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Sample records for understanding relative clauses

  1. Subjunctive in Russian relative clauses

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    Nina Dobrushina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at determining the factors that trigger the choice of subjunctive in relative clauses, where it freely alternates with indicative forms. The factors are established on a basis of frequency of occurrence in Russian National Corpus (www.ruscorpora.ru and include the referential status of the noun heading the relative clause, the polarity, semantic type and epistemic status of the main predicate and the affirmative vs. interrogative status of the whole sentence.

  2. On Double-Headed Relative Clauses

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    Guglielmo Cinque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article documents the presence in a number of languages and language families (as well as in various child languages of relative clauses displaying simultaneously an internal and an external head, and considers the implications of this finding for the general theory of relative clauses.

  3. On Double-Headed Relative Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Guglielmo Cinque

    2011-01-01

    The present article documents the presence in a number of languages and language families (as well as in various child languages) of relative clauses displaying simultaneously an internal and an external head, and considers the implications of this finding for the general theory of relative clauses.

  4. The Relative Clause in Colloquial Singapore English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsagoff, Lubna; Lick, Ho Chee

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates the specific ways in which the influence of Chinese manifests itself in the structure of the noun phrases containing relative-clause modifiers in colloquial Singapore English. Argues that while previous researchers have been correct in pointing out the substratal influence of Chinese, they have not gone far enough in articulating the…

  5. Relative clauses in Latin: some problems of description

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    Pinkster, H.; da Cunha Corrêa, P.; Martinho, M.; Macedo, J.M.; Pineiro Hasegawa, A.

    2012-01-01

    Latin grammars usually describe relative clauses as attributes of a head constituent. Independently used relative clauses are regarded as derived from the first type. Latin has in fact two types of relative clauses which should not be regarded as derived from each other.

  6. Relative clause formation in the Bantu languages of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses (verbal) relative clauses in the Bantu languages spoken in South Africa. The first part of the article offers a comparison of the relative clause formation strategies in Sotho, Tsonga, Nguni and Venda. An interesting difference between these language groups concerns the syntactic position and the ...

  7. THE ROLE OF THE GRAMMAR ON PORTUGUESE TEXTBOOKS: A LOOK ON TEACHING OF RELATIVE CLAUSE

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    Aliana Lopes CÂMARA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies how the textbooks of Portuguese Language of Secondary School, approved by the Programa Nacional do Livro Didático-2014, approach the teaching of grammar, in particular as regards the treatment of the relative subordinate clause. For this, first we start with the comparison between the proposals manuals for teaching grammar and what was accomplished in the student book. Furthermore, we propose here an interface between the results of the analysis of textbooks and functional description of the relative clause. In other words, we try to verify as some descriptive aspects can be used in the teaching of relative clause, with the aim of developing reading and writing skills. In order to do that, we take as theoretical framework the different conceptions of grammar proposed in Travaglia (2009, 2011 and Functional Discourse Grammar (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008. This research points to the need to emphasize the cohesive role established by the relative pronoun that introduces the relative clause, to understand the non-restrictive relative clause from its argumentative function and to review the distinction between subtypes of adjective clause from the criteria of omission of the subordinate clause.

  8. Understanding Non-Restrictive "Which"-Clauses in Spoken English, Which Is Not an Easy Thing.

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    Tao, Hongyin; McCarthy, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Reexamines the notion of non-restrictive relative clauses (NRRCs) in light of spoken corpus evidence, based on analysis of 692 occurrences of non-restrictive "which"-clauses in British and American spoken English data. Reviews traditional conceptions of NRRCs and recent work on the broader notion of subordination in spoken grammar.…

  9. Priming the Comprehension of German Object Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Silke; Nitschke, Sanjo; Kidd, Evan

    2017-01-01

    Structural priming is a useful laboratory-based technique for investigating how children respond to temporary changes in the distribution of structures in their input. In the current study we investigated whether increasing the number of object relative clauses (RCs) in German-speaking children's input changes their processing preferences for…

  10. 48 CFR 1337.110-71 - Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting. 1337.110-71 Section 1337.110-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System....110-71 Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting. (a) Insert a clause substantially...

  11. Understanding of subordinate clauses in the language of dysphasic children

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    Lazarević Emilija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of peculiarities of syntactic development, as an element of language structure on the grammatical level of children suffering from developmental dysphasia, after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years. Syntactic level at younger school age was studied by assessing language competence in the accomplishment of communicative sentence with subordinate clause. The research was performed on the samples of children at school age in regular primary schools in Belgrade. The sample comprised 160 respondents who were divided in two groups: target and comparative. The target group consisted of 60 respondents (children suffering from developmental dysphasia after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years, and the comparative group consisted of 100 respondents from regular primary school "Gavrilo Princip" in Zemun. Research results show that grammatical development of children suffering from developmental dysphasia takes place at a considerably slower rate and entails substantially more difficulties in accomplishing predication in subordinate clauses. This paper discusses the consequences which the difficulties in grammatical development can have on school achievement.

  12. Aspects of Skill in Understanding High-Order Semantic Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-25

    adversative relation. ’p 2.2.4 Critical clause For presentation purposes, the passages were divided into clauses on the basis of two pragmatic criteria...Understanding anaphora . Rules used by readers in assigning , pronominal referents. Discourse Processes, 4, 323-347. Frederiksen J.R. and Warren, B.M

  13. Learning of relative clauses by L3 learners of English

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    Mansour Koosha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In surveys of third language acquisition (TLA research, mixed results demonstrate that there is no consensus among researchers regarding the advantages and/or disadvantages of bilinguality on TLA. The main concern of the present study was, thus, to probe the probable differences between Persian monolingual and Azeri-Persian bilingual learners of English regarding their syntactic knowledge. It was an attempt to investigate whether they differ significantly in learning relative clauses. To carry out this study, a total of 200 female high school students studying at second grade were randomly selected from two educational districts of Tabriz and Shiraz in Iran. The participants were homogeneous in terms of English proficiency, sex, and age. They attended public high schools they were taught the same materials and had the same number of hours of instruction. A general proficiency test, a language history questionnaire, and two syntactic structure tasks were administered to both groups. Statistical analyses including t-tests and descriptive statistics revealed that monolinguals and bilinguals differ in the comprehension and production of English L3 relative clauses.

  14. The Production of Turkish Relative Clauses in Second Language Acquisition: Overcoming Student Difficulties

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    Anjel Toczu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on teaching relative clauses (R.Cs in Turkish, a left-branching language, and discusses the relative difficulty of producing RCs in Turkish by English-speaking learners by investigating whether the production of subject relative clauses in Turkish is easier than that of the object relative clauses. It also offers suggestions as to how to help learners overcome these difficulties. Turkish and English belong to two different language families, Altaic and Inda-European respectively. This study lends further insight that Turkish does not have RCs similar to those found in Inda-European languages. Instead, in Turkish RCs comprise nominalized verbs and participles. The characteristics of Turkish are also explained such as its word order, agglutinating morphology, vowel and consonant harmony rules as well as case markers indicating grammatical relations between sentence constituents, which shed light to our understanding of RCs in Turkish. Data was collected through written and oral tasks from students enrolled in a military intensive Turkish language training program in the United States. Moreover, their performance was studied through classroom observations and one-on-one speaking activities.

  15. Profiling relative clause constructions in children with specific language impairment.

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    Frizelle, Pauline; Fletcher, Paul

    2014-06-01

    This study highlights the importance of error analysis in providing a comprehensive profile of an individual's grammatical ability with regard to relative clause (RC) constructions. The aim was to identify error patterns in the production of RCs by English-speaking, school-aged children with specific language impairment (SLI) and to relate them to their level of competence with these structures. Children with SLI (mean age = 6;10, n = 32) and two control groups - a typically developing group matched for age (mean age = 6;11, n = 32) and a younger typically developing group (mean age = 4;9, n = 20), repeated sentences containing RCs that represented a range of syntactic roles. Data are presented on three distinct error patterns - the provision of simple sentences, obligatory relativizer omission and RC conversions. Each is related to the level of competence on RCs that each child has achieved.

  16. Moulding Interpersonal Relations through Conditional Clauses: Consensus-Building Strategies in Written Academic Discourse

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    Warchal, Krystyna

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interpersonal potential of the conditional clause as a rhetorical device for establishing a dialogue between the author and the reader of an academic text in search for shared understanding and consensus. It presents a corpus-based analysis of functions conditional clauses play in linguistics research articles in an…

  17. Relative clauses as a benchmark for Minimalist parsing

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    Thomas Graf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Minimalist grammars have been used recently in a series of papers to explain well-known contrasts in human sentence processing in terms of subtle structural differences. These proposals combine a top-down parser with complexity metrics that relate parsing difficulty to memory usage. So far, though, there has been no large-scale exploration of the space of viable metrics. Building on this earlier work, we compare the ability of 1600 metrics to derive several processing effects observed with relative clauses, many of which have been proven difficult to unify. We show that among those 1600 candidates, a few metrics (and only a few can provide a unified account of all these contrasts. This is a welcome result for two reasons: First, it provides a novel account of extensively studied psycholinguistic data. Second, it significantly limits the number of viable metrics that may be applied to other phenomena, thus reducing theoretical indeterminacy.

  18. Wh-questions and relative clauses in Greek agrammatism : Evidence from comprehension and production

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    Nerantzini, Michaela; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Papadopoulou, Despina; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cross-linguistic studies on the production and comprehension of wh-questions and relative clauses, have revealed selective deficits in agrammatism with better performance observed in (a) subject questions and relative clauses compared to object ones; (b) object non-referential who

  19. Second Language Relative Clause Acquisition: An Examination of Cross-Linguistic Influences

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    Chang, Yuh-Fang

    2004-01-01

    English is a Right Branching Direction (RBD) language in which relative clauses appear to the right of the head noun. In contrast, Chinese primarily relies on a Left Branching Direction (LBD) in which relative clauses premodify the head. Many studies have provided evidence that the differences in principal branching directions between the two…

  20. Complex syntax in autism spectrum disorders: a study of relative clauses.

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    Durrleman, Stephanie; Hippolyte, Loyse; Zufferey, Sandrine; Iglesias, Katia; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have evaluated syntax in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yielded conflicting findings: some suggest that once matched on mental age, ASD and typically developing controls do not differ for grammar, while others report that morphosyntactic deficits are independent of cognitive skills in ASD. There is a need for a better understanding of syntax in ASD and its relation to, or dissociation from, nonverbal abilities. Syntax in ASD was assessed by evaluating subject and object relative clause comprehension in adolescents and adults diagnosed with ASD with a performance IQ within the normal range, and with or without a history of language delay. Twenty-eight participants with ASD (mean age 21.8) and 28 age-matched controls (mean age 22.07) were required to point to a character designated by relative clauses that varied in syntactic complexity. Scores indicate that participants with ASD regardless of the language development history perform significantly worse than age-matched controls with object relative clauses. In addition, participants with ASD with a history of language delay (diagnosed with high-functioning autism in the DSM-IV-TR) perform worse on subject relatives than ASD participants without language delay (diagnosed with Asperger syndrome in the DSM-IV-TR), suggesting that these two groups do not have equivalent linguistic abilities. Performance IQ has a positive impact on the success of the task for the population with ASD. This study reveals subtle grammatical difficulties remaining in adult individuals with ASD within normal IQ range as compared with age-matched peers. Even in the absence of a history of language delay in childhood, the results suggest that a slight deficit may nevertheless be present and go undetected by standardized language assessments. Both groups with and without language delay have a similar global performance on relative clause comprehension; however, the study also indicates that the participants with

  1. Sentence integration processes: An ERP study of Chinese sentence comprehension with relative clauses

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    Yang, C.L.; Perfetti, C.A.; Liu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In an event-related potentials (ERPs) study, we examined the comprehension of different types of Chinese (Mandarin) relative clauses (object vs. subject-extracted) to test the universality and language specificity of sentence comprehension processes. Because Chinese lacks morphosyntactic cues to

  2. Children's Relative Clause Markers in Two Non-Mainstream Dialects of English

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    Oetting, Janna B.; Newkirk, Brandi L.

    2011-01-01

    We examined children's productions of mainstream and non-mainstream relative clause markers (e.g. "that", "who", "which", "what", "where", [image omitted]) in African American English (AAE) and Southern White English (SWE) as a function of three linguistic variables (syntactic role of the marker,…

  3. The Role of Working Memory and Contextual Constraints in Children's Processing of Relative Clauses

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    Wieghall, Anna R.; Altmann, Gerry T. M.

    2011-01-01

    An auditory sentence comprehension task investigated the extent to which the integration of contextual and structural cues was mediated by verbal memory span with 32 English-speaking six- to eight-year-old children. Spoken relative clause sentences were accompanied by visual context pictures which fully (depicting the actions described within the…

  4. Syntactic Complexity Effects of Russian Relative Clause Sentences in Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder

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    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Kornilova, Tatiana V.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated relative clause (RC) comprehension in 44 Russian-speaking children with typical language (TD) and developmental language disorder (DLD) (M age = 10;67, SD = 2.84) and 22 adults. Flexible word order and morphological case in Russian allowed us to isolate factors that are obscured in English, helping us to identify sources of…

  5. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety...

  6. Working Memory Effects in the L2 Processing of Ambiguous Relative Clauses

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    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates whether and how L2 sentence processing is affected by memory constraints that force serial parsing. Monitoring eye movements, we test effects of working memory on L2 relative-clause attachment preferences in a sample of 75 late-adult German learners of English and 25 native English controls. Mixed linear regression…

  7. The Impact of Number Mismatch and Passives on the Real-Time Processing of Relative Clauses

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    Contemori, Carla; Marinis, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Language processing plays a crucial role in language development, providing the ability to assign structural representations to input strings (e.g., Fodor, 1998). In this paper we aim at contributing to the study of children's processing routines, examining the operations underlying the auditory processing of relative clauses in children…

  8. The Production System's Formulation of Relative Clause Structures: Evidence from Polish

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    McDaniel, Dana; Lech, Dorota

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we focused on the formulation of relative clauses with preposition and genitive pied-piping. Thirty child (5;9 to 8;4) and 30 adult Polish speakers were given an elicited production task and a grammaticality judgment task. Almost all of the children accepted preposition pied-piping, but only half of them produced it. We suggest that…

  9. Rethinking the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Italian: Towards a Grammatically Based Account

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    Adani, Flavia

    2011-01-01

    In a number of studies, the acquisition of restrictive relative clauses (RCs) shows contrasting findings regarding comprehension and production, with the former usually delayed up to the age of five. As previously claimed in the literature, we suggest that this delay is a task artifact and we present a new procedure for the assessment of…

  10. Relative clause reading in hearing impairment: different profiles of syntactic impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Szterman, Ronit; Friedmann, Naama

    2014-01-01

    Children with hearing impairment show difficulties in sentences derived by Wh-movement, such as relative clauses and Wh-questions. This study examines the nature of this deficit in 48 hearing impaired children aged 9-12 years and 38 hearing controls. The task involved reading aloud and paraphrasing of object relatives that include a noun-verb heterophonic homograph. The correct pronunciation of the homograph in these sentences depended upon the correct construction of the syntactic structure ...

  11. Effects of Form-Focused Instruction on the Learning of Relative Clauses

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    Seyed Jalal Abdolmanafi (Rokni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Relativization is an important grammatical sub-system for second language learners. This study intended to explore the effects of different types of L2 instruction on the learning of English relative clauses by Persian learners.Purpose: The differential effects of the three types of treatment (i.e., Focus on FormS, Focus on Meaning, Focus on Form on the learning of English relativization was investigated.Methods: Intact university classes of English learners were divided into three groups receiving different forms of instruction. Accuracy of the target form was measured by two distinct tasks of sentence combining test and grammaticality judgment test.Findings and Results: The results of the two tests show improvement of all three groups, the focus on form treatment group outperformed the other two on both tests, however. This study also suggests that learners’ attention to detailed analysis of form facilitates the learning of relative clauses in this context.

  12. Time-Driven Effects on Processing Relative Clauses

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    Schremm, Andrea; Horne, Merle; Roll, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    The present response time study investigated how a hypothesized time-based working memory constraint of 2-3 s affects the resolution of grammatical and semantic dependencies. Congruent and incongruent object relative (OR) and subject relative sentences were read at different presentation rates so that the distance between dependent words was…

  13. A view on the development of Relative Clauses in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone

    2010-01-01

    Undersøgelser har vist, at børn med sprogforstyrrelser har betydelige problemer med at tilegne sig objekt-relative sætninger i modsætnig til subjekt-relative (Schriefers, Friederici & Kuehn, 1995; Håkansson & Hansson, 1998; Friedmann & Novogrodsky, 2004, among others). I denne undresøglese studeres...... dansk børns forståelse og frembringelse af subjekt- og objekt-relative sætninger ved hjælp af to forsøgsparadigmer: a) en opgave, hvor billeder skal matces og b) en opgave, hvor frembringelse af en sætning udløses. Deltagerne var 161 normale, etsprogede dansktalende børn i alderen 5-13 år og 20...... dansktalende voksne. For begge grupper var objekt-relative sætninger vanskeligere at opfatte og frembringe end subjekt-relative. Undersøgelsen viste, at objekt-relative sætninger især er vanskelige at frembringe, selv om børn ret tidligt kan forstå dem. Voksne undgår også tit at bruge objekt-relative sætninger...

  14. The comprehension of Italian relative clauses in poor readers and in children with Specific Language Impairment

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    Fabrizio Arosio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD have problems comprehending relative clauses (RCs and find object RCs more difficult than subject RCs, as do typically developing children. Few studies have compared these groups directly, leaving it unclear whether the problems observed in children with DD are similar to those described in SLI. Work with typically developing children has shown that the comprehension of passive RCs is less challenging than that of object RCs. It is argued that this asymmetry depends on intervention effects as modelized in a Relativized Minimality framework. Since movement is challenging for children with SLI and those with DD, examining and comparing their comprehension of object RCs and passive RCs can broaden our understanding of their language deficits. In fact, both structures involve movement, but the moved element and the movement configuration are different. In our study we investigated the comprehension of subject RCs, object RCs and passive RCs in 12 Italian monolingual children with SLI (mean age: 7;6, 13 Italian monolingual children with DD (mean age: 10;7 and 50 typically developing controls matched for age, grammar and vocabulary. Results from a picture selection task show that: (i subject RCs are unproblematic for all children; (ii object RCs are challenging for children with SLI, children with DD and younger typically developing controls; (iii passive RCs are better understood than object RCs in all groups, but still problematic for children with SLI and younger typically developing controls. Our data show that intervention effects are found in children with SLI and children with DD and that those with SLI have a deficit in transferring thematic roles to moved elements. Our results point out that some of the children with DD have a mild grammatical deficit that was undetected or escaped standardized tests.

  15. Comprehension of reversible relative clauses in specifically language impaired and normally developing Greek children.

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    Stavrakaki, S

    2001-06-01

    This paper aims to investigate the syntactic comprehension of reversible relative clauses in a group of eight Greek children with specific language impairment (SLI) and two control groups of normally developing children matched on chronological and language age, respectively. An experiment using an acting out procedure was undertaken. Group analysis revealed that SLI children's performance is qualitatively different than that of both control groups. Interpreting the data, processes involved in syntactic comprehension are taken into consideration. It is claimed that processing demands impede SLI children's performance due to a deficit in their competence grammar. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  16. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in German: Evidence from Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

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    Adani, Flavia; Stegenwallner-Schütz, Maja; Haendler, Yair; Zukowski, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We elicited the production of various types of relative clauses in a group of German-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing controls in order to test the movement optionality account of grammatical difficulty in SLI. The results show that German-speaking children with SLI are impaired in relative clause…

  17. Does the animacy of the antecedent play a role in the production of relative clauses?

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    Maria Lobo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies that included elicited production and comprehension tasks (Costa, Lobo and Silva 2011, it has been shown that there is a high discrepancy between the rates of production of subject relative clauses vs. object relative clauses both in children and adults, but the two groups differed qualitatively. In the comprehension task, adults performed very well, unlike children, who had trouble with object relative clauses. This points to a specific difficulty with structures that involve intervention (Friedmann, Belletti and Rizzi 2009. In the present study, we investigated the role of animacy features of the antecedent in the production of object relative clauses, and specifically whether the production of object relatives would be higher with inanimate antecedents. Previous studies have mentioned the animacy features of the arguments as relevant (Corrêa 1994; Goodluck 2005; Kidd et al. 2007; Durrleman, Bentea and Guasti 2016. We explore the relevance of the findings for the discussion on the nature of the asymmetry between subject and object relative clauses. We analyze data from a spontaneous production corpus of a young European Portuguese speaking child that confirm that object relatives often have inanimate antecedents. We also conducted an elicited production task, inspired on Novogrodsky and Friedmann 2006, which elicited relative clauses manipulating the animacy of the antecedent. 42 European Portuguese children aged 4 to 6 participated in this task, as well as a control group of 20 adults. Results from the elicited production task show a higher production of object relatives with inanimate antecedents in both groups, although the difference was only significant for the adults. We conclude that the animacy of the antecedent is a feature that may play a role in the production of relatives. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A ANIMACIDADE DO ANTECEDENTE DESEMPENHA UM PAPEL NA PRODU

  18. Portuguese spoken in Almoxarife, Sao Tome: relative clauses with “ku” and “com” [with

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    Carlos Filipe Guimarães Figueiredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relative clauses with “ku” [substrate relativizer] and “com” [with] in the Portuguese of Almoxarife, spoken by the community of Almoxarife, São Tome island, aiming to uncover what the motivations are that trigger the use of those relativizers.

  19. Four-Year-Old Cantonese-Speaking Children's Online Processing of Relative Clauses: A Permutation Analysis

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    Chan, Angel; Yang, Wenchun; Chang, Franklin; Kidd, Evan

    2018-01-01

    We report on an eye-tracking study that investigated four-year-old Cantonese-speaking children's online processing of subject and object relative clauses (RCs). Children's eye-movements were recorded as they listened to RC structures identifying a unique referent (e.g. "Can you pick up the horse that pushed the pig?"). Two RC types,…

  20. Cross-linguistic Differences in Processing Double-Embedded Relative Clauses: Working-Memory Constraints or Language Statistics?

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    Frank, Stefan L.; Trompenaars, Thijs; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    An English double-embedded relative clause from which the middle verb is omitted can often be processed more easily than its grammatical counterpart, a phenomenon known as the grammaticality illusion. This effect has been found to be reversed in German, suggesting that the illusion is language specific rather than a consequence of universal…

  1. Number Dissimilarities Facilitate the Comprehension of Relative Clauses in Children with (Grammatical) Speci?c Language Impairment

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    Adani, Flavia; Forgiarini, Matteo; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Van Der Lely, Heather K. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether number dissimilarities on subject and object DPs facilitate the comprehension of subject- and object-extracted centre-embedded relative clauses in children with Grammatical Specific Language Impairment (G-SLI). We compared the performance of a group of English-speaking children with G-SLI (mean age: 12;11) with that…

  2. Relative clause reading in hearing impairment: Different profiles of syntactic impairment

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    Ronit eSzterman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Children with hearing impairment show difficulties in sentences derived by Wh-movement, such as relative clauses and Wh-questions. This study examines the nature of this deficit in 48 hearing impaired children aged 9-12 years and 38 hearing controls. The task involved reading aloud and paraphrasing of object relatives that include a noun-verb heterophonic homograph. The correct pronunciation of the homograph in these sentences depended upon the correct construction of the syntactic structure of the sentence. An analysis of the reading and paraphrasing of each participant exposed two different patterns of syntactic impairment. Some hearing-impaired children paraphrased the object relatives incorrectly but could still read the homograph, indicating impaired assignment of thematic roles alongside good syntactic structure building; other hearing-impaired children could neither read the homograph nor paraphrase the sentence, indicating a structural deficit in the syntactic tree. Further testing of these children confirmed the different impairments: some are impaired only in Wh-movement, whereas others have CP impairment. The syntactic impairment correlated with whether or not a hearing device was fitted by the age of one year, but not with the type of hearing device or the depth of hearing loss: children who had a hearing device fitted during the first year of life had better syntactic abilities than children whose hearing devices were fitted later.

  3. Syntactic Complexity Effects of Russian Relative Clause Sentences in Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder.

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    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A; Kornilova, Tatiana V; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2016-01-01

    We investigated relative clause (RC) comprehension in 44 Russian-speaking children with typical language (TD) and developmental language disorder (DLD); M age = 10.67, SD = 2.84, and 22 adults. Flexible word order and morphological case in Russian allowed us to isolate factors that are obscured in English, helping us to identify sources of syntactic complexity and evaluate their roles in RC comprehension by children with typical language and their peers with DLD. We administered a working memory and an RC comprehension (picture-choice) task, which contained subject- and object-gap center-embedded and right branching RCs. The TD group, but not adults, demonstrated the effects of gap, embedding, and case. Their lower accuracy relative to adults was not fully attributable to differences in working memory. The DLD group displayed lower than TD children overall accuracy, accounted for by their lower working memory scores. While the effect of gap and embedding on their performance was not different from what was found for the TD group, children with DLD exhibited a diminished effect of case, suggesting reduced sensitivity to morphological case markers as processing cues. The implications of these results to theories of syntactic complexity and core deficits in DLD are discussed.

  4. Early and late preferences in relative clause attachment in Portuguese and Spanish

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    Marcus Maia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents new data about the cross-language application of the Late Closure principle (Frazier, 1978, whose universality was put in question by data from Spanish (Cuetos & Mitchell, 1988. Using sentences containing a restrictive relative clause unambiguously modifying the first or the second noun of a complex NP (os cúmplices do ladrão/o cúmplice dos ladrões que fugiram, this study compares the behavior of Brazilian and European Portuguese speakers participating in a self-paced reading task. The data confirm that, in early phases of processing, attachment preferences are driven by a locality principle such as Late Closure. Based on a review of studies on Portuguese, Spanish and other Romance languages, we argue that the high- versus low-attachment difference across languages emerges cleanly only in off-line tasks, such as questionnaire studies, thus limiting the types of explanations for the cross-linguistic differences. We also advance an explanation for the high attachment preferences found in unspeeded questionnaire studies based on the Implicit Prosody Hypothesis (Fodor, 1998a, 2002.

  5. Prosodic Cues in Relative Clauses Disambiguation: Bilinguals vs. L2 Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Checa-Garcia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the preferences for attachment of a relative clause (RC to a complex noun phrase (NP of the type: NP1 of NP2, in Spanish-English bilinguals and advanced learners of Spanish. Spanish speakers show a moderate preference for attaching the RC to the first NP, while speakers of English prefer the second NP. Subjects were presented this construction in written (Experiment 1 and oral (Experiment 2 forms. Results show no group had a preference for either attachment in silent reading, Low Attachment was preferred with a pause after NP1 by learners, and High Attachment was preferred in the absence of any pause by bilinguals and learners. However, the learner group behaved distinctively in Experiment 2 in two ways: their reaction times were shorter, and their choice for the kind of RC attachment was more sensitive to the absence of a pause being more likely to choose Low Attachment, as English monolinguals. These results suggest that advanced learners are influenced by their L1 more heavily in oral comprehension than in reading, while bilinguals take longer for processing prosodic cues. Reasons for a slower bilingual processing are posited. Lastly, implications for prosody teaching are drawn from these results.

  6. Cross-structural priming: prepositional phrase attachment primes relative clause attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncke, Maaike; Van Laere, Sébastien M J; Desmet, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that attachment height (high vs. low attachment) of a modifier to a complex noun phrase (CNP; e.g., "the servant of the actress"), can be primed between dissimilar syntactic structures. In a sentence completion experiment, we found that the attachment height of a prepositional phrase (PP) in the prime sentence primed the attachment height of a relative clause (RC) in the target sentence. This cross-structural priming effect cannot be explained in terms of the priming of specific phrase-structure rules or even sequences of specific phrase-structure rules (Scheepers, 2003), because the attachment of a PP to a CNP is generated by a different phrase-structure rule than the attachment of an RC. However, the present data suggest that the location at which the RC is attached to the CNP is mentally represented, independent of the specific phrase-structure rule that is attached, or by extension, that the abstract hierarchical configuration of the full CNP and the attached RC is represented (Desmet & Declercq, 2006). This is the first demonstration of a cross-structural priming effect that cannot be captured by phrase-structure rules.

  7. Animacy and competition in relative clause production: a cross-linguistic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, Silvia P; Mirković, Jelena; Macdonald, Maryellen C

    2012-09-01

    This work investigates production preferences in different languages. Specifically, it examines how animacy, competition processes, and language-specific constraints shape speakers' choices of structure. English, Spanish and Serbian speakers were presented with depicted events in which either an animate or inanimate entity was acted upon by an agent. Questions about the affected participant in these events prompted the production of relative clauses identifying these entities (e.g., the bag the woman is punching). Results indicated that in English, animacy plays a strong role in determining the choice of passive structures. In contrast, it plays a less prominent role in Spanish and Serbian structure choices, where more active structures were produced to varying degrees. Critically, the semantic similarity between the agent and the patient of the event correlated with the omission of the agent in all languages, indicating that competition resulted in the agent's inhibition. Similarity also correlated with different functional choices in Spanish. The results suggest that similarity-based competition may influence various stages of production planning but its manifestations are constrained by language-specific grammatical options. Implications for models of sentence production and the relationship between production and comprehension are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Grammatical feature dissimilarities make relative clauses easier: A comprehension study with Italian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adani, Flavia; van der Lely, Heather K.J.; Forgiarini, Matteo; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The Relativized Minimality approach to A′-dependencies (Friedmann et al., 2009) predicts that headed object relative clauses (RCs) and which—questions are the most difficult, due to the presence of a lexical restriction on both the subject and the object DP which creates intervention. We investigated comprehension of center-embedded headed object RCs with Italian children, where Number and Gender feature values on subject and object DPs are manipulated. We found that, Number conditions are always more accurate than Gender ones, showing that intervention is sensitive to DP-internal structure. We propose a finer definition of the lexical restriction where external and syntactically active features (such as Number) reduce intervention whereas internal and (possibly) lexicalized features (such as Gender) do so to a lesser extent. Our results are also compatible with a memory interference approach in which the human parser is sensitive to highly specific properties of the linguistic input, such as the cue-based model (Van Dyke, 2007). PMID:21151323

  9. Confrontation clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachuk Sviatoslav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution enumerates a cluster of rights granted to criminal defendants and is designed to make criminal prosecutions more accurate, fair, and legitimate. The Confrontation Clause, which states that „In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right…to be confronted with the witness against him” should not be underestimated. This article seeks to analyse the evolution of the Confrontation Clause and the extent of a defendant’s right to face-to-face confrontation. The article analyse the case Crawford v. Washington, which was a key shift in the Supreme Court’s Confrontation Clause jurisprudence.

  10. Direct speech quotations promote low relative-clause attachment in silent reading of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Scheepers, Christoph

    2018-03-31

    The implicit prosody hypothesis (Fodor, 1998, 2002) proposes that silent reading coincides with a default, implicit form of prosody to facilitate sentence processing. Recent research demonstrated that a more vivid form of implicit prosody is mentally simulated during silent reading of direct speech quotations (e.g., Mary said, "This dress is beautiful"), with neural and behavioural consequences (e.g., Yao, Belin, & Scheepers, 2011; Yao & Scheepers, 2011). Here, we explored the relation between 'default' and 'simulated' implicit prosody in the context of relative-clause (RC) attachment in English. Apart from confirming a general low RC-attachment preference in both production (Experiment 1) and comprehension (Experiments 2 and 3), we found that during written sentence completion (Experiment 1) or when reading silently (Experiment 2), the low RC-attachment preference was reliably enhanced when the critical sentences were embedded in direct speech quotations as compared to indirect speech or narrative sentences. However, when reading aloud (Experiment 3), direct speech did not enhance the general low RC-attachment preference. The results from Experiments 1 and 2 suggest a quantitative boost to implicit prosody (via auditory perceptual simulation) during silent production/comprehension of direct speech. By contrast, when reading aloud (Experiment 3), prosody becomes equally salient across conditions due to its explicit nature; indirect speech and narrative sentences thus become as susceptible to prosody-induced syntactic biases as direct speech. The present findings suggest a shared cognitive basis between default implicit prosody and simulated implicit prosody, providing a new platform for studying the effects of implicit prosody on sentence processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Some modifications of temporal relation in the sentence with the temporal clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonić Ivana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the modification of temporal relation in the complex sentence with the temporal clause. At the functional different Serbian language corpus the author notices the next types of modified temporality: excepted locational simultaneity complete or partial, and excepted locationalorientational posteriority formalized by the structure V SAMO/JEDINO/OSIM/SEM/IZUZEV(ONDA KAD VSub, and excepted locational simultaneity/excepted terminativity formalized by the structure V SAMO DOK (Neg VSub; sutuational locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V U SITUACIJI / U SLUČAJU KAD VSub, with the posibility to be exceptivly modified in the structure V IZUZEV U SITUACIJI / U SLUČAJU KAD VSub; situational-concessive locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V (ČAK I (ONDA KAD VSub; situational-conditional locational-orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK (ONDA KAD VSub, and situational-conditional orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK POŠTO VSub or V TEK NAKON ŠTO VSub and situational-conditional orientational quantified posteriority formalized by the structure V Quant TEK POŠTO VSub, and finaly situational-conditional terminativity formalized by the structure (Neg V SVE DOK Neg VSub. It can ocure sporadically supstitutiv temporality formalized by the structure V DetTemp (UMESTO KAD VSub, and consecutive-adversative temporality formalized by the structure KAD VSub A (ONDA V. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178004: Sintaksička, semantička i pragmatička istraživanja standardnog srpskog jezika

  12. Comprehension of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in a Trilingual Acquisition Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Chan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese relative clauses (RCs have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1-English(L2-Mandarin(L3 trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin

  13. Comprehension of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in a Trilingual Acquisition Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angel; Chen, Si; Matthews, Stephen; Yip, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Chinese relative clauses (RCs) have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1)-English(L2)-Mandarin(L3) trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin RCs, because

  14. Comprehension of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in a Trilingual Acquisition Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angel; Chen, Si; Matthews, Stephen; Yip, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Chinese relative clauses (RCs) have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1)-English(L2)-Mandarin(L3) trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin RCs, because

  15. Bulk oil clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Institute Bulk Oil Clauses produced by the London market and the American SP-13c Clauses are examined in detail in this article. The duration and perils covered are discussed, and exclusions, adjustment clause 15 of the Institute Bulk Oil Clauses, Institute War Clauses (Cargo), and Institute Strikes Clauses (Bulk Oil) are outlined. (UK)

  16. Understanding empathy and related phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamasundar, C

    1999-01-01

    Over a period of time, the author arrived at a few tentative postulates concerning empathy and related processes based on some of his experiences and observations. The central theme of these postulates is, firstly, that interpersonal interaction is an interaction of the personal-space fields. Secondly, empathy, therapeutic benefit, and the professional stress are all related to the same process of interpersonal interaction. This interaction takes place as an enmeshment of personal spaces of the interacting individuals, and involves transfer of a wide range of information in the affective, cognitive, and other areas. This is because the personal spaces have fieldlike qualities analogous to what Kurt Lewin described. Thus, such phenomena as empathy, therapeutic benefit, professional stress are all consequences of the same process. It is possible to substantiate these postulates by diverse evidences in the published literature. The natural consequences of such an interpersonal interaction are empathic understanding, transfer of mood states (like hope, distress or expectancy), affective states (like anxiety, sadness, anger or hostility), ideas, images and even attitudes and values, etc. This phenomenon of transfer can explain such processes as therapeutic benefit in individual and group settings, professional stress, shared delusions, and even experimenter bias. Whether one becomes aware of such transferred information or not depends upon the intent and sensitivity of the participants.

  17. 48 CFR 903.971 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 903.971... Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.203-70, Whistleblower Protection for Contractor Employees, in contracts that involve work to be done on behalf of DOE directly related...

  18. How do language-specific characteristics affect the acquisition of different relative clause types? Evidence from Finnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjavainen, Minna; Kidd, Evan; Lieven, Elena

    2017-01-01

    We report three studies (one corpus, two experimental) that investigated the acquisition of relative clauses (RCs) in Finnish-speaking children. Study 1 found that Finnish children's naturalistic exposure to RCs predominantly consists of non-subject relatives (i.e. oblique, object) which typically have inanimate head nouns. Study 2 tested children's comprehension of subject, object, and two types of oblique relatives. No difference was found in the children's performance on different structures, including a lack of previously widely reported asymmetry between subject and object relatives. However, children's comprehension was modulated by animacy of the head referent. Study 3 tested children's production of the same RC structures using sentence repetition. Again we found no subject-object asymmetry. The pattern of results suggested that distributional frequency patterns and the relative complexity of the relativizer contribute to the difficulty associated with particular RC structures.

  19. Working Memory Effects on L1 and L2 Processing of Ambiguous Relative Clauses by Korean L2 Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyon; Christianson, Kiel

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report the results of two self-paced reading experiments that investigated working memory capacity effects on the processing of globally ambiguous relative clauses by advanced Korean second language (L2) learners of English. Consistent with previous monolingual literature on the processing of temporary ambiguity, we found that…

  20. Claus Bonderup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    -oriented architectural projects within Urban Farming in which the students will initially work with the subject as master’s students, but later, hopefully, as PhD students. Also, I have wished for a long time to give Claus Bonderup the recognition he deserves! His view of architecture, his knowledge and his way...... house that serves as a basis for this project with its unique architectural models for the International Architecture Exhibition. Claus’ Duck House has, thus, in theory and practice alike, become the foundation for the new architectural models, and his thoughts on design have contributed to a fruitful...

  1. Processing Preference Toward Object-Extracted Relative Clauses in Mandarin Chinese by L1 and L2 Speakers: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Tu, Jung-Yueh; Cha, Jih-Ho; Wu, Ming-Da

    2016-01-01

    The current study employed an eye-movement technique with an attempt to explore the reading patterns for the two types of Chinese relative clauses, subject-extracted relative clauses (SRCs) and object-extracted relative clauses (ORCs), by native speakers (L1), and Japanese learners (L2) of Chinese. The data were analyzed in terms of gaze duration, regression path duration, and regression rate on the two critical regions, head noun, and embedded verb. The results indicated that both the L1 and L2 participants spent less time on the head nouns in ORCs than in SRCs. Also, the L2 participants spent less time on the embedded verbs in ORCs than in SRCs and their regression rate for embedded verbs was generally lower in ORCs than in SRC. The findings showed that the participants experienced less processing difficulty in ORCs than SRCs. These results suggest an ORC preference in L1 and L2 speakers of Chinese, which provides evidence in support of linear distance hypothesis and implies that the syntactic nature of Chinese is at play in the RC processing.

  2. Verb agreement and the syntax of ciNsenga relative clauses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relativisation of a non-subject NP in ciNsenga (Bantu) results in the inversion of the subject nd the appearance on the verb of a prefix which agrees with the relativised noun. Recent studies on Bantu relative constructions (for example, Demuth & Harford, 1999; Ngonyani, 999; 2001) have shown that subject inversion results ...

  3. The Acquisition of Relative Clauses: How Do Second Language Learners of Arabic Do It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algady, Dola

    2013-01-01

    The new developments in syntactic theory under Minimalism reconsiders the relation between the language faculty and general cognitive systems whereby language acquisition is accomplished by the interaction of Chomsky (2005)'s three factors: (F1) a minimally specified UG (Genetic endowment); (F2) Primary Linguistic Data (PLD), i.e., input; and (F3)…

  4. Saving clauses in international contracts concerning the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virole, J.; Roubin, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper concerns saving clauses in international contracts relating to the fuel cycle. It deals in particular with economic upheavals affecting those contracts and the usual clauses to protect the financial interests of the co-contractors. The paper also examines such economic upheavals in the context of clauses intended to preserve the contracts. (NEA) [fr

  5. Patents on inventions related to human embryonic stem cells: the morality clause after Brüstle v. Greenpeace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panis, Sarah

    2013-09-01

    This paper analyses the meaning of Article 6, para. 2, sub c of the Biotechnology Directive prohibiting patents on inventions using human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes. It first examines the evolution ofthe Court of Justice ofthe EU's interpretation of this provision (which is part of the morality clause) and focuses on its most recent decision, Brüstle v. Greenpeace. This is considered a landmark case for three reasons: firstly, because it defines for the first time the term "embryo" in patent law; secondly, because it is the Court of Justice (and not EPO) that ruled on patent law; the third reason is its very broad interpretation of the morality exclusion. The exclusion is no longer limited to embryos but is extended to (even banked) embryonic stem cells and all downstream products made with them. It then looks into the consequences for the patentability of inventions using cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, such as Brüstle's invention. The recent decision by Germany's Federal Court of Justice on the validity of Brüstle's patent emphasises the limited influence on the patentability of those inventions. After that, the paper addresses possible cuts in funding stem cell research and even legislative bans of this type of research. This is followed by an evaluation of the existence and content of the morality exclusion. After a comparative analysis with the US, which is lacking in such morality exclusion, the paper concludes that the morality clause as a whole paid its dues but the provision on the use of human embryos is questionable as there is no European consensus against the use of human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes.

  6. Narrative Therapy's Relational Understanding of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Gene; Freedman, Jill

    2016-06-01

    We describe how we think of identity as relational, distributed, performed, and fluid, and we illustrate the use of this conceptualization within a narrative worldview. Drawing on the work of Michael White, we describe how this relational view of identity leads to therapeutic responses that give value to interconnection across multiple contexts and that focus on becoming rather than on being. We show how a narrative worldview helps focus on the relational, co-evolving perspective that was the basis of our early attraction to family therapy. We offer detailed examples from our work of practices that help us stay firmly situated in a relational worldview that is counter to the pervasive influence of individualism in our contemporary culture. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  7. (MFN) CLAUSE IN INVESTMENT TREATIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Another question about the legal nature of the MN clause is whether the clause is a 'claim' in itself or simply a 'right to claim'. The answer will bring about different legal consequences. If it is a 'claim', then the host State will be under an obligation to grant favourable treatment to the investor beneficiary of the clause from the ...

  8. Iterative Specialisation of Horn Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2008-01-01

    We present a generic algorithm for solving Horn clauses through iterative specialisation. The algorithm is generic in the sense that it can be instantiated with any decidable fragment of Horn clauses, resulting in a solution scheme for general Horn clauses that guarantees soundness and termination...

  9. Thick 2D relations for document understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Smeulders, Arnold M.W.

    2004-01-01

    We use a propositional language of qualitative rectangle relations to detect the reading order from document images. To this end, we define the notion of a document encoding rule and we analyze possible formalisms to express document encoding rules such as LaTeX and SGML. Document encoding rules

  10. It's about time understanding Einstein's relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Mermin, N David

    2005-01-01

    In It's About Time, N. David Mermin asserts that relativity ought to be an important part of everyone's education--after all, it is largely about time, a subject with which all are familiar. The book reveals that some of our most intuitive notions about time are shockingly wrong, and that the real nature of time discovered by Einstein can be rigorously explained without advanced mathematics. This readable exposition of the nature of time as addressed in Einstein's theory of relativity is accessible to anyone who remembers a little high school algebra and elementary plane geometry. The book evolved as Mermin taught the subject to diverse groups of undergraduates at Cornell University, none of them science majors, over three and a half decades. Mermin's approach is imaginative, yet accurate and complete. Clear, lively, and informal, the book will appeal to intellectually curious readers of all kinds, including even professional physicists, who will be intrigued by its highly original approach.

  11. Claus Achton Friis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlers, Steen

    Grafiker, professor Claus Achton Friis 1917-1999 er en central skikkelse i det 20.århundredes danske brugsgrafik. Han er ophavsmand til en mængde emballager, frimærker og heraldik og desuden formgiver af en række fremragende skrifter. Han var elev af grafikeren professor Gunnar Biilmann Petersen og...

  12. Evolutionary understanding of the concept "Public relations"

    OpenAIRE

    Кам’янецька, О.В.

    2013-01-01

    The considered approaches to determination of notion of «public relations» different research and practical workers. The analyzed stages of development of communications with public and described their signs. Розглянуті підходи до визначення поняття «паблік рілейшнз» різних науковців та практиків. Проаналізовані етапи розвитку підходів до зв’язків з громадськістю та охарактеризовані їх ознаки....

  13. 48 CFR 370.701 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 370.701 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HHS SUPPLEMENTATIONS... Contracting Officer shall insert the clause in 352.270-8, Prostitution and Related Activities, in... Conscience” provision that must also be included in applicable solicitations.) In resolving any issues...

  14. Entire Agreement Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitkidis, Katerina; Neumann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The majority of worldwide concluded commercial contracts are nowadays written in English and based on Anglo-American contract models. This happens regardless of the governing law of the specific contract. When relying on those models, contractual parties often embrace not only the actual wording....... The findings suggest that the use of EA clauses in contracts governed by Danish law can indeed be deemed legal transplants, but that it is impossible to identify whether this transplanting process has been successful. For now, the available court decisions from the two jurisdictions dealing with the topic......, it can then be expected that the contract drafting practice will in turn influence national legal rules and the courts’ approach. This effect can already be seen in Danish legal scholarship and its presumption that the judges will not entirely disregard EA clauses, but take a middle road in interpreting...

  15. UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS AMY MCGOVERN, TIMOTHY SUPINIE, DAVID JOHN GAGNE II, NATHANIEL TROUTMAN,...

  16. Resumptive pronouns in wh-interrogatives and object relative clauses in L2 English: UG access or transfer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Simoiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates whether resumptive pronouns are attested in the English L2 of Romanian learners and whether their presence can be accounted for in terms of direct access to UG or in terms if transfer hypotheses. The results are also analysed in relation to the Interpretability Hypothesis (Tsimpli and Dimitrakopoulou 2007. Overall, the data provide evidence for transfer of resumptive pronoun use from L1 Romanian to L2 English in the case of object wh-interrogatives and relatives. Resumptives are accepted in the L2 in [d-linked] contexts that mirror the Romanian structures. However, resumptives are also accepted in [non-d-linked] contexts as well, in accordance with the target language. One possible account may be that there is an available position associated with resumptives in the verbal field which can be filled by resumptive material and this position remains available in the L2 as well. Learners have access to L1 and L2 parametric options at the same time, so they accept and produce both L1 and L2 structures. The Romanian data provide support in favour of the Interpretability Hypothesis i.e. there are animacy effects in the Romanian data. The subjects accepted more [-animate] than [+animate] resumptives.

  17. Strategy to Combine Clauses In Waijewa Dialect A Sumbanese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Kasni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Clause is defined as a grammatical unit consisting of the elements of subject (S and predicate (P, both with object (O and adverbial (A, and has the capability of being a sentence. Clauses can be categorized based on (i the core arguments, (ii  the presence or absence of negative words in predicate, (iii the categories of words or phrases that occupy predicate function, (iv  its capacity of being a sentence, (v  their functions in sentences. A clause can be combined in two ways, first using coordinate conjunction forming a coordinate construction, and second using subordinate conjunction forming a subordinate construction. This research attempted to analyze the strategy of combining clauses in Waijewa Dialect; a Sumbanese language. This research applied qualitative method in which the written data were collected from three key informants and four supporting informants from each district in Waijewa using four techniques namely; (1 observation, (2 structure-based interview, (3 documentation, and (4 triangulation. The collected data were analyzed using distributional method. The theory used to analyze the data was the language typology theory proposed by Dixon (1994 and 2010 and Comrie (1983. The result showed that in Waijewa dialect clauses could be divided into two; namely, the clauses having verbal predicates and the ones having nonverbal predicates. Waijewa dialect has clitic pronouns marking the arguments of the verbs. They showed nominative, accusative, and genitive cases. The coordinate constructions in BSDW could be categorized into two forms such as:  (1 syndetic (construction marked by conjunction and (2 asyndetic (without conjunction marker. The forms of subordinate clause in subordinate construction were divided into three; namely, (1 relative clause, (2 complementation clause, and (3 adjunct clause. Arguments A and S were relativized by gapping and attaching the prefix {a-} to the V and the relativization of the arguments O, E

  18. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method.

  19. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method. 

  20. University students' understanding level about words related to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oiso, Shinichi; Watabe, Motoki

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a survey of university students' understanding level about words related to nuclear power before and after Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant accident, and analyzed the difference between before and after the accident. The results show that university students' understanding level improved after the accident, especially in the case of reported words by mass media. Understanding level of some nuclear power security words which were not reported so much by mass media also improved. That may be caused by rising of people's concern about nuclear power generation after the accident, and there is a possibility that the accident motivated people to access such words via internet, journals, etc. (author)

  1. Understanding the Relative Strength of the Motives that Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the Relative Strength of the Motives that Influence Acquisition Strategy: Evidence from an Emerging Market. ... This paper argues that part of the reason why most Acquisitions fail is because the motives that drive the strategy are not critically examined. ... Keywords: Mergers, Acquisition, Ghana, Motives ...

  2. Secondary Students' Understanding of Basic Ideas of Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadi, Kyriaki; Halkia, Krystallia

    2012-01-01

    A major topic that has marked "modern physics" is the theory of special relativity (TSR). The present work focuses on the possibility of teaching the basic ideas of the TSR to students at the upper secondary level in such a way that they are able to understand and learn the ideas. Its aim is to investigate students' learning processes towards the…

  3. Understanding HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article argues that the Ehlers & Clark (2000) cognitive model of PTSD provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding HIV-related PTSD in South Africa. The model emphasises the role of trauma appraisals in the development and maintenance of PTSD, which can also be usefully applied to some of the other ...

  4. The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts El artículo en las relativas oblicuas [prep. + (art. definido + que] en textos americanos del siglo XVIII = The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha GUZMÁN RIVERÓN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of the article in sentences like la casa en (la que vivo, among other variations, is today less frequently used in Hispanoamerica. Although we know that this structure, documented as early as the 13th century, became more wide-spread in the 18th century, little is known about its evolution at the time in American sources. I study the evolution of this phenomenon, basing myself exclusively on 18th century American texts. I also explore which factors are apparently related to this linguistic development and if the pace of its spread was determined by the preceding prepositions. Aiming at a panoramic view of the spread of the article in the period in question, I also trace the appearance of these relative clauses, with and without article, in the texts collected in the CORDE, and provide detailed analyses of texts from both halves of the century, in order to evaluate the factors that may have influenced this change.El uso del artículo en estructuras como la casa en (la que vivo presenta hoy en día, entre otras variaciones, una frecuencia de uso menor en Hispanoamérica que en España. Aunque sabemos que este uso, documentado desde el siglo XIII, comienza realmente a extenderse justo en el XVIII, poco conocemos de su evolución en la época en fuentes americanas. En este trabajo, basándonos exclusivamente en textos americanos del XVIII, perseguimos investigar cómo evoluciona este fenómeno en documentación de esta procedencia. También intentaremos explorar qué factores están aparentemente en relación con este cambio e investigar si, en diferentes preposiciones, diverge el ritmo de difusión de su uso. Con vistas a obtener una idea general sobre la extensión del artículo en la época, rastrearemos las apariciones de dichas relativas —con y sin artículo— en los textos americanos recogidos en el CORDE. Para evaluar los factores que pueden incidir en él estudiaremos en detalle determinados textos de ambas mitades del siglo.

  5. An Effective Supervision Model of a Standard Clause for Consumer Protection in the Business Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syamsudin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to form an effective supervision model of a standard clause to protect consumer’s rights and interests. This study answers the questions the effectiveness of a standard clause supervision carried out by Otoritas Jasa Keuangan [Financial Services Authority (OJK] and Badan Penyelesaian Sengketa Konsumen [Consumer Dispute Settlement Agency (BPSK]; effective supervision model of a standard clause which can protect the rights and interest of the consumer. The object of this study are OJK and BPSK as a supervision of a standard clause. The result of this research shows that the supervision of standard clause done by those institutions has not been effective yet, this caused by several factors to wit the weakness of implementing regulation in terms of supervision, unclear supervision mechanism, the weakness of socialization related to the rules of standard clause towards business actors, and other weakness and obstacles faced by both institutions. The effective supervision model of standard clause is being formed that based on five points, namely: (1 the needs of institution/agency reformation who authorize to do supervision of standard clause; (2 the needs to determine the scope of duty and authority of standard clause supervision institution; (3 the needs of determination of material range about standard clause subjected to supervision which comprises: the content, the form, the position and the expression; (4 the needs of precise mechanism of standard clause supervision conducted by supervision institution; (5 the needs of following up the supervision results, especially to the business actors who break the standard clause rules.

  6. The Conditional Clause in Igbo | Okoro | Lagos Notes and Records

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structurally, the conditional clause can occur before or after the main clause, dropping or taking on a variety of subordinating conjunctions, the commonest of which is (mà) ọ bụrụ na; it is also possible to state only the conditional clause without the main clause, or the main clause without the conditional clause, with the ...

  7. 48 CFR 3.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 3.1004 Contract clauses. (a) Insert the clause at FAR 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct...

  8. Teaching Physics for Conceptual Understanding Exemplified for Einstein's Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undreiu, Lucian M.

    2006-12-01

    In most liberal arts colleges the prerequisites for College Physics, Introductory or Calculus based, are strictly related to Mathematics. As a state of fact, the majorities of the students perceive Physics as a conglomerate of mathematical equations, a collection of facts to be memorized and they regard Physics as one of the most difficult subjects. A change of this attitude towards Physics, and Science in general, is intrinsically connected with the promotion of conceptual understanding and stimulation of critical thinking. In such an environment, the educators are facilitators, rather than the source of knowledge. One good way of doing this is to challenge the students to think about what they see around them and to connect physics with the real world. Motivation occurs when students realize that what was learned is interesting and relevant. Visual teaching aids such as educational videos or computer simulations, as well as computer-assisted experiments, can greatly enhance the effectiveness of a science lecture or laboratory. Difficult topics can be discussed through animated analogies. Special Relativity is recognized as a challenging topic and is probably one of the most misunderstood theories of Physics. While understanding Special Relativity requires a detachment from ordinary perception and every day life notions, animated analogies can prove to be very successful in making difficult topics accessible.

  9. 48 CFR 2439.107 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Departmental automated information systems or applications as they are defined in the clause. (b) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR 2452.239-71, Information Technology Virus Security, in... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 2439.107 Contract clauses. (a) The...

  10. 48 CFR 17.109 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... solicitations and contracts when a multiyear contract is contemplated. (b) Economic price adjustment clauses. Economic price adjustment clauses are adaptable to multiyear contracting needs. When the period of... officer should normally use an economic price adjustment clause (see 16.203). When contracting for...

  11. 48 CFR 1316.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1316.406 Section 1316.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1316.406 Contract clauses. Insert a clause...

  12. 48 CFR 203.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 203.1004 Contract clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.203-7003 in solicitations and contracts that include the FAR clause 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct...

  13. 48 CFR 46.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.710 Contract clauses. The clauses and alternates prescribed in this... research and development contract is contemplated and the use of a warranty clause has been approved under... performance specifications or design are of major importance; a fixed-price supply, service, or research and...

  14. 48 CFR 904.7201 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 904.7201... MATTERS Public Affairs 904.7201 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.204-75, Public Affairs, in solicitations and contracts that require the contractor to release...

  15. 48 CFR 803.7001 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 803.7001... Practices 803.7001 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.203-71, Display of Department of Veterans Affairs Hotline poster, in solicitations and contracts expected to equal or...

  16. 48 CFR 923.103 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 923.103... Contract clauses. Insert the clause at 952.223-78, Sustainable Acquisition Program, or its Alternate I, in all contracts under which the contractor operates Government-owned facilities or Government-owned...

  17. 48 CFR 819.7009 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 819.7009... Acquisition Program 819.7009 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert VAAR clause 852.219-10... Veteran-Owned Small Business Set-Aside in solicitations and contracts for acquisitions under this subpart. ...

  18. 48 CFR 846.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 846.710 Section 846.710 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 846.710 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at...

  19. 48 CFR 923.903 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 923.903... Environmental Management Systems § 923.903 Contract clause. The FAR Environmental Management Systems clause at 52.223-XX should be used in contracts where the contractor operates a DOE site or portion thereof...

  20. 48 CFR 926.7104 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 926.7104... 1993. 926.7104 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR (DEAR) 952.226-74, Displaced Employee Hiring Preference, in contracts (except for contracts for commercial items...

  1. 48 CFR 871.212 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 871.212... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.212 Contract clauses. Contracting officers must use the following clauses, as appropriate, in solicitations and contracts for vocational rehabilitation and employment...

  2. 48 CFR 837.403 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 837.403... OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Nonpersonal Health Care Services 837.403 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.237-7, Indemnification and medical liability insurance, in...

  3. 48 CFR 822.305 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 822.305... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 822.305 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.222-70, Contract Work...

  4. 48 CFR 811.503 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.503... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Liquidated Damages 811.503 Contract clause. When the contracting... contracting officer must include the clause in 852.211-74, Liquidated damages, in the contract. ...

  5. 48 CFR 819.709 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 819.709... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 819.709 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert VAAR clause 852.219-9, Small Business Subcontracting Plan Minimum...

  6. 48 CFR 923.7003 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 923.7003... Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational Safety Programs 923.7003 Contract clauses. (a) A decision to include or not include environmental, safety and health clauses in DOE contracts shall be made...

  7. 48 CFR 53.111 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 53.111... AND FORMS FORMS General 53.111 Contract clause. Contracting officers shall insert the clause at 52.253-1, Computer Generated Forms, in solicitations and contracts that require the contractor to submit...

  8. 48 CFR 935.071 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 935.071... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 935.071 Contract clause. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 952.235-71, Research Misconduct, in contracts, including management and operating...

  9. 48 CFR 925.7004 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 925.7004... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7004 Contract clause. The contracting... solicitations and contracts involving nuclear hot cell services. This clause does not flow down to second-tier...

  10. 48 CFR 1842.271 - NASA clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA clause. 1842.271 Section 1842.271 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... NASA clause. Insert the clause at 1852.242-70, Technical Direction, when paragraph 3(m) of the NASA...

  11. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the "teaching games for understanding" (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches' learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools.

  12. Turn Continuation and Clause Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the viability of the analytic distinction between "turn-constructional unit (TCU) continuation" (i.e., continuing a turn beyond a point of possible completion with grammatically dependent material) and "new TCU" (i.e., continuing a turn with grammatically independent material) when hypotactic clause combinations are involved.…

  13. (MFN) CLAUSE IN INVESTMENT TREATIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    KAYITANA: The Scope and Applicability of Most-Favoured-Nation (MFN) Clause in Investment Treaties: A. Survey of the Jurisprudence of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes. Page | 104 chemical products in Galicia, Spain. The project was a joint venture with the Sociedad para el Desarrollo.

  14. Topic extraction from adverbial clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rubio Alcalá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers new data to support findings about Topic extraction from adverbial clauses. Since such clauses are strong islands, they should not allow extraction of any kind, but we show here that if the appropriate conditions are met, Topics of the CLLD kind in Romance can move out of them. We propose that two conditions must be met for such movement to be possible: the first is that the adverbial clause must have undergone topicalisation in the first place; the second is that the adverbial clause is inherently topical from a semantic viewpoint. Contrast with other language families (Germanic, Quechua and Japanese is provided and the semantic implications of the proposal are briefly discussed. Keywords: topicalisation; Clitic Left Dislocation; syntactic islands; adverbial clauses Este artículo ofrece nuevos datos sobre la extracción de Tópicos desde oraciones subordinadas adverbiales. Dado que dichas oraciones son islas fuertes, no deberían permitir extracción de ningún tipo, pero mostramos que si se dan las condiciones apropiadas, los Tópicos del tipo CLLD en lenguas románicas pueden desplazarse fuera de ellas. Proponemos que se deben cumplir dos condiciones para que ese movimiento sea posible: la primera es que la propia subordinada adverbial se haya topicalizado en primer lugar; la segunda es que la subordinada adverbial sea inherentemente un Tópico desde el punto de vista semántico. Proporcionamos también algunos contrastes con otras familias lingüísticas (germánica, quechua y japonés y se discuten brevemente las implicaciones semánticas de la propuesta. Palabras clave: topicalización; dislocación a la izquierda con clítico; islas sintácticas; oraciones adverbiales

  15. Temporal clauses with conditional value in legal language (contrastive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Svobodová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a summary of a qualitative and quantitative linguistic investigation of the Portuguese and Brazilian Penal Code, and contains important results pertaining to the temporal clauses introduced by the connector quando. We focused on its semantic conditional features, suggesting the name pseudo-temporal clauses for these hypotactic constructions and observe the relation between the occurrence of different verbal modes and the semantic interpretation. We verify, in both the texts, the temporal clauses introduced by quando have an evident conditional value. On the other side, the compared texts are different regarding the selection of the verbal mode. The Portuguese Penal Code preferred, evidently, the subjunctive mode and in the Brazilian one the indicative mode. We explained this divergence by semantic and pragmatic factors.

  16. Teaching relational understandings of sustainability in engineering education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    and the availability of this source in specific locations. Another example is how the importance of material composition depends on the expected lifetime and the fate of the materials in the local end-of-life system. Such idealised and abstract descriptions where the contextual relations of production, use...... and disposal systems are omitted, lead to a fragmented understanding of actual sustainability challenges. On the positive side such parametric descriptions of sustainability issues make them comparable to other disciplines like material science, where a very extensive parameterisation already exists....... This paper explores how such alternative descriptions are pursued in different courses of the Sustainable Design engineering program at Aalborg University. These approaches include meta-descriptions of sustainability assessment methods, descriptions of technology as elements in socio-technical regimes...

  17. A Multidisciplinary Research Agenda for Understanding Vaccine-Related Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Sevdalis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasingly broad global recognition of the need to better understand determinants of vaccine acceptance. Fifteen social science, communication, health, and medical professionals (the “Motors of Trust in Vaccination” (MOTIV think tank explored factors relating to vaccination decision-making as a step to building a multidisciplinary research agenda. One hundred and forty seven factors impacting decisions made by consumers, professionals, and policy makers on vaccine acceptance, delay, or refusal were identified and grouped into three major categories: cognition and decision-making; groups and social norms; and communication and engagement. These factors should help frame a multidisciplinary research agenda to build an evidence base on the determinants of vaccine acceptance to inform the development of interventions and vaccination policies.

  18. A Multidisciplinary Research Agenda for Understanding Vaccine-Related Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi; Leask, Julie; Aggett, Sian; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomson, Angus

    2013-07-18

    There is increasingly broad global recognition of the need to better understand determinants of vaccine acceptance. Fifteen social science, communication, health, and medical professionals (the "Motors of Trust in Vaccination" (MOTIV) think tank) explored factors relating to vaccination decision-making as a step to building a multidisciplinary research agenda. One hundred and forty seven factors impacting decisions made by consumers, professionals, and policy makers on vaccine acceptance, delay, or refusal were identified and grouped into three major categories: cognition and decision-making; groups and social norms; and communication and engagement. These factors should help frame a multidisciplinary research agenda to build an evidence base on the determinants of vaccine acceptance to inform the development of interventions and vaccination policies.

  19. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the “teaching games for understanding” (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches’ learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools. PMID:26452580

  20. Avoiding revenue loss due to 'lesser of' contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodolak, Frederick; Gutierrez, Henry

    2014-08-01

    Finance managers seeking to avoid lost revenue attributable to lesser-of-charge-or-fixed-fee (lesser-of) clauses in their contracts should: Identify payer contracts that contain lesser-of clauses. Prepare lesser-of lost-revenue reports for non-bundled and bundled rates. For claims with covered charges below the bundled rate, identify service codes associated with the greatest proportion of total gross revenue and determine new, higher charge levels for those codes. Establish an approach for setting charges for non-bundled fee schedules to address lost-revenue-related issues. Incorporate changes into overall strategic or hospital zero-based pricing modeling and parameters.

  1. 48 CFR 2009.570-5 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... any restriction. These clauses include but are not limited to: (1) Hardware exclusion clauses which... performed by the contractor; (2) Software exclusion clauses; (3) Clauses which require the contractor (and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clauses. 2009.570...

  2. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    -down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental......We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top...... results on verification problems show that this is an effective transformation, both in our own verification tools (convex polyhedra analyser) and as a pre-processor to other Horn clause verification tools....

  3. Computer Security: a plea to Santa Claus

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Running pirated software or illegal licences, using cracking tools to bypass software activation measures, sharing music and films – these are problems that academic environments unfortunately have to deal with. All violate the copyright of the software/music/film owners, and copyright owners are not Santa Claus...    CERN, like other research organisations and universities, regularly receives allegations from external companies complaining about laptops or PCs running illegal software or sharing their films, videos or music with peers – and thus violating copyright.  Usually, we then contact the owners of the corresponding devices in order to understand whether these allegations are true. Very often such allegations boil down to a laptop whose owner replies “I confirm that a torrent client was left up and running on my device by mistake” or “This is a file that is stored on my personal hard disk.” As if those allegatio...

  4. Relational benefits and quality of relation – towards understanding of the ties between science and business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grzegorczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to answer the question in what way relational marketing and in particular, the concept of relational benefits, as well as quality of relation may influence the transfer of knowledge and technologies from universities to business. Another goal is to highlight significant, future directions of research in this area. Integration of the theory of relational marketing and technology transfer may create a new framework for fuller understanding of the ties between science and business. Research in this area may contribute to the expansion and development of the theory of relational marketing, which until now was limited to the analysis of relations within a single sector. The results of conducted research show that ties characterized by high relational engagement are common, recognized by both academic and business environment as precious and play an important role in stimulating innovations. The quality of relations and relational benefits may play an important role in building long-term ties between universities and the industry. Integration of behavioural theories with the theory of technology transfer may contribute to a better understanding of the behaviour of particular participants of the transfer on the individual level.

  5. The adjectival subordinate clause in the production of meaning in the text: the prospect of Portuguese textbooks in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliana Lopes Câmara

    2016-12-01

    reflection of the linguistic resource from authentic texts to understand how the effects of sense are produced. On the other hand, these materials have a different view of traditional teaching, because some of them consider pragmatic aspects in the non-restrictive relative clause concept.

  6. Constraint specialisation in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query–answer transformed version of a given set of clauses and a goal. The constraints from the model are then used to compute...... underlying the clauses. Experimental results on verification problems show that this is an effective transformation, both in our own verification tools (based on a convex polyhedra analyser) and as a pre-processor to other Horn clause verification tools....

  7. The use of entire agreement clauses in contracts governed by Danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitkidis, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the use of entire agreement (EA) clauses in contracts governed by Danish law. It (i) reviews the practice, based on interviews conducted with the representatives of Danish firms, judiciary and legal profession, (ii) analyses the implications of the practice under Danish contr...... contract law and related case law and (iii) offers recommendations on how EA clauses can be amended to minimise associated legal risks.......The article analyses the use of entire agreement (EA) clauses in contracts governed by Danish law. It (i) reviews the practice, based on interviews conducted with the representatives of Danish firms, judiciary and legal profession, (ii) analyses the implications of the practice under Danish...

  8. Solving non-linear Horn clauses using a linear Horn clause solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that checking satisfiability of a set of non-linear Horn clauses (also called a non-linear Horn clause program) can be achieved using a solver for linear Horn clauses. We achieve this by interleaving a program transformation with a satisfiability checker for linear Horn...... clauses (also called a solver for linear Horn clauses). The program transformation is based on the notion of tree dimension, which we apply to a set of non-linear clauses, yielding a set whose derivation trees have bounded dimension. Such a set of clauses can be linearised. The main algorithm...... dimension. We constructed a prototype implementation of this approach and performed some experiments on a set of verification problems, which shows some promise....

  9. THE LIMITATIONS IN THE APPLICATION OF THE CURRENCY CLAUSE BY THE PRINCIPLES WITH MORALCONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Akrap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision, which allows the use of currency clause in the Republic of Croatia is introduced in the Law on Obligations in 1994 with the purpose to realize the principle of equal value of performances, in order to protect creditors from the depreciation of the national currency. At the same time no limitations were prescribed in the application of the currency clause, which can, in the different circumstances, lead to a disproportion in the rights and obligations of the parties, on the damage of the debtor. This paper will analyze the economic, social and legal reasons for the introduction of the foreign currency clause in Law, and the importance of legal rules of business with moral content as the limitations of rights based on currency clause during execution of the contract. For that purpose, the general Civil Law rules will be restricted from the separate fields of law, which seek to protect consumers and traders. Furthermore, the authors will examine the possibilities of the protection by these special branches of law against unfair practice during contractual relations with currency clause in Croatian, European and International Law. The authors will observe the recent case law, which classify contracts with a foreign currency clause as the contract with aleatory elements. In conclusion, it would be given the answer to the question whether the basic principles with moral content limit the application of the currency clause.

  10. 48 CFR 11.304 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 11.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Acceptable Material 11.304 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 52.211-5, Material Requirements, in solicitations and contracts for supplies that are not commercial items. ...

  11. 48 CFR 204.7109 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contract clause. Use the clause at 252.204-7006, Billing Instructions, in solicitations and contracts if Section G includes— (a) Any of the standard payment instructions at PGI 204.7108(d)(1) through (6); or (b) Other payment instructions, in accordance with PGI 204.7108(d)(12), that require contractor...

  12. 48 CFR 1242.7000 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Administration Clauses 1242.7000 Contract... Information—Educational Institutions, in lieu of the clause at (TAR) 48 CFR 1252.242-72, Dissemination of Contract Information, in DOT research contracts with educational institutions that require the release or...

  13. 48 CFR 2432.908 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-reimbursement type solicitations and contracts when vouchers are to be sent directly to the paying office. The... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Prompt Payment 2432.908 Contract clauses. (c)(1) The Contracting Officer shall insert a clause substantially the same as provided at 2452.232-70, Payment Schedule...

  14. 31 CFR 25.406 - Savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savings clause. 25.406 Section 25.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PREPAYMENT OF FOREIGN MILITARY SALES....406 Savings clause. Nothing in this rule is intended to authorize any person or entity to engage in...

  15. 48 CFR 227.303 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Subject Inventions, in solicitations and contracts containing the clause at FAR 52.227-11, Patent Rights... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 227.303 Section 227.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT...

  16. 37 CFR 11.61 - Savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savings clause. 11.61 Section... Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.61 Savings clause. (a... subsequent to such effective date, if such conduct would continue to justify suspension or exclusion under...

  17. 48 CFR 3017.9000 - Clauses (USCG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... officer may, in whole or in part (such as after incidents), increase the dollar amounts in the clause at... United States. The contracting officer may, in whole or in part (such as after incidents), increase the dollar amounts in the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.217-95(b)(6) and (c)(1) consistent with contract size...

  18. On degree phrases and result clauses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkhoek, Paulien Dea

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two parts, one on degree phrases and one on result clauses. Sentence (1) below exemplifies a result clause construction: (1) Zij had zo mooi gezongen dat het publiek er stil van was she has so beautifully sang that the audience there silent of was ‘She had sung so

  19. 48 CFR 745.106 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 745.106 Section 745.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY General 745.106 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the...

  20. 48 CFR 908.1104 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 908.1104 Section 908.1104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Leasing of Motor Vehicles 908.1104 Contract clauses. (f...

  1. 48 CFR 747.507 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 747.507 Section 747.507 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Ocean Transportation by U.S.-Flag Vessels 747.507 Contract clauses. Contracting...

  2. 48 CFR 716.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 716.406 Section 716.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 716.406 Contract clauses. The...

  3. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (g) Insert the...

  4. 48 CFR 732.111 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 732.111... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 732.111 Contract clauses. (a) [Reserved] (b) USAID may... Agency-specific indefinite quantity contracts that are a combination of contract types. Rather than using...

  5. 48 CFR 704.404 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 704.404... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 704.404 Contract clause. If the contract involves access to classified (“Confidential”, “Secret”, or “Top Secret”), or administratively...

  6. 48 CFR 937.7040 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 937.7040... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Protective Services Contracting 937.7040 Contract clauses. The contracting... services” in all protective services solicitations and contracts involving DOE-owned facilities requiring...

  7. 48 CFR 833.215 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 833.215 Section 833.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 833.215 Contract clause. The contracting...

  8. 48 CFR 927.303 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 927.303 Section 927.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 927.303 Contract clauses...

  9. 48 CFR 947.7002 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 947.7002 Section 947.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Foreign Travel 947.7002 Contract clause. When foreign travel may be required under the contract...

  10. 48 CFR 811.404 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.404... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Delivery or Performance Schedules 811.404 Contract clause. When delivery is required by or on a particular date for f.o.b. destination contracts, the contracting officer...

  11. 48 CFR 217.7104 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Master Agreement for...) 252.217-7004, Job Orders and Compensation. (3) 252.217-7005, Inspection and Manner of Doing Work. (4... for, and in, job orders, the clauses in the master agreement, and any other clauses on subjects not...

  12. School Choice and State Constitutions' Religion Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komer, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    After the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris," only state religion clauses represent a potential constitutional bar to the inclusion of religious options in properly designed school choice programs. The two most significant are compelled support clauses and Blaine Amendments. Both are frequently misinterpreted by state…

  13. 48 CFR 1516.505 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 1516.505 Contract clauses. (a) The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause in 1552.216-72, Ordering—By Designated Ordering Officers, in indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity type solicitations and contracts. (b) The Contracting...

  14. 48 CFR 244.403 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 244.403... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Subcontracts for Commercial Items and Commercial Components 244.403 Contract clause. (1) 252.225-7009, Restriction on Acquisition of...

  15. 48 CFR 9.308 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 9.308 Section 9.308 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS First Article Testing and Approval 9.308 Contract clauses. ...

  16. 48 CFR 37.304 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contracting officer determines that it would be advantageous to the Government for the contractor to pay in... receipt of those payments. (c) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.237-6, Incremental... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 37.304...

  17. Understanding News Values: Secret to Good Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Rita Haugh

    1981-01-01

    Explains the news values that journalists use. Shows English teachers and administrators how they can apply this knowledge of news media to improve public relations between the school and the community. (RL)

  18. Health care labor relations law--understanding the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, S P; Keith, C L

    1981-01-01

    The 1974 amendments to the Labor Management Relations Act have created new problems of statutory interpretation in the rapidly evolving area of health care labor law. By including nonprofit hospitals under the auspices of the Act, the amendments have opened up a new area for unionization and have given rise to questions concerning the types of bargaining units that are appropriate in health care facilities. In the following article, the authors discuss these questions and other current issues in health care labor relations law. The issues include the determination of relevant bargaining units, the status of state nursing associations as labor organizations, and the ten-day strike notice requirement of the Labor Management Relations Act.

  19. Understanding dyadic promoter-stakeholder relations in complex projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janita Vos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a Bilateral Double Motive framework of stakeholder cooperation in complex projects. The framework analyses and explains dyadic promoter-stakeholder relationships at a micro level by acknowledging both transactional and relational motives. We demonstrate the framework’s usefulness by illustrating its explanatory power in two instances of cooperation and two of non-cooperation within two health information technology projects. The study contributes to project management theory through its combined focus on transactional and relational motives. Further, the study contributes to practice by providing a tool for planning and evaluating cooperation in health Information Technology projects and similar complex multi-stakeholder environments.

  20. Understanding abortion-related stigma and incidence of unsafe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young unmarried women bore the brunt of being stigmatized. They reported a lack of a supportive environment that provides guidance on correct information on how to prevent unwanted pregnancy and where to get help. Abortion-related stigma plays a major role in women's decision on whether to have a safe or unsafe ...

  1. Learning to Understand Others through Relationally Oriented Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Judith; Tonge, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Children with reading difficulties often face social and emotional challenges as well. These struggles may be particularly taxing for these children as classrooms increase in diversity and they encounter fewer people like themselves. In response to these issues, we developed an approach to teaching reading called Relationally Oriented Reading…

  2. Probing Students' Understanding of Some Conceptual Themes in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    This work is an attempt to see how physics undergraduates view the basic ideas of general relativity when they are exposed to the topic in a standard introductory course. Since the subject is conceptually and technically difficult, we adopted a "case studies" approach, focusing in depth on about six students who had just finished a one semester…

  3. Understanding dyadic promoter-stakeholder relations in complex projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Janita F.J.; Boonstra, Albert; Achterkamp, Marjolein C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a Bilateral Double Motive framework of stakeholder cooperation in complex projects. The framework analyses and explains dyadic promoter-stakeholder relationships at a micro level by acknowledging both transactional and relational motives. We demonstrate the framework’s

  4. Basic understanding of the lanthanide related upconversion emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Sun, Ling-Dong; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2013-06-01

    With abundant energy levels of 4f electron configurations, trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+) are endowed with unique and fascinating luminescent properties. Inheriting the native transition behaviour of the lanthanide ions, Ln3+ based nanomaterials have aroused great interest for a wide range of applications, including lighting and displays, optical fibers and amplifiers, responsive luminescent stains for biomedical analysis, in vivo and in vitro imaging, and enhancement for silicon solar cell devices. It should be noted that the application depends completely on the corresponding luminescent behaviour. To deepen the understanding of the luminescent mechanism is important for the developing of the field and the design of new Ln3+ based luminescent materials toward applications. In this review, we focused mainly on the recent developments on upconversion (UC) emission studies. Firstly, the emphasis was put on the introduction of basic luminescent properties of Ln3+ with f-f transitions, and then the corresponding mechanisms and properties of UC emission were discussed in detail, the potential researches with respect to UC mechanisms and properties were finally outlined.

  5. Understanding relations between pastoralism and its changing natural environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tamou, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The competition for land has become an issue of major concern and cause of conflict, especially between pastoralists and crop farmers, but also between pastoralists and nature conservation institutions. The Biosphere Reserve of W in Benin Republic (WBR) and its surrounding lands are located in the agro-pastoral contact zone in West Africa, enabling competition for land, and affecting the relations between pastoralism and its environment. The general aim of this thesis, therefore, was to under...

  6. 48 CFR 970.3270 - Standard financial management clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Standard financial management clauses. (a) The following DEAR and FAR clauses are standard financial... Accounting Standards. (b) The following DEAR clauses are standard financial management clauses. The... systems: (1) 970.5232-7, Financial management system. (2) 970.5232-8, Integrated accounting. (c) Any...

  7. Understanding the relative sensitivity of radiographic screens to scattered radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, K L; Whiting, B R; Kocher, T E; Trauernicht, D P; Van Metter, R L

    1996-10-01

    This study compared the relative response of various screen-film and computed radiography (CR) systems to diagnostic radiation exposure. An analytic model was developed to calculate the total energy deposition within the depth of screen and the readout signal generated from this energy for the x-ray detection system. The model was used to predict the relative sensitivity of several screen-film and CR systems to scattered radiation as a function of various parameters, such as x-ray spectra, phantom thickness, phosphor composition, screen thickness, screen configuration (single front screen, single back screen, screen pair), and readout conditions. In addition, measurements of the scatter degradation factor (SDF) for different screen systems by using the beam stop technique with water phantoms were made to verify the model results. Theoretically calculated values of SDF were in good agreement with experimental data. These results are consistent with the common observation that rare-earth screens generally produce better image quality than calcium tungstate screens and the CR screen.

  8. Functionalist analysis of the positioning of temporal clauses in reports of Revista Seleções

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sávio André de Souza CAVALCANTE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to analyze, subsidized by the vision functionalist, the motivations discursive in employment of temporal clauses. The investigation if justifies by the need of giving a contribution a description of Portuguese based in functionalist studies. The research is of qualitative nature and quantitative, because it uses techniques of interpretation for the description of the data presented and, beyond the more, considers the number of occurrences as a factor important for the analysis of results. Regarding the corpus, were selected editions published during four years of Revista Seleções, which were: 2002, 2003, 2008 and 2009. With the results obtained, it was noted that there was a preference for using clauses developed and also a predilection by anteposition of the temporal clauses in relation to its core or main clause, latter being observed fact in more than half of the occurrences analyzed.

  9. The Politics of Takings Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Versteeg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2015v36n71p43 A long-standing consensus exists that the arbitrary or excessive expropriation of private property by a country hurts its economic growth. Although constitutions can play an important role in protecting private property, remarkably little is known about how they actually restrict the power of eminent domain and whether such restrictions are associated with reduced de facto expropriation risks. The main finding of this essay is that no observable relationship exists between de jure constitutional restrictions on the power of eminent domain and de facto expropriation risks. This finding suggests that the effectiveness of takings clauses might depend on the politics surrounding their adoption.

  10. Three levels of understanding physical relativity: Galileo's relativity, Up-to-date Galileo's relativity and Einstein's relativity: A historical survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenstein, Bernhard; Nafornita, Corina

    2004-01-01

    We present a way of teaching Einstein's special relativity. It starts with Galileo's relativity, the learners know from previous lectures. The lecture underlines that we can have three transformation equations for the space-time coordinates of the same event, which lead to absolute clock readings, time intervals and lengths (Galileo's relativity), to absolute clock readings but to relative time intervals and lengths (up-to-date Galileo transformations) and to relative clock readings time inte...

  11. The Storytelling Aspect of Interpersonal Relations: Understanding "Relating" from a Mentalization Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J Mark; Tuch, Richard

    Improving a patient's ability to form and maintain satisfactory interpersonal relations is an important goal in many therapies. A mentalization-based approach to treatment is ideally suited to achieve this end to the extent it's designed to help improve a patient's ability to form more nuanced guesses about why others act as they do, based on a more accurate "read" of that individual's beliefs and desires. Interpersonal difficulties often issue when patients remain insistent on their own interpretation of another's motives that fly in the face of that individual's understanding of what is "driving" them. Helping patients explore the basis upon which they'd formed their conclusions about others goes a ways toward opening their mind to the possibility that things are a bit more complicated than first imaged. This in turn leads to greater curiosity and willingness to explore their own narratives and perceptions.

  12. 48 CFR 542.1107 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting 542.1107 Contract... clause may be used in indefinite-delivery definite-quantity contracts for Stock or Special Order Program...

  13. Children's Interpretive Understanding, Moral Judgments, and Emotion Attributions: Relations to Social Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…

  14. Preschool-aged children’s understanding of gratitude: Relations with emotion and mental state knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children’s early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children were tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of gratitude-eliciting situations. A model-building path analysis approach was used to examine longitudinal relations among early emotion and mental state knowledge and later understanding of gratitude. Children with a better early understanding of emotions and mental states understand more about gratitude. Mental state knowledge at age 4 mediated the relation between emotion knowledge at age 3 and gratitude understanding at age 5. The current study contributes to the scant literature on the early emergence of children’s understanding of gratitude. PMID:23331105

  15. Mathematical Representation by Students in Building Relational Understanding on Concepts of Area and Perimeter of Rectangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Rahmad Bustanul; Yuwono, Ipung; As'ari, Abdur Rahman; Sisworo; Dwi, Rahmawati

    2016-01-01

    Representation is an important aspect of learners in building a relational understanding of mathematical concepts. But the ability of a mathematical representation of students in building relational understanding is still very limited. The purpose of this research is to description of mathematical representation of students who appear in building…

  16. 48 CFR 1615.470-1 - Investment income clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.470-1 Investment income clause. The clause set forth in 1652...

  17. 48 CFR 203.570-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 203.570-3 Contract clause. Use the clause at 252.203-7001, Prohibition on Persons...

  18. 48 CFR 16.506 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 16.506 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (a) Insert the clause at 52.216-18, Ordering, in solicitations...

  19. 48 CFR 616.506-70 - DOSAR contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 616.506-70 DOSAR contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 652.216-70, Ordering—Indefinite-Delivery...

  20. Word order variation and foregrounding of complement clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tanya Karoli; Jensen, Torben Juel

    2015-01-01

    Through mixed models analyses of complement clauses in a corpus of spoken Danish we examine the role of sentence adverbials in relation to a word order distinction in Scandinavian signalled by the relative position of sentence adverbials and finite verb (V>Adv vs. Adv>V). The type of sentence...... adverbial was the third-most important factor in explaining the word order variation: Sentence adverbials categorized as ‘dialogic’ are significantly associated with V>Adv word order. We argue that the results are readily interpretable in the light of the semantico-pragmatic hypothesis that V>Adv signals...

  1. 48 CFR 3027.409 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... containing the basic clause unless the HCA approves an exclusion. Additional non-conflicting alternates may... and contract clauses. 3027.409 Section 3027.409 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF..., AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 3027.409 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses...

  2. 48 CFR 27.201-2 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the patent indemnity clause. Exclusion from indemnity of identified patents, as distinguished from... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 27.201-2... REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201-2 Contract clauses. (a)(1) Insert the...

  3. 48 CFR 229.402-70 - Additional clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performance will be in Spain. (f) Use the clause at 252.229-7006, Value Added Tax Exclusion (United Kingdom... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional clauses. 229... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Contract Clauses 229.402-70...

  4. 78 FR 21343 - New Ski Area Water Rights Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Forest Service New Ski Area Water Rights Clause AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... rights clause for ski area permits issued by the Forest Service. There will be several stations at the... Service will consider in developing a new ski area water rights clause. There will be another opportunity...

  5. 48 CFR 3447.7000 - Foreign travel clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign travel clause... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Foreign Travel 3447.7000 Foreign travel clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in 3452.247-70, Foreign Travel, in all solicitations and resultant cost...

  6. 48 CFR 2446.502-70 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 2446.502-70 Contract clause. The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause at 2452.246-70, Inspection and Acceptance, in all solicitations and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 2446.502...

  7. 48 CFR 970.1706-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.1706... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Special Contracting Methods 970.1706-2 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR 52.217-9, Option to Extend the Term of...

  8. 48 CFR 970.2201-1-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.2201... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2201-1-3 Contract clause. In addition to the clause at 48 CFR 52.222-1, Notice to the Government of Labor Disputes...

  9. 48 CFR 970.0470-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.0470... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Administrative Matters 970.0470-2 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 970.5204-2, Laws, Regulations, and DOE...

  10. 48 CFR 970.0407-1-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.0407... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Administrative Matters 970.0407-1-3 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 970.5204-3, Access to and Ownership of Records...

  11. 48 CFR 970.0371-9 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.0371... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0371-9 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 970...

  12. 48 CFR 970.1103-4 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.1103... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Describing Agency Needs 970.1103-4 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 48 CFR 52.211-5, Material Requirements, in solicitations and contracts. ...

  13. 48 CFR 909.507-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 909.507-2... PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational and Consultant Conflicts of Interest 909.507-2 Contract clause. (a)(1) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.209-72, Organizational Conflicts of...

  14. 48 CFR 970.0808-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.0808... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Required sources of supplies and services 970.0808-3 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 970.5208-1, Printing, in all...

  15. 48 CFR 803.570-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 803.570-2... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 803.570-2 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.203-70, Commercial advertising, in...

  16. 48 CFR 709.507-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 709.507-2... PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 709.507-2 Contract clause. (a)-(b... after award of a contract, the clause found at 752.209-71 shall be inserted in all contracts whenever...

  17. 48 CFR 970.1707-4 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.1707... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Special Contracting Methods 970.1707-4 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 970.5217-1, Work for Others Program (Non-DOE Funded Work), in any contract...

  18. 48 CFR 970.0370-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.0370... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370-2 Contract clause. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 970...

  19. 48 CFR 870.111-3 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 870.111... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-3 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting... contracts for bread and bakery products. (b) The contracting officer shall include the clause at 852.270-3...

  20. 48 CFR 942.270-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 942.270-2 Section 942.270-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Administration Services 942.270-2 Contract clause. The clause at 952...

  1. 48 CFR 552.252-6 - Authorized Deviations in Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... published in the General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 5). (2) This... published in the General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation by the addition of “(DEVIATION (FAR... ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552...

  2. 48 CFR 1816.506-70 - NASA contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 1816.506-70 NASA contract clause. Insert the clause at 1852.216-80, Task Ordering Procedure, in solicitations and contracts when an indefinite-delivery, task order contract is contemplated. The clause is...

  3. Signaling Elaboration: Combining French Gerund Clauses with Lexical Cohesion Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Vergez-Couret

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the Elaboration relation and on its automatic identification in French, using the theoretical framework of Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT. One of the information sources identified by the SDRT framework to infer the Elaboration relation is based on the existence of a potential subsumption link between the eventualities at stake, depending on lexical semantics and world knowledge. We investigate this claim by combining a weak syntactic marker of the Elaboration relation, namely the gerund clause, with lexical cohesion cues. We aim at automatically identifying gerund clauses which are Elaborations by finding cohesive links between the host main clause and the gerund clause. This approach makes it possible to accurately detect few cases of intra-sentential Elaborations in our corpus, confirming the fact that lexical cohesion cues are relevant for this task.Dans cet article, nous nous focalisons sur la relation d’Élaboration en français, telle qu’elle est décrite dans le modèle théorique de la SDRT (Segmented Discourse Representation Theory, et sur son identification automatique. Selon la SDRT, une des sources d’information permettant d’inférer la relation d’Élaboration est basée sur l’existence d’un lien de subsomption entre les types des éventualités des segments à relier, indiquant que le type de la seconde éventualité est un sous-type de celui de la première dans la sémantique lexicale des éventualités ou grâce à des connaissances du monde. Nous proposons de contribuer à cette question en combinant un indice de la relation d’Élaboration, i. e. la construction syntaxique du gérondif, et des indices de cohésion lexicale. Notre objectif est d’identifier automatiquement des propositions gérondives qui sont des Élaborations en repérant des indices de cohésion lexicale entre la proposition principale et la proposition gérondive. Cette approche permet de d

  4. Developmental Relational Counseling: A Model for Self-Understanding in Relation to Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Thelma; Haberstroh, Shane

    2012-01-01

    Developmental relational counseling (DRC) is an integrative framework designed to help clients develop personal awareness and relational functioning and conceptualize personal growth. DRC emerged from both authors' clinical work and was significantly influenced by relational-cultural theory and guided by the Enneagram personality typology and…

  5. An Investigation of Age-Related Differences in Understanding of Empathy and Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Kuske, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated age-related differences in social cognition, emotional understanding, Theory of Mind (ToM) and empathy. A new task assessing different aspects of social cognition (ToM, emotional understanding, knowledge/understanding of social rules) using cartoon-strip stories was applied in conjunction with established measures of emotion recognition (‘the faces task’, or FEEST), ToM (‘Reading the mind in the eyes task’), empathy (IRI) and executive functions (Bri...

  6. Prospective Elementary Teacher Understandings of Pest-Related Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Cary J.; Heinze, Kirk L.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical interviews with eight preservice elementary teachers elicited their understanding of pest-related benchmarks. Those with out-of-school experience were better able to articulate their understanding. Many were unable to make connections between scientific, societal and technological concepts. (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  7. Children's understanding of Aesop's fables: relations to reading comprehension and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Janette; Beatty, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined children's developing understanding of Aesop's fables in relation to reading comprehension and to theory of mind. Study 1 included 172 children from Junior Kindergarten through Grade 6 in a school-wide examination of the relation between reading comprehension skills and understanding of Aesop's fables told orally. Study 2 examined the relation between theory of mind and fables understanding among 186 Junior (4-year-old) and Senior (5-year-old) Kindergarten children. Study 1 results showed a developmental progression in fables understanding with children's responses becoming increasingly decontextualized as they were able to extract the life lesson. After general vocabulary, passage comprehension predicted fables understanding. Study 2 results showed a relation between young children's theory of mind development and their understanding of fables. After general vocabulary, second-order theory of mind predicted children's fables understanding. Findings point to the importance of developing mental state awareness in children's ability to judge characters' intentions and to understand the deeper message embedded in fables.

  8. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States Relates to Desire Language and Emotion Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between mother mental state language and child desire language and emotion understanding in 15--24-month-olds. At both times point, mothers described pictures to their infants and mother talk was coded for mental and nonmental state language. Children were administered 2 emotion understanding tasks and their mental…

  9. Relational Understanding of the Derivative Concept through Mathematical Modeling: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Zulal; Aydogan Yenmez, Arzu; Erbas, Ayhan Kursat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three second-year graduate students' awareness and understanding of the relationships among the "big ideas" that underlie the concept of derivative through modeling tasks and Skemp's distinction between relational and instrumental understanding. The modeling tasks consisting of warm-up,…

  10. A Macro-Micro-Symbolic Teaching to Promote Relational Understanding of Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Lama Ziad; Boujaoude, Saouma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is threefold: (1) to identify the difficulties that Grade 10 students in a Lebanese school have that hinder their conceptual understanding at the micro-macro-symbolic interface in chemistry, (2) to investigate the effect of a macro-micro-symbolic teaching approach on students' relational understanding of chemical…

  11. Public relations and public understanding in the nuclear industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Michel, A. [Belgonucleaire, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-31

    Before talking about public understanding and public relations in the nuclear industry in Europe, a word about the mosaic structure of the European energy policy and public is required because a similar structure will be found in the European public understanding policy. Afterwards, we explain what communications tools are available and how the different European countries apply them.

  12. Student Understanding of Time in Special Relativity: Simultaneity and Reference Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2001-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of students' understanding of the concept of time in special relativity. Discusses a series of research tasks to illustrate how student reasoning of fundamental concepts of relativity was probed. Indicates that after standard instruction, students have serious difficulties with the relativity of simultaneity and the…

  13. 48 CFR 39.107 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., in solicitations and contracts for information technology which require security of information technology, and/or are for the design, development, or operation of a system of records using commercial... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.107 Contract clause. The contracting officer...

  14. 48 CFR 32.908 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Prompt Payment for Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer Contracts, in solicitations and contracts that contain the clause at 52.232-10, Payments Under Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer Contracts. (1) As authorized in... specify a period longer than 7 days for constructive acceptance or constructive approval, if required to...

  15. 48 CFR 228.370 - Additional clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... aircraft; or otherwise involving the furnishing of aircraft; (iii) For which a non-DoD customer (including a foreign military sales customer) has not agreed to assume the risk for loss or destruction of, or.... (b)(1) Use the clause at 252.228-7001, Ground and Flight Risk, in all solicitations and contracts for...

  16. 48 CFR 27.303 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... any patent application filed on any subject invention in any country or, upon request, copies of any... duplicate shall not be requested under the patent rights clause); (ii) Submit interim and final invention... number, and issue date for any patent application filed on any subject invention in any country or, upon...

  17. 48 CFR 1403.1004 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 1403.1004 Section 1403.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 1403...

  18. 48 CFR 503.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 503.1004 Section 503.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 503...

  19. 48 CFR 811.107 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 811.107 Section 811.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 811.107 Contract...

  20. 48 CFR 811.204 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.204 Section 811.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 811.204 Contract...

  1. 48 CFR 1842.7202 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractor Financial Management Reporting, in solicitations and contracts when any of the NASA Form 533... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 1842.7202 Section 1842.7202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION...

  2. 48 CFR 225.7307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 225.7307 Section 225.7307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisitions for Foreign Military Sales 225...

  3. Child language and parent discipline mediate the relation between family income and false belief understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Virginia; Logan, Jessica A R; Blosser, Daniel F; Duffy, Kaylin

    2017-06-01

    Achieving false belief understanding is an important cognitive milestone that allows children to understand that thoughts and reality can differ. Researchers have found that low-income children score significantly lower than middle-income children on false belief understanding but have not examined why this difference exists. We hypothesized that children's language and parent discipline mediate the income-false belief relation. Participants were 174 3- to 6-year-olds. False belief understanding was significantly correlated with family income, children's vocabulary, parents' self-reported discussion of children's behavior, discussion of emotions, and power assertion. Family income had a significant indirect effect on false belief understanding through children's vocabulary and parent discipline when examined independently, but only through children's vocabulary when using parallel multiple mediation. This study contributes to our knowledge of individual differences in false belief understanding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Infinitival before and after-clauses in European Portuguese: temporal and aspectual properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificação Silvano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to discuss temporal and aspectual features of sentences with clauses introduced by the connectives antes de + Infinitivo (‘before’ + Infinitive and depois de + Infinitivo (‘after’ + Infinitive combined with situations in the Pretérito Perfeito in European Portuguese. Our discussion is based on the widespread view that these clauses are locating adverbials (cf. Kamp and Reyle (1993 with temporal information of anteriority, in the case of antes de, and posteriority, in the case of depois de. However, this analysis is not as straightforward as one would expect, because, while before-clauses consistently render the same temporal relation (of anteriority, after-clauses may convey a temporal relation of inclusion, in addition to the standard posteriority relation. We put forward the hypothesis that aspectual characteristics play an important role in these differences, insofar as allowing a temporal reading that at first sight is not predicted from the semantic nature of the connective. In order to maintain a uniform treatment of before and after-clauses with respect to their temporal features, accounting simultaneously for the differences that emerge in their linguistic behaviour, we claim, along with Beaver & Condoravdi (2003 and Condoravdi (2010, that the locating time interval provided by these clauses is bounded to the left, but not to the right, that is, what is focused is the initial frontier of the situation that provides the time interval, leaving the final one undetermined. Furthermore, we show that, although the temporal mechanisms are parallel, the interference of aspectual properties leads to interesting differences in the final interpretation of before and after-sentences.

  5. Consumer understanding, interpretation and perceived levels of personal responsibility in relation to satiety-related claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilman, E.M.; Kleef, van E.; Mela, D.J.; Hulshof, T.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore (a) whether and how consumers may (over-) interpret satiety claims, and (b) whether and to what extent consumers recognize that personal efforts are required to realize possible satiety-related or weight loss benefits. Following means-end chain theory, we

  6. 37 CFR 401.3 - Use of the standard clauses at § 401.14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contract may require the contractor to perform work on behalf of the Government at a Government laboratory... example, if the justification relates to a particular field of use or market, the clause might be modified... when § 401.3(a)(2) is used, the determination shall also include an analysis justifying the...

  7. Facultative reinsurance and the full reinsurance clause

    OpenAIRE

    Gurses, Ozlem

    2009-01-01

    The Full Reinsurance clause by which a reinsurer agrees to be bound by the same terms and conditions as the original policy and commits to follow the reinsured’s settlements is widely used in London Market facultative reinsurance contracts. In most disputes the outcome depends upon resolving the fundamental question of whether reinsurance is either a further insurance on the subject matter insured or is a reinsurance of the liability of the reinsured under the direct policy. The interpretatio...

  8. From rational numbers to algebra: separable contributions of decimal magnitude and relational understanding of fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J

    2015-05-01

    To understand the development of mathematical cognition and to improve instructional practices, it is critical to identify early predictors of difficulty in learning complex mathematical topics such as algebra. Recent work has shown that performance with fractions on a number line estimation task predicts algebra performance, whereas performance with whole numbers on similar estimation tasks does not. We sought to distinguish more specific precursors to algebra by measuring multiple aspects of knowledge about rational numbers. Because fractions are the first numbers that are relational expressions to which students are exposed, we investigated how understanding the relational bipartite format (a/b) of fractions might connect to later algebra performance. We presented middle school students with a battery of tests designed to measure relational understanding of fractions, procedural knowledge of fractions, and placement of fractions, decimals, and whole numbers onto number lines as well as algebra performance. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the best predictors of algebra performance were measures of relational fraction knowledge and ability to place decimals (not fractions or whole numbers) onto number lines. These findings suggest that at least two specific components of knowledge about rational numbers--relational understanding (best captured by fractions) and grasp of unidimensional magnitude (best captured by decimals)--can be linked to early success with algebraic expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A COMPARISON OF THE TURKIC TYPE RELATIVE CLAUSE TYPOLOGY WITH JAPANESE, KOREAN AND HUNGRAIAN TYPOLOGIES TÜRK DİLİ SIFAT-FİİLLİ YAPI TİPOLOJİSİNİN JAPON, KORE VE MACAR TİPOLOJİLERİ İLE KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat KARABULUT

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, we dealt with relative clause typologies in the world languages in general and Turkic Type Relative Clause typology in particular. By doing this, we compared Turkish relative clause construction with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian ones, which are all considered in Uralic and Altaic Language Family. In doing this, we made use of Chomskian theories called Generative-Transformational Grammar and Governement and Binding Thoery. As is known, Chomsky declared that all languages have the same typolgy in the Deep Structure. The changes among languages are witnessed in Surface Structure. There is a transformation between deep structure and surface structure. It means that, a noun pharse can be moved to another place leaving an empty place behind by constructing a chain between the empty place and its antecedents (moved element. When we compared Turkic type relative clause typology with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian, we amasingly saw that the strategies are the same in these langauges. Bu çalışmada, dünya dillerinde önemli bir yere sahip olan sıfat-fiilli yapıların tipolojilerini inceledik. Bunu yapmaktaki amacımız, Türk Dili Tipi Sıfat-fiilli Yapı tipolojinsin dünya dilleri arasındaki yerini tespit etmek ve benzer tipolojiler ile karşılaştırmaktır. Türk dili ile akraba olduğu varsayılan Japon, Kore ve Macar dillerini, sıfat-fiil tipolojileri açısında analiz ederek Türk Dili Tipolojisi ile olan benzerlikleri ortaya koymaya çalıştık. Sıfat-fiil tipolojisini analiz ederken, Chomsky’nin Üretken-Dönüşümlü Dil Bilgisi ve Yönetim ve Bağlama Kuramı’ndan faydalandık. Dilin yapısal olarak incelenmesi gerektiğini ileri süren Chomsky, derin yapı ve yüzey yapı kavramları ile taşınım ve dönüşümün bütün diller için kaçınılmaz bir gerçeklik olduğunu gösterdi. Biz de bu çalışmada ad öbeği taşınımı ve boşluk kuramı ışığında, sıfat-fiilli yapı tipolojilerini kar

  10. Main clause că ‘that’ in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Hill

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Romanian că ‘that’ is the Force head of subordinated clauses (Hill 2004. In this paper I point out that the complementizer că ‘that’ may occur in root (vs. subordinated declarative clauses as well, but only in certain environments, which I identify as being the speech act domain promoting the speaker’s point of view. I argue that in such contexts, main clause că ‘that’ marks the border between various pragmatic sub-fields derived at the left periphery (LP of clauses, rather than typing the clause, as it does in CP complements to V or N. In particular, main clause că ‘that’ draws the border between the injunction field and the Mood adverbial field (Cinque 1999, and between the latter and the discourse pragmatic field (ForceP-FinP.

  11. Helping foster parents understand the foster child's perspective: a relational learning framework for foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Wendy; Salmon, Karen

    2014-10-01

    The behaviour of children in foster care is influenced by a variety of factors including previous experiences of maltreatment and adverse parenting, as well as the impact of separation from birth parents and placement in care. These factors make it difficult for foster parents to accurately interpret the child's behavioural cues, a necessary precursor to sensitive parenting. The relational learning framework introduced in this article, drawing on attachment theory, facilitates the foster parents' access to some features of the child's mental representations, or internal working model, which may be pivotal in understanding the child's behaviour and therefore successfully managing it. Recent studies suggest that parents' ability to understand the child's psychological perspective, or mental state, is related to the child's cognitive and social development. This article presents a method to enhance the foster parents' understanding of the child's psychological perspective. The model is currently being evaluated for use with foster parents, mental health and social work practitioners. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Video-cued narrative reflection: a research approach for articulating tacit, relational, and embodied understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raingruber, Bonnie

    2003-10-01

    The author's purpose in this article is to describe the effectiveness of video-cued narrative reflection as a research approach for accessing relational, practice-based, and lived understandings. Video-cued narrative reflection provides moment-by-moment access to tacit experience. The immediate nature of the videotape captures emotional nuances, embodied perceptions, spatial influences, relational understandings, situational factors, and temporal manifestations. By watching videotaped interactions, participants are able to re-collect, re-experience, and interpret their life world. Video-cued narrative reflection allows participants to be simultaneously engaged and reflective while describing significant understandings. By inserting audiotaped reflective commentary of participants into the original videotape transcript, contextual meanings can be located and articulated more easily. Although not appropriate for all types of research, this approach offers promise for certain studies.

  13. Understanding decreases in land relative humidity with global warming: conceptual model and GCM simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Michael P.; O'Gorman, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate models simulate a strong land-ocean contrast in the response of near-surface relative humidity to global warming: relative humidity tends to increase slightly over oceans but decrease substantially over land. Surface energy balance arguments have been used to understand the response over ocean but are difficult to apply over more complex land surfaces. Here, a conceptual box model is introduced, involving moisture transport between the land and ocean boundary layers and evapotranspira...

  14. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: Current understanding and preventive strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaar, A. P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the most serious complication of transfusion medicine. TRALI is defined as the onset of acute hypoxia within 6 hours of a blood transfusion in the absence of hydrostatic pulmonary oedema. The past decades have resulted in a better understanding of the

  15. Modelling Joint Decision Making Processes Involving Emotion-Related Valuing and Mutual Empathic Understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a social agent model for joint decision making is presented addressing the role of mutually acknowledged empathic understanding in the decision making. The model is based on principles from recent neurological theories on mirror neurons, internal simulation, and emotion-related

  16. Towards the understanding of microbial metabolism in relation to microbial enhanced oil recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Bacillus licheniformis 421 was used as a model organism to understand the effects of microbial cell growth and metabolite production under anaerobic conditions in relation to microbial enhanced oil recovery. The bacterium was able to grow anaerobically on different carbon compounds...

  17. Understanding Nature-Related Behaviors among Children through a Theory of Reasoned Action Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotch, Chad; Hall, Troy

    2004-01-01

    The Theory of Reasoned Action has proven to be a valuable tool for predicting and understanding behavior and, as such, provides a potentially important basis for environmental education program design. This study used a Theory of Reasoned Action approach to examine a unique type of behavior (nature-related activities) and a unique population…

  18. Students' Understandings of Religious Identities and Relations: Issues of Social Cohesion and Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this article is on issues of social cohesion and citizenship as they relate to students' understandings of religion and religious identity. The article draws on data gathered from a study conducted at a highly diverse English comprehensive school and is set amid broader anxieties about religion, community disharmony and national…

  19. Understanding Structure-Property Relations of Compressed Glasses through Relaxation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Svenson, Mouritz Nolsøe; Youngman, Randall E.

    When a glassy material or its liquid state is subjected to sufficiently high pressure, significant changes can take place in the short- and medium-range structure, vibrational density of states, and physical properties. It is crucial to determine and understand the structure-property relations un...

  20. On the nature of escapable relative islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that universal island constraints block extraction from relative clauses. However, it is well-known that such extractions can be acceptable in the Scandinavian languages. Kush & Lindahl (2011) argue that the acceptability in Swedish is illusory; relative clauses that allow...... extraction have a different structure (small clause structure) from those that block extraction (true relatives, CPs). We present data from an acceptability survey of relative clause extraction in Danish. In the survey, extraction significantly decreased acceptability but we found no statistically...... significant effect of the ability of the verb to take a small-clause complement. We also found no difference between som ‘that/who/which’ and der ‘that/who/which’, both of which can head a relative clause while only som can head a small clause. We argue that our results do not warrant the stipulation...

  1. Beyond Normal Competencies: Understanding Organisation Designs to Develop and Sustain IT-Related Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acklesh Prasad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is apparent that IT resources are important for organisations. It is also clear that organisations unique competencies, their IT-related capabilities, leverage the IT resources uniquely to create and sustain competitive advantage. However, IT resources are dynamic, and evolve at an exponential rate. This means that organisations will need to sustain their competencies to leverage opportunities offered by new IT resources. Research on ways to sustain IT-related capabilities is limited and a deeper understanding of this situation is important. Amongst other factors, a possible reason for this lack of progress in this area could be due to the lack of validated measurement items of the theoretical constructs to conduct such studies. We suggest an environment in which organisations could build new and sustain their existing IT-related capabilities. We then report on the development of valid and reliable measures for this environment. The validated measures would be useful in extending our understanding on how firms could sustain their IT-related capabilities. This effort will provide a deeper understanding of how firms can secure sustainable IT-related business value from their acquired IT resources.

  2. Belief, Knowledge and Understanding. How to Deal with the Relations Between Different Cultural Perspectives in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-dos-Santos, Frederik; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-05-01

    This article discusses how to deal with the relations between different cultural perspectives in classrooms, based on a proposal for considering understanding and knowledge as goals of science education, inspired by Dewey's naturalistic humanism. It thus combines educational and philosophical interests. In educational terms, our concerns relate to how science teachers position themselves in multicultural classrooms. In philosophical terms, we are interested in discussing the relations between belief, understanding, and knowledge under the light of Dewey's philosophy. We present a synthesis of Dewey's theory of inquiry through his naturalistic humanism and discuss its implications for the concepts of belief, understanding, and knowledge, as well as for the goals of science teaching. In particular, we highlight problems arising in the context of possible conflicts between scientific and religious claims in the school environment that result from totalitarian positions. We characterize an individual's position as totalitarian if he or she takes some way of thinking as the only one capable of expressing the truth about all that exists in the world, lacks open-mindedness to understand different interpretative perspectives, and attempts to impose her or his interpretation about the facts to others by violent means or not. From this stance, any other perspective is taken to be false a priori and, accordingly, as a putative target to be suppressed or adapted to the privileged way of thinking. We argue, instead, for a more fallibilist evaluation of our own beliefs and a more respectful appraisal of the diversity of students' beliefs by both students and teachers.

  3. EXAMINING THE STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING LEVEL TOWARDS THE CONCEPTS OF SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Özcan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Special theory of relativity is one of the difficult subjects of physics to be understood by the students. The current research designed as a qualitative research aim to determine the pre-service physics teachers’ understanding level and the alternative conceptions about three core concepts of special theory of relativity, such as time dilatation, length contraction and reference frames. The data were collected through semi structured interviews and were analyzed by using content analysis. At the end of the analysis process the understanding level of the students was determined to be “complete understanding”, “incomplete understanding” and “misunderstanding”. In order to achieve this, the students’ conceptual frameworks based on the operational definitions made by the students were determined firstly. The findings obtained in this research indicate that high school teachers as well as university instructors should take special care with some points in the teaching of the subjects related with special theory of relativity. This research might be useful to other studies to be done in the future, especially for investigating the students’ mental models related to special theory of relativity.

  4. Understanding Basic Temporal Relations in Primary School Pupils with Hearing Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulcić, Adinda; Bakota, Koraljka; Saler, Zrinka

    2015-09-01

    Time can be observed as a subjective, as well as an objective phenomenon which is a component of our life, and due to its communicational needs, it is standardized by temporal signs and symbols. The aim of this study was to determine the understanding of basic temporal relations of pupils with hearing impairments. We assumed that the knowledge of basic time relations is a precondition for the acquisition of knowledge that is connected with the understanding of the syllabus in regular school programs. Three groups of pupils have been examined: pupils with hearing impairments who attend the primary school of SUVAG Polyclinic under special condition, integrated hearing impaired pupils with minor additional difficulties who attend regular primary schools in Zagreb with a prolonged expert procedure and pupils of the control group. The subjects have been examined with a measuring instrument constructed by the expert team of the Polyclinic Suvag. Twenty nine subjects have been questioned, chronologically aged between 10 and 12.

  5. The Importance of Understanding Hierarchical Relations between High Order Mental Functions in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto Farina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The state-of-the-art in studies on mentalization suggests that capacity to understand other minds (mindreading, self introspection and consciousness, mental time travel in the past and the present, linguistic communication, are different components of a hierarchical organization of several functions reflecting the evolutionary development of the specie and integrates increasingly complex, mutually coordinated brain levels. The understanding of the precise hierarchical relations between them, that reflect the phylo- and ontogenetic evolutionary pathway for adaptation to the complex interpersonal and socio-cultural environment, has an essential application in psychopathology and psychotherapy, in particular for those clinical conditions where the normal integration of high order mental functions is hampered by developmental relational trauma.

  6. Relative Difficulty of Understanding Foreign Accents as a Marker of Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; van Heugten, Marieke; Peperkamp, Sharon

    2017-05-01

    Foreign-accented speech is generally harder to understand than native-accented speech. This difficulty is reduced for non-native listeners who share their first language with the non-native speaker. It is currently unclear, however, how non-native listeners deal with foreign-accented speech produced by speakers of a different language. We show that the process of (second) language acquisition is associated with an increase in the relative difficulty of processing foreign-accented speech. Therefore, experiencing greater relative difficulty with foreign-accented speech compared with native speech is a marker of language proficiency. These results contribute to our understanding of how phonological categories are acquired during second language learning. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. The Hilbert space of conditional clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Charles

    2015-05-01

    In the absence of a satisfactory interpretation of quantum theory, physical law lacks physical basis. This paper reviews the orthodox, or Dirac-von Neumann interpretation, and makes explicit that Hilbert space describes propositions about measurement results. Kets are defined as conditional clauses referring to measurements in a formal language. It is seen that these clauses are elements of a Hilbert space, such that addition is logical disjunction, the dual space consists of consequent clauses, and the inner product is a set of statements in the subjunctive mood. The probability interpretation gives truth values for corresponding future tense statements when the initial state is actually prepared and the final state is to be measured. The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics is formulated in terms of discrete measurement results at finite level of accuracy and does not depend on an assumption of a substantive, or background, space-time continuum. A continuum of kets, ∣x> for x ∈ ℝ3, is constructed from linear combinations of kets in a finite basis. The inner product can be expressed either as a finite sum or as an integral. Discrete position functions are uniquely embedded into smooth wave functions in such a way that differential operators are defined. It is shown that the choice of basis has no effect on underlying physics (quantum covariance). The Dirac delta has a representation as a smooth function. Operators do not in general have an integral form. The Schrödinger equation is shown from the requirements of the probability interpretation. It is remarked that a formal construction of quantum electrodynamics (qed) avoiding divergence problems has been completed using finite dimensional Hilbert space. I conclude that quantum mechanics makes statements about the world with clear physical meaning, such that space is emergent from particle interactions and has no fundamental role.

  8. Understanding energy-related regimes: A participatory approach from central Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foran, Tira; Fleming, David; Spandonide, Bruno; Williams, Rachel; Race, Digby

    2016-01-01

    For a particular community, what energy-related innovations constitute no-regrets strategies? We present a methodology to understand how alternative energy consuming activities and policy regimes impact on current and future liveability of socio-culturally diverse communities facing climate change. Our methodology augments the energy policy literature by harnessing three concepts (collaborative governance, innovation and political economic regime of provisioning) to support dialogue around changing energy-related activities. We convened workshops in Alice Springs, Australia to build capability to identify no-regrets energy-related housing or transport activities and strategies. In preparation, we interviewed policy actors and constructed three new housing-related future scenarios. After discussing the scenarios, policy and research actors prioritised five socio-technical activities or strategies. Evaluations indicate participants enjoyed opportunities given by the methodology to have focussed discussions about activities and innovation, while requesting more socially nuanced scenario storylines. We discuss implications for theory and technique development. - Highlights: •Energy-related activities and regimes frustrate pro-sustainability action. •Participatory workshops increased understanding of activities and regimes. •Workshops used a novel combination of governance and social theories. •Results justify inclusive dialogue around building energy standards and transport options.

  9. On the Internal Structure of Spanish Verbless Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rivera, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation I discuss several aspects of the syntax, semantics and discourse properties of what I call Spanish verbless clauses -i.e. non-finite utterances with clausal properties: Spanish PredNP "muy listo este tio" "very intelligent this guy", Spanish PP complement clause "me sorprende lo caro del piso" "it amazes me how expensive this…

  10. 48 CFR 1823.570-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contracts containing the clause at 1852.246-70, “Mission Critical Space Systems Personnel Reliability... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 1823.570-2 Section 1823.570-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION...

  11. 48 CFR 1816.307-70 - NASA contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... officer may insert a clause substantially as stated at 1852.216-87, Submission of Vouchers for Payment, in... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 1816.307-70... clause at 1852.216-75, Payment of Fixed Fee, in cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts. Modifications to the...

  12. 48 CFR 536.570 - Supplemental provisions and clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental provisions and clauses. 536.570 Section 536.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses...

  13. Non-Trade Concerns in Interpreting General Exception Clauses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    This particular sub-clause allows members to take trade-restriction measures so as to protect public morals and this clause has been applied in the US-Gambling case. Here the US imposed a ban on internet gambling justifying its measure by raising the public moral exception and the panel was burdened with a huge task.

  14. 48 CFR 2115.071 - Specific retention periods: Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION 2115.071 Specific retention periods: Contract clause. Unless the... specified by FAR 52.215-2, “Audit—Negotiation,” the contracting officer shall also insert the clause at 2152...

  15. 48 CFR 227.7202-4 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7202-4 Contract clause. A specific contract clause governing the Government's rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation is not prescribed. As required by 227.7202-3, the Government's rights to use, modify, reproduce...

  16. 48 CFR 227.7203-6 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (other than computer software documentation), commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation, commercial items (see 227.7102-3), special works (see 227.7205), or contracts under... Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-6 Contract clauses. (a)(1) Use the clause at 252.227...

  17. 48 CFR 970.5201 - Text of provisions and clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Text of provisions and clauses. 970.5201 Section 970.5201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5201 Text of provisions and clauses. ...

  18. 48 CFR 538.7004 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and contract clauses. 538.7004 Section 538.7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING FEDERAL SUPPLY SCHEDULE CONTRACTING Cooperative... insert the clause at 552.238-79, Use of Federal Supply Schedule Contracts by Certain Entities—Cooperative...

  19. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 160 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FINANCIAL INFORMATION Pt. 160, App. B Appendix B to Part 160—Sample Clauses This appendix only applies to... clause is accurate for each institution that uses the notice. Note that disclosure of certain information... nonaffiliated third parties. A-1—Categories of Information You Collect (All Institutions) You may use this...

  20. 48 CFR 916.203-4 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.203-4 Section 916.203-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 916.203-4 Contract clauses. (d)(2) The...

  1. 48 CFR 922.103-5 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 922.103... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITION Basic Labor Policies 922.103-5 Contract clauses. In accordance with FAR 22.101-1(e) and FAR 22.103-5, the contracting officer shall insert the...

  2. 48 CFR 3427.472 - Advertising of awards clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising of awards... Copyrights 3427.472 Advertising of awards clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in 3452.227-72, Advertising of Awards, in all solicitations and contracts other than purchase orders. ...

  3. 48 CFR 225.7403-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performance or travel outside the United States, except for contracts with— (a) Foreign governments; (b..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Defense Contractors Outside the United States 225.7403-2 Contract clause. Use the clause at 252.225-7043, Antiterrorism/Force Protection Policy...

  4. 48 CFR 227.7102-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 227.7102..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7102-3 Contract clause. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, use the...

  5. 48 CFR 2011.104-70 - NRC Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Delivery or Performance Schedules-Contract Clauses 2011.104-70...) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 2052.211-72 Financial Status Report, in applicable cost reimbursement solicitations and contracts when detailed assessment of costs is warranted and a...

  6. Understanding Medical Students' Experience with Stress and Its Related Constructs: A Focus Group Study from Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Julia; Lie, Desiree; Chan, Angelique; Ow, Mandy; Vidyarthi, Arpana

    2018-02-01

    In order to protect medical students from burnout and its untoward psychiatric effects, it is imperative to understand their stress, burnout, coping, and resilience experiences. This study aimed to derive collective definitions from the medical student perspective, to identify common themes of students' experiences, and to distinguish pre-clinical and clinical year students' experiences relating to these four constructs. The authors conducted focus groups of medical students in Singapore across 4 years using a semi-structured question guide. Participants shared their understanding, experiences, and the relationships between stress, burnout, coping, and resilience. Coders independently evaluated construct definitions and derived common themes through an iterative process, and compared transcripts of pre-clinical and clinical year students to determine differences in experience over time. Nine focus groups (54 students, 28 females, mean age 24.3) were conducted. Students identified common definitions for each construct. Nine themes emerged within three domains: (1) relating constructs to personal experience, (2) interrelating stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, and (3) understanding the necessity of stress. Compared to clinical students, pre-clinical students reported theory-based rather than reality-based experiences and exam-induced stress, defined constructs using present rather than future situations, and described constructs as independent rather than interrelated. This sample of medical students in Singapore shares a common understanding of stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, but experiences these uniquely. They perceive a positive role for stress. These findings build upon prior literature, suggesting an interrelationship between stress and its related constructs and adding the novel perspective of students from an Asian country.

  7. Relational factors in understanding satisfaction in the lasting relationships of same sex and heterosexual couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Richard A; Diemer, Matthew A; O'Brien, Bernard A

    2004-01-01

    Satisfying relationships are important to the well-being of individuals and families. Because of increased longevity, many couples are staying together for extended periods of time. Thus, it is valuable to understand the factors that contribute to a sense of satisfaction among partners in lasting relationships. Relatively little attention has been paid in the research literature to relationships among older couples who have remained together for many years. Even less attention has been paid to the lasting relationships of couples of color and to gay male and lesbian couples. This paper focuses on understanding the factors that contribute to satisfaction of partners in the long-term relationships of a purposive sample of heterosexual and same-sex couples. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with 216 partners in 108 relationships that had lasted an average of 30 years. Using logistic regression analysis, two factors were identified as predictive of satisfaction during the recent years of these relationships: containment of relational conflict and psychologically intimate communication between partners. Based on these findings, a theoretical model for understanding satisfaction in lasting relationships is discussed.

  8. Understanding the Dialectical Relations Between Everyday Concepts and Scientific Concepts Within Play-Based Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2009-03-01

    In recent times there has been an enormous interest in Vygotsky’s writing on conceptual development, particularly his insights on the differences between everyday and scientific thinking. In drawing upon cultural-historical theory, this paper seeks to examine the relations between everyday concepts and scientific concepts within playful contexts, such as preschools, with a view to better understanding how very young children develop conceptual understandings in science. This paper presents an overview of a study which sought to map the transformation and appropriation of scientific concepts within two early childhood settings. Approximately ten weeks of data gathering took place, with video recordings, field notes, photographic documentation, and child and teacher interviews for recording child concept formation within these naturalistic settings. The findings indicate that when teacher programs are more oriented towards concepts rather than materials, children’s play is focused on conceptual connections. Importantly, the study showed that: It was possible to map the multiple and dynamic levels or stratas of thinking that a child or group of children may exhibit within play-based contexts; An analysis of ‘unorganised heaps’ and ‘complexive thinking’ evident in conceptually or materially oriented play-based programs can be determined; the dialectical relations between everyday concepts and scientific concepts in play-based programs can be understood; and greater understanding about the nature of concept formation in situated playful contexts have been possible.

  9. Mediation, moderation, and context: Understanding complex relations among cognition, affect, and health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Ellis, Erin M; Hall, Marissa G; Moss, Jennifer L; Lillie, Sarah E; Brewer, Noel T; Klein, William M P

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have historically treated cognition and affect as separate constructs in motivating health behaviour. We present a framework and empirical evidence for complex relations between cognition and affect in predicting health behaviour. Main Outcome, Design and Results: First, affect and cognition can mediate each other's relation to health behaviour. Second, affect and cognition can moderate the other's impact. Third, context can change the interplay of affect and cognition. Fourth, affect and cognition may be indelibly fused in some psychological constructs (e.g. worry, anticipated regret and reactance). These four propositions in our framework are not mutually exclusive. Examination of the types of complex relations described here can benefit theory development, empirical testing of theories and intervention design. Doing so will advance the understanding of mechanisms involved in regulation of health behaviours and the effectiveness of interventions to change health behaviours.

  10. Understanding and accounting for relational context is critical for social neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Polner, Elizabeth; Clark, Margaret S

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all) do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1) all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger), and (2) relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: (a) we describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others' emotions, providing help, and receiving help) that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. (b) We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research.

  11. Understanding and taking relational context into account is critical for social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eClark-Polner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1 all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger, and (2 relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: a We describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others’ emotions, providing help and receiving help that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. b We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research.

  12. Cascading hazards: Understanding triggering relations between wet tropical cyclones, landslides, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowinski, S.; Peng, Z.; Ferrier, K.; Lin, C. H.; Hsu, Y. J.; Shyu, J. B. H.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquakes, landslides, and tropical cyclones are extreme hazards that pose significant threats to human life and property. Some of the couplings between these hazards are well known. For example, sudden, widespread landsliding can be triggered by large earthquakes and by extreme rainfall events like tropical cyclones. Recent studies have also shown that earthquakes can be triggered by erosional unloading over 100-year timescales. In a NASA supported project, titled "Cascading hazards: Understanding triggering relations between wet tropical cyclones, landslides, and earthquake", we study triggering relations between these hazard types. The project focuses on such triggering relations in Taiwan, which is subjected to very wet tropical storms, landslides, and earthquakes. One example for such triggering relations is the 2009 Morakot typhoon, which was the wettest recorded typhoon in Taiwan (2850 mm of rain in 100 hours). The typhoon caused widespread flooding and triggered more than 20,000 landslides, including the devastating Hsiaolin landslide. Six months later, the same area was hit by the 2010 M=6.4 Jiashian earthquake near Kaohsiung city, which added to the infrastructure damage induced by the typhoon and the landslides. Preliminary analysis of temporal relations between main-shock earthquakes and the six wettest typhoons in Taiwan's past 50 years reveals similar temporal relations between M≥5 events and wet typhoons. Future work in the project will include remote sensing analysis of landsliding, seismic and geodetic monitoring of landslides, detection of microseismicity and tremor activities, and mechanical modeling of crustal stress changes due to surface unloading.

  13. Recent advances in understanding and treating COPD related to α1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao, Maria Paula; Craig, Timothy J

    2016-12-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an orphan disease that predisposes individuals to COPD and liver disease. The following is a comprehensive review of AATD from epidemiology to treatment for physicians who treat COPD or asthma. Areas covered: In this comprehensive review of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, we describe the historical perspective, genetics, epidemiology, clinical presentation and symptoms, screening and diagnosis, and treatments of the condition. Expert commentary: The two most important directions for advancing the understanding of AATD involve improving detection of the condition, especially in asymptomatic patients, and advancing knowledge of treatments directed specifically at AATD-related conditions. With regard to treatment for AATD-related conditions, research must continue to explore the implications and importance of augmentation therapy as well as consider new implementations that may prove more successful taking into consideration not only factors of pulmonary function and liver health, but also product availability and financial viability.

  14. Time to re-think picky eating?: a relational approach to understanding picky eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kathryn; Kuczynski, Leon; Haycraft, Emma; Breen, Andrea; Haines, Jess

    2017-05-05

    Estimates of picky eating are quite high among young children, with 14-50% of parents identifying their preschoolers as picky eaters. Dietary intake and preferences during the preschool years are characterized by slowing growth rates and children developing a sense of autonomy over their feeding and food selection. We argue that the current conceptualization of picky eating defines acts of resistance or expressions of preference (acts of autonomy) by a child as deviant behaviour. This conceptualization has guided research that uses a unidirectional, parent to child approach to understanding parent-child feeding interactions. By reviewing the current feeding literature and drawing parallels from the rich body of child socialization literature, we argue that there is a need to both re-examine the concept and parent/clinician perspectives on picky eating. Thus, the objective of this paper is two-fold: 1) We argue for a reconceptualization of picky eating whereby child agency is considered in terms of eating preferences rather than categorized as compliant or non-compliant behaviour, and 2) We advocate the use of bi-directional relational models of causality and appropriate methodology to understanding the parent-child feeding relationship. Researchers are often interested in understanding how members in the parent-child dyad affect one another. Although many tend to focus on the parent to child direction of these associations, findings from child socialization research suggest that influence is bidirectional and non-linear such that parents influence the actions and cognitions of children and children influence the actions and cognitions of parents. Bi-directional models of causality are needed to correctly understand parent-child feeding interactions. A reconceptualization of picky eating may elucidate the influence that parental feeding practices and child eating habits have on each other. This may allow health professionals to more effectively support parents in

  15. Elementary education preservice teachers' understanding of biotechnology and its related processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2011-07-01

    This study examined preservice teachers' understanding of biotechnology and its related processes. A sample comprised 88 elementary education preservice teachers at a large university in the Midwest of the USA. A total of 60 and 28 of the participants were enrolled in introductory and advanced science methods courses, respectively. Most participants had taken two integrated science courses at the college level. Data were collected using a questionnaire, which had open-ended items and which required participants to write the definitions and examples of the following terms: biotechnology, genetic engineering, cloning and genetically modified foods. The results indicate that preservice teachers had limited understanding of biotechnology and its related processes. The majority of the preservice teachers provided poor definitions, explanations, and examples of biotechnology, genetic engineering and genetically modified foods. Surprisingly, however, a moderate number of preservice teachers correctly defined cloning and provided correct examples of cloning. Implications for science teacher education, science curriculum, as well as recommendations for further research are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Natural syntax : English interrogative main clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Oresnik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural Syntax is a developing deductive theory, a branch of Naturalness Theory. The naturalnessjudgements are couched in naturalness scales, whichfollow from the basic parameters (or «axioms» listed at the beginning of the paper. The predictions of the theory are calculated in deductions, whose chief components are apair of naturalness scales and the rules governing the alignment of corresponding naturalness values. Parallel and chiastic alignments are distinguished, in complementary distribution. Chiastic alignment is mandatory in deductions limited to unnatural environments. The paper deals with English interrogative main clauses. Within these, only the interrogatives containing wh-words exclusively insitu constitute an extremely unnatural environment and require chiastic alignment. Otherwiseparallel alignment is used. Earlier publications on Natural Syntax: Kavcic 2005a,b, Oresnik 1999, 2000a,b, 200la-f   2002, 2003a-c, 2002/03, 2004. This list cites only works written in English.

  17. Formal verification of communication protocols using quantized Horn clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    The stochastic nature of quantum communication protocols naturally lends itself for expression via probabilistic logic languages. In this work we describe quantized computation using Horn clauses and base the semantics on quantum probability. Turing computable Horn clauses are very convenient to work with and the formalism can be extended to general form of first order languages. Towards this end we build a Hilbert space of H-interpretations and a corresponding non commutative von Neumann algebra of bounded linear operators. We demonstrate the expressive power of the language by casting quantum communication protocols as Horn clauses.

  18. Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

  19. Moral distress: a comparative analysis of theoretical understandings and inter-related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützén, Kim; Kvist, Beatrice Ewalds

    2012-03-01

    Research on ethical dilemmas in health care has become increasingly salient during the last two decades resulting in confusion about the concept of moral distress. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview and a comparative analysis of the theoretical understandings of moral distress and related concepts. The focus is on five concepts: moral distress, moral stress, stress of conscience, moral sensitivity and ethical climate. It is suggested that moral distress connects mainly to a psychological perspective; stress of conscience more to a theological-philosophical standpoint; and moral stress mostly to a physiological perspective. Further analysis indicates that these thoughts can be linked to the concepts of moral sensitivity and ethical climate through a relationship to moral agency. Moral agency comprises a moral awareness of moral problems and moral responsibility for others. It is suggested that moral distress may serve as a positive catalyst in exercising moral agency. An interdisciplinary approach in research and practice broadens our understanding of moral distress and its impact on health care personnel and patient care.

  20. Understanding of action-related and abstract verbs in comparison: a behavioral and TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Alessandro; De Stefani, Elisa; Sestito, Mariateresa; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    Does the comprehension of both action-related and abstract verbs rely on motor simulation? In a behavioral experiment, in which a semantic task was used, response times to hand-action-related verbs were briefer than those to abstract verbs and both decreased with repetition of presentation. In a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment, single-pulse stimulation was randomly delivered over hand motor area of the left primary motor cortex to measure cortical-spinal excitability at 300 or 500 ms after verb presentation. Two blocks of trials were run. In each block, the same verbs were randomly presented. In the first block, stimulation induced an increase in motor evoked potentials only when TMS was applied 300 ms after action-related verb presentation. In the second block, no modulation of motor cortex was found according to type of verb and stimulation-delay. These results confirm that motor simulation can be used to understand action rather than abstract verbs. Moreover, they suggest that with repetition, the semantic processing for action verbs does not require activation of primary motor cortex anymore.

  1. A Contextual Behavior Science Framework for Understanding How Behavioral Flexibility Relates to Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm Reed, Kathleen M; Cameron, Amy Y; Ameral, Victoria E

    2017-09-01

    There is a growing literature focusing on the emerging idea that behavioral flexibility, rather than particular emotion regulation strategies per se, provides greater promise in predicting and influencing anxiety-related psychopathology. Yet this line of research and theoretical analysis appear to be plagued by its own challenges. For example, middle-level constructs, such as behavioral flexibility, are difficult to define, difficult to measure, and difficult to interpret in relation to clinical interventions. A key point that some researchers have made is that previous studies examining flexible use of emotion regulation strategies (or, more broadly, coping) have failed due to a lack of focus on context. That is, examining strategies in isolation of the context in which they are used provides limited information on the suitability, rigid adherence, or effectiveness of a given strategy in that situation. Several of these researchers have proposed the development of new models to define and measure various types of behavioral flexibility. We would like to suggest that an explanation of the phenomenon already exists and that we can go back to our behavioral roots to understand this phenomenon rather than focusing on defining and capturing a new process. Indeed, thorough contextual behavioral analyses already yield a useful account of what has been observed. We will articulate a model explaining behavioral flexibility using a functional, contextual framework, with anxiety-related disorders as an example.

  2. Understanding HIV-Related Stigma Among Women in the Southern United States: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Caroline K; Hutson, Sadie P

    2017-01-01

    Societal stigmatization of HIV/AIDS due to assumptions about transmission and associated behaviors plays a substantial role in the psychosocial well-being of people living with this chronic illness, particularly for women in traditionally conservative geographic regions. Known for social conservatism, the Southern United States (US) holds the highest incidence rate of HIV infection in the US. A systematic search of four databases was used to identify 27 relevant scientific articles pertaining to HIV-related stigma among women living with HIV/AIDS in the Southern US. These studies revealed a rudimentary understanding of stigma sources, effects, and stigma-reduction interventions in this population. Due to the cultural specificity of stigma, further differentiation of stigma in discrete sectors of the South as well as a dialogue about the moral implications of stigma is necessary to lay the groundwork for patient-centered interventions to mitigate the destructive effects of stigma experienced by women in this region.

  3. 48 CFR 2109.409 - Certification and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR... negotiations. (b) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 2152.209-71 in all FEGLI Program contracts. ...

  4. 48 CFR 1503.500-72 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Responsibility To Avoid Improper Business Practices 1503.500-72 Contract clause. As required by EPAAR 1503.500-71(b), the contracting...

  5. 48 CFR 219.1204 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program 219.1204 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (c) The contracting officer shall, when contracting by negotiation, insert in solicitations and contracts containing...

  6. Development of preservice elementary teachers' science self- efficacy beliefs and its relation to science conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika

    Self-efficacy beliefs that relate to teachers' motivation and performance have been an important area of concern for preservice teacher education. This study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the changes in preservice elementary teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs and the factors associated in a specialized elementary physics content course. In addition, the study is one of few to investigate the relationship between the changes in science self-efficacy beliefs and changes in physical science conceptual understanding. Participants included fifty-one preservice elementary teachers enrolled in two term of the physical science content course. Data collection and analysis procedures included both qualitative and quantitative measures. Data collection included implementation of Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (STEBI-B) (Bleicher, 2004) and Physical Science Concept Test as pre- and post-test, two semi-structured interviews with 18 participants (nine each semester), classroom observations and artifacts. A pre-post, repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) design was used to test the significance of differences between the pre- and post-surveys across time. Results indicated statistically significant gains in participants' science self-efficacy beliefs on both scales of STEBI-B - personal science teaching beliefs and outcome expectancy beliefs. Additionally, a positive moderate relationship between science conceptual understandings and personal science teaching efficacy beliefs was found. Post-hoc analysis of the STEBI-B data was used to select 18 participants for interviews. The participants belonged to each group representing the low, medium and high initial levels of self-efficacy beliefs. Participants' responses indicated positive shifts in their science teacher self-image and confidence to teach science in future. Four categories that represented the course-related factors contributing towards science self

  7. PRINCIPLE OF AVAILABILITY IN THE MATTER OF THE REDUCIBILITY OF THE PENALTY CLAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria DUMITRU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Being receptive to doctrinaire advocacies prior to October 1st 2011 and taking into consideration the social and economical realities of the last decades, the Romanian legislator, in art. 1541 of the civil Code gives the court the power to reduce the evidently excessive penalty clause in relation to the prejudice that could have been foreseen by the parties at the date on which the contract was signed. Amid the silence of the legislator and taking into account the disposition right of the parties over the object of the civil trial, we propose to find whether the court can diminish the obviously excessive penalty clause only when invested with such request or whether this prerogative can be exercised ex officio.

  8. Mandatory arbitration clauses in the credit card industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Furletti

    2003-01-01

    On September 26, 2002, the Payment Cards Center of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia held a workshop that explored the use of mandatory arbitration clauses in credit card agreements between issuers and consumers. Leading the workshop was Alan S. Kaplinsky, chair of the Consumer Financial Services Group at Ballard Spahr Andrews & Ingersoll, LLP. A pioneer in the development of consumer arbitration clauses, Kaplinsky described the arbitration process as a conflict resolution mechanism in...

  9. Understanding gambling related harm: a proposed definition, conceptual framework, and taxonomy of harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langham, Erika; Thorne, Hannah; Browne, Matthew; Donaldson, Phillip; Rose, Judy; Rockloff, Matthew

    2016-01-27

    Harm from gambling is known to impact individuals, families, and communities; and these harms are not restricted to people with a gambling disorder. Currently, there is no robust and inclusive internationally agreed upon definition of gambling harm. In addition, the current landscape of gambling policy and research uses inadequate proxy measures of harm, such as problem gambling symptomology, that contribute to a limited understanding of gambling harms. These issues impede efforts to address gambling from a public health perspective. Data regarding harms from gambling was gathered using four separate methodologies, a literature review, focus groups and interviews with professionals involved in the support and treatment of gambling problems, interviews with people who gamble and their affected others, and an analysis of public forum posts for people experiencing problems with gambling and their affected others. The experience of harm related to gambling was examined to generate a conceptual framework. The catalogue of harms experienced were organised as a taxonomy. The current paper proposes a definition and conceptual framework of gambling related harm that captures the full breadth of harms that gambling can contribute to; as well as a taxonomy of harms to facilitate the development of more appropriate measures of harm. Our aim is to create a dialogue that will lead to a more coherent interpretation of gambling harm across treatment providers, policy makers and researchers.

  10. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  11. Applying Within-Family Differences Approaches to Enhance Understanding of the Complexity of Intergenerational Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suitor, J Jill; Gilligan, Megan; Pillemer, Karl; Fingerman, Karen L; Kim, Kyungmin; Silverstein, Merril; Bengtson, Vern L

    2017-12-15

    The role of family relationships in the lives of older adults has received substantial attention in recent decades. Scholars have increasingly looked beyond simple models of family relations to approaches that recognize the complex and sometimes contradictory nature of these ties. One of the most exciting conceptual and methodological developments is the application of within-family differences approaches. In this paper, we focus on the ways in which such within-family approaches can extend the understanding of patterns and consequences of intergenerational ties in adulthood. Following a review of the conceptual underpinnings of within-family differences approaches, we provide empirical illustrations of these approaches from three projects conducted in the United States: the Family Exchanges Study (FES), the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSOG), and the Within-Family Differences Study (WFDS). Analyses from the FES, LSOG, and WFDS reveal differences in the consequences of patterns of intergenerational relations found when using within-family compared to between-family approaches. In particular, these analyses demonstrate considerable variation within families that shapes patterns and consequences of parent-adult child ties that is masked when such variations are not taken into account. Within-family differences approaches have been shown to shed new light on intergenerational relations. Despite the value of within-family designs, their use may be limited by the higher investment of finances and time required to implement such studies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Integrative relational machine-learning for understanding drug side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresso, Emmanuel; Grisoni, Renaud; Marchetti, Gino; Karaboga, Arnaud Sinan; Souchet, Michel; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2013-06-26

    Drug side effects represent a common reason for stopping drug development during clinical trials. Improving our ability to understand drug side effects is necessary to reduce attrition rates during drug development as well as the risk of discovering novel side effects in available drugs. Today, most investigations deal with isolated side effects and overlook possible redundancy and their frequent co-occurrence. In this work, drug annotations are collected from SIDER and DrugBank databases. Terms describing individual side effects reported in SIDER are clustered with a semantic similarity measure into term clusters (TCs). Maximal frequent itemsets are extracted from the resulting drug x TC binary table, leading to the identification of what we call side-effect profiles (SEPs). A SEP is defined as the longest combination of TCs which are shared by a significant number of drugs. Frequent SEPs are explored on the basis of integrated drug and target descriptors using two machine learning methods: decision-trees and inductive-logic programming. Although both methods yield explicit models, inductive-logic programming method performs relational learning and is able to exploit not only drug properties but also background knowledge. Learning efficiency is evaluated by cross-validation and direct testing with new molecules. Comparison of the two machine-learning methods shows that the inductive-logic-programming method displays a greater sensitivity than decision trees and successfully exploit background knowledge such as functional annotations and pathways of drug targets, thereby producing rich and expressive rules. All models and theories are available on a dedicated web site. Side effect profiles covering significant number of drugs have been extracted from a drug ×side-effect association table. Integration of background knowledge concerning both chemical and biological spaces has been combined with a relational learning method for discovering rules which explicitly

  13. Patterns of adult cross-racial friendships: A context for understanding contemporary race relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Deborah L; Stone, Rosalie Torres; Powell, Lauren; Allison, Jeroan

    2016-10-01

    This study examined patterns, characteristics, and predictors of cross-racial friendships as the context for understanding contemporary race relations. A national survey included 1,055 respondents, of whom 55% were white, 32% were black, and 74% were female; ages ranged from 18 to ≥65 years. Focus groups were conducted to assess societal and personal benefits. Participants (n = 31) were racially diverse and aged 20 to 66 years. After accounting for multiple covariates, regression analysis revealed that Asians, Hispanics, and multiracial individuals are more likely than their white and black counterparts to have cross-racial friends. Females were less likely than males to have 8 or more cross-racial friends. Regression analysis revealed that the depth of cross-racial friendships was greater for women than men and for those who shared more life experiences. Increasing age was associated with lower cross-racial friendship depth. Qualitative analysis of open-ended questions and focus group data established the social context as directly relevant to the number and depth of friendships. Despite the level of depth in cross-racial friendships, respondents described a general reluctance to discuss any racially charged societal events, such as police shootings of unarmed black men. This study identified salient characteristics of individuals associated with cross-racial friendships and highlighted the influence of the social, historical, and political context in shaping such friendships. Our findings suggest that contemporary race relations reflect progress as well as polarization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Laypersons' understanding of relative risk reductions: Randomised cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansen Ivar S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing recognition of the importance of involving patients in decisions on preventive healthcare interventions, little is known about how well patients understand and utilise information provided on the relative benefits from these interventions. The aim of this study was to explore whether lay people can discriminate between preventive interventions when effectiveness is presented in terms of relative risk reduction (RRR, and whether such discrimination is influenced by presentation of baseline risk. Methods The study was a randomised cross-sectional interview survey of a representative sample (n = 1,519 of lay people with mean age 59 (range 40–98 years in Denmark. In addition to demographic information, respondents were asked to consider a hypothetical drug treatment to prevent heart attack. Its effectiveness was randomly presented as RRR of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 percent, and half of the respondents were presented with quantitative information on the baseline risk of heart attack. The respondents had also been asked whether they were diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia or had experienced a heart attack. Results In total, 873 (58% of the respondents consented to the hypothetical treatment. While 49% accepted the treatment when RRR = 10%, the acceptance rate was 58–60% for RRR>10. There was no significant difference in acceptance rates across respondents irrespective of whether they had been presented with quantitative information on baseline risk or not. Conclusion In this study, lay people's decisions about therapy were only slightly influenced by the magnitude of the effect when it was presented in terms of RRR. The results may indicate that lay people have difficulties in discriminating between levels of effectiveness when they are presented in terms of RRR.

  15. FOSTERING STUDENTS’ CLAUSE AWARENESS ON READING: The Exploration on Transitivity System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchamad Adam Basori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity to help students easily read English texts by observing content of the texts, which are construed in students’ world experience into limited set of processes type: material, mental, relational, behavioural, verbal and existential has confirmed the necessity of combating misunderstanding clause meanings (process, participant, circumstance. The notion of reading a text is manifested in the processes from a step-by-step lexico-grammatical analysis to contextual description, which are realised as a configuration of transitivity functions which represent the process, the participant situation, the attributes assigned to participant, and the circumstances associated with the process. These are typical patterns of lexico-grammatical realization. This study will examine the transitivity analysis, which provides the recognition of clause awareness on reading English texts. The implication of clause awareness on reading English texts based on the processes is to describe certain feeling, thought, and perception (perceiving through five senses and creating an ordered technical vocabulary and way of classifying the world.

  16. Complex Clause Syntax in the Italian Classroom – the Learners Between Transfer and Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Mertelj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When teaching Italian as a foreign language, learners’ insecurities about using conjunctions and tenses in subordinate clauses can be noticed very early. Temporality, relative temporality and modality are signalled by Italian verb forms which function in a largely different (or apparently similar way in comparison to Slovene. If ‘true’ similarities can be exploited in the process of teaching/learning by means of a positive transfer, apparent ‘similarities’ and ‘differences’ between the two language systems should, on the other hand, be clarified to avoid negative transfer (interference. During the whole learning process language awareness should be developed, also through contrastive insights into the linguistic systems concerned. Taking as a starting point a text suitable for level B1, some problematic points are presented, for which a series of tasks can be suggested with the aim of helping the learner master complex clause syntax and develop language awareness. Key words: Italian, foreign/second language, complex clause, syntax, transfer, language awareness

  17. Understanding the role of mind wandering in stress-related working memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan B; Boals, Adriel

    2017-08-01

    Mind wandering has been identified as a possible cause for stress-related working memory (WM) task impairments following laboratory stressors. The current study attempted to induce mind wandering regarding negative, positive, or neutral events using an expressive writing task and examined the impact on WM task performance. We examined the role of mind wandering in understanding the impact of life stress on WM. Additionally, we explored the role of thought suppression on the relationship between mind wandering and WM. One hundred and fifty participants completed WM measures before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) the writing manipulation. The writing manipulation did not alter mind wandering or WM task performance. Time 1 WM predicted mind wandering during the Time 2 WM task, which subsequently predicted poorer Time 2 WM task performance. The impact of daily life stress on WM was mediated by mind wandering. Trait levels of thought suppression moderated the impact of mind wandering on WM. Specifically, higher levels of suppression resulted in stronger negative impact of mind wandering on WM task performance. Findings are discussed in terms of the impact of mind wandering on WM task performance.

  18. How does undergraduate college biology students' level of understanding, in regard to the role of the seed plant root system, relate to their level of understanding of photosynthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeng'ere, James Gicheha

    This research study investigated how undergraduate college biology students' level of understanding of the role of the seed plant root system relates to their level of understanding of photosynthesis. This research was conducted with 65 undergraduate non-majors biology who had completed 1 year of biology at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge and Southeastern Louisiana University in Hammond. A root probe instrument was developed from some scientifically acceptable propositional statements about the root system, the process of photosynthesis, as well as the holistic nature of the tree. These were derived from research reviews of the science education and the arboriculture literature. This was administered to 65 students selected randomly from class lists of the two institutions. Most of the root probe's items were based on the Live Oak tree. An in-depth, clinical interview-based analysis was conducted with 12 of those tested students. A team of root experts participated by designing, validating and answering the same questions that the students were asked. A "systems" lens as defined by a team of college instructors, root experts (Shigo, 1991), and this researcher was used to interpret the results. A correlational coefficient determining students' level of understanding of the root system and their level of understanding of the process of photosynthesis was established by means of Pearson's r correlation (r = 0.328) using the SAS statistical analysis (SAS, 1987). From this a coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.104) was determined. Students' level of understanding of the Live Oak root system (mean score 5.94) was not statistically different from their level of understanding of the process of photosynthesis (mean score 5.54) as assessed by the root probe, t (129) = 0.137, p > 0.05 one tailed-test. This suggests that, to some degree, level of the root system limits level of understanding of photosynthesis and vice versa. Analysis of quantitative and qualitative

  19. Making Sense of Abstract Algebra: Exploring Secondary Teachers' Understandings of Inverse Functions in Relation to Its Group Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2017-01-01

    This article draws on semi-structured, task-based interviews to explore secondary teachers' (N = 7) understandings of inverse functions in relation to abstract algebra. In particular, a concept map task is used to understand the degree to which participants, having recently taken an abstract algebra course, situated inverse functions within its…

  20. Children’s understanding of Aesop’s fables: Relations to reading comprehension and theory of mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Patricia Pelletier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined children’s developing understanding of Aesop’s fables in relation to reading comprehension and to theory of mind. Study 1 included 172 children from Junior Kindergarten through Grade 6 in a school-wide examination of the relation between reading comprehension skills and understanding of Aesop’s fables told orally. Study 2 examined the relation between theory of mind and fables understanding among 186 Junior (4-year-old and Senior (5-year-old Kindergarten children. Study 1 results showed a developmental progression in fables understanding with children’s responses becoming increasingly decontextualized as they were able to extract the life lesson. After general vocabulary, passage comprehension predicted fables understanding. Study 2 results showed a relation between young children’s theory of mind development and their understanding of fables. After general vocabulary, second-order theory of mind predicted children’s fables understanding. Findings point to the importance of developing mental state awareness in children’s ability to judge characters’ intentions and to understand the deeper message embedded in fables.

  1. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interagency Fleet... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services. As prescribed in 51.205, insert the following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System...

  2. Children's understanding of cancer and views on health-related behaviour: a 'draw and write' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighting, K; Rowa-Dewar, N; Malcolm, C; Kearney, N; Gibson, F

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have explored young children's understanding of cancer and health-related behaviours yet this is essential to develop health promotion initiatives that build on young children's current knowledge levels and awareness. An exploratory descriptive design using the 'draw and write' technique was used to investigate children's views of cancer and health behaviours. The sample included 195 children aged eight to 11 years from five schools in deprived, affluent and rural locations in Scotland. When asked about cancer children demonstrated a good level of awareness by responding with text and drawings about the what they understood cancer to be; types of cancer; causes of cancer; what happens to people who have cancer; their personal experience of cancer and the emotions they associated with cancer. Older children, and children attending affluent schools, have more defined ideas about the causes of cancer and awareness of broader issues such as the risk of passive smoking or the potential impact on the family. Factors such as alcohol and illegal drugs were only reported by children attending schools in deprived locations. Children demonstrated considerable knowledge about healthy and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours; however, it is not clear whether this knowledge translates into their behaviours or the choices offered within their home environment. Children view cancer in a negative way from an early age, even without personal experience. There is a need to demystify cancer in terms of its causes, how to recognize it, how it is treated and to publicize improved survival rates. There is a need for targeted and developmentally appropriate approaches to be taken to health education in schools, with an awareness of the influence of the media on children's information. Strategies should take into consideration the socio-economic and cultural contexts of children's lives which influence their choices and behaviours. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. ESSENTIAL CLAUSES OF INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT - QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Gheorghe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the legal texts of the Labour Code which refers to the elements / clauses in individual employment contract and clarifying those that have been essential. Rules of the Labour Code which refer to the contents of the individual employment contract are not consistent. The texts of the La bour Code which refer to the essential and specific clauses in individual employment contract are art. 17 para. (1 - (3, art. 20 and art. 41-48. Also Order no. 64/2003 sets out the mandatory elements that must be included in the individual employment con tract, showing that through negotiation between the parties, the contract may include specific clauses under the law. The analysis is done in the light of the provisions of art. 1179 and art. 1185 of the Civil Code, as in common law. At the end of the stud y, we conclude that certain provisions were essential character to the conclusion of any individual employment contract, others result of the negotiation, have essential character only to the contracting parties, while certain clauses are essential for certain types of individual employment contracts . Finally, it is assessed and the consequences of lack of essential clauses and establish its content contrary to legal norms.

  4. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines

  5. How to start a V2 declarative clause: Transfer of syntax vs. information structure in L2 German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Bohnacker

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses V2 word order and information structure in Swedish, German and non-native German. Concentrating on the clause-initial position of V2 declaratives, the ‘prefield’, we investigate the extent of L1 transfer in a closely related L2. The prefield anchors the clause in discourse, and although almost any type of element can occur in this position, naturalistic text corpora of native Swedish and native German show distinct language-specific patterns. Certain types of elements are more common than others in clause-initial position, and their frequencies in Swedish differ substantially from German (subjects, fronted objects, certain adverbs. Nonnative cross-sectional production data from Swedish learners of German at beginner, intermediate and advanced levels are compared with native control data, matched for age and genre (Bohnacker 2005, 2006, Rosén 2006. The learners’ V2 syntax is largely targetlike, but their beginnings of sentences are unidiomatic. They have problems with the language-specific linguistic means that have an impact on information structure: They overapply the Swedish principle of “rheme later” in their L2 German, indicating L1 transfer at the interface of syntax and discourse pragmatics, especially for structures that are frequent in the L1 (subject-initial and expletive-initial clauses, and constructions with så (‘so’ and object det (‘it/that’.

  6. The exceptional clauses in the contractual activity on the public administration: freedom of choice or legislative imposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor David Osorio Moreno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The contracting activity of public administration in Colombia has generally allowed, by order of constitutional and legislative norms, the application of the principle of autonomy, so that those subjects within a public legal transaction can build and establish the conditions governing their contract. The scope of the principle of autonomy must be analyzed and subjected to reflection, especially considering the institution of exception clauses in common law used by State agencies and their legal relationship with contractors. The existence of exception clauses has been justified by the interests of the State (and in particular the public interest without strictly analyzing the essence of the figure. The application of this institution in contractual relations of the State has advanced greatly, but it is still uncertain if the true nature of the figure is caused by the autonomy of the parties in order to celebrate the contract, or if it comes as privileges conferred and imposed by the legislator as a way to concise the principle of legality. This paper concludes that exception clauses in common law, clearly applied in contractual activity within public administration, consist of special privileges imposed by the legislator to State entities, and are therefore opposed to the essence of the clause and the principle of autonomy.

  7. Temporal and co-varying clause combining in Austronesian languages : Semantics, morpho-syntax and distributional patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates combined clause constructions for ten distinct semantic relations in a cross-section of Austronesian languages. The relations are of a temporal or co-varying nature, the former commonly expressed in English by such markers as when, then, until, etc. and the latter by if, so, because, etc. The research falls into three main sections. First, the study provides an overview of the semantic domain covered by the relevant relations in the Austronesian languages. Several subd...

  8. Children's emotion understanding in relation to attachment to mother and father.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychogiou, Lamprini; Nath, Selina; Kallitsoglou, Angeliki; Dimatis, Konstantinos; Parry, Elizabeth; Russell, Abigail Emma; Yilmaz, Merve; Kuyken, Willem; Moberly, Nicholas J

    2018-03-02

    Although attachment plays a key role in children's socio-emotional development, little attention has been paid to the role of children's attachment to their father. This study examined whether insecure attachment to each parent was associated with reduced emotion understanding in children and whether children showed consistent attachments to their mother and father. We measured children's attachment to each parent using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task and child emotion understanding using the Test of Emotion Comprehension (children's M age  = 5.64 years, SD = 0.84). The results indicated that insecure father-child attachment and insecure mother-child attachment were each associated with lower emotion understanding in children after controlling for parent's depressive symptoms and children's age. There was significant concordance of child attachment to mother and father. The findings provide support for convergence of children's attachment across parents and suggest that father-child attachment is an important factor to consider when examining children's emotion understanding. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Secure mother-child attachment is positively associated with children's emotional competence. Children form similar representations of attachment to their mother and father. What the present study adds Both mother-child and father-child attachment are associated with children's emotion understanding. The study's findings highlight the importance of father-child attachment in their children's emotion understanding. The study provides support for concordance of children's attachment across parents. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

  10. Interpolant tree automata and their application in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the combination of abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with interpolant tree automata, in an abstraction-refinement scheme for Horn clause verification. These techniques have been previously applied separately, but are combined in a new way in this ......This paper investigates the combination of abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with interpolant tree automata, in an abstraction-refinement scheme for Horn clause verification. These techniques have been previously applied separately, but are combined in a new way...... clause verification problems indicates that the combination of interpolant tree automaton with abstract interpretation gives some increase in the power of the verification tool, while sometimes incurring a performance overhead....

  11. Beyond Cue Reactivity: Non-Drug-Related Motivationally Relevant Stimuli Are Necessary to Understand Reactivity to Drug-Related Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Deweese, Menton M; Robinson, Jason D; Green, Charles E; Lam, Cho Y; Minnix, Jennifer A; Karam-Hage, Maher A; Wetter, David W; Schembre, Susan M; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2017-06-01

    Neurobiological models of addiction posit that drug use can alter reward processes in two ways: (1) by increasing the motivational relevance of drugs and drug-related cues and (2) by reducing the motivational relevance of non-drug-related rewards. Here, we discuss the results from a series of neuroimaging studies in which we assessed the extent to which these hypotheses apply to nicotine dependence. In these studies, we recorded smokers’ and nonsmokers’ brain responses to a wide array of motivationally relevant visual stimuli that included pleasant, unpleasant, cigarette-related, and neutral images. Based on these findings, we highlight the flaws of the traditional cue reactivity paradigm and we conclude that responses to non-drug-related motivationally relevant stimuli should be used to appropriately gauge the motivational relevance of cigarette-related cues and to identify smokers attributing higher motivational relevance to drug-related cues than to non-drug-related rewards. Identifying these individuals is clinically relevant as they achieve lower rates of long-term smoking abstinence when attempting to quit. Finally, we show how this approach may be extended beyond nicotine dependence to inform theoretical and clinical research in the study of obesity. The cue reactivity paradigm (ie, comparing responses evoked by drug-related cues to those evoked by neutral cues) cannot provide conclusive information about the motivational relevance of drug-related cues. Responses to non-drug-related motivationally relevant stimuli should be used to appropriately gauge the level of motivational relevance that substance-dependent individuals attribute to drug-related cues. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. 136 | P a g e THE IMPERATIVE OF REMOVING IMMUNITY CLAUSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    2007-09-06

    Sep 6, 2007 ... Abstract. In this paper, the writer critically espoused the need to repeal immunity clause in section 308 of the. 1999 Constitution of Nigeria. This paper dealt with the import of such immunity clause in the grundnorm of the country, traced the history of immunity clause, and examined the jurisdictional.

  13. 48 CFR 1845.106-70 - NASA contract clauses and solicitation provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... list in the clause the applicable property user responsibilities. For purposes of this clause, NASA... to the Government. (d) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 1852.245-73, Financial Reporting of NASA Property in the Custody of Contractors, in cost reimbursement contracts unless all...

  14. 75 FR 32642 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ground and Flight Risk Clause (DFARS Case 2007...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... other loss, damage or destruction covered by this clause. (This exclusion does not apply to Government... 0750-AF72 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ground and Flight Risk Clause (DFARS Case... Supplement (DFARS) to revise and combine contract clauses addressing assumption of risk of loss under...

  15. 41 CFR 109-45.301-51 - Export/import clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export/import clause... § 109-45.301-51 Export/import clause. The following clause shall be included in all sales invitations.../import from/into the country where the personal property is located. If export/import is allowed, the...

  16. 48 CFR 1852.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 1852.301 Section 1852.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... and Clause Matrix 1852.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). ...

  17. 48 CFR 52.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 52.301 Section 52.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... and Clause Matrix 52.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). Note: The FAR matrix...

  18. 48 CFR 1823.271 - NASA Solicitation provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA Solicitation provision and contract clause. 1823.271 Section 1823.271 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Renewable Energy 1823.271 NASA Solicitation provision and contract clause. Insert the clause at 1852.223-76...

  19. 48 CFR 1836.570 - NASA solicitation provisions and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA solicitation provisions and contract clause. 1836.570 Section 1836.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 1836.570 NASA solicitation provisions and contract clause. (a) The contracting...

  20. Cancer-Related Genetic Testing and Personalized Medicine for Adolescents: A Narrative Review of Impact and Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetsch, Janine; Wakefield, Claire E; Warby, Meera; Tucker, Katherine; Patterson, Pandora; McGill, Brittany C; Metcalfe, Alison; Cohn, Richard J; Fardell, Joanna E

    2018-01-16

    Genetic testing is becoming increasingly available for adolescents who are undergoing cancer treatment or at risk of cancer predisposition syndromes. With this narrative review, we aimed to synthesize the evidence on psychosocial outcomes and adolescents' understanding of genetic testing-thus far, an underresearched topic. Both psychological benefits and harms of predictive testing were reported in adolescents from high-risk families. Harms were mainly related to cancer-specific distress and increased worries. Findings on genetic understanding were sparse. Future studies should focus on psychosocial outcomes and adolescents' understanding undergoing genetic testing and enabling access to genetic counseling pre-testing and post-testing.

  1. Rural Elementary Students' Understanding of Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks Related to Meat and Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meischen, Deanna L.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2003-01-01

    Seven fifth-graders developed concept maps depicting their knowledge of meat product development. Despite their rural background, they lacked understanding of agriculture concepts and had mixed knowledge of agricultural literacy benchmarks concerning food products. Their language did not reflect scientific terminology in the benchmarks. (Contains…

  2. Preschoolers' Implicit and Explicit False-Belief Understanding: Relations with Complex Syntactical Mastery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Three studies were carried out to investigate sentential complements being the critical device that allows for false-belief understanding in 3- and 4-year-olds (N = 102). Participants across studies accurately gazed in anticipation of a character's mistaken belief in a predictive looking task despite erring on verbal responses for direct…

  3. Determination of Factors Related to Students' Understandings of Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationships between high school students' learning approaches and logical thinking abilities and their understandings of heat, temperature and internal energy concepts. Learning Approach Questionnaire, Test of Logical Thinking and Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Test were used…

  4. Managing Resources and Relations in Higher Education Institutions: A Framework for Understanding Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sophia Shi-Huei; Peng, Michael Yao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Changes in social systems demonstrate that various structural disadvantages have jointly led to increasing competition among higher education institutions (HEIs) in many countries, especially Taiwan. Institutional administrators must recognize the need to understand how to improve performance and consistently outperform other institutions.…

  5. Effectiveness of Understanding Relations between Community, Home, and School for Future Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Claudia; Galaviz, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    As educators committed to preparing teachers to teach effectively across differences and in ways that actively resist perpetuating injustices, we have found that designing opportunities that take teachers into the children's community is the best way to learn about the cultural wealth existing in homes and to understand the importance of including…

  6. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Climate Change and the Chemistry Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versprille, Ashley N.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    While much is known about secondary students' perspectives of climate change, rather less is known about undergraduate students' perspectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. Findings that emerged from the analysis of the 24 interviews indicate that…

  7. Expanded Understanding of IS/IT Related Challenges in Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppenberg, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Organizational Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As) occur at an increasingly frequent pace in today’s business life. Paralleling this development, M&As has increasingly attracted attention from the Information Systems (IS) domain. This emerging line of research has started form an understanding...

  8. Toward a better understanding of the relation between music preference, listening behavior, and personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunn, P.G.; Ruyter, B.E.R. de; Bouwhuis, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research relating personality and music preferences has often measured such reported preferences according to genre labels. To support previous research, the current paper has expanded investigation of the relation between personality and music preferences to include direct measurement of

  9. Understanding Vehicle Related Crime to Elaborate on Countermeasures Based on ADAS and V2X Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapik, Peter; Schoch, Elmar; Müller, Maik; Kargl, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Among numerous types of criminal activities, vehicle related crime contributes to personal injury as well as to economic losses. Over the last 10 years vehicle related crime continuously constitutes over 10% of all crime in Germany. However, vehicle related crime is not particularly a German

  10. The Relevance of the Social Information Processing Model for Understanding Relational Aggression in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Marcelle M.; Finch, Cambra L.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined whether social information-processing variables predict relational aggression in girls. In Study 1, fourth- through sixth-grade girls reported their intent attributions, social goals, outcome expectancies for relational aggression, and the likelihood that they would choose a relationally aggressive response in response to…

  11. Understanding heavy-oil molecular functionality and relations to fluid properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, S.I. [Schlumberger, DBR Technology Center, Edmonton AB (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, knowing oil properties is important to optimizing recovery, transport and refinery. Nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen compounds (NSOs) have an important impact on these properties but this is often overlooked. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of functional groups in connection with heavy oil and asphaltenes. Experiments were carried out with asphaltenes altered by chemical surgery that removed specific functional interactions. Titration calorimetry and fluorescence spectroscopy were then done. Results highlighted the fact that functional groups are of key importance in the determination of heavy oil properties and that acidity can be considered the most important interaction. This paper demonstrated that the determination of specific interactions could be more important in assessing heavy oil properties than understanding their hydrocarbon structure; further work is needed to fully understand the role of sulfur and nitrogen species.

  12. Standpoint: Using Bourdieu to Understand IE and the Researcher's Relation with Knowledge Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, James

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter I highlight the need to turn the IE lens of enquiry onto IE itself and consequently the importance for institutional; ethnographers to attend to their standpoint in taking up and activating their understanding IE. Many, including Wise and Stanley (1990) and Walby (2007), celebrate Smith’s sociology but raise important ontological and epistemological questions about IE’s own recursive power. While IE has developed from a critique of wider sociological inquiry it is troubled by ...

  13. Mood Selection in Relative Clauses: Interfaces and Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Claudia; de Garavito, Joyce Bruhn; Prévost, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    There is presently a lively debate in second language (L2) acquisition research as to whether (adult) learners can acquire linguistic phenomena located at the interface between syntax and other modules, such as semantics, pragmatics, and lexical semantics, in contrast to phenomena that are purely syntactic in nature. For some researchers, the…

  14. Age and Task-Related Effects on Young Children's Understanding of a Complex Picture Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Denyse; Schneider, Phyllis; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examined age- and task-related effects in story schema knowledge across an independent narrative task (story formulations) and a supported narrative task (answering questions). We also examined age-related changes to questions about the story as a whole. Participants were typically developing English-speaking children aged 4, 5,…

  15. Understanding HIV-Related Stigma and Discrimination in a "Blameless" Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaobin; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Xu, Jie; Wu, Zunyou

    2006-01-01

    HIV-related stigma and discrimination are major barriers to the successful control of HIV. Stigma is associated with the disease as well as the behaviors that lead to infection. A qualitative study was conducted to identify the reasons, sources, and types of HIV-related stigma prevalent in rural China. Eighty in-depth interviews were conducted…

  16. Understanding work-related social media use: An extension of theory of planned behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express

  17. Organizational Justice as a Framework for Understanding Union-Management Relations in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Wendy L.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I have conceptualized union-management relations using an organizational justice framework. I consider organizational justice theory, including distributive, procedural, interactional, and what I call relational justice perspectives. Utilizing examples from my experience and research, I illustrate and discuss various forms of…

  18. How Hypertext Reading Sequences Affect Understanding of Causal and Temporal Relations in Story Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakami, Jacqueline; Krems, Josef F.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the comprehension of global causal and temporal relations between events that are represented in single hypertext documents. In two experiments we examined how reading sequences of hypertext nodes affects the establishment of event relations and how this process can be supported by advanced organizers that…

  19. Application of a Relational Model to Understanding Body Image in College Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanftner, Jennifer L.; Ryan, William J.; Pierce, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Relational cultural theory was examined in relation to body image in two samples of college women (n = 102) and men (n = 78) from a Midwestern university. Participants completed measures of mutuality and body image satisfaction. Results revealed that low mutuality with mothers and fathers predicted body dissatisfaction in both men and women, and…

  20. Understanding and Using the Relationships between Business and Professional Communication and Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrose, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of research and pedagogy from the public relations discipline can benefit the business and professional communication instructor seeking new dimensions for the business and professional communication classroom. Elements of public relations (PR) found in Association for Business Communication articles and journals may be incorporated in the…

  1. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Difficulties in Understanding Special Relativity Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü Yavas, Pervin; Kizilcik, Hasan Sahin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the reasons why pre-service physics teachers have difficulties related to special relativity topics. In this study conducted with 25 pre-service physics teachers, the case study method, which is a qualitative research method, was used. Interviews were held with the participants about their reasons for…

  2. Understanding Work-Related Stress and Practice of Professional Self-Care--An Innovative Pedagogical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    Social workers experience tremendous work-related stress--particularly among those providing direct services in healthcare settings. A review of related literature summarized several critical challenges faced by social workers who work with highly difficult clients in these settings, including (a) clients who engage in manipulative high-risk…

  3. Applying GPS to enhance understanding of transport-related physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Badland, Hannah M; Mummery, W Kerry

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the paper is to review the utility of the global positioning system (GPS) in the study of health-related physical activity. The paper draws from existing literature to outline the current work performed using GPS to examine transport-related physical activity, with a focus on the relative utility of the approach when combined with geographic information system (GIS) and other data sources including accelerometers. The paper argues that GPS, especially when used in combination with GIS and accelerometery, offers great promise in objectively measuring and studying the relationship of numerous environmental attributes to human behaviour in terms of physical activity and transport-related activity. Limitations to the use of GPS for the purpose of monitoring health-related physical activity are presented, and recommendations for future avenues of research are discussed.

  4. Horn clause verification with convex polyhedral abstraction and tree automata-based refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations...... underlying the Horn clauses. Experiments using linear constraint problems and the abstract domain of convex polyhedra show that the refinement technique is practical and that iteration of abstract interpretation with tree automata-based refinement solves many challenging Horn clause verification problems. We...... compare the results with other state-of-the-art Horn clause verification tools....

  5. Tree automata-based refinement with application to Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations...... underlying the Horn clauses. Experiments using linear constraint problems and the abstract domain of convex polyhedra show that the refinement technique is practical and that iteration of abstract interpretation with tree automata-based refinement solves many challenging Horn clause verification problems. We...... compare the results with other state of the art Horn clause verification tools....

  6. 48 CFR 1239.70 - Solicitation provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 1252.239-71, Information Technology Security Plan and Accreditation, and the clause at (TAR) 48 CFR 1252.239-70, Security Requirements for Unclassified Information Technology Resources, in all... TRANSPORTATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 1239.70...

  7. 48 CFR 16.203-4 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract is contemplated. (ii) There is no major element of design engineering or development work involved... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 16.203-4 Section 16.203-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS...

  8. 48 CFR 1816.406-70 - NASA contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the end of the contract. When the clause is used in a fixed-price award fee contract, it shall be modified by deleting references to base fee in paragraphs (a), and by deleting paragraph (c)(1), the last... substantially as stated at 1852.216-83, Fixed Price Incentive, in fixed-price-incentive solicitations and...

  9. 48 CFR 516.203-4 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... period or reference point from which changes will be measured; and (iv) The period during which the price... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed Price Contracts 516.203-4 Contract clauses. (a... required by FAR 16.203-3, use 552.216-71, Economic Price Adjustment Special Order Program Contracts, or a...

  10. 48 CFR 235.072 - Additional contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... involving research on live vertebrate animals. (b) Use the clause at 252.235-7003, Frequency Authorization... 252.235-7011, Final Scientific or Technical Report, in solicitations and contracts for research and... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 235...

  11. 48 CFR 3042.202-70 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Administration Services 3042.202-70 Contract clause. The contracting officer may insert... contracts with educational institutions, the contracting officer may instead use (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.235-70...

  12. Constitutional immunity clause and the fight against corruption in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some scholars canvass for the removal of the immunity clause because its retention, they argue, appears ironic in view of the stance of the government to rid governance of corrupt practices, including misappropriation of public funds. Others have called for its retention while another set of scholars further ask that it be ...

  13. 48 CFR 411.171 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provision at 452.211-70, Brand Name or Equal, in solicitations, other than those for construction, where “brand name or equal” purchase descriptions are used. (b) Contracting officers shall insert the clause at..., Attachment to Statement of Work/Specifications, when there are attachments to the description (statement of...

  14. 48 CFR 538.7104 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the clause at 552.238-76, Definition (Federal Supply Schedules)—Recovery Purchasing, in Federal Supply... Homeland Security to facilitate recovery from major disasters, terrorism, or nuclear, biological, chemical... recovery from major disasters, terrorism, or nuclear, biological, chemical, or radiological attack. (c) The...

  15. 48 CFR 1403.570-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 1403.570-3 Section 1403.570-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 1403.570-3...

  16. 48 CFR 3.503-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 3.503-2 Section 3.503-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 3.503-2 Contract...

  17. 48 CFR 3.502-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 3.502-3 Section 3.502-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 3.502-3 Contract...

  18. 48 CFR 503.570-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 503.570-2 Section 503.570-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 503.570-2 Contract...

  19. THE EFFICACY OF THE ARBITRATION CLAUSE IN A SIMULATED ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Vlad RĂDULESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the effects that an arbitration clause can still produce when it is contained in a simulated operation, whether it is in the apparent act or in the secret one, depending on the forms of simulation.

  20. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 40 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... illustrative examples, such as “mortgage bankers, securities broker-dealers, and insurance agents”]; • Non... permitted by law. A-5—Service provider/joint marketing exception A bank may use one of these clauses, as... information to companies that perform marketing services on our behalf or to other financial institutions with...

  1. 17 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “mortgage bankers, securities broker-dealers, and insurance agents”]; • Non-financial companies, such as... Provider/Joint Marketing Exception You may use one of these clauses, as applicable, to meet the... perform marketing services on our behalf or to other financial institutions with which we have joint...

  2. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 573 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... “mortgage bankers, securities broker-dealers, and insurance agents”]; • Non-financial companies, such as...—Service provider/joint marketing exception You may use one of these clauses, as applicable, to meet the... perform marketing services on our behalf or to other financial institutions with whom we have joint...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 216 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... “mortgage bankers, securities broker-dealers, and insurance agents”]; • Non-financial companies, such as... provider/joint marketing exception You may use one of these clauses, as applicable, to meet the... perform marketing services on our behalf or to other financial institutions with whom we have joint...

  4. Judicial construction of termination clauses of employment contracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The review revealed that the principles applied by the Supreme Court to construe termination clauses are principles of contract law developed by the courts over the years. These principles are underpinned by theoretical assumptions that do not distinguish between pure commercial contracts and employment contracts, ...

  5. 43 CFR 34.6 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... project labor agreement which may be entered into between the applicants and any union must be consistent... opportunity clause. Each certificate, permit, right-of-way, lease, or other Federal authorization to which... opportunity terms; and to notify interested individuals, such as bidders, contractors, purchasers, and labor...

  6. 48 CFR 815.304-71 - Solicitation provision and clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 815.304-71..., Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned and Veteran-Owned Small Business Evaluation Factors, in competitively... include VAAR clause 852.215-70, Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned and Veteran-Owned Small Business Evaluation...

  7. 48 CFR 511.204 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Schedule containing information technology Special Item Numbers; or (ii) Federal Supply Schedules for... contracting officer shall include the clause 552.211-92, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) using Passive... Consolidated Products and Services Schedule containing information technology Special Item Numbers; or (2...

  8. 48 CFR 225.7011-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... granted, use the clause at 252.225-7030, Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel..., or armor steel plate that will be used in a Government-owned facility or a facility under the control... control of DoD to purchase carbon, alloy, or armor steel plate. [68 FR 15627, Mar. 31, 2003, as amended at...

  9. 48 CFR 516.506 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 516.506... items, when the contract authorizes FAS and other activities to issue delivery or task orders, insert the clause at 552.216-72, Placement of Orders. If only FAS will issue delivery or task orders, insert...

  10. 48 CFR 237.7101 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contracts for laundry and dry cleaning services to be provided on a count-of-articles basis. (d) Use the clause at 252.237-7015, Loss or Damage (Weight of Articles), in solicitations and contracts for laundry... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provisions...

  11. Advancing Understanding on Industrial Relations in Multinational Companies: Key Research Challenges and the INTREPID Contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnigle, Patrick; Valeria, Pulignano; Edwards, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This paper has three principal aims. It firstly provides some theoretical background on the key current research issues and challenges in regard to industrial relations in multinational companies. It then presents a concise review of scholarship to date on industrial relations in multinational...... companies using INTREPID (Investigation of Transnationals’ Employment Practices: an International Database) data. Finally, the paper identifies some of the main industrial relations issues that remain to be addressed, in effect charting a form of research agenda for future work using the INTREPID data...

  12. Understanding the gender differences in pathways to social deviancy: relational aggression and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Bonnie H

    2010-02-01

    This study explored the associations among childhood emotion regulation, overt aggression, relational aggression, and adolescent deviant social behaviors. Data were drawn from the Family Health Project, a longitudinal study conducted over 4 years. The sample consisted of 111 children at Time 1 who ranged in age from 51/2 to 12 years at Time 1 and 8 to 14 years at Time 3. A significant finding was that, for girls, lower emotion regulation predicted later relational aggression (beta = -2.95, P skills coupled with relational aggression were associated with deviant social behaviors. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding IMF Bz and Space Weather Relations Near Geomagnetic Equator Related to Non-Radial Solar Wind Flows (P35)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, F.; Girish, T. E.

    2006-11-01

    We have reported earlier some new results related to the seasonal and solar cycle changes in the north-south component of IMF (Bz) observed near 1 A.U. A relationship between geomagnetic activity and non-radial solar wind flows were reported recently. In this connection, we are planning some studies for IHY 2007. We propose to identify non-radial flow structures in the interplanetary medium using IPS observations and predict the associated IMF Bz structures. The effect of geomagnetic storms near magnetic equator associated with non-radial solar wind flows will be studied using magnetometer observations in Trivandrum.

  14. Understanding Health and Health-Related Behavior of Users of Internet Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimble, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about how actual use of Internet health-related information is associated with health or health-related behavior. Using a nationally representative sample of 34,525 from 2012, this study examined the demographics of users of Internet health-related information (users), reports estimates of association with several health and behavioral outcomes adjusting for demographic factors, and analyzed the sample by education level, race, gender, and age. Analysis of a large nationally representative sample shows evidence that users of health-related information (users) on the Internet are younger, more educated, more likely to be insured, more likely to be female, and less likely to be African American. After adjusting for demographic differences, users are more likely to have been diagnosed with hypertension, cancer, stroke, and high cholesterol, but no evidence of current hypertension, weight-related issues, or being in fair or poor health. Users are less likely to smoke and among smokers are more likely to attempt quitting. Users are more likely to exercise, get a flu shot, pap smear, mammogram, HIV test, colon cancer screening, blood pressure check, and cholesterol check, but likely to be heavy drinkers. With few exceptions, results appear robust across gender, age groups, level of education, and ethnicity. Use is generally positively associated with prior diagnosis for several conditions and behaviors related to improved health, but I find no relationship with existing health status. The association between use of health-related Internet information and health-related behavior seems robust across levels of education, age, gender, and race.

  15. Student Understanding of the First Law of Thermodynamics: Relating Work to the Adiabatic Compression of an Ideal Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loverude, Michael E.; Kautz, Christian H.; Heron, Paula R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of student understanding of the first law of thermodynamics. Involves students from a first-year university physics course and a second-year thermal physics course. Focuses on the ability of students to relate the first law to the adiabatic physics course. Discusses implications for thermal physics and mechanics…

  16. Addressing Pre-Service Teachers' Understandings and Difficulties with Some Core Concepts in the Special Theory of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and…

  17. "Understanding my ALS". Experiences and reflections of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives on participation in peer group rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    with joint inclusion of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives. Implications for Rehabilitation Peer group rehabilitation may facilitate an increased and personalised understanding of what it means to live with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A programme design with six months of sequential...

  18. Applying linguistic methods to understanding smoking-related conversations on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Brown, Cati G; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-03-01

    Social media, such as Twitter, have become major channels of communication and commentary on popular culture, including conversations on our nation's leading addiction: tobacco. The current study examined Twitter conversations following two tobacco-related events in the media: (1) President Obama's doctor announcing that he had quit smoking and (2) the release of a photograph of Miley Cyrus (a former Disney child star) smoking a cigarette. With a focus on high-profile individuals whose actions can draw public attention, we aimed to characterise tobacco-related conversations as an example of tobacco-related public discourse and to present a novel methodology for studying social media. Tweets were collected 11-13 November 2011 (President Obama) and 1-3 August 2011 (Miley Cyrus) and analysed for relative frequency of terms, a novel application of a linguistic methodology. The President Obama data set (N=2749 tweets) had conversations about him quitting tobacco as well as a preponderance of information on political activity, links to websites, racialised terms and mention of marijuana. Websites and terms about Obama's smoke-free status were most central to the conversation. In the Miley Cyrus data (N=4746 tweets), terms that occurred with the greatest relative frequency were positive, emotional and supportive of quitting (eg, love, and please), with words such as 'love' most central to the conversation. People are talking about tobacco-related issues on Twitter, and semantic network analysis can be used to characterise on-line conversations. Future interventions may be able to harness social media and major current events to raise awareness of smoking-related issues. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Consequence clauses with a meaning of measure and degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Marina M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a new classification of consequence clauses that is based on a category of degree. Based on that parameter, consequence clauses are classified into the ones that have a meaning of degree and the ones that don’t have that meaning. Furthemore, consequence clauses with a meaning of degree can be divided into the clauses with a meaning of measure (Napolju je toliko hladno da smo se odmah vratili iz šetnje./It is so cold outside that we had to return immediately back; On je takav prevarant, da će te sigurno preći/ He is such a chouse - he will cheat for sure. and into excessive clauses (Previše je debela da uđe u tu haljinu/ She is too fat to fit in this dress; Devojčica je premalena da ostane sama kod kuće/ The girl is too small to stay at home alone; Buka je bila dovoljna da natera dete u plač/The noise was loud enough to cause the baby cry. The article provides the arguments that the category of degree in this sentences is grammaticalized with the help of certain modifiers and a conjunction of result da. The author applies the onomasiological method in the analysis and uses the theory of semantic locations. An existence of certain meanings is confirmed by the transformational test. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178021: Opis i standardizacija savremenog srpskog jezika, potprojekat: Sintaksa složene rečenice

  20. Understanding drug-related mortality in released prisoners: a review of national coronial records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Jessica Y

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prisoner population is characterised by a high burden of disease and social disadvantage, and ex-prisoners are at increased risk of death following release. Much of the excess mortality can be attributed to an increased risk of unnatural death, particularly from drug overdose; however, relatively few studies have investigated the circumstances surrounding drug-related deaths among released prisoners. This study aimed to explore and compare the circumstances of death for those who died from accidental drug-related causes to those who died from all other reportable causes. Methods A nationwide search of the Australian National Coroners Information System (NCIS was conducted to identify reportable deaths among ex-prisoners from 2000 to 2007. Using a structured coding form, NCIS records for these cases were interrogated to explore causes and circumstances of death. Results Coronial records for 388 deceased ex-prisoners were identified. Almost half of these deaths were a result of accidental drug-related causes (45%. The majority of accidental drug-related deaths occurred in a home environment, and poly-substance use at or around the time of death was common, recorded in 72% of drug-related deaths. Ex-prisoners who died of accidental drug-related causes were on average younger and less likely to be Indigenous, born in Australia, married, or living alone at or around the time of death, compared with those who died from all other reportable causes. Evidence of mental illness or self-harm was less common among accidental drug-related deaths, whereas evidence of previous drug overdose, injecting drug use, history of heroin use and history of drug withdrawal in the previous six months were more common. Conclusions Drug-related deaths are common among ex-prisoners and often occur in a home (vs. public setting. They are often associated with use of multiple substances at or around the time of death, risky drug-use patterns, and even

  1. Do Science and Common Wisdom Collide or Coincide in their Understanding of Relational Aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Heather S; McLoughlin, Caven S

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression is a form of covert or indirect aggression or bullying in which harm is caused through damage to relationships or social status within a group, rather than through physical violence. We compare findings from empirical research into relational aggression with the depictions, interpretations and interventions described in trade-books and popular media dealing with that same topic. Relational aggression is more common and more studied among girls than boys and is popularly described as synonymous with "mean-girl" behaviors. We investigate the degree that popular trade books and movies accurately portray findings from researched investigations including the incidence and indicators of the condition and its remedies. We determine that there is a great deal of similarity between these two sources in how relational aggression is understood and how it may be treated. The concurrence across both dissemination formats reflects terminology and definitions, the harmful effects of relational aggression, the gender-specific nature of the condition to women and girls, its age of occurrence, the impact of parenting styles, its relationship to girls' social competence, and nature of its expression through non-physical means.

  2. Understanding relationships between diabetes mellitus and health-related quality of life in a rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thommasen, Harvey V; Berkowitz, Jonathan; Thommasen, Amy T; Michalos, Alex C

    2005-01-01

    There is a lack of information on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for Aboriginal diabetic people. To investigate HRQOL among aboriginal diabetics living in an isolated, rural Canadian community. Mixed methods: (1) A mailed health-related survey; and (2) a population based retrospective chart review. People aged 17 years and older living in the Bella Coola Valley, British Columbia, Canada, and having a chart at the Bella Coola Medical Clinic as of September 2001 were asked to complete a detailed HRQOL survey during the period August to December 2001. Demographics (age, sex, ethnicity). Health-related quality of life was measured using the MOS 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the US Centers for Disease Control healthy day's items. Relatively greater percentages of diabetic people (n = 72 [57%]) completed the survey than did non-diabetics (n = 675 [37%]). Mean scores for Aboriginal people were lower/poorer than mean scores for non-Aboriginal people in all the quality of life questions. Mean scores for diabetic people were lower than mean scores for non-diabetics in all the quality of life questions. Aboriginal diabetics reported the worst scores on almost all of our quality of life questions. Rural diabetics experience significant impairment in their health-related quality of life. Among rural diabetics, Aboriginals report the worst HRQOL scores. Compared with other people, Aboriginals fare worse in HRQOL, which may explain the difference.

  3. A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, T.B.; Gould, W.A.; Graham, R.T.; Pilliod, D.S.; Lentile, L.B.; Gonzalez, G.

    2008-01-01

    Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and develop an integrated soil burn severity index. The soil burn severity index provides a set of indicators that reflect the range of conditions present after a fire. The index consists of seven levels, an unburned level and six other levels that describe a range of postfire soil conditions. We view this index as a tool for understanding the effects of fires on the forest floor, with the realization that as new information is gained, the index may be modified as warranted. ?? Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2008.

  4. Cross-cultural study: experience, understanding of menopause, and related therapies in Australian and Laotian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare symptom experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies in Australian and Laotian women. This was a cross-cultural, questionnaire-based study involving 108 women (56 Australian women and 52 Laotian women aged 40-65 y) attending outpatient clinics in Australia and Laos. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were conducted using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test, where appropriate. Psychological symptoms, depression, vasomotor symptoms, and sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in Australian women compared with Laotian women (P menopause as aging (57%), whereas most Laotian women reported not knowing what menopause meant to them (81%). Australian women's fears about menopause included weight gain (43%), aging (41%), and breast cancer (38%), whereas Laotian women reported not knowing about potential menopausal problems (85%). Exercise (55%), education and awareness (46%), and improving lifestyle (41%) were reported by Australian women as being effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms, with only 21% reporting not knowing what was effective compared with 83% of Laotian women. Many women reported not knowing the risks/benefits of hormonal therapies (50% of Australian women and 87% of Laotian women) and herbal therapies (79% of Australian women and 92% of Laotian women). General practitioners were the most common source of menopause information for both Australians (73%) and Laotians (67%). Sociocultural factors influence women's perception of menopause. Psychological symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and vasomotor symptoms are more commonly reported by Australian women than by Laotian women. Women have a limited understanding of the risks/benefits of menopausal therapies, and culturally appropriate education is needed.

  5. Mediated intimacy in families: understanding the relation between children and parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsggaard, Thomas; Skov, Mikael B.; Stougaard, Malthe

    2006-01-01

    Mediating intimacy between children and their parents is still limited investigated and at the same time, we find that, emerging technologies are about to change and affect the way we interact with each other. In this paper, we report from an empirical study where we investigated the social...... with other types of intimate relations such as strong-tie intimacy (couples cohabiting). However, we also identified several issues of intimacy unique to the special relation between children and their parents. These unique acts of intimacy propose challenges when designing technologies for mediated intimacy...

  6. Substance use: toward an understanding of its relation to nutrition-related attitudes and behavior among Israeli high school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isralowitz, R E; Trostler, N

    1996-09-01

    To study the distribution, prevalence, determinants, and association between substance use (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol, and illegal drugs) and eating attitudes and behavior of high school students in the Negev region of Israel in order to provide an improved basis for prevention and health services. An anonymous questionnaire regarding attitudes and behavior related to substance use and eating (e.g., breakfast before school, a snack or meal during school time, and three meals a day) was answered by 1,513 high school age youth. The study participants were at greater risk of poor eating behavior if they: (1) used cigarettes, alcohol, and/or illicit substances (p illicit substances were used or not used, more than 50% of the youth reported not eating breakfast and 30% indicated they did not eat three meals daily. There are many concerns about the use and abuse of both licit and illicit substances among adolescents. More attention, however, needs to be given to the relationship between substance use and the attitudes and behavior of young people toward their health, including proper eating habits. The results support the need to develop drug prevention and health programs that are more comprehensive in terms of addressing the broad range of factors associated with adolescent growth and development.

  7. Children's Attachment-Related Narratives Following US Gulf Coast Hurricanes: Linkages with Understanding and Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Timothy; Buchanan, Teresa K.; Verbovaya, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The central focus of this study was the perceptions of emotional security among 64 elementary school-aged children exposed to the hurricanes that affected the US Gulf Coast in 2005. Specifically, we examined the representational qualities of attachment, exploration, and caregiving as assessed with a narrative story-stem task in relation to…

  8. Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

  9. Understanding the Atom and Relevant Misconceptions: Students' Profiles in Relation to Three Cognitive Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George; Markos, Angelos; Zarkadis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the formation of particular student profiles based on of their ideas relating to basic characteristics of the atom. Participants were secondary students of 8th, 10th and 12th grades from Northern Greece (n = 421), with specific cohort characteristics e.g. age, grade and class curriculum, and individual differences, e.g.…

  10. Understanding work related musculoskeletal pain: does repetitive work cause stress symptoms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, J. P.; Mikkelsen, S.; Andersen, JH

    2005-01-01

    : The findings do not indicate that repetitive work is associated with stress symptoms, but small effects cannot be ruled out. Thus the results question the importance of mental stress mechanisms in the causation of regional pain related to repetitive work. However, the findings should be interpreted...

  11. The Aftermath of Combat-Related PTSD: Toward an Understanding of Transgenerational Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearrow, Melissa; Cosgrove, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The number of military personnel who are involved in combat situations continues to increase. As a result, researchers have identified risk factors associated with the development of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors of this article review some of the characteristics of military personnel involved in these conflicts,…

  12. [To know, understand and combating medication errors related to computerized physician order entry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle, V; Tiphine, T; Poirier, Y; Raingeard, E; Feldman, D; Freville, J-C

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the study is to identify medication errors related to computerized physician order entry in our hospital. At the end of this 1-year study (2008 to 2009), 378 beds were computerized by a business software. Medication errors were identified from notifications sent to the publisher of the software, feedback of health professionals and the analysis of Pharmacists' interventions formulate following prescription errors due to computerization. They were qualified according to the medication error's French dictionary of the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy. Thirty-five categories of medication errors were found. Most of them appear during prescription. Dosage and concentration errors, dose errors, omission errors and drug errors are the most frequent. Three main causes were found: human factor, closely related to the software settings and the quality of user training; communication problems, related to the ergonomics; conception problems, related to intuitiveness and intricacy of the software. These results confirm the existence of medication errors induced by computerized physician order entry systems. They highlight the need to involve initial and ongoing training of users, relevance and scalability of the setup and use of mature and certified software to minimized them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding Relations among Early Family Environment, Cortisol Response, and Child Aggression via a Prevention Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Colleen R.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relations among family environment, cortisol response, and behavior in the context of a randomized controlled trial with 92 children (M = 48 months) at risk for antisocial behavior. Previously, researchers reported an intervention effect on cortisol response in anticipation of a social challenge. The current study examined…

  14. Understanding Social Learning Relations of International Students in a Large Classroom Using Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Héliot, YingFei; Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2013-01-01

    A common assumption in higher education is that international students find it difficult to develop learning and friendship relations with host students. When students are placed in a student-centred environment, international students from different cultural backgrounds are "forced" to work together with other students, which allows…

  15. [Three years of work-related accidents in a metallurgic plant: ways to its understanding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira; Dias, Adriano

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study is to describe, by quantitative and qualitative methods, industrial accidents occurred during three years in a metallurgic plant in the rural area to understand the possible causes. It is a case study in a metallurgic plant where 336 accidents were studied in a 3-year period by means of three procedures: analysis of accidents' registers, interviews with 166 hurt workers, and the organization of Focal Groups (111 workers) for discussion. The ratio of yearly incidence of accidents was 16.9%; 75 cases required more than 15 out-of-work days; 51.2% occurred in the morning and affected boilermakers (48.2%). Among the interviewed workers, average schooling was 8.8 years, age ranged from 31-50 years (55.4%), 64.5% of workers had already suffered more than one accident. Besides, workers exposed to intense noise (+ 90 dBA) were the most affected (53%). In the focal groups, perceptions and feelings of workers regarding the accidents were identified that had not appeared in the previous stages. It can be concluded that focal groups allow for a better identification of factors that may contribute for accidents such as performance pressures, extra-hours of work, low wages, and precarious conditions of work and work organization.

  16. Understanding defect related luminescence processes in wide bandgap materials using low temperature multi-spectroscopic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Amit Kumar

    tunneling loss of the trapped electrons over geological time (so called anomalous fading); this gives rise to apparent ages that underestimate the true age. Despite a rapid progress in the infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating technique using feldspar, a clear understanding of luminescence...... play a role in charge transport. The main defect used in optical dating is called the infra-red dosimetric trap (IR trap), which has a thermal lifetime of millions of years, appropriate for dating Middle to Late Quaternary time scales. However, this trap is known to suffer from instability arising from...... to the thesis, while Chapter 2 describes the instrumentation and samples used to carry out this research. The key findings of my Ph.D. research are summarized in five different chapters (Chapter 3 to Chapter 7). I discovered a ‘red edge effect’ in the greenorange emission in feldspar, and demonstrated...

  17. A socioecological framework to understand weight-related issues in Aboriginal children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Noreen D; Hanley, Anthony J G; Delormier, Treena

    2012-02-01

    Obesity prevention efforts in Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, or Inuit) communities in Canada should focus predominantly on children given their demographic significance and the accelerated time course of occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Aboriginal population. A socioecological model to address childhood obesity in Aboriginal populations would focus on the numerous environments at different times in childhood that influence weight status, including prenatal, sociocultural, family, and community environments. Importantly, for Aboriginal children, obesity interventions need to also be situated within the context of a history of colonization and inequities in the social determinants of health. This review therefore advocates for the inclusion of a historical perspective and a life-course approach to obesity prevention in Aboriginal children in addition to developing interventions around the socioecological framework. We emphasize that childhood obesity prevention efforts should focus on promoting maternal health behaviours before and during pregnancy, and on breastfeeding and good infant and child nutrition in the postpartum and early childhood development periods. Ameliorating food insecurity by focusing on improving the sociodemographic risk factors for it, such as increasing income and educational attainment, are essential. More research is required to understand and measure obesogenic Aboriginal environments, to examine how altering specific environments modifies the foods that children eat and the activities that they do, and to examine how restoring and rebuilding cultural continuity in Aboriginal communities modifies the many determinants of obesity. This research needs to be done with the full participation of Aboriginal communities as partners in the research.

  18. Understanding the relations between different forms of racial prejudice: a cognitive consistency perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, Bertram; Peters, Kurt R; Brochu, Paula M; Strack, Fritz

    2008-05-01

    Research on racial prejudice is currently characterized by the existence of diverse concepts (e.g., implicit prejudice, old-fashioned racism, modern racism, aversive racism) that are not well integrated from a general perspective. The present article proposes an integrative framework for these concepts employing a cognitive consistency perspective. Specifically, it is argued that the reliance on immediate affective reactions toward racial minority groups in evaluative judgments about these groups depends on the consistency of this evaluation with other relevant beliefs pertaining to central components of old-fashioned, modern, and aversive forms of prejudice. A central prediction of the proposed framework is that the relation between "implicit" and "explicit" prejudice should be moderated by the interaction of egalitarianism-related, nonprejudicial goals and perceptions of discrimination. This prediction was confirmed in a series of three studies. Implications for research on prejudice are discussed.

  19. Application of high-throughput sequencing in understanding human oral microbiome related with health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hui; Jiang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    The oral microbiome is one of most diversity habitat in the human body and they are closely related with oral health and disease. As the technique developing,, high throughput sequencing has become a popular approach applied for oral microbial analysis. Oral bacterial profiles have been studied to explore the relationship between microbial diversity and oral diseases such as caries and periodontal disease. This review describes the application of high-throughput sequencing for characterizati...

  20. Relational Dimension in Social Education: contributions of psychoanalysis to its understanding and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Junqueira Grandino

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper rescues Social Education practices that emerged by the work of social educators in the 1980s, emphasizing the relational dimension considering the formation of bonds of trust and building horizontal relationships between educators and pupils. From this, the paper clarifies some processes in the light of Psychoanalysis and reflects on contributions of this subject to the field of Social EducationKey words: Social education; children and adolescentes; psychoanalysis

  1. Renewable energy partnerships in development cooperation: Towards a relational understanding of technical assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruckenberg, Lena J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed a surge in international programmes established to assist the adoption of renewable energy technologies (RETs) in low and lower-middle income countries. So far, such programmes have yielded mixed success. While partnerships between international, national and local organisations have become the pre-eminent model for RET programmes, we know relatively little about their contribution. This article traces the role of renewable energy partnerships in development cooperation, shifting the analytical emphasis from barriers and drivers to key actors and their relationships. It presents a relational approach for the analysis of development assistance for renewable energy, drawing on theories concerning the role of strong and weak ties in inter-organisational networks. Through an analysis of seven empirical cases from Central America, the article provides insights into how different forms of inter-organisational relationships can facilitate implementation of RET programmes but do not necessarily enhance the capacities of local organisations in a way to support a more sustainable adoption of RETs. On the basis of this analysis, theoretical and policy implications are given concerning the potential of relational approaches for researching technology diffusion processes, and the role of strong and weak ties for the success – or failure – of renewable energy partnerships. - Highlights: • Study of renewable energy partnerships in development cooperation. • Relational framework for analysis of inter-organisational technology diffusion. • Empirical cases of renewable energy partnerships in Central America. • Different types of network relationships enable/inhibit sustainable adoption. • Three policy recommendations for programme development

  2. Understanding pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors: a mixed-methods study of homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Sussell, Jesse; Golinelli, Daniela; Zhou, Annie; Kennedy, David P; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2012-12-01

    Pregnancy rates are substantially higher among homeless youth than in the general population of youth, yet little is known about homeless adolescents' and young adults' pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors. Pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors were examined among two samples of sexually active homeless 13-24-year-olds in Los Angeles County. Data from 37 semistructured interviews conducted in March-April 2011 were analyzed using standard qualitative methods. Data from a structured survey with 277 respondents, conducted between October 2008 and August 2009, were analyzed primarily using regression modeling. More than half of interview respondents held ambivalent attitudes toward pregnancy, and ambivalent youth reported less contraceptive use than others. The interviews identified several potential influences on pregnancy attitudes: barriers associated with homelessness, readiness to settle down, desire to achieve goals, belief that a child would create something positive in life, and family and partners. In the survey, having positive attitudes toward pregnancy was positively associated with duration of homelessness (odds ratio, 1.6), contact with relatives (1.1) and relationship commitment (1.8); it was negatively associated with frequency of drinking (0.9). Relationship commitment was positively associated with nonuse of an effective contraceptive method at last sex (1.5). Effective and accessible pregnancy prevention and family planning programs for homeless youth are needed. Youths' ambivalence toward pregnancy and feelings of relationship commitment warrant attention as possible areas for programs to address. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  3. Work-related deaths among youth: Understanding the contribution of US child labor violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Myers, Douglas J; Miller, Mary E

    2016-11-01

    Evidence shows that violations of the United States (US) child labor regulations are common. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude and nature of work-related deaths among youth involving violations of US child labor regulations. We analyzed Census of Fatal Occupational Injury data from 2001 to 2012 using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. Between 2001 and 2012, 406 workers under age 18 were recorded in the CFOI as having suffered a fatal work-related injury. Among these cases, 233 were covered by the US child labor regulations. Forty-three percent of these cases involved at least one violation. The majority of cases that were not covered by the regulations involved decedents working on their family's farms (N = 139). Violations of federal child labor regulations are a significant contributor to work-related deaths among youth in the United States. Increased investment in enforcement is needed to prevent further young worker deaths involving child labor violations. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:959-968, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Understanding age-related reductions in visual working memory capacity: examining the stages of change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Philip C; Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin; Mason, Emily; Molitor, Robert J; Woodman, Geoffrey F; Ally, Brandon A

    2014-10-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is reduced in older adults. Research has shown age-related impairments to VWM encoding, but aging is likely to affect multiple stages of VWM. In the present study, we recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of younger and older adults during VWM maintenance and retrieval. We measured encoding-stage processing with the P1 component, maintenance-stage processing with the contralateral delay activity (CDA), and retrieval-stage processing by comparing the activity for old and new items (old-new effect). Older adults showed lower behavioral capacity estimates (K) than did younger adults, but surprisingly, their P1 components and CDAs were comparable to those of younger adults. This remarkable dissociation between neural activity and behavior in the older adults indicated that the P1 and CDA did not accurately assess their VWM capacity. However, the neural activity evoked during VWM retrieval yielded results that helped clarify the age-related differences. During retrieval, younger adults showed early old-new effects in frontal and occipital areas and a late central-parietal old-new effect, whereas older adults showed a late right-lateralized parietal old-new effect. The younger adults' early old-new effects strongly resembled an index of perceptual fluency, suggesting that perceptual implicit memory was activated. The activation of implicit memory could have facilitated the younger adults' behavior, and the lack of these early effects in older adults may suggest that they have much lower-resolution memory than do younger adults. From these data, we speculated that younger and older adults store the same number of items in VWM, but that younger adults store a higher-resolution representation than do older adults.

  5. Understanding the core-halo relation of quantum wave dark matter from 3D simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schive, Hsi-Yu; Liao, Ming-Hsuan; Woo, Tak-Pong; Wong, Shing-Kwong; Chiueh, Tzihong; Broadhurst, Tom; Hwang, W-Y Pauchy

    2014-12-31

    We examine the nonlinear structure of gravitationally collapsed objects that form in our simulations of wavelike cold dark matter, described by the Schrödinger-Poisson (SP) equation with a particle mass ∼10(-22)  eV. A distinct gravitationally self-bound solitonic core is found at the center of every halo, with a profile quite different from cores modeled in the warm or self-interacting dark matter scenarios. Furthermore, we show that each solitonic core is surrounded by an extended halo composed of large fluctuating dark matter granules which modulate the halo density on a scale comparable to the diameter of the solitonic core. The scaling symmetry of the SP equation and the uncertainty principle tightly relate the core mass to the halo specific energy, which, in the context of cosmological structure formation, leads to a simple scaling between core mass (Mc) and halo mass (Mh), Mc∝a(-1/2)Mh(1/3), where a is the cosmic scale factor. We verify this scaling relation by (i) examining the internal structure of a statistical sample of virialized halos that form in our 3D cosmological simulations and by (ii) merging multiple solitons to create individual virialized objects. Sufficient simulation resolution is achieved by adaptive mesh refinement and graphic processing units acceleration. From this scaling relation, present dwarf satellite galaxies are predicted to have kiloparsec-sized cores and a minimum mass of ∼10(8)M⊙, capable of solving the small-scale controversies in the cold dark matter model. Moreover, galaxies of 2×10(12)M⊙ at z=8 should have massive solitonic cores of ∼2×10(9)M⊙ within ∼60  pc. Such cores can provide a favorable local environment for funneling the gas that leads to the prompt formation of early stellar spheroids and quasars.

  6. Using scaling relations to understand trends in the catalytic activity of transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G; Bligaard, T; Abild-Pedersen, F; Noerskov, J K

    2008-01-01

    A method is developed to estimate the potential energy diagram for a full catalytic reaction for a range of late transition metals on the basis of a calculation (or an experimental determination) for a single metal. The method, which employs scaling relations between adsorption energies, is illustrated by calculating the potential energy diagram for the methanation reaction and ammonia synthesis for 11 different metals on the basis of results calculated for Ru. It is also shown that considering the free energy diagram for the reactions, under typical industrial conditions, provides additional insight into reactivity trends

  7. Evaluation of psychosocial measures for understanding weight-related behaviors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, A; Olson, C M; Frongillo, E A

    2001-01-01

    The greatest weight gain for US. women occurs during the childbearing years of 25 to 34, and many obese women attribute their adult weight gain to childbearing. Few studies have examined psychosocial influences on women's behaviors during pregnancy, in part because of the lack of valid and reliable measures of psychosocial constructs relevant to pregnant women. Based on existing theory and an in-depth interview study, the psychosocial constructs of locus of control, self-efficacy, body image, feelings about motherhood, and career orientation were identified. Scales for each construct were constructed by drawing items from existing validated scales and writing items based on the in-depth interviews; their content validity assessed using factor analysis with oblique rotation and their reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was assessed by examining the associations between scale scores and preexisting conditions of participants. Data for evaluating the scales came from a study of 622 pregnant women in a rural health care system who completed questionnaires and whose medical records were audited. Cronbach's alpha of the scales ranged from 0.73 to 0.89. Scale scores were strongly associated with lifestyle behaviors, body weight, and demographic characteristics of the participants. The analysis provides evidence of the validity of measures of psychosocial factors related to health behaviors of pregnant women. These measures should be useful in studying weight-related behaviors in pregnant women.

  8. Understanding employers' hiring intentions in relation to qualified workers with disabilities: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Robert T; Johnson, Kurt; Hebert, James; Ajzen, Icek; Copeland, Jana; Brown, Pat; Chan, Fong

    2010-12-01

    As part of the planning process for a larger survey study to examine factors affecting employers' intention to hire and hiring of people with disabilities, a series of three semi-structured focus groups were held with key hiring decision makers, such as Human Resources directors, Chief Operating Officers (COOs), or Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of small, medium, and large Seattle area companies. The chief goals of the focus groups were to elicit and refine the participants' beliefs, normative influences, and perceived control relative to hiring workers with disabilities. Narrative data obtained from the focus group discussion were examined using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to identify themes expressed by the focus group participants within the context of company size. Themes did vary by company size, but a prevailing concern across all companies related to questions about the efficiency/effectiveness of contact with vocational rehabilitation agencies. For both small- and mid-sized companies, there was a belief that people with disabilities could not do the work or were somehow less qualified. For large companies, convincing departmental and team managers that outreaching workers with disabilities would be a worthwhile hiring practice remained a challenge. The themes derived from this study can be used to help occupational rehabilitation professionals develop educational and marketing interventions to improve employers' attitudes toward hiring and retaining individuals with disabilities.

  9. Humanoid infers Archimedes' principle: understanding physical relations and object affordances through cumulative learning experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ajaz Ahmad; Mohan, Vishwanathan; Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve 'The Crow and the Pitcher' task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause-effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended 'learning-prediction-abstraction' loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations. Driven by the proposed architecture, the ensuing robot behaviours illustrated causal learning and anticipation similar to natural agents. Results further demonstrate that by cumulatively interacting with few objects, the predictions of the robot in case of novel objects converge close to the physical law, i.e. the Archimedes principle: this being independent of both the objects explored during learning and the order of their cumulative exploration. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Cultural understanding in the provision of supportive and palliative care: perspectives in relation to an indigenous population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Grace; Vukic, Adele; Parker, Skylan

    2013-03-01

    The provision of supportive and palliative care for an indigenous people in Nova Scotia, Canada, was examined to further our understanding and thereby improve cultural competency. Most of Nova Scotia's indigenous people are Mi'kmaq. The Mi'kmaq Nation lives in Atlantic Canada as well as New England in the eastern USA. Themes were identified in the literature and through discussion with seven experts who have Mi'kmaq health and cultural research expertise. This paper has been reviewed and approved by two Mi'kmaq consultants who frequently speak on behalf of the Mi'kmaq people in relation to health and cultural understanding. Recommendations for non-indigenous care providers are presented. The themes identified focused on jurisdictional issues and cultural understanding. They are interconnected and grounded in the historic Mi'kmaq context of colonialism. Jurisdictional issues experienced by the Mi'kmaq affect access, continuity and appropriateness of care. Cultural concepts were associated with worldview, spirituality, the role of family and community relationships and communication norms, and thereby with the alignment of values and language in the provision of care. Three Mi'kmaq concepts are noted: apiksiktatulti, nemu'ltus and salite. Through reflection on the situation of Nova Scotia's Mi'kmaq, non-indigenous healthcare providers can assess how they might increase their cultural understanding in the provision of supportive and palliative care. Recommendations relate to the health system, relationships with individual persons and direction for research.

  11. Foucault's contributions for understanding power relations in British classical political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Guizzo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the strategic role played by British classical political economy in constructing new technologies of power. Michel Foucault drew attention to a change that political economists promoted concerning the role of the state, which has been overlooked by historians of economic thought. This paper explores the main arguments provided by the most important British political economists of the 18th and 19th centuries on what concerns population management, State's role and economic dynamics in order to examine Foucault's considerations. Although British classical political economy consolidated the mechanism of markets and economic individuality, thus creating a system of truth that changed economic norms and practices, its discourse also established a political conduct that was responsible for creating mechanisms of control that disseminated new forms of power relations.

  12. Understanding the increase in the number of childbirth-related leave beneficiaries in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanić Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past number of years, the public expenditures for childbirth-related leave benefits have more than doubled – in 2015 amounted to 0.7% GDP in relation to 0.3% GDP in 2002. This increase can mainly be attributed to the increased number of beneficiaries that grew consistently from 24 thousand in 2002 up to 40 thousand in 2015, despite the fact that the annual number of live births has been almost continually decreasing and the registered employment has dropped by almost 20 per cent in the observed period. One of the clear reasons explaining part of this increase is the extension of 3+ order of birth leaves in 2006, from one to two years, which can explain the increase of around 3.5 thousand of beneficiaries. Another reason is high number of beneficiaries using special child-care leave meant for parents with children with disabilities, but which, in reality, is very often used simply as the extension of parental leave. The average number of special child-care leave beneficiaries in the second half of 2015 amounted to 2.8 thousand. When these two effects are taken into account, we still notice significant increase of beneficiaries of around 10 thousand in the observed period. Fictitious employment during the pregnancy can explain this increase to some extent. Available data unambiguously show that a number of women formally employing during the second and third trimester of pregnancy has increased from 800 in 2002 to almost 3.5 thousand monthly average in the second half of 2015. There are two flaws of the childbirth-related leave programme in Serbia, which together lead to the constant increase of the number of beneficiaries. First is the lack of flexibility of the programme, both in terms of eligibility for acquiring the right as well as in terms of flexibility in use. Maternity/parental leave benefit may acquire only those in „standard employment” i.e. employed under employment contract (and entrepreneurs while other type of

  13. Explanatory models of black lung: understanding the health-related behavior of Appalachian coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, J

    1982-03-01

    Many retired coal miners who are eligible for care in a black lung treatment center at little or no cost to themselves do not enter into available programs or discontinue soon after beginning therapy. Reasons for this behavior are related to the prevalent beliefs among Appalachians concerning the course of black lung and the appropriate treatment for it. The miners' health beliefs are clearly at odds with those of the health care providers who work in the centers. Using the concept of explanatory model, popular and professional health cultures are analyzed, focusing on course of disease, sick role, appropriate treatment, and expected outcome. Differences in explanatory models are discussed with regard to implications for the organization and delivery of care to retired coal miners with black lung.

  14. Recent advances in the understanding of electrocatalysis and its relation to surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, E.

    1977-01-01

    It is pointed out that electrosorption plays a key role in electrocatalysis. Little information is available, however, concerning the chemical nature of the interactions of the adsorbed species with the electrode and even less about the adsorption sites. The role of adsorbed species and surface layers in electrocatalysis is reviewed for several electrode systems. In recent years, some general insights have been achieved into the relationship of hydrogen electrode kinetics to hydrogen adsorption. For a given mechanism the exchange current density is related to the standard free energy of adsorption of the particular type of adsorbed hydrogen upon which the kinetics depend. The oxygen electrode reactions are less well understood than the reactions for the hydrogen electrode. The pronounced irreversibility of the oxygen electrode reactions at moderate temperatures has severely complicated mechanistic studies.

  15. OUT OF THE COURT SETTLEMENT IN RELATION WITH THE CHALLENGING IN COURT OF THE UNFAIR CONTRACTUAL TERMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Chiocaru

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyse the problem of concluding a transaction agreement (Romanian language ”contract de tranzacție” in relation with the unfair clauses which may occur in the contracts concluded between professionals and consumers. In this respect our purpose is to analyse, within this article, the current level of the doctrine in what concerns the transaction agreement, as this was regulated by the New Civil Code, as well as the possibility to conclude such contracts in relation with a contractual clause or a number of contractual clauses considered unfair. We will concentrate especially on the possibility to conclude a transaction agreement prior the identification of the clause subject to a possible dispute, which forms the object of the transaction agreement. The purpose of this analysis is to present an alternative method to safeguard the contract between the professional and consumer by the contracting parties themselves, contractual parties who better understand and represent the ways forward for the situations when unfair contractual terms occurs.

  16. Training Of Manual Actions Improves Language Understanding of Semantically-Related Action Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eLocatelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual knowledge accessed by language may involve the re-activation of the associated primary sensory-motor processes. Whether these embodied representations are indeed constitutive to conceptual knowledge is hotly debated, particularly since direct evidence that sensory-motor expertise can improve conceptual processing is scarce.In this study, we sought for this crucial piece of evidence, by training naive healthy subjects to perform complex manual actions and by measuring, before and after training, their performance in a semantic language task. 19 participants engaged in 3 weeks of motor training. Each participant was trained in 3 complex manual actions (e.g. origami. Before and after the training period, each subject underwent a series of manual dexterity tests and a semantic language task. The latter consisted of a sentence-picture semantic congruency judgment task, with 6 target congruent sentence-picture pairs (semantically related to the trained manual actions, 6 non-target congruent pairs (semantically unrelated, and 12 filler incongruent pairs.Manual action training induced a significant improvement in all manual dexterity tests, demonstrating the successful acquisition of sensory-motor expertise. In the semantic language task, the reaction times to both target and non-target congruent sentence-image pairs decreased after action training, indicating a more efficient conceptual-semantic processing. Noteworthy, the reaction times for target pairs decreased more than those for non-target pairs, as indicated by the 2x2 interaction. These results were confirmed when controlling for the potential bias of increased frequency of use of target lexical items during manual training.The results of the present study suggest that sensory-motor expertise gained by training of specific manual actions can lead to an improvement of cognitive-linguistic skills related to the specific conceptual-semantic domain associated to the trained actions.

  17. Addressing pre-service teachers' understandings and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in this study. Students' understanding of and difficulties with core elements (time, length, mass and density) were tested using a paper-and-pencil questionnaire (including four questions) and in-depth interviews after the instruction of related modern physics topics. The analyses of the collected data were based on quantitative and qualitative techniques. The results indicate that pre-service teachers at different academic levels have specific and considerable difficulties with proper time, time dilation, proper length, mass and relativistic density concepts. In this paper, the conclusions of the study and implications for physics teaching are discussed.

  18. Addressing pre-service teachers' understandings and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin, E-mail: gamze.sezgin@deu.edu.t [Dokuz Eylul University, Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education Izmir, 35160 (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in this study. Students' understanding of and difficulties with core elements (time, length, mass and density) were tested using a paper-and-pencil questionnaire (including four questions) and in-depth interviews after the instruction of related modern physics topics. The analyses of the collected data were based on quantitative and qualitative techniques. The results indicate that pre-service teachers at different academic levels have specific and considerable difficulties with proper time, time dilation, proper length, mass and relativistic density concepts. In this paper, the conclusions of the study and implications for physics teaching are discussed.

  19. Conceptualizing leadership perceptions as attitudes:using attitude theory to further the understanding of the relation between leadership and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Allan; Martin, Robin; Thomas, Geoff; Guillaume, Yves; Maio, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is one of the most examined factors in relation to understanding employee wellbeing and performance. While there are disparate approaches to studying leadership, they share a common assumption that perceptions of a leader's behavior determine reactions to the leader. The concept of leadership perception is poorly understood in most theoretical approaches. To address this, we propose that there are many benefits from examining leadership perceptions as an attitude towards the leader...

  20. Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Meat Chicken Production and Relations to Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erian, Ihab; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-03-09

    Little is known about public knowledge of meat chicken production and how it influences attitudes to birds' welfare and consumer behaviour. We interviewed 506 members of the public in SE Queensland; Australia; to determine how knowledge of meat chicken production and slaughter links to attitudes and consumption. Knowledge was assessed from 15 questions and low scores were supported by respondents' self-assessed report of low knowledge levels and agreement that their knowledge was insufficient to form an opinion about which chicken products to purchase. Older respondents and single people without children were most knowledgeable. There was uncertainty about whether chicken welfare was adequate, particularly in those with little knowledge. There was also evidence that a lack of empathy towards chickens related to lack of knowledge, since those that thought it acceptable that some birds are inadequately stunned at slaughter had low knowledge scores. More knowledgeable respondents ate chicken more frequently and were less likely to buy products with accredited labelling. Approximately half of the respondents thought the welfare of the chicken was more important than the cost. It is concluded that the public's knowledge has an important connection to their attitudes and consumption of chicken.

  1. A review of constructivism: understanding and using a relatively new theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, N

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to familiarize family medicine educators with a relatively new educational theory, "constructivism." This theory is derived from the philosophical proposition that reality is constructed by the individual. According to the more traditional theory of "objectivism," knowledge exists in the world external to personal experience. Constructivist theory postulates that personal experience cannot be separated from knowledge. In analyzing the literature, the author found that constructivism can be viewed at the cognitive (individual) and social (community) levels. Cognitive constructivism maintains that individuals develop their own models of reality using personal experience and research-based data. Two key elements of cognitive constructivism with implications for family medicine educators are promoting student independence and active learning. Social constructivism maintains that individuals use their membership in a community to continually refine and shape their models of reality. By communicating with each other (for physicians, in the "conversation of medicine"), we test our constructs. Two key elements of social constructivism with implications for application by family medicine educators are promoting collaboration and peer teaching.

  2. Lumbar spinal imaging in radicular pain and related conditions. Understanding diagnostic images in a clinical context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmink, Jan T.

    2010-01-01

    There is general agreement that lumbosacral nerve root compression is a prime factor in the pathogenesis of sciatica and neurogenic claudication, although humoral and vascular factors certainly play a role as well. This book focuses on imaging of the various ways in which nerve root compression can come about, and assessing which anatomic features are reliably associated with the occurrence of radicular pain, as opposed to morphologic findings which are probably coincidental. After a discussion of the nature of radicular pain and related symptoms, spinal imaging techniques and options are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of MR myelography in assessing the condition of the intradural nerve roots. A chapter on normal topographic, sectional, and functional (dynamic) radiologic anatomy is followed by a presentation on pathologic anatomy, addressing the various mechanisms of nerve root compression. In the chapter on pre- and postoperative imaging, features which may help to predict the evolution of the symptoms are discussed, with an eye to selecting candidates for surgical treatment. This is followed by a discussion of the role and limitations of imaging studies in various adverse postoperative conditions. In illustrations involving patient studies, imaging features are linked where possible to the clinical symptoms and history of the individuals involved. (orig.)

  3. Lumbar spinal imaging in radicular pain and related conditions. Understanding diagnostic images in a clinical context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmink, Jan T. [University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. Radiology

    2010-07-01

    There is general agreement that lumbosacral nerve root compression is a prime factor in the pathogenesis of sciatica and neurogenic claudication, although humoral and vascular factors certainly play a role as well. This book focuses on imaging of the various ways in which nerve root compression can come about, and assessing which anatomic features are reliably associated with the occurrence of radicular pain, as opposed to morphologic findings which are probably coincidental. After a discussion of the nature of radicular pain and related symptoms, spinal imaging techniques and options are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of MR myelography in assessing the condition of the intradural nerve roots. A chapter on normal topographic, sectional, and functional (dynamic) radiologic anatomy is followed by a presentation on pathologic anatomy, addressing the various mechanisms of nerve root compression. In the chapter on pre- and postoperative imaging, features which may help to predict the evolution of the symptoms are discussed, with an eye to selecting candidates for surgical treatment. This is followed by a discussion of the role and limitations of imaging studies in various adverse postoperative conditions. In illustrations involving patient studies, imaging features are linked where possible to the clinical symptoms and history of the individuals involved. (orig.)

  4. Relatively effortless listening promotes understanding and recall of medical instructions in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Roberta M.; Surprenant, Aimée M.

    2015-01-01

    Communication success under adverse conditions requires efficient and effective recruitment of both bottom-up (sensori-perceptual) and top-down (cognitive-linguistic) resources to decode the intended auditory-verbal message. Employing these limited capacity resources has been shown to vary across the lifespan, with evidence indicating that younger adults out-perform older adults for both comprehension and memory of the message. This study examined how sources of interference arising from the speaker (message spoken with conversational vs. clear speech technique), the listener (hearing-listening and cognitive-linguistic factors), and the environment (in competing speech babble noise vs. quiet) interact and influence learning and memory performance using more ecologically valid methods than has been done previously. The results suggest that when older adults listened to complex medical prescription instructions with “clear speech,” (presented at audible levels through insertion earphones) their learning efficiency, immediate, and delayed memory performance improved relative to their performance when they listened with a normal conversational speech rate (presented at audible levels in sound field). This better learning and memory performance for clear speech listening was maintained even in the presence of speech babble noise. The finding that there was the largest learning-practice effect on 2nd trial performance in the conversational speech when the clear speech listening condition was first is suggestive of greater experience-dependent perceptual learning or adaptation to the speaker's speech and voice pattern in clear speech. This suggests that experience-dependent perceptual learning plays a role in facilitating the language processing and comprehension of a message and subsequent memory encoding. PMID:26106353

  5. Relatively effortless listening promotes understanding and recall of medical instructions in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maria DiDonato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication success under adverse conditions requires efficient and effective recruitment of both bottom-up (sensori-perceptual and top-down (cognitive-linguistic resources to decode the intended auditory-verbal message. Employing these limited capacity resources has been shown to vary across the lifespan, with evidence indicating that younger adults out-perform older adults for both comprehension and memory of the message. This study examined how sources of interference arising from the speaker (message spoken with conversational versus clear speech technique, the listener (hearing-listening and cognitive-linguistic factors, and the environment (in competing speech babble noise versus quiet interact and influence learning and memory performance using more ecologically valid methods than has been done previously. The results suggest that when older adults listened to complex medical prescription instructions with ‘clear speech,’ (presented at audible levels through insertion earphones their learning efficiency, immediate and delayed memory performance improved relative to their performance when they listened with a normal conversational speech rate (presented at audible levels in sound field. This better learning and memory performance for clear speech listening was maintained even in the presence of speech babble noise. The finding that there was the largest learning-practice effect on 2nd trial performance in the conversational speech when the clear speech listening condition was first is suggestive of greater experience-dependent perceptual learning or adaptation to the speaker’s speech and voice pattern in clear speech. This suggests that experience-dependent perceptual learning plays a role in facilitating the language processing and comprehension of a message and subsequent memory encoding.

  6. Removing Unnecessary Variables from Horn Clause Verification Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele De Angelis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Verification conditions (VCs are logical formulas whose satisfiability guarantees program correctness. We consider VCs in the form of constrained Horn clauses (CHC which are automatically generated from the encoding of (an interpreter of the operational semantics of the programming language. VCs are derived through program specialization based on the unfold/fold transformation rules and, as it often happens when specializing interpreters, they contain unnecessary variables, that is, variables which are not required for the correctness proofs of the programs under verification. In this paper we adapt to the CHC setting some of the techniques that were developed for removing unnecessary variables from logic programs, and we show that, in some cases, the application of these techniques increases the effectiveness of Horn clause solvers when proving program correctness.

  7. On the structural position of non-peripheral adjunct clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lobo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the structural position occupied by a subset of adjunct clauses, namely those which can occur in final position without a special intonational break. After a definition of the structures to be considered, it will be shown that the classical assumption according to which they are generated as adjuncts is empirically superior to the adjunct-as-complement analysis (cf. Larson 1988; 1990, and to more recent analyses, which follow an antisymmetric framework (cf. Kayne 1994. It will also be shown that a base generation account of preverbal adverbial clauses is to be preferred over a movement analysis on the basis of empirical data, and in conformity with theoretical economy assumptions (Merge over Move.

  8. A new clause to the Sexual Contract: surrogate pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Nuño Gómez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the debate on the regulation of commercial pregnancies as a revision on the market’s demand and under the fallacy of free will, incorporates a new clause to the Sexual Contract. This debate requires that we analyse the limits of commodification on the one hand and on the other, the ethical requisites of referring to free will in a globalized context of feminization of poverty, sexual inequality and the rearmament of patriarchal neoliberalism.

  9. Can rent adjustment clauses reduce the income risk of farms?

    OpenAIRE

    Hotopp, Henning; Mußhoff, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Risk management is gaining importance in agriculture. In addition to traditional instruments, new risk management instruments are increasingly being proposed. These proposals include the rent adjustment clauses (RACs), which seem to be an unusual instrument at first sight. In contrast with conventional instruments, RACs intentionally allow fixed-cost ‘rent payments’ to fluctuate. We investigate the whole-farm risk reduction potential of different types of RACs via a historical simulation....

  10. Religious Support in the Homeland: The Establishment Clause in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-31

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT RELIGIOUS SUPPORT IN THE HOMELAND: THE ESTABLISHMENT CLAUSE IN PERSPECTIVE by...Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606...DATE 30 MAR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE Strategy Research Project 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Religious Support

  11. [Conscience clause in end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Panfilis, Ludovica; Cattaneo, Daniela; Cola, Luisanna; Gasparini, Maddalena; Porteri, Corinna; Tarquini, Daniela; Tiezzi, Alessandro; Veronese, Simone; Zullo, Silvia; Pucci, Eugenio

    2017-05-01

    The article proposes a critical reflection on issues that appeal to the conscience clause as part of end of life care can produce and what can guarantee freedom of conscience, self-determination of those involved and respect for the dignity of the sick person. After a philosophical and normative analysis, the article is organized on the basis of two important documents for discussion: a position paper of Società Italiana di Anestesia Analgesia Rianimazione e Terapia Intensiva (SIAARTI) signed by several scientific societies "Grandi insufficienze d'organo end stage: cure intensive o cure palliative?" and the Design of Law currently being debated "Norme in materia di consenso informato e di disposizioni anticipate di trattamento". In particular, the conscience clause has been discussed in the light of advance care planning (ACP), which represents the instrument to guarantee the shared planning of care and the shared-decision making. In this context, recourse to the clause of conscience brings out critical ethical and deontological issues that the article discusses, using the position paper SIAARTI and the text of law currently being debated, both built on the assumptions of a shared care relationship, where patient has a key-role in medical decisions.

  12. "Obesity" and "Clinical Obesity" Men's understandings of obesity and its relation to the risk of diabetes: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Nicola F; Hayes, Louise; Unwin, Nigel C; Murtagh, Madeleine J

    2008-09-14

    The 2007 Wanless report highlights the ever increasing problem of obesity and the consequent health problems. Obesity is a significant cause of diabetes. An increasing evidence base suggests that in terms of reducing diabetes and CVD risk, it is better to be "fit and fat" than unfit and of normal weight. There has been very little previous research into the understandings that men in the general population hold about the issues of weight, exercise and health; we therefore undertook this study in order to inform the process of health promotion and diabetes prevention in this group. A qualitative study in North East England General Practice using a purposive sample of men aged 25 and 45 years (selection process designed to include 'normal', 'overweight' and 'obese' men). One to one audio-recorded semi structured interviews focused on: overweight and obesity, diet, physical activity and diabetes. Transcripts were initially analysed using framework analysis. Emerging themes interlinked. The men in this study (n = 17) understand the word obesity differently from the clinical definition; "obesity" was used as a description of those with fat in a central distribution, and understandings of the term commonly take into account fitness as well as weight. Men in their late 30s and early 40s described becoming more aware of health issues. Knowledge of what constitutes a 'healthy lifestyle' was generally good, but men described difficulty acting upon this knowledge for various reasons e.g. increasing responsibilities at home and at work. Knowledge of diabetes and the link between obesity and diabetes was poor. Men in this study had a complex understanding of the interlinked importance of weight and fitness in relation to health. Obesity is understood as a description of people with centrally distributed fat, in association with low fitness levels. There is a need to increase understanding of the causes and consequences of diabetes. Discussion of increased health awareness by

  13. Couples' joint decision-making: the construction and validation of a key proxy for understanding gender relations in contemporary families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Covre-Sussai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender relations have become a key dimension in family studies, and understanding gender relations as both determining and resulting from outcome of new family configurations requires the use of specific surveys aimed at the dynamics of couples. Unfortunately, nationally representative surveys of this type are not available for Latin American countries. Nonetheless, the most recent versions of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS include a section called "Women's Status and Empowerment", which can provide information about gender relations as well. This study aims at assessing the construct of gender relations in terms of couples' joint decision-making for all five Brazilian geographical regions. To this end, a step-by-step multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA was applied in order to verify whether this concept can be compared across Brazilian regions. Results show that the DHS items can be used reliably for measuring couples' joint decision-making and that this construct can be meaningfully compared over the regions. These findings will contribute to further demographic and sociological research on gender relations which can use this concept and other indicators provided by the DHS to identify the causal processes related to it.

  14. The validity of knock-for-knock clauses in comparative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    This article discusses the validity of so-called knock-for-knock clauses, by which parties to offshore oil and gas or maritime contracts agree that each of them will cover its own losses regardless of who caused them. The issue of validity of such clauses and of the liability exclusions...... criteria used to promote or dismiss knock-for-knock clauses in case law and academic literature, the article reaches the conclusion that the question of whether knock-for-knock clauses should be held valid depends on whose interests are being considered, and that further research is warranted...

  15. ′Tigers are Our Brothers′: Understanding Human-Nature Relations in the Mishmi Hills, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Aiyadurai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-nature relations are diverse, multifaceted and often contradictory, especially the relationships with animals. Mishmi people living on the Sino-India border claim tigers to be their brothers and take credit for tiger protection as they observe taboos against hunting tigers. Drawing on this notion of relatedness with tigers, local residents of the Dibang Valley question the governments' recent plans to declare the Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary into Dibang Tiger Reserve and its scientific surveys of tigers and habitat mapping. This paper highlights how Mishmi people relate to tigers and how their understanding of tigers is in contest with versions of state and science, as national property or endangered species. Using in-depth interviews and participant observations in the Dibang Valley, I provide an ethnographic analysis of how different ideas of nature are played out by different actors in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India. Tiger conservation projects bring these conflicting versions of nature together, creating unexpected encounters between Mishmi, state and scientists. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of changing notions of nature in the age of globalisation and an increasingly interconnected world.

  16. Health-related claims on food labels in Australia: understanding environmental health officers' roles and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon-Paoloni, Deanne; Yeatman, Heather R; Grigonis-Deane, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Health and related claims on food labels can support consumer education initiatives that encourage purchase of healthier foods. A new food Standard on Nutrition, Health and Related Claims became law in January 2013. Implementation will need careful monitoring and enforcement to ensure that claims are truthful and have meaning. The current study explored factors that may impact on environmental health officers' food labelling policy enforcement practices. The study used a mixed-methods approach, using two previously validated quantitative questionnaire instruments that provided measures of the level of control that the officers exercised over their work, as well as qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Local government; Australia. Thirty-seven officers in three Australian states participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews, as well as completing the quantitative questionnaires. Senior and junior officers, including field officers, participated in the study. The officers reported a high level of autonomy and control of their work, but also a heavy workload, dominated by concerns for public health and food safety, with limited time for monitoring food labels. Compliance of labels with proposed health claims regulations was not considered a priority. Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucracy was used to enhance understanding of officers' work practices. Competing priorities affect environmental health officers' monitoring and enforcement of regulations. Understanding officers' work practices and their perceptions of enforcement is important to increase effectiveness of policy implementation and hence its capacity to augment education initiatives to optimize health benefits.

  17. Work related Changes And New Understandings Of Prevention: Results Of Multi-Level Participatory Interventions In Four SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Poulsen, Signe; Gish, Liv

    2014-01-01

    be addressed and how prevention of work-related stress can be understood. In addition to supporting a new understanding of prevention, the use of the model also results in concrete changes which become solutions to the work-place’s current and specific problems. The use of the PoWRS model thus enables an SME......This paper presents the result of four SMEs’ use of a multi-level participatory self-help intervention model (the PoWRS model – Prevention of Work Related Stress). The model itself supports a new view on prevention of work-related stress in the participating companies besides the concrete...... to explicate tacit knowledge about what creates enthusiasms and stress at the work place, Multi-voting which decided two work-related changes to be initiated, a KickOff session to mark the start-up of the actual changes, continuous interviews of colleagues by the in-house facilitators, and ongoing status...

  18. Understanding Combat-Related PTSD Symptom Expression Through Index Trauma and Military Culture: Case Studies of Filipino Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz Fajarito, Cariñez; De Guzman, Rosalito G

    2017-05-01

    Few studies demonstrate how the index trauma may influence subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, especially among soldiers. There is still no consensus on specific trauma types and their corresponding PTSD symptom profiles. Furthermore, varied PTSD symptom manifestations that may yield to PTSD trauma subtypes are yet to be known. Importantly, the significance of the military culture's possible influence on soldiers' PTSD has also been underexplored. And the dominant PTSD construct may possibly be unable to capture the essential aspects of the military context in understanding combat-related PTSD. Hence, this study aims to reach an understanding into how index trauma and military culture may possibly shape participants' PTSD expressions. Case study design was used, wherein multiple sources of data-such as PTSD assessments, and interviews with the participants and key informants-enabled data triangulation. The three case reports are the outcomes of the corroboration of evidences that reveal an enriched and holistic understanding of the phenomenon under study. The Ethics Review Board Committee of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Medical Center approved the study. The participants were three Filipino active duty combat soldiers. Although all participants had similar index traumas, their PTSD symptom expressions are unique from one another, in that they differ in terms of their most incapacitating PTSD symptoms and other symptoms that have been potentially shaped by military culture. Their most incapacitating symptoms: hypervigilance (case 1), negative belief in oneself and negative emotions (case 2), prolonged distress, and marked physiological reactions to trauma-related cues (case 3), may be understood in the light of how they personally experienced different circumstances of their index traumas. The way participants have anchored specific components of their sworn soldier's creed (i.e., not leaving a fallen comrade) into some of their PTSD

  19. "Obesity" and "Clinical Obesity" Men's understandings of obesity and its relation to the risk of diabetes: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unwin Nigel C

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2007 Wanless report highlights the ever increasing problem of obesity and the consequent health problems. Obesity is a significant cause of diabetes. An increasing evidence base suggests that in terms of reducing diabetes and CVD risk, it is better to be "fit and fat" than unfit and of normal weight. There has been very little previous research into the understandings that men in the general population hold about the issues of weight, exercise and health; we therefore undertook this study in order to inform the process of health promotion and diabetes prevention in this group. Methods A qualitative study in North East England General Practice using a purposive sample of men aged 25 and 45 years (selection process designed to include 'normal', 'overweight' and 'obese' men. One to one audio-recorded semi structured interviews focused on: overweight and obesity, diet, physical activity and diabetes. Transcripts were initially analysed using framework analysis. Emerging themes interlinked. Results The men in this study (n = 17 understand the word obesity differently from the clinical definition; "obesity" was used as a description of those with fat in a central distribution, and understandings of the term commonly take into account fitness as well as weight. Men in their late 30s and early 40s described becoming more aware of health issues. Knowledge of what constitutes a 'healthy lifestyle' was generally good, but men described difficulty acting upon this knowledge for various reasons e.g. increasing responsibilities at home and at work. Knowledge of diabetes and the link between obesity and diabetes was poor. Conclusion Men in this study had a complex understanding of the interlinked importance of weight and fitness in relation to health. Obesity is understood as a description of people with centrally distributed fat, in association with low fitness levels. There is a need to increase understanding of the causes and

  20. NON-COMPETITION CLAUSES IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA IRINA IONESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We begin with an analysis of areas where rivalry between economic agents can not show (any act of competition committed in this area drawing the liability of the author, we will then analyze competition in relations between the trader and servant or other employees and continue with the analysis of the legal ban on competition in the limited liability companies and joint stock companies. So, the relevant provisions of Law 31/1990 are reviewed, views of legal doctrine and practice of judicial rulings on the nature and purpose of the relevant provisions referred to, their scope, applicability of statutory prohibition against competition in the profile activity of the company, the prohibition in the liquidation phase, procedural methods which can cover damage caused to the creditor’s violated rights, as well as statute of limitations for the right to action and prescription.

  1. Decomposition by tree dimension in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of the concept of tree dimension in Horn clause analysis and verification. The dimension of a tree is a measure of its non-linearity - for example a list of any length has dimension zero while a complete binary tree has dimension equal to its height. We apply...... that decomposition by tree dimension is a potentially useful proof technique. We also investigate the use of existing automatic proof tools to prove some interesting properties about dimension(s) of feasible derivation trees of a given program....

  2. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Audenard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver, a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS. Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the last SAT competitions.

  3. International Environmental Agreements: Emissions Trade, Safety Valves and Escape Clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, Larry; Zhao, Jinhua

    2010-01-01

    We explain how the structure of multi-national or multi-regional environmental agreements affect their chance of success. Trade in emissions permits has ambiguous and in some cases surprising effects on both the equilibrium level of abatement, and on the ability to persuade nations or regions to participate in environmental agreements. An escape clause policy and a safety valve policy have essentially the same properties when membership in environmental agreement is pre-determined, but they create markedly different effects on the incentives to join such an agreement. The two policies lead to a qualitative difference in the leverage that a potential member of the agreement exercises on other members

  4. The syntax of appositive relativization : On specifying coordination, false free relatives, and promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Appositive relative clauses differ in some essential respects from restrictive relative clauses. I argue that appositive relatives and appositions can be put together as a third class of coordination denoting specification. Thus, an appositive relative is a specifying conjunct to the visible

  5. Understanding Negative Self-Evaluations in Borderline Personality Disorder-a Review of Self-Related Cognitions, Emotions, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Bohus, Martin; Lis, Stefanie

    2017-03-01

    Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, shame, or self-disgust, as well as self-related motives, such as self-enhancement or self-verification, influence how people perceive, evaluate, memorize, and respond to self-related information. They not only influence peoples' concepts of themselves but may also affect their behavior in social environments. In the current review, we describe alterations of self-related processing in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We chose BPD as an example of a mental disorder of which impairments in self-functioning and identity constitute a major feature. Since terminology used in clinical research on self-referential processing is diverse and often confusing, we start with reviewing some of the main concepts in this area of research using a conceptual framework provided from social psychology. Most studies on self-referential processing in BPD focused on descriptions of self-esteem and revealed a negative self-concept, particularly expressed by explicitly reported low self-esteem. Moreover, self-esteem is unstable in BPD and likely reactive to self-relevant cues. BPD patients are prone to negative emotions with respect to themselves, such as self-disgust and shame. First data point to altered self-related motives, too. In conclusion, although explicit self-esteem is widely studied as a global and trait-like feature of BPD, there is a strong lack of studies that take the complexity of the construct self-esteem into account. Further studies on alterations in self-related processes are required to deepen our understanding of impairments of the self-concept in BPD and enable the improvement of psychosocial therapeutic approaches.

  6. Embedded "wh"-Questions in L2 English in India: Inversion as a Main Clause Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, David

    2015-01-01

    This corpus study brings a second language (L2) research perspective, insights from generative grammar, and new empirical evidence to bear on a long-accepted claim in the World Englishes literature--namely, that inversion with "wh"-movement in colloquial Indian English is obligatory in embedded clauses and impossible in main clauses. It…

  7. 48 CFR 970.2703-2 - Patent rights clause provisions for management and operating contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights clause... request a license or foreign patent rights in inventions made under the contract, and may petition for a waiver of Government rights in identified inventions. The patent rights clause 970.5227-11 does not...

  8. 76 FR 71922 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Separation of Combined Provisions and Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... (Italy). * * * * * (e)(1) Use the clause at 252.229-7005, Tax Exemptions (Spain), in solicitations and contracts when contract performance will be in Spain. (2) Use the provision at 252.229-70YY, Tax Exemptions.... As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(2), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain)--Representation...

  9. 48 CFR 1815.209 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)) 1815.209 Section 1815.209 Federal Acquisition... provisions and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)) (a) The contracting officer shall insert...

  10. 48 CFR 1832.412 - Contract clause. (NASA supplement paragraphs (e) and (f))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. (NASA supplement paragraphs (e) and (f)) 1832.412 Section 1832.412 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Non-Commercial Items 1832.412 Contract clause. (NASA supplement paragraphs (e) and (f)) (e) The...

  11. 48 CFR 1832.1005 - Contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... supplements paragraph (a)) 1832.1005 Section 1832.1005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Payments 1832.1005 Contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)) (a) If the contract is for launch services, the contracting officer shall delete paragraph (f) of the clause at FAR 52.232-32 in accordance...

  12. Convex polyhedral abstractions, specialisation and property-based predicate splitting in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach to constrained Horn clause (CHC) verification combining three techniques: abstract interpretation over a domain of convex polyhedra, specialisation of the constraints in CHCs using abstract interpretation of query-answer transformed clauses, and refinement by splitting pred...

  13. 48 CFR 1352.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 1352.301 Section 1352.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Matrix 1352.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). ER08MR10.000 ER08MR10.001 ER08MR10...

  14. 48 CFR 27.202-5 - Solicitation provisions and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pricing data are obtained under 15.403; or (ii) Sealed bid solicitations only if the need for such... the contract. If a fixed-price incentive contract is contemplated, change “price” to “target cost and target profit” wherever it appears in the clause. The clause may be used in cost-reimbursement contracts...

  15. 48 CFR 1835.070 - NASA contract clauses and solicitation provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA contract clauses and....070 NASA contract clauses and solicitation provision. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the... ensure that the provision at 1852.235-72, Instructions for Responding to NASA Research Announcements, is...

  16. 48 CFR 1837.110-70 - NASA solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... insert the clause at 1852.237-70, Emergency Evacuation Procedures, in solicitations and contracts for on-site support services where emergency evacuations of the NASA installation may occur, e.g., snow, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, or other emergencies. (b) The contracting officer shall insert the clause...

  17. The project “understAID” – a platform that helps informal caregivers to understand and aid their demented relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Mojs, Ewa; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    to defi ne the contents and solutions of the CarePlatform based on the knowledge gained from real-case studies. Demented elderlies from each country (n = 40) suffering from different degrees of dementia were evaluated by formal caregivers and dementia professionals. The aim of task 3 is the development......“UnderstAID” is a platform that helps informal caregivers to understand and aid their demented relatives. It is an international project initiated by Denmark, Poland and Spain. The aim of the project is to design, and implement the multimedia platform “understAID” to support informal caregivers...... of the social learning interface. Task 4 focuses on the CarePlatform development and system integration. Finally, task 5 assumes testing and validation of the platform. The platform is devised to be available in two versions, namely the light one for mobile appliance and the premium version. Also different...

  18. The Comparison of Bilingual and Monolingual Learners Ability in Identifying Sentences using Reduced Clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Herlina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available English and Indonesian have similar rules in the placement of head noun in adjective clause, that is head noun precedes the clause. However, in English it is possible to reduce the clause while in Indonesian it is not possible to do it. This difference causes difficulty for students learning English especially those whose language background is different. Binus University students come from different provinces around Indonesia and thus they have different language backgrounds. The research declares the difference of this background in identifying reduced clause. They are categorized into monolinguals if they only speak Indonesian at home and bilinguals if they speak both Indonesian and their ethnic languages. The purpose of this study is to find out whether bilinguals perform better than monolinguals, or vice versa, in processing reduced clause sentences.

  19. 48 CFR 1827.409 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (i), and (k)) 1827.409 Section 1827... provisions and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (i), and (k)) (a) The contracting officer shall add subparagraph (3) set forth in 1852.277-14 to paragraph (d) of the clause at FAR...

  20. The Verb Always Leaves IP in V2 Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Bonnie D.; Vikner, Sten

    2007-01-01

    The verb second (V2) phenomenon, as it is found in the Germanic languages, has been the focus of much attention within recent syntactic research. In most of the literature on V2, it is assumed that the verb in all V2 clauses has moved to a head position outside IP, e.g. Cº. In Schwartz & Vikner...... (1989) we claimed that all V2 clauses were CPs, and we referred to this analysis as the 'traditional' analysis. In this paper we shall call it the 'V2 outside IP' analysis, and by using this term we want to convey that although in what follows we will adhere to the view that the verb moves to Cº, any...... analysis in which the verb moves into an Xº which is the sister of IP may be compatible with what we say here. Various alternatives to this analysis have been explored in the literature, and here we will address two in particular: One alternative is that there is an asymmetry between subject...

  1. A systematic review of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in India: current understanding and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Shalini

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS-related stigma is recognised as a major barrier to HIV prevention efforts and an impediment to mitigating its impact on individuals and communities. This paper reviews the existing research literature on AIDS stigma in India with the objective of documenting the current status of research, highlighting major findings and identifying key gaps remaining. Thirty publications were identified through a careful search of which a majority focused on stigma assessment and very few on stigma measurement, conceptual aspects of stigma or stigma reduction interventions. A few standardised stigma measures are available but more are required to assess causes of stigma among general population and compounded and internalised stigma among positive people. Research exploring linkages between stigma and HIV services uptake or the effect of HIV care and treatment programs on stigma levels are largely missing and need to be prioritised. In addition, more research is needed to advance conceptual understanding of stigma within the cultural context of the country including research on the neglected groups such as, transgender people. Context-specific (health care, community) interventions are needed to address various forms of stigma - enacted, perceived, internalised and layered - including structural approaches besides inter-personal and information-based approaches. A major gap relates to meager research on developing and evaluating stigma reduction interventions and needs priority focus. Overall, the review recommends developing a national agenda on AIDS stigma research and interventions to help realise the government's goal of stigma reduction.

  2. A critical review of gender issues in understanding prolonged disability related to musculoskeletal pain: how are they relevant to rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Daniel; Coutu, Marie-France

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this critical review is to describe the available theoretical models for understanding the gender issues in prolonged work disability related to persistent musculoskeletal (MSK) pain. A critical literature review was conducted in medicine, health sciences, and social sciences databases (MEDLINE, CINHAL, PsychINFO and SOCINDEX) using specific keywords. After screening titles and abstracts, followed by methodological quality assessment, a total of 55 references were retained for content analysis. Gender issues in disability related to persistent MSK pain show that men and women may experience pain and rehabilitation process in different ways. Three main themes were exftracted and further described: (1) the experience of distrust; (2) the self-identity process; and (3) the domestic strain. Each of these themes has a specific and potentially different impact on men and women, and we report that experiential differences may strongly impact the rehabilitation process and outcomes such as return to work. This critical review provides insight into gender issues in the process of rehabilitation and outcomes such as return to work. We suggest that work and family considerations are the two most important issues in the rehabilitation process and that differences between men and women are likely to occur.

  3. Understanding and mapping local conflicts related to protected areas in small islands: a case study of the Azores archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing Protected Areas (PAs is considered one of the most appropriate ways to conserve nature and cultural landscapes. However, conservation constraints can generate social conflicts, especially at a local level. In small islands (SIs, local conflicts may escalate due to an increase in competition for limited space and resources. Pico island in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal, part of the Outermost European region, was considered a good case to study conservation-development conflicts due to the amount of designated protected land (> 35% of its surface and the approval of a new Azorean PA network in 2007. This paper presents a new approach to understanding and mapping local conflicts within PAs in SIs by integrating qualitative data and spatially explicit information. This research takes stock of the benefits, needs and constraints related to Pico Natural Park as perceived by local stakeholders through face-to-face semi-structured interviews; it subsequently identifies and transposes the conflicts distilled from stakeholder discourse into spatially representative visual maps via GIS. Research outcomes show that PAs are perceived mainly as constraints to local development, showing inconsistency between local expectations and regional conservation policy. This highlights the importance of including public participation processes prior to any implementation of conservation strategies. The proposed method provides a springboard towards effective conflict management for PAs on Pico island, showing a relatively low-cost and straightforward approach to minimising future local conflicts which could be adapted to other similar Outermost European regions and SIs.

  4. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necka, Elizabeth A.; Sokolowski, H. Moriah; Lyons, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s self – self-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated. PMID

  5. Understanding the Relative Influence of Anthropogenic Versus Natural Nitrogen on Biogeochemical Processes in the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, K.; Howard, M. D.; Beck, C. D. A.; Emler, L.; Nezlin, N. P.; Sutula, M.

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) pollution is considered to be one of the most significant consequences of human-accelerated global change on coastal oceans (Howarth and Marino 2006). In the southern California Bight, wastewater effluent represents 92% of total terrestrial N loading and these loads are equivalent to the "background" N flux from upwelling (Howard et al. 2014). In this study, we attempt to quantify the relative influence of the two dominant nitrogen sources to the Bight (wastewater effluent and upwelled nitrogen) on biogeochemical processes linked to dissolved oxygen, pH and algal blooms. We will compare the sources and fate of nitrogen in an effluent impacted region (offshore of Los Angeles and Orange Counties) to minimally-impacted regions both along the coastline (offshore of Northern San Diego County) and two offshore stations. Key rates of nitrogen and carbon cycling are measured, including primary production and respiration, nitrogen uptake by primary producers, and nitrification. Stable isotope tracer techniques have also been applied to determine the relative influence of effluent versus upwelled nitrogen on biological communities and concentrations. Data generated from this study will be used to validate calculated rate constants used in oceanographic models of ecological response from natural and anthropogenic nutrient inputs in the Bight. These models will be used to estimate the extent to which anthropogenic nutrients are affecting primary production, acidification and hypoxia, as well as which regions are most at risk. They will also be used to analyze management scenarios to understand the effects of anthropogenic nutrient load reductions relative to climate change scenarios.

  6. 48 CFR 52.222-13 - Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. 52.222-13 Section 52.222-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-13 Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. As prescribed in 22.407(a), insert the following clause: Compliance With Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations...

  7. Understanding and retention of trial-related information among participants in a clinical trial after completing the informed consent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexas, Fernanda; Efron, Anne; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Cailleaux-Cezar, Michelle; Chaisson, Richard E; Conde, Marcus B

    2014-02-01

    for assessing the level of understanding of trial-related information during the informed consent (IC) process in developing countries are lacking. To assess the understanding and retention of trial-related information presented in the IC process by administering an informed consent assessment instrument (ICAI) to participants in a clinical trial for a new tuberculosis (TB) regimen being conducted in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Methods The format of the ICAI was based on the language and structure of the United States National Cancer Institute's IC comprehension checklist. The ICAI was designed to assess points of the RioMAR study IC process that addressed the principles of research ethics requested by Brazilian Regulatory Authority: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Briefly, (1) Is the respondent participating in a clinical trial? (2) Are two different treatments being evaluated? (3) Is the treatment arm chosen by chance? (4) Is an HIV test required? (5) Are liver function tests required? (6) Can participants leave the study at any time? (7) Are the risks and benefits of taking part in the study clear? (8) May pregnant women participate in the study? (9) Can one of the study drugs reduce the effectiveness of contraceptives? (10) Are patients paid to participate in the study? The ICAI was applied at two time points: immediately after enrollment in the clinical trial and 2 months later. A total of 61 patients who enrolled in the RioMAR study participated in this study. The percentage of correct answers to all questions was 82% at the time of the first ICAI; 31 participants (51%) did not recall that an HIV test was required (question 4) and 43 (70%) did not know that they could leave the study (question 6). Other individual questions were answered correctly by at least 76% of participants. There was no association between incorrect answers and age, gender, monthly family income, neighborhood, or level of education (p > 0.07). When the responses to the

  8. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  9. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  10. A Qualitative Study of Urban and Suburban Elementary Student Understandings of Pest-Related Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Cary J.

    2000-01-01

    Clinical interviews with nine fifth graders revealed that experiences play a pivotal role in their understanding of pests. They lack well-developed schema and language to discuss pest management. A foundation of core biological concepts was necessary for understanding pests and pest management. (Conatains 34 references.) (SK)

  11. Learning-Related Changes in Adolescents' Neural Networks during Hypothesis-Generating and Hypothesis-Understanding Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ki; Kwon, Yongju

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen science high school students participated in this study, which investigated neural-network plasticity associated with hypothesis-generating and hypothesis-understanding in learning. The students were divided into two groups and participated in either hypothesis-generating or hypothesis-understanding type learning programs, which were…

  12. Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Science Process Skills in Relation to Their Teaching Qualifications and Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahali, Edy H. M.; Halim, Lilia; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the understanding of science process skills (SPS) of 329 science teachers from 52 primary schools selected by random sampling. The understanding of SPS was measured in terms of conceptual and operational aspects of SPS using an instrument called the "Science Process Skills Questionnaire" (SPSQ) with a Cronbach's…

  13. Can Children Construct Inverse Relations in Arithmetic? Evidence for Individual Differences in the Development of Conceptual Understanding and Computational Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Camilla K.; Bryant, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Understanding conceptual relationships is an important aspect of learning arithmetic. Most studies of arithmetic, however, do not distinguish between children's understanding of a concept and their ability to identify situations in which it might be relevant. We compared 8- to 9-year-old children's use of a computational shortcut based on the…

  14. Understanding discrepancies in parent-child reporting of emotional and behavioural problems: Effects of relational and socio-demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyerdahl Sonja

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Methods Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Conclusions Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family

  15. Understanding discrepancies in parent-child reporting of emotional and behavioural problems: Effects of relational and socio-demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roy, Betty; Groholt, Berit; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne

    2010-07-16

    Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family's psychosocial status should be integrated in the overall

  16. Senior High School Students' Errors on the Use of Relative Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Relative clause is one of the most important language points in College English Examination. Teachers have been attaching great importance to the teaching of relative clause, but the outcomes are not satisfactory. Based on Error Analysis theory, this article aims to explore the reasons why senior high school students find it difficult to choose…

  17. Mundane science use in a practice theoretical perspective: Different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public communication initiatives build on scientific claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkier, Bente

    2015-08-13

    Public communication initiatives play a part in placing complicated scientific claims in citizen-consumers' everyday contexts. Lay reactions to scientific claims framed in public communication, and attempts to engage citizens, have been important subjects of discussion in the literatures of public understanding and public engagement with science. Many of the public communication initiatives, however, address lay people as consumers rather than citizens. This creates specific challenges for understanding public engagement with science and scientific citizenship. The article compares five different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public issue communication involving science, where the first four types are widely represented in the Public Understanding of Science discussions. The fifth understanding is a practice theoretical perspective. The article suggests how the public understanding of and engagement in science literature can benefit from including a practice theoretical approach to research about mundane science use and public engagement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. 75 FR 1788 - General Services Administration Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Packing List Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael O. Jackson, Procurement Analyst, Contract Policy Branch, by telephone (202) 208-4949 or via e- mail at michaelo.jackson@gsa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose GSAR clause 552...

  19. 76 FR 2761 - Proposed Information Collection (Department of Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulations Clause...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... contracts for the acquisition of non-personal health care services. It requires the bidder/offeror prior to... Regulation clause 52.207-3, Right of First Refusal of Employment. Affected Public: Business or other for...

  20. 76 FR 16043 - Agency Information Collection (Department of Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulations Clause 852...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... contracts for the acquisition of non-personal health care services. It requires the bidder/offeror prior to... Acquisition Regulation Clause 52.207-3, Right of First Refusal of Employment. An agency may not conduct or...

  1. 48 CFR 1819.708 - Contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business... shall use the clause at FAR 52.219-9 with its Alternate II when contracting by negotiation. ...

  2. Unsafe occupational health behaviours: Understanding mercury-related environmental health risks to artisanal gold miners in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ato Armah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between environmental exposure and health outcomes is complex, multidirectional and dynamic. Therefore, we need an understanding of these linkages for effective health risk communication. Despite the severe health hazards, artisanal gold mining is widespread globally, with an estimated 30 million people engaged in it. In this study, the relationships between artisanal gold miners’ knowledge of environmental and health effects of Hg and compositional, contextual and occupational factors were assessed using generalized linear models (negative log-log regression. A cross-sectional survey in three urban gold mining hubs in Ghana (Prestea, Tarkwa and Damang, was carried out among 588 (482 male and 106 female artisanal gold miners. The results showed that 89% of artisanal gold miners had very low to low levels of knowledge whereas 11% had moderate to very high levels of knowledge of deleterious health effects of Hg. Also, individuals who perceived their health-related work conditions to be excellent had very low to low levels of knowledge of environmental and health effects of Hg. Interestingly, artisanal gold miners who were still working were less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their counterparts who were currently unemployed. Similarly, artisanal gold miners who had attained either primary or secondary education were less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their counterparts who had no formal education. This finding, although counterintuitive, can be understood within the fact that artisanal gold miners in Ghana without formal education tend to have considerably higher number of years of practical experience compared with their counterparts with formal education. Female artisanal gold miners were 68% less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their male counterparts (OR=0.32, p<0.05. Artisanal gold miners who had

  3. Understanding Leisure-related Program Effects by Using Process Data in the HealthWise South Africa Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Linda L; Younker, Anita S; Wegner, Lisa; Patrick, Megan E; Vergnani, Tania; Smith, Edward A; Flisher, Alan J

    2008-01-01

    As the push for evidence-based programming gathers momentum, many human services programs and interventions are under increased scrutiny to justify their effectiveness across different conditions and populations. Government agencies and the public want to be assured that their resources are being put to good use on programs that are effective and efficient (Guskey, 2000). Thus, programs are increasingly based on theory and evaluated through randomized control trials using longitudinal data. Despite this progress, hypothesized outcomes are often not detected and/or their effect sizes are small (Gingiss, Roberts-Gray, Boerm, 2006). Moreover, findings may go against intuition or "gut feelings" on the part of project staff. Given the need to understand how program implementation issues relate to outcomes, this study focuses on whether process measures that focus on program implementation and fidelity can shed light on associated outcomes. In particular, we linked the process evaluation of the HealthWise motivation lesson with outcomes across four waves of data collection. We hypothesized that HealthWise would increase learners' intrinsic and identified forms of motivation, and decrease amotivation and extrinsic motivation. We did not hypothesize a direction of effects on introjected motivation due to its conceptual ambiguity. Data came from youth in four intervention schools (n = 902, 41.1%) and five control schools (n = 1291, 58.9%) who were participating in a multi-cohort, longitudinal study. The schools were in a township near Cape Town, South Africa. For each cohort, baseline data are collected on learners as they begin Grade 8. We currently have four waves of data collected on the first cohort, which is the focus of this paper. The mean age of the sample at Wave 3 was 15.0 years (SD = .86) and 51% of students were female. Results suggested that there was evidence of an overall program effect of the curriculum on amotivation regardless of fidelity of implementation

  4. Shaping legal abortion provision in Ghana: using policy theory to understand provider-related obstacles to policy implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in Ghana; despite its liberal abortion law, access to safe, legal abortion in public health facilities is limited. Theory is often neglected as a tool for providing evidence to inform better practice; in this study we investigated the reasons for poor implementation of the policy in Ghana using Lipsky’s theory of street-level bureaucracy to better understand how providers shape and implement policy and how provider-level barriers might be overcome. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 health professionals of different levels (managers, obstetricians, midwives) at three hospitals in Accra, as well as staff from smaller and private sector facilities. Relevant policy and related documents were also analysed. Results Findings confirm that health providers’ views shape provision of safe-abortion services. Most prominently, providers experience conflicts between their religious and moral beliefs about the sanctity of (foetal) life and their duty to provide safe-abortion care. Obstetricians were more exposed to international debates, treaties, and safe-abortion practices and had better awareness of national research on the public health implications of unsafe abortions; these factors tempered their religious views. Midwives were more driven by fundamental religious values condemning abortion as sinful. In addition to personal views and dilemmas, ‘social pressures’ (perceived views of others concerning abortion) and the actions of facility managers affected providers’ decision to (openly) provide abortion services. In order to achieve a workable balance between these pressures and duties, providers use their ‘discretion’ in deciding if and when to provide abortion services, and develop ‘coping mechanisms’ which impede implementation of abortion policy. Conclusions The application of theory confirmed its utility in a lower-middle income setting and expanded its scope by showing that

  5. Birds through a ceiling of alabast: genderproblematiek in de romans van Hugo Claus

    OpenAIRE

    Lech, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In the novels of Hugo Claus in which an "impossible love" is an important issue, we find, almost without exception, characters having characteristics that are typical for members of the opposite sex. (Latent) homosexuality plays an important role. The androgyny theme is the main theme in most of Claus' novels. There are two sources to be designated for this theme. In the first place, that is Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis. The other source is the ancient belief that man is an androgynou...

  6. "If I Had to Do It, Then I Would": Understanding Early Middle School Students' Perceptions of Physics and Physics-Related Careers by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily A.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls' and boys' perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and…

  7. Children's understanding of fraction and decimal symbols and the notation-specific relation to pre-algebra ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle A; Cordes, Sara

    2018-04-01

    Fraction and decimal concepts are notoriously difficult for children to learn yet are a major component of elementary and middle school math curriculum and an important prerequisite for higher order mathematics (i.e., algebra). Thus, recently there has been a push to understand how children think about rational number magnitudes in order to understand how to promote rational number understanding. However, prior work investigating these questions has focused almost exclusively on fraction notation, overlooking the open questions of how children integrate rational number magnitudes presented in distinct notations (i.e., fractions, decimals, and whole numbers) and whether understanding of these distinct notations may independently contribute to pre-algebra ability. In the current study, we investigated rational number magnitude and arithmetic performance in both fraction and decimal notation in fourth- to seventh-grade children. We then explored how these measures of rational number ability predicted pre-algebra ability. Results reveal that children do represent the magnitudes of fractions and decimals as falling within a single numerical continuum and that, despite greater experience with fraction notation, children are more accurate when processing decimal notation than when processing fraction notation. Regression analyses revealed that both magnitude and arithmetic performance predicted pre-algebra ability, but magnitude understanding may be particularly unique and depend on notation. The educational implications of differences between children in the current study and previous work with adults are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cassie: A Gifted Musician. Socio-Cultural and Educational Perspectives Related to the Development of Musical Understanding in Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michelle M.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study focuses on the intrinsic value of musical understanding and how it is influenced by socio-cultural and educational factors shaping the development of a gifted adolescent. Using Gross's (1993) model of case studies of exceptionally gifted children, the student was identified for her innate abilities, and studied using the…

  9. MEDIATION CLAUSE IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS (THE ADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION CLAUSE IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Florinel Augustin Ignat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It often happens that the end of the contracts to be existing commercial relationships and a new contract has already intuitu personae character. But not always the case, that those who enter into legal commercial forcing consideration to the benefits and under commercial contracts, know the dealer or individual that established commercial relations. These traders resort to contractual conditions which states precisely the extent of the obligations assumed by each party, setting rules, deadlines, penalties and even ways of interpretation of contracts. Contracting Parties, namely traders aware that the law is the contract parties by special caluze invest ( to settle disputes concerning the interpretation or punishment for failure and even termination obligations tribunalule arbitration courts or the territorial and material .

  10. Headache-Specific Locus of Control and Migraine-Related Quality of Life: Understanding the Role of Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Amy S; Seng, Elizabeth K

    2017-02-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between headache-specific locus of control (HSLC) and migraine-related quality of life, and anxiety as a mediator of this relationship. Two hundred and thirty-two people with migraine participated in the treatment of severe migraine trial. At baseline, participants completed self-report questionnaires of headache-specific locus of control (HSLC; subscales = internal, chance, and medical professionals), anxiety, and migraine-related quality of life. Correlations examined relationships between HSLC, anxiety, and migraine-related quality of life; ordinary least squares regression evaluated anxiety as a mediator of the relationship between HSLC and migraine-related quality of life. Higher internal HSLC was related to higher overall migraine-related quality of life (ps Anxiety mediated the relationship between internal HSLC and all measures of migraine-specific quality of life (ps Anxiety mediates the relationship between internal HSLC and migraine-related quality of life.

  11. Optimal Time-Consistent Investment Strategy for a DC Pension Plan with the Return of Premiums Clauses and Annuity Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Lei Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Defined contribution and annuity contract are merged into one pension plan to study both accumulation phase and distribution phase, which results in such effects that both phases before and after retirement being “defined”. Under the Heston’s stochastic volatility model, this paper focuses on mean-variance insurers with the return of premiums clauses to study the optimal time-consistent investment strategy for the DC pension merged with an annuity contract. Both accumulation phase before retirement and distribution phase after retirement are studied. In the time-consistent framework, the extended Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations associated with the optimization problem are established. Applying stochastic optimal control technique, the time-consistent explicit solutions of the optimal strategies and the efficient frontiers are obtained. In addition, numerical analysis illustrates our results and also deepens our knowledge or understanding of the research results.

  12. Understanding the relational impact of the health care marketing exchange: a review of the social implications of therapeutic communicator style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B C

    1987-09-01

    Though the benefits derived from verbal communication between practitioner and patient often are beyond the control of most health care marketers, this encounter includes nearly all of the personality and social appeals that are critical to the development of a successful and long-lasting marketing exchange. To enable marketers of health care to understand more fully the communication context in which practitioners operate, the author reviews the social implications of therapeutic communicator style.

  13. Cultural understanding in the provision of supportive and palliative care: perspectives in relation to an indigenous population

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Grace; Vukic, Adele; Parker, Skylan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The provision of supportive and palliative care for an indigenous people in Nova Scotia, Canada, was examined to further our understanding and thereby improve cultural competency. Most of Nova Scotia's indigenous people are Mi'kmaq. The Mi'kmaq Nation lives in Atlantic Canada as well as New England in the eastern USA. Methods Themes were identified in the literature and through discussion with seven experts who have Mi'kmaq health and cultural research expertise. This paper has bee...

  14. Santa Claus visited CERN on Saturday, 3 December!

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Ever since its creation, the Staff Association has organised an annual Children’s Christmas Party. This party brings together 5- to 7-year-old children of employed members of the personnel. On Saturday, 3 December, the Staff Association welcomed no less than 230 children who attended with joy and enthusiasm a magical clown show presented at 13.30 and 15.30. After the show, they were offered a snack in Restaurant 1. We would like to thank Novae for their generous contribution, as well as their personnel for their valuable help. Then, Santa Claus himself came to hand out presents to the children. The Staff Association would also like to warmly thank him for despite his busy schedule for the season, he took the time to bring happiness and joy to little ones and older ones alike! Finally, we would like to thank all the parents who volunteered to help look after the children. Their presence and contribution are indispensable for the success of the party. This year, the Staff Association’s organ...

  15. Exploring learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and their relations with science text understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Li-Ling; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and how these beliefs were associating with their understanding of science texts. About 400 10th graders were involved in the development and validation of the Beliefs about Science Reading Inventory (BSRI). To find the effects of reader beliefs and epistemic beliefs, a new group of 65 10th grade students whose reader and epistemic beliefs were assessed by the newly developed BSRI and an existing SEB questionnaire were invited to take part in a science reading task. Students' text understanding in terms of concept gain and text interpretations was collected and analyzed. By the correlation analysis, it was found that when students had stronger beliefs about meaning construction based on personal goals and experiences (i.e. transaction beliefs), they produced more thematic and critical interpretations of the content of the test article. The regression analysis suggested that students SEBs could predict concept gain as a result of reading. Moreover, among all beliefs examined in the study, transaction beliefs stood out as the best predictor of overall science-text understanding.

  16. THE EFFECTS OF NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC STYLE ON THE UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENTIFIC INNOVATION--SPECIAL RELATIVITY, A CASE HISTORY. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOLDBERG, STANLEY

    COMPARED ARE THE RESPONSES TO EINSTEIN'S THEORY OF RELATIVITY IN FOUR COUNTRIES BETWEEN THE YEARS 1905 AND 1911. THE COUNTRIES STUDIED ARE GERMANY, FRANCE, ENGLAND, AND THE UNITED STATES. ON THE BASIS OF THE RESPONSE, NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC STYLES ARE IDENTIFIED, AND THESE STYLES ARE RELATED TO PREVIOUS NATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DOING SCIENCE AND…

  17. "No-hire" clauses in healthcare sector contracts: their use and enforceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, W Eugene

    2006-01-01

    In today's healthcare industry, many hospitals utilize outside agencies for both business and clinical functions. This Article acknowledges the prevalence of outsourcing contract labor in the healthcare arena and focuses on the restrictive provisions included in these employment contracts, particularly "no-hire" clauses. No-hire clauses are often included in contracts between healthcare providers and professional groups that provide clinical service employees to the provider, such as a medical practice group providing physicians to a hospital or an agency providing nurses to a nursing home. These clauses usually provide that the healthcare provider may not directly hire an employee provided by the professional group, nor may it contract with another professional group that later hires the employee. The purpose of a no-hire clause is two-fold: to protect the professional group's investment of time and moneyfor recruiting, training, and establishing the employee's clinical practice, and to give the professional group leverage to retain its employees. While noncompete clauses in employment contracts have traditionally been the subject of litigation, no-hire clauses raise distinct legal issues. Case law provides conflicting views as to the enforceability of these provisions. Some courts find no-hire clauses to be per se illegal restrictions on trade, while others will permit them when they are reasonable within a specific context. The author proposes that a multifactor test be applied on a case-by-case basis to determine the reasonableness of the no-hire provision in a given employment contract and suggests drafting improvements to facilitate enforcement.

  18. Proportionality And The Limitation Clauses Of The South African Bill Of Rights

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    IM (Ig Rautenbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available "Proportionality" is a contemporary heavy-weight concept which has been described as an element of a globalised international grammar and as a foundational element of global constitutionalism. The article firstly describes the elements of proportionality as they are generally understood in foreign systems, namely whether the limitation pursues a legitimate aim, whether the limitation is capable of achieving this aim, whether the act impairs the right as little as possible and the so-called balancing stage when it must be determined whether the achievement of the aim outweighs the limitation imposed. The German academic Alexy (Theorie der Grundrechte (1986 developed what he called a mathematical weight formula to deal with the balancing stage. An overview is provided of how the elements of proportionality were dealt with in the text of the South African interim Constitution of 1994, the early jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court, and in the text of the final Constitution of 1996. Contemporary South African academic criticism of the use of the concept is also analysed. The article then endeavours to relate the elements of Alexy’s weight formula to both the elements of the South African general limitation clause in section 36 of the Constitution and to the appearance of such elements in the formulation of specific rights in the Bill of Rights. Although the levels of abstraction reached in the debates on the Alexy formula are so daunting that it is most unlikely that South African courts and practitioners will ever use it, certain valuable insights can be gained from it for the purposes of dealing with proportionality within the context of the limitation of rights in South Africa. Despite opposition from certain academics, proportionality is a prominent feature of the application of the limitation clauses in the South African Constitution. The elements of proportionality provides a useful tool for the application, within the context of the

  19. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth A Necka; H Moriah Sokolowski; Ian M Lyons

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individual...

  20. Areas of Confusion in Pathologist-Clinician Communication as it Relates to Understanding the Vulvar Pathology Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Debra S

    2017-10-01

    Pathologist-clinician communication has been an ongoing topic in the literature. Pathology reports are geared to assisting clinicians with patient therapy, but sometimes there are barriers to communication. This survey aims to explore clinicians' understanding of their pathology reports in the membership of the International Society for Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD). An email survey was sent to all members of the ISSVD. Surveys were emailed to 397 members, with 91 responding (23 %). Most (76%) of the respondents were gynecologists, with 13% dermatologists and 6% advanced-practice nurses. Thirty-nine percent of respondents did not always understand their pathology reports, 62% did not know the difference between levels and recuts, 71% were unclear as to why levels rather than recuts would be ordered, and 26% was not familiar with the term "spongiosis." Over 94% read the gross description on a pathology report. Over 90% reported speaking with their pathologist, which they considered important. They considered having a pathologist with specialty expertise important. Clinician members of the ISSVD are particularly attuned to the importance of pathology consultation in the care of women with vulvovaginal conditions. There are still areas for potential improvement in educational efforts, particularly providing information on how pathology laboratory processes may impact the report, as well as in further education in dermatopathology terminology for those unfamiliar.