between phases in various two-phase flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.

    1977-10-01

    In view of the practical importance of the drift-flux model for two-phase flow analysis in general and in the analysis of nuclear-reactor transients and accidents in particular, the kinematic constitutive equation for the drift velocity has been studied for various two-phase flow regimes. The constitutive equation that specifies the relative motion between phases in the drift-flux model has been derived by taking into account the interfacial geometry, the body-force field, shear stresses, and the interfacial momentum transfer, since these macroscopic effects govern the relative velocity between phases. A comparison of the model with various experimental data over various flow regimes and a wide range of flow parameters shows a satisfactory agreement

  2. Applying linguistic methods to understanding smoking-related conversations on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Brown, Cati G; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-03-01

    Social media, such as Twitter, have become major channels of communication and commentary on popular culture, including conversations on our nation's leading addiction: tobacco. The current study examined Twitter conversations following two tobacco-related events in the media: (1) President Obama's doctor announcing that he had quit smoking and (2) the release of a photograph of Miley Cyrus (a former Disney child star) smoking a cigarette. With a focus on high-profile individuals whose actions can draw public attention, we aimed to characterise tobacco-related conversations as an example of tobacco-related public discourse and to present a novel methodology for studying social media. Tweets were collected 11-13 November 2011 (President Obama) and 1-3 August 2011 (Miley Cyrus) and analysed for relative frequency of terms, a novel application of a linguistic methodology. The President Obama data set (N=2749 tweets) had conversations about him quitting tobacco as well as a preponderance of information on political activity, links to websites, racialised terms and mention of marijuana. Websites and terms about Obama's smoke-free status were most central to the conversation. In the Miley Cyrus data (N=4746 tweets), terms that occurred with the greatest relative frequency were positive, emotional and supportive of quitting (eg, love, and please), with words such as 'love' most central to the conversation. People are talking about tobacco-related issues on Twitter, and semantic network analysis can be used to characterise on-line conversations. Future interventions may be able to harness social media and major current events to raise awareness of smoking-related issues. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Understanding drug-related mortality in released prisoners: a review of national coronial records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Jessica Y

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prisoner population is characterised by a high burden of disease and social disadvantage, and ex-prisoners are at increased risk of death following release. Much of the excess mortality can be attributed to an increased risk of unnatural death, particularly from drug overdose; however, relatively few studies have investigated the circumstances surrounding drug-related deaths among released prisoners. This study aimed to explore and compare the circumstances of death for those who died from accidental drug-related causes to those who died from all other reportable causes. Methods A nationwide search of the Australian National Coroners Information System (NCIS was conducted to identify reportable deaths among ex-prisoners from 2000 to 2007. Using a structured coding form, NCIS records for these cases were interrogated to explore causes and circumstances of death. Results Coronial records for 388 deceased ex-prisoners were identified. Almost half of these deaths were a result of accidental drug-related causes (45%. The majority of accidental drug-related deaths occurred in a home environment, and poly-substance use at or around the time of death was common, recorded in 72% of drug-related deaths. Ex-prisoners who died of accidental drug-related causes were on average younger and less likely to be Indigenous, born in Australia, married, or living alone at or around the time of death, compared with those who died from all other reportable causes. Evidence of mental illness or self-harm was less common among accidental drug-related deaths, whereas evidence of previous drug overdose, injecting drug use, history of heroin use and history of drug withdrawal in the previous six months were more common. Conclusions Drug-related deaths are common among ex-prisoners and often occur in a home (vs. public setting. They are often associated with use of multiple substances at or around the time of death, risky drug-use patterns, and even

  4. Do Science and Common Wisdom Collide or Coincide in their Understanding of Relational Aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Heather S; McLoughlin, Caven S

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression is a form of covert or indirect aggression or bullying in which harm is caused through damage to relationships or social status within a group, rather than through physical violence. We compare findings from empirical research into relational aggression with the depictions, interpretations and interventions described in trade-books and popular media dealing with that same topic. Relational aggression is more common and more studied among girls than boys and is popularly described as synonymous with "mean-girl" behaviors. We investigate the degree that popular trade books and movies accurately portray findings from researched investigations including the incidence and indicators of the condition and its remedies. We determine that there is a great deal of similarity between these two sources in how relational aggression is understood and how it may be treated. The concurrence across both dissemination formats reflects terminology and definitions, the harmful effects of relational aggression, the gender-specific nature of the condition to women and girls, its age of occurrence, the impact of parenting styles, its relationship to girls' social competence, and nature of its expression through non-physical means.

  5. Understanding relationships between diabetes mellitus and health-related quality of life in a rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thommasen, Harvey V; Berkowitz, Jonathan; Thommasen, Amy T; Michalos, Alex C

    2005-01-01

    There is a lack of information on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for Aboriginal diabetic people. To investigate HRQOL among aboriginal diabetics living in an isolated, rural Canadian community. Mixed methods: (1) A mailed health-related survey; and (2) a population based retrospective chart review. People aged 17 years and older living in the Bella Coola Valley, British Columbia, Canada, and having a chart at the Bella Coola Medical Clinic as of September 2001 were asked to complete a detailed HRQOL survey during the period August to December 2001. Demographics (age, sex, ethnicity). Health-related quality of life was measured using the MOS 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the US Centers for Disease Control healthy day's items. Relatively greater percentages of diabetic people (n = 72 [57%]) completed the survey than did non-diabetics (n = 675 [37%]). Mean scores for Aboriginal people were lower/poorer than mean scores for non-Aboriginal people in all the quality of life questions. Mean scores for diabetic people were lower than mean scores for non-diabetics in all the quality of life questions. Aboriginal diabetics reported the worst scores on almost all of our quality of life questions. Rural diabetics experience significant impairment in their health-related quality of life. Among rural diabetics, Aboriginals report the worst HRQOL scores. Compared with other people, Aboriginals fare worse in HRQOL, which may explain the difference.

  6. A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, T.B.; Gould, W.A.; Graham, R.T.; Pilliod, D.S.; Lentile, L.B.; Gonzalez, G.

    2008-01-01

    Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and develop an integrated soil burn severity index. The soil burn severity index provides a set of indicators that reflect the range of conditions present after a fire. The index consists of seven levels, an unburned level and six other levels that describe a range of postfire soil conditions. We view this index as a tool for understanding the effects of fires on the forest floor, with the realization that as new information is gained, the index may be modified as warranted. ?? Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2008.

  7. Cross-cultural study: experience, understanding of menopause, and related therapies in Australian and Laotian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare symptom experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies in Australian and Laotian women. This was a cross-cultural, questionnaire-based study involving 108 women (56 Australian women and 52 Laotian women aged 40-65 y) attending outpatient clinics in Australia and Laos. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were conducted using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test, where appropriate. Psychological symptoms, depression, vasomotor symptoms, and sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in Australian women compared with Laotian women (P menopause as aging (57%), whereas most Laotian women reported not knowing what menopause meant to them (81%). Australian women's fears about menopause included weight gain (43%), aging (41%), and breast cancer (38%), whereas Laotian women reported not knowing about potential menopausal problems (85%). Exercise (55%), education and awareness (46%), and improving lifestyle (41%) were reported by Australian women as being effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms, with only 21% reporting not knowing what was effective compared with 83% of Laotian women. Many women reported not knowing the risks/benefits of hormonal therapies (50% of Australian women and 87% of Laotian women) and herbal therapies (79% of Australian women and 92% of Laotian women). General practitioners were the most common source of menopause information for both Australians (73%) and Laotians (67%). Sociocultural factors influence women's perception of menopause. Psychological symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and vasomotor symptoms are more commonly reported by Australian women than by Laotian women. Women have a limited understanding of the risks/benefits of menopausal therapies, and culturally appropriate education is needed.

  8. Mediated intimacy in families: understanding the relation between children and parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsggaard, Thomas; Skov, Mikael B.; Stougaard, Malthe

    2006-01-01

    Mediating intimacy between children and their parents is still limited investigated and at the same time, we find that, emerging technologies are about to change and affect the way we interact with each other. In this paper, we report from an empirical study where we investigated the social...... with other types of intimate relations such as strong-tie intimacy (couples cohabiting). However, we also identified several issues of intimacy unique to the special relation between children and their parents. These unique acts of intimacy propose challenges when designing technologies for mediated intimacy...

  9. Substance use: toward an understanding of its relation to nutrition-related attitudes and behavior among Israeli high school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isralowitz, R E; Trostler, N

    1996-09-01

    To study the distribution, prevalence, determinants, and association between substance use (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol, and illegal drugs) and eating attitudes and behavior of high school students in the Negev region of Israel in order to provide an improved basis for prevention and health services. An anonymous questionnaire regarding attitudes and behavior related to substance use and eating (e.g., breakfast before school, a snack or meal during school time, and three meals a day) was answered by 1,513 high school age youth. The study participants were at greater risk of poor eating behavior if they: (1) used cigarettes, alcohol, and/or illicit substances (p illicit substances were used or not used, more than 50% of the youth reported not eating breakfast and 30% indicated they did not eat three meals daily. There are many concerns about the use and abuse of both licit and illicit substances among adolescents. More attention, however, needs to be given to the relationship between substance use and the attitudes and behavior of young people toward their health, including proper eating habits. The results support the need to develop drug prevention and health programs that are more comprehensive in terms of addressing the broad range of factors associated with adolescent growth and development.

  10. Children's Attachment-Related Narratives Following US Gulf Coast Hurricanes: Linkages with Understanding and Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Timothy; Buchanan, Teresa K.; Verbovaya, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The central focus of this study was the perceptions of emotional security among 64 elementary school-aged children exposed to the hurricanes that affected the US Gulf Coast in 2005. Specifically, we examined the representational qualities of attachment, exploration, and caregiving as assessed with a narrative story-stem task in relation to…

  11. Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

  12. Understanding the Atom and Relevant Misconceptions: Students' Profiles in Relation to Three Cognitive Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George; Markos, Angelos; Zarkadis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the formation of particular student profiles based on of their ideas relating to basic characteristics of the atom. Participants were secondary students of 8th, 10th and 12th grades from Northern Greece (n = 421), with specific cohort characteristics e.g. age, grade and class curriculum, and individual differences, e.g.…

  13. Understanding work related musculoskeletal pain: does repetitive work cause stress symptoms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, J. P.; Mikkelsen, S.; Andersen, JH

    2005-01-01

    : The findings do not indicate that repetitive work is associated with stress symptoms, but small effects cannot be ruled out. Thus the results question the importance of mental stress mechanisms in the causation of regional pain related to repetitive work. However, the findings should be interpreted...

  14. The Aftermath of Combat-Related PTSD: Toward an Understanding of Transgenerational Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearrow, Melissa; Cosgrove, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The number of military personnel who are involved in combat situations continues to increase. As a result, researchers have identified risk factors associated with the development of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors of this article review some of the characteristics of military personnel involved in these conflicts,…

  15. [To know, understand and combating medication errors related to computerized physician order entry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle, V; Tiphine, T; Poirier, Y; Raingeard, E; Feldman, D; Freville, J-C

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the study is to identify medication errors related to computerized physician order entry in our hospital. At the end of this 1-year study (2008 to 2009), 378 beds were computerized by a business software. Medication errors were identified from notifications sent to the publisher of the software, feedback of health professionals and the analysis of Pharmacists' interventions formulate following prescription errors due to computerization. They were qualified according to the medication error's French dictionary of the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy. Thirty-five categories of medication errors were found. Most of them appear during prescription. Dosage and concentration errors, dose errors, omission errors and drug errors are the most frequent. Three main causes were found: human factor, closely related to the software settings and the quality of user training; communication problems, related to the ergonomics; conception problems, related to intuitiveness and intricacy of the software. These results confirm the existence of medication errors induced by computerized physician order entry systems. They highlight the need to involve initial and ongoing training of users, relevance and scalability of the setup and use of mature and certified software to minimized them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding Relations among Early Family Environment, Cortisol Response, and Child Aggression via a Prevention Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Colleen R.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relations among family environment, cortisol response, and behavior in the context of a randomized controlled trial with 92 children (M = 48 months) at risk for antisocial behavior. Previously, researchers reported an intervention effect on cortisol response in anticipation of a social challenge. The current study examined…

  17. Understanding Social Learning Relations of International Students in a Large Classroom Using Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Héliot, YingFei; Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2013-01-01

    A common assumption in higher education is that international students find it difficult to develop learning and friendship relations with host students. When students are placed in a student-centred environment, international students from different cultural backgrounds are "forced" to work together with other students, which allows…

  18. Student Ideas about Kepler's Laws and Planetary Orbital Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ka Chun; Sahami, Kamran; Denn, Grant

    2010-01-01

    We present the analysis of oral interviews with 112 undergraduate nonmajor students during the first week of a General Education Introduction to Astronomy class before they had received any instruction. The students were asked questions relating to Kepler's three Laws of Motion, as well as their understanding of what keeps planets in orbit around…

  19. [Three years of work-related accidents in a metallurgic plant: ways to its understanding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira; Dias, Adriano

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study is to describe, by quantitative and qualitative methods, industrial accidents occurred during three years in a metallurgic plant in the rural area to understand the possible causes. It is a case study in a metallurgic plant where 336 accidents were studied in a 3-year period by means of three procedures: analysis of accidents' registers, interviews with 166 hurt workers, and the organization of Focal Groups (111 workers) for discussion. The ratio of yearly incidence of accidents was 16.9%; 75 cases required more than 15 out-of-work days; 51.2% occurred in the morning and affected boilermakers (48.2%). Among the interviewed workers, average schooling was 8.8 years, age ranged from 31-50 years (55.4%), 64.5% of workers had already suffered more than one accident. Besides, workers exposed to intense noise (+ 90 dBA) were the most affected (53%). In the focal groups, perceptions and feelings of workers regarding the accidents were identified that had not appeared in the previous stages. It can be concluded that focal groups allow for a better identification of factors that may contribute for accidents such as performance pressures, extra-hours of work, low wages, and precarious conditions of work and work organization.

  20. Understanding defect related luminescence processes in wide bandgap materials using low temperature multi-spectroscopic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Amit Kumar

    tunneling loss of the trapped electrons over geological time (so called anomalous fading); this gives rise to apparent ages that underestimate the true age. Despite a rapid progress in the infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating technique using feldspar, a clear understanding of luminescence...... play a role in charge transport. The main defect used in optical dating is called the infra-red dosimetric trap (IR trap), which has a thermal lifetime of millions of years, appropriate for dating Middle to Late Quaternary time scales. However, this trap is known to suffer from instability arising from...... to the thesis, while Chapter 2 describes the instrumentation and samples used to carry out this research. The key findings of my Ph.D. research are summarized in five different chapters (Chapter 3 to Chapter 7). I discovered a ‘red edge effect’ in the greenorange emission in feldspar, and demonstrated...

  1. A socioecological framework to understand weight-related issues in Aboriginal children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Noreen D; Hanley, Anthony J G; Delormier, Treena

    2012-02-01

    Obesity prevention efforts in Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, or Inuit) communities in Canada should focus predominantly on children given their demographic significance and the accelerated time course of occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Aboriginal population. A socioecological model to address childhood obesity in Aboriginal populations would focus on the numerous environments at different times in childhood that influence weight status, including prenatal, sociocultural, family, and community environments. Importantly, for Aboriginal children, obesity interventions need to also be situated within the context of a history of colonization and inequities in the social determinants of health. This review therefore advocates for the inclusion of a historical perspective and a life-course approach to obesity prevention in Aboriginal children in addition to developing interventions around the socioecological framework. We emphasize that childhood obesity prevention efforts should focus on promoting maternal health behaviours before and during pregnancy, and on breastfeeding and good infant and child nutrition in the postpartum and early childhood development periods. Ameliorating food insecurity by focusing on improving the sociodemographic risk factors for it, such as increasing income and educational attainment, are essential. More research is required to understand and measure obesogenic Aboriginal environments, to examine how altering specific environments modifies the foods that children eat and the activities that they do, and to examine how restoring and rebuilding cultural continuity in Aboriginal communities modifies the many determinants of obesity. This research needs to be done with the full participation of Aboriginal communities as partners in the research.

  2. Understanding the relations between different forms of racial prejudice: a cognitive consistency perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, Bertram; Peters, Kurt R; Brochu, Paula M; Strack, Fritz

    2008-05-01

    Research on racial prejudice is currently characterized by the existence of diverse concepts (e.g., implicit prejudice, old-fashioned racism, modern racism, aversive racism) that are not well integrated from a general perspective. The present article proposes an integrative framework for these concepts employing a cognitive consistency perspective. Specifically, it is argued that the reliance on immediate affective reactions toward racial minority groups in evaluative judgments about these groups depends on the consistency of this evaluation with other relevant beliefs pertaining to central components of old-fashioned, modern, and aversive forms of prejudice. A central prediction of the proposed framework is that the relation between "implicit" and "explicit" prejudice should be moderated by the interaction of egalitarianism-related, nonprejudicial goals and perceptions of discrimination. This prediction was confirmed in a series of three studies. Implications for research on prejudice are discussed.

  3. Application of high-throughput sequencing in understanding human oral microbiome related with health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hui; Jiang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    The oral microbiome is one of most diversity habitat in the human body and they are closely related with oral health and disease. As the technique developing,, high throughput sequencing has become a popular approach applied for oral microbial analysis. Oral bacterial profiles have been studied to explore the relationship between microbial diversity and oral diseases such as caries and periodontal disease. This review describes the application of high-throughput sequencing for characterizati...

  4. Relational Dimension in Social Education: contributions of psychoanalysis to its understanding and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Junqueira Grandino

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper rescues Social Education practices that emerged by the work of social educators in the 1980s, emphasizing the relational dimension considering the formation of bonds of trust and building horizontal relationships between educators and pupils. From this, the paper clarifies some processes in the light of Psychoanalysis and reflects on contributions of this subject to the field of Social EducationKey words: Social education; children and adolescentes; psychoanalysis

  5. Renewable energy partnerships in development cooperation: Towards a relational understanding of technical assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruckenberg, Lena J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed a surge in international programmes established to assist the adoption of renewable energy technologies (RETs) in low and lower-middle income countries. So far, such programmes have yielded mixed success. While partnerships between international, national and local organisations have become the pre-eminent model for RET programmes, we know relatively little about their contribution. This article traces the role of renewable energy partnerships in development cooperation, shifting the analytical emphasis from barriers and drivers to key actors and their relationships. It presents a relational approach for the analysis of development assistance for renewable energy, drawing on theories concerning the role of strong and weak ties in inter-organisational networks. Through an analysis of seven empirical cases from Central America, the article provides insights into how different forms of inter-organisational relationships can facilitate implementation of RET programmes but do not necessarily enhance the capacities of local organisations in a way to support a more sustainable adoption of RETs. On the basis of this analysis, theoretical and policy implications are given concerning the potential of relational approaches for researching technology diffusion processes, and the role of strong and weak ties for the success – or failure – of renewable energy partnerships. - Highlights: • Study of renewable energy partnerships in development cooperation. • Relational framework for analysis of inter-organisational technology diffusion. • Empirical cases of renewable energy partnerships in Central America. • Different types of network relationships enable/inhibit sustainable adoption. • Three policy recommendations for programme development

  6. MO-B-201-02: Motion Management for Proton Lung SBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flampouri, S. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The motion management in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a key to success for a SBRT program, and still an on-going challenging task. A major factor is that moving structures behave differently than standing structures when examined by imaging modalities, and thus require special considerations and employments. Understanding the motion effects to these different imaging processes is a prerequisite for a decent motion management program. The commonly used motion control techniques to physically restrict tumor motion, if adopted correctly, effectively increase the conformity and accuracy of hypofractionated treatment. The effective application of such requires one to understand the mechanics of the application and the related physiology especially related to respiration. The image-guided radiation beam control, or tumor tracking, further realized the endeavor for precision-targeting. During tumor tracking, the respiratory motion is often constantly monitored by non-ionizing beam sources using the body surface as its surrogate. This then has to synchronize with the actual internal tumor motion. The latter is often accomplished by stereo X-ray imaging or similar techniques. With these advanced technologies, one may drastically reduce the treated volume and increase the clinicians’ confidence for a high fractional ablative radiation dose. However, the challenges in implementing the motion management may not be trivial and is dependent on each clinic case. This session of presentations is intended to provide an overview of the current techniques used in managing the tumor motion in SBRT, specifically for routine lung SBRT, proton based treatments, and newly-developed MR guided RT. Learning Objectives: Through this presentation, the audience will understand basic roles of commonly used imaging modalities for lung cancer studies; familiarize the major advantages and limitations of each discussed motion control methods; familiarize the major advantages and

  7. MO-B-201-00: Motion Management in Current Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    The motion management in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a key to success for a SBRT program, and still an on-going challenging task. A major factor is that moving structures behave differently than standing structures when examined by imaging modalities, and thus require special considerations and employments. Understanding the motion effects to these different imaging processes is a prerequisite for a decent motion management program. The commonly used motion control techniques to physically restrict tumor motion, if adopted correctly, effectively increase the conformity and accuracy of hypofractionated treatment. The effective application of such requires one to understand the mechanics of the application and the related physiology especially related to respiration. The image-guided radiation beam control, or tumor tracking, further realized the endeavor for precision-targeting. During tumor tracking, the respiratory motion is often constantly monitored by non-ionizing beam sources using the body surface as its surrogate. This then has to synchronize with the actual internal tumor motion. The latter is often accomplished by stereo X-ray imaging or similar techniques. With these advanced technologies, one may drastically reduce the treated volume and increase the clinicians’ confidence for a high fractional ablative radiation dose. However, the challenges in implementing the motion management may not be trivial and is dependent on each clinic case. This session of presentations is intended to provide an overview of the current techniques used in managing the tumor motion in SBRT, specifically for routine lung SBRT, proton based treatments, and newly-developed MR guided RT. Learning Objectives: Through this presentation, the audience will understand basic roles of commonly used imaging modalities for lung cancer studies; familiarize the major advantages and limitations of each discussed motion control methods; familiarize the major advantages and

  8. Understanding pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors: a mixed-methods study of homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Sussell, Jesse; Golinelli, Daniela; Zhou, Annie; Kennedy, David P; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2012-12-01

    Pregnancy rates are substantially higher among homeless youth than in the general population of youth, yet little is known about homeless adolescents' and young adults' pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors. Pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors were examined among two samples of sexually active homeless 13-24-year-olds in Los Angeles County. Data from 37 semistructured interviews conducted in March-April 2011 were analyzed using standard qualitative methods. Data from a structured survey with 277 respondents, conducted between October 2008 and August 2009, were analyzed primarily using regression modeling. More than half of interview respondents held ambivalent attitudes toward pregnancy, and ambivalent youth reported less contraceptive use than others. The interviews identified several potential influences on pregnancy attitudes: barriers associated with homelessness, readiness to settle down, desire to achieve goals, belief that a child would create something positive in life, and family and partners. In the survey, having positive attitudes toward pregnancy was positively associated with duration of homelessness (odds ratio, 1.6), contact with relatives (1.1) and relationship commitment (1.8); it was negatively associated with frequency of drinking (0.9). Relationship commitment was positively associated with nonuse of an effective contraceptive method at last sex (1.5). Effective and accessible pregnancy prevention and family planning programs for homeless youth are needed. Youths' ambivalence toward pregnancy and feelings of relationship commitment warrant attention as possible areas for programs to address. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  9. Work-related deaths among youth: Understanding the contribution of US child labor violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Myers, Douglas J; Miller, Mary E

    2016-11-01

    Evidence shows that violations of the United States (US) child labor regulations are common. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude and nature of work-related deaths among youth involving violations of US child labor regulations. We analyzed Census of Fatal Occupational Injury data from 2001 to 2012 using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. Between 2001 and 2012, 406 workers under age 18 were recorded in the CFOI as having suffered a fatal work-related injury. Among these cases, 233 were covered by the US child labor regulations. Forty-three percent of these cases involved at least one violation. The majority of cases that were not covered by the regulations involved decedents working on their family's farms (N = 139). Violations of federal child labor regulations are a significant contributor to work-related deaths among youth in the United States. Increased investment in enforcement is needed to prevent further young worker deaths involving child labor violations. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:959-968, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Understanding SOL plasma turbulence by interchange motions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Jan; Pitts, R. A.; Nielsen, A.H.; Garcia, O.E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 16 (2007), s. 192-193 ISSN 0003-0503. [Annual meeting of the division of plasma physics/49th./. Orlando , 12.11.2007-16.11.2007] Grant - others:-(XE) European Training fellowships and Grants (Euratom), EDGETURB Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tokamak * plasma * scrape-off layer * turbulence * interchange instability Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DPP07/Event/70125

  11. Understanding age-related reductions in visual working memory capacity: examining the stages of change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Philip C; Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin; Mason, Emily; Molitor, Robert J; Woodman, Geoffrey F; Ally, Brandon A

    2014-10-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is reduced in older adults. Research has shown age-related impairments to VWM encoding, but aging is likely to affect multiple stages of VWM. In the present study, we recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of younger and older adults during VWM maintenance and retrieval. We measured encoding-stage processing with the P1 component, maintenance-stage processing with the contralateral delay activity (CDA), and retrieval-stage processing by comparing the activity for old and new items (old-new effect). Older adults showed lower behavioral capacity estimates (K) than did younger adults, but surprisingly, their P1 components and CDAs were comparable to those of younger adults. This remarkable dissociation between neural activity and behavior in the older adults indicated that the P1 and CDA did not accurately assess their VWM capacity. However, the neural activity evoked during VWM retrieval yielded results that helped clarify the age-related differences. During retrieval, younger adults showed early old-new effects in frontal and occipital areas and a late central-parietal old-new effect, whereas older adults showed a late right-lateralized parietal old-new effect. The younger adults' early old-new effects strongly resembled an index of perceptual fluency, suggesting that perceptual implicit memory was activated. The activation of implicit memory could have facilitated the younger adults' behavior, and the lack of these early effects in older adults may suggest that they have much lower-resolution memory than do younger adults. From these data, we speculated that younger and older adults store the same number of items in VWM, but that younger adults store a higher-resolution representation than do older adults.

  12. Understanding the core-halo relation of quantum wave dark matter from 3D simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schive, Hsi-Yu; Liao, Ming-Hsuan; Woo, Tak-Pong; Wong, Shing-Kwong; Chiueh, Tzihong; Broadhurst, Tom; Hwang, W-Y Pauchy

    2014-12-31

    We examine the nonlinear structure of gravitationally collapsed objects that form in our simulations of wavelike cold dark matter, described by the Schrödinger-Poisson (SP) equation with a particle mass ∼10(-22)  eV. A distinct gravitationally self-bound solitonic core is found at the center of every halo, with a profile quite different from cores modeled in the warm or self-interacting dark matter scenarios. Furthermore, we show that each solitonic core is surrounded by an extended halo composed of large fluctuating dark matter granules which modulate the halo density on a scale comparable to the diameter of the solitonic core. The scaling symmetry of the SP equation and the uncertainty principle tightly relate the core mass to the halo specific energy, which, in the context of cosmological structure formation, leads to a simple scaling between core mass (Mc) and halo mass (Mh), Mc∝a(-1/2)Mh(1/3), where a is the cosmic scale factor. We verify this scaling relation by (i) examining the internal structure of a statistical sample of virialized halos that form in our 3D cosmological simulations and by (ii) merging multiple solitons to create individual virialized objects. Sufficient simulation resolution is achieved by adaptive mesh refinement and graphic processing units acceleration. From this scaling relation, present dwarf satellite galaxies are predicted to have kiloparsec-sized cores and a minimum mass of ∼10(8)M⊙, capable of solving the small-scale controversies in the cold dark matter model. Moreover, galaxies of 2×10(12)M⊙ at z=8 should have massive solitonic cores of ∼2×10(9)M⊙ within ∼60  pc. Such cores can provide a favorable local environment for funneling the gas that leads to the prompt formation of early stellar spheroids and quasars.

  13. Using scaling relations to understand trends in the catalytic activity of transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G; Bligaard, T; Abild-Pedersen, F; Noerskov, J K

    2008-01-01

    A method is developed to estimate the potential energy diagram for a full catalytic reaction for a range of late transition metals on the basis of a calculation (or an experimental determination) for a single metal. The method, which employs scaling relations between adsorption energies, is illustrated by calculating the potential energy diagram for the methanation reaction and ammonia synthesis for 11 different metals on the basis of results calculated for Ru. It is also shown that considering the free energy diagram for the reactions, under typical industrial conditions, provides additional insight into reactivity trends

  14. Evaluation of psychosocial measures for understanding weight-related behaviors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, A; Olson, C M; Frongillo, E A

    2001-01-01

    The greatest weight gain for US. women occurs during the childbearing years of 25 to 34, and many obese women attribute their adult weight gain to childbearing. Few studies have examined psychosocial influences on women's behaviors during pregnancy, in part because of the lack of valid and reliable measures of psychosocial constructs relevant to pregnant women. Based on existing theory and an in-depth interview study, the psychosocial constructs of locus of control, self-efficacy, body image, feelings about motherhood, and career orientation were identified. Scales for each construct were constructed by drawing items from existing validated scales and writing items based on the in-depth interviews; their content validity assessed using factor analysis with oblique rotation and their reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was assessed by examining the associations between scale scores and preexisting conditions of participants. Data for evaluating the scales came from a study of 622 pregnant women in a rural health care system who completed questionnaires and whose medical records were audited. Cronbach's alpha of the scales ranged from 0.73 to 0.89. Scale scores were strongly associated with lifestyle behaviors, body weight, and demographic characteristics of the participants. The analysis provides evidence of the validity of measures of psychosocial factors related to health behaviors of pregnant women. These measures should be useful in studying weight-related behaviors in pregnant women.

  15. Understanding employers' hiring intentions in relation to qualified workers with disabilities: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Robert T; Johnson, Kurt; Hebert, James; Ajzen, Icek; Copeland, Jana; Brown, Pat; Chan, Fong

    2010-12-01

    As part of the planning process for a larger survey study to examine factors affecting employers' intention to hire and hiring of people with disabilities, a series of three semi-structured focus groups were held with key hiring decision makers, such as Human Resources directors, Chief Operating Officers (COOs), or Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of small, medium, and large Seattle area companies. The chief goals of the focus groups were to elicit and refine the participants' beliefs, normative influences, and perceived control relative to hiring workers with disabilities. Narrative data obtained from the focus group discussion were examined using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to identify themes expressed by the focus group participants within the context of company size. Themes did vary by company size, but a prevailing concern across all companies related to questions about the efficiency/effectiveness of contact with vocational rehabilitation agencies. For both small- and mid-sized companies, there was a belief that people with disabilities could not do the work or were somehow less qualified. For large companies, convincing departmental and team managers that outreaching workers with disabilities would be a worthwhile hiring practice remained a challenge. The themes derived from this study can be used to help occupational rehabilitation professionals develop educational and marketing interventions to improve employers' attitudes toward hiring and retaining individuals with disabilities.

  16. Humanoid infers Archimedes' principle: understanding physical relations and object affordances through cumulative learning experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ajaz Ahmad; Mohan, Vishwanathan; Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve 'The Crow and the Pitcher' task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause-effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended 'learning-prediction-abstraction' loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations. Driven by the proposed architecture, the ensuing robot behaviours illustrated causal learning and anticipation similar to natural agents. Results further demonstrate that by cumulatively interacting with few objects, the predictions of the robot in case of novel objects converge close to the physical law, i.e. the Archimedes principle: this being independent of both the objects explored during learning and the order of their cumulative exploration. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Rigid Motion and Adapted Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Stephen N.

    The aim here is to describe the rigid motion of a continuous medium in special and general relativity. Section 7.1 defines a rigid rod in special relativity, and Sect. 7.2 shows the link with the space coordinates of a certain kind of accelerating frame in flat spacetimes. Section 7.3 then sets up a notation for describing the arbitrary smooth motion of a continuous medium in general curved spacetimes, defining the proper metric of such a medium. Section 7.4 singles out rigid motions and shows that the rod in Sect. 7.1 undergoes rigid motion in the more generally defined sense. Section 7.5 defines a rate of strain tensor for a continuous medium in general relativity and reformulates the rigidity criterion. Section 7.6 aims to classify all possible rigid motions in special relativity, reemphasizing the link with semi-Euclidean frames adapted to accelerating observers in special relativity. Then, Sects. 7.7 and 7.8 describe rigid motion without rotation and rigid rotation, respectively. Along the way we introduce the notion of Fermi-Walker transport and discuss its relevance for rigid motions. Section 7.9 brings together all the above themes in an account of a recent generalization of the notion of uniform acceleration, thereby characterizing a wide class of rigid motions.

  18. Orbit period modulation for relative motion using continuous low thrust in the two-body and restricted three-body problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnot, C. S.; McInnes, C. R.; McKay, R. J.; Macdonald, M.; Biggs, J.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents rich new families of relative orbits for spacecraft formation flight generated through the application of continuous thrust with only minimal intervention into the dynamics of the problem. Such simplicity facilitates implementation for small, low-cost spacecraft with only position state feedback, and yet permits interesting and novel relative orbits in both two- and three-body systems with potential future applications in space-based interferometry, hyperspectral sensing, and on-orbit inspection. Position feedback is used to modify the natural frequencies of the linearised relative dynamics through direct manipulation of the system eigenvalues, producing new families of stable relative orbits. Specifically, in the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire frame, simple adaptations of the linearised dynamics are used to produce a circular relative orbit, frequency-modulated out-of-plane motion, and a novel doubly periodic cylindrical relative trajectory for the purposes of on-orbit inspection. Within the circular restricted three-body problem, a similar minimal approach with position feedback is used to generate new families of stable, frequency-modulated relative orbits in the vicinity of a Lagrange point, culminating in the derivation of the gain requirements for synchronisation of the in-plane and out-of-plane frequencies to yield a singly periodic tilted elliptical relative orbit with potential use as a Lunar far-side communications relay. The Δ v requirements for the cylindrical relative orbit and singly periodic Lagrange point orbit are analysed, and it is shown that these requirements are modest and feasible for existing low-thrust propulsion technology.

  19. Algebraic Description of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidon, William C.

    1974-01-01

    An algebraic definition of time differentiation is presented and used to relate independent measurements of position and velocity. With this, students can grasp certain essential physical, geometric, and algebraic properties of motion and differentiation before undertaking the study of limits. (Author)

  20. Cultural understanding in the provision of supportive and palliative care: perspectives in relation to an indigenous population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Grace; Vukic, Adele; Parker, Skylan

    2013-03-01

    The provision of supportive and palliative care for an indigenous people in Nova Scotia, Canada, was examined to further our understanding and thereby improve cultural competency. Most of Nova Scotia's indigenous people are Mi'kmaq. The Mi'kmaq Nation lives in Atlantic Canada as well as New England in the eastern USA. Themes were identified in the literature and through discussion with seven experts who have Mi'kmaq health and cultural research expertise. This paper has been reviewed and approved by two Mi'kmaq consultants who frequently speak on behalf of the Mi'kmaq people in relation to health and cultural understanding. Recommendations for non-indigenous care providers are presented. The themes identified focused on jurisdictional issues and cultural understanding. They are interconnected and grounded in the historic Mi'kmaq context of colonialism. Jurisdictional issues experienced by the Mi'kmaq affect access, continuity and appropriateness of care. Cultural concepts were associated with worldview, spirituality, the role of family and community relationships and communication norms, and thereby with the alignment of values and language in the provision of care. Three Mi'kmaq concepts are noted: apiksiktatulti, nemu'ltus and salite. Through reflection on the situation of Nova Scotia's Mi'kmaq, non-indigenous healthcare providers can assess how they might increase their cultural understanding in the provision of supportive and palliative care. Recommendations relate to the health system, relationships with individual persons and direction for research.

  1. Foucault's contributions for understanding power relations in British classical political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Guizzo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the strategic role played by British classical political economy in constructing new technologies of power. Michel Foucault drew attention to a change that political economists promoted concerning the role of the state, which has been overlooked by historians of economic thought. This paper explores the main arguments provided by the most important British political economists of the 18th and 19th centuries on what concerns population management, State's role and economic dynamics in order to examine Foucault's considerations. Although British classical political economy consolidated the mechanism of markets and economic individuality, thus creating a system of truth that changed economic norms and practices, its discourse also established a political conduct that was responsible for creating mechanisms of control that disseminated new forms of power relations.

  2. Understanding the increase in the number of childbirth-related leave beneficiaries in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanić Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past number of years, the public expenditures for childbirth-related leave benefits have more than doubled – in 2015 amounted to 0.7% GDP in relation to 0.3% GDP in 2002. This increase can mainly be attributed to the increased number of beneficiaries that grew consistently from 24 thousand in 2002 up to 40 thousand in 2015, despite the fact that the annual number of live births has been almost continually decreasing and the registered employment has dropped by almost 20 per cent in the observed period. One of the clear reasons explaining part of this increase is the extension of 3+ order of birth leaves in 2006, from one to two years, which can explain the increase of around 3.5 thousand of beneficiaries. Another reason is high number of beneficiaries using special child-care leave meant for parents with children with disabilities, but which, in reality, is very often used simply as the extension of parental leave. The average number of special child-care leave beneficiaries in the second half of 2015 amounted to 2.8 thousand. When these two effects are taken into account, we still notice significant increase of beneficiaries of around 10 thousand in the observed period. Fictitious employment during the pregnancy can explain this increase to some extent. Available data unambiguously show that a number of women formally employing during the second and third trimester of pregnancy has increased from 800 in 2002 to almost 3.5 thousand monthly average in the second half of 2015. There are two flaws of the childbirth-related leave programme in Serbia, which together lead to the constant increase of the number of beneficiaries. First is the lack of flexibility of the programme, both in terms of eligibility for acquiring the right as well as in terms of flexibility in use. Maternity/parental leave benefit may acquire only those in „standard employment” i.e. employed under employment contract (and entrepreneurs while other type of

  3. Explanatory models of black lung: understanding the health-related behavior of Appalachian coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, J

    1982-03-01

    Many retired coal miners who are eligible for care in a black lung treatment center at little or no cost to themselves do not enter into available programs or discontinue soon after beginning therapy. Reasons for this behavior are related to the prevalent beliefs among Appalachians concerning the course of black lung and the appropriate treatment for it. The miners' health beliefs are clearly at odds with those of the health care providers who work in the centers. Using the concept of explanatory model, popular and professional health cultures are analyzed, focusing on course of disease, sick role, appropriate treatment, and expected outcome. Differences in explanatory models are discussed with regard to implications for the organization and delivery of care to retired coal miners with black lung.

  4. Recent advances in the understanding of electrocatalysis and its relation to surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, E.

    1977-01-01

    It is pointed out that electrosorption plays a key role in electrocatalysis. Little information is available, however, concerning the chemical nature of the interactions of the adsorbed species with the electrode and even less about the adsorption sites. The role of adsorbed species and surface layers in electrocatalysis is reviewed for several electrode systems. In recent years, some general insights have been achieved into the relationship of hydrogen electrode kinetics to hydrogen adsorption. For a given mechanism the exchange current density is related to the standard free energy of adsorption of the particular type of adsorbed hydrogen upon which the kinetics depend. The oxygen electrode reactions are less well understood than the reactions for the hydrogen electrode. The pronounced irreversibility of the oxygen electrode reactions at moderate temperatures has severely complicated mechanistic studies.

  5. Training Of Manual Actions Improves Language Understanding of Semantically-Related Action Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eLocatelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual knowledge accessed by language may involve the re-activation of the associated primary sensory-motor processes. Whether these embodied representations are indeed constitutive to conceptual knowledge is hotly debated, particularly since direct evidence that sensory-motor expertise can improve conceptual processing is scarce.In this study, we sought for this crucial piece of evidence, by training naive healthy subjects to perform complex manual actions and by measuring, before and after training, their performance in a semantic language task. 19 participants engaged in 3 weeks of motor training. Each participant was trained in 3 complex manual actions (e.g. origami. Before and after the training period, each subject underwent a series of manual dexterity tests and a semantic language task. The latter consisted of a sentence-picture semantic congruency judgment task, with 6 target congruent sentence-picture pairs (semantically related to the trained manual actions, 6 non-target congruent pairs (semantically unrelated, and 12 filler incongruent pairs.Manual action training induced a significant improvement in all manual dexterity tests, demonstrating the successful acquisition of sensory-motor expertise. In the semantic language task, the reaction times to both target and non-target congruent sentence-image pairs decreased after action training, indicating a more efficient conceptual-semantic processing. Noteworthy, the reaction times for target pairs decreased more than those for non-target pairs, as indicated by the 2x2 interaction. These results were confirmed when controlling for the potential bias of increased frequency of use of target lexical items during manual training.The results of the present study suggest that sensory-motor expertise gained by training of specific manual actions can lead to an improvement of cognitive-linguistic skills related to the specific conceptual-semantic domain associated to the trained actions.

  6. Six-degree-of-freedom near-source seismic motions I: rotation-to-translation relations and synthetic examples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brokešová, J.; Málek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2015), s. 491-509 ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/0925; GA MŠk LM2010008; GA ČR GA15-02363S Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : seismic rotation * near-source region * rotation-to-translation relations * numerical simulations * S-wave velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.550, year: 2015

  7. Addressing pre-service teachers' understandings and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in this study. Students' understanding of and difficulties with core elements (time, length, mass and density) were tested using a paper-and-pencil questionnaire (including four questions) and in-depth interviews after the instruction of related modern physics topics. The analyses of the collected data were based on quantitative and qualitative techniques. The results indicate that pre-service teachers at different academic levels have specific and considerable difficulties with proper time, time dilation, proper length, mass and relativistic density concepts. In this paper, the conclusions of the study and implications for physics teaching are discussed.

  8. Addressing pre-service teachers' understandings and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin, E-mail: gamze.sezgin@deu.edu.t [Dokuz Eylul University, Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education Izmir, 35160 (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in this study. Students' understanding of and difficulties with core elements (time, length, mass and density) were tested using a paper-and-pencil questionnaire (including four questions) and in-depth interviews after the instruction of related modern physics topics. The analyses of the collected data were based on quantitative and qualitative techniques. The results indicate that pre-service teachers at different academic levels have specific and considerable difficulties with proper time, time dilation, proper length, mass and relativistic density concepts. In this paper, the conclusions of the study and implications for physics teaching are discussed.

  9. Conceptualizing leadership perceptions as attitudes:using attitude theory to further the understanding of the relation between leadership and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Allan; Martin, Robin; Thomas, Geoff; Guillaume, Yves; Maio, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is one of the most examined factors in relation to understanding employee wellbeing and performance. While there are disparate approaches to studying leadership, they share a common assumption that perceptions of a leader's behavior determine reactions to the leader. The concept of leadership perception is poorly understood in most theoretical approaches. To address this, we propose that there are many benefits from examining leadership perceptions as an attitude towards the leader...

  10. Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Meat Chicken Production and Relations to Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erian, Ihab; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-03-09

    Little is known about public knowledge of meat chicken production and how it influences attitudes to birds' welfare and consumer behaviour. We interviewed 506 members of the public in SE Queensland; Australia; to determine how knowledge of meat chicken production and slaughter links to attitudes and consumption. Knowledge was assessed from 15 questions and low scores were supported by respondents' self-assessed report of low knowledge levels and agreement that their knowledge was insufficient to form an opinion about which chicken products to purchase. Older respondents and single people without children were most knowledgeable. There was uncertainty about whether chicken welfare was adequate, particularly in those with little knowledge. There was also evidence that a lack of empathy towards chickens related to lack of knowledge, since those that thought it acceptable that some birds are inadequately stunned at slaughter had low knowledge scores. More knowledgeable respondents ate chicken more frequently and were less likely to buy products with accredited labelling. Approximately half of the respondents thought the welfare of the chicken was more important than the cost. It is concluded that the public's knowledge has an important connection to their attitudes and consumption of chicken.

  11. A review of constructivism: understanding and using a relatively new theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, N

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to familiarize family medicine educators with a relatively new educational theory, "constructivism." This theory is derived from the philosophical proposition that reality is constructed by the individual. According to the more traditional theory of "objectivism," knowledge exists in the world external to personal experience. Constructivist theory postulates that personal experience cannot be separated from knowledge. In analyzing the literature, the author found that constructivism can be viewed at the cognitive (individual) and social (community) levels. Cognitive constructivism maintains that individuals develop their own models of reality using personal experience and research-based data. Two key elements of cognitive constructivism with implications for family medicine educators are promoting student independence and active learning. Social constructivism maintains that individuals use their membership in a community to continually refine and shape their models of reality. By communicating with each other (for physicians, in the "conversation of medicine"), we test our constructs. Two key elements of social constructivism with implications for application by family medicine educators are promoting collaboration and peer teaching.

  12. Lumbar spinal imaging in radicular pain and related conditions. Understanding diagnostic images in a clinical context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmink, Jan T.

    2010-01-01

    There is general agreement that lumbosacral nerve root compression is a prime factor in the pathogenesis of sciatica and neurogenic claudication, although humoral and vascular factors certainly play a role as well. This book focuses on imaging of the various ways in which nerve root compression can come about, and assessing which anatomic features are reliably associated with the occurrence of radicular pain, as opposed to morphologic findings which are probably coincidental. After a discussion of the nature of radicular pain and related symptoms, spinal imaging techniques and options are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of MR myelography in assessing the condition of the intradural nerve roots. A chapter on normal topographic, sectional, and functional (dynamic) radiologic anatomy is followed by a presentation on pathologic anatomy, addressing the various mechanisms of nerve root compression. In the chapter on pre- and postoperative imaging, features which may help to predict the evolution of the symptoms are discussed, with an eye to selecting candidates for surgical treatment. This is followed by a discussion of the role and limitations of imaging studies in various adverse postoperative conditions. In illustrations involving patient studies, imaging features are linked where possible to the clinical symptoms and history of the individuals involved. (orig.)

  13. Lumbar spinal imaging in radicular pain and related conditions. Understanding diagnostic images in a clinical context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmink, Jan T. [University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. Radiology

    2010-07-01

    There is general agreement that lumbosacral nerve root compression is a prime factor in the pathogenesis of sciatica and neurogenic claudication, although humoral and vascular factors certainly play a role as well. This book focuses on imaging of the various ways in which nerve root compression can come about, and assessing which anatomic features are reliably associated with the occurrence of radicular pain, as opposed to morphologic findings which are probably coincidental. After a discussion of the nature of radicular pain and related symptoms, spinal imaging techniques and options are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of MR myelography in assessing the condition of the intradural nerve roots. A chapter on normal topographic, sectional, and functional (dynamic) radiologic anatomy is followed by a presentation on pathologic anatomy, addressing the various mechanisms of nerve root compression. In the chapter on pre- and postoperative imaging, features which may help to predict the evolution of the symptoms are discussed, with an eye to selecting candidates for surgical treatment. This is followed by a discussion of the role and limitations of imaging studies in various adverse postoperative conditions. In illustrations involving patient studies, imaging features are linked where possible to the clinical symptoms and history of the individuals involved. (orig.)

  14. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  15. Algorithmic Issues in Modeling Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, P. K; Guibas, L. J; Edelsbrunner, H.

    2003-01-01

    This article is a survey of research areas in which motion plays a pivotal role. The aim of the article is to review current approaches to modeling motion together with related data structures and algorithms, and to summarize the challenges that lie ahead in producing a more unified theory...

  16. Relatively effortless listening promotes understanding and recall of medical instructions in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Roberta M.; Surprenant, Aimée M.

    2015-01-01

    Communication success under adverse conditions requires efficient and effective recruitment of both bottom-up (sensori-perceptual) and top-down (cognitive-linguistic) resources to decode the intended auditory-verbal message. Employing these limited capacity resources has been shown to vary across the lifespan, with evidence indicating that younger adults out-perform older adults for both comprehension and memory of the message. This study examined how sources of interference arising from the speaker (message spoken with conversational vs. clear speech technique), the listener (hearing-listening and cognitive-linguistic factors), and the environment (in competing speech babble noise vs. quiet) interact and influence learning and memory performance using more ecologically valid methods than has been done previously. The results suggest that when older adults listened to complex medical prescription instructions with “clear speech,” (presented at audible levels through insertion earphones) their learning efficiency, immediate, and delayed memory performance improved relative to their performance when they listened with a normal conversational speech rate (presented at audible levels in sound field). This better learning and memory performance for clear speech listening was maintained even in the presence of speech babble noise. The finding that there was the largest learning-practice effect on 2nd trial performance in the conversational speech when the clear speech listening condition was first is suggestive of greater experience-dependent perceptual learning or adaptation to the speaker's speech and voice pattern in clear speech. This suggests that experience-dependent perceptual learning plays a role in facilitating the language processing and comprehension of a message and subsequent memory encoding. PMID:26106353

  17. Relatively effortless listening promotes understanding and recall of medical instructions in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maria DiDonato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication success under adverse conditions requires efficient and effective recruitment of both bottom-up (sensori-perceptual and top-down (cognitive-linguistic resources to decode the intended auditory-verbal message. Employing these limited capacity resources has been shown to vary across the lifespan, with evidence indicating that younger adults out-perform older adults for both comprehension and memory of the message. This study examined how sources of interference arising from the speaker (message spoken with conversational versus clear speech technique, the listener (hearing-listening and cognitive-linguistic factors, and the environment (in competing speech babble noise versus quiet interact and influence learning and memory performance using more ecologically valid methods than has been done previously. The results suggest that when older adults listened to complex medical prescription instructions with ‘clear speech,’ (presented at audible levels through insertion earphones their learning efficiency, immediate and delayed memory performance improved relative to their performance when they listened with a normal conversational speech rate (presented at audible levels in sound field. This better learning and memory performance for clear speech listening was maintained even in the presence of speech babble noise. The finding that there was the largest learning-practice effect on 2nd trial performance in the conversational speech when the clear speech listening condition was first is suggestive of greater experience-dependent perceptual learning or adaptation to the speaker’s speech and voice pattern in clear speech. This suggests that experience-dependent perceptual learning plays a role in facilitating the language processing and comprehension of a message and subsequent memory encoding.

  18. Structure and breakup history of the rifted margin of West Antarctica in relation to Cretaceous separation from Zealandia and Bellingshausen plate motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobbe, F.; Gohl, K.; Chambord, A.; Sutherland, R.

    2012-04-01

    Geophysical data acquired using R/V Polarstern constrain the structure and age of the rifted oceanic margin of West Antarctica. West of the Antipodes Fracture Zone, the 145 km wide continent-ocean transition zone (COTZ) of the Marie Byrd Land sector resembles a typical magma-poor margin. New gravity and seismic reflection data indicates initial continental crust of thickness 24 km, that was stretched 90 km. Farther east, the Bellingshausen sector is broad and complex with abundant evidence for volcanism, the COTZ is ˜670 km wide, and the nature of crust within the COTZ is uncertain. Margin extension is estimated to be 106-304 km in this sector. Seafloor magnetic anomalies adjacent to Marie Byrd Land near the Pahemo Fracture Zone indicate full-spreading rate during c33-c31 (80-68 Myr) of 60 mm yr-1, increasing to 74 mm yr-1 at c27 (62 Myr), and then dropping to 22 mm yr-1 by c22 (50 Myr). Spreading rates were lower to the west. Extrapolation towards the continental margin indicates initial oceanic crust formation at around c34y (84 Myr). Subsequent motion of the Bellingshausen plate relative to Antarctica (84-62 Myr) took place east of the Antipodes Fracture Zone at rates <40 mm yr-1, typically 5-20 mm yr-1. The high extension rate of 30-60 mm yr-1 during initial margin formation is consistent with steep and symmetrical margin morphology, but subsequent motion of the Bellingshausen plate was slow and complex, and modified rift morphology through migrating deformation and volcanic centers to create a broad and complex COTZ.

  19. Force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Intimidated by inertia? Frightened by forces? Mystified by Newton s law of motion? You re not alone and help is at hand. The stop Faking It! Series is perfect for science teachers, home-schoolers, parents wanting to help with homework all of you who need a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching middle school physical science with confidence. With Bill Roberton as your friendly, able but somewhat irreverent guide, you will discover you CAN come to grips with the basics of force and motion. Combining easy-to-understand explanations with activities using commonly found equipment, this book will lead you through Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. The book is as entertaining as it is informative. Best of all, the author understands the needs of adults who want concrete examples, hands-on activities, clear language, diagrams and yes, a certain amount of empathy. Ideas For Use Newton's laws, and all of the other motion principles presented in this book, do a good job of helping us to underst...

  20. Superluminal motion (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Romanets, E. A.

    2012-06-01

    Prior to the development of Special Relativity, no restrictions were imposed on the velocity of the motion of particles and material bodies, as well as on energy transfer and signal propagation. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, it was shown that a charge that moves at a velocity faster than the speed of light in an optical medium, in particular, in vacuum, gives rise to impact radiation, which later was termed the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. Shortly after the development of Special Relativity, some researchers considered the possibility of superluminal motion. In 1923, the Soviet physicist L.Ya. Strum suggested the existence of tachyons, which, however, have not been discovered yet. Superluminal motions can occur only for images, e.g., for so-called "light spots," which were considered in 1972 by V.L. Ginzburg and B.M. Bolotovskii. These spots can move with a superluminal phase velocity but are incapable of transferring energy and information. Nevertheless, these light spots may induce quite real generation of microwave radiation in closed waveguides and create the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation in vacuum. In this work, we consider various paradoxes, illusions, and artifacts associated with superluminal motion.

  1. "Obesity" and "Clinical Obesity" Men's understandings of obesity and its relation to the risk of diabetes: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Nicola F; Hayes, Louise; Unwin, Nigel C; Murtagh, Madeleine J

    2008-09-14

    The 2007 Wanless report highlights the ever increasing problem of obesity and the consequent health problems. Obesity is a significant cause of diabetes. An increasing evidence base suggests that in terms of reducing diabetes and CVD risk, it is better to be "fit and fat" than unfit and of normal weight. There has been very little previous research into the understandings that men in the general population hold about the issues of weight, exercise and health; we therefore undertook this study in order to inform the process of health promotion and diabetes prevention in this group. A qualitative study in North East England General Practice using a purposive sample of men aged 25 and 45 years (selection process designed to include 'normal', 'overweight' and 'obese' men). One to one audio-recorded semi structured interviews focused on: overweight and obesity, diet, physical activity and diabetes. Transcripts were initially analysed using framework analysis. Emerging themes interlinked. The men in this study (n = 17) understand the word obesity differently from the clinical definition; "obesity" was used as a description of those with fat in a central distribution, and understandings of the term commonly take into account fitness as well as weight. Men in their late 30s and early 40s described becoming more aware of health issues. Knowledge of what constitutes a 'healthy lifestyle' was generally good, but men described difficulty acting upon this knowledge for various reasons e.g. increasing responsibilities at home and at work. Knowledge of diabetes and the link between obesity and diabetes was poor. Men in this study had a complex understanding of the interlinked importance of weight and fitness in relation to health. Obesity is understood as a description of people with centrally distributed fat, in association with low fitness levels. There is a need to increase understanding of the causes and consequences of diabetes. Discussion of increased health awareness by

  2. The effect of wearing a lumbar belt on biomechanical and psychological outcomes related to maximal flexion-extension motion and manual material handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahvarpour, Ali; Preuss, Richard; Sullivan, Michael J L; Negrini, Alessia; Larivière, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Workers with low back pain (LBP) may benefit from wearing a lumbar belt (LB), but the biomechanical and psychological mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Two types of flexible LB (extensible and non-extensible) were compared to a control condition (no LB) regarding pain-related (pain, fear of pain and catastrophizing) and biomechanical (range of motion - ROM) outcomes related to two tasks: maximal trunk flexion-extension and manual material handling. Healthy controls and participants with LBP were tested. During both tasks, the two LBs reduced the lumbar ROM in participants with LBP in the same way as healthy controls. This was observed even at the beginning of the trunk flexion movement, allowing generalization to many work tasks, that is to say tasks performed with small or deep trunk flexion. The two LBs reduced pain, fear of pain and catastrophizing in subjects with LBP. That may help a gradual re-exposure to physical work activities (disability prevention perspective), or maintaining these activities (secondary prevention perspective), following a LBP episode. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Couples' joint decision-making: the construction and validation of a key proxy for understanding gender relations in contemporary families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Covre-Sussai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender relations have become a key dimension in family studies, and understanding gender relations as both determining and resulting from outcome of new family configurations requires the use of specific surveys aimed at the dynamics of couples. Unfortunately, nationally representative surveys of this type are not available for Latin American countries. Nonetheless, the most recent versions of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS include a section called "Women's Status and Empowerment", which can provide information about gender relations as well. This study aims at assessing the construct of gender relations in terms of couples' joint decision-making for all five Brazilian geographical regions. To this end, a step-by-step multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA was applied in order to verify whether this concept can be compared across Brazilian regions. Results show that the DHS items can be used reliably for measuring couples' joint decision-making and that this construct can be meaningfully compared over the regions. These findings will contribute to further demographic and sociological research on gender relations which can use this concept and other indicators provided by the DHS to identify the causal processes related to it.

  4. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  5. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect-an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  6. ′Tigers are Our Brothers′: Understanding Human-Nature Relations in the Mishmi Hills, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Aiyadurai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-nature relations are diverse, multifaceted and often contradictory, especially the relationships with animals. Mishmi people living on the Sino-India border claim tigers to be their brothers and take credit for tiger protection as they observe taboos against hunting tigers. Drawing on this notion of relatedness with tigers, local residents of the Dibang Valley question the governments' recent plans to declare the Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary into Dibang Tiger Reserve and its scientific surveys of tigers and habitat mapping. This paper highlights how Mishmi people relate to tigers and how their understanding of tigers is in contest with versions of state and science, as national property or endangered species. Using in-depth interviews and participant observations in the Dibang Valley, I provide an ethnographic analysis of how different ideas of nature are played out by different actors in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India. Tiger conservation projects bring these conflicting versions of nature together, creating unexpected encounters between Mishmi, state and scientists. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of changing notions of nature in the age of globalisation and an increasingly interconnected world.

  7. Health-related claims on food labels in Australia: understanding environmental health officers' roles and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon-Paoloni, Deanne; Yeatman, Heather R; Grigonis-Deane, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Health and related claims on food labels can support consumer education initiatives that encourage purchase of healthier foods. A new food Standard on Nutrition, Health and Related Claims became law in January 2013. Implementation will need careful monitoring and enforcement to ensure that claims are truthful and have meaning. The current study explored factors that may impact on environmental health officers' food labelling policy enforcement practices. The study used a mixed-methods approach, using two previously validated quantitative questionnaire instruments that provided measures of the level of control that the officers exercised over their work, as well as qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Local government; Australia. Thirty-seven officers in three Australian states participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews, as well as completing the quantitative questionnaires. Senior and junior officers, including field officers, participated in the study. The officers reported a high level of autonomy and control of their work, but also a heavy workload, dominated by concerns for public health and food safety, with limited time for monitoring food labels. Compliance of labels with proposed health claims regulations was not considered a priority. Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucracy was used to enhance understanding of officers' work practices. Competing priorities affect environmental health officers' monitoring and enforcement of regulations. Understanding officers' work practices and their perceptions of enforcement is important to increase effectiveness of policy implementation and hence its capacity to augment education initiatives to optimize health benefits.

  8. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  9. Measurement of shoulder motion fraction and motion ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yeong Han

    2006-01-01

    This study was to understand about the measurement of shoulder motion fraction and motion ratio. We proposed the radiological criterior of glenohumeral and scapulothoracic movement ratio. We measured the motion fraction of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic movement using CR (computed radiological system) of arm elevation at neutral, 90 degree, full elevation. Central ray was 15 .deg., 19 .deg., 22 .deg. to the cephald for the parallel scapular spine, and the tilting of torso was external oblique 40 .deg., 36 .deg., 22 .deg. for perpendicular to glenohumeral surface. Healthful donor of 100 was divided 5 groups by age (20, 30, 40, 50, 60). The angle of glenohumeral motion and scapulothoracic motion could be taken from gross arm angle and radiological arm angle. We acquired 3 images at neutral, 90 .deg. and full elevation position and measured radiographic angle of glenoheumeral, scapulothoracic movement respectively. While the arm elevation was 90 .deg., the shoulder motion fraction was 1.22 (M), 1.70 (W) in right arm and 1.31, 1.54 in left. In full elevation, Right arm fraction was 1.63, 1.84 and left was 1.57, 1.32. In right dominant arm (78%), 90 .deg. and Full motion fraction was 1.58, 1.43, in left (22%) 1.82, 1.94. In generation 20, 90 .deg. and Full motion fraction was 1.56, 1.52, 30' was 1.82, 1.43, 40' was 1.23, 1.16, 50' was 1.80, 1.28,60' was 1.24, 1.75. There was not significantly by gender, dominant arm and age. The criteria of motion fraction was useful reference for clinical diagnosis the shoulder instability

  10. Measurement of shoulder motion fraction and motion ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeong Han [Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    This study was to understand about the measurement of shoulder motion fraction and motion ratio. We proposed the radiological criterior of glenohumeral and scapulothoracic movement ratio. We measured the motion fraction of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic movement using CR (computed radiological system) of arm elevation at neutral, 90 degree, full elevation. Central ray was 15 .deg., 19 .deg., 22 .deg. to the cephald for the parallel scapular spine, and the tilting of torso was external oblique 40 .deg., 36 .deg., 22 .deg. for perpendicular to glenohumeral surface. Healthful donor of 100 was divided 5 groups by age (20, 30, 40, 50, 60). The angle of glenohumeral motion and scapulothoracic motion could be taken from gross arm angle and radiological arm angle. We acquired 3 images at neutral, 90 .deg. and full elevation position and measured radiographic angle of glenoheumeral, scapulothoracic movement respectively. While the arm elevation was 90 .deg., the shoulder motion fraction was 1.22 (M), 1.70 (W) in right arm and 1.31, 1.54 in left. In full elevation, Right arm fraction was 1.63, 1.84 and left was 1.57, 1.32. In right dominant arm (78%), 90 .deg. and Full motion fraction was 1.58, 1.43, in left (22%) 1.82, 1.94. In generation 20, 90 .deg. and Full motion fraction was 1.56, 1.52, 30' was 1.82, 1.43, 40' was 1.23, 1.16, 50' was 1.80, 1.28,60' was 1.24, 1.75. There was not significantly by gender, dominant arm and age. The criteria of motion fraction was useful reference for clinical diagnosis the shoulder instability.

  11. Chronic Neck Pain and Cervico-Craniofacial Pain Patients Express Similar Levels of Neck Pain-Related Disability, Pain Catastrophizing, and Cervical Range of Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Muñoz-García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neck pain (NP is strongly associated with cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP. The primary aim of the present study was to compare the neck pain-related disability, pain catastrophizing, and cervical and mandibular ROM between patients with chronic mechanical NP and patients with CCFP, as well as asymptomatic subjects. Methods. A total of 64 participants formed three groups. All participants underwent a clinical examination evaluating the cervical range of motion and maximum mouth opening, neck disability index (NDI, and psychological factor of Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS. Results. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with NP and CCFP for NDI and PCS (P>0.05. One- way ANOVA revealed significant differences for all ROM measurements. The post hoc analysis showed no statistically significant differences in cervical extension and rotation between the two patient groups (P>0.05. The Pearson correlation analysis shows a moderate positive association between NDI and the PCS for the group of patients with NP and CCFP. Conclusion. The CCFP and NP patient groups have similar neck disability levels and limitation in cervical ROM in extension and rotation. Both groups had positively correlated the NDI with the PCS.

  12. Chronic Neck Pain and Cervico-Craniofacial Pain Patients Express Similar Levels of Neck Pain-Related Disability, Pain Catastrophizing, and Cervical Range of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-García, Daniel; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; López-López, Almudena; Lopez-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; La Touche, Roy; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neck pain (NP) is strongly associated with cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP). The primary aim of the present study was to compare the neck pain-related disability, pain catastrophizing, and cervical and mandibular ROM between patients with chronic mechanical NP and patients with CCFP, as well as asymptomatic subjects. Methods. A total of 64 participants formed three groups. All participants underwent a clinical examination evaluating the cervical range of motion and maximum mouth opening, neck disability index (NDI), and psychological factor of Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Results. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with NP and CCFP for NDI and PCS (P > 0.05). One- way ANOVA revealed significant differences for all ROM measurements. The post hoc analysis showed no statistically significant differences in cervical extension and rotation between the two patient groups (P > 0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis shows a moderate positive association between NDI and the PCS for the group of patients with NP and CCFP. Conclusion. The CCFP and NP patient groups have similar neck disability levels and limitation in cervical ROM in extension and rotation. Both groups had positively correlated the NDI with the PCS. PMID:27119020

  13. Dance notations and robot motion

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    How and why to write a movement? Who is the writer? Who is the reader? They may be choreographers working with dancers. They may be roboticists programming robots. They may be artists designing cartoons in computer animation. In all such fields the purpose is to express an intention about a dance, a specific motion or an action to perform, in terms of intelligible sequences of elementary movements, as a music score that would be devoted to motion representation. Unfortunately there is no universal language to write a motion. Motion languages live together in a Babel tower populated by biomechanists, dance notators, neuroscientists, computer scientists, choreographers, roboticists. Each community handles its own concepts and speaks its own language. The book accounts for this diversity. Its origin is a unique workshop held at LAAS-CNRS in Toulouse in 2014. Worldwide representatives of various communities met there. Their challenge was to reach a mutual understanding allowing a choreographer to access robotics ...

  14. Work related Changes And New Understandings Of Prevention: Results Of Multi-Level Participatory Interventions In Four SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Poulsen, Signe; Gish, Liv

    2014-01-01

    be addressed and how prevention of work-related stress can be understood. In addition to supporting a new understanding of prevention, the use of the model also results in concrete changes which become solutions to the work-place’s current and specific problems. The use of the PoWRS model thus enables an SME......This paper presents the result of four SMEs’ use of a multi-level participatory self-help intervention model (the PoWRS model – Prevention of Work Related Stress). The model itself supports a new view on prevention of work-related stress in the participating companies besides the concrete...... to explicate tacit knowledge about what creates enthusiasms and stress at the work place, Multi-voting which decided two work-related changes to be initiated, a KickOff session to mark the start-up of the actual changes, continuous interviews of colleagues by the in-house facilitators, and ongoing status...

  15. On a test to resolve issues related to earthquake response of nuclear structures and the ground motions used for the test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes new test methodology to obtain the data available to evaluate ultimate seismic behavior of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) structures. The paper firstly reviews the existing test data of Soil Structure Interaction (SSI). Secondary, the paper points out the issues in the existing data regarding their applicability to the evaluation of behavior of NPP structures when a big earthquake ground motion strikes them. Then the paper proposes new test methodology to evaluate ultimate behavior of NPP structures against a strong earthquake ground motion. The proposed methodology employs ground motions generated in a surface coal mine that has a large acceleration up to 2 g. The simulation analysis is carried out by applying an observed large ground motion at the coal mine to a scaled NPP building model. The results are promising and encourage the application of the methodologies to evaluate ultimate earthquake response behavior of the NPP structures. (author)

  16. Understanding Combat-Related PTSD Symptom Expression Through Index Trauma and Military Culture: Case Studies of Filipino Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz Fajarito, Cariñez; De Guzman, Rosalito G

    2017-05-01

    Few studies demonstrate how the index trauma may influence subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, especially among soldiers. There is still no consensus on specific trauma types and their corresponding PTSD symptom profiles. Furthermore, varied PTSD symptom manifestations that may yield to PTSD trauma subtypes are yet to be known. Importantly, the significance of the military culture's possible influence on soldiers' PTSD has also been underexplored. And the dominant PTSD construct may possibly be unable to capture the essential aspects of the military context in understanding combat-related PTSD. Hence, this study aims to reach an understanding into how index trauma and military culture may possibly shape participants' PTSD expressions. Case study design was used, wherein multiple sources of data-such as PTSD assessments, and interviews with the participants and key informants-enabled data triangulation. The three case reports are the outcomes of the corroboration of evidences that reveal an enriched and holistic understanding of the phenomenon under study. The Ethics Review Board Committee of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Medical Center approved the study. The participants were three Filipino active duty combat soldiers. Although all participants had similar index traumas, their PTSD symptom expressions are unique from one another, in that they differ in terms of their most incapacitating PTSD symptoms and other symptoms that have been potentially shaped by military culture. Their most incapacitating symptoms: hypervigilance (case 1), negative belief in oneself and negative emotions (case 2), prolonged distress, and marked physiological reactions to trauma-related cues (case 3), may be understood in the light of how they personally experienced different circumstances of their index traumas. The way participants have anchored specific components of their sworn soldier's creed (i.e., not leaving a fallen comrade) into some of their PTSD

  17. "Obesity" and "Clinical Obesity" Men's understandings of obesity and its relation to the risk of diabetes: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unwin Nigel C

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2007 Wanless report highlights the ever increasing problem of obesity and the consequent health problems. Obesity is a significant cause of diabetes. An increasing evidence base suggests that in terms of reducing diabetes and CVD risk, it is better to be "fit and fat" than unfit and of normal weight. There has been very little previous research into the understandings that men in the general population hold about the issues of weight, exercise and health; we therefore undertook this study in order to inform the process of health promotion and diabetes prevention in this group. Methods A qualitative study in North East England General Practice using a purposive sample of men aged 25 and 45 years (selection process designed to include 'normal', 'overweight' and 'obese' men. One to one audio-recorded semi structured interviews focused on: overweight and obesity, diet, physical activity and diabetes. Transcripts were initially analysed using framework analysis. Emerging themes interlinked. Results The men in this study (n = 17 understand the word obesity differently from the clinical definition; "obesity" was used as a description of those with fat in a central distribution, and understandings of the term commonly take into account fitness as well as weight. Men in their late 30s and early 40s described becoming more aware of health issues. Knowledge of what constitutes a 'healthy lifestyle' was generally good, but men described difficulty acting upon this knowledge for various reasons e.g. increasing responsibilities at home and at work. Knowledge of diabetes and the link between obesity and diabetes was poor. Conclusion Men in this study had a complex understanding of the interlinked importance of weight and fitness in relation to health. Obesity is understood as a description of people with centrally distributed fat, in association with low fitness levels. There is a need to increase understanding of the causes and

  18. Probing Student Understanding of Scientific Thinking in the Context of Introductory Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Richard N.; Cormier, Sebastien; Fernandez, Adiel

    2009-01-01

    Common forms of testing of student understanding of science content can be misleading about their understanding of the nature of scientific thinking. Observational astronomy integrated with related ideas of force and motion is a rich context to explore the correlation between student content knowledge and student understanding of the scientific…

  19. Assessing Constraints on Soldier Cognitive and Perceptual Motor Performance During Vehicle Motion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metcalfe, Jason S; Davis, Jr., , James A; Tauson, Richard A; McDowell, Kaleb

    2008-01-01

    .... Because vehicle motion is a primary influence on the Soldier's performance, understanding the relationship between vehicle motion and performance is considered essential to solving the human factors...

  20. MO-B-201-01: Overcoming the Challenges of Motion Management in Current Lung SBRT Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, C. [Boca Raton Regional Hospital (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The motion management in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a key to success for a SBRT program, and still an on-going challenging task. A major factor is that moving structures behave differently than standing structures when examined by imaging modalities, and thus require special considerations and employments. Understanding the motion effects to these different imaging processes is a prerequisite for a decent motion management program. The commonly used motion control techniques to physically restrict tumor motion, if adopted correctly, effectively increase the conformity and accuracy of hypofractionated treatment. The effective application of such requires one to understand the mechanics of the application and the related physiology especially related to respiration. The image-guided radiation beam control, or tumor tracking, further realized the endeavor for precision-targeting. During tumor tracking, the respiratory motion is often constantly monitored by non-ionizing beam sources using the body surface as its surrogate. This then has to synchronize with the actual internal tumor motion. The latter is often accomplished by stereo X-ray imaging or similar techniques. With these advanced technologies, one may drastically reduce the treated volume and increase the clinicians’ confidence for a high fractional ablative radiation dose. However, the challenges in implementing the motion management may not be trivial and is dependent on each clinic case. This session of presentations is intended to provide an overview of the current techniques used in managing the tumor motion in SBRT, specifically for routine lung SBRT, proton based treatments, and newly-developed MR guided RT. Learning Objectives: Through this presentation, the audience will understand basic roles of commonly used imaging modalities for lung cancer studies; familiarize the major advantages and limitations of each discussed motion control methods; familiarize the major advantages and

  1. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Dizziness and Motion Sickness Dizziness and Motion Sickness Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest ... medications Remember: Most cases of dizziness and motion sickness are ... Health Home Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head ...

  2. Understanding Negative Self-Evaluations in Borderline Personality Disorder-a Review of Self-Related Cognitions, Emotions, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Bohus, Martin; Lis, Stefanie

    2017-03-01

    Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, shame, or self-disgust, as well as self-related motives, such as self-enhancement or self-verification, influence how people perceive, evaluate, memorize, and respond to self-related information. They not only influence peoples' concepts of themselves but may also affect their behavior in social environments. In the current review, we describe alterations of self-related processing in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We chose BPD as an example of a mental disorder of which impairments in self-functioning and identity constitute a major feature. Since terminology used in clinical research on self-referential processing is diverse and often confusing, we start with reviewing some of the main concepts in this area of research using a conceptual framework provided from social psychology. Most studies on self-referential processing in BPD focused on descriptions of self-esteem and revealed a negative self-concept, particularly expressed by explicitly reported low self-esteem. Moreover, self-esteem is unstable in BPD and likely reactive to self-relevant cues. BPD patients are prone to negative emotions with respect to themselves, such as self-disgust and shame. First data point to altered self-related motives, too. In conclusion, although explicit self-esteem is widely studied as a global and trait-like feature of BPD, there is a strong lack of studies that take the complexity of the construct self-esteem into account. Further studies on alterations in self-related processes are required to deepen our understanding of impairments of the self-concept in BPD and enable the improvement of psychosocial therapeutic approaches.

  3. Universal features of particle motion in ac electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, L.; Seeger, M.

    2015-11-01

    Mobile particles present as contaminants in high voltage gas insulated switchgear (GIS) may constitute a risk for insulation failure. The understanding of their motion in the electric field of the insulation gap is therefore essential for quality control in manufacturing, commissioning and in service monitoring. Published research on particle motion in ac electric fields has shown that this rather complex process depends on numerous parameters, many of which remain unknown under practical conditions. This renders modelling, generalization of experimental data and practical application difficult. The scope of this paper therefore is to develop a unified description of particle motion which minimizes the number of controlling parameters, enables the comparison of experimental data and allows simple interpretation relations to be derived. This is achieved by making the controlling equations dimensionless with an appropriate choice of reference values and by using simplifying assumptions for the specific conditions prevailing in GIS. The resulting generalized description of the process can then be summarized in the form of 2D patterns (dynamic maps). Approximate scaling relations are derived between specific features of these patterns and particle-related parameters. A reference case is discussed in detail. The non-linear character of the equation of motion suggests that the particle motion may be a deterministic process with chaotic features. This is confirmed by a preliminary chaos-theoretical analysis of the process.

  4. The project “understAID” – a platform that helps informal caregivers to understand and aid their demented relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Mojs, Ewa; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    to defi ne the contents and solutions of the CarePlatform based on the knowledge gained from real-case studies. Demented elderlies from each country (n = 40) suffering from different degrees of dementia were evaluated by formal caregivers and dementia professionals. The aim of task 3 is the development......“UnderstAID” is a platform that helps informal caregivers to understand and aid their demented relatives. It is an international project initiated by Denmark, Poland and Spain. The aim of the project is to design, and implement the multimedia platform “understAID” to support informal caregivers...... of the social learning interface. Task 4 focuses on the CarePlatform development and system integration. Finally, task 5 assumes testing and validation of the platform. The platform is devised to be available in two versions, namely the light one for mobile appliance and the premium version. Also different...

  5. Motion Squared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2009-01-01

    Serving as a metaphor for practice, the concept of navigation has become increasingly popular in anthropological theory. The concept seems to have almost sneaked its way into our analytical vocabulary; it is used when referring to how people act in difficult or uncertain circumstances...... in Bissau, West Africa, and with West African migrants in Lisbon, Portugal, I take a second look at the concept of social navigation, clarifying the notion as an analytical optic, discarding the most unfortunate misconceptualizations of the term and elucidating the contribution that the concept can make...... to our understanding of the way people act in their social worlds....

  6. Hotspot motion caused the Hawaiian-Emperor Bend and LLSVPs are not fixed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarduno, J. A.; Bono, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Paleomagnetic study of volcanic rocks remains the gold standard on which to assess hotspot motion, true polar wander and plate motion recorded by oceanic plates. There is remarkable consistency between paleomagnetic results from basaltic lavas recovered by ocean drilling of the Emperor seamounts, and independent predictions of plate circuits. Both reveal greater than 40 mm/yr of southward hotspot motion; thus the dominant reason for the distinct bend morphology the Hawaiian-Emperor track is hotspot motion rather than plate motion. These findings provide the motivation for moving beyond hotspot fixity to understand mantle processes responsible for the observed motions. Global analyses as well as comparisons between the Hawaiian-Emperor and Louisville tracks indicate only a minor (if any) role for true polar wander. Two viable, non-mutually exclusive processes to explain the observed Hawaiian plume motion are: i. plume-ridge and ii plume-LLSVP interaction. Here we further explore these issues by paleomagnetic analyses of basalts from the Cenozoic Hawaiian chain and Late Cretaceous basalts of the southernmost Pacific Plate. The latter yield paleolatitudes consistent with those from the northern Pacific, indicating that long-standing non-dipole fields cannot have been large enough to affect conclusions on hotspot drift. Data from the former suggest some relative motions between the LLSVPs on tens-of-millions of year time scales, which probably record the continual reshaping of these provinces by plume motion in the lower mantle.

  7. Investigation of the Linker Swing Motion in the Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework ZIF-90

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Bin

    2018-03-13

    The linker swing motion in the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-90 is investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculation, molecular dynamics (MD) and grand-canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. The relation between the terminal aldehyde group rotation and the linker swing motion is revealed. The extremely high activation energy of the linker swing motion in ZIF-90 can be attributed to the asymmetric geometry and electron distribution of aldehyde groups. The change in the gate structure resulting from the linker rotation is used to understand the guest adsorption in ZIF-90. This study shows that it is possible to tune the linker swing motion and then the properties of ZIF-90 by manipulating the terminal group rotation. The results highlight the importance of considering the internal freedom effects to correctly describe the linker swing motion and the flexibility of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs).

  8. A systematic review of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in India: current understanding and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Shalini

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS-related stigma is recognised as a major barrier to HIV prevention efforts and an impediment to mitigating its impact on individuals and communities. This paper reviews the existing research literature on AIDS stigma in India with the objective of documenting the current status of research, highlighting major findings and identifying key gaps remaining. Thirty publications were identified through a careful search of which a majority focused on stigma assessment and very few on stigma measurement, conceptual aspects of stigma or stigma reduction interventions. A few standardised stigma measures are available but more are required to assess causes of stigma among general population and compounded and internalised stigma among positive people. Research exploring linkages between stigma and HIV services uptake or the effect of HIV care and treatment programs on stigma levels are largely missing and need to be prioritised. In addition, more research is needed to advance conceptual understanding of stigma within the cultural context of the country including research on the neglected groups such as, transgender people. Context-specific (health care, community) interventions are needed to address various forms of stigma - enacted, perceived, internalised and layered - including structural approaches besides inter-personal and information-based approaches. A major gap relates to meager research on developing and evaluating stigma reduction interventions and needs priority focus. Overall, the review recommends developing a national agenda on AIDS stigma research and interventions to help realise the government's goal of stigma reduction.

  9. A critical review of gender issues in understanding prolonged disability related to musculoskeletal pain: how are they relevant to rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Daniel; Coutu, Marie-France

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this critical review is to describe the available theoretical models for understanding the gender issues in prolonged work disability related to persistent musculoskeletal (MSK) pain. A critical literature review was conducted in medicine, health sciences, and social sciences databases (MEDLINE, CINHAL, PsychINFO and SOCINDEX) using specific keywords. After screening titles and abstracts, followed by methodological quality assessment, a total of 55 references were retained for content analysis. Gender issues in disability related to persistent MSK pain show that men and women may experience pain and rehabilitation process in different ways. Three main themes were exftracted and further described: (1) the experience of distrust; (2) the self-identity process; and (3) the domestic strain. Each of these themes has a specific and potentially different impact on men and women, and we report that experiential differences may strongly impact the rehabilitation process and outcomes such as return to work. This critical review provides insight into gender issues in the process of rehabilitation and outcomes such as return to work. We suggest that work and family considerations are the two most important issues in the rehabilitation process and that differences between men and women are likely to occur.

  10. Understanding and mapping local conflicts related to protected areas in small islands: a case study of the Azores archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing Protected Areas (PAs is considered one of the most appropriate ways to conserve nature and cultural landscapes. However, conservation constraints can generate social conflicts, especially at a local level. In small islands (SIs, local conflicts may escalate due to an increase in competition for limited space and resources. Pico island in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal, part of the Outermost European region, was considered a good case to study conservation-development conflicts due to the amount of designated protected land (> 35% of its surface and the approval of a new Azorean PA network in 2007. This paper presents a new approach to understanding and mapping local conflicts within PAs in SIs by integrating qualitative data and spatially explicit information. This research takes stock of the benefits, needs and constraints related to Pico Natural Park as perceived by local stakeholders through face-to-face semi-structured interviews; it subsequently identifies and transposes the conflicts distilled from stakeholder discourse into spatially representative visual maps via GIS. Research outcomes show that PAs are perceived mainly as constraints to local development, showing inconsistency between local expectations and regional conservation policy. This highlights the importance of including public participation processes prior to any implementation of conservation strategies. The proposed method provides a springboard towards effective conflict management for PAs on Pico island, showing a relatively low-cost and straightforward approach to minimising future local conflicts which could be adapted to other similar Outermost European regions and SIs.

  11. An Integrated Approach to Motion and Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, James K; Geigel, Joe; Lee, Jong W; Gritz, Larry; Takala, Tapio; Mishra, Suneil

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, sound has been given little attention in computer graphics and related domains of computer animation and virtual environments, although sounds which are properly synchronized to motion...

  12. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necka, Elizabeth A.; Sokolowski, H. Moriah; Lyons, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s self – self-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated. PMID

  13. Transient arterial phase respiratory motion-related artifact in MR imaging of the liver: an analysis of four different gadolinium-based contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mansi R; Flusberg, Milana; Paroder, Viktoriya; Rozenblit, Alla M; Chernyak, Victoria

    The purpose was to compare hepatic arterial phase (HAP) respiratory motion artifact (RMA) between gadoxetate, gadobutrol, gadopentetate, and gadobenate. Two hundred cases of each gadolinium agent were included. RMA was assigned using 5-point Likert scale (1=no motion, 5=extreme motion) on precontrast and HAP. RMA increase (increase ≥1 on HAP from precontrast) was the outcome in logistic regression. Odds of RMA increase for gadoxetate were 5.5 (P<.001), 3.6 (P=.034), and 9.5 (P<.001) times higher than gadobutrol, gadopentetate, and gadobenate, respectively. Gadolinium volume and dose were not independent predictors of RMA increase. Gadoxetate has increased odds of RMA compared with other gadolinium agents; tight contrast bolus is not a contributor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Visual-vestibular interaction in motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, Ruud J A W; Cardullo, Frank M.; Bos, Jelte E.

    2011-01-01

    Correct perception of self motion is of vital importance for both the control of our position and posture when moving around in our environment. With the development of human controlled vehicles as bicycles, cars and aircraft motion perception became of interest for the understanding of vehicle

  15. Motion coherence and direction discrimination in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Karin S; Miller, Louisa; Agnew, Hannah C

    2017-01-01

    Perceptual functions change with age, particularly motion perception. With regard to healthy aging, previous studies mostly measured motion coherence thresholds for coarse motion direction discrimination along cardinal axes of motion. Here, we investigated age-related changes in the ability to discriminate between small angular differences in motion directions, which allows for a more specific assessment of age-related decline and its underlying mechanisms. We first assessed older (>60 years) and younger (direction discrimination. In a third step, we used the individually determined motion coherence thresholds and tested fine motion direction discrimination for motion clockwise away from horizontal and vertical motion. Older adults performed as well as younger adults for discriminating motion away from vertical. Surprisingly, performance for discriminating motion away from horizontal was strongly decreased. Further analyses, however, showed a relationship between motion coherence thresholds for horizontal coarse motion direction discrimination and fine motion direction discrimination performance in older adults. In a control experiment, using motion coherence above threshold for all conditions, the difference in performance for horizontal and vertical fine motion direction discrimination for older adults disappeared. These results clearly contradict the notion of an overall age-related decline in motion perception, and, most importantly, highlight the importance of taking into account individual differences when assessing age-related changes in perceptual functions.

  16. Feeling Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    The article relates the study of mobility history to the fields of history of emotion and affect theory in the promotion of a cross-disciplinary research agenda. Taking as its point of departure a workshop in Copenhagen on feeling and space, the text draws lines and points of potential interface...

  17. Understanding the Relative Influence of Anthropogenic Versus Natural Nitrogen on Biogeochemical Processes in the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, K.; Howard, M. D.; Beck, C. D. A.; Emler, L.; Nezlin, N. P.; Sutula, M.

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) pollution is considered to be one of the most significant consequences of human-accelerated global change on coastal oceans (Howarth and Marino 2006). In the southern California Bight, wastewater effluent represents 92% of total terrestrial N loading and these loads are equivalent to the "background" N flux from upwelling (Howard et al. 2014). In this study, we attempt to quantify the relative influence of the two dominant nitrogen sources to the Bight (wastewater effluent and upwelled nitrogen) on biogeochemical processes linked to dissolved oxygen, pH and algal blooms. We will compare the sources and fate of nitrogen in an effluent impacted region (offshore of Los Angeles and Orange Counties) to minimally-impacted regions both along the coastline (offshore of Northern San Diego County) and two offshore stations. Key rates of nitrogen and carbon cycling are measured, including primary production and respiration, nitrogen uptake by primary producers, and nitrification. Stable isotope tracer techniques have also been applied to determine the relative influence of effluent versus upwelled nitrogen on biological communities and concentrations. Data generated from this study will be used to validate calculated rate constants used in oceanographic models of ecological response from natural and anthropogenic nutrient inputs in the Bight. These models will be used to estimate the extent to which anthropogenic nutrients are affecting primary production, acidification and hypoxia, as well as which regions are most at risk. They will also be used to analyze management scenarios to understand the effects of anthropogenic nutrient load reductions relative to climate change scenarios.

  18. An investigation related to the optimal speed of motion of a car (in sunny and rainy days, summer and winter) and of a submarine apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluskin, Emanuel

    2014-07-01

    The dependence of the minimal amount of energy (and thus of fuel) needed for a given journey (where the engine is never switched off), Wmin , with the density of the air, ρ, is estimated, for high velocities, as Wmin  ˜ ρ1/3. Rainy conditions are especially interesting. The modelling uses the concept of average speed of the vehicle, allowing one to think about motion with constant speed. Different kinds of resistive force, appropriate also for motion in liquid, i.e. for submarine apparatuses, are considered. The discussion seems to be methodologically and motivationally appropriate for the classroom.

  19. The Axiom and Laws of Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Harokopos, E

    2003-01-01

    The law of inertia and the law of interaction are derived from the axiom of motion, an expression relating the time rate of change of the kinetic energy of a particle to its velocity and time rate of change of momentum. These laws of motion are shown to (i) treat uniform circular orbits as effects of inertia, (ii) encompass Newton’s Laws of Motion and (iii) have a special link to Leibniz’s Laws of Motion. I also discuss some metaphysical issues arising from the axiom and laws of motion regarding the ontology of space-time.

  20. Motion in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPE...

  1. Understanding and retention of trial-related information among participants in a clinical trial after completing the informed consent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexas, Fernanda; Efron, Anne; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Cailleaux-Cezar, Michelle; Chaisson, Richard E; Conde, Marcus B

    2014-02-01

    for assessing the level of understanding of trial-related information during the informed consent (IC) process in developing countries are lacking. To assess the understanding and retention of trial-related information presented in the IC process by administering an informed consent assessment instrument (ICAI) to participants in a clinical trial for a new tuberculosis (TB) regimen being conducted in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Methods The format of the ICAI was based on the language and structure of the United States National Cancer Institute's IC comprehension checklist. The ICAI was designed to assess points of the RioMAR study IC process that addressed the principles of research ethics requested by Brazilian Regulatory Authority: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Briefly, (1) Is the respondent participating in a clinical trial? (2) Are two different treatments being evaluated? (3) Is the treatment arm chosen by chance? (4) Is an HIV test required? (5) Are liver function tests required? (6) Can participants leave the study at any time? (7) Are the risks and benefits of taking part in the study clear? (8) May pregnant women participate in the study? (9) Can one of the study drugs reduce the effectiveness of contraceptives? (10) Are patients paid to participate in the study? The ICAI was applied at two time points: immediately after enrollment in the clinical trial and 2 months later. A total of 61 patients who enrolled in the RioMAR study participated in this study. The percentage of correct answers to all questions was 82% at the time of the first ICAI; 31 participants (51%) did not recall that an HIV test was required (question 4) and 43 (70%) did not know that they could leave the study (question 6). Other individual questions were answered correctly by at least 76% of participants. There was no association between incorrect answers and age, gender, monthly family income, neighborhood, or level of education (p > 0.07). When the responses to the

  2. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  3. Intuitive Mechanics: Inferences of Vertical Projectile Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Damjenić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our intuitive knowledge of physics mechanics, i.e. knowledge defined through personal experience about velocity, acceleration, motion causes, etc., is often wrong. This research examined whether similar misconceptions occur systematically in the case of vertical projectiles launched upwards. The first experiment examined inferences of velocity and acceleration of the ball moving vertically upwards, while the second experiment examined whether the mass of the thrown ball and force of the throw have an impact on the inference. The results showed that more than three quarters of the participants wrongly assumed that maximum velocity and peak acceleration did not occur at the initial launch of the projectile. There was no effect of object mass or effect of the force of the throw on the inference relating to the velocity and acceleration of the ball. The results exceed the explanatory reach of the impetus theory, most commonly used to explain the naive understanding of the mechanics of object motion. This research supports that the actions on objects approach and the property transmission heuristics may more aptly explain the dissidence between perceived and actual implications in projectile motion.

  4. Animal models in motion sickness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  5. Effect of pressure and padding on motion artifact of textile electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Alper; Honkala, Markku; Hyttinen, Jari

    2013-04-08

    With the aging population and rising healthcare costs, wearable monitoring is gaining importance. The motion artifact affecting dry electrodes is one of the main challenges preventing the widespread use of wearable monitoring systems. In this paper we investigate the motion artifact and ways of making a textile electrode more resilient against motion artifact. Our aim is to study the effects of the pressure exerted onto the electrode, and the effects of inserting padding between the applied pressure and the electrode. We measure real time electrode-skin interface impedance, ECG from two channels, the motion artifact related surface potential, and exerted pressure during controlled motion by a measurement setup designed to estimate the relation of motion artifact to the signals. We use different foam padding materials with various mechanical properties and apply electrode pressures between 5 and 25 mmHg to understand their effect. A QRS and noise detection algorithm based on a modified Pan-Tompkins QRS detection algorithm estimates the electrode behaviour in respect to the motion artifact from two channels; one dominated by the motion artifact and one containing both the motion artifact and the ECG. This procedure enables us to quantify a given setup's susceptibility to the motion artifact. Pressure is found to strongly affect signal quality as is the use of padding. In general, the paddings reduce the motion artifact. However the shape and frequency components of the motion artifact vary for different paddings, and their material and physical properties. Electrode impedance at 100 kHz correlates in some cases with the motion artifact but it is not a good predictor of the motion artifact. From the results of this study, guidelines for improving electrode design regarding padding and pressure can be formulated as paddings are a necessary part of the system for reducing the motion artifact, and further, their effect maximises between 15 mmHg and 20 mmHg of

  6. Prevalence of shoulder pain in Swedish flatwater kayakers and its relation to range of motion and scapula stability of the shoulder joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anette; Svantesson, Ulla; Tannerstedt, Jörgen; Alricsson, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the incidence of injuries in kayakers. The aim was to study the prevalence of shoulder pain in competitive flatwater kayakers and to evaluate any differences in range of motion or scapula stability of the shoulder joint among kayakers with or without the history of shoulder pain. Thirty-one kayakers were participated in the study, and a questionnaire including background data was used. Shoulder range of motion was measured with a goniometer, and the participants were observed for scapula dyskinesis in flexion and abduction. Of the participating kayakers, 54.8% (n = 17) had experienced shoulder pain. Kayakers who had experienced shoulder pain showed a significantly lower degree of internal rotational range of motion versus kayakers with no reported shoulder pain, with a mean degree of internal rotation in the right shoulder 49.3 vs. 60.0 (P = 0.017) and the left shoulder 51.9 vs. 66.0 (P = 0.000). Kayakers who had experienced shoulder pain were also observed with a scapular dyskinesis (n = 15 of 17 kayakers) to a significantly higher degree (P = 0.001) than kayakers with no reported shoulder pain. Findings suggest that screening for scapular dyskinesis and testing for rotational range of motion in the shoulder joint is essential in order to treat and maybe prevent shoulder pain in kayakers.

  7. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  8. A Qualitative Study of Urban and Suburban Elementary Student Understandings of Pest-Related Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Cary J.

    2000-01-01

    Clinical interviews with nine fifth graders revealed that experiences play a pivotal role in their understanding of pests. They lack well-developed schema and language to discuss pest management. A foundation of core biological concepts was necessary for understanding pests and pest management. (Conatains 34 references.) (SK)

  9. Learning-Related Changes in Adolescents' Neural Networks during Hypothesis-Generating and Hypothesis-Understanding Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ki; Kwon, Yongju

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen science high school students participated in this study, which investigated neural-network plasticity associated with hypothesis-generating and hypothesis-understanding in learning. The students were divided into two groups and participated in either hypothesis-generating or hypothesis-understanding type learning programs, which were…

  10. Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Science Process Skills in Relation to Their Teaching Qualifications and Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahali, Edy H. M.; Halim, Lilia; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the understanding of science process skills (SPS) of 329 science teachers from 52 primary schools selected by random sampling. The understanding of SPS was measured in terms of conceptual and operational aspects of SPS using an instrument called the "Science Process Skills Questionnaire" (SPSQ) with a Cronbach's…

  11. Can Children Construct Inverse Relations in Arithmetic? Evidence for Individual Differences in the Development of Conceptual Understanding and Computational Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Camilla K.; Bryant, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Understanding conceptual relationships is an important aspect of learning arithmetic. Most studies of arithmetic, however, do not distinguish between children's understanding of a concept and their ability to identify situations in which it might be relevant. We compared 8- to 9-year-old children's use of a computational shortcut based on the…

  12. A method to extract successive velocity pulses governing structural response from long-period ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuoyu; Li, Yingmin; Wang, Guojue

    2017-11-01

    A series of relatively long-period velocity pulses appearing in the later part of ground motion, which is the characterization of far-source long-period ground motions in basin ("long-period ground motion" for short), is mainly influenced by focal mechanism, basin effect, and dispersion. It was supposed that the successive low-frequency velocity pulses in long-period ground motion caused the resonance of long-period structures in basin, which are of special concern to designers of super high-rise buildings. The authors proposed a wavelet-based successive frequency-dependent pulse extraction (WSFPE) method to identify and extract these pulses with dominant period of interest from long-period ground motions. The pulses extracted by using two frequently used methods (zero-crossing analysis, empirical mode decomposition) were compared to the pulses extracted by using WSFPE. The results demonstrate that the WSFPE provides higher resolution in time-frequency domain than the other two methods do. The velocity pulses extracted by using WSFPE are responsible for the resonance and maximum response of structure subjected to long-period ground motions. WSFPE can be used to make a better understanding of long-period ground motions and to promote the formation of long-period ground motion model which will help the seismic design of long-period structures built in sedimentary basin.

  13. Understanding discrepancies in parent-child reporting of emotional and behavioural problems: Effects of relational and socio-demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyerdahl Sonja

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Methods Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Conclusions Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family

  14. Understanding discrepancies in parent-child reporting of emotional and behavioural problems: Effects of relational and socio-demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roy, Betty; Groholt, Berit; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne

    2010-07-16

    Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family's psychosocial status should be integrated in the overall

  15. Branner-Hubbard Motions and attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Tan, Lei

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics.......We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics....

  16. Branner-Hubbard motions and attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Tan, Lei

    We introduce the new notion an aatracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-likke mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard motion and study its action on attracting dynamics.......We introduce the new notion an aatracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-likke mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard motion and study its action on attracting dynamics....

  17. Mundane science use in a practice theoretical perspective: Different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public communication initiatives build on scientific claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkier, Bente

    2015-08-13

    Public communication initiatives play a part in placing complicated scientific claims in citizen-consumers' everyday contexts. Lay reactions to scientific claims framed in public communication, and attempts to engage citizens, have been important subjects of discussion in the literatures of public understanding and public engagement with science. Many of the public communication initiatives, however, address lay people as consumers rather than citizens. This creates specific challenges for understanding public engagement with science and scientific citizenship. The article compares five different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public issue communication involving science, where the first four types are widely represented in the Public Understanding of Science discussions. The fifth understanding is a practice theoretical perspective. The article suggests how the public understanding of and engagement in science literature can benefit from including a practice theoretical approach to research about mundane science use and public engagement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. The development of convective instability, wind shear, and vertical motion in relation to convection activity and synoptic systems in AVE 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. G.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Data from the Fourth Atmospheric Variability Experiment were used to investigate conditions/factors responsible for the development (local time rate-of-change) of convective instability, wind shear, and vertical motion in areas with varying degrees of convective activity. AVE IV sounding data were taken at 3 or 6 h intervals during a 36 h period on 24-25 April 1975 over approximately the eastern half of the United States. An error analysis was performed for each variable studied.

  19. Unsafe occupational health behaviours: Understanding mercury-related environmental health risks to artisanal gold miners in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ato Armah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between environmental exposure and health outcomes is complex, multidirectional and dynamic. Therefore, we need an understanding of these linkages for effective health risk communication. Despite the severe health hazards, artisanal gold mining is widespread globally, with an estimated 30 million people engaged in it. In this study, the relationships between artisanal gold miners’ knowledge of environmental and health effects of Hg and compositional, contextual and occupational factors were assessed using generalized linear models (negative log-log regression. A cross-sectional survey in three urban gold mining hubs in Ghana (Prestea, Tarkwa and Damang, was carried out among 588 (482 male and 106 female artisanal gold miners. The results showed that 89% of artisanal gold miners had very low to low levels of knowledge whereas 11% had moderate to very high levels of knowledge of deleterious health effects of Hg. Also, individuals who perceived their health-related work conditions to be excellent had very low to low levels of knowledge of environmental and health effects of Hg. Interestingly, artisanal gold miners who were still working were less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their counterparts who were currently unemployed. Similarly, artisanal gold miners who had attained either primary or secondary education were less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their counterparts who had no formal education. This finding, although counterintuitive, can be understood within the fact that artisanal gold miners in Ghana without formal education tend to have considerably higher number of years of practical experience compared with their counterparts with formal education. Female artisanal gold miners were 68% less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their male counterparts (OR=0.32, p<0.05. Artisanal gold miners who had

  20. Understanding Leisure-related Program Effects by Using Process Data in the HealthWise South Africa Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Linda L; Younker, Anita S; Wegner, Lisa; Patrick, Megan E; Vergnani, Tania; Smith, Edward A; Flisher, Alan J

    2008-01-01

    As the push for evidence-based programming gathers momentum, many human services programs and interventions are under increased scrutiny to justify their effectiveness across different conditions and populations. Government agencies and the public want to be assured that their resources are being put to good use on programs that are effective and efficient (Guskey, 2000). Thus, programs are increasingly based on theory and evaluated through randomized control trials using longitudinal data. Despite this progress, hypothesized outcomes are often not detected and/or their effect sizes are small (Gingiss, Roberts-Gray, Boerm, 2006). Moreover, findings may go against intuition or "gut feelings" on the part of project staff. Given the need to understand how program implementation issues relate to outcomes, this study focuses on whether process measures that focus on program implementation and fidelity can shed light on associated outcomes. In particular, we linked the process evaluation of the HealthWise motivation lesson with outcomes across four waves of data collection. We hypothesized that HealthWise would increase learners' intrinsic and identified forms of motivation, and decrease amotivation and extrinsic motivation. We did not hypothesize a direction of effects on introjected motivation due to its conceptual ambiguity. Data came from youth in four intervention schools (n = 902, 41.1%) and five control schools (n = 1291, 58.9%) who were participating in a multi-cohort, longitudinal study. The schools were in a township near Cape Town, South Africa. For each cohort, baseline data are collected on learners as they begin Grade 8. We currently have four waves of data collected on the first cohort, which is the focus of this paper. The mean age of the sample at Wave 3 was 15.0 years (SD = .86) and 51% of students were female. Results suggested that there was evidence of an overall program effect of the curriculum on amotivation regardless of fidelity of implementation

  1. Shaping legal abortion provision in Ghana: using policy theory to understand provider-related obstacles to policy implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in Ghana; despite its liberal abortion law, access to safe, legal abortion in public health facilities is limited. Theory is often neglected as a tool for providing evidence to inform better practice; in this study we investigated the reasons for poor implementation of the policy in Ghana using Lipsky’s theory of street-level bureaucracy to better understand how providers shape and implement policy and how provider-level barriers might be overcome. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 health professionals of different levels (managers, obstetricians, midwives) at three hospitals in Accra, as well as staff from smaller and private sector facilities. Relevant policy and related documents were also analysed. Results Findings confirm that health providers’ views shape provision of safe-abortion services. Most prominently, providers experience conflicts between their religious and moral beliefs about the sanctity of (foetal) life and their duty to provide safe-abortion care. Obstetricians were more exposed to international debates, treaties, and safe-abortion practices and had better awareness of national research on the public health implications of unsafe abortions; these factors tempered their religious views. Midwives were more driven by fundamental religious values condemning abortion as sinful. In addition to personal views and dilemmas, ‘social pressures’ (perceived views of others concerning abortion) and the actions of facility managers affected providers’ decision to (openly) provide abortion services. In order to achieve a workable balance between these pressures and duties, providers use their ‘discretion’ in deciding if and when to provide abortion services, and develop ‘coping mechanisms’ which impede implementation of abortion policy. Conclusions The application of theory confirmed its utility in a lower-middle income setting and expanded its scope by showing that

  2. "If I Had to Do It, Then I Would": Understanding Early Middle School Students' Perceptions of Physics and Physics-Related Careers by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily A.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls' and boys' perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and…

  3. Collective motion of predictive swarms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Rupprecht

    Full Text Available Theoretical models of populations and swarms typically start with the assumption that the motion of agents is governed by the local stimuli. However, an intelligent agent, with some understanding of the laws that govern its habitat, can anticipate the future, and make predictions to gather resources more efficiently. Here we study a specific model of this kind, where agents aim to maximize their consumption of a diffusing resource, by attempting to predict the future of a resource field and the actions of other agents. Once the agents make a prediction, they are attracted to move towards regions that have, and will have, denser resources. We find that the further the agents attempt to see into the future, the more their attempts at prediction fail, and the less resources they consume. We also study the case where predictive agents compete against non-predictive agents and find the predictors perform better than the non-predictors only when their relative numbers are very small. We conclude that predictivity pays off either when the predictors do not see too far into the future or the number of predictors is small.

  4. Operator Fractional Brownian Motion and Martingale Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshuai Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that martingale difference sequences are very useful in applications and theory. On the other hand, the operator fractional Brownian motion as an extension of the well-known fractional Brownian motion also plays an important role in both applications and theory. In this paper, we study the relation between them. We construct an approximation sequence of operator fractional Brownian motion based on a martingale difference sequence.

  5. Children's understanding of fraction and decimal symbols and the notation-specific relation to pre-algebra ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle A; Cordes, Sara

    2018-04-01

    Fraction and decimal concepts are notoriously difficult for children to learn yet are a major component of elementary and middle school math curriculum and an important prerequisite for higher order mathematics (i.e., algebra). Thus, recently there has been a push to understand how children think about rational number magnitudes in order to understand how to promote rational number understanding. However, prior work investigating these questions has focused almost exclusively on fraction notation, overlooking the open questions of how children integrate rational number magnitudes presented in distinct notations (i.e., fractions, decimals, and whole numbers) and whether understanding of these distinct notations may independently contribute to pre-algebra ability. In the current study, we investigated rational number magnitude and arithmetic performance in both fraction and decimal notation in fourth- to seventh-grade children. We then explored how these measures of rational number ability predicted pre-algebra ability. Results reveal that children do represent the magnitudes of fractions and decimals as falling within a single numerical continuum and that, despite greater experience with fraction notation, children are more accurate when processing decimal notation than when processing fraction notation. Regression analyses revealed that both magnitude and arithmetic performance predicted pre-algebra ability, but magnitude understanding may be particularly unique and depend on notation. The educational implications of differences between children in the current study and previous work with adults are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  7. Volumetric motion quantification by 3D tissue phase mapped CMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Anja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was the quantification of myocardial motion from 3D tissue phase mapped (TPM CMR. Recent work on myocardial motion quantification by TPM has been focussed on multi-slice 2D acquisitions thus excluding motion information from large regions of the left ventricle. Volumetric motion assessment appears an important next step towards the understanding of the volumetric myocardial motion and hence may further improve diagnosis and treatments in patients with myocardial motion abnormalities. Methods Volumetric motion quantification of the complete left ventricle was performed in 12 healthy volunteers and two patients applying a black-blood 3D TPM sequence. The resulting motion field was analysed regarding motion pattern differences between apical and basal locations as well as for asynchronous motion pattern between different myocardial segments in one or more slices. Motion quantification included velocity, torsion, rotation angle and strain derived parameters. Results All investigated motion quantification parameters could be calculated from the 3D-TPM data. Parameters quantifying hypokinetic or asynchronous motion demonstrated differences between motion impaired and healthy myocardium. Conclusions 3D-TPM enables the gapless volumetric quantification of motion abnormalities of the left ventricle, which can be applied in future application as additional information to provide a more detailed analysis of the left ventricular function.

  8. Empirical ground motion prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Archuleta

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available New methods of site-specific ground motion prediction in the time and frequency domains are presented. A large earthquake is simulated as a composite (linear combination of observed small earthquakes (subevents assuming Aki-Brune functional models of the source time functions (spectra. Source models incorporate basic scaling relations between source and spectral parameters. Ground motion predictions are consistent with the entire observed seismic spectrum from the lowest to the highest frequencies. These methods are designed to use all the available empirical Green’s functions (or any subset of observations at a site. Thus a prediction is not biased by a single record, and different possible source-receiver paths are taken into account. Directivity is accounted for by adjusting the apparent source duration at each site. Our time-series prediction algorithm is based on determination of a non-uniform distribution of rupture times of subevents. By introducing a specific rupture velocity we avoid the major problem of deficiency of predictions around the main event's corner frequency. A novel notion of partial coherence allows us to sum subevents' amplitude spectra directly without using any information on their rupture times and phase histories. Predictions by this spectral method are not Jependent on details of rupture nucleation and propagation, location of asperities and other predominantly phase-affecting factors, responsible for uncertainties in time-domain simulations.

  9. Perceptually Uniform Motion Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Asmund; Turkay, Cagatay; Viola, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    Flow data is often visualized by animated particles inserted into a flow field. The velocity of a particle on the screen is typically linearly scaled by the velocities in the data. However, the perception of velocity magnitude in animated particles is not necessarily linear. We present a study on how different parameters affect relative motion perception. We have investigated the impact of four parameters. The parameters consist of speed multiplier, direction, contrast type and the global velocity scale. In addition, we investigated if multiple motion cues, and point distribution, affect the speed estimation. Several studies were executed to investigate the impact of each parameter. In the initial results, we noticed trends in scale and multiplier. Using the trends for the significant parameters, we designed a compensation model, which adjusts the particle speed to compensate for the effect of the parameters. We then performed a second study to investigate the performance of the compensation model. From the second study we detected a constant estimation error, which we adjusted for in the last study. In addition, we connect our work to established theories in psychophysics by comparing our model to a model based on Stevens' Power Law.

  10. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  11. Cassie: A Gifted Musician. Socio-Cultural and Educational Perspectives Related to the Development of Musical Understanding in Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michelle M.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study focuses on the intrinsic value of musical understanding and how it is influenced by socio-cultural and educational factors shaping the development of a gifted adolescent. Using Gross's (1993) model of case studies of exceptionally gifted children, the student was identified for her innate abilities, and studied using the…

  12. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  13. Hydrological excitation of polar motion by different variables from the GLDAS models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winska, Malgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta; Salstein, David

    2017-12-01

    Continental hydrological loading by land water, snow and ice is a process that is important for the full understanding of the excitation of polar motion. In this study, we compute different estimations of hydrological excitation functions of polar motion (as hydrological angular momentum, HAM) using various variables from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) models of the land-based hydrosphere. The main aim of this study is to show the influence of variables from different hydrological processes including evapotranspiration, runoff, snowmelt and soil moisture, on polar motion excitations at annual and short-term timescales. Hydrological excitation functions of polar motion are determined using selected variables of these GLDAS realizations. Furthermore, we use time-variable gravity field solutions from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to determine the hydrological mass effects on polar motion excitation. We first conduct an intercomparison of the maps of variations of regional hydrological excitation functions, timing and phase diagrams of different regional and global HAMs. Next, we estimate the hydrological signal in geodetically observed polar motion excitation as a residual by subtracting the contributions of atmospheric angular momentum and oceanic angular momentum. Finally, the hydrological excitations are compared with those hydrological signals determined from residuals of the observed polar motion excitation series. The results will help us understand the relative importance of polar motion excitation within the individual hydrological processes, based on hydrological modeling. This method will allow us to estimate how well the polar motion excitation budget in the seasonal and inter-annual spectral ranges can be closed.

  14. Curves from Motion, Motion from Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    tautochrone and brachistochrone properties. To Descartes, however, the rectification of curves such as the spiral (3) and the cycloid (4) was suspect - they...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012017 TITLE: Curves from Motion, Motion from Curves DISTRIBUTION...Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: International Conference on Curves and Surfaces [4th

  15. Modification of Time-dependent Schrodinger Equation in Quantum Mechanics by Adding Derivations of Time's Flow (Relative Time) with Respect of the Both Space and Time Based on the ``Substantial Motion'' Theory of Iranian Philosopher; Mulla Sadra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-03-01

    In Sadra's theory, the relative time for an atom (body) which is varying continuously becomes momentums of its involved fundamental particles (strings), (time's relativity) [Gholibeigian, APS March Meeting 2015, abstract #V1.023]. Einstein's theory of special relativity might be special form of Sadra's theory. ``The nature has two magnitudes and two elongations, the one is gradual being (wavy-like motion) which belongs to the time and dividable to the former and the next times in mind, and the other is jerky-like motion which belongs to the space and dividable to the former and the next places'' [Asfar, Mulla Sadra, (1571/2-1640)]. Sadra separated the nature of time from nature of space. Therefore we can match these two natures on wave-particle duality. It means that the nature of time might be wavy-like and the nature of space might be jerky-like. So, there are two independent variable sources for particle(s)' flow with respect of its two natures such as potential of flow and relative time which vary with respect of both space and time. Consequently we propose two additional parts to Schrodinger's equation: H⌢ Ψ +tp ∇t' = ih/2 π ∂/∂t Ψ +tp∂/∂t t' , where tp is Planck's time and t' is relative time: t' = f (m , v , t) = t +/- Δt , in which t is time, m is mass and vis speed of particle . AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

  16. Headache-Specific Locus of Control and Migraine-Related Quality of Life: Understanding the Role of Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Amy S; Seng, Elizabeth K

    2017-02-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between headache-specific locus of control (HSLC) and migraine-related quality of life, and anxiety as a mediator of this relationship. Two hundred and thirty-two people with migraine participated in the treatment of severe migraine trial. At baseline, participants completed self-report questionnaires of headache-specific locus of control (HSLC; subscales = internal, chance, and medical professionals), anxiety, and migraine-related quality of life. Correlations examined relationships between HSLC, anxiety, and migraine-related quality of life; ordinary least squares regression evaluated anxiety as a mediator of the relationship between HSLC and migraine-related quality of life. Higher internal HSLC was related to higher overall migraine-related quality of life (ps Anxiety mediated the relationship between internal HSLC and all measures of migraine-specific quality of life (ps Anxiety mediates the relationship between internal HSLC and migraine-related quality of life.

  17. Compensation for incoherent ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigeru, Takeda; Hiroshi, Matsumoto; Masakazu, Yoshioka; Yasunori, Takeuchi; Kikuo, Kudo [KEK, High Energy Alccelerator Research Organization (Japan); Tsuneya, Tsubokawa [National Astronomical Observatory, Mizusawa Astrogeodynamics Observatory (Japan); Mitsuaki, Nozaki; Kiyotomo, Kawagoe [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1999-07-01

    The power spectrum density and coherence function for ground motions are studied for the construction of the next generation electron-positron linear collider. It should provide a center of mass energy between 500 GeV-1 TeV with luminosity as high as 10{sup 33} to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. Since the linear collider has a relatively slow repetition rate, large number of particles and small sizes of the beam should be generated and preserved in the machine to obtain the required high luminosity. One of the most critical parameters is the extremely small vertical beam size at the interaction point, thus a proper alignment system for the focusing and accelerating elements of the machine is necessary to achieve the luminosity. We describe recent observed incoherent ground motions and an alignment system to compensate the distortion by the ground motions. (authors)

  18. Embodied Learning of a Generative Neural Model for Biological Motion Perception and Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eSchrodt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although an action observation network and mirror neurons for understanding the actions and intentions of others have been under deep, interdisciplinary consideration over recent years, it remains largely unknown how the brain manages to map visually perceived biological motion of others onto its own motor system. This paper shows how such a mapping may be established, even if the biologically motion is visually perceived from a new vantage point. We introduce a learning artificial neural network model and evaluate it on full body motion tracking recordings. The model implements an embodied, predictive inference approach. It first learns to correlate and segment multimodal sensory streams of own bodily motion. In doing so, it becomes able to anticipate motion progression, to complete missing modal information, and to self-generate learned motion sequences. When biological motion of another person is observed, this self-knowledge is utilized to recognize similar motion patterns and predict their progress. Due to the relative encodings, the model shows strong robustness in recognition despite observing rather large varieties of body morphology and posture dynamics. By additionally equipping the model with the capability to rotate its visual frame of reference, it is able to deduce the visual perspective onto the observed person, establishing full consistency to the embodied self-motion encodings by means of active inference. In further support of its neuro-cognitive plausibility, we also model typical bistable perceptions when crucial depth information is missing. In sum, the introduced neural model proposes a solution to the problem of how the human brain may establish correspondence between observed bodily motion and its own motor system, thus offering a mechanism that supports the development of mirror neurons.

  19. Understanding the relational impact of the health care marketing exchange: a review of the social implications of therapeutic communicator style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B C

    1987-09-01

    Though the benefits derived from verbal communication between practitioner and patient often are beyond the control of most health care marketers, this encounter includes nearly all of the personality and social appeals that are critical to the development of a successful and long-lasting marketing exchange. To enable marketers of health care to understand more fully the communication context in which practitioners operate, the author reviews the social implications of therapeutic communicator style.

  20. Cultural understanding in the provision of supportive and palliative care: perspectives in relation to an indigenous population

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Grace; Vukic, Adele; Parker, Skylan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The provision of supportive and palliative care for an indigenous people in Nova Scotia, Canada, was examined to further our understanding and thereby improve cultural competency. Most of Nova Scotia's indigenous people are Mi'kmaq. The Mi'kmaq Nation lives in Atlantic Canada as well as New England in the eastern USA. Methods Themes were identified in the literature and through discussion with seven experts who have Mi'kmaq health and cultural research expertise. This paper has bee...

  1. Exploring learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and their relations with science text understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Li-Ling; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and how these beliefs were associating with their understanding of science texts. About 400 10th graders were involved in the development and validation of the Beliefs about Science Reading Inventory (BSRI). To find the effects of reader beliefs and epistemic beliefs, a new group of 65 10th grade students whose reader and epistemic beliefs were assessed by the newly developed BSRI and an existing SEB questionnaire were invited to take part in a science reading task. Students' text understanding in terms of concept gain and text interpretations was collected and analyzed. By the correlation analysis, it was found that when students had stronger beliefs about meaning construction based on personal goals and experiences (i.e. transaction beliefs), they produced more thematic and critical interpretations of the content of the test article. The regression analysis suggested that students SEBs could predict concept gain as a result of reading. Moreover, among all beliefs examined in the study, transaction beliefs stood out as the best predictor of overall science-text understanding.

  2. On-Line Detection and Segmentation of Sports Motions Using a Wearable Sensor †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woosuk; Kim, Myunggyu

    2018-01-01

    In sports motion analysis, observation is a prerequisite for understanding the quality of motions. This paper introduces a novel approach to detect and segment sports motions using a wearable sensor for supporting systematic observation. The main goal is, for convenient analysis, to automatically provide motion data, which are temporally classified according to the phase definition. For explicit segmentation, a motion model is defined as a sequence of sub-motions with boundary states. A sequence classifier based on deep neural networks is designed to detect sports motions from continuous sensor inputs. The evaluation on two types of motions (soccer kicking and two-handed ball throwing) verifies that the proposed method is successful for the accurate detection and segmentation of sports motions. By developing a sports motion analysis system using the motion model and the sequence classifier, we show that the proposed method is useful for observation of sports motions by automatically providing relevant motion data for analysis. PMID:29562721

  3. Modification of Schrodinger Equation in Quantum Mechanics by Adding Derivations of Time's Flow (Relative Time) with Respect of the Both Space and Time Based on the ``Substantial Motion'' Theory of Iranian Philosopher; Mulla Sadra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Amirshahkarami, Abdolazim; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-05-01

    ``The nature has two magnitudes and two elongations, one is gradual being (wavy-like motion) which belongs to the time and dividable to the former and the next times in mind, and the other one is jerky-like motion which belongs to the space and dividable to the former and the next places'' [Asfar, Mulla Sadra, (1571/2-1640)]. These two separated natures of space-time are matched on wave-particle duality. Therefore, the nature of time can be wavy-like and the nature of space can be jerky-like. So, there are two independent variable sources of particle(s)' flow while they are match exactly with each other. These two sources are potential of flow and potential of time (relative time) which vary with respect to both space and time. Here, we propose two additional parts to Schrodinger's equation with respect to relative time: HΨ + ∇t' = EΨ + ∂t' / ∂t , where t is time and t' is relative time: t' = t +/- Δt [Gholibeigian et al., APS March Meeting 2016], which for each atom becomes: tatom = ∑mnucleons + ∑melectrons where m is momentum [Gholibeigian, APS March Meeting 2015, abstract #V1.023]. Using time's relativity in Schrodinger equation will give us more precious results. AmirKabir University of Technology,Tehran, Iran.

  4. Discrimination of animate and inanimate motion in 9-month-old infants: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduk, Katharina; Elsner, Birgit; Reid, Vincent M

    2013-10-01

    Simple geometric shapes moving in a self-propelled manner, and violating Newtonian laws of motion by acting against gravitational forces tend to induce a judgement that an object is animate. Objects that change their motion only due to external causes are more likely judged as inanimate. How the developing brain is employed in the perception of animacy in early ontogeny is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to use ERP techniques to determine if the negative central component (Nc), a waveform related to attention allocation, was differentially affected when an infant observed animate or inanimate motion. Short animated movies comprising a marble moving along a marble run either in an animate or an inanimate manner were presented to 15 infants who were 9 months of age. The ERPs were time-locked to a still frame representing animate or inanimate motion that was displayed following each movie. We found that 9-month-olds are able to discriminate between animate and inanimate motion based on motion cues alone and most likely allocate more attentional resources to the inanimate motion. The present data contribute to our understanding of the animate-inanimate distinction and the Nc as a correlate of infant cognitive processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Different Fluids on Rectified Motion of Leidenfrost Droplets on Micro/Sub-Micron Ratchets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Jeong Tae; Choi, Junseo; Brown, Emily; Park, Sunggook

    2016-06-01

    Leidenfrost droplets, liquid droplets placed on a hot flat surface above the Leidenfrost temperature of the liquid, are an interesting model system to understand and achieve frictionless motion of droplets on a surface. Controlled unidirectional motion of otherwise random Leidenfrost droplets can be achieved by replacing the flat surface by a surface with topological ratchets. In this study, we show how an increase in the vapor layer thickness below the Leidenfrost droplet influences the droplet motion for underlying ratchets with various periods ranging from 1.5mm down to 800nm. This was exploited by systematically studying the Leidenfrost droplet motion of various liquids with low boiling points including acetone, isopropanol, and R134a on the aforementioned various ratchets. For all liquids with boiling points lower than water, no unidirectional motion was observed for 800 nm. This indicates that the asymmetric vapor flow beneath the Leidenfrost droplet becomes negligible due to the large vapor layer thickness relative to the ratchet depth. However, unidirectional droplet motion was still observed for the micron and millimeter scale ratchets even when the ratchet surface temperature was increased up to 360°C and 230°C for acetone and isopropanol, respectively. This can be attributed to the insulating property of the thick vapor layer which prevent the droplet from producing more vapor with increasing temperature. We also report the effect of the ratchet period on the droplet motion at room temperature using R134a droplets.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC STYLE ON THE UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENTIFIC INNOVATION--SPECIAL RELATIVITY, A CASE HISTORY. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOLDBERG, STANLEY

    COMPARED ARE THE RESPONSES TO EINSTEIN'S THEORY OF RELATIVITY IN FOUR COUNTRIES BETWEEN THE YEARS 1905 AND 1911. THE COUNTRIES STUDIED ARE GERMANY, FRANCE, ENGLAND, AND THE UNITED STATES. ON THE BASIS OF THE RESPONSE, NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC STYLES ARE IDENTIFIED, AND THESE STYLES ARE RELATED TO PREVIOUS NATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DOING SCIENCE AND…

  7. String-like cooperative motion in homogeneous melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Khalkhali, Mohammad; Liu, Qingxia; Douglas, Jack F

    2013-03-28

    Despite the fundamental nature and practical importance of melting, there is still no generally accepted theory of this ubiquitous phenomenon. Even the earliest simulations of melting of hard discs by Alder and Wainwright indicated the active role of collective atomic motion in melting and here we utilize molecular dynamics simulation to determine whether these correlated motions are similar to those found in recent studies of glass-forming (GF) liquids and other condensed, strongly interacting, particle systems. We indeed find string-like collective atomic motion in our simulations of "superheated" Ni crystals, but other observations indicate significant differences from GF liquids. For example, we observe neither stretched exponential structural relaxation, nor any decoupling phenomenon, while we do find a boson peak, findings that have strong implications for understanding the physical origin of these universal properties of GF liquids. Our simulations also provide a novel view of "homogeneous" melting in which a small concentration of interstitial defects exerts a powerful effect on the crystal stability through their initiation and propagation of collective atomic motion. These relatively rare point defects are found to propagate down the strings like solitons, driving the collective motion. Crystal integrity remains preserved when the permutational atomic motions take the form of ring-like atomic exchanges, but a topological transition occurs at higher temperatures where the rings open to form linear chains similar in geometrical form and length distribution to the strings of GF liquids. The local symmetry breaking effect of the open strings apparently destabilizes the local lattice structure and precipitates crystal melting. The crystal defects are thus not static entities under dynamic conditions, such as elevated temperatures or material loading, but rather are active agents exhibiting a rich nonlinear dynamics that is not addressed in conventional "static

  8. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth A Necka; H Moriah Sokolowski; Ian M Lyons

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individual...

  9. Wireless motion sensor network for monitoring motion in a process, wireless sensor node, reasoning node, and feedback and/or actuation node for such wireless motion sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Marin Perianu, Raluca; Marin Perianu, Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Wireless motion sensor network for monitoring motion in a process comprising at least one wireless sensor node for measuring at least one physical quantity related to motion or orientation, feature extraction means for deriving a feature for the measured quantities, a wireless transmitter connected

  10. Areas of Confusion in Pathologist-Clinician Communication as it Relates to Understanding the Vulvar Pathology Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Debra S

    2017-10-01

    Pathologist-clinician communication has been an ongoing topic in the literature. Pathology reports are geared to assisting clinicians with patient therapy, but sometimes there are barriers to communication. This survey aims to explore clinicians' understanding of their pathology reports in the membership of the International Society for Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD). An email survey was sent to all members of the ISSVD. Surveys were emailed to 397 members, with 91 responding (23 %). Most (76%) of the respondents were gynecologists, with 13% dermatologists and 6% advanced-practice nurses. Thirty-nine percent of respondents did not always understand their pathology reports, 62% did not know the difference between levels and recuts, 71% were unclear as to why levels rather than recuts would be ordered, and 26% was not familiar with the term "spongiosis." Over 94% read the gross description on a pathology report. Over 90% reported speaking with their pathologist, which they considered important. They considered having a pathologist with specialty expertise important. Clinician members of the ISSVD are particularly attuned to the importance of pathology consultation in the care of women with vulvovaginal conditions. There are still areas for potential improvement in educational efforts, particularly providing information on how pathology laboratory processes may impact the report, as well as in further education in dermatopathology terminology for those unfamiliar.

  11. “If I had to do it, then I would”: Understanding early middle school students’ perceptions of physics and physics-related careers by gender

    OpenAIRE

    Emily A. Dare; Gillian H. Roehrig

    2016-01-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls’ and boys’ perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and representation in this particular field of science. A theoretical framework based...

  12. Contribution of coherent motion to the perception of biological motion among persons with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine M Y Spencer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available People with schizophrenia (SCZ are impaired in several domains of visual processing, including thediscrimination and detection of biological motion. However, the mechanisms underlying SCZ-related biological motion processing deficits are unknown. Moreover, whether these impairments are specific to biological motion or represent a more widespread visual motion processing deficit is unclear. In the current study, three experiments were conducted to investigate the contribution of global coherent motion processing to biological motion perception among patients with SCZ. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants with SCZ (n=33 and healthy controls (n=33 were asked to discriminate the direction of motion from upright and inverted point-light walkers in the presence and absence of a noise mask. Additionally, participants discriminated the direction of non-biological global coherent motion. In Experiment 3, participants discriminated the direction of motion from upright scrambled walkers (which contained only local motion information and upright random-position walkers (which contained only global form information. Consistent with previous research, results from Experiment 1 and 2 showed that people with SCZ exhibited deficits in the direction discrimination of point-light walkers; however, this impairment was accounted for by decreased performance in the coherent motion control task. Furthermore, results from Experiment 3 demonstrated similar performance in the discrimination of scrambled and random position point-light walkers.

  13. Galaxy motions cause trouble for cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2018-02-01

    According to the widely accepted dark energy plus cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model, dark matter is responsible for both the growth of cosmological structures and the motions of galaxies relative to the expansion of the universe. The dynamics of small galaxies orbiting larger ones provides a crucial window into this mysterious dark matter, which leaves its gravitational mark throughout the universe but has not yet been detected directly. On page 534 of this issue, Müller et al. (1) describe observations of satellite galaxies around Centaurus A, the largest galaxy system in the vicinity of the Milky Way. The results may lead to either a better understanding of galaxy formation within the ΛCDM model or a push to overthrow its underlying assumptions.

  14. Difference in Understanding of the Need for Using Radiation in Various Fields between Students Majoring in Radiation and Non-Radiation Related Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok

    2011-01-01

    As a way of improving social receptivity of using radiation, this study looked into the difference of understanding the need of using radiation in various fields between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies, who will influence public opinion in the long term. This study also provides data needed for developing efficient strategies for projects promoting the public's awareness of using radiation. Of the students in the 79 schools sampled, 24%(177) were in 4 year colleges and 146 were junior colleges in educational statistics service (http://cesi.kedi.re.kr) In November 2010 1,945 students were selected as a sample, and they were given surveys on the need of using radiation in different fields. As a result, both between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies showed a high level of understanding the need for radiation in the medical field and showed a low level of understanding of the need for radiation in the agricultural field. In all 6 fields of radiation use, students majoring in radiation related studies showed higher levels of understanding for the need to use radiation than students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies. In each field, male students and those who have experience medical radiation and relevant education had higher level of understanding. This shows we need to improve the understanding of the cases of female students and those who have not had experiences with medical radiation and to provide relevant education through various kinds of information. The characteristics of the groups that are shown in the results of this study are considered to be helpful for efficiently for project promoting the public's awareness of using radiation.

  15. Evaluating Students' Understanding of Kinetic Particle Theory Concepts Relating to the States of Matter, Changes of State and Diffusion: A Cross-National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Crowley, Julianne; Yung, Benny H. W.; Cheong, Irene P.-A.; Othman, Jazilah

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the understanding of three key conceptual categories relating to the kinetic particle theory: (1) intermolecular spacing in solids, liquids and gases, (2) changes of state and intermolecular forces and (3) diffusion in liquids and gases, amongst 148 high school students from Brunei, Australia, Hong Kong and Singapore using 11…

  16. Preservice Teachers' Understanding of the Relation between a Fraction or Integer and its Decimal Expansion: The Case of 0.9 and 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Ed; Arnon, Ilana; Weller, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we obtain a genetic decomposition of students' progress in developing an understanding of the decimal 0.9 and its relation to 1. The genetic decomposition appears to be valid for a high percentage of the study participants and suggests the possibility of a new stage in APOS Theory that would be the first substantial change in…

  17. A String Number-Line Lesson Sequence to Promote Students' Relative Thinking and Understanding of Scale, Key Elements of Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    This article describes part of a study in which researchers designed lesson sequences based around using a string number line to help teachers support children's development of relative thinking and understanding of linear scale. In the first year of the study, eight teachers of Years 3-5 participated in four one-day professional development…

  18. Stepping Stones to Others' Minds: Maternal Talk Relates to Child Mental State Language and Emotion Understanding at 15, 24, and 33 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2008-01-01

    This continuation of a previous study (Taumoepeau & Ruffman, 2006) examined the longitudinal relation between maternal mental state talk to 15- and 24-month-olds and their later mental state language and emotion understanding (N = 74). The previous study found that maternal talk about the child's desires to 15-month-old children uniquely predicted…

  19. Evaluating the Gifted Students' Understanding Related to Plasma State Using Plasma Experimental System and Two-Tier Diagnostic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Saadet Deniz; Ayas, Bahadir; Aybek, Eren Can; Pat, Suat

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the experimental system design related to plasma state on the gifted students' understanding on the subject of the plasma state. To test the research hypothesis, one group pretest-posttest research model was carried out with 18 eighth-grade (4 girls and 14 boys) gifted students in…

  20. A Motion Planning Approach to Studying Molecular Motions

    KAUST Repository

    Amato, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    While structurally very different, protein and RNA molecules share an important attribute. The motions they undergo are strongly related to the function they perform. For example, many diseases such as Mad Cow disease or Alzheimer\\'s disease are associated with protein misfolding and aggregation. Similarly, RNA folding velocity may regulate the plasmid copy number, and RNA folding kinetics can regulate gene expression at the translational level. Knowledge of the stability, folding, kinetics and detailed mechanics of the folding process may help provide insight into how proteins and RNAs fold. In this paper, we present an overview of our work with a computational method we have adapted from robotic motion planning to study molecular motions. We have validated against experimental data and have demonstrated that our method can capture biological results such as stochastic folding pathways, population kinetics of various conformations, and relative folding rates. Thus, our method provides both a detailed view (e.g., individual pathways) and a global view (e.g., population kinetics, relative folding rates, and reaction coordinates) of energy landscapes of both proteins and RNAs. We have validated these techniques by showing that we observe the same relative folding rates as shown in experiments for structurally similar protein molecules that exhibit different folding behaviors. Our analysis has also been able to predict the same relative gene expression rate for wild-type MS2 phage RNA and three of its mutants.

  1. Urban Change: Understanding how expansion and densification relate to demographic change and their implications for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, D.; Jones, B.; Liu, Z.; Nghiem, S. V.; Pesaresi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization is the most demographic significant trend of the 21st century particularly in Asia. Characterizing it in a spatial context is difficult given the moderate resolution data provided by traditional sources of demographic data. Previous work on Saigon has shown by using these data together that much more about the correlates and potential consequences of change in the form and expansion of urban change can be learned than with a single data source alone. In this paper, we expand our analysis to two other much different urban and socioeconomic settings: Dhaka and Beijing. Particularly, where the demographic and socioeconomic indicators of change are too infrequent to capture annual change, use of satellites in combination with demographic data may be especially useful for capturing change in exurban and periurban areas, or in smaller cities within larger urban agglomerations. Using spatial regression techniques, we estimate statistical relationships between remotely sensed data sets to assess the ability demographic changes to predict urban changes as detected by two different satellite measures of change 2000-2010 in Dhaka, Saigon, and Beijing. We then predict socioeconomic outcomes associated with emissions and vulnerability proxies. We use two much different types of satellite data -- the Dense Sample Method (DSM) analysis of the NASA scatterometer data and new built-up area data from the Global Human Settlement Layer of the JRC - which respectively proxy for increases in building heights (vertical expansion) and impervious surface-type changes (horizontal expansion). These different data products help us to better understand the evolution of the built environment and urban form, while the underlying demographic data provide information regarding composition of urban population change, at different levels of economic development, built-upness, and population density. Combining these types of data yields important, high resolution spatial information that

  2. Mental imagery of gravitational motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravano, Silvio; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    There is considerable evidence that gravitational acceleration is taken into account in the interaction with falling targets through an internal model of Earth gravity. Here we asked whether this internal model is accessed also when target motion is imagined rather than real. In the main experiments, naïve participants grasped an imaginary ball, threw it against the ceiling, and caught it on rebound. In different blocks of trials, they had to imagine that the ball moved under terrestrial gravity (1g condition) or under microgravity (0g) as during a space flight. We measured the speed and timing of the throwing and catching actions, and plotted ball flight duration versus throwing speed. Best-fitting duration-speed curves estimate the laws of ball motion implicit in the participant's performance. Surprisingly, we found duration-speed curves compatible with 0g for both the imaginary 0g condition and the imaginary 1g condition, despite the familiarity with Earth gravity effects and the added realism of performing the throwing and catching actions. In a control experiment, naïve participants were asked to throw the imaginary ball vertically upwards at different heights, without hitting the ceiling, and to catch it on its way down. All participants overestimated ball flight durations relative to the durations predicted by the effects of Earth gravity. Overall, the results indicate that mental imagery of motion does not have access to the internal model of Earth gravity, but resorts to a simulation of visual motion. Because visual processing of accelerating/decelerating motion is poor, visual imagery of motion at constant speed or slowly varying speed appears to be the preferred mode to perform the tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Motion Verbs in Learner Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pınar BABANOĞLU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Motions verbs differ across languages in respect of spatial relations and syntactic/semantic conceptualization. Languages have two typological groups for motion events: (a verb-framed languages in which the main verb expresses the core information of the path of movement, and the manner information is expressed in a subordinate structure (e.g. a gerundive and (b satellite-framed languages where the main verb expresses information about manner of movement and a subordinate satellite element (e.g., a verb particle to the verb conveys the path of movement (Talmy, 1985; Chen & Guo, 2009. In this corpus-based study, two learner corpora from two different native languages as Turkish as a verb-framed language and German as satellite-framed language are investigated in terms of motion verbs in English like move, fly, walk, go via frequency and statistical analysis for corpora comparison. The purpose of the study is to find out whether there is a statistical difference in the use of motion verbs by Turkish (as a verb-framed L1 and German (as a satellite-framed L1 learners in due of cross-linguistic difference between Turkish and German which may be a factor that influence learners essay writing in English (as a satellite-framed L2 in the use of motion verbs. Results indicated that German learners of English use especially manner of motion verbs in English statistically more frequent and lexically more diverse in their essays than Turkish learners of English.

  4. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  5. Motion measurement for synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measures radar soundings from a set of locations typically along the flight path of a radar platform vehicle. Optimal focusing requires precise knowledge of the sounding source locations in 3-D space with respect to the target scene. Even data driven focusing techniques (i.e. autofocus) requires some degree of initial fidelity in the measurements of the motion of the radar. These requirements may be quite stringent especially for fine resolution, long ranges, and low velocities. The principal instrument for measuring motion is typically an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), but these instruments have inherent limi ted precision and accuracy. The question is %22How good does an IMU need to be for a SAR across its performance space?%22 This report analytically relates IMU specifications to parametric requirements for SAR. - 4 - Acknowledgements Th e preparation of this report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Although this report is an independent effort, it draws heavily from limited - release documentation generated under a CRADA with General Atomics - Aeronautical System, Inc. (GA - ASI), and under the Joint DoD/DOE Munitions Program Memorandum of Understanding. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of En ergy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Students' Understanding of the Special Theory of Relativity and Design for a Guided Visit to a Science Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Solbes, Jordi; Barragues, Jose-Ignacio; Morentin, Maite; Moreno, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes the design of teaching materials that are used as learning tools in school visits to a science museum. An exhibition on "A century of the Special Theory of Relativity", in the Kutxaespacio Science Museum, in San Sebastian, Spain, was used to design a visit for first-year engineering students at the university…

  7. Improving our understanding of hydraulic-electrical relations: A case study of the surficial aquifer in Emirate Abu Dhabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikard, Scott; Kress, Wade

    2016-01-01

    Transmissivity is a bulk hydraulic property that can be correlated with bulk electrical properties of an aquifer. In aquifers that are electrically-resistive relative to adjacent layers in a horizontally stratified sequence, transmissivity has been shown to correlate with bulk transverse resistance. Conversely, in aquifers that are electrically-conductive relative to adjacent layers, transmissivity has been shown to correlate with bulk longitudinal conductance. In both cases, previous investigations have relied on small datasets (on average less than eight observations) that have yielded coefficients of determination (R2) that are typically in the range of 0.6 to 0.7 to substantiate these relations. Compared to previous investigations, this paper explores hydraulic-electrical relations using a much larger dataset. Geophysical data collected from 26 boreholes in Emirate Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, are used to correlate transmissivity modeled from neutron porosity logs to the bulk electrical properties of the surficial aquifer that are computed from deep-induction logs. Transmissivity is found to be highly correlated with longitudinal conductance. An R2 value of 0.853 is obtained when electrical effects caused by variations in pore-fluid salinity are taken into consideration.

  8. Dental anomalies in different cleft groups related to neural crest developmental fields contributes to the understanding of cleft aetiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Louise Claudius; Kjær, Inger; Mølsted, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze dental deviations in three cleft groups and relate findings to embryological neural crest fields (frontonasal, maxillary, and palatal). The overall purpose was to evaluate how fields are involved in different cleft types. DESIGN: Retrospective audit of clinical photographs...

  9. “If I had to do it, then I would”: Understanding early middle school students’ perceptions of physics and physics-related careers by gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Dare

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls’ and boys’ perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and representation in this particular field of science. A theoretical framework based on the literature of girl-friendly and integrated STEM instructional strategies guided this work to understand how instructional strategies may influence and relate to students’ perceptions. This convergent parallel mixed-methods study used a survey and focus group interviews to understand similarities and differences between girls’ and boys’ perceptions. Our findings indicate very few differences between girls and boys, but show that boys are more interested in the physics-related career of engineering. While girls are just as interested in science class as their male counterparts, they highly value the social aspect that often accompanies hands-on group activities. These findings shed light on how K-12 science reform efforts might help to increase the number of women pursuing careers related to physics.

  10. Semantic Categories in the Domain of Motion Verbs by Adult Speakers of Danish, German, and Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessen, Moiken

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Languages differ in the ways they divide the world. This study applies cluster analysis to understand how and why languages differ in the way they express motion events. It further lays out what the parameters of the structure of the semantic space of motion are, based on data collected from participants who were adult speakers of Danish, German, and Turkish. The participants described 37 video clips depicting a large variety of motion events. The results of the study show that the segmentation of the semantic space displays a great deal of variation across all three groups. Turkish differs from German and Danish with respect to the features used to segment the semantic space – namely by using vector orientation. German and Danish differ greatly with respect to (a how fine-grained the distinctions made are, and (b how motion verbs with a common Germanic root are distributed across the semantic space. Consequently, this study illustrates that the parameters applied for categorization by speakers are, to some degree, related to typological membership, in relation to Talmy's typological framework for the expression of motion events. Finally, the study shows that the features applied for categorization differ across languages and that typological membership is not necessarily a predictor of elaboration of the motion verb lexicon.

  11. Motion sickness, body movement, and claustrophobia during passive restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugloire, Elise; Bonnet, Cédrick T; Riley, Michael A; Bardy, Benoît G; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2007-03-01

    Standing participants were passively restrained and exposed to oscillating visual motion. Thirty-nine percent of participants reported motion sickness. Despite passive restraint, participants exhibited displacements of the center of pressure, and prior to the onset of motion sickness the evolution of these displacements differed between participants who later became sick and those who did not. Claustrophobia occurred during restraint, but only among participants who became motion sick. The results are consistent with the postural instability theory of motion sickness. We discuss the possible relation between claustrophobia symptoms, postural movements and motion sickness incidence.

  12. NordicWelfAir - Understanding the link between Air pollution and Distribution of related Health Impacts and Welfare in the Nordic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution has serious impacts on human health, wellbeing and welfare. The main challenge is to understand how to regulate air pollution in an optimal way both on global and local scales. Linking the detailed information of the spatio-temporal distribution of air pollution levels and the chemical composition of the atmospheric particles with register data for mortality and morbidity, we have a unique opportunity in the Nordic countries to gain new understanding of the various health impacts from different kinds of air pollution from different kind of sources. This will provide the basic understanding needed for policy making of strategies to optimally reduce the air pollution challenge and to assess the related impacts on the distribution of health impacts and related societal costs and welfare. The large interdisciplinary NordicWelfAir project (http://nordicwelfair.au.dk), funded by NordForsk, will take advantage of the unique Nordic data. The results from the project will be used in both a Nordic as well as global perspective to improve the health and welfare by finding the optimal solutions to societal and public health challenges from air pollution through high-quality research. The results from the research in this project have the potential to act as new international standards in our understanding of health impacts from air pollution for different population groups due to the possibility to integrate the unique data and knowledge of air pollution, register, health, socio-economics, and welfare research in the Nordic countries in a highly interdisciplinary project. The study will provide a Nordic contribution to international research on the topics of environmental equality and justice within the area of air quality related risks, amenities and wellbeing. Acknowledgements This project is funded by NordForsk under the Nordic Programme on Health and Welfare. Project #75007: Understanding the link between air pollution and distribution of related health

  13. The vascular phenotype in pseudoxanthoma elasticum and related disorders: Contribution of a genetic disease to the understanding of vascular calcification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges eLeftheriotis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is a complex and dynamic process occurring in various physiological conditions such as aging and exercise or in acquired metabolic disorders like diabetes or chronic renal insufficiency. Arterial calcifications are also observed in several genetic diseases revealing the important role of unbalanced or defective anti- or pro-calcifying factors. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE is an inherited disease (OMIM 264800 characterized by elastic fiber fragmentation and calcification in various soft conjunctive tissues including the skin, eyes and arterial media. The PXE disease results from mutations in the ABCC6 gene, encoding an ATP-binding cassette transporter primarily expressed in the liver, kidneys suggesting that it is a prototypic metabolic soft-tissue calcifying disease of genetic origin. The clinical expression of the PXE arterial disease is characterized by an increased risk for coronary (myocardial infarction, cerebral (aneurysm and stroke and lower limb peripheral artery disease. However, the structural and functional changes in the arterial wall induced by PXE are still unexplained. The use of a recombinant mouse model inactivated for the Abcc6 gene is an important tool for the understanding of the PXE pathophysiology although the vascular impact in this model remains limited to date. Overlapping of the PXE phenotype with other inherited calcifying diseases could bring important informations to our comprehension of the PXE disease.

  14. Application of Cyclone Relative Approach and Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis to Better Understand Extratropical Cyclone Errors in Operational Models and Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinxia

    A cyclone relative approach and an ensemble sensitivity analysis (ESA) were applied to explore some of the possible reasons for extratropical cyclone center mean sea level pressure errors. For the cyclone relative approach, data were extracted within a box region and saved every 6 hours. GEFS (Global Ensemble Forecast System) control member and ensemble members forecast data were utilized in this research. Around the cyclone, errors in fields such as mean sea level pressure and precipitation rapidly increase from day 4 to day 5, and the errors of all fields examined are consistent with the overpredicted and underpredicted cyclones. For example, for an overforecast cyclone, it has more intense PV (potential vorticity) at 320K, a stronger temperature gradient on 925hPa, and greater simulated precipitation than observed, while the underpredicted cyclones have the opposite results. The day 3 precipitation errors and 925 hPa temperature gradient errors are relatively large before the cyclone errors develop, thus suggesting that moisture and latent heat and dry dynamics could contribute to cyclogenesis intensity errors. ESA accompanied with cyclone relative approach implies that moisture may contribute to the cyclogenesis error at an initial stage of cyclone development. There are also hints of upstream errors growing and moving in from ESA cases. AA possible explanation for underpredicted cyclones might be that less moisture on the warm side of cyclones leads to a weaker upper tropospheric latent heat release, and hence a less amplified PV field, and a weaker cyclone. In addition, a weaker temperature gradient at 925 hPa could also cause a weaker cyclone.

  15. Understanding discrepancies in parent-child reporting of emotional and behavioural problems: Effects of relational and socio-demographic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Heyerdahl Sonja; Groholt Berit; Van Roy Betty; Clench-Aas Jocelyne

    2010-01-01

    Background Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disa...

  16. Stabilities of regular motion in the relativistic standard map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.H.; Horton, W.

    1991-02-01

    Analysis of the relativistic standard map is one of the important problems to understand nonlinear interaction between waves and charged particles in the relativistic dynamics. In the relativistic standard map, in general, chaotic motion is strongly suppressed and regular motion such as periodic orbit plays dominant roles in the phase space. Location of periodic points is predicted by use of symmetry lines of the map. Local stability of periodic points is investigated by introducing the residue of the orbit which characterizes the eigenvalue of the area-preserving map. It is found that the exchange of stable and unstable points takes place at some value of the relativistic parameter. Special behavior of the residue of the Poincare-Birkhoff period-4 points are also examined and related bifurcations are clarified. (author)

  17. Application of earthquake source modeling to assess the relative differences between seismic ground motion in the Eastern and Western regions of the United States and to characterize the type and direction of incoming seismic waves. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apsel, R.J.; Frazier, G.A.; Jurkevics, A.; Fried, J.C.

    1980-09-30

    This report assesses the relative difference between seismic ground motion in the Eastern (EUS) and Western (WUS) regions of the United States; and provides the necessary input to soil-structure interaction codes concerning type and propagation direction for incoming seismic waves. Implicit is the relevance to the Zion Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP) site. The relative differences between seismic ground motions in EUS and WUS are assumed to be principally caused by differences in material attenuation. Earthquake rupture and wave propagation through the earth were simulated by performing numerical calculations. Typical results for a Western United States earth structure indicate that essentially no seismic energy emerges at angles shallower than 45 degrees except for low frequency emission from shallow zones of earthquake rupture. The same simulations are repeated for the ZNPP earth structure. The effective incoming waves are seen to be emerging within ten degrees of vertical at Zion for all source/receiver geometries and all frequencies of interest. At high frequency, the reduced material attenuation (corresponding to the higher EUS quality factors) additionally constrains the effective incoming waves to emerge within five degrees of vertical.

  18. 38 CFR 4.59 - Painful motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manipulation, should be carefully noted and definitely related to affected joints. Muscle spasm will greatly... intent of the schedule is to recognize painful motion with joint or periarticular pathology as productive...

  19. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  20. Understanding relational conditions necessary for effective mentoring of black-owned small businesses: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makatleho J. Matabooe

    2016-03-01

    Research purpose: To identify relational-based conditions for effective mentoring, which can be used to enhance business management skills of owner-managers of black-owned small businesses and eventually improve the survival of these businesses in South Africa. Motivation for the study: By identifying relational-based conditions needed for effective mentoring of black-owned small businesses, recommendations can be put forward that could help achieve harmonious mentoring relationships and ultimately ensure effective mentoring of these businesses. Research design, approach and method: An interpretivism paradigm was adopted and aqualitative research methodology was selected. Semistructured interviews were used to gauge the perceptions of participants about relational issues necessary for effective mentoring. Content and constant comparative analyses were used to analyse data. Main findings: The findings revealed that conditions surrounding the knowledge and expertise of the mentor, experience and age of the mentor, approachability of the mentor, mutual respect, open communication, mutual trust and honesty, passion and patience of the mentor, mentee’s willingness to learn, alignment of expectations, as well as culture sensitivity of the mentor are to be considered for effective mentor–mentee relationship. Practical/managerial implications: Although mentoring is important to develop management skills of owner–managers, it is equally important that the mentor–mentee relationship is nurtured to achieve the desired outcomes of the relationship. Contribution/value-add: The alarming failure rates of small businesses in general and blackowned small businesses in particular could be improved by providing effective mentoring programmes to owner–managers by ensuring harmonious mentor–mentee relationships.

  1. Conceptual Understanding of the Russian-Caucasian Relations in the XVI–XIX centuries in the Official Imperial Historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadzhi-Murat A. Sabanchiev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestic Caucasus Studies contains various, often conflicting concepts and approaches, claiming to be the most complete and objective coverage of issues of Russian-Caucasian historical interaction. Though in different studies, the same category is filled with a variety of semantic content that creates a discursive field requiring thorough scientific research. The article analyzes the research works of official direction of pre-revolutionary historiography devoted to the problem of relations between Russia and the North Caucasus in the XVI–XIX centuries. The disciplinary matrix of historical science of J. Ryuzen is used as an instrument of historiographical analysis in this research. This theoretical construct allowed to typologize and to conceptualize the pre-revolutionary studies, to formulate criteria for selection of the conservative direction in the study of the Russian-Caucasian relations. The authors of the article relate the works of M.M. Shcherbatov, N.K. Karamzin, P.P. Zubov, R.А. Fadeev, A.P. Berge, N.F. Dubrovin, V.A. Potto, D.N. Dubenskiy, I. Ivanin, S.S. Esadze et al to the research works of the official direction of the pre-revolutionary historical thought. The cognitive interest of this group of researchers is caused by the search for the most effective ways of conquest and managing the North Caucasian peoples. Caucasus war was examined by the researchers-conservatives as the process of strengthening the position of the Russian Empire in the North Caucasus region justified from a historical and geopolitical point of view. The official approach supposed the civilizational motivation for the particular military conquest of the North Caucasus societies, deprived of citizenship and social order. The authors conclude that the research works of the conservative direction of imperial historiography solve important problems of legitimation of the Russian policy in the North Caucasus.

  2. Proxy Evaluation of Health-Related Quality of Life: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Multiple Proxy Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Pickard, A. Simon; Knight, Sara J.

    2005-01-01

    Proxy assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQL) may be sought to substitute for, or to complement, patient self-assessment. The viewpoint from which the proxy is asked to assess the patient is a subtle yet important aspect of proxy assessment. Proxy assessments can be elicited by asking a proxy to assess the patient as they think the patient would respond (ie, proxy-patient perspective) or for the proxy to provide their own perspective on the patient’s HRQL (ie, proxy-proxy perspect...

  3. Understanding the importance of attachment in shame traumatic memory relation to depression: the impact of emotion regulation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Marcela; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Costa, Vânia

    2013-01-01

    Early relationships are crucial to human brain maturation, well-being, affect regulation and self-other schema. Shame traumatic memories are related to psychopathology, and recent research has shown that the quality and type of attachment relationships may be crucial in shame traumatic memories in relation to psychopathology. The current study explores a mediator model of emotion regulation processes (rumination, thought suppression and dissociation) on the association between shame traumatic memory, with attachment figures and with others, and depressive symptoms. Ninety subjects from the general community population completed the Shame Experiences Interview (SEI), assessing shame experiences from childhood and adolescence, and a battery of self-report scales measuring shame traumatic memory, rumination, thought suppression, dissociation and depression. Mediator analyses show that emotion regulation processes, such as brooding, thought suppression and dissociation, mediate the association between shame traumatic memory with others and depression. In contrast, shame traumatic memory with attachment figures has a direct effect on depression, not mediated by emotion regulation processes, with only brooding partially mediating this relation. The current findings shed light on the importance of attachment figures on the structuring of shame traumatic memories and on their impact on psychopathological symptoms, adding to recent neuroscience research and Gilbert's approach on shame and compassion. In addition, our results emphasize the relevance of addressing shame memories, mainly those that involve attachment figures, particularly when working with patients suffering from depressive symptoms and/or that find compassion difficult or scary. The quality of attachment relationships is important in how shame memories are structured and in their relation to psychopathology. The relationship between shame traumatic memory with attachment figures and depressive symptoms is not

  4. Understanding suicide attempts among American Indian adolescents in New Mexico: modifiable factors related to risk and resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Michelle; Fullerton-Gleason, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    To examine correlates of suicide attempts among American Indian adolescents living on reservations in New Mexico. Cross-sectional American Indian adolescents attending school in New Mexico, grades 6 to 12. Data from the Search Institute Profiles of Student Life Attitudes and Behaviors survey related to suicide attempts and student assets and risk behaviors. Hypothesized predictor variables derived from 39 survey questions were tested against one outcome variable relating to prior suicide attempts. Of 690 American Indian students included in the study, 24.2% indicated having attempted suicide one or more times in their lives. Salient assets included having neighbors who cared about them, adults who made them feel important, and having friends who did well in school. Notable risk factors were feeling depressed, drug and alcohol use, and having been the victim of violence. Adolescent suicide continues to be a major concern for American Indians. A focus on strengthening parent-child relationships and community support for families may increase resiliency among youth at risk.

  5. Whether, when, and how is spirituality related to well-being? Moving beyond single occasion questionnaires to understanding daily process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Nezlek, John B

    2012-11-01

    Prior research suggests that spirituality is positively related to well-being. Nevertheless, within-person variability in spirituality has yet to be addressed. Do people experience greater spirituality on some days versus others? Does daily spirituality predict daily well-being? Do within-person relationships between spirituality and well-being vary as a function of trait spirituality? The authors examined such questions using a daily diary study with 87 participants who provided reports of their daily spirituality and well-being for a total of 1,239 days. They found that daily spirituality was positively related to meaning in life, self-esteem, and positive affect, and the link from daily spirituality to both self-esteem and positive affect was fully mediated by meaning in life. Moreover, within-person relationships between daily spirituality and self-esteem and meaning in life were stronger for people higher in trait spirituality. Lagged analyses found positive relationships between present day spirituality and next day's meaning in life; there was no evidence for meaning in life as a predictor of the next day's spirituality. When focusing on affect, for people higher in trait spirituality, greater negative affect (and lower positive affect) predicted greater spirituality the next day. These results provide new insights into how spirituality operates as a fluctuating experience in daily life.

  6. Understanding and Remediating Social-Cognitive Dysfunctions in Patients with Serious Mental Illness Using Relational Frame Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Annemieke L; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; McEnteggart, Ciara; De Mey, Hubert R A; Janssen, Gwenny T L; Egger, Jos I M

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in social cognition and perspective-taking play an important role in the psychopathology and social functioning of individuals with social anxiety, autism, or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, among other clinical presentations. Perspective-taking has mostly been studied using the concept of Theory of Mind (ToM), which describes the sequential development of these skills in young children, as well as clinical populations experiencing perspective-taking difficulties. Several studies mention positive results of ToM based training programs; however, the precise processes involved in the achievement of these improvements are difficult to determine. Relational Frame Theory (RFT) is a modern behavioral account of complex cognitive functions, and is argued to provide a more precise approach to the assessment and training of perspective-taking, among other relational skills. Results of RFT-based studies of perspective-taking in developmental and clinical settings are discussed. The development of training methods targeting perspective-taking deficits from an RFT point of view appears to provide promising applications for the enhancement of current treatments of people with social-cognitive dysfunctions.

  7. A systems approach to understanding the identification and treatment of sport-related concussion in community rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clacy, Amanda; Goode, Natassia; Sharman, Rachael; Lovell, Geoff P; Salmon, Paul

    2017-07-04

    The aim of the present study was to utilise a systems thinking approach to explore the perceived responsibilities for identifying and treating concussion held by different actors across the community rugby system (e.g., players, coaches, parents, medics, referees, and management), as well as their role-specific concussion management strategies. A systems approach was taken to assess what different stakeholders within rugby systems perceive their roles to be regarding concussion identification and treatment. Through an online survey, 118 members of the amateur (community) rugby union system were asked about their role-specific concussion management responsibilities and strategies. Respondents included players, parents, medics, coaches, club managers, administrators, and volunteers. The majority of respondents indicated that they were able to identify the symptoms of rugby-related concussion, however, only medics stated their responsibility to use formal concussion assessments (e.g., SCAT2). A smaller number of the respondents indicated that they were involved in treating concussion within their current role/s (majority of which were medics). This study illustrated that the current challenges in the identification and treatment of rugby-related concussion in community sport may be due to role/responsibility confusion and possible overreliance on field-side medics. These findings offer insight into the possible limitations of the current concussion management guidelines and may offer empirically based direction for future revisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Past plate and mantle motion from new ages for the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, John; Steinberger, Bernhard; Regelous, Marcel; Koppers, Anthony; Wijbrans, Jan; Haase, Karsten; Stoffers, Peter; Jokat, Wilfried; Garbe-Schoenberg, C.-Dieter

    2014-05-01

    Estimates of the relative motion between the Hawaiian and Louisville hotspots have consequences for understanding the role and character of deep Pacific-mantle return flow. The relative motion between these primary hotspots can be inferred by comparing the age records for their seamount trails. Our new 40Ar/39Ar ages for 18 lavas from 10 seamounts along the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain (HESC) show that volcanism started in the sharp portion of the Hawaiian-Emperor Bend (HEB) at ≥47.5 Ma and continued for ≥5 Myr (O'Connor et al., 2013). The slope of the along-track distance from the currently active Hawaiian hotspot plotted versus age is remarkably linear between ~57 and 25 Ma in the central ˜1900 km of the seamount chain, including the HEB. This model predicts an age for the oldest Emperor Seamounts that matches published ages, implying that a linear age-distance relationship might extend back to at least 82 Ma. In contrast, Hawaiian age progression was much faster since at least ~15 Ma and possibly as early as ~27 Ma. Linear age-distance relations for the Hawaii-Emperor and Louisville seamount chains predict ~300 km overall hotspot relative motion between 80 and 47.5 Ma, in broad agreement with numerical models of plumes in a convecting mantle, and paleomagnetic data. We show that a change in hotspot relative motion may also have occurred between ~55 Ma and ~50 Ma. We interpret this change in hotspot motion as evidence that the HEB reflects a combination of hotspot and plate motion changes driven by the same plate/mantle reorganization. O'Connor et al. (2013), Constraints on past plate and mantle motion from new ages for the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 14, 4564-4584, doi:10.1002/ggge.20267.

  9. Imagined Spaces: Motion Graphics in Performance Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter I introduce the first steps in my work with adjoining and developing concepts relevant to the study and practical design of motion graphics in spatial experience design; performance, event and exhibition design. Based on a presentation of a practical case where motion graphics...... are used in performance design, the chapter portrays the work in progress on a design model for designing spatial experiences in performances through the use of motion graphics. The purpose of the model is to systematize and categorize different design elements e.g. space, line and shape, tone, colour......, space, movement, and rhythm, in relation to e.g. expression and atmosphere, to be considered when designing and analyzing motion graphics in performance design, one kind of spatial experience design. The analysis of the case, here a dance performance utilizing video projected motion graphics, isbe done...

  10. Manual materials handling in simulated motion environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael W; MacKinnon, Scott N; Matthews, Julie; Albert, Wayne J; Mills, Steven

    2008-05-01

    Seafaring occupations have been shown to place operators at an increased risk for injury. The purpose of this study was to understand better the demands of a moving environment on the ability of a person to perform specific lifting tasks. Subjects lifted a 15-kg load under four different lifting conditions. A 6-degree-of-freedom ship motion simulator imposed repeatable deck motions under foot while subjects executed the lifting tasks. Subjects were oriented in three different positions on the simulator floor to inflict different motion profiles. Electromyographic records of four muscles were collected bilaterally, and thoracolumbar kinematics were measured. A repeated-measures ANOVA was employed to assess trunk motions and muscle activities across lifting and motion conditions. The erector spinae muscles showed a trend toward significant differences for motion effects. Maximal sagittal velocities were significantly smaller for all motion states in comparison with the stable condition (p

  11. Work related Changes And New Understandings Of Prevention: Results Of Multi-Level Participatory Interventions In Four SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Poulsen, Signe; Gish, Liv

    2014-01-01

    meeting among both managers and employees to evaluate the process. Examples of work-related changes are improved project management, recognition and feedback, well-defined tasks, and improved management. The research data (i.e. surveys, interviews and Chronicle Workshop) and the derived results have made...... it clear that the PoWRS model provides a collective learning process about the work place which supports new insights among both managers and employees. They state that having collective reflections about work, issues and potential solutions and changes is an eye-opener to how change processes can...... development of organizational level changes. By employing the model the companies became capable of developing new work practices in a multi-level participatory process using local in-house resources as facilitators. The PoWRS model was developed as part of the research project:”Productivity and Well...

  12. Understanding adolescent psychopathic traits from early risk and protective factors: Relations among inhibitory control, maternal sensitivity, and attachment representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Katharine Ann

    2015-10-01

    Psychopathic traits reflect deficits in behavioral, affective, and interpersonal functioning (Cooke & Michie, 2001). Children with poor inhibitory control may display these traits. Maternal sensitivity and attachment have been implicated in psychopathic traits, but whether they may reduce the likelihood of psychopathic trait expression in adolescence for uninhibited children is largely unknown. The current study attempted to shed light on this issue. Data came from 957 adolescents, followed from 54 months through 15 years. Findings demonstrated that maternal sensitivity was associated with a reduced likelihood of psychopathic traits for males with low inhibitory control. For females, secure attachment mediated the interaction of sensitivity and inhibitory control to psychopathic traits. The current study offers insight into the temperamental traits, parenting, and relational processes involved in psychopathic trait expression during adolescence. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Quintero Corzo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality of education.

  14. Surface Accelerometer Fixation Method Affects Leg Soft Tissue Motion Following Heel Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Stefanczyk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface-mounted accelerometers (SMA secured tightly to body segments with an elastic strap, are commonly used to quantify the impact response of bone.  However, the effect that this type of fixation has on segment soft tissue motion relative to bone has yet to be determined.  Heel impacts were collected from 20 participants using a human pendulum apparatus, with (strap and without (no strap a SMA attached to the proximal tibia.  Leg soft tissue motion was quantified using digital image analysis software which monitored positions of skin markers from a series of high speed photographs.  The strap was found to alter the natural physiological motion of the soft tissue, with significant displacement, velocity and sex differences occurring within the most proximal regions.  Future research should evaluate alternative methods for quantifying bone and soft tissue response to impact concurrently, to advance our understanding of impact-related injury mechanisms.

  15. Understanding Liking in Relation to Sensory Characteristics, Consumer Concept Associations, Arousal Potential and "Appropriateness for Use" Using Apple Juice as an Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Bredie, Wender L P; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2016-01-01

    apple juice parameters. The basic tastes sweet and sour were key properties and played a central role in liking acquisition. Apple juices having a sweet/sour balance were most liked. The importance of balance in sensory properties was underlined by the fact that consumer liking was related......It is crucial to understand influential parameters for acquisition of consumer liking to ensure succesful product introduction and competativeness in the marketplace. This article aims to study and understand liking in relation to sensory characteristics, consumer concept associations, arousal...... potential and appropriateness for use using apple juices as an application. First, a laboratory panel (n=15: F=10, M=5) determined the sensory profile of the apple juices using the methods Partial Napping and Ultra Flash Profiling based on taste and flavor. Next, consumers (n=196: F=136, M=60) evaluated key...

  16. Motion Reliability Modeling and Evaluation for Manipulator Path Planning Task

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tong; Jia, Qingxuan; Chen, Gang; Sun, Hanxu

    2015-01-01

    Motion reliability as a criterion can reflect the accuracy of manipulator in completing operations. Since path planning task takes a significant role in operations of manipulator, the motion reliability evaluation of path planning task is discussed in the paper. First, a modeling method for motion reliability is proposed by taking factors related to position accuracy of manipulator into account. In the model, multidimensional integral for PDF is carried out to calculate motion reliability. Co...

  17. Understanding determinants of government and consumer behavior relative to product safety : an application of the theory of planned behavior to China and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Domke, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The following thesis applies Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to explain consumer and government response to safety of Chinese-made products sold in China and the United States. The thesis relies on secondary data as it considers the responses and actions relative to product safety by four different groups: Chinese government, U.S. government, Chinese consumers and U.S. consumers. Increased globalization has heightened the need for a better understanding and agreement...

  18. Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Meghan L; Donlon, Katharine A; Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Winston, Flaura K; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children's coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within one month of injury and reported on coping and coping assistance six months later. Parents completed a measure of coping assistance at the six-month assessment. Children used an average of five to six coping strategies (out of 10), with wishful thinking, social support, and distraction endorsed most frequently. Child coping was associated with parent and peer coping assistance strategies. Significant acute stress reactions were related to subsequent child use of coping strategies (distraction, social withdrawal, problem-solving, blaming others) and to child report of parent use of distraction (as a coping assistance strategy). Findings suggest that children's acute stress reactions may influence their selection of coping and coping assistance strategies. To best inform interventions, research is needed to examine change in coping behaviors and coping assistance over time, including potential bidirectional relationships between trauma reactions and coping.

  19. A review and analysis of the use of ‘habit’ in understanding, predicting and influencing health-related behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘habit’ is widely used to predict and explain behaviour. This paper examines use of the term in the context of health-related behaviour, and explores how the concept might be made more useful. A narrative review is presented, drawing on a scoping review of 136 empirical studies and 8 literature reviews undertaken to document usage of the term ‘habit’, and methods to measure it. A coherent definition of ‘habit’, and proposals for improved methods for studying it, were derived from findings. Definitions of ‘habit’ have varied in ways that are often implicit and not coherently linked with an underlying theory. A definition is proposed whereby habit is a process by which a stimulus generates an impulse to act as a result of a learned stimulus-response association. Habit-generated impulses may compete or combine with impulses and inhibitions arising from other sources, including conscious decision-making, to influence responses, and need not generate behaviour. Most research on habit is based on correlational studies using self-report measures. Adopting a coherent definition of ‘habit’, and a wider range of paradigms, designs and measures to study it, may accelerate progress in habit theory and application. PMID:25207647

  20. Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on the Processing of Emotion in Faces: Implications for Understanding Alcohol-Related Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of OFC-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature. PMID:24920135