WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding public attitudes

  1. Nuclear attitudes and personality: informing our understanding of public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.R.; Donev, J. M.; Ellard, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    What distinguishes the supporter of nuclear power from the antagonist? The influence that public opinions may have on industry success necessitates a greater understanding of the reasons and factors behind public attitudes. The present study identified two psychometric traits, Emotionality and Need for Cognition, which were related to nuclear support even after accounting for gender differences. This paper discusses the implications of these findings for understanding nuclear attitudes and ends by proposing avenues for future research in this area. (author)

  2. Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning.

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Richard; Barnett, Julie; Cooper, Helen; Coyle, Adrian; Moran-Ellis, Jo; Senior, Victoria; Walton, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This is a post-print version. The official published version can be accessed from the link below - Copyright @ 2007 Elsevier Ltd. The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an...

  3. Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Richard; Barnett, Julie; Cooper, Helen; Coyle, Adrian; Moran-Ellis, Jo; Senior, Victoria; Walton, Chris

    2007-07-01

    The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups and analyses of media coverage. Overall the research presents a complex picture of attitude to and constructions of human cloning. In all of the analyses, therapeutic cloning was viewed more favourably than reproductive cloning. However, while participants in the focus groups were generally negative about both forms of cloning, and this was also reflected in the media analyses, quantitative results showed more positive responses. In the quantitative research, therapeutic cloning was generally accepted when the benefits of such procedures were clear, and although reproductive cloning was less accepted there was still substantial support. Participants in the focus groups only differentiated between therapeutic and reproductive cloning after the issue of therapeutic cloning was explicitly raised; initially they saw cloning as being reproductive cloning and saw no real benefits. Attitudes were shown to be associated with underlying values associated with scientific progress rather than with age, gender or education, and although there were a few differences in the quantitative data based on religious affiliation, these tended to be small effects. Likewise in the focus groups there was little direct appeal to religion, but the main themes were 'interfering with nature' and the 'status of the embryo', with the latter being used more effectively to try to close down further discussion. In general there was a close correspondence between the media analysis and focus group responses, possibly demonstrating the importance of media as a resource, or that the media reflect

  4. Emotion in obesity discourse: understanding public attitudes towards regulations for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Lucy C; Warin, Megan J; Moore, Vivienne M; Street, Jackie M

    2016-05-01

    Intense concern about obesity in the public imagination and in political, academic and media discourses has catalysed advocacy efforts to implement regulatory measures to reduce the occurrence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. This article explores public attitudes towards the possible implementation of regulations to address obesity by analysing emotions within popular discourses. Drawing on reader comments attached to obesity-relevant news articles published on Australian news and current affairs websites, we examine how popular anxieties about the 'obesity crisis' and vitriol directed at obese individuals circulate alongside understandings of the appropriate role of government to legitimise regulatory reform to address obesity. Employing Ahmed's theorisation of 'affective economies' and broader literature on emotional cultures, we argue that obesity regulations achieve popular support within affective economies oriented to neoliberal and individualist constructions of obesity. These economies preclude constructions of obesity as a structural problem in popular discourse; instead positioning anti-obesity regulations as a government-endorsed vehicle for discrimination directed at obese people. Findings implicate a new set of ethical challenges for those championing regulatory reform for obesity prevention. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  5. Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Meat Chicken Production and Relations to Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erian, Ihab; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-03-09

    Little is known about public knowledge of meat chicken production and how it influences attitudes to birds' welfare and consumer behaviour. We interviewed 506 members of the public in SE Queensland; Australia; to determine how knowledge of meat chicken production and slaughter links to attitudes and consumption. Knowledge was assessed from 15 questions and low scores were supported by respondents' self-assessed report of low knowledge levels and agreement that their knowledge was insufficient to form an opinion about which chicken products to purchase. Older respondents and single people without children were most knowledgeable. There was uncertainty about whether chicken welfare was adequate, particularly in those with little knowledge. There was also evidence that a lack of empathy towards chickens related to lack of knowledge, since those that thought it acceptable that some birds are inadequately stunned at slaughter had low knowledge scores. More knowledgeable respondents ate chicken more frequently and were less likely to buy products with accredited labelling. Approximately half of the respondents thought the welfare of the chicken was more important than the cost. It is concluded that the public's knowledge has an important connection to their attitudes and consumption of chicken.

  6. Understanding key influencers' attitudes and beliefs about healthy public policy change for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Kim D; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Vu-Nguyen, Karen; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; VanSpronsen, Eric; Reed, Shandy; Wild, T Cameron

    2014-11-01

    As overweight and obesity is a risk factor for chronic diseases, the development of environmental and healthy public policy interventions across multiple sectors has been identified as a key strategy to address this issue. In 2009, a survey was developed to assess the attitudes and beliefs regarding health promotion principles, and the priority and acceptability of policy actions to prevent obesity and chronic diseases, among key policy influencers in Alberta and Manitoba, Canada. Surveys were mailed to 1,765 key influencers from five settings: provincial government, municipal government, school boards, print media companies, and workplaces with greater than 500 employees. A total of 236 surveys were completed with a response rate of 15.0%. Findings indicate nearly unanimous influencer support for individual-focused policy approaches and high support for some environmental policies. Restrictive environmental and economic policies received weakest support. Obesity was comparable to smoking with respect to perceptions as a societal responsibility versus a personal responsibility, boding well for the potential of environmental policy interventions for obesity prevention. This level of influencer support provides a platform for more evidence to be brokered to policy influencers about the effectiveness of environmental policy approaches to obesity prevention. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  7. The State of Public Opinion Research on Attitudes and Understanding of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, John C.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a critical and global overview of current research into public opinion about science and technology (S&T). Although several sets of high-quality data exist, there remains a lack of international coordination and irregular release of new data in forms that can be widely used. The article highlights a range of key…

  8. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. Ormandy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine, and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science. As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature.

  9. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Schuppli, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. Abstract The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine), and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science). As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature. PMID:26480314

  10. Public attitudes to sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2001-01-01

    There is a lot of information around on public attitudes to sustainable development, with varying degrees of reliability and relevance. Most of the work referred to here is UK based and comes from DETR, the British Social Attitudes survey and MORI surveys carried out for various groups. This report provides an enlightening overview of current attitudes. Publisher PDF

  11. Understanding public attitudes to road-user safety – literature review: final report road safety research report no. 112.

    OpenAIRE

    Musselwhite, C.; Avineri, E.; Fulcher, E.; Goodwin, P.; Susilo, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Context and scope: \\ud – The literature reviewed in this report is primarily UK based and published post 2000. \\ud – In total, 72 articles have been reviewed in-depth and represent a mixture of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methodology primary research and a variety of reviews (see Appendix 2). \\ud – A wider definition of attitudes was incorporated to include a variety of psychosocial variables, such as social norms, risk, identity and impression management, pro-social behaviour, habit,...

  12. Public Attitudes Toward Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims Bainbridge, William

    2002-01-01

    Data from 3909 respondents to an Internet survey questionnaire provide the first insights into public perceptions of nanotechnology. Quantitative analysis of statistics about agreement and disagreement with two statements, one positive and the other negative, reveals high levels of enthusiasm for the potential benefits of nanotechnology and little concern about possible dangers. The respondents mentally connect nanotechnology with the space program, nuclear power, and cloning research, but rate it more favorably. In contrast, they do not associate nanotechnology with pseudoscience, despite its imaginative exploitation by science fiction writers. Qualitative analysis of written comments from 598 respondents indicates that many ideas about the value of nanotechnology have entered popular culture, and it provides material for an additional 108 questionnaire items that can be used in future surveys on the topic. The findings of this exploratory study can serve as benchmarks against which to compare results of future research on the evolving status of nanotechnology in society

  13. Understanding and managing risk attitude

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hillson, David; Murray-Webster, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    ... This book highlights how risk attitude factors influence the human psyche, and carefully explains the impacts. Organisations seeking to dramatically improve the effectiveness of their risk management process will want to use this book's insights. Craig Peterson, President, PMI Risk Management SIG This book has prompted me to think more deeply as a change d...

  14. Understanding Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.S. de

    2016-01-01

    Public administration – the practice of producing and executing government policy by bureaucrats, politicians, managers and other officials – affects almost everything we encounter in our day-to-day lives. Public administrators are – at least partially – responsible for the amount of hours we work,

  15. Recent public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.E.O.

    This paper reviews recent public attitudes to nuclear power in Canada and the state of empirical knowledge about these attitudes referring specifically to studies carried out in Ontario. It discusses interest groups as a factor in public attitudes and suggests some lines of investigation for social research. (author)

  16. Effect of demographic variables on public attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, background variables do have a significant effect on some of the dimensions of Malaysians' attitudes towards modern biotechnology. The research findings will be useful for understanding the effect of background variables on public attitudes towards the application of gene technology in medicine.

  17. Public attitudes toward nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    An earlier article (Bulletin Vol. 17, no. 4, August 1975) outlined the research programme of the Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project on risk assessment and presented some preliminary results. This project is co-sponsored by the IAEA and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, located at Laxenburg, near Vienna. Additional support is received from IAEA Member States who have indicated their interest in this research by seconding scientists, at no cost to the Agency, to work with the group for periods of one year or more. Secondments have been completed by scientists from the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, United States of America and Sweden. Additional secondments, or notice of intent, have now been received from France, Netherlands, Norway and South Africa. The research on risk assessment is oriented toward understanding how societies judge the acceptability of new technologies and how information on risks, and the expected responses to them, may be used in decision making. This article will briefly review one specific research area, that of attitude formation, and will illustrate how established models and techniques may be applied in order to gain insight into the relative importance of the specific technological, psychological and social factors which determine attitudes toward nuclear power

  18. Public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, John.

    1981-06-01

    The public is influenced against nuclear power by fear of a large accident, fear of radiation, worry about nuclear waste, and by the fact that it is a symbol of the bureaucratic, impersonal aspects of industrialized society. The nuclear industry must do several things to overcome this public concern. It must be more articulate in speaking to the public in a language the public understands and not in nuclear jargon; it must be strictly accurate and truthful in all statements, and if it believes the case it is putting forward is sound, it should defend the proposal and not promise to do even more to buy off criticism. Acceptance of nuclear power will either have to wait until the energy situation is desperate, or until the industry puts enough effort into presenting and defending its case to convince all objective people

  19. Effect of nuclear education on public attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    1995-01-01

    A method is proposed to assess the effect of nuclear education. In this method, the nuclear education is treated as a part of the activities for public acceptance (PA), and a unit PA activity is assumed to give the same effect on the public, in essence, as a unit of nuclear information given by the newsmedia. Moreover, the change of attitude to nuclear energy is assumed to originate from enhanced understanding which, in turn, is brought by the stimulus given by the nuclear education. With the values of constants determined by using the data in Japan, example calculations were made for the educational time b 0 and the infiltration rate of education into minors B as parameters. It became clear from this calculation that the attitude to nuclear energy formed in the age of school children plays an essential role in shaping future public opinion since it is held in individuals without any notable modification for a long time after its formation, and that the effect of nuclear education to minors emerges depending on the variables b 0 and B in a highly non-linear manner. It was also found that there exists an optimum condition for nuclear education to attain the maximum amelioration of public opinion under a given condition of man-power for educational workers. (author)

  20. [Public attitudes, private attitudes, 1610-1935].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrents, A

    1992-01-01

    The author examines marital and baptismal records for a parish in Barcelona, Spain, from 1610 to 1935 to determine the effects of the Catholic church's religious calendar on public life and on couples' private lives, as indicated by seasonal variations in marriages and births. He finds that during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, just four percent of all marriages took place during Lent, with this figure rising to nine percent by the twentieth century. Conceptions appear to have been affected by both the agricultural and the Catholic calendars, with the periods just before Lent and after Easter showing higher fertility rates. A lessening of these effects during the early 1900s is noted.

  1. Public attitude towards modern biotechnology | Amin | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the literature related to the main idea of the study, rooting from the definition of biotechnology, global status of commercialized biotechnology products, and global and local public attitudes towards modern biotechnology and past models for attitude towards modern biotechnology. The first section of the ...

  2. Public understanding of sustainable tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, G; Rathouse, K; Scarles, C; Holmes, K; Tribe, J

    2010-01-01

    If tourism is to become part of a more sustainable lifestyle, changes are needed to the patterns of behaviour adopted by the public. This paper presents the results of research conducted amongst members of the public in England on their understanding of sustainable tourism; their response to four desired tourism behaviour goals, and expectations about the role of government and the tourism industry in encouraging sustainable tourism. The research shows a lack of awareness of tourism’s impact ...

  3. Making sense of policy choices: understanding the roles of value predispositions, mass media, and cognitive processing in public attitudes toward nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Shirley S., E-mail: tsyho@ntu.edu.s [Nanyang Technological University, Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information (Singapore); Scheufele, Dietram A., E-mail: scheufele@wisc.ed [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Life Sciences Communication (United States); Corley, Elizabeth A., E-mail: elizabeth.corley@asu.ed [Arizona State University, School of Public Affairs (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Using a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,015 adults in the United States, this study examines how value predispositions, communication variables, and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with public support for federal funding of nanotechnology. Our findings show that highly religious individuals were less supportive of funding of nanotech than less religious individuals, whereas individuals who held a high deference for scientific authority were more supportive of funding of the emerging technology than those low in deference. Mass media use and elaborative processing of scientific news were positively associated with public support for funding, whereas factual scientific knowledge had no significant association with policy choices. The findings suggest that thinking about and reflecting upon scientific news promote better understanding of the scientific world and may provide a more sophisticated cognitive structure for the public to form opinions about nanotech than factual scientific knowledge. Finally, heuristic cues including trust in scientists and perceived risks and benefits of nanotech were found to be associated with public support for nanotech funding. We conclude with policy implications that will be useful for policymakers and science communication practitioners.

  4. Making sense of policy choices: understanding the roles of value predispositions, mass media, and cognitive processing in public attitudes toward nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley S.; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.

    2010-10-01

    Using a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,015 adults in the United States, this study examines how value predispositions, communication variables, and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with public support for federal funding of nanotechnology. Our findings show that highly religious individuals were less supportive of funding of nanotech than less religious individuals, whereas individuals who held a high deference for scientific authority were more supportive of funding of the emerging technology than those low in deference. Mass media use and elaborative processing of scientific news were positively associated with public support for funding, whereas factual scientific knowledge had no significant association with policy choices. The findings suggest that thinking about and reflecting upon scientific news promote better understanding of the scientific world and may provide a more sophisticated cognitive structure for the public to form opinions about nanotech than factual scientific knowledge. Finally, heuristic cues including trust in scientists and perceived risks and benefits of nanotech were found to be associated with public support for nanotech funding. We conclude with policy implications that will be useful for policymakers and science communication practitioners.

  5. Making sense of policy choices: understanding the roles of value predispositions, mass media, and cognitive processing in public attitudes toward nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Shirley S.; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,015 adults in the United States, this study examines how value predispositions, communication variables, and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with public support for federal funding of nanotechnology. Our findings show that highly religious individuals were less supportive of funding of nanotech than less religious individuals, whereas individuals who held a high deference for scientific authority were more supportive of funding of the emerging technology than those low in deference. Mass media use and elaborative processing of scientific news were positively associated with public support for funding, whereas factual scientific knowledge had no significant association with policy choices. The findings suggest that thinking about and reflecting upon scientific news promote better understanding of the scientific world and may provide a more sophisticated cognitive structure for the public to form opinions about nanotech than factual scientific knowledge. Finally, heuristic cues including trust in scientists and perceived risks and benefits of nanotech were found to be associated with public support for nanotech funding. We conclude with policy implications that will be useful for policymakers and science communication practitioners.

  6. Public attitudes towards nuclear risks and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Whenever a new technology is introduced, a natural attitude is mistrust due to uncertainties of effects and consequences. Such is the case of the fears expressed about the risk of nuclear power. Basing in newspaper coverage as an indicator of public awareness, nuclear power has been a recurring public issue in the Philippines since 1974. This gained momentum with the construction of the nuclear power plant in Bataan, aggrevated by the accident of the Three-Mile-Island. The role of information, the methods of public participation, and the involvement of scientific expertise play a major part in risk assessment. Nuclear controverses have developed over a period of time the newspaper and other media, public meetings and hearings have been used as arenas of these conflicts. Opinion polls in various countries have demonstrated that there is a growing disagreement among the public on how to evaluate options for future developments of our technology oriented society, including the nuclear. Risk assessment is therefore dependent on effective communication not only with the public but between scientists and decision makers. An approval to attitude measurement used here is the work of Fishbein that permits one to analyze the cooperative structure underlying attitudes. So many factors are considered like belief about psychological risks, sociopolitical risks, environmental and economic benefits beliefs that contribute to public attitudes. PAEC is participating in an international study being conducted by the Joint IAEA/IIASA Project in risk assessment for comparison of public attitudes towards various energy technologies with emphasis for the nuclear. (RTD)

  7. Ethics and policy: Dealing with public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The current trend towards ethical scrutiny and oversight is very much a social trend. Many of the results of this trend are perfectly reasonable but some go harmfully too far. In this paper, caution is advocated about public attitudes and social trends. Although there is often a degree of truth in them, there is an inevitable simplification of the issues involved. The more specific danger for the professions is to think that public attitudes and social trends simply deliver 'the ethical'. In this context a more adequate account of ethics is considered - one that is relevant for professions like radiology confronting the demands of ethical scrutiny and oversight. The paper concludes with some suggestions about how to incorporate the important aspects of public attitudes and social trends without being subservient to them. (authors)

  8. Public attitudes to genomic science: an experiment in information provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, Patrick; Brunton-Smith, Ian; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2010-03-01

    We use an experimental panel study design to investigate the effect of providing "value-neutral" information about genomic science in the form of a short film to a random sample of the British public. We find little evidence of attitude change as a function of information provision. However, our results show that information provision significantly increased dropout from the study amongst less educated respondents. Our findings have implications both for our understanding of the knowledge-attitude relationship in public opinion toward genomic science and for science communication more generally.

  9. Public Attitudes Toward Breastfeeding in Public Places in Ottawa, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Katherine; Ali, Amira

    2017-05-01

    In Ontario, Canada, breastfeeding in public is a protected right, yet even with these laws, attitudes toward breastfeeding in public can serve as a barrier to breastfeeding. Research aim: This study assesses public support for breastfeeding in public among adults in Ottawa, Ontario, and examines sociodemographic associations with negative attitudes toward public breastfeeding. Data from the 2015 Rapid Risk Factor Surveillance System (RRFSS), a population health telephone survey, were obtained for Ottawa. Adults ages 18 years and older were asked whether it was acceptable for a mother to breastfeed her baby in a restaurant and shopping mall ( n = 1,276). Descriptive statistics and regression were used to describe sociodemographic characteristics associated with negative attitudes. Overall, 75% of respondents agreed that it was acceptable for a mother to breastfeed her baby in both a restaurant and shopping mall (restaurant: 78%; shopping mall: 81%). Respondents who did not have children at home, were less educated, had a mother tongue language other than French or English and who were retirees were less likely to support breastfeeding in restaurants and shopping malls. In addition, women and immigrants living in Canada for more than 15 years were less likely to support breastfeeding in shopping malls. Despite a law to support public breastfeeding in Ontario, there is room to improve attitudes toward public breastfeeding. Increased public support for public breastfeeding can support women and children to achieve their feeding goals, particularly for those wanting to exclusively breastfeed.

  10. Public acceptance and public understanding: new approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobak, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes public relation activities at Bohunice NPPs. Until 1990, there was no need to provide information to the public. Since 1990, the need for public relation has been increased. (author)

  11. Public attitudes toward nuclear power and the TMI accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanga, B.K.

    1983-01-01

    This paper which examines the Three Mile Island accident in the context of public reactions to the plant in the surrounding area emphasises that public attitudes to nuclear power should be discussed according to two time frames - short and long range. Public perception of safety, reliability and economy may be different in the future and the role of the nuclear industry is to operate plants safely and ensure that the public gains a clearer understanding of the essential part played by nuclear reactors in generating electricity. (NEA) [fr

  12. Public attitudes toward life and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, D O

    1982-01-01

    Opinion trends in this country indicate sharp divisions in public sentiment over a number of life-taking actions. While legal abortion and capital punishment clearly head a list, a number of other issues have gained national attention in recent years. The present paper explores the structure of belief systems giving rise to normative conflicts of this kind. Of particular interest is the notion of a "pro-life" or other generic life orientation (e.g., the alleged "right-to-die" orientation of those who favor "mercy killings" in the case of terminally ill patients) as a possible explanation for public attitudes toward specific issues such as suicide and euthanasia. The present analysis assesses the empirical claims associated with such a model. The results offer qualified support for the existence of generic value orientations as revealed by public attitudes toward legal abortion, suicide, euthanasia, and capital punishment.

  13. Assisted suicide: factors affecting public attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, L T; Yeatts, D E

    Public support for assisted suicide has been growing despite the ethical questions raised by members of the medical profession. Previous research suggests that age, gender, experience, and religiosity are factors affecting individuals' attitudes. This study examines the effect of demographic and ideological factors, as well as individuals' caregiving experiences, on attitudes toward assisted suicide. Random-digit-dialing procedures produced a sample of 156 residents of Denton, Texas, in March 1998. T-tests were conducted to measure significance, while gamma values were used to measure level of association and percent reduction in error. The data indicate that age, gender, and caregiving experience were not significant predictors of attitudes. Situational factors, including whether a physician or friend/family member should assist and whether a child or a terminally ill patient experiencing no pain should receive assistance, all were highly significant and positively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide. Respondents were most likely to support physician-assisted suicide for individuals experiencing no pain. The data also indicated that the depth of commitment to the beliefs that suffering has meaning, that life belongs to God, and that physician-assisted suicide is murder, were highly significant and negatively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide.

  14. Public attitude toward xenotransplantation: opinion survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, A R; Conesa, C C; Ramírez, P; Rodríguez, M M; Parrilla, P

    2004-12-01

    Although xenotransplantation is still in an experimental phase, it is presented herein as a possible solution to the organ shortage. However, there are few data concerning how the general public would accept treatment with animal organs, especially after recent incidents of infections of animal origin, such as "avian influenza" or "SARS disease." The aim of this study was to determine the attitude of the general public toward xenotransplantation of organs. Using an opinion survey, a study was performed on a random sample of 250 subjects in an urban setting. The questionnaire was administered by personnel from the regional transplant coordination center. Completion of the form was self-directed and anonymous for each respondent. The attitude toward donation of human and animal organs was evaluated by analyzing different psychosocial variables that may influence this attitude. A descriptive statistical study was performed using Student's t test and the chi-square test. Ninety-eight percent of respondents completed the survey (n=245). As for human donation, 60% are in favor of cadaveric donation with 21% are in favor of living donation, a rate that increases to 74% if it is for a living partner. As for animal donation, if the results were similar to those obtained with human organs, 74% (n=181) would accept an animal organ if they needed it, as opposed to 18% (n=45) who were undecided and 8% (n=19) against (P <.005). Analysis of variables that influence attitudes toward xenotransplantation showed that this attitude was more positive among those having had a previous experience with transplantation (P=.028) and those having a positive attitude toward cadaveric donation (P=.007). Factors traditionally related to cadaveric donation, such as manipulation of the body or pro-social activities, showed no influence. In the population studied, a positive attitude toward xenotransplantation was greater than toward cadaveric donation, assuming the results of these two types of

  15. Altruism and skepticism in public attitudes toward food nanotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [University of Minnesota, Department of Educational Psychology, College of Education and Human Development (United States); Fatehi, L. [Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota (United States); Kuzma, J., E-mail: jkuzma@ncsu.edu [North Carolina State University, School of Public and International Affairs and Genetic Engineering and Society Center (United States)

    2015-03-15

    To better explore and understand the public's perceptions of and attitudes toward emerging technologies and food products, we conducted a US-based focus group study centered on nanotechnology, nano-food, and nano-food labeling. Seven focus groups were conducted in seven locations in two different US metropolitan areas from September 2010 to January 2011. In addition to revealing context-specific data on already established risk and public perception factors, our goal was to inductively identify other nano-food perception factors of significance for consideration when analyzing why and how perceptions and attitudes are formed to nanotechnology in food. Two such factors that emerged—altruism and skepticism—are particularly interesting in that they may be situated between different theoretical frameworks that have been used for explaining perception and attitude. We argue that they may represent a convergence point among theories that each help explain different aspects of both how food nanotechnologies are perceived and why those perceptions are formed. In this paper, we first review theoretical frameworks for evaluating risk perception and attitudes toward emerging technologies, then review previous work on public perception of nanotechnology and nano-food, describe our qualitative content analysis results for public perception toward nano-food—focusing especially on altruism and skepticism, and discuss implications of these findings in terms of how public attitudes toward nano-food could be formed and understood. Finally, we propose that paying attention to these two factors may guide more responsible development of nano-food in the future.

  16. Altruism and skepticism in public attitudes toward food nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Fatehi, L.; Kuzma, J.

    2015-01-01

    To better explore and understand the public's perceptions of and attitudes toward emerging technologies and food products, we conducted a US-based focus group study centered on nanotechnology, nano-food, and nano-food labeling. Seven focus groups were conducted in seven locations in two different US metropolitan areas from September 2010 to January 2011. In addition to revealing context-specific data on already established risk and public perception factors, our goal was to inductively identify other nano-food perception factors of significance for consideration when analyzing why and how perceptions and attitudes are formed to nanotechnology in food. Two such factors that emerged—altruism and skepticism—are particularly interesting in that they may be situated between different theoretical frameworks that have been used for explaining perception and attitude. We argue that they may represent a convergence point among theories that each help explain different aspects of both how food nanotechnologies are perceived and why those perceptions are formed. In this paper, we first review theoretical frameworks for evaluating risk perception and attitudes toward emerging technologies, then review previous work on public perception of nanotechnology and nano-food, describe our qualitative content analysis results for public perception toward nano-food—focusing especially on altruism and skepticism, and discuss implications of these findings in terms of how public attitudes toward nano-food could be formed and understood. Finally, we propose that paying attention to these two factors may guide more responsible development of nano-food in the future

  17. Determinants of Public Attitudes to Genetically Modified Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  18. Barking up the right tree: Understanding local attitudes towards dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barking up the right tree: Understanding local attitudes towards dogs in villages surrounding Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar can benefit applied conservation. Kim Valenta, Joseph A Gettinger-Larson, Colin A Chapman, Zachary J Farris ...

  19. Public attitudes towards prevention of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomerus, Georg; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Matschinger, Herbert; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2008-03-01

    Various programs for depression prevention have been shown to be effective, but preventive efforts population wide are only beginning. We examine public attitudes towards prevention of depression and beliefs about helpful preventive measures. Fully structured telephone interview with a representative population sample including people of German nationality older than 14 years (n=1016). 75.4% of the sample agreed on the possibility to prevent depression. Of those, 403 (52.6%) stated that they would take part in prevention programs, and in this group 234 (58.1%) indicated readiness to pay out of their pocket for such programs. Out of a catalogue of 37 proposed actions, psychosocial and lifestyle related measures were preferred. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors--proactive lifestyle, relying on medicine, and relaxing--inherent in public beliefs about helpfulness of preventive measures. Higher education reduced willingness, high perceived personal risk of depression and previous contact to the disease increased willingness to take part in preventive programs. The public entertains favourable attitudes and beliefs about prevention of depression that do not conflict with evidence-based programs. Our study thus encourages implementation of population based prevention programs.

  20. Public attitudes toward nuclear generating facilities: positive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krannich, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    Public opposition and intervention in the siting and development of nuclear power plants has become more of a limiting factor than technological issues. Attitude surveys indicate that, while the majority of Americans support nuclear power, the utilities would do well to respond to the concerns and opinions of local residents when projects are in the planning stages. Recent polls are analyzed to identify the demographic and perceptive factors of opposition. Demographic studies indicate that the greatest opposition comes from women, young people, urban residents, farmers, low-income groups, and the unemployed. Perceptual opposition is associated with anticipated negative impacts in the form of hazards and social disruption. Since there appears to be a correlation between access to pertinent information and level of support, utility planners could develop educational programs to provide this information on the advantages of nuclear power. 10 references

  1. Party Identification, Contact, Contexts, and Public Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Timothy B

    2016-01-01

    Illegal immigration is a contentious issue on the American policy agenda. To understand the sources of public attitudes toward immigration, social scientists have focused attention on political factors such as party identification; they have also drawn on theories of intergroup contact to argue that contact with immigrants shapes immigration attitudes. Absent direct measures, contextual measures such as respondents' ethnic milieu or proximity to salient geographic features (such as borders) have been used as proxies of contact. Such a research strategy still leaves the question unanswered - is it contact or context that really matters? Further, which context, and for whom ? This article evaluates the effects of party identification, personal contact with undocumented immigrants, and contextual measures (county Hispanic population and proximity to the US-Mexico border) on American attitudes toward illegal immigration. It finds that contextual factors moderate the effects of political party identification on attitudes toward illegal immigration; personal contact has no effect. These findings challenge the assumption that contextual measures act as proxies for interpersonal contact.

  2. Public attitudes to nuclear risk in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Masae

    1991-01-01

    Public or social risk perception is composed of individual risk perceptions. But public or social risk perception should be understood as a product of social dynamism, not the sum of individual risk perceptions. After the Chernobyl accident Japanese antinuclear movements expanded nationwide. In particular, there was a strong upsurge of criticism of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Complex (NFCC) project in the siting area at Rokkasho-mura, and even in other places. The movement against the NFCC project peaked with the election of an anti-nuclear candidate in the 1989 election to the Upper House of the Japanese parliament. The result of this election, and others in the same area, reflected nuclear risk perceptions in the siting prefecture (local authority district) of Aomori. This paper examines the public attitudes to nuclear risk in Japan. The anti-NFCC movement now has a core of regional support. Given a triggering event, the anti-NFCC movement could revive rapidly and the movement could spread nationwide. (author)

  3. Defining Disability: Understandings of and Attitudes Towards Ableism and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carli Friedman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Disabled people, amidst political and social gains, continue to experience discrimination in multiple areas. Understanding how such discrimination, named here as ableism, operates is important and may require studying perspectives of people who do not claim a disability identity.  Ableism may be expressed in a number of ways, and examining how a particular group, in this case siblings of disabled people, understand and value disability may contribute to overall understandings about how ableism works. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore relationships between siblings of disabled people's broad societal understandings of disability and their attitudes towards it. In order to tease out this relationship further we have also examined factors that impact how people define disability. Using both social psychological and sociological approaches, we have contextualized individual attitudes as providing additional new information about social meanings of disability, and set this study's results against the larger backdrops of debates over meanings of disability within Disability Studies. In our research, participants revealed complex understandings of disability, but most often defined disability as preventing or slowing action, as an atypical function, a lack of independence, and as a socially constructed obstacle. Participants' unconscious (implicit disability attitudes significantly related to their understandings of disability as lacking independence, impairment, and/or in relation to the norm, and their conscious (explicit disability attitudes. Moreover, longer employment in a disability-related industry was correlated with defining disability as a general difference, rather than as slowing or limiting of tasks.

  4. Understanding public (misunderstanding of tDCS for enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Yenisa Cabrera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain insight into the public’s perspective on using the minimally invasive technique transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS as an enhancement tool, we analyzed and compared online comments in key popular press articles from two different periods (pre-commercialization and post-commercialization. The main conclusion drawn from this exploratory investigation is that public perception regarding tDCS has shifted from misunderstanding to cautionary realism. This change in attitude can be explained as moving from a focus on an emergent technology to a focus on its applications, benefits, and risks as the technology becomes more grounded within the public domain. Future governance of tDCS should include the concerns and enthusiasms of the public.Keywords: cognitive enhancement, neuroethics, public understanding, transcranial direct current stimulation, brain stimulation, public policy.

  5. Public attitudes towards industrial, work-related and other risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott-Clarke, P.

    1982-01-01

    Two reports describing work sponsored by the Health and Safety Executive are presented. The first describes a study of public attitudes towards industrial, work related, nuclear industry related and other risks. The second report describes public attitudes towards the acceptability of risks. (U.K.)

  6. The structure and strength of public attitudes towards wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, David Charles

    A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude

  7. Public and Biobank Participant Attitudes toward Genetic Research Participation and Data Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Lemke, A.A.; Wolf, W.A.; Hebert-Beirne, J.; Smith, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Research assessing attitudes toward consent processes for high-throughput genomic-wide technologies and widespread sharing of data is limited. In order to develop a better understanding of stakeholder views toward these issues, this cross-sectional study assessed public and biorepository participant attitudes toward research participation and sharing of genetic research data. Forty-nine individuals participated in 6 focus groups; 28 in 3 public focus groups and 21 in 3 NUgene biorepository pa...

  8. Understanding Public Responses to Emerging Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macnaghten, Philip; Davies, S.R.; Kearnes, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies aimed at understanding public responses to emerging technologies have given limited attention to the social and cultural processes through which public concerns emerge. When probed, these have tended to be explained either in cognitive social psychological terms, typically in the

  9. Public attitudes toward forest management: a Shawnee National Forest example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne Vining

    2003-01-01

    One of the fundamental problems of modern public lands management is the accurate and representative assessment of public opinion. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in perceptions and attitudes of Shawnee National Forest management activities and plans among members of local and regional publics. A survey was administered to members of the public in...

  10. READINESS FOR BLENDED LEARNING: UNDERSTANDING ATTITUDE OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Meng Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT has provided new means for learning delivery outside of conventional classrooms. Leveraging on IT, blended learning is an approach which takes advantage of the best that both the classroom and online learning can provide. To help institutions of higher learning (IHLs improve their understanding of how students view blended learning and formulate a strategy to successfully implement blended learning, the main objective of this paper is to examine how the attitude of students towards different learning aspects could influence their readiness for blended learning. We conceptualized six learning aspects in a research model and then collected responses from 201 full-time undergraduate students to validate the model. Analyses revealed three key findings. First, the use of technology in education was not a hindrance to the students. Second, blended learning adaptability, which was modelled as a second-order formative construct and formed by four first-order reflective constructs—attitude towards online learning, study management, online interaction, and learning flexibility—had a positive relationship with student readiness for blended learning. Third, attitude towards classroom learning had a negative relationship with student readiness for blended learning. An understanding of student attitude towards different learning aspects can be critical in the assessment of student readiness for blended learning, which is a prerequisite for successful implementation of blended learning.

  11. Exercise, Weather, Safety, and Public Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Mullan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Levels of cycling for transport (CFT in Ireland are very low—about 2% nationally—and the government has set a target of 10% of all trips to work by bicycle by 2020. The purpose of this study was to explore the complexities of leisure/sport cyclists’ views about CFT. Sixteen leisure/sport cyclists (four women and 12 men; about half cycled for transport were interviewed about the factors that influenced their decision to cycle somewhere instead of driving and the role of the weather in that decision, whether they considered CFT to be real “exercise,” and the meaning of “safety.” The findings were that the decision to cycle for transport was dominated by practical concerns, and weather concerns added to this organizational burden. For city-dwellers, the key deciding factor was cycling’s efficiency and reliability. Safety concerns centered around negative interactions with drivers and there was a common belief that the general public had very negative attitudes to cycling and cyclists. Finally, most thought that CFT was not “proper” exercise as it would be of insufficient intensity or duration and would take from the time available to do this. These findings show that to promote CFT among leisure/sport cyclists, government and local authorities must improve and highlight the efficiency, safety, and legitimacy of cycling as a transport option. Without this, promotional activities that just focus on the exercise, health, and enjoyment potential of CFT will have little effect.

  12. Public attitudes to organ donation in South Africa | Pike | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public attitudes to organ donation may be influenced by cultural beliefs as well as racial prejudices and superstitions. In South Africa we are able to examine these issues from both a Firstand a Third-World perspective. In this study the attitudes of 1 299 urban white, 625 rural black and 826 urban black South Africans were ...

  13. Do public attitudes affect conservation effort? Using a questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, amphibians are among the least appreciated vertebrates and are often negatively perceived by the general public. Such attitudes are particularly prevalent in South Africa, where fear, superstitions and myths associated with frogs are pervasive in some cultures. These attitudes could have harmful consequences ...

  14. Knowledge and Attitude of Public Secondary School Teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated knowledge and attitude of public secondary school teachers towards continuous assessment (CA) practices in Edo Central Senatorial District, Nigeria. The study was undertaken to determine the influence of gender, age, years of experience and area of educational specialization on teachers' attitude ...

  15. Process of public attitudes toward nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    The Japanese public attitudes toward nuclear power generation had become negative year by year. After the Chernobyl accident, a percentage of the unfavorable respondent toward nuclear power generation has dramatically increased, and a new type of anti-nuclear movement has been observed. On the basis of our public opinion polls, the reason for this increase was found to be primarily decrease of sense of usefulness rather than increase of sense of nueasiness about nuclear safety. Particularly, social factors (change of life style, progress of civilian consciousness, credibility of the existing institutional system etc.) have influence on the attitude of either pro or anti-nuclear. Based on the above observation, we have inferred that process of the public attitudes has two flows arising from the above social factors, one is the usefulness and the other is the easiness about nuclear safety, and have formulated a model representing the process of public attitudes toward nuclear power. (author)

  16. Public understanding of solar radiation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, A M; Keith, D W; Sharp, J D

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of the first large-scale international survey of public perception of geoengineering and solar radiation management (SRM). Our sample of 3105 individuals in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom was recruited by survey firms that administer internet surveys to nationally representative population samples. Measured familiarity was higher than expected, with 8% and 45% of the population correctly defining the terms geoengineering and climate engineering respectively. There was strong support for allowing the study of SRM. Support decreased and uncertainty rose as subjects were asked about their support for using SRM immediately, or to stop a climate emergency. Support for SRM is associated with optimism about scientific research, a valuing of SRM's benefits and a stronger belief that SRM is natural, while opposition is associated with an attitude that nature should not be manipulated in this way. The potential risks of SRM are important drivers of public perception with the most salient being damage to the ozone layer and unknown risks. SRM is a new technology and public opinions are just forming; thus all reported results are sensitive to changes in framing, future information on risks and benefits, and changes to context.

  17. The two faces of Janus, or the dual mode of public attitudes towards snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liordos, Vasilios; Kontsiotis, Vasileios J; Kokoris, Spyridon; Pimenidou, Michaela

    2018-04-15

    Snakes are controversial animals, therefore a better understanding of public attitudes is critical for their effective protection and future survival. The attitudes towards snakes of 951 adults in Greece were investigated in personal interviews. Factor analysis revealed a dual mode of attitudes: respondents were highly intolerant of snakes, while they supported their conservation at the same time. Respondents had high knowledge about the behavior of snakes, medium knowledge of their biology and were strongly affected by folklore. Structural models revealed that tolerance was a positive mediator of conservation. Knowledge about snake behavior and biology was positively correlated with attitudes towards snakes. Moralistic and naturalistic attitudes were positively, and dominionistic attitudes negatively, correlated with snake tolerance and conservation attitudes. Younger, more educated people were more snake-tolerant than older, less educated people. Females were less snake-tolerant and more conservation-oriented than males. These findings increased the understanding of human attitudes towards snakes and helped identify factors critical for their conservation. As such they could be used to design environmental education programs incorporating both information-based and experiential activities that will improve attitudes, behaviors and, eventually, the chances for the survival of these uncharismatic animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cross Sectional Attitudes of Public Sculpture Matrix in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Akintunde Akintonde

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public outdoor sculpture practice in the Southwestern Nigeria entails different types of attitudes. These attitudes are discernable from the stage of commissioning of work, its conceptualization to the display and uses in the public sphere generated diverse fundamental, constant technical issues. Some are explicitly alluring while others are absurd, fleeting and injurious to the practice. However, whatever attitude advanced in the public outdoor sculpture practice, it has not been discussed cross sectionally. The inadequate scholarship attention on the attitudinal issues in outdoor sculpture certainly created art historical gap apt to make the study of contemporary Nigeria art incoherent. Apparently, attitudinal studies certainly involve psychological measurement - a type of instrument that does not required descriptive survey. For this reason, the study was based on qualitative methods. The study categorised various attitudes in outdoor sculpture practice in the studied area into pre-unveiling, unveiling and post unveiling stages and critically examined them. Some attitudes in the practice of the art were observed to be stimulant for advancement; invariably others are clearly incongruous to the spirit of typical Yoruba societal value orientation in orderliness, therefore degrading and detrimental to the development of the outdoor sculpture in the public sphere.Keywords: Art patron; cross sectional attitude; outdoor sculpture; post-unveiling; pre-unveiling; public art; Southwestern Nigeria; unveiling.

  19. Public understanding of radiation protection concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident in April 1986 clearly showed that communication with the public was one of the areas where there was a strong need for improvement, particularly concerning the nature and extent of the information provided by national authorities. The countermeasures adopted by public health authorities also raised difficulties in terms of public understanding and acceptance due, in part, to the perception of discrepancies in national, regional or local response to the accident, but also to a more basic lack of comprehension of the complex radiation protection considerations involved. In an attempt to help improve the situation, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health decided to organise a Workshop on public communication in the event of a nuclear accident, centered on radiation protection issues. The purpose of this Workshop was to analyse appropriate methods and language to be used when explaining to the public the scientific concepts underlying radiation risks and radiation protection, and the technical rationale for the choice of protective actions in an emergency. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers presented at the meeting

  20. Public attitudes towards genetically-modified food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, S.; Ueland, O.; Frewer, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose - This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It

  1. Genetically Modified Organisms : Public Knowledge, Attitudes and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While proponents argue that genetically modified crops can contribute to food security in developing countries, opponents maintain that their social and economic impacts are unknown and their long-term safety is not fully understood. ... Connaissances, attitudes et perceptions de la population à l'égard des OGM en Inde.

  2. European consumers and health claims: attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Josephine M; Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Kolka, Magdalena; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-05-01

    Health claims on food products are often used as a means to highlight scientifically proven health benefits associated with consuming those foods. But do consumers understand and trust health claims? This paper provides an overview of recent research on consumers and health claims including attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour. A majority of studies investigated selective product-claim combinations, with ambiguous findings apart from consumers' self-reported generic interest in health claims. There are clear indications that consumer responses differ substantially according to the nature of carrier product, the type of health claim, functional ingredient used or a combination of these components. Health claims tend to be perceived more positively when linked to a product with an overall positive health image, whereas some studies demonstrate higher perceived credibility of products with general health claims (e.g. omega-3 and brain development) compared to disease risk reduction claims (e.g. bioactive peptides to reduce risk of heart disease), others report the opposite. Inconsistent evidence also exists on the correlation between having a positive attitude towards products with health claims and purchase intentions. Familiarity with the functional ingredient and/or its claimed health effect seems to result in a more favourable evaluation. Better nutritional knowledge, however, does not automatically lead to a positive attitude towards products carrying health messages. Legislation in the European Union requires that the claim is understood by the average consumer. As most studies on consumers' understanding of health claims are based on subjective understanding, this remains an area for more investigation.

  3. Public and media attitudes to nuclear power in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belelli, U.

    1988-01-01

    A study carried out by the Italian Electricity Board on the public acceptability of nuclear power, is reported. The question was examined in two ways. A sociological analysis was carried out with the aim of understanding the behaviour of public opinion. The results revealed that individual attitudes towards nuclear power are based on cost-benefit evaluations assessed in terms of social parameters by an instinctive rather than a rational process. Secondly press articles before and after the Chernobyl accident were analysed in terms of both the message being communicated and the quality of the technical content. Characteristics of the press coverage were more stress on nuclear safety after Chernobyl leading to greater opposition to nuclear power in general, a tendency for comment to dominate over factual information and no proper evaluation of the technical content. The major overall conclusions drawn are the need for international cooperation to address the social implications of the nuclear question, and for effective communication of information on power plant safety both to expert social and political bodies and, in a popular version, to the general public. (U.K.)

  4. Understanding Public Opinions from Geosocial Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqi Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, social media data are linked to locations through embedded GPS coordinates. Many local governments are showing interest in the potential to repurpose these firsthand geo-data to gauge spatial and temporal dynamics of public opinions in ways that complement information collected through traditional public engagement methods. Using these geosocial data is not without challenges since they are usually unstructured, vary in quality, and often require considerable effort to extract information that is relevant to local governments’ needs from large data volumes. Understanding local relevance requires development of both data processing methods and their use in empirical studies. This paper addresses this latter need through a case study that demonstrates how spatially-referenced Twitter data can shed light on citizens’ transportation and planning concerns. A web-based toolkit that integrates text processing methods is used to model Twitter data collected for the Region of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada between March 2014 and July 2015 and assess citizens’ concerns related to the planning and construction of a new light rail transit line. The study suggests that geosocial media can help identify geographies of public perceptions concerning public facilities and services and have potential to complement other methods of gauging public sentiment.

  5. Formation of public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, Z.J.; Innes, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power has been plagued by public acceptance problems. Evidence suggests one of the key factors is poor communicaton between the scientific community and the general public. Although environmental enquiries provide a forum for the voicing of views, by adopting the adversary principle they have also resulted in polarizaton of public opinion, as experienced in Australia with the Ranger Environmental Enquiry. The problem of developing methods to enable a flow of objective informaton to and from the public requires urgent solution

  6. Research and Development on a Public Attitude Instrument for Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes research associated with the development of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S"), a survey instrument designed to provide a worldwide standard measure of public attitudes toward stuttering. Pilot studies with early experimental prototypes of the "POSHA-S" are summarized that relate to…

  7. Public Attitudes Towards Moral Enhancement. Evidence that Means Matter Morally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Specker (Jona); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje); P.B. Reiner (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractTo gain insight into the reasons that the public may have for endorsing or eschewing pharmacological moral enhancement for themselves or for others, we used empirical tools to explore public attitudes towards these issues. Participants (N = 293) from the United States were recruited via

  8. Understanding the attitudes of paramedics towards suicidal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Rant

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since it is almost impossible to identify every suicidal person, the timely intervention of an emergency medical team is of the most importance for preventing suicide attempts. Yet its success depends not only on timely help, but also on the treatment of the suicidal individual, the quality of which is to a large degree determined by the attitudes of the paramedics to the suicide. Hence, this article addresses the issue of how Slovenian paramedics experience suicidal patients, or in other words, what their attitudes to suicidal patients are when treating them. Methods: This study is based on a descriptive qualitative method of empirical research, in which inductive analysis has been used. To collect the empirical material, semi-structured interviews with ten paramedics were conducted between December 2012 and January 2013. Results: Despite their professional conduct in working with suicidal patients, Slovenian paramedics often experience various unpleasant emotions while treating them. Although they show understanding, the paramedics are often caught in dilemma while treating suicidal patients, especially those that refuse help or are aggressive. During the treatment, the paramedics act according to their subjective risk assessment and previous work experience, yet they lack the expertise to work with suicidal patients, particularly communication skills. Discussion and conclusion: The attitude of the participants to suicidal patients is based primarily on the emotional aspect of their work. The research showed that a negative attitude may appear, but is not permanent. It appears only in certain conditions when caring for patients who are aggressive or threaten others and when the participants have not received help from other services.

  9. What are European Union Public Attitudes towards Robots? (Invited Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Loffredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a very brief overview of public attitudes towards robots from different geographical regions of the world but focuses on one such study in one particular geographic area, the European Union (EU of 27 countries. By far, the Eurobarameter Survey on Public Attitudes towards Robots, released online in 2012, is the largest study of public attitudes towards robots. It focused exclusively on descriptive statistics which are mathematical procedures used to organize, summarize and simplify data. The statistical procedures used in this paper to perform a secondary data analysis of the data from the Eurobarameter Survey on Attitudes towards robots focused on inferential statistics which focus on inference and statistical comparisons. Secondary data analyses are often used when large data sets are posted online for public, professional, and educational use. A one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, and separate two-way independent-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to analyze participant responses on relevant survey questions. The results supported our hypotheses that there are significant differences in EU public attitudes by gender and age group.

  10. Measuring and Understanding Public Opinion on Human Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Misook

    The theory of evolution has long generated controversy in American society, but Americans' attitudes about human evolution are often neglected in studies of "culture wars" and the nature of mass belief systems more generally (Berkman and Plutzer 2010; Freeland and Houston 2009). Gallup and other survey organizations have polled about evolution, but offered limited response categories that mask complexity in public opinion (Bishop 2006; Moore 2008). The main problems concerning the leading survey questions about evolution are: first, questions measure only a single dimension, thus they ignore the potential for multidimensionality in people's attitudes. Second, depending on question wording and response options, the results of public opinion surveys vary by polling groups. This is an example of measurement error which misleads the interpretation and impression of American public opinion on the origin of humankind. A number of studies have analyzed Americans' beliefs about evolution and hypothesized about the influential effects of several factors (Deckman 2002; Mazur 2005; Mooney 2005; Miller et al. 2006; Newport 2006; Forrest 2007;Nisbet and Goidel 2007;Scott 2009). However, there remains a lack of complete understanding of what Americans know and believe about human evolution. Given the salience of this issue and the significant influence of public opinion on policy-making in America (Page and Shapiro 1992; Stimson 2004; Newport 2004), the measurement error and explanation of polling results on controversial issues related to this topic are in need of clarification. In this study, I address these deficiencies with analyses of data from a 2008 national survey by Harris Interactive (n= 4,626) that included numerous measures of factual knowledge and beliefs about evolution. The items offer more nuanced response options than the standard three-category question asked for decades by the Gallup poll. The Harris survey also had multiple measures of religiosity and the

  11. Radioactive wastes: public attitudes toward disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.; Hebert, J.A.; Perry, R.W.

    1978-10-01

    Seventeen geographically widespread, established groups were selected which were expected to vary in their attitudes from strongly pronuclear to strongly antinuclear. People who tend to be politically active were chosen. The highest level of consensus was found on the need for site monitoring, site control, and information transfer in a waste repository. Overall, the results indicate that pronuclear respondents believe that the hazards of nuclear waste are similar to other industrial risks, while antinuclear respondents are less optimistic about safe storage of nuclear wastes and believe that nuclear power is different

  12. Radioactive wastes: public attitudes toward disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.; Hebert, J.A.; Perry, R.W.

    1978-10-01

    Seventeen geographically widespread, established groups were selected which were expected to vary in their attitudes from strongly pronuclear to strongly antinuclear. People who tend to be politically active were chosen. The highest level of consensus was found on the need for site monitoring, site control, and information transfer in a waste repository. Overall, the results indicate that pronuclear respondents believe that the hazards of nuclear waste are similar to other industrial risks, while antinuclear respondents are less optimistic about safe storage of nuclear wastes and believe that nuclear power is different.

  13. A new model for understanding the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in siting waste facilities has been impeded by a too-limited understanding of what the public wants. National and statewide surveys sponsored by the U.S. Council for Energy Awareness and others on both high-level and low-level radioactive waste reveal a new, more comprehensive model for assessing public opinion. These surveys by independent research firms -- Market Strategies, Gordon S. Black, Tarrance, and Bruskin/Goldring -- have a margin of error of +3% for national polls and +4% for statewide polls. The old model assumes that because people fear radioactive waste, support for building waste facilities is politically risky. The new model shows that fear of radioactive waste is an important dynamic, but reaches a different conclusion about the public's sense of generational responsibility. Because people see waste as dangerous, most support the principle of transporting the waste to a permanent disposal facility instead of keeping the waste stored at many different sites. Most want to keep the uses of radioactive materials that produce waste -- including nuclear energy. They strongly believe that disposing of radioactive waste now instead of leaving it for future generations is the environmentally responsible thing to do

  14. Critical review of the United Kingdom's "gold standard" survey of public attitudes to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin K; Jensen, Eric A

    2016-02-01

    Since 2000, the UK government has funded surveys aimed at understanding the UK public's attitudes toward science, scientists, and science policy. Known as the Public Attitudes to Science series, these surveys and their predecessors have long been used in UK science communication policy, practice, and scholarship as a source of authoritative knowledge about science-related attitudes and behaviors. Given their importance and the significant public funding investment they represent, detailed academic scrutiny of the studies is needed. In this essay, we critically review the most recently published Public Attitudes to Science survey (2014), assessing the robustness of its methods and claims. The review casts doubt on the quality of key elements of the Public Attitudes to Science 2014 survey data and analysis while highlighting the importance of robust quantitative social research methodology. Our analysis comparing the main sample and booster sample for young people demonstrates that quota sampling cannot be assumed equivalent to probability-based sampling techniques. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Public attitudes toward nuclear risks and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.

    As the world progresses in technology, public awareness of risks and benefits have become more acute. This is more so towards nuclear risks and benefits. This comes about when people throughout the world, because of the energy crisis, have accepted the nuclear option. Hand in hand with the benefits that it brings are the risks of radiation and other calamities. ''The role of information, the methods of public participation, and the involvement of scientific expertise play an important part in risk assessment.'' Interest in nuclear power has gained momentum with the announcement of the construction of the first nuclear power plant. Different reactions, brought about by economic, social, moral and political factors were evident, but the economic benefits seem to prevail. Nuclear power accidents, citing particularly the recent TMI incident, have started the hornets nest of nuclear controversies and have widened the scope of concern on nuclear power. The newspapers and the media, public meetings and hearings have been used as arenas of these conflicts. These brought about varying opinions and growing disagreement among the public. Risk assessment is therefore dependent on effective communication not only with the public but between scientists and decision makers and also individuals. Risk assessment in nuclear power is a complex undertaking which is to consider a wide spectrum of factors to come up with reliable results. (author)

  16. Nuclear risk, psychological impact and public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghita, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Research shows that the images of potential nuclear disasters that have been formed in the mind of antinuclear on public are remarkable different from the assessments put forth by many technical experts. In communicating risk, it is important for authorities to add information about risk assessments approach and its inherent scientific uncertainties. Presenting the benefits as well as the risks also can help the audience balance the issues involved in making decisions about technical risk. The paper describes the public perceptions related to nuclear risk and the risk assessment techniques valuable as communication tools. (author)

  17. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przepiorka, Aneta M.; Blachnio, Agata; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Wozniak, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Background: People who stutter often experience negative judgments and reactions to their stuttering from the nonstuttering majority. Many are stigmatized because of their stuttering and threatened with social exclusion, placing them at risk for compromised quality of life. Aims: The purpose of this investigation was to measure public attitudes…

  18. Receptive Audiences for Climate Change Education: Understanding Attitudes and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L. D.; Luebke, J. F.; Clayton, S.; Saunders, C. D.; Matiasek, J.; Grajal, A.

    2012-12-01

    Much effort has been devoted to finding ways to explain climate change to uninterested audiences and encourage mitigation behaviors among dismissive audiences. Most approaches have focused on conveying information about climate change processes or threats. Here we report the results of a national survey designed to characterize the readiness of zoo and aquarium visitors to engage with the issue of climate change. Two survey forms, one focused primarily on attitudes (N=3,594) and another on behaviors (N=3,588), were administered concurrently in summer 2011 at 15 Association of Zoos and Aquariums accredited institutions. The attitudes survey used Global Warming's Six Americas segmentation protocols (climatechangecommunication.org) to compare climate change attitudes of zoo and aquarium visitors with the American public (Leiserowitz et al., 2011). Our results reveal that visitors are receptive audiences for climate change education and want to do more to address climate change. Even these favorable audiences, however, perceive barriers to engaging in the issue, signifying the importance of meeting the learning needs of those who acknowledge anthropogenic climate change, and not only of climate change 'deniers.' While 39% of the general public is 'concerned' or 'alarmed' about global warming, 64% of zoo and aquarium visitors fall into these two "Six Americas" segments. Visitors also differ from the national sample in key attitudinal characteristics related to global warming. For example, nearly two-thirds believe human actions are related to global warming, versus less than one-half of the general public; and approximately 60% think global warming will harm them personally, moderately or a great deal, versus less than 30% of the general public. Moreover, 69% of visitors would like to do more to address climate change. Despite zoo and aquarium visitors' awareness of climate change and motivation to address it, survey results indicate they experience barriers to

  19. Nuclear waste management, reactor decommisioning, nuclear liability and public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with several issues that are frequently raised by the public in any discussion of nuclear energy, and explores some aspects of public attitudes towards nuclear-related activities. The characteristics of the three types of waste associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. mine/mill tailings, reactor wastes and nuclear fuel wastes, are defined, and the methods currently being proposed for their safe handling and disposal are outlined. The activities associated with reactor decommissioning are also described, as well as the Canadian approach to nuclear liability. The costs associated with nuclear waste management, reactor decommissioning and nuclear liability are also discussed. Finally, the issue of public attitudes towards nuclear energy is addressed. It is concluded that a simple and comprehensive information program is needed to overcome many of the misconceptions that exist about nuclear energy and to provide the public with a more balanced information base on which to make decisions

  20. Public knowledge, attitude and perception of over the counter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate on misuse, abuse and the general public opinion as well as perception of OTC medicines. Methods: Data were collected, by face-to-face interview guided with a semi-structured questionnaire. The key questions focused on community attitude towards retail pharmacy, ...

  1. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: In Canada (and in the USA), attitudes were generally more positive and less socially stigmatizing toward mental illness than in Cameroon. Differences between countries were much larger than differences between language groups. Conclusion: Consistent with other research, beliefs and reactions of the public ...

  2. Assessing the Attitudes and Practices of Public Health Professionals ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project, managed by the American University of Beirut, will survey public health academics and practitioners around the world about their attitudes and practices around funding from for-profit corporations, particularly those whose products are associated with non-communicable diseases. The project will also review ...

  3. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, 30 matched, monolingual English, American respondents were included as a ... Results of this field test of the POSHA–MI(e), documenting differences in public attitudes toward mental illness in two divergent cultures, support its further .... things (e.g., lead a normal life or work in jobs requiring good judgment); (f) ...

  4. Investigation on public knowledge, attitude and practices related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiop. Vet. J., 2016, 20 (1), 67-78. Investigation on public knowledge, attitude and practices related to pet management and zoonotic canine diseases in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ... husbandry and diseases control practices in Addis Ababa. ... meat to their dogs and 79.3% of the owners obtained the meat from local unlicensed.

  5. Surveying Public Attitudes of Security Sector Reforms in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Surveying Public Attitudes of Security Sector Reforms in the Arab World. One constant in the ebb and flow of the Arab ... empowerment” at McGill University Conference. Findings from an IDRC-supported program figure prominently at the annual conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development.

  6. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  7. Public secondary school teachers' attitude to family life education in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to assess and compare the attitude of teachers in two geopolitical zones of Nigeria to family life education. Methods: Multi stage sample selection was used to pick 6 public secondary schools (3 junior, 3 senior) in each zone. All teachers (221) in the selected schools were ...

  8. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Public attitudes toward mental illness in two widely disparate cultures, Canada and Cameroon, were compared using ... Method: 120 respondents rated POSHA–MI(e) items relating to mental illness on 1-9 equal appearing interval scales: 30 in English ... sacrificing, perhaps, some of the face validity inherent in.

  9. Impact of cultural factors on attitude toward using ERP systems in public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Escobar-Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main problems that arise in adopting most enterprise resources planning (ERP strategies come from organizational, rather than technical, issues, for example, social and cultural barriers, and user resistance. This paper analyzes the impact of cultural factors on user attitudes toward ERP use in public hospitals and identifying influencing factors. The theoretical grounding for this research is the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. The proposed model has six constructs (“resistance to be controlled”, “resistance to change”, “perceived risks”, “perceived usefulness”, “perceived ease of use”, and “attitude toward using”, and nine hypotheses have been generated from the connections between these six constructs. Results suggest important practical implications for attitude toward using ERP and to develop an understanding about how to improve this attitude in hospitals.

  10. Public Attitudes Toward Sexual Expression in Long-Term Care: Does Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Erin; Hosier, Amy

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) examine how age and sex of long-term care (LTC) residents influence public attitudes toward sexuality in LTC and (b) understand how, in the absence of cognitive decline, residing in LTC influences the perception of sexuality as a basic human right. Attitudes were examined using a factorial vignette with a probability sample of 325 respondents from a southern state. Results indicate that attitudes were not statistically affected by a vignette character's age or sex; but respondent education level, parenthood status, and religious affiliation did have direct bearing on attitudes. The notion of sexuality as a basic human right for residents of LTC was ultimately challenged as 19% of respondents said that LTC residents should not be permitted to have sexual relations with their spouse in the facility.

  11. Understanding the diversity of public interests in wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, Tara L; Manfredo, Michael J

    2010-02-01

    North American state wildlife agencies are increasingly faced with the challenge of effectively representing a diverse public. With increasing social conflict over wildlife issues, the future of wildlife conservation hinges on preparedness of the profession to respond to this challenge. In the interest of finding ways to improve response, 19 agencies in the western U.S. joined forces to initiate an investigation that would provide a better understanding of the diversity of wildlife-related interests in the region. Specific objectives, accomplished through use of a mail survey administered in 2004, were to categorize people on the basis of their value orientations toward wildlife and explore how different groups were distributed across states and to examine differences on sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes toward wildlife-related topics among groups. The focus was on two orientations: domination (view of wildlife that prioritizes human well-being over wildlife and treats wildlife in utilitarian terms); and mutualism (view of wildlife as capable of relationships of trust with humans and defined by a desire for companionship with wildlife). Four types of people were identified on the basis of these orientations. Types differed in their geographic distribution and wildlife-related attitudes and behaviors, revealing how value orientations can form the foundation for conflict on wildlife issues. Our characterizations of stakeholder groups offer a framework that can be applied over time and across geographic scales to improve conservation planning efforts and inform broader thinking about the social aspects of wildlife conservation.

  12. Understanding Student Attitudes toward Bible Reading: A Philippine Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baring, Rito V.

    2008-01-01

    Reflecting from the Philippine experience, this article explores an emerging picture that characterizes contemporary Bible reading attitudes of college students. Six new attitude factor definitions are developed following the development of the Bible Reading (BR) attitude scale for college students constructed by this author in a separate study.…

  13. Determining Attitudes toward Ability: A New Tool for New Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Antonia; Croft, Laurie; Godor, Brian

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore teacher attitudes toward gifted students in several distinct areas and to provide psychometric evidence of reliability and validity for the use of an instrument titled "Determining Attitudes Toward Ability" (DATA) to measure specific components of teacher attitudes. Subscales of Focus on Others,…

  14. Public attitudes toward B.C. Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This report presents the results of a tracking study updating results and findings from similar studies conducted in 1988, 1989 and 1990 which amassed research and analysis into public expectations on the planning of British Columbia's power system for the future. The study determined the major issues of concern, particularly in the energy and environment areas; how residents view BC Hydro and what they know about its organization and regulation; the quality of service and the most important components of service; views on energy and electricity planning; energy preferences and anticipated consumption and BC Hydro's role in this area; public awareness and acceptability of demand/supply options; and the extent to which corporate performance is consistent with the needs and expectations of BC Hydro's consumers. The study was based on 600 interviews with residential customers conducted in the customers' homes. The results of the study indicate a significant increase in demand for electricity in the next 5, no change in reported sensitivity to usage of electricity in the past 3 years, strengthening awareness of BC Hydro's efforts to encourage the wise use of electricity at home, an overall favourable impression of BC Hydro, and continuing dissatisfaction with rates. 112 tabs

  15. Interweaving climate research and public understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    For the past 10 years I have been using research into land-atmosphere-cloud coupling to address Vermont's need to understand climate change, and develop plans for greater resilience in the face of increasing severe weather. The research side has shown that the fraction of days with snow cover determines the cold season climate, because snow acts as a fast climate switch between non-overlapping climates with and without snow cover. Clouds play opposite roles in warm and cold seasons: surface cooling in summer and warming in winter. The later fall freeze-up and earlier spring ice-out on lakes, coupled to the earlier spring phenology, are clear markers both of a warming climate, as well as the large interannual variability. Severe flooding events have come with large-scale quasi-stationary weather patterns. This past decade I have given 230 talks to schools, business and professional groups, as well as legislative committees and state government. I have written 80 environmental columns for two Vermont newspapers, as part of a weekly series I helped start in 2008. Commentaries and interviews on radio and TV enable me to explain directly the issues we face, as the burning of fossil fuels destabilizes the climate system. The public in Vermont is eager to learn and understand these issues since many have roots in the land; while professional groups need all the information and guidance possible to prepare for the future. My task as a scientist is to map out what we know in ways that can readily be grasped in terms of past experience, even though the climate system is already moving outside this range - and at the same time outline general principles and hopeful strategies for dealing with global and local climate change.

  16. Public attitudes to financial incentive models for organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Schicktanz, Silke; Deleuran, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer-reviewed r......Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer......-reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 on how members of the public position themselves toward FIs. We identified and analyzed 23 studies using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and cross-reference search. The search included whole organs, donation, quantitative and empirical qualitative social...... scientific studies on, public attitudes (excluding professionals and medical students). The review reveals a broad divergence of public opinions on financial incentives. However, quantitative studies showed a low overall level of acceptance of payment for organs in living donation (LD); only a slightly...

  17. Public and private language ideologies as reflected in language attitudes on the Island of Korcula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujoldzić, Anita; Simicić, Lucija

    2013-06-01

    Since languages are such powerful means of group identification, they may be considered as constitutive of communities. Attitudes expressed toward certain linguistic varieties may thus be perceived as attitudes held toward respective community-members. However, as attitudes are not always easily accessible, and are rarely one-dimensional but rather multi-layered, an insight into overt (publicly proclaimed) and covert (privately held) ideologies can enhance understanding of language attitudes and their meaning. This paper brings the analysis of these two types of attitudes held by adolescents in three most populated places on the island of Korcula, Croatia. The analysis is based on the results obtained by means of a questionnaire eliciting, among other things, overt attitudes toward six local, regional and supra-regional varieties, and covert attitudes toward judges' local speech and the Standard variety of Croatian. Although the results confirm some expected tendencies in the evaluation of different varieties, subsequently conducted analysis of speech recognition rates offers some valuable insights and interesting implications for further interpretation of the results.

  18. From motivation to acceptability: a survey of public attitudes towards organ donation in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M B; Skovgaard, Lea Larsen; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well enough to avoid risking public support for organ transplantation. We conducted the study in Denmark because there have been significant developments in public attitudes to organ donation in this country. In the 1990s, Denmark was a country with very low public support for organ donation and Denmark was the last country in Europe to introduce brain death as a legal criterion of death, whereas today Eurobarometer surveys rate Denmark as one of the European countries with the highest support for deceased organ donation from brain dead donors. We conducted a telephone survey in Denmark (N = 1195). A questionnaire was developed on the basis of preceding qualitative studies and pilot testing and included reuse of one item from earlier surveys to facilitate historical comparison. The analysis of the data was carried out using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 and focused on descriptive statistics. A clear majority of 91.9 % are positive or very positive towards organ donation; 85.8 % like the idea of their body being used after their death, 85.0 % is willing to donate their own organs, 82.1 % to donate their tissue and only 2.3 % find that too much has been done to promote organ donation. There is limited support for monetary incentives for organ donation (5.8 %) and presumed consent (30.4 %), while a majority (63.9 %) supports making it mandatory to register a personal decision. Religious self-identification has limited impact on attitudes. We can identify a shift over the past three decades from marked opposition to organ transplantation to strong support as well as a pattern in the contemporary public attitudes, which can help explain what is central to public acceptability: self

  19. Why School? The 48th Annual PDK Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Why school? The 48th Annual PDK Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools included questions about the purpose of schooling, standards, homework, school funding, and parents' relationships with their schools. The 2016 poll, which was conducted by Langer Research Associates, was based on a telephone poll of 1,221 adults during April…

  20. Understanding the relationship between student attitudes and student learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael J.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Frey, Regina F.; Hynes, K. Mairin; Repice, Michelle; Zhao, Jiuqing; Trousil, Rebecca

    2018-02-01

    Student attitudes, defined as the extent to which one holds expertlike beliefs about and approaches to physics, are a major research topic in physics education research. An implicit but rarely tested assumption underlying much of this research is that student attitudes play a significant part in student learning and performance. The current study directly tested this attitude-learning link by measuring the association between incoming attitudes (Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey) and student learning during the semester after statistically controlling for the effects of prior knowledge [early-semester Force Concept Inventory (FCI) or Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA)]. This study spanned four different courses and included two complementary measures of student knowledge: late-semester concept inventory scores (FCI or BEMA) and exam averages. In three of the four courses, after controlling for prior knowledge, attitudes significantly predicted both late-semester concept inventory scores and exam averages, but in all cases these attitudes explained only a small amount of variance in concept-inventory and exam scores. Results indicate that after accounting for students' incoming knowledge, attitudes may uniquely but modestly relate to how much students learn and how well they perform in the course.

  1. Attitude toward Public Health Dentistry as a career among dental students in Odisha: A Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nupur; Jain, Kittu; Kabasi, Soumik

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of dental students' expectations of their profession as well as their attitudes to study a particular specialty of dentistry is of great importance. These attitudes and expectations make studying dentistry meaningful to dental students and society and understanding these factors facilitate workforce planning in the dental sector The aim of the study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included the 3 rd year, 4 th fourth year and dental interns studying in the State of Odisha. It consisted of 27 questions that were graded on 5-point Likert scale. The responses for the attitude questions toward selecting Public Health Dentistry for postgraduation were categorized into three factors, which are a negative attitude (includes score 0-21), neutral attitude (score 22-44), and positive attitude (score 45-64). Differences between groups were examined using Chi-square test for proportions. The level of statistical significance was set at P career, and nearly two-third of them (58.23%) had neutral attitude, with very few students having a negative attitude (8.23%) toward the specialty for pursuing postgraduation. Respondents had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing postgraduation in this specialty. Efforts should be intensified, both by the dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this specialty, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates toward it.

  2. Oral Care during Pregnancy: Attitudes of Brazilian Public Health Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Renata Toledo; Ribeiro, Rosangela Almeida; Costa, Luciane Rezende; Leles, Claudio Rodrigues; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2012-01-01

    There is little information about health professionals’ behavior regarding oral health care during pregnancy. We evaluated attitudes of obstetricians/gynecologists, nurses, and dentists working at a public community service towards pregnant women’s oral health. Health professionals responded to a self-applied questionnaire. Cluster analysis identified two clusters of respondents; Chi-square, Student’s t test, and logistic regression were used to compare the two clusters in terms of the indepe...

  3. Public attitudes toward nuclear power generation. Focusing on measurement of attitude intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yasuko; Hayashi, Chikio

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to 1) examine the differences of the perception between nuclear power generation (NPG) and electric power generation by nuclear fusion, 2) find the structural characteristics of the attitude toward NPG, 3) shed light on the characteristics of knowledge about NPG, and 4) develop a scale to measure the intensity in attitude toward NPG. Subjects (N = 1,582) were randomly assigned into 4 groups and were asked to answer a questionnaire including public attitudes toward NPG and related matters. The results were as follows: 1) the perception of electric power generation by nuclear fusion was less favorable than that of NPG; 2) Items which correlated with attitudes toward NPG were: 'sense of anxiety,' sensitivity to risk,' 'trust in science and technology,' 'evaluation of Japan's nuclear policy', 'evaluation of electric power companies,' and interest in life and environmental issues.' Moreover, people with a strong attitude tended to be rational and had a better knowledge of NPG; 3) The evaluation of the amount of subjective knowledge concerning nuclear power and electric power generation was reliable as a measure of objective knowledge; 4) The measurement method used in this study was characterized by the use of biased questions(ten positively and ten negatively biased questions) which were shown to the subjects using the split-half method. An attempt was made to measure the attitude and its intensity taking into consideration gender, positive or negative attitude toward NPG, level of knowledge about NPG, age, and occupation. As a result, differences in intensity between different attributes were found. (author)

  4. Public and biobank participant attitudes toward genetic research participation and data sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, A A; Wolf, W A; Hebert-Beirne, J; Smith, M E

    2010-01-01

    Research assessing attitudes toward consent processes for high-throughput genomic-wide technologies and widespread sharing of data is limited. In order to develop a better understanding of stakeholder views toward these issues, this cross-sectional study assessed public and biorepository participant attitudes toward research participation and sharing of genetic research data. Forty-nine individuals participated in 6 focus groups; 28 in 3 public focus groups and 21 in 3 NUgene biorepository participant focus groups. In the public focus groups, 75% of participants were women, 75% had some college education or more, 46% were African-American and 29% were Hispanic. In the NUgene focus groups, 67% of participants were women, 95% had some college education or more, and the majority (76%) of participants was Caucasian. Five major themes were identified in the focus group data: (a) a wide spectrum of understanding of genetic research; (b) pros and cons of participation in genetic research; (c) influence of credibility and trust of the research institution; (d) concerns about sharing genetic research data and need for transparency in the Policy for Sharing of Data in National Institutes of Health-Supported or Conducted Genome-Wide Association Studies; (e) a need for more information and education about genetic research. In order to increase public understanding and address potential concerns about genetic research, future efforts should be aimed at involving the public in genetic research policy development and in identifying or developing appropriate educational strategies to meet the public's needs.

  5. The role of values in public beliefs and attitudes towards commercial wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidwell, David

    2013-01-01

    Mandates for renewable energy lead to siting disputes, because meeting the mandates requires the development of renewable energy production facilities. Proposals for one common form of renewable energy, commercial wind farms, are frequently met with forceful local opposition. Dissatisfied with simplistic explanations for this opposition (i.e., NIMBY), social scientists have urged a more nuanced understanding of public attitudes towards wind energy and other renewables. Based on a survey of residents of coastal Michigan, this article explores the role of general values and beliefs in shaping attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind energy projects in or near respondents’ communities. Structural equation modeling reveals that support of commercial wind energy depends largely on a belief that wind farms will provide economic benefits to the community. Underlying values have substantial and important indirect effects on beliefs regarding the likely economic outcomes of wind farm development. Altruistic values buoy wind energy attitudes, while values of traditionalism diminish wind energy support. The pivotal role of values in attitudes towards renewables lends support for more participatory development processes. - Highlights: ► Predictors of attitudes towards commercial wind energy development are examined. ► Support is influenced by beliefs in community economic benefit. ► Underlying values have substantial and important indirect effects on beliefs. ► Altruistic values buoy attitudes towards wind energy. ► Values associated with traditionalism diminish wind energy support

  6. Attitudes to publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the Danish public’s support for publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention. It was also examined whether levels of support could be explained by dislike of obese people and / or the belief that those who are obese are personally responsible......, the perceived controllability of obesity, self-reported BMI, and additional attitudinal and sociodemographic characteristics. Public funding of some obesity treatments, such as weight-loss surgery, attracted only limited public support. A majority of the Danish public did support ‘softer’ treatment...... interventions and preventive initiatives. Attitudes to the treatment of obesity were clearly best predicted by the belief that individuals are personally responsible for their own obesity. Dislike of obese persons had no direct effect on the preference for collective treatment initiatives and only a small...

  7. Canadian public and leadership attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    Surveys of the Canadian public and leadership were carried out to determine levels of knowledge, perceptions and attitudes toward the use of nuclear power in Canada. The public sample included population over 18 years broken down by region, age, sex and education. The leadership study sampled businessmen, politicians, civil servants, academics and environmentalists. Only 56 % of the public indicated a knowledge of the use of nuclear power: 68 % were in favour, and of these, 39 % were unsure of its safety. Environmentalits were the most knowledgealbe of all the leadership groups, with academics second, and the remaining groups having low levels of information. Fear-producing aspects defined by the survey should be used as the basis for providing information. All leadership groups except environmentalists favoured nuclear power development. Leadership groups identified the same disadvantages as the public (radiation, waste management, pollution and explosions) but added cost. (J.T.A.)

  8. New Zealanders' attitudes to milk: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wham, Carol A; Worsley, Anthony

    2003-02-01

    To identify consumer attitudes and beliefs about (liquid) milk that may be barriers to consumption. Two random-quota telephone surveys conducted in Auckland one year apart. Respondents were questioned about their usual milk intake and their attitudes to milk. The questionnaire included attitude items that reflected the main themes of consumer interest in milk. New Zealand. Seven hundred and thirteen respondents in the baseline survey and a separate sample of 719 respondents in the follow-up survey. At least one-third of the respondents consumed less than a glass (250 ml) of milk a day. Non-consumption was highest in young women (15%). People's concerns about milk related to what was important in their lives; what threatens them physically and emotionally. Women held more positive attitudes but they were concerned about the fat content of milk. Men were less aware of milk's nutritional benefits and as a result were less appreciative of its value. There is an opportunity to develop public health initiatives to address the barriers to drinking milk. Industry-health alliances may be an effective means to provide positive nutrition messages about milk and to engage the support of health professionals.

  9. Etiology and attitudes: beliefs about the origins of homosexuality and their implications for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, L Marvin

    2014-01-01

    Using survey data from the 2008 election cycle, this article updates and extends analysis of public attitudes regarding various aspects of homosexuality. Continued expansion of public belief in a biological root to homosexuality is found, and variations in such opinions are explored. Public attitudes toward the emerging issue of gay adoption is also examined, finding both similarities with and important differences from attitudes toward same-sex civil unions, although both are profoundly influenced by underlying attitudes regarding the causes of homosexuality.

  10. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajmi, Drita; Berisha, Merita; Begolli, Ilir; Hoxha, Rina; Mehmeti, Rukije; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Kurti, Arsim; Loku, Afrim; Raka, Lul

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health challenge worldwide, caused primarily by the misuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is closely related to the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a population. The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Kosovo. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out with a sample of 811 randomly selected Kosovo residents. The methodology used for this survey was based on the European Commission Eurobarometer survey on antimicrobial resistance. More than half of respondents (58.7%) have used antibiotics during the past year. A quarter of respondents consumed antibiotics without a medical prescription. The most common reasons for usage were flu (23.8%), followed by sore throat (20.2%), cold (13%) and common cold (7.6%). 42.5% of respondents think that antibiotics are effective against viral infections. Almost half of respondents (46.7%) received information about the unnecessary use of antibiotics and 32.5% of them report having changed their views and behaviours after receiving this information. Health care workers were identified as the most trustworthy source of information on antibiotic use (67.2%). These results provide quantitative baseline data on Kosovar knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding the use of antibiotic. These findings have potential to empower educational campaigns to promote the prudent use of antibiotics in both community and health care settings.

  11. A CRISPR New World: Attitudes in the Public toward Innovations in Human Genetic Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Weisberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential to genetically modify human germlines has reached a critical tipping point with recent applications of CRISPR-Cas9. Even as researchers, clinicians, and ethicists weigh the scientific and ethical repercussions of these advances, we know virtually nothing about public attitudes on the topic. Understanding such attitudes will be critical to determining the degree of broad support there might be for any public policy or regulation developed for genetic modification research. To fill this gap, we gave an online survey to a large (2,493 subjects and diverse sample of Americans. Respondents supported genetic modification research, although demographic variables influenced these attitudes—conservatives, women, African-Americans, and older respondents, while supportive, were more cautious than liberals, men, other ethnicities, and younger respondents. Support was also was slightly muted when the risks (unanticipated mutations and possibility of eugenics were made explicit. The information about genetic modification was also presented as contrasting vignettes, using one of five frames: genetic editing, engineering, hacking, modification, or surgery. Despite the fact that the media and academic use of frames describing the technology varies, these frames did not influence people’s attitudes. These data contribute a current snapshot of public attitudes to inform policy with regard to human genetic modification.

  12. Public knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Azhar; Al-Safi, Saafan; Otoom, Sameer; Wahba, Lina; Alkofahi, Ahmad

    2007-09-01

    Social acceptances of people with epilepsy very often constitute a considerable problem for patients and their family. Nationwide opinion polls on the public knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy have been reported from several countries. The purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge and attitudes of the Jordanian public towards epilepsy, which have not been verified before. A total of 16,044 people (8158 males and 7886 females) living in different areas of Jordan were interviewed by invitation using standard four set questionnaire constructed from previous similar studies (Caveness and Gallup) that tested public knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy. Two hundred and thirty senior students of the faculty of pharmacy at Jordan University of Science and Technology are involved in this study. Each student interviewed at least 50 individuals, aged 18 years or older, from their immediate community including family members, relatives, neighbors and friends by invitation. The interviews took place during the period from February to June of 2005. Eighty-eight percent had read or knew about epilepsy, and 52.4% had witnessed an epileptic attack at least once in their life. From the people interviewed, 84.7% believed that the cause of epilepsy is a neurological disease, and 80.6% believe that the main symptom is brief loss of consciousness. The response of the younger participants and those with higher education were statistically significant more positive regarding the knowledge on causes and symptoms of epilepsy. More than 70% accepts shaking hands with people with epilepsy; they also believe that people with epilepsy are able to have children and to get high academic degrees. Less than 50% accepts letting their children play with children with epilepsy or employ people with epilepsy. Nine percent had negative attitudes, and believed that patients with epilepsy are insane and 88.5% objects the marriage of people with epilepsy to their sons or daughters

  13. Understanding Public Responses to Domestic Threats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruine de Bruin, Wandi; Florig, H. K; Fischhoff, Baruch; Downs, Julie S; Stone, Eric

    2007-01-01

    .... This project aims to understand the factors that affect people's decisions about how long to wait until returning to their homes, given the gradual decline in radiation levels resulting from radioactive decay...

  14. Validation of the Chinese version of public attitudes toward epilepsy scale in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zongwei; Ma, Chanthia; Lim, Kheng-Seang; Xiao, Bo; Wu, Qian; Shu, Yi; Yue, Zhiping; Wang, Yelan; Feng, Li

    2017-07-01

    Epilepsy is a significant yet seriously underappreciated public health issue in Mainland China. The stigma and discrimination toward people with epilepsy (PWE) and their families are especially severe in China based on cultural misconceptions which cause tremendous psychological, economic and social burdens. It is imperative to formulate a targeted public intervention to eliminate knowledge gaps and correct these misconceptions of epilepsy. However, to date, the essential tools that may drive such an intervention by measuring the public perspective on PWEs is lacking in China. The goal of this study is to test the reliability and validity of a Simplified Chinese version of the "Public Attitude Toward Epilepsy" scale (PATE) in Mainland China which can be used to understand the content and identify the possible sources of stigma to better inform the design and focus of future stigma reduction interventions. The standard procedure of cross-cultural adaptation was used in the translation process. Subjects from different economic and social backgrounds were enrolled by convenience sampling in central China. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to check the underlying factor structure of the items. Furthermore, Cronbach's alpha was utilized to assess internal consistency. 199 respondents were included in the final analysis. Content validity of this Chinese PATE was assessed to be adequate for assessing public attitudes toward epilepsy among the mainland Chinese. Two factors were extracted from the data by exploratory factor analysis; confirmatory factor analysis further confirmed good consistency of theoretical constructs between the original Public Attitudes Toward Epilepsy scale and our Chinese PATE. Our Chinese PATE presented excellent internal consistency (α=0.853-0.909). This version of the Chinese PATE showed acceptable psychometric properties, indicating that it can be implemented in surveying public attitudes toward epilepsy in

  15. Students’ online purchasing behavior in Malaysia: Understanding online shopping attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Zendehdel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining the factors that affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers are rare, despite the prospective advance of e-commerce in Malaysia. The present study examines particular factors that influence the attitude of potential consumers to purchase online by using the attributes from the diffusion of innovations theory of Rogers, the attribute of perception of risk, and the subjective norms toward online purchasing. Consumers’ perceived risks of online shopping have become a vital subject in research because they directly influence users’ attitude toward online purchasing. The structural equation modeling method was used to analyze the data gathered on students using e-commerce, and, thus, to validate the model. According to the results, consumers’ attitude toward online purchasing affects the intention toward online purchasing. The other influential factors are compatibility, relative advantage, and subjective norm.

  16. Public knowledge, public trust: understanding the 'knowledge deficit'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunk, Conrad G

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the 'knowledge deficit' model, which still persists in liberal, technological societies. It is based upon the assumption that expert forms of knowledge, both in the sciences and the humanities, provide a sufficient basis for deciding the most important public policy questions. In this view, public perceptions and beliefs that run counter to this expert knowledge provide unacceptable justifications for public policies. Instead, support of expert knowledge needs to be 'built' through education and public relations strategies. This view is challenged on the basis of basic democratic theory, using the debate about genetically modified maize in Mexico as an example. 'Knowledge deficits' also exist on the side of experts. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Public Attitudes Toward Presidential Candidate Debate on 2014 Presidential Elections in RCTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarif Budhirianto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available President and vice president candidates debate campaign on   Rajawali Citra Televisi Indonesia (RCTI station followed by two couples is to explain the vision and mission of the next government, so that the public can determine balanced and objective political attitudes. This study uses a quantitative approach by means of surveys. The goal is to determine public attitudes toward campaign events conducted at the presidential debate on RCTI. Sample size is 60 respondents chosen by Yamane sampling that located in Sumedang. The results show that respondents’ understanding and interest in this campaign is very good, but not followed by aspects of consciousness and behavior in support of the candidate. It happened because the communication messages are delivered has been mediated by group and interpersonal factors.

  18. The 20th Annual Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Alex M.; Elam, Stanley M.

    1988-01-01

    In the 1988 Gallup Poll, 32 percent of interviewees called student drug use the most important problem facing local public schools, with lack of discipline a close second. This article summarizes respondents' attitudes toward AIDS education, latch-key programs, higher taxes, racial integration, year round schooling, reduced class size, home…

  19. Understanding Economic Justice Attitudes in Two Countries: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junisbai, Azamat K.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing data from the 2007 Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Inequality Survey, I identify and compare the determinants of economic justice attitudes in two formerly similar majority-Muslim nations that are now distinguished almost exclusively by their dissimilar economic circumstances following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In Kazakhstan, where the…

  20. Evolutionary understanding of the concept "Public relations"

    OpenAIRE

    Кам’янецька, О.В.

    2013-01-01

    The considered approaches to determination of notion of «public relations» different research and practical workers. The analyzed stages of development of communications with public and described their signs. Розглянуті підходи до визначення поняття «паблік рілейшнз» різних науковців та практиків. Проаналізовані етапи розвитку підходів до зв’язків з громадськістю та охарактеризовані їх ознаки....

  1. "It just goes against the grain." Public understandings of genetically modified (GM) food in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alison

    2002-07-01

    This paper reports on one aspect of qualitative research on public understandings of food risks, focusing on lay understandings of genetically modified (GM) food in the UK context. A range of theoretical, conceptual, and empirical literature on food, risk, and the public understanding of science are reviewed. The fieldwork methods are outlined and empirical data from a range of lay groups are presented. Major themes include: varying "technical" knowledge of science, the relationship between knowledge and acceptance of genetic modification, the uncertainty of scientific knowledge, genetic modification as inappropriate scientific intervention in "nature", the acceptability of animal and human applications of genetic modification, the appropriate boundaries of scientific innovation, the necessity for GM foods, the uncertainty of risks in GM food, fatalism about avoiding risks, and trust in "experts" to manage potential risks in GM food. Key discussion points relating to a sociological understanding of public attitudes to GM food are raised and some policy implications are highlighted.

  2. Public understanding of climate change in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elke U; Stern, Paul C

    2011-01-01

    This article considers scientific and public understandings of climate change and addresses the following question: Why is it that while scientific evidence has accumulated to document global climate change and scientific opinion has solidified about its existence and causes, U.S. public opinion has not and has instead become more polarized? Our review supports a constructivist account of human judgment. Public understanding is affected by the inherent difficulty of understanding climate change, the mismatch between people's usual modes of understanding and the task, and, particularly in the United States, a continuing societal struggle to shape the frames and mental models people use to understand the phenomena. We conclude by discussing ways in which psychology can help to improve public understanding of climate change and link a better understanding to action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. "Evo in the News:" Understanding Evolution and Students' Attitudes toward the Relevance of Evolutionary Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infanti, Lynn M.; Wiles, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the effects of exposure to the "Evo in the News" section of the "Understanding Evolution" website on students' attitudes toward biological evolution in undergraduates in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at Syracuse University. Students' attitudes toward evolution and changes therein were…

  4. Understanding the Attitude-Action Gap: Functional Integration of Environmental Aspects in Car Purchase Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Olivier; Macharis, Cathy; Lebeau, Kenneth; Turcksin, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at understanding how a general positive attitude toward the environment results in a limited purchase of environmentally friendlier cars, often referred to as the attitude-action gap. In a first experiment 27 volunteers performed a judgment task on car purchase intention. Participants were asked to evaluate the probability of…

  5. Public knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy in Majmaah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeel Munahi Almutairi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, occurring in 6.54 out of every 1000 individuals. The current study was conducted to determine the level of public awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy in the city of Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. The study population included respondents derived from preselected public places in the city. Stratified random sampling was used, and the sample size was made up of 706 individuals. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection from respondents after receiving their verbal consent. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Majmaah University. Results: The results showed that 575 (81.4% of the respondents had heard or read about epilepsy. Almost 50% of the respondents knew someone who had epilepsy, and 393 (55.7% had witnessed what they believed to be a seizure. Results showed that 555 (78.6% respondents believed that epilepsy was neither a contagious disease nor a type of insanity. It was found that 335 (47.5% stated that epilepsy was a brain disease, and almost one-quarter of the respondents said that the manifestation of an epileptic episode is a convulsion. Regarding attitude, 49% and 47.3% of respondents stated that they would not allow their children to interact with individuals with epilepsy and would object to marrying an individual with epilepsy, respectively. Conclusion: Although knowledge about epilepsy is improving, it is still not adequate. The study showed that the attitude toward epilepsy is poor.

  6. Public relations and public understanding in the nuclear industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Michel, A. [Belgonucleaire, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-31

    Before talking about public understanding and public relations in the nuclear industry in Europe, a word about the mosaic structure of the European energy policy and public is required because a similar structure will be found in the European public understanding policy. Afterwards, we explain what communications tools are available and how the different European countries apply them.

  7. The Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution Scale: A New Tool for Measuring Public Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lia; Peled, Einat

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary developments in social attitudes toward prostitution and prostitutes influence both social policies and the social work profession. Understanding individuals' attitudes toward these issues is necessary for the development of social interventions and policies aimed at reducing stigmata attached to them. This article describes a new…

  8. Radio conversation between scientists and the public as a mean for understanding public perception of radiation risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzagora, M.; Coyaud, Sylvie [Radio Popolare, via Stradella 5/a, 20133 Milan (Italy); Ottolenghi, A.

    1999-09-01

    Radio broadcasts with phone-ins in which the public can interact directly with scientists in the studios can represent a very useful tool for analyzing public understanding of science. An in depth analysis of the listeners' questions and of the scientists' reactions-despite the obviously low statistical relevance - can provide important clues on the spontaneous and emotional components of the attitudes of the citizens toward science, and of the attitude of scientists toward citizens concerns. As an example of the opportunities such an approach may offer, a series of live radio broadcasts on radiation and its applications (the first three transmitted in Italy in November and December 1998) is presented. Each broadcast involved an introductory presentation by two or three invited scientists, followed by phone-ins. The questions of the listeners are analyzed and commented. A strong need for a deeper understanding of the methodological principle of radiation research seemed to emerge. The broadcasts also stressed how the need of an interaction between scientists and the public is at least as urgent as the transfer of information to the public. In the future, the same approach will be extended to other fields of science and to other radio channels, with the aim of designing a methodology for the exploitation of specific features of radio broadcasts for promoting the dissemination of scientific culture. (author)

  9. Radio conversation between scientists and the public as a mean for understanding public perception of radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzagora, M.; Coyaud, Sylvie; Ottolenghi, A.

    1999-01-01

    Radio broadcasts with phone-ins in which the public can interact directly with scientists in the studios can represent a very useful tool for analyzing public understanding of science. An in depth analysis of the listeners' questions and of the scientists' reactions-despite the obviously low statistical relevance - can provide important clues on the spontaneous and emotional components of the attitudes of the citizens toward science, and of the attitude of scientists toward citizens concerns. As an example of the opportunities such an approach may offer, a series of live radio broadcasts on radiation and its applications (the first three transmitted in Italy in November and December 1998) is presented. Each broadcast involved an introductory presentation by two or three invited scientists, followed by phone-ins. The questions of the listeners are analyzed and commented. A strong need for a deeper understanding of the methodological principle of radiation research seemed to emerge. The broadcasts also stressed how the need of an interaction between scientists and the public is at least as urgent as the transfer of information to the public. In the future, the same approach will be extended to other fields of science and to other radio channels, with the aim of designing a methodology for the exploitation of specific features of radio broadcasts for promoting the dissemination of scientific culture. (author)

  10. Public attitudes toward political and technological options for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delshad, Ashlie B.; Raymond, Leigh; Sawicki, Vanessa; Wegener, Duane T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores detailed public attitudes regarding the expanding range of biofuels technologies and policy options. Subjects from 34 in-depth focus groups in central Indiana were fairly knowledgeable about biofuels technologies, but uninformed about biofuels policies despite being from a state where biofuels are a salient political issue. A narrow majority was supportive of biofuels in general, but expressed greater enthusiasm about 'second generation' biofuels. Subject beliefs about biofuels' economic and environmental impacts were most important in shaping these opinions, rather than concerns about energy independence or other issues. In terms of policy options, subjects were most supportive of an alternative fuels standard and least supportive of a fixed subsidy and a cap and trade policy. In contrast to arguments about technologies, participants primarily framed their attitudes toward policies in terms of fairness. Although discussion did not substantially change aggregate preferences for most policies, it did increase support significantly for at least one policy proposal-a variable subsidy for ethanol. It is particularly noteworthy that subjects generally did not support the most common biofuel technology-corn-based ethanol-or the most prominent biofuels policy option-the fixed subsidy-despite residing in a state hosting a strong corn industry and staunch political advocates for both positions.

  11. Public knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus (HPV vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell Judy E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papilloma Virus (HPV vaccine has undergone successful trials and has recently been approved for use for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination. Methods Semi-structured interview and questionnaire delivered in a street survey. Standardised HPV-related statements used to measure HPV knowledge and attitudes to vaccination. The setting was three different areas of Birmingham, to target a mix of social class and ethnicity. The sample population was composed of 16–54 year olds. Results A total of 420 participants were recruited. Poor knowledge of HPV and its links with cervical cancer were observed. 81% had a knowledge score of zero. Knowledge about HPV was associated with different ethnic group and socio-economic group. The majority (88% of participants were in favour of vaccination, with 83.6% indicating that they would allow a child under their care to be vaccinated. Conclusion Initial responses to the proposed HPV vaccination within the UK public are favourable. However, knowledge levels are poor and media and health professional promotion are required to raise awareness.

  12. On the importance of PURE - Public Understanding of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, Lars; Kandpal, Tara C.

    2013-09-15

    Public understanding of science (PUS) is a central concept among science communicators. Public understanding of renewable energy (PURE) is proposed as an important sub-concept of PUS. The aim of this paper is to interest and invite renewable energy scientists to join a PURE research project. Four separate important questions for a PURE research project can be identified: (A) Is PURE important? (B) Which issues of PURE are the most important ones, according to renewable energy scientists? (C) What understanding of renewable energy has the general public today, worldwide? (D) How to achieve PURE?.

  13. Scientific authority in policy contexts: Public attitudes about environmental scientists, medical researchers, and economists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Timothy L

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses data from the US General Social Survey to examine public support for scientists in policy contexts and its link to scientific disciplines. An analysis of attitudes about the amount of influence that environmental scientists, two kinds of medical researchers, and economists should have over policy decisions reveals that in each discipline the extent to which scientists are thought to serve the nation's best interests is the strongest determinant of attitudes about scientists as policy advisors. Perceptions of scientists' technical knowledge and the level of consensus in the scientific community also have direct, albeit weaker effects on opinions about scientists' appropriate roles in policy settings. Whereas previous research has stressed the importance of local variability in understanding the transfer of scientific authority across institutional boundaries, these results point to considerable homogeneity in the social bases of scientific authority in policy contexts.

  14. Public Perceptions and Attitudes Toward Adolescent Marijuana Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella M. Resko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study is to examine patterns in public perceptions and attitudes toward marijuana use among adolescents. Computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI was used to collect data from a statewide sample of adults in Michigan identified through random-digit dialing (n = 560. CATI interviews were supplemented with web- and paper-based surveys for nonrespondents. We used latent class analysis to characterize patterns in public perception, using a vignette technique that assessed (a whether adults recognize adolescent marijuana use as a problem, (b how they view the efficacy of treatment, (c how they view help-seeking with mental health professionals, and (d whether they support prevention services for adolescents. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between class membership and demographics, substance use, and methodological factors. Three latent classes were identified: (a a discriminating group, (b a low-concern group, and (c a high-concern group. Age and substance use were among the strongest determinants for membership in the discriminating group. Results provide insight into how the general public perceives marijuana use and marijuana-related problems among adolescents.

  15. Attitude toward Public Health Dentistry as a career among dental students in Odisha: A Cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nupur; Jain, Kittu; Kabasi, Soumik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of dental students' expectations of their profession as well as their attitudes to study a particular specialty of dentistry is of great importance. These attitudes and expectations make studying dentistry meaningful to dental students and society and understanding these factors facilitate workforce planning in the dental sector The aim of the study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included the 3rd year, 4th fourth year and dental interns studying in the State of Odisha. It consisted of 27 questions that were graded on 5-point Likert scale. The responses for the attitude questions toward selecting Public Health Dentistry for postgraduation were categorized into three factors, which are a negative attitude (includes score 0–21), neutral attitude (score 22–44), and positive attitude (score 45–64). Differences between groups were examined using Chi-square test for proportions. The level of statistical significance was set at P dentistry as their future career, and nearly two-third of them (58.23%) had neutral attitude, with very few students having a negative attitude (8.23%) toward the specialty for pursuing postgraduation. Conclusion: Respondents had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing postgraduation in this specialty. Efforts should be intensified, both by the dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this specialty, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates toward it. PMID:28182073

  16. Public understanding of science wins 3m pounds boost

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The British Association for the Advancement of Science is to receive a grant of almost 3 million pounds from the Welcome Trust to support its work to promote the public understanding of science (2 paragraphs).

  17. Science Communication for the Public Understanding of Nuclear Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung

    2006-01-01

    Uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment represent characteristics of nuclear issues in the public arena. Nuclear issue, in the public arena, is a kind of risk rather than technology that we are willing to use for good purpose. There are uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment as characteristics of nuclear. The notion of the public, here is of active, sensitive, and sensible citizens, with power and influence. The public understands nuclear issues less through direct experience or education than through the filter of mass media. Trust has been a key issue on public understanding of nuclear issues. Trust belongs to human. The public understanding process includes perception, interpretation, and evaluation. Therefore, science communication is needed for public understanding. Unfortunately, science communication is rarely performed well, nowadays, There are three important actors-the public, experts, and media. Effective science communication means finding comprehensible ways of presenting opaque and complex nuclear issues. It makes new and strong demands on experts. In order to meet that requirement, experts should fulfill their duty about developing nuclear technology for good purpose, understand the public before expecting the public to understand nuclear issues, accept the unique culture of the media process, take the responsibility for any consequence which nuclear technologies give rise to, communicate with an access route based on sensibility and rationality, have a flexible angle in the science communication process, get creative leadership for the communication process with deliberation and disagreement, make efficient use of various science technologies for science communication. We should try to proceed with patience, because science communication makes for a more credible society

  18. Public health in Australasian emergency departments: Attitudes, barriers and current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton-Warburton, Diana; Gosbell, Andrew; Moore, Katie; Jelinek, George A

    2015-12-01

    To understand the attitudes of consultant emergency medicine physicians and advanced trainees and the perceived barriers to public health interventions in Australasian EDs. This was a voluntary cross-sectional, mixed-methods online survey of consultant emergency physicians and advanced trainees of the ACEM, conducted between December 2011 and March 2012. Eight hundred and fifty-six ACEM members responded to the survey - a response rate of 33%. A similar number of consultants (70%) and trainees (75%) believed public health initiatives should be provided in the ED. Barriers identified by a similar majority of consultants and trainees to the implementation of public health interventions in EDs included dedicated time available for staff to be involved; available public health resources; available funding; clinical staff skills and expertise in public health; and the availability of staff training. Public health and health promotion are perceived by the majority of emergency medicine physicians as important in emergency medicine; however, substantial barriers exists to their implementation. Development of an evidence-based approach to public health interventions, which are effective and feasible in the ED environment, will facilitate a more comprehensive approach to public health initiatives in emergency medicine. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  19. Public Understanding of Climate Change in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elke U.; Stern, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers scientific and public understandings of climate change and addresses the following question: Why is it that while scientific evidence has accumulated to document global climate change and scientific opinion has solidified about its existence and causes, U.S. public opinion has not and has instead become more polarized? Our…

  20. Understanding Evaluation Training in Schools and Programs of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Leslie A.; Christie, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an understanding of how the coursework required for attaining a Masters of Public Health (MPH) degree in epidemiology or health education from accredited schools or programs of public health prepares students to evaluate programs or interventions. Study data were generated using a content analysis of required coursework…

  1. Understanding public opinion regarding transit in southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report presents findings from a study on public opinion regarding transit in Southeast Michigan. The overall goals of this : study were to assess the nature of public opinion regarding regional transit and to understand its relation to socio-dem...

  2. Emerging theoretical understanding of pluricentric coordination in public governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reff Pedersen, Anne; Sehested, Karina; Sørensen, Eva

    2011-01-01

    institutionally or functionally demarcated units that follows a specific pregiven rational logic of consequentiality. This view is apparent in public administration theory, organization theory, and planning theory. In recent years, this unitary, rationalist understanding of coordination has been challenged......: public administration theory, organizational theory, and planning theory to show how each of them are currently contributing to the development of what we define as a theory of pluricentric coordination in public governance....

  3. Understanding public (mis)understanding of tDCS for enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Reiner, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the public's perspective on using the minimally invasive technique transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as an enhancement tool, we analyzed and compared online comments in key popular press articles from two different periods (pre-commercialization and post-commercialization). The main conclusion drawn from this exploratory investigation is that public perception regarding tDCS has shifted from misunderstanding to cautionary realism. This change in attitude can be explained as moving from a focus on an emergent technology to a focus on its applications, benefits, and risks as the technology becomes more grounded within the public domain. Future governance of tDCS should include the concerns and enthusiasms of the public.

  4. Risk perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge of chikungunya among the public and health professionals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrin, Tricia; Waddell, Lisa; Greig, Judy; Young, Ian; Hierlihy, Catherine; Mascarenhas, Mariola

    2017-01-01

    Recently, attention to chikungunya has increased due to its spread into previously non-endemic areas. Since there is no available treatment or vaccine, most intervention strategies focus on mosquito bite prevention and mosquito control, which require community involvement to be successful. Thus, our objective was to systematically review the global primary literature on the risk perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge of chikungunya among the public and health professionals to inform future research and improve our understanding on which intervention strategies are likely to be successful. Potentially relevant articles were identified through a standardized systematic review (SR) process consisting of the following steps: comprehensive search strategy in seven databases (Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, CAB, LILACS, Agricola, and Cochrane) and a grey literature search of public health organizations, relevance screening, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction. Two independent reviewers performed each step. Reporting of this SR follows PRISMA reporting guidelines. Thirty-seven relevant articles were identified. The majority of the articles were published since 2011 (83.8%) and reported on studies conducted in Asia (48.7%) and the Indian Ocean Islands (24.3%). The results were separated into four categories: general knowledge and perceptions on chikungunya; perceptions on the risk and severity of chikungunya; knowledge of chikungunya-harboring vectors and transmission; and knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes on mitigation practices. Overall, the systematic review found that risk perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge of chikungunya among the public and health professionals vary across populations and countries and knowledge is higher in areas that have experienced an outbreak. The results suggest that most of the affected populations in this study do not understand mosquito borne diseases or chikungunya and are therefore less likely to protect themselves from mosquito

  5. Conceptualizing leadership perceptions as attitudes:using attitude theory to further the understanding of the relation between leadership and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Allan; Martin, Robin; Thomas, Geoff; Guillaume, Yves; Maio, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is one of the most examined factors in relation to understanding employee wellbeing and performance. While there are disparate approaches to studying leadership, they share a common assumption that perceptions of a leader's behavior determine reactions to the leader. The concept of leadership perception is poorly understood in most theoretical approaches. To address this, we propose that there are many benefits from examining leadership perceptions as an attitude towards the leader...

  6. Understanding vaccination rates and attitudes among patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Diana S; Ruderman, Eric M; Brown, Tiffany; Lee, Ji Young; Mixon, Amanda; Liss, David T; Baker, David W

    2016-03-01

    Appropriate vaccinations are important for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), who are often treated with highly immunosuppressive therapies that increase their risk of infection. However, rates of vaccination among patients with RA are below optimal levels. We conducted a patient survey to assess self-reported vaccination status and to compare that status with electronic health record (EHR) data. We recruited randomly selected patients with RA in an academic practice in 2013. Eligible participants had a diagnosis of RA, at least 1 visit to a rheumatology clinic in each of the previous 2 years, were 18 years or older, and had English listed as their preferred language. The survey included the following domains: a) patient self-reported receipt of influenza, pneumococcal (PNVX), and herpes zoster (HZVX) vaccinations; b) attitudes about these vaccines, including reasons for unvaccinated status, if applicable; and c) provider recommendations about these vaccines. Based on participants' self-report, we found a high vaccination rate for influenza during the previous season (79.4%), a moderate rate of any previous vaccination for pneumococcus (53.9%), and a very low rate of any previous vaccination for herpes zoster (7.8%). If we assume that all self-reports are accurate and we include vaccinations recorded in the EHR that were not reported by patients, the vaccination rates were approximately 8% to 9% higher for PNVX and HZVX. Vaccination rates are low among patients with RA based on self-report data. Further research is needed to investigate system-level barriers to vaccination and the impact of evidence-based, provider-level interventions on vaccination rates.

  7. Toward a manifesto for the 'public understanding of big data'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Mike; Lupton, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we sketch a 'manifesto' for the 'public understanding of big data'. On the one hand, this entails such public understanding of science and public engagement with science and technology-tinged questions as follows: How, when and where are people exposed to, or do they engage with, big data? Who are regarded as big data's trustworthy sources, or credible commentators and critics? What are the mechanisms by which big data systems are opened to public scrutiny? On the other hand, big data generate many challenges for public understanding of science and public engagement with science and technology: How do we address publics that are simultaneously the informant, the informed and the information of big data? What counts as understanding of, or engagement with, big data, when big data themselves are multiplying, fluid and recursive? As part of our manifesto, we propose a range of empirical, conceptual and methodological exhortations. We also provide Appendix 1 that outlines three novel methods for addressing some of the issues raised in the article. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Public attitudes towards marine aquaculture: A comparative analysis of Germany and Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Shirra; Vigoda-Gadot, Eran; Sterr, Horst; Schultz, Michael; Korchenkov, Irina; Krost, Peter; Angel, Dror

    2012-01-01

    We report on bi-national (Germany–Israel) research on relationships between public attitudes, behaviours and preferences related to marine aquaculture. Aquaculture's world-wide market share accounts for over half of all aquatic products. In many places, the sector's explosive growth has outstripped scientific knowledge and governance provisions. Small producers such as Israel and Germany seeking to expand domestic production must address environmental challenges posed by fish farming, stakeholder competition in crowded coastal zones and public/consumer receptiveness. Based on survey data obtained from both the countries, correlation analysis (Pearson's r-statistic) was used to test four hypotheses. Of these, one (positive relationship between coastal tourism and aquaculture attitudes) was supported in both countries. The hypothesis of positive relationships between lifestyle (environment/health) behaviours and aquaculture attitudes was supported only in Germany and the hypothesis of negative relationships between concern for the environment and aquaculture attitudes was supported only in Israel. These results are significant for policy, business, NGO and other stakeholders. Moreover, they point to the importance of this type of comparative research in improving our understanding of local factors influencing attitude-formation and inter-relationships. First, the tourism–aquaculture relationship found indicates potential synergies between two sectors reliant on the coastal zone that should be taken into account by planning authorities. The divergent environment–aquaculture results were especially interesting since in both countries, the primary concern regarding aquaculture expansion was environmental impacts. Closer inspection of the survey results revealed that this relationship may have been influenced by the orientation of environmental concerns in each population. Germans focus on depletion of wildstocks and Israelis on cage effluent and marine pollution

  9. Public Knowledge and Attitude towards Essential Tremor: A Questionnaire Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif eShalaby

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public awareness of and attitude towards disease is an important issue for patients. Public awareness of essential tremor (ET has never been studied.Methods: We administered a ten-minute, 31-item questionnaire to 250 consecutive enrollees. These included three samples carefully chosen to have a potential range of awareness of ET: 100 individuals ascertained from a vascular disease clinic, 100 individuals from a general neurology clinic, and 50 Parkinson’s disease (PD patients. Results: Leaving aside PD patients, only 10-15% of enrollees had ever heard of or read about ET. Even among PD patients, only 32.7% had ever heard of or read about ET. After providing enrollees with three synonymous terms for ET (‘benign tremor’, ‘kinetic tremor’, ‘familial tremor’, approximately 40% of non-PD enrollees and 51.0% with PD had ever heard or read about the condition. Even among participants who had heard of ET, approximately 10% did not know what the main symptom was, 1/3 were either unsure or thought ET was the same disease as PD, 1/4 thought that ET was the same condition as frailty- or aging-associated tremor, 2/3 attributed it to odd causes (e.g., trauma or alcohol abuse, only 1/3 knew of the existence of therapeutic brain surgery, fewer than 1/2 knew that children could have ET and 3/4 did not know of a celebrity or historical figure with ET. Hence, lack of knowledge and misconceptions were common.Conclusions: Public knowledge of the existence and features of ET is overall poor. Greater awareness is important for the ET community.

  10. Public Attitudes Towards Moral Enhancement. Evidence that Means Matter Morally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specker, Jona; Schermer, Maartje H N; Reiner, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    To gain insight into the reasons that the public may have for endorsing or eschewing pharmacological moral enhancement for themselves or for others, we used empirical tools to explore public attitudes towards these issues. Participants ( N  = 293) from the United States were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk and were randomly assigned to read one of several contrastive vignettes in which a 13-year-old child is described as bullying another student in school and then is offered an empathy-enhancing program. The empathy-enhancing program is described as either involving taking a pill or playing a video game on a daily basis for four weeks. In addition, participants were asked to imagine either their own child bullying another student at school, or their own child being bullied by another student. This resulted in a 2 × 2 between-subjects design. In an escalating series of morally challenging questions, we asked participants to rate their overall support for the program; whether they would support requiring participation; whether they would support requiring participation of children who are at higher risk to become bullies in the future; whether they would support requiring participation of all children or even the entire population ; and whether they would be willing to participate in the program themselves. We found that people were significantly more troubled by pharmacological as opposed to non-pharmacological moral enhancement interventions. The results indicate that members of the public for the greater part oppose pharmacological moral bioenhancement, yet are open to non-biomedical means to attain moral enhancement. [248 words].

  11. An Exploration of High School (12 17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-03-01

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the development of understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes as students progress through high school. In a cross-sectional case study, data was obtained from student interviews and written surveys of students aged 12 to 17 years. The results indicate that students' ability to provide a generally accepted definition and examples of biotechnology, cloning and genetically modified foods was relatively poor amongst 12 13 year old students but improved in older students. Most students approved of the use of biotechnology processes involving micro-organisms, plants and humans and disapproved of the use of animals. Overall, 12 13 year old students' attitudes were less favourable than older students regardless of the context. An awareness of the development and range of students' understandings and attitudes may lead to a more appropriate use of biotechnology curriculum materials and thus improved biotechnology education in schools.

  12. Pharmacy technicians' attitudes about their roles in Iowa public safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjos, Andrea L; Andreski, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    To describe and apply a model for combining self-assessed frequency and criticality for pharmacy technicians' roles and to evaluate similarities and differences between attitudes toward public safety in various practice settings. Cross-sectional mail survey of randomly selected pharmacy technicians in one state. Iowa in fall 2012. 1,000 registered technicians. Mail survey with option for online completion. Scored ratings related to perceptions of frequency and criticality of roles. Technicians rated role frequency on a scale from 1 (not responsible) to 6 (daily) and role criticality on a scale from 1 (no importance) to 4 (extremely important). A weighted relative importance score was ranked to show importance of the role considering frequency and criticality together. The response rate was 25.81%. Ratings for frequency were correlated to ratings for criticality for 22 of 23 roles. A Mann-Whitney U test found a difference between ambulatory technicians and hospital technicians. A visual matrix of a dual-scaled analysis showed both groups' role ratings to be positively linearly related. Hospital technicians showed wider discrimination in their ratings for some roles than for others. Perceived role frequency and criticality can be considered together to contextualize the practice environment. The data suggest a relationship between perceived frequency of role performed and perception of a role's criticality. The study found differences between how technicians from various practice settings perceive their roles.

  13. Knowledge and attitude towards organ donation of medicine students of a Northwestern Mexico public university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-Ruiz, María José; Guerra-Sáenz, Elda Karina; Vargas-Yamanaka, Anna Karen; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Ríos-Zambudio, Antonio; García-Cabello, Ricardo; Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo Del Carmen

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge and attitude towards organ donation of medicine students of a Northwestern Mexico public university. A prolective, descriptive, observational, and cross-sectional study. A 34 items cross-sectional survey evaluating knowledge and attitude towards organ donation in 3,056 medicine students during 2013-2015. Descriptive statistics were used as absolute frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation, as well as the Chi-square test. A p donate their own organs, mainly due to reciprocity (41%). 26% of students would not donate, 48% of them because of fear that their organs could be taken before death. 86% would donate organs from a relative. 64% have spoken about organ donation and transplantation with their family and 67% with friends. 50% said they had received no information about it. 68% understand the concept of brain death. Students received little information about organ donation during college. Despite that, most of them showed a positive attitude and are willing to donate. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  14. Awareness, understanding and attitudes of Italians regarding palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Benini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous difficulties encountered in the diffusion of palliative care (PC in developed countries. A correct and widespread awareness of PC among the general public represents an important factor for its enhanced diffusion and use. The aim of this study is to verify the level of awareness of PC among Italians and their perception of the needs of patients with incurable illness. A random sample of 1897 adult subjects, aged 18 to 74 years, representative of the Italian population, was interviewed after stratification by gender, age (6 strata, education (3 levels, geographic area of residency (4 areas and town of residency (4 dimensions. 59.4% of those interviewed had heard of PC, but only 23.5% of them believed that they had an adequate or precise idea of what PC is; 27% of them did not know or had a mistaken idea about the nature of PC. The most accepted perception was that PC alleviates pain and improves quality-of-life. The principal concerns attributed to incurable patients were: fear of suffering and of death, and the principal needs were perceived as: relief from pain and physical suffering. The primary needs of the family were identified in: medical and nursing care at home, followed by: care provided by volunteers and psychological support. The most appropriate care-setting for these patients was indicated as their home, possibly with the support of professional carers. In the case of children, the main concern indicated was that of being "separated" from family, friends, home and toys. Only 45.2% of interviewees thought that they knew a person who had experienced PC. In conclusion, the awareness of the Italian population of PC is scarce and often incorrect. In order to achieve a greater diffusion and better use of PC in our country, this awareness needs to be improved by appropriate intervention.

  15. Public attitudes toward stuttering in Europe: Within-country and between-country comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Kenneth O; Sønsterud, Hilda; Junuzović-Žunić, Lejla; Tomaiuoli, Donatella; Del Gado, Francesca; Caparelli, Emilia; Theiling, Mareen; Flobakk, Cecilie; Helmen, Lise Nesbakken; Heitmann, Ragnhild R; Kvenseth, Helene; Nilsson, Sofia; Wetterling, Tobias; Lundström, Cecilia; Daly, Ciara; Leahy, Margaret; Tyrrell, Laila; Ward, David; Węsierska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological research methods have been shown to be useful in determining factors that might predict commonly reported negative public attitudes toward stuttering. Previous research has suggested that stuttering attitudes of respondents from North America and Europe (i.e., "The West"), though characterized by stereotypes and potential stigma, are more positive than those from several other regions of the world. This inference assumes that public attitudes within various regions characterized by "The West" are similar. This study aimed to determine the extent to which public stuttering attitudes are similar or different both within regions of three different European countries and between or among five different European countries or similar geographic areas. It also aimed to compare these European attitudes to attitudes from 135 samples around the world using a standard measure. Using convenience sampling, 1111 adult respondents from eight different investigations completed the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) in the dominant language of each country or area. In Study I, the authors compared attitudes within three different regions of Bosnia & Herzegovina, Italy, and Norway. In Study II, the authors compared attitudes between combined samples from Bosnia & Herzegovina, Italy, and Norway (with additional respondents from Sweden), and two other samples, one from Germany and the other from Ireland and England. Attitudes of adults from the three samples within Bosnia & Herzegovina, Italy, and Norway were remarkably similar. By contrast, attitudes between the five different countries or area were quite dramatically different. Demographic variables on the POSHA-S did not predict the rank order of these between-country/area differences. Compared to the POSHA-S worldwide database, European attitudes ranged from less positive than average (i.e., Italians) to more positive than average (i.e., Norwegians and Swedes). Factors related to

  16. Understanding social media program usage in public transit agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jenny H.; Shi, Wei; Elrahman, O.A. (Sam); Ban, Xuegang (Jeff); Reilly, Jack M.

    2016-01-01

    Social media has been gaining prominence in public transit agencies in their communication strategies and daily management. This study aims to better understand recent trends in social media usage in public transit agencies, to examine which agencies use what kind of social media programs for what purposes, and how they measure their programs. A survey was conducted of the top transit agencies in the nation, and results are examined through descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analys...

  17. Lesbians/Gays: Helping a Campus Understand: Looking for New Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, William W.

    This document describes, in a narrative mode, a simulated public education campaign to stimulate cross-campus awareness of, and dialogue about, attitudes toward homosexuality. The campaign described begins with a letter to incoming freshmen, alerting them to the presence of gay and lesbian students and emphasizing the need for mutual respect and…

  18. Bachelor of Social Work Students and Mental Health Stigma: Understanding Student Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellmann, Karen T.; Madden, Elissa E.; Aguiniga, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor-level social work students (n = 198) at a midsized Midwestern public university were surveyed to evaluate their attitudes toward those with mental health concerns. Additionally, students were surveyed regarding their willingness to seek treatment for their own mental health needs. Results of the analyses suggest that the majority of…

  19. Public attitudes toward nuclear power generation. Preliminary study focusing on characteristics of the attitudes of men and women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Naoko; Misumi, Jyuji; Yanagihara, Ryozo; Hayashi, Chikio.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to approach the public attitudes toward nuclear power generation and related matters by focusing on the viewpoint of differences between men and women. More specifically, it was attempted to determine what types of lifestyles and ways of thinking are associated with persons indicating the respective attitudes, what types of anxiety these people have with respect to nuclear power generation, as well as the nature of the inflexibility of those attitudes. As a result, well-defined characteristics were found to be associated with each attitude. In addition, the types of anxiety with respect to nuclear power generation were able to be broadly classified into emotional anxiety and logical anxiety. Regarding the inflexibility of these attitudes, although men tended to exhibit little change concerning positive attitudes, they tended to easily change in the negative direction as a result of negative information. In the case of women, conversely, although their attitudes tended to change easily toward the affirmative direction when presented with positive information, it was determined that women tend to change very little toward the negative direction. (author)

  20. Income, egalitarianism and attitudes towards healthcare policy: a study on public attitudes in 29 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, A; Maldonado, L; Castillo, J C; Atria, J

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between income and egalitarian values and attitudes towards healthcare policy. Cross-sectional and cross-national study. Data for 29 countries from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) 2011 were used. The dependent variables are a general attitude towards government involvement in healthcare provision and two attitudes regarding specific policies (taxes and public funding). Income and egalitarianism were also measured by using ISSP. Data were analysed using regression models that account for individual and country-level characteristics, and country-fixed effects. The effect of income is small and non-significant for attitudes towards government involvement and public funding. For willingness to pay (WTP) taxes to improve healthcare services, we find a positive association with income. Results for egalitarianism suggest a positive association with government involvement in healthcare provision and significant interactions with WTP taxes. The distinction of dimensions and mechanisms underlying policy attitudes appears as relevant. Citizens across socioeconomic groups are motivated to support state-funded healthcare, favouring the design of non-selfish policies. These findings suggest that there is space for policymakers who seek to increase healthcare spending encouraging either policies for specific groups or broader institutional changes. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Public goods and private interests: Understanding non-residential demand for green power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Fowlie, Meredith; Holt, Edward A.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the results of the first large-scale mail survey of non-residential green power customers in the United States. The survey explored the motivations, attitudes, and experiences of 464 business, non-profit, and public-sector customers that have voluntarily opted to purchase - and frequently pay a premium for - renewable electricity. Results of this study should be of value to marketers interested in targeting these customer segments, to policy makers interested in fostering and understanding non-residential demand for green power, and to academics pondering the motivations for firms to engage in such voluntary environmental initiatives.

  2. Public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities after viewing Olympic or Paralympic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Kate; Burns, Jan; Mills, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Despite some changes to the way that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are viewed in society, negative attitudes prevail. One of the aspirations of the 2012 Paralympic games was to influence the public's attitudes toward people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stimuli depicting people with ID performing at Paralympic level of competition change attitudes toward ID. A mixed randomized comparison design was employed comparing 2 groups: those who viewed Paralympic-level ID sport footage and information and those who viewed Olympic footage and information. One hundred fourteen students, mean age 25 yr, were administered measures of implicit (subconscious) attitudes toward disability and explicit (belief-based) attitudes toward ID. Implicit attitudes significantly changed in a positive direction for both groups. The findings provide evidence that both Paralympic (ID) and Olympic media coverage may have at least a short-term effect on attitudes toward people with disabilities.

  3. Understanding Attitudes towards Proenvironmental Travel: An Empirical Study from Tangshan City in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding people’s attitudes towards proenvironmental travel will help to encourage people to adopt proenvironmental travel behavior. Revealed preference theory assumes that the consumption preference of consumers can be revealed by their consumption behavior. In order to investigate the influences on citizens’ travel decision and analyze the difficulties of promoting proenvironmental travel behavior in medium-sized cities in China, based on revealed preference theory, this paper uses the RP survey method and disaggregate model to analyze how individual characteristics, situational factors, and trip features influence the travel mode choice. The field investigation was conducted in Tangshan City to obtain the RP data. An MNL model was built to deal with the travel mode choice. SPSS software was used to calibrate the model parameters. The goodness-of-fit tests and the predicted outcome demonstrate the validation of the parameter setting. The results show that gender, occupation, trip purpose, and distance have an obvious influence on the travel mode choice. In particular, the male gender, high income, and business travel show a high correlation with carbon-intensive travel, while the female gender and a medium income scored higher in terms of proenvironmental travel modes, such as walking, cycling, and public transport.

  4. Understanding attitudes towards proenvironmental travel: an empirical study from Tangshan City in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaoping; Xu, Yajing; Chen, Weiya

    2014-01-01

    Understanding people's attitudes towards proenvironmental travel will help to encourage people to adopt proenvironmental travel behavior. Revealed preference theory assumes that the consumption preference of consumers can be revealed by their consumption behavior. In order to investigate the influences on citizens' travel decision and analyze the difficulties of promoting proenvironmental travel behavior in medium-sized cities in China, based on revealed preference theory, this paper uses the RP survey method and disaggregate model to analyze how individual characteristics, situational factors, and trip features influence the travel mode choice. The field investigation was conducted in Tangshan City to obtain the RP data. An MNL model was built to deal with the travel mode choice. SPSS software was used to calibrate the model parameters. The goodness-of-fit tests and the predicted outcome demonstrate the validation of the parameter setting. The results show that gender, occupation, trip purpose, and distance have an obvious influence on the travel mode choice. In particular, the male gender, high income, and business travel show a high correlation with carbon-intensive travel, while the female gender and a medium income scored higher in terms of proenvironmental travel modes, such as walking, cycling, and public transport.

  5. Xenophobia: Understanding the Roots and Consequences of Negative Attitudes toward Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    The current xenophobic cultural environment in the United States makes it imperative that psychologists understand the nature of xenophobia and recognize its consequences. This article explores sociological, social psychological, and multicultural research to examine the causes of negative attitudes toward immigrants. Xenophobia is presented as a…

  6. Reprogenetics, Genetic Tools and Reproductive Risk: Attitudes and Understanding Among Ethnic Groups in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonstein, Frida; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated a possible relationship between the attitudes toward genetic technologies and the understanding of genetics, reproduction, and reproductive risk among Israeli Arabs and Israeli Jews. The study included 203 respondents, who answered a structured self-report questionnaire. They were recruited using a snowball method, which increased the participation of Israeli Arabs in the sample, although the sample was not representative of the Israeli population as a whole (there were more Arabs and fewer men). The respondents in this study expressed a positive attitude toward genetic technologies, but were less in favor of using genetic tools for non-medical purposes. Respondents of both groups were not knowledgeable of genetics; however, they scored higher on the items related to reproductive risk, which suggests that some awareness about genetic risk exists in both sectors of the Israeli population. Nevertheless, Israeli Arabs were less positive than Israeli Jews regarding the application of genetic tools. Moreover, although an understanding of genetics correlated positively with the attitude among Arabs, it did not affect the attitude of Jews, who remained very positive, regardless of their level of understanding. This result suggests that other social and cultural factors, besides understanding, might be at work among these two major ethnic sectors. Further studies that integrate educational, social, and cultural aspects among ethnic sectors of the population are required to improve health services and genetic counselling in Israel and in other countries.

  7. Necessity of fundamental education on public understanding about nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruna, Kiyoshi; Sugiyama, Ken-ichiro; Itami, Toshio; Yamagishi, Yoichi; Hirata, Fumio

    2009-01-01

    The general public doesn't have fundamental knowledge of radiation and nuclear energy. Therefore, it is not easy to judge nuclear power plants as safe systems. This study is a survey about junior high school, university, and women's junior college students. The results show that junior high school students aren't reluctant to understand radiation. (author)

  8. Public attitudes towards nuclear power and alternative energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    Phase I of this study analyzed attitudes and beliefs of respondents drawn from Metro-Manila. The second phase utilized a sample drawn from residents near a geothermal power plant site in Southern Philippines. Four dimensions of beliefs (psychological/environmental risks, technological benefits/development, economic benefits/implications and socio-political implications/benefits) were identified through factor analysis of belief items on nuclear energy and refined empirically to determine perceptions of respondents about all energy systems. Identification of the relationships between dimensions provided insight into the shared perceptions about each energy system held by the various groups of respondents. The overall attitude of the respondents towards energy systems (nuclear, solar, hydro, geothermal and oil) was determined using three attitude measures: Fishbein model, Osgood's semantic differential technique, and direct response to unfavorability/favorability scale. The belief dimensions were correlated with the attitude measures to determine the degree of contribution of each dimension to attitude. A comparative analysis was made to differentiate attitudes and beliefs held by the PRO and CON nuclear groups, and by the subsamples: university students, science teachers and barangay leaders of the Metro-Manila sample. Attitudes and beliefs relating to the demographic variables were also examined for the two samples. (author)

  9. How to build public information and understanding : some French examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeonneau, P.

    1998-01-01

    Public perception of nuclear issues and of the environmental impact is largely dependent on the general public's knowledge and understanding of complex scientific and technical matters which characterize the nuclear world, and on information provided by mass media which primarily tends to emphasize dramatic aspects. Consequently public information must be provided as completely and in as straightforward a manner as possible, and be adapted for people who do not have a clear understanding of nuclear technologies. Information must be objective in all cases, in order to increase credibility over time. This is important because confidence in scientists, and more generally in technical progress, has been eroded. In addition, when providing information, one has to anticipate events as much as possible in order to avoid misunderstandings when crises occur. Explanations during crises will then be better understood and confidence will be maintained. Examples of campaigns undertaken by the French Atomic Energy Commission are given in this paper. (author)

  10. Scientists' understanding of public communication of science and technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt; Kjaer, Carsten Rahbæk; Dahlgaard, Jørgen

    Background Research into the field of science communication has tended to focus on public understanding of science or on the processes of science communication itself, e.g. by looking at science in the media. Few studies have explored how scientists understand science communication. At present......, there seems to be two competing ways of framing the role of scientists in the process of science communication. The linear model stresses onedirectional flow of knowledge from scientists to the general public whereas the interactional, reflective model emphasizes dialogue and upstream engagement. Recent...... British studies of scientists' opinions on science communication have shown that most scientists operate in the framework of the linear model. However, public and government pressure to increase scientists' exchange of knowledge and competencies with society may be changing this perception. Objective...

  11. Understanding Digital Health as Public Pedagogy: A Critical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Rich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues on behalf of a public pedagogy approach to developing a critical understanding of digital health technologies. It begins by appraising the hitherto polarised articulations of digital innovation as either techno-utopian or techno-dystopian, examining these expectations of technology and considering the tensions between them. It subsequently outlines how a public pedagogy approach can help mediate between these views, offering a more contextualised, socio-political perspective of mHealth. This approach teases out the nuances of digital health by engaging with the complexities of embodied learning. Furthermore, it urges caution against viewing these pedagogical forces as one of transference, or simple governance. To this end, we therefore contextualise our critique of digital health, within an attempt to reconstitute an understanding of public pedagogies of technology.

  12. Attitude roots and Jiu Jitsu persuasion: Understanding and overcoming the motivated rejection of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsey, Matthew J; Fielding, Kelly S

    2017-01-01

    There is a worryingly large chasm between scientific consensus and popular opinion. Roughly one third of Americans are skeptical that humans are primarily responsible for climate change; rates of some infectious diseases are climbing in the face of anti-immunization beliefs; and significant numbers of the population worldwide are antievolution creationists. It is easy to assume that resistance to an evidence-based message is a result of ignorance or failure to grasp evidence (the "deficit model" of science communication). But increasingly, theorists understand there are limits to this approach, and that if people are motivated to reject science, then repeating evidence will have little impact. In an effort to create a transtheoretical language for describing these underlying motivations, we introduce the notion of "attitude roots." Attitude roots are the underlying fears, ideologies, worldviews, and identity needs that sustain and motivate specific "surface" attitudes like climate skepticism and creationism. It is the antiscience attitude that people hear and see, but it is the attitude root-what lies under the surface-that allows the surface attitudes to survive even when they are challenged by evidence. We group these attitude roots within 6 themes-worldviews, conspiratorial ideation, vested interests, personal identity expression, social identity needs, and fears and phobias-and review literature relevant to them. We then use these insights to develop a "jiu jitsu" model of persuasion that places emphasis on creating change by aligning with (rather than competing with) these attitude roots. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Smart marketing may improve public understanding of the anesthesia profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barak; Ogorek, Daniel; Oifa, Stanislav; Cattan, Anat; Matot, Idit

    2015-01-01

    A 2005 survey led by the Israeli Society of Anesthesiologists (ISA) found that large parts of the Israeli public are not familiar with the profession of anesthesia. The ISA has subsequently been conducting a public campaign for several years with the aim to enhance community knowledge regarding the anesthesiologists' training and their critical role in the perioperative period. The present study sought to evaluate the value of a campaign aiming to enhance public understanding of the importance of a medical profession; more specifically, a campaign to promote awareness of the community regarding the anesthesia profession. If proved to be successful, public campaigns may be considered in other countries and for other medical professions with similar difficulties. In 2013, five hundred participants from the general community were asked to answer a questionnaire focusing on the profession of anesthesia. Public knowledge has improved following the campaign. Specifically, improvement was demonstrated regarding the qualification of the anesthesiologist as an MD (92% vs. 64% in 2013 and 2005, respectively), and enhanced awareness of the anesthesia team's critical role in the operating room (OR) (48% vs. 30% in 2013 and 2005, respectively). The Israeli community is attentive to public campaigns that address the roles of a medical profession. Enhanced public knowledge regarding the importance of the anesthesia profession may have a significant impact on both the payment policy for anesthesiologists and on the recruitment of more physicians to the field of anesthesia. Public campaigns may be considered for other medical professions with similar difficulties.

  14. Zika and Public Health: Understanding the Epidemiology and Information Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Pia D M; Holden, E Wayne

    2018-02-01

    Because Zika is a newly emerging infectious disease with little previous information known about it, there are many epidemiologic and clinical questions. The complexity of providing care to those who are at risk for infection or are already infected with Zika in this evidence-scarce environment cannot be understated. In this article, we provide an overview of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in the context of public health and pediatric health care. A broad public health focus is used to provide relevant information for addressing important questions about the epidemic and to facilitate communication with patients, parents, and caregivers within the current information environment. We explore issues regarding the epidemiology of the virus (including why ZIKV outbreaks are occurring), what has changed since the sporadic case reports before the outbreaks, why the true incidence is difficult to estimate, why attack rates vary by population and geography, and why the association between Zika and congenital Zika syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome have only come to light recently. Additionally, challenges related to the current information environment, traditional and informal information sources about the ZIKV, and examples of Zika public health communication campaigns are discussed. Importantly, we review the existing findings regarding the US population's Zika-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior by highlighting variations and gaps. We conclude by identifying related research questions that remain critical. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. A country-wide probability sample of public attitudes toward stuttering in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ana Rita S; St Louis, Kenneth O; Leahy, Margaret; Hall, Andreia; Jesus, Luis M T

    2017-06-01

    Negative public attitudes toward stuttering have been widely reported, although differences among countries and regions exist. Clear reasons for these differences remain obscure. Published research is unavailable on public attitudes toward stuttering in Portugal as well as a representative sample that explores stuttering attitudes in an entire country. This study sought to (a) determine the feasibility of a country-wide probability sampling scheme to measure public stuttering attitudes in Portugal using a standard instrument (the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering [POSHA-S]) and (b) identify demographic variables that predict Portuguese attitudes. The POSHA-S was translated to European Portuguese through a five-step process. Thereafter, a local administrative office-based, three-stage, cluster, probability sampling scheme was carried out to obtain 311 adult respondents who filled out the questionnaire. The Portuguese population held stuttering attitudes that were generally within the average range of those observed from numerous previous POSHA-S samples. Demographic variables that predicted more versus less positive stuttering attitudes were respondents' age, region of the country, years of school completed, working situation, and number of languages spoken. Non-predicting variables were respondents' sex, marital status, and parental status. A local administrative office-based, probability sampling scheme generated a respondent profile similar to census data and indicated that Portuguese attitudes are generally typical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental vulnerability in public perceptions and attitudes : The case of Israel's urban centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, Israel

    Objective. This article investigates how urban environmental vulnerability to hazards reflects in the perceptions and attitudes of the public in three major cities in Israel: Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and Haifa. Our central argument is that the differences between the residents' perceptions and attitudes

  17. Attitudes, practices and beliefs towards worksite smoking among administrators of private and public enterprises in Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Thompson, Michael E; Petrosyan, Varduhi

    2010-08-01

    In March 2005, Armenia enacted legislation protecting employees from secondhand smoke. This research was the first attempt to understand the attitudes, beliefs and practices of managers of public and private enterprises regarding smoke-free worksite policies. Mixed methods were used. The study team conducted focus group discussions with worksite administrators to explore their beliefs, attitudes and practices related to worksite smoking. These findings guided development of a quantitative instrument to collect more representative data on the same issues. Using stratified random sampling, 243 worksites were interviewed from June-July 2005, representing state/municipal, health, educational, culture and business institutions in three of Armenia's largest cities. Smoking-related practices differed significantly across institutions. More than half of the managers (55.6%) reported having smoking restrictions at worksites, including 37.0% who reported smoke-free workplaces; however, smoking or the presence of ashtrays was observed in 27.8% of workplaces reported to be smoke-free. A substantial proportion of the administrators favored both banning indoor smoking and allowing smoking in special areas. Only 38.0% of managers were aware of employees' existing legal protections from exposure to secondhand smoke. Knowledge of these regulations was not related to adherence to smoke-free worksite policies. The research also revealed widespread confusion between the concepts of worksite smoking restrictions and smoke-free workplaces. Public awareness campaigns that promote promulgation and enforcement of worksite smoking regulations could increase employee demand for smoke-free worksites. As one of the first studies to investigate smoking-related worksite practices, attitudes and beliefs in former Soviet countries, these findings provide insight into law enforcement processes in economies in transition.

  18. Some approaches to understanding public perceptions of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer-Wootten, B.

    1981-01-01

    The debate on nuclear power contains a central set of arguments that can be related, by and large, to differences in the meaning of risk assessment for various concerned publics. At an earlier point in time the arguments largely concerned power production (reactor safety), but now most components of the nuclear fuel cycle are subject to risk perceptions. The strongest levels of public concern over time have focussed on waste management, and in this area illustrates most clearly the gaps between the assessments of the technical community and those of the publics. In order to understand such gaps, a theoretical framework is necessary. The broadest scope for such a framework is found in the I.I.A.S.A. - I.A.E.A. model developed by H.J. Otway, with its three interrelated components of risk estimation (technical), risk evaluation (public) and risk management. The model is described in this paper, as well as a number of empirical studies that derive from it and attempt to measure public perceptions of risks. These studies are then compared to several alternative explanations: the use of public opinion surveys; risk rating tasks based on psychologicl theory; the structure of arguments used by members of the public in qualitative focus group discussions; and a model of local community conflict derived from the content analysis of newspapers. Throughout the discussion, examples are taken wherever possible, from recent Canadian studies, in which the effects of major incidents (such as T.M.I., the Mississauga derailment, the Blind River refinery siting controversy, etc.) become apparent. It is suggested that our understanding of public perceptions of risks cannot be divorced from the set of broad societal concerns evidenced in the I.I.A.S.A. - I.A.E.A. model, and that the crucial elements of this approach are seen in its emphasis on the decision-making process

  19. Plastic Surgery Residents' Understanding and Attitudes Toward Biostatistics: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susarla, Srinivas M; Lifchez, Scott D; Losee, Joseph; Hultman, Charles Scott; Redett, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    An understanding of biostatistics is a critical skill for the practicing plastic surgeon. The purpose of the present study was to assess plastic surgery residents' attitudes and understanding of biostatistics. This was a cross-sectional study of plastic surgery residents. A survey assessing resident attitudes regarding biostatistics, confidence with biostatistical concepts, and objective knowledge of biostatistics was distributed electronically to trainees in plastic surgery programs in the United States. Bivariate and regression analyses were used to identify significant associations and adjust for confounders/effect modifiers. One hundred twenty-three residents responded to the survey (12.3% response rate). Respondents expressed positive attitudes regarding biostatistics in plastic surgery practice, but only moderate levels of confidence with various biostatistical concepts. Both attitudes and confidence were positively associated with the number of plastic surgery journals read monthly and formal coursework in biostatistics (P Plastic surgery residents place a high degree of importance on knowledge of biostatistics in the practice of plastic surgery but have only a fair understanding of core statistical concepts.

  20. The current state of public understanding of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, Anna M; Spencer, Douglas; Batt, Carl A

    2006-01-01

    The growing importance of nanotechnology in industry and society has not been accompanied by a widespread understanding of the subject among the general public. Simple questions to initially probe the smallest thing that people can see and can think of reveals a divide in the understanding of the general public. A survey of 1500 individuals ranging in age from 6 to 74 has revealed a lack of knowledge of nanotechnology and especially a lack of understanding of the context of nanotechnology in the world that is too small to see. Survey findings are corroborated by in-depth interviews with 400 adults in studies of nanoscience literacy commisioned by University of California, Berkeley and Cornell in 2002 and 2004, respectively. In general, with the exception of 14-28 year olds, over 60% of respondents say they have never heard of nano or nanotechnology. The results suggest that the general public, especially middle-school children, has no firm foundation to understand nanotechnology and likely will continue to be equally impressed by credible scientific information as well as pure fictional accounts of nanotechnology

  1. Public attitudes to coal use in the context of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohan Fernando [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Though coal remains the main fuel for power generation worldwide, concerns regarding the contribution of coal-fired power generation to global warming have also increased considerably in recent years. These concerns have somewhat eclipsed the many advantages of the use of coal for power generation. The attitudes of the public towards power generation from a particular fuel is an important factor in shaping government policy. For example, such attitudes are crucial in determining whether new coal-fired projects can proceed. This report describes current public attitudes towards coal-fired power plant in several countries both in the developed and developing world. It compares these attitudes with those reported in an earlier report on this subject produced in 2006. Since then, the publication of the IPCC report in 2007 and the greater worldwide consensus on the reality of global warming following the change in administrations in the USA and Australia would be expected to affect public attitudes. However, events in late 2009 have increased the levels of public scepticism. The report principally collates opinion poll data available on the public's attitude towards energy, environment and the use of coal for power generation. Whereas before 2006, surveys of attitudes towards energy sources commonly included coal-fired plant, more recently coal plant are rarely included, presumably as it is assumed that the public would be overwhelmingly opposed. Hence the subject has been broadened to include attitudes to climate changeand CCS. It also reports what national and international organisations say about the use of coal. It investigates what the general public and concerned organisations say should be done to reduce the greenhouse effect. Countries and regions chosen for particular focus are the USA, the European Union, the UK, India, Thailand and Australia. 121 refs., 38 figs., 26 tabs.

  2. Understanding multinational companies in public health systems, using a competitive advantage framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper discusses the findings of a study which developed five case studies of five multinational health care companies involved in public health care systems. Strategies were analysed in terms of attitude to marketing, pricing and regulation. The company strategies have been subjected to an analysis using Porter's Five Forces, a business strategy framework, which is unusual in health policy studies. Methods This paper shows how analysing company strategy using a business tool can contribute to understanding the strategies of global capital in national health systems. It shows how social science methodologies can draw from business methods to explain company strategies. Results The five companies considered in this paper demonstrate that their strategies have many dimensions, which fit into Porter's Five Forces of comparative advantage. More importantly the Five Forces can be used to identify factors that influence company entry into public health care systems. Conclusions The process of examining the strategic objectives of five health care companies shows that a business tool can help to explain the actions and motives of health care companies towards public health care systems, and so contribute to a better understanding of the strategies of global capital in national health systems. Health service commissioners need to understand this dynamic process, which will evolve as the nature of public health care systems change. PMID:21722372

  3. Understanding multinational companies in public health systems, using a competitive advantage framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lethbridge Jane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper discusses the findings of a study which developed five case studies of five multinational health care companies involved in public health care systems. Strategies were analysed in terms of attitude to marketing, pricing and regulation. The company strategies have been subjected to an analysis using Porter's Five Forces, a business strategy framework, which is unusual in health policy studies. Methods This paper shows how analysing company strategy using a business tool can contribute to understanding the strategies of global capital in national health systems. It shows how social science methodologies can draw from business methods to explain company strategies. Results The five companies considered in this paper demonstrate that their strategies have many dimensions, which fit into Porter's Five Forces of comparative advantage. More importantly the Five Forces can be used to identify factors that influence company entry into public health care systems. Conclusions The process of examining the strategic objectives of five health care companies shows that a business tool can help to explain the actions and motives of health care companies towards public health care systems, and so contribute to a better understanding of the strategies of global capital in national health systems. Health service commissioners need to understand this dynamic process, which will evolve as the nature of public health care systems change.

  4. Understanding multinational companies in public health systems, using a competitive advantage framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a study which developed five case studies of five multinational health care companies involved in public health care systems. Strategies were analysed in terms of attitude to marketing, pricing and regulation. The company strategies have been subjected to an analysis using Porter's Five Forces, a business strategy framework, which is unusual in health policy studies. This paper shows how analysing company strategy using a business tool can contribute to understanding the strategies of global capital in national health systems. It shows how social science methodologies can draw from business methods to explain company strategies. The five companies considered in this paper demonstrate that their strategies have many dimensions, which fit into Porter's Five Forces of comparative advantage. More importantly the Five Forces can be used to identify factors that influence company entry into public health care systems. The process of examining the strategic objectives of five health care companies shows that a business tool can help to explain the actions and motives of health care companies towards public health care systems, and so contribute to a better understanding of the strategies of global capital in national health systems. Health service commissioners need to understand this dynamic process, which will evolve as the nature of public health care systems change.

  5. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kågesten, Anna; Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    settings commonly endorse norms that perpetuate gender inequalities, and that parents and peers are especially central in shaping such attitudes. Programs to promote equitable gender attitudes thus need to move beyond a focus on individuals to target their interpersonal relationships and wider social environments. Such programs need to start early and be tailored to the unique needs of sub-populations of boys and girls. Longitudinal studies, particularly from low-and middle-income countries, are needed to better understand how gender attitudes unfold in adolescence and to identify the key points for intervention.

  6. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kågesten

    cultural settings commonly endorse norms that perpetuate gender inequalities, and that parents and peers are especially central in shaping such attitudes. Programs to promote equitable gender attitudes thus need to move beyond a focus on individuals to target their interpersonal relationships and wider social environments. Such programs need to start early and be tailored to the unique needs of sub-populations of boys and girls. Longitudinal studies, particularly from low-and middle-income countries, are needed to better understand how gender attitudes unfold in adolescence and to identify the key points for intervention.

  7. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    review suggest that young adolescents in different cultural settings commonly endorse norms that perpetuate gender inequalities, and that parents and peers are especially central in shaping such attitudes. Programs to promote equitable gender attitudes thus need to move beyond a focus on individuals to target their interpersonal relationships and wider social environments. Such programs need to start early and be tailored to the unique needs of sub-populations of boys and girls. Longitudinal studies, particularly from low-and middle-income countries, are needed to better understand how gender attitudes unfold in adolescence and to identify the key points for intervention. PMID:27341206

  8. A Coalition on the Public Understanding of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, L.; Hehn, J.; Kass, J.; O'Grady, R.; Scotchmoor, J.; Stucky, R.

    2006-12-01

    For many of the problems facing contemporary societies, such as potential impacts of climate change, coastal degradation, reductions of fisheries stocks, volcanic and earthquake hazards in densely populated areas, quality and availability of water, and exploitation of hydrocarbon resources and development of alternative energy sources, formulation of wise public policy depends on evaluation of the state of geoscientific research in the relevant areas. In a democratic society, public discourse about and input to policy decisions on key issues affecting the public welfare requires a public that understands the scientific research process, values the contribution of science to society, and has a working knowledge of what science can and cannot yet say about specific issues. Arguably, that ideal falls short in contemporary American society. Disturbing trends in science education, low public scientific literacy, and increasing alarms about U.S. competitiveness have all been prominent national news topics in recent years. (1) A recent National Science Board report indicated that two-thirds of Americans do not understand what science is, how it is conducted, and what one can expect from it. (2) A recent Gallup poll reports widespread and increasingly prevalent belief in pseudoscience. (3) There is a growing public complacency about and disengagement from science at the very moment when the impact of science on public life is greater than ever. (4) The Business Roundtable of major U.S. companies notes that the scientific and technical building blocks of our economic leadership are eroding at a time when many other nations are gathering strength. In response, a Coalition on the Public Understanding of Science COPUS has been initiated. Essential to COPUS is the premise that public understanding of science and the scientific process and an awareness of the impacts of scientific advancements on our quality of life are necessary to increase student interest in science as a

  9. Public understanding of hydrogen energy: A theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry-Brennan, Fionnguala; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate public understanding of hydrogen energy using a particular social-psychological theory, namely, the theory of social representations to explore how processes of understanding generated lay knowledge of hydrogen energy. Using a free association method for data collection and multidimensional scaling for analysis, the results enabled the identification of themes in the data such as energy, environment, community, science, and technology, and people and place, around which understanding was based. Processes of representation, such as anchoring to pre-existing knowledge, were seen as essential in guiding understanding. The results indicated that there were diverse influences involved in understanding and, although risk perception of hydrogen was acknowledged, community concerns were seen to override any negative effect of focussing on risk. The role of emotion in decision-making was highlighted as positive emotional responses to the Promoting Unst's Renewable Energy (PURE), a local hydrogen storage project, resulted in hydrogen energy generally being positively evaluated despite acknowledged risks posed by hydrogen such as its explosiveness and flammability. Recommendations for policy include recognising that the combination of expert and lay knowledge plays an important role in public acceptance or rejection of hydrogen energy.

  10. Public understanding of hydrogen energy. A theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherry-Brennan, Fionnguala; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Devine-Wright, Patrick [Manchester Architecture Research Centre (MARC), University of Manchester, Humanities Bridgeford Street, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this paper was to investigate public understanding of hydrogen energy using a particular social-psychological theory, namely, the theory of social representations to explore how processes of understanding generated lay knowledge of hydrogen energy. Using a free association method for data collection and multidimensional scaling for analysis, the results enabled the identification of themes in the data such as energy, environment, community, science, and technology, and people and place, around which understanding was based. Processes of representation, such as anchoring to pre-existing knowledge, were seen as essential in guiding understanding. The results indicated that there were diverse influences involved in understanding and, although risk perception of hydrogen was acknowledged, community concerns were seen to override any negative effect of focussing on risk. The role of emotion in decision-making was highlighted as positive emotional responses to the Promoting Unst's Renewable Energy (PURE), a local hydrogen storage project, resulted in hydrogen energy generally being positively evaluated despite acknowledged risks posed by hydrogen such as its explosiveness and flammability. Recommendations for policy include recognising that the combination of expert and lay knowledge plays an important role in public acceptance or rejection of hydrogen energy. (author)

  11. Public understanding of hydrogen energy: A theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherry-Brennan, Fionnguala, E-mail: fionnguala@manchester.ac.u [Manchester Architecture Research Centre (MARC), University of Manchester, Humanities Bridgeford Street, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Devine-Wright, Hannah; Devine-Wright, Patrick [Manchester Architecture Research Centre (MARC), University of Manchester, Humanities Bridgeford Street, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this paper was to investigate public understanding of hydrogen energy using a particular social-psychological theory, namely, the theory of social representations to explore how processes of understanding generated lay knowledge of hydrogen energy. Using a free association method for data collection and multidimensional scaling for analysis, the results enabled the identification of themes in the data such as energy, environment, community, science, and technology, and people and place, around which understanding was based. Processes of representation, such as anchoring to pre-existing knowledge, were seen as essential in guiding understanding. The results indicated that there were diverse influences involved in understanding and, although risk perception of hydrogen was acknowledged, community concerns were seen to override any negative effect of focussing on risk. The role of emotion in decision-making was highlighted as positive emotional responses to the Promoting Unst's Renewable Energy (PURE), a local hydrogen storage project, resulted in hydrogen energy generally being positively evaluated despite acknowledged risks posed by hydrogen such as its explosiveness and flammability. Recommendations for policy include recognising that the combination of expert and lay knowledge plays an important role in public acceptance or rejection of hydrogen energy.

  12. Changes in Public Attitudes and Perceptions about Homelessness Between 1990 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Lee, Crystal Yun See; Byrne, Thomas; Pietrzak, Robert H; Southwick, Steven M

    2017-12-01

    Public attitudes on homelessness can and has influenced policies and services for homeless populations. This study surveyed national public attitudes about homelessness in the 21st century and examined changes in attitudes in the past two decades. An online survey of public attitudes about homelessness was conducted with 541 U.S. adults across 47 states in November 2016 using Amazon Mechanical Turk. Survey results were compared to two public surveys conducted in 1990. Compared to previous surveys, the current sample endorsed more compassion, government support, and liberal attitudes about homelessness. The largest changes were related to increased support for homeless individuals to use public spaces for sleeping and panhandling. When asked about the demographic composition of the homeless population, the contemporary sample tended to overestimate the proportions who were young and racial/ethnic minorities, while underestimating the proportions who were married, or had mental health or substance abuse problems. Together, the findings suggest there has been an increase in compassion and liberal attitudes toward homelessness in the past two decades. Greater support for homeless individuals during an era of economic recessions and governmental homeless initiatives presents opportunities for new public health approaches to address homelessness. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  13. Energy policy options--from the perspective of public attitudes and risk perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viklund, Mattias

    2004-01-01

    In the present study a representative sample (N=797) of the Swedish population was surveyed, with regard to attitudes related to energy policy issues (e.g., environmental attitudes, risk perceptions, and attitudes towards different energy production systems), and self-reported electricity saving behavior. These factors were considered relevant in a Swedish energy policy context, due to the planned phase-out of nuclear power. Citizens' attitudes have traditionally been important factors in energy policy-making, especially nuclear policy. One of the conditions for a successful phase-out is decreased levels of electricity consumption among households and in industry, in order to compensate for the loss in energy production. Respondents reported positive attitudes to the environment in general and to electricity saving, while the attitudes to nuclear power as an energy production system in Sweden were relatively negative. Perceived risk was an important predictor of these attitudes and it was concluded that it is important to investigate factors behind this variable. The relationship between attitudes towards electricity saving and electricity saving behavior was weak. It is suggested that a contribution of psychological knowledge in energy conservation campaigns could be to elaborate on people's willingness to be public-spirited citizens in combination with their pro-environmental attitudes. Viklund (1999, Electricity saving: Attitudes and behavior of Swedish households. Center for Risk Research, Stockholm.) presented more data from the survey referred to here

  14. A survey of public attitudes towards barking dogs in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, E L; Minot, E O; Perry, P E; Stafford, K J

    2014-11-01

    To investigate public attitudes towards barking dogs in New Zealand in order to quantify the extent to which people perceive barking dogs to be a problem, to compare tolerance of barking with that of other common suburban noises, to assess the level of public understanding about the function of barking, to determine risk factors for intolerance of barking and to assess knowledge of possible strategies for the investigation and management of problem barking. A 12-page questionnaire was sent to 2,000 people throughout New Zealand randomly selected from the electoral roll. Risk factors for being bothered by barking were examined using logistic regression analysis. A total of 1,750 questionnaires were successfully delivered; of these, 727 (42%) were returned. Among respondents, 356/727 (49.0%) indicated that frequent barking during the day would bother them while 545/727 (75.0%) would be bothered by barking at night. Barking and howling were ranked above other suburban noises as a cause of annoyance. Risk factors for being bothered by daytime barking were not being home during the day, not owning a dog, and considering a dog bite to be a serious health risk. Risk factors for being bothered by night-time barking were not being home during the day, marital status, considering dog bites to pose a serious health risk, and having been frightened by a dog. Overall, 510/699 (73%) respondents understood that barking was a form of communication. Action likely to be taken by 666 respondents hearing frequent barking included notifying and offering to help the owner (119; 17.8%), complaining to the owner (127; 19.1%) or the authorities (121; 18.2%), or doing nothing (299; 48%). Possible responses by 211 dog owners if they had a barking dog included seeking help from dog trainers (59; 28%) or behaviourists (54; 26%), buying an anti-barking device (33; 15%) or getting rid of the dog (20; 10%). Barking was considered to be potentially disturbing by respondents to this survey

  15. Public attitudes in Japan toward participation in whole genome sequencing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Taketoshi; Ohashi, Noriko; Kabata, Daijiro; Shintani, Ayumi; Kato, Kazuto

    2018-04-13

    Recent innovations in gene analysis technology have allowed for rapid and inexpensive sequencing of entire genomes. Thus, both conducting a study using whole genome sequencing (WGS) in a large population and the clinical application of research findings from such studies are currently feasible. However, to promote WGS studies, understanding and voluntary participation by the general public is needed. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the general public's attitude toward and understanding of WGS studies. The primary goal of our research is to investigate these issues and to discover how they relate to research participation in WGS studies. A survey of awareness regarding WGS and studies using WGS was conducted with a sample of 2000 or more participants using a self-administered questionnaire posted on the Internet between February 20 and 21, 2015. Prior to the survey, we briefly explained WGS and WGS study-related issues to the respondents in order to provide them with the minimum knowledge required to answer the questionnaire. We then conducted an analysis, including cross-classification. For the question regarding interest in WGS, 46.6% of participants responded "Yes." 70.7% of all respondents said that they were interested in some kinds of findings that could be obtained from WGS studies. Regarding participation in WGS studies, 29.0% were interested in participating. The demographic factors significantly related to attitudes toward research participation were age, level of education, and employment status. The results also suggest that concerns about WGS have a positive effect on people's willingness to participate. Furthermore, it was shown that for people who were not interested in their gene-related information, concerns about WGS negatively impacted their willingness to participate. However, for people who were interested in their gene-related information, their concerns might not have impacted their willingness to participate. This research has shown

  16. Understanding employee engagement in a public service context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Strange

    Employee engagement has long been capturing the attention of researchers and practitioners (Bakker, Albrecht, & Leiter, 2011; Kahn, 1990), due to its positive impact on various measures of organizational performance and individual level outcomes (Gruman & Saks, 2011; Harter, Schmidt, & Hayes, 2002......). To date however, employee engagement has primarily been studied in private manufacturing firms, but since it cannot be assumed that employee engagement models developed in the private sector are applicable to the public sector (Boselie, 2010; Taher & Emmert, 1992), future research is needed. The purpose...... of this paper is therefore to build a research agenda aiming to understand employee engagement in a public service context. The paper begins with a literature review of the main contributions to the study of employee engagement and then follows with a brief review of the public sector, highlighting some...

  17. Numbers, scale and symbols: the public understanding of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batt, Carl A.; Waldron, Anna M.; Broadwater, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology will be an increasing part of the everyday lives of most people in the world. There is a general recognition that few people understand the implications of the technology, the technology itself or even the definition of the word. This lack of understanding stems from a lack of knowledge about science in general but more specifically difficulty in grasping the size scale and symbolism of nanotechnology. A potential key to informing the general public is establishing the ability to comprehend the scale of nanotechnology. Transitioning from the macro to the nanoscale seems to require an ability to comprehend scales of one-billion. Scaling is a skill not common in most individuals and tests of their ability to extrapolate size based upon scaling a common object demonstrates that most individuals cannot scale to the extent needed to make the transition to nanoscale. Symbolism is another important vehicle to providing the general public with a basis to understand the concepts of nanotechnology. With increasing age, individuals are able to draw representations of atomic scale objects, but these tend to be iconic and the different representations not easily translated. Ball and stick models are most recognized by the public, which provides an opportunity to present not only useful symbolism but also a reference point for the atomic scale.

  18. Public perception and attitude towards chemical industry park in Dalian, Bohai Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guizhen; Chen, Chunci; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yonglong

    2018-04-01

    Recent decade has witnessed accelerating expansion of chemical industry and increasing conflicts between the local citizens, governmental authorities and project developers, especially in some coastal and port cities in China. Development and transformation of chemical industrial parks has been adopted as a national initiative recently. However, there is a paucity of research examining public perspectives on chemical industrial parks and their risks. Aiming to understand public perception, attitude, and response and the factors underlying the support/acceptance of chemical industry park, this paper investigated 418 residents neighboring to two chemical industrial parks, Dalian in Bohai Rim through face-to-face questionnaire survey. The results showed the knowledge of the respondents on the chemical industrial parks development was very limited. The respondents had complex perceptions on the environmental impacts, risks control, social-economic benefits, and problem awareness. The current levels of information disclosure and public participation were very low. The central governmental official (44.3%) was the most trustworthy group by the respondents. Only 5.5% and 23.2% of the respondents supported the construction of a new CIP nearby and far away their homes, whilst 13% thought new CIP project as acceptable. The spearman correlation analysis results showed a strong NIMBY effect (Not In My Backyard). Factor analysis results demonstrated five latent factors: knowledge, benefit, information, trust, and participation. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated how socio-demographic differences and five latent factors might impact on the support/acceptance of the chemical industrial parks. Education level, trust, information, and participation were significant predictors of public support/acceptance level. This study contributes to our limited knowledge and understanding of public sentiments to the chemical industry parks in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  19. Teenagers' understandings of and attitudes towards vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, S; Patterson, C; Smith, E; Bedford, H; Hunt, K

    2013-05-24

    To examine immunisation information needs of teenagers we explored understandings of vaccination and vaccine-preventable diseases, attitudes towards immunisation and experiences of immunisation. Diseases discussed included nine for which vaccines are currently offered in the UK (human papillomavirus, meningitis, tetanus, diphtheria, polio, whooping cough, measles, mumps and rubella), and two not currently included in the routine UK schedule (hepatitis B and chickenpox). Twelve focus groups conducted between November 2010 and March 2011 with 59 teenagers (29 girls and 30 boys) living in various parts of Scotland. Teenagers exhibited limited knowledge and experience of the diseases, excluding chickenpox. Measles, mumps and rubella were perceived as severe forms of chickenpox-like illness, and rubella was not associated with foetal damage. Boys commonly believed that human papillomavirus only affects girls, and both genders exhibited confusion about its relationship with cancer. Participants considered two key factors when assessing the threat of diseases: their prevalence in the UK, and their potential to cause fatal or long-term harm. Meningitis was seen as a threat, but primarily to babies. Participants explained their limited knowledge as a result of mass immunisation making once-common diseases rare in the UK, and acknowledged immunisation's role in reducing disease prevalence. While it is welcome that fewer teenagers have experienced vaccine-preventable diseases, this presents public health advocates with the challenge of communicating benefits of immunisation when advantages are less visible. The findings are timely in view of the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation's recommendation that a booster of meningitis C vaccine should be offered to teenagers; that teenagers did not perceive meningitis C as a significant threat should be a key concern of promotional information. While teenagers' experiences of immunisation in school were not always positive

  20. Public opinion of drug treatment policy: exploring the public's attitudes, knowledge, experience and willingness to pay for drug treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, C; Jaffray, M; Ryan, M; Bond, C M; Fraser, K; Kirk, M; Liddell, D

    2014-05-01

    Research evidence is strong for opiate replacement treatment (ORT). However, public opinion (attitudes) can be at odds with evidence. This study explored the relationships between, attitudes, knowledge of drugs and a range of socio-demographic variables that potentially influence attitude. This is relevant in the current policy arena in which a major shift from harm reduction to, rehabilitation is underway. A cross sectional postal questionnaire survey in Scotland was conducted where the drug, treatment strategy has changed from harm-reduction to recovery-based. A random sample (N=3000), of the general public, >18 years, and on the electoral register was used. The questionnaire was largely structured with tick box format but included two open questions for qualitative responses. Valuation was measured using the economic willingness-to-pay (WTP) method. The response rate was 38.1% (1067/2803). Less than 10% had personal experience of drug, misuse but 16.7% had experience of drug misuse via a friend/acquaintance. Regression modelling revealed more positive attitudes towards drug users in those with personal experience of drug misuse, (p£50,000 per, annum compared to public attitudes and evidence regarding drug treatment. Findings suggest a way forward might be to develop and evaluate treatment that integrates ORT with a community rehabilitative approach. Evaluation of public engagement/education to improve knowledge of drug treatment effectiveness is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health professionals in public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Although emergency contraception (EC) is widely available, its use is surrounded by many controversies. Overall, it seems to be underutilised worldwide. Objectives. To determine healthcare professionals᾽ knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding EC, and how frequently they encounter, educate and ...

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practice of drug abuse among public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drugs mostly used by the students were coffee and analgesics while Indian hemp, alcohol and cigarettes were abused sparingly. Conclusion: The level of knowledge of the students concerning drug abuse was fair, many of the respondents had positive attitudes to using illegal drugs and the drugs mostly used were the ...

  3. Understanding Attitudes towards Proenvironmental Travel: An Empirical Study from Tangshan City in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xiaoping; Xu, Yajing; Chen, Weiya

    2014-01-01

    Understanding people's attitudes towards proenvironmental travel will help to encourage people to adopt proenvironmental travel behavior. Revealed preference theory assumes that the consumption preference of consumers can be revealed by their consumption behavior. In order to investigate the influences on citizens' travel decision and analyze the difficulties of promoting proenvironmental travel behavior in medium-sized cities in China, based on revealed preference theory, this paper uses the...

  4. Public attitudes toward-and identification of-cluttering and stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Kenneth O; Sønsterud, Hilda; Carlo, Edna J; Heitmann, Ragnhild R; Kvenseth, Helene

    2014-12-01

    The study sought to compare public attitudes toward cluttering versus stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico and to compare respondents' identification of persons known with these fluency disorders. After reading lay definitions of cluttering and stuttering, three samples of adults from Norway and three from Puerto Rico rated their attitudes toward cluttering and/or stuttering on modified versions of the POSHA-Cl (for cluttering) and POSHA-S (for stuttering). They also identified children and adults whom they knew who either or both manifested cluttering or stuttering. Attitudes toward cluttering were essentially unaffected by rating either cluttering only or combined cluttering and stuttering on the same questionnaire in both countries. The same was also true of stuttering. Attitudes were very similar toward both disorders although slightly less positive for cluttering. Norwegian attitudes toward both disorders were generally more positive than Puerto Rican attitudes. The average respondent identified slightly more than one fluency disorder, a higher percentage for stuttering than cluttering and higher for adults than children. Cluttering-stuttering was rarely identified. Given a lay definition, this study confirmed that adults from diverse cultures hold attitudes toward cluttering that are similar to-but somewhat less positive than-their attitudes toward stuttering. It also confirmed that adults can identify cluttering among people they know, although less commonly than stuttering. Design controls in this study assured that consideration of stuttering did not affect either the attitudes or identification results for cluttering. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the effects-or lack thereof-of considerations of stuttering on attitudes toward cluttering; (b) describe differences in public identification of children and adults who either clutter or stutter; (c) describe differences between attitudes toward cluttering and stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico

  5. A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words: Examining learners’ illustrations to understand Attitudes towards Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Syyeda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents my experience of using pictures/images drawn by children as a form of data in research and discusses the merits and implications of employing this method. It comes from research of a mixed method exploratory case study to investigate the attitudes of 11 and 15 year old secondary school students (in the East Midlands towards Mathematics. The aim of this research was to gain an insight into the emotions, cognition, beliefs and behaviour of learners regarding Maths and the factors which influence their attitude. Besides using the tried and tested data collection tools such as focus groups and questionnaires, the children were asked to draw pictures illustrating their vision of Maths and its impact on their lives. The idea was to offer them an alternative medium of communication to exhibit their feelings and thoughts. Students used emoticons, numerals, figures, characters and mathematical symbols to show their favourable/unfavourable attitudes towards Maths and their understanding of the importance of Maths in future life. The results of visual data in this study conform to the findings of the other forms of data collected and show that boys and higher ability students have a more positive attitude towards Mathematics as compared to girls and low ability students.

  6. Understanding social media program usage in public transit agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H. Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Social media has been gaining prominence in public transit agencies in their communication strategies and daily management. This study aims to better understand recent trends in social media usage in public transit agencies, to examine which agencies use what kind of social media programs for what purposes, and how they measure their programs. A survey was conducted of the top transit agencies in the nation, and results are examined through descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analysis and regression modeling. We found that while most agencies still lack clearly-defined goals and performance metrics to guide their social media development, many are increasing their social media capacity with more structural components. Public transit service usage and the level of transit service provision are the most significant determinants of agencies’ social media programming and resource investments. In contrast, the measurement of social media usage and outcomes is more significantly related to city attributes and demographic characteristics. We anticipate an increase in the usage of social media to convey transit related stories and livability benefits, such as environmental sensitivity or safety improvements, as these programs expand. Public transit agencies’ commitment to measuring social media outcomes underscores the future research need to develop best practices for measuring the impacts and performance of social media communications and investments.

  7. Gene Technology in the eyes of the public and experts. Moral opinions, attitudes and risk perception.

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Lennart

    2004-01-01

    Risk perceptions and attitudes to genetically modified food (GMF) were investigated in a survey study of the public (N=469) and experts (N=49). The response rate was 47 percent for the public. For the experts, response rate was 60 percent. GMF technology was rated as the worst of 18 technologies by members of the public and highly replaceable. Experts had a very different view but also saw GMF as replaceable. Models of risk perceptions and attitudes with regard to policy and consumer intentio...

  8. Gender, Self-Stigma, and Public Stigma in Predicting Attitudes toward Psychological Help-Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of university students (N = 362), the role of gender and both the self-stigma and public stigma associated with one's decision to seek psychological help in predicting attitudes toward psychological helpseeking were examined. Moreover, gender differences regarding both the self-stigma and the public stigma associated with…

  9. Validation and Exploration of Instruments for Assessing Public Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wu, Yi-ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale,…

  10. Public Universities in Competition with Private Enterprise: The Attitudes and Behaviors of University Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David Otto

    2010-01-01

    Public universities undertake business activities sometimes considered by private enterprise as unfairly competitive based on nonprofit advantages. This study was an inquiry into the attitudes and actions of chief business officers at public universities regarding these activities. The research population consisted of the 1862 Morrill Act Land…

  11. Drivers of Public Attitudes towards Small Wind Turbines in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatchley, Cerian; Paton, Heather; Robertson, Emma; Minderman, Jeroen; Hanley, Nicholas; Park, Kirsty

    2016-01-01

    Small Wind Turbines (SWTs) are a growing micro-generation industry with over 870,000 installed units worldwide. No research has focussed on public attitudes towards SWTs, despite evidence the perception of such attitudes are key to planning outcomes and can be a barrier to installations. Here we present the results of a UK wide mail survey investigating public attitudes towards SWTs. Just over half of our respondents, who were predominantly older, white males, felt that SWTs were acceptable across a range of settings, with those on road signs being most accepted and least accepted in hedgerows and gardens. Concern about climate change positively influenced how respondents felt about SWTs. Respondent comments highlight visual impacts and perceptions of the efficiency of this technology are particularly important to this sector of the UK public. Taking this into careful consideration, alongside avoiding locating SWTs in contentious settings such as hedgerows and gardens where possible, may help to minimise public opposition to proposed installations.

  12. Public attitudes to nuclear energy: salience and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a brief overview of trends and developments of public opinion about nuclear energy since the late 1970's. One possible reason for increased concern is the public's perception of risks. Research has shown a considerable divergence in public and expert assessment of the risks associated with

  13. Assessing Models of Public Understanding In ELSI Outreach Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce V. Lewenstein, Ph.D.; Dominique Brossard, Ph.D.

    2006-03-01

    Advances in the science of genetics have implications for individuals and society, and have to be taken into account at the policy level. Studies of ethical, legal and social issues related to genomic research have therefore been integrated in the Human Genome Project (HGP) since the earliest days of the project. Since 1990, three to five percent of the HGP annual budget has been devoted to such studies, under the umbrella of the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) Programs of the National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institute of Health, and of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE-ELSI budget has been used to fund a variety of projects that have aimed at ?promoting education and help guide the conduct of genetic research and the development of related medical and public policies? (HGP, 2003). As part of the educational component, a significant portion of DOE-ELSI funds have been dedicated to public outreach projects, with the underlying goal of promoting public awareness and ultimately public discussion of ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding availability of genetic information (Drell, 2002). The essential assumption behind these projects is that greater access to information will lead to more knowledge about ethical, legal and social issues, which in turn will lead to enhanced ability on the part of individuals and communities to deal with these issues when they encounter them. Over the same period of time, new concepts of ?public understanding of science? have emerged in the theoretical realm, moving from a ?deficit? or linear dissemination of popularization, to models stressing lay-knowledge, public engagement and public participation in science policy-making (Lewenstein, 2003). The present project uses the base of DOE-funded ELSI educational project to explore the ways that information about a new and emerging area of science that is intertwined with public

  14. Assessing the Attitudes and Practices of Public Health Professionals ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Évaluation des attitudes et des pratiques des professionnels de la santé publique en ce qui concerne les fonds provenant de sociétés à but lucratif. Au cours des vingt dernières années, de nombreuses sociétés ont commencé à faire des dons caritatifs à des universités au titre de la responsabilité sociale de l'entreprise ...

  15. Understanding the Dynamics of EngagingIinteraction in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Dindler, Christian; Halskov, Kim

    We present an analysis of three interactive installations in public spaces, in terms of their support of engagement as an evolving process. In particular, we focus on how engagement unfolds as a dynamic process that may be understood in terms of evolving relations between cultural, physical......, content-related, and social elements of interactive environments. These elements are explored through the literature on engagement with interaction design, and it is argued that, although valuable contributions have been made towards understanding engagement with interactive environments, the ways...

  16. Science for Alaska: Public Understanding of University Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D.

    2015-12-01

    Science for Alaska: Public Understanding of Science D. L. Campbell11University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA Around 200 people brave 40-below-zero temperatures to listen to university researchers and scientists give lectures about their work at an event called the Science for Alaska Lecture Series, hosted by the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute. It is held once a week, for six weeks during the coldest part of a Fairbanks, Alaska, winter. The topics range from space physics to remote sensing. The lectures last for 45 minutes with 15 minutes for audience questions and answers. It has been popular for about 20 years and is one of many public outreach efforts of the institute. The scientists are careful in their preparations for presentations and GI's Public Relations staff chooses the speakers based on topic, diversity and public interest. The staff also considers the speaker's ability to speak to a general audience, based on style, clarity and experience. I conducted a qualitative research project to find out about the people who attended the event, why they attend and what they do with the information they hear about. The participants were volunteers who attended the event and either stayed after the lectures for an interview or signed up to be contacted later. I used used an interview technique with open-ended questions, recorded and transcribed the interview. I identified themes in the interviews, using narrative analysis. Preliminary data show that the lecture series is a form of entertainment for people who are highly educated and work in demanding and stressful jobs. They come with family and friends. Sometimes it's a date with a significant other. Others want to expose their children to science. The findings are in keeping with the current literature that suggests that public events meant to increase public understanding of science instead draws like-minded people. The findings are different from Campbell's hypothesis that attendance was based

  17. Public awareness, attitudes and beliefs regarding intellectual disability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The general public's responses to people with intellectual disabilities influence the likely success or failure of policies aimed at increasing their social inclusion. The present paper provides a review of general population based research into awareness, attitudes and beliefs regarding intellectual disability published in English between 1990 and mid-2011. An electronic search using PsycINFO and Web of Science plus a hand search of the literature was completed. Most of the 75 studies identified consisted of descriptive surveys of attitudes. They tend to conclude that age, educational attainment and prior contact with someone with an intellectual disability predict attitudes, while the effect of gender is inconsistent. Eight studies examined lay knowledge about intellectual disability and beliefs about its causation in a range of cultural contexts. The impact of interventions designed to improve attitudes or awareness was examined by 12 studies. The evidence is limited by the fact that it is mostly based on relatively small unrepresentative samples and cross-sectional designs. It is concluded that overall, high quality research into general population attitudes to intellectual disability is limited. Public knowledge of intellectual disability and causal beliefs are particularly under-researched areas. There is a notable absence of well designed evaluations of efforts to reduce misconceptions about intellectual disability and tackle negative attitudes. Areas for future research are noted, including the need for well designed studies that consider awareness, attitudes and beliefs in relation to stigma theory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Private and public modes of bicycle commuting: a perspective on attitude and perception.

    OpenAIRE

    Curto, A; De Nazelle, A; Donaire-Gonzalez, D; Cole-Hunter, T; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Mart?nez, D; Anaya, E; Rodr?guez, D; Jerrett, M; Nieuwenhuijsen, MJ

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Public bicycle-sharing initiatives can act as health enhancement strategies among urban populations. The aim of the study was to determine which attitudes and perceptions of behavioural control toward cycling and a bicycle-sharing system distinguish commuters with a different adherence to bicycle commuting.? METHODS: The recruitment process was conducted in 40 random points in Barcelona from 2011 to 2012. Subjects completed a telephone-based questionnaire including 27 attitude and...

  19. Multiple intelligences and alternative teaching strategies: The effects on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding, and attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baragona, Michelle

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between multiple intelligence strengths and alternative teaching methods on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding and attitudes. The design was a quasi-experimental study, in which students enrolled in Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, a developmental biology course, received lecture only, problem-based learning with lecture, or peer teaching with lecture. These students completed the Multiple Intelligence Inventory to determine their intelligence strengths, the Students' Motivation Toward Science Learning questionnaire to determine student attitudes towards learning in science, multiple choice tests to determine academic achievement, and open-ended questions to determine conceptual understanding. Effects of intelligence types and teaching methods on academic achievement and conceptual understanding were determined statistically by repeated measures ANOVAs. No significance occurred in academic achievement scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in logical-mathematical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and intrapersonal intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by problem-based learning (PBL) as compared to peer teaching (PT). No significance occurred in conceptual understanding scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in musical, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and spatial intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by lecture as compared to PBL. Students with

  20. Politics, proximity and the pipeline: Mapping public attitudes toward Keystone XL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravelle, Timothy B.; Lachapelle, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The politics of oil pipelines have become increasingly salient in American politics in recent years. In particular, debates about economic benefits, energy security and environmental impact have been provoked by the proposed Keystone XL pipeline expansion intended to take bitumen from northern Alberta in Canada to refineries on the Gulf Coast in Texas. Drawing on data from recent surveys conducted by the Pew Research Center, this article asks a series of questions. What levels of support for (and opposition to) the pipeline exist among the American public? What are the roles of political factors (such as party identification and ideology), economic attitudes, environmental attitudes and proximity to the proposed pipeline route in shaping attitudes toward the pipeline? And how do political factors and proximity to the pipeline interact? We find that partisanship and ideology drive attitudes toward the Keystone XL pipeline, and that the effect of ideology is attenuated by proximity to the proposed route. The policy implications of these findings for energy infrastructure siting controversies are discussed. -- Highlights: •Americans are divided on the Keystone XL energy pipeline. •Attitudes toward Keystone XL are driven by political party identification and ideology. •Attitudes toward the pipeline are also shaped by attitudes toward the economy and global warming. •The effect of proximity on attitudes toward Keystone XL is non-linear. •Spatial proximity to the pipeline attenuates the effect of ideology

  1. Holocaust-Denial Literature in Public Libraries: An Investigation of Public Librarians' Attitudes Regarding Acquisition and Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnicki, John A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A study to explore public librarians' attitudes and opinions concerning issues of intellectual freedom, collection balance, and controversial materials focused on the availability of Holocaust-denial literature. Results indicate that librarians, regardless of outside pressures, would provide access to this material. A copy of the survey is…

  2. Understanding and managing organizational change: implications for public health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jon M

    2010-01-01

    Managing organizational change has become a significant responsibility of managers. Managing the change process within public health organizations is important because appropriately and systematically managing change is linked to improved organizational performance. However, change is difficult and the change process poses formidable challenges for managers. Managers themselves face increased pressure to respond to environmental influences and provide the necessary leadership to their organizations in the change process. In fact, managing organizational change has become a key competency for healthcare managers. This article addresses the important topic of organizational change in public health organizations. It provides a conceptual foundation for understanding organizational change and its relationship to healthcare organizational performance, and then discusses the types and nature of change, using some examples and evidence from those organizations that have successfully managed change. A framework for guiding public health managers in the change management process is provided. The article concludes with suggested management competencies to establish a change-oriented organization with the culture and capacity for change.

  3. Nuclear energy and the public : risk perception, attitudes and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Renn, Ortwin

    1982-01-01

    What is the basic message which can be derived from the results of the survey? First, it appears impossible to persuade the anti-nuclear activists to give up their views and change their attitude. But one can require them to develop alternative plans for the future supply of energy which will demonstrate the consequences that would arise if nuclear energy were not to be developed. But the main activity should be to reassure those already convinced and to continue the dialogue with those still...

  4. Attitudes in Korea toward Introducing Smart Policing Technologies: Differences between the General Public and Police Officers

    OpenAIRE

    HyungBin Moon; Hyunhong Choi; Jongsu Lee; Ki Soo Lee

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions of both public and police when introducing smart policing technologies. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to survey preferences of the public and police toward int...

  5. Public Attitudes Toward Fiscal Consolidation: Evidence from a Representative German Population Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd Hayo; Florian Neumeier

    2013-01-01

    The poor state of public finances in many countries has led to calls for fiscal consolidation. In practice, implementing concrete consolidation measures appears to meet with public resistance, suggesting that the success of consolidation efforts strongly depends on the popularity of the chosen measures. To identify public attitudes toward fiscal consolidation and alternative consolidation measures, we conducted a survey among 2,000 German citizens. Applying ordered and multinominal logit mode...

  6. Attitudes of research participants and the general public towards genomic data sharing: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Mahsa; Bezuidenhout, Louise; Borry, Pascal

    2014-11-01

    Introducing data sharing practices into the genomic research arena has challenged the current mechanisms established to protect rights of individuals and triggered policy considerations. To inform such policy deliberations, soliciting public and research participants' attitudes with respect to genomic data sharing is a necessity. The main electronic databases were searched in order to retrieve empirical studies, investigating the attitudes of research participants and the public towards genomic data sharing through public databases. In the 15 included studies, participants' attitudes towards genomic data sharing revealed the influence of a constellation of interrelated factors, including the personal perceptions of controllability and sensitivity of data, potential risks and benefits of data sharing at individual and social level and also governance level considerations. This analysis indicates that future policy responses and recruitment practices should be attentive to a wide variety of concerns in order to promote both responsible and progressive research.

  7. What Do Librarians Think about Marketing? A Survey of Public Librarians' Attitudes toward the Marketing of Library Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shontz, Marilyn L.; Parker, Jon C.; Parker, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes of public librarians toward the marketing of library services and relate these attitudes to selected independent variables. A questionnaire was mailed to individual members of the New Jersey Library Association. Although most of the respondents had generally positive attitudes toward library…

  8. Attitudes, understanding, and concerns regarding medical research amongst Egyptians: A qualitative pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat May

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research must involve the participation of human subjects. Knowledge of patients' perspectives and concerns with their involvement in research would enhance recruitment efforts, improve the informed consent process, and enhance the overall trust between patients and investigators. Several studies have examined the views of patients from Western countries. There is limited empirical research involving the perspectives of individuals from developing countries. The purpose of this study is to examine the attitudes of Egyptian individuals toward medical research. Such information would help clarify the type and extent of concerns regarding research participation of individuals from cultural, economic, and political backgrounds that differ from those in developed countries. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 Egyptian individuals recruited from the outpatient settings (public and private at Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt. Interviews were taped, transcribed, and translated. Thematic analysis followed. Results All individuals valued the importance of medical research; however most would not participate in research that involved more than minimal risk. Individuals were comfortable with studies involving surveys and blood sampling, but many viewed drug trials as being too risky. All participants valued the concept of informed consent, as they thought that their permission to be in a research study was paramount. Many participants had discomfort with or difficulty in the understanding several research concepts: randomization, double-blind, and clinical equipoise. Trust in the physicians performing research was important in deciding to participate in clinical research. The small sample size and the selection bias associated with obtaining information from only those who agreed to participate in a research study represent limitations in this study. Conclusion Overall, individuals in our sample recognize

  9. Public attitudes toward legally coerced biological treatments of criminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryessa, Colleen M; Chandler, Jennifer A; Reiner, Peter

    2016-12-01

    How does the public view the offer of a biological treatment in lieu of prison for criminal offenders? Using the contrastive vignette technique, we explored this issue, using mixed-methods analysis to measure concerns regarding changing the criminal's personality, the coercive nature of the offer, and the safety of the proposed treatment. Overall, we found that of the three variables, the safety of the pill had the strongest effect on public acceptance of a biological intervention. Indeed, it was notable that the public was relatively sanguine about coercive offers of biological agents, as well as changing the personality of criminals. While respondents did not fully endorse such coercive offers, neither were they outraged by the use of biological treatments of criminals in lieu of incarceration. These results are discussed in the context of the retributive and rehabilitative sentiments of the public, and legal jurisprudence in the arena of human rights law.

  10. Can citizen science enhance public understanding of science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Rick; Phillips, Tina B; Ballard, Heidi L; Enck, Jody W

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, thousands of citizen science projects engaging millions of participants in collecting and/or processing data have sprung up around the world. Here we review documented outcomes from four categories of citizen science projects which are defined by the nature of the activities in which their participants engage - Data Collection, Data Processing, Curriculum-based, and Community Science. We find strong evidence that scientific outcomes of citizen science are well documented, particularly for Data Collection and Data Processing projects. We find limited but growing evidence that citizen science projects achieve participant gains in knowledge about science knowledge and process, increase public awareness of the diversity of scientific research, and provide deeper meaning to participants' hobbies. We also find some evidence that citizen science can contribute positively to social well-being by influencing the questions that are being addressed and by giving people a voice in local environmental decision making. While not all citizen science projects are intended to achieve a greater degree of public understanding of science, social change, or improved science -society relationships, those projects that do require effort and resources in four main categories: (1) project design, (2) outcomes measurement, (3) engagement of new audiences, and (4) new directions for research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Public speaking attitudes: does curriculum make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne B; Stone, Matthew D; Brundage, Shelley B; Zeigler, Mark T

    2010-05-01

    In light of infamous levels of fear associated with public speaking, businesses are training staff in communication effectiveness and universities are requiring courses in public speaking. A variety of approaches to individual training are available, but few studies have assessed effectiveness of group instruction, as in academic curricula. The specific purpose of this study was to compare changes in scores on measures of self-perceived confidence, competence, and apprehension associated with public speaking after two types of courses: one focused on knowledge of the vocal mechanism and mastering vocal characteristics (pitch, volume, rate, quality), and one addressing general communication theory and public speaking. Seventy-one undergraduate students enrolled in "Voice and Diction" at George Washington University (GWU) and 68 enrolled in "Fundamental Speech" at Florida State University completed questionnaires before and after the courses. Scores on Self-Perceived Communication Competence Scale, Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker, and Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24, were compared within subjects (ie, prepost course) and between courses. Significant differences (ppublic speaking curriculum of how to design and deliver a speech and curriculum tailored to the voice and speech mechanism succeeded in reducing public speaking apprehension and increasing feelings of confidence and competency for these undergraduate students. (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Public Attitudes and Feelings of Warmth Toward Women and Men Experiencing Depression During the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Dimidjian, Sona

    2017-08-01

    Depression is a major public health concern and often goes untreated. In response to a growing body of research documenting stigma as a barrier to depression care, this study focused on examining public stigma toward potentially vulnerable subpopulations. Participants (N=241) were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk and randomly assigned to provide anonymous ratings on attitudes and feelings of warmth toward pregnant women and expectant fathers experiencing depression, mothers and fathers experiencing postpartum depression, or women and men experiencing depression during nonperinatal periods. Participants reported significantly more negative attitudes about depressed men than women, and male participants reported significantly more negative attitudes than female participants toward depressed individuals. Similarly, participants felt significantly less warmth toward depressed men than women, and male participants expressed significantly less warmth than female participants toward depressed individuals. Male participants felt equally warm toward men and women who experienced depression during nonperinatal periods, whereas female participants felt significantly warmer toward women who experienced depression during nonperinatal periods compared with men. Results indicate that the public views depressed men more negatively than depressed women and that males are more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes toward depression, suggesting the importance of reducing stigma directed toward men with depression and stigma held by men toward persons with depression. Attitudes and feelings toward depressed individuals did not consistently vary by perinatal status. These findings are an initial step in improving depression treatment engagement strategies and in identifying those who would benefit most from stigma reduction programs.

  13. Negative Public Attitudes Towards Cancer Survivors Returning to Work: A Nationwide Survey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hye-Young; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jong Heun; Kim, So-Young; Yang, Hyung-Kook; Park, Jong-Hyock

    2016-04-01

    Early diagnosis and an improved survival rate have emerged as important issues for cancer survivors returning to work during the prime of their working life. This study investigated the attitudes of the general public towards cancer survivors returning to work in Korea and attempted to identify the factors influencing this negative attitude. A general public perception survey regarding cancer survivors returning to work, targeting 2,000 individuals between 40-70 years of age, was conducted as face-to-face home visit. The public expressed a negative attitude towards cancer survivors returning to work, in terms of both perception and acceptance. Negative perception was higher among those in metropolitan areas compared with urban/rural areas (odds ratio [OR], 1.71), with monthly incomes $4,000 (OR, 1.54), and with patient care experience compared with those without (OR, 1.41). Negative acceptance was higher among those with monthly incomes $4,000 (OR, 1.71) and those with patient care experience compared with those without (OR, 1.54). The common factors between acceptance and perception that influenced negative attitude included area of residence, patient care experience, and monthly income. This study identified negative attitudes towards cancer survivors returning to work in South Korea and the factors influencing the reintegration of cancer survivors into society. It is necessary to promote community awareness and intervention activities to enable access to community, social, and individual units for the social reintegration of cancer survivors.

  14. Knowledge of and attitudes toward electroconvulsive therapy among medical students, psychology students, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Ozlem Erden; Ak, Sertac; Sonmez, Yunus Emre; Demir, Basaran

    2013-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is safe and effective for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Despite being a well-known treatment method among health care professionals, lay people generally have a negative opinion of ECT. The present study aimed to examine knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among medical students, psychology students, and the general public. Psychology students were included because they are among the important groups in mental health care in Turkey. A Likert-type questionnaire was administered to fifth-year medical students (n = 28), master of science and doctor of philosophy clinical psychology students (n = 35), and a sample of the general public (n = 26). The questionnaire included questions about the general principles of and indications for ECT, and sources of knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. The medical students were the most knowledgeable about ECT, as expected. The medical students also had a more positive attitude toward ECT than the other 2 groups. More psychology students had negative attitudes on some aspects than general public sample, despite being more knowledgeable. Medical school theoretical and practical training in ECT played an important role in increasing the level of knowledge of and decreasing the prevalence of negative attitudes toward ECT among the medical students; similar training for psychology students is required to achieve similar results.

  15. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites. Objectives of the research included: (1

  16. Australian public attitudes towards uranium mining and export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvington, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Australian nuclear debate is focused on Australia's role as a uranium supplier, on the risks that this uranium might be diverted to nuclear weapons and on the risks of nuclear weapons generally. The results of a survey which was designed to measure the importance of uranium as an issue and reveal underlying influences and information behind public perceptions are presented. The methods and questions asked are given as well as the results. The results show that Australians are fairly unconcerned about uranium. However, many fear the possible application of civil nuclear technology to nuclear weapons, a fear not recognised or expected by the nuclear industry. The public image of the industry could, and should, be improved by television, films and documentaries to inform the general public about the nuclear industry. (U.K.)

  17. Stigma, public awareness about intellectual disability and attitudes to inclusion among different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, K; Addai-Davis, J; Kenyon, M; Sheridan, J C

    2013-11-01

    Attitudes to the inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have been studied extensively, yet evidence on public awareness about ID and stigma is limited. The relationship between attitudes, knowledge and stigma associated with ID is poorly understood. The present study examined these factors and the relationships between them in the context of a multicultural society. UK residents of working age (n = 1002) were presented with a diagnostically unlabelled vignette of someone with a mild ID. They were asked to label the difficulties presented and to complete measures of social distance and attitudes to the inclusion of people with IDs. While attitudes to the inclusion of people with IDs were relatively positive overall, social contact was viewed with ambivalence. Inclusion attitudes and social distance were only moderately correlated. Across the whole sample 28% recognised typical symptoms of mild ID. Recognition of ID was associated with lower stigma and more positive attitudes than attribution of the difficulties presented to other causes. White Westerners showed increased knowledge, lower stigma and favoured inclusion more than participants from ethnic minorities. Among the latter group, Asians showed lower stigma and attitudes more in line with inclusion policies than participants of Black African/Caribbean backgrounds. Once a host of contextual factors were considered jointly, only contact was consistently associated with the variables measured. Stigma associated with ID is of concern across all ethnic groups, although it appears to be increased among the public from ethnic minorities. Given that contact and awareness are associated with reduced stigma, they should be considered as prime foci for efforts to tackle ID stigma. The current findings serve as baseline for attempts to increase public awareness and tackle stigma. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  18. Decommissioning through the prism of public perception: To understand in order to convince

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proyaev, V.A.; Belous, D.A.; Nechaev, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    To support large-scale and long-term activities in decommissioning of nuclear facilities including decontamination, radioactive waste management and environmental restoration, St. Petersburg Institute of Technology (SPIT) has developed and introduced special courses into the university education programme. Presently in Russia, like many other countries, nuclear technology is not a popular subject with the younger generation. Also, life priorities have changed and the public media has a rather watchful attitude toward nuclear activities. Therefore, to encourage final-year students to enter nuclear engineering, to provide close connection and mutual understanding between the students and the teachers, to ensure an adequate level of professional experience and to influence, to the extent possible, the degree of the public perception of nuclear technology it is desirable to understand the needs of the young people, how much they know, what do they want, whom do they trust, etc. To find these answers, SPIT carries out periodical opinion polls oriented towards students and school children. The last poll was done in the autumn 2001 and included 632 persons from St.-Petersburg and Moscow. This paper presents the principal results of the study and some conclusions important for the improvement of the process of human resource development for decommissioning activities. (author)

  19. The public's attitude towards strike action by healthcare workers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strength of the associations was determined by Cramer's V. Results. Results revealed strong opinions among the population regarding strikes, numerous misapprehensions when it comes to striking and rights, a poor awareness of other healthcare-related rights and the perception of poor treatment at public hospitals.

  20. Surveying Public Attitudes of Security Sector Reforms in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through applied survey research, this project will measure public response to security services changes in Egypt, Iraq, Tunisia, Yemen, and West Bank and Gaza. ... The surveys will focus on the sector's performance, capacity, response to developments on-the-ground, and its effectiveness in working with the justice sector.

  1. Effect of demographic variables on public attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... Malaysian public towards genetically modified (GM) insulin across several background variables such as religion, race, education level and age. A survey was carried out on 1017 respondents stratified according to various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region. Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs).

  2. Public Knowledge and Attitudes towards Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of bystander CPR is much lower in China than in developed countries. This survey was implemented to assess the current status of layperson CPR training, to analyze the willingness of bystanders to perform CPR, and to identify barriers to improving bystander CPR rates. The questionnaire included individual information, current status of bystander CPR training, and individual’s willingness and attitude towards performing CPR. There were 25.6% laypersons who took CPR training. The majority (98.6% of laypersons would perform CPR on their family members, but fewer laypersons (76.3% were willing to perform CPR on strangers. Most respondents (53.2% were worried about legal issues. If laws were implemented to protect bystanders who give aid, the number of laypersons who were not willing to perform CPR on strangers dropped from 23.7% to 2.4%. An increasing number of people in China know CPR compared with the situation in the past. CPR training in China is much less common than in many developed countries. The barriers are that laypersons are not well-trained and they fear being prosecuted for unsuccessful CPR. More accredited CPR training courses are needed in China. The laws should be passed to protect bystanders who provide assistance.

  3. Understanding doctors' attitudes towards self-disclosure of mental ill health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D; Winstanley, S J; Greene, G

    2016-07-01

    Understanding of doctors' attitudes towards disclosing their own mental illness has improved but assumptions are still made. To investigate doctors' attitudes to disclosing mental illness and the obstacles and enablers to seeking support. An anonymous, UK-wide online survey of doctors with and without a history of mental illness. The main outcome measure was likelihood of workplace disclosure of mental illness. In total, 1954 doctors responded and 60% had experienced mental illness. There was a discrepancy between how doctors think they might behave and how they actually behaved when experiencing mental illness. Younger doctors were least likely to disclose, as were trainees. There were multiple obstacles which varied across age and training grade. For all doctors, regardless of role, this study found that what they think they would do is different to what they actually do when they become unwell. Trainees, staff and associate speciality doctors and locums appeared most vulnerable, being reluctant to disclose mental ill health. Doctors continued to have concerns about disclosure and a lack of care pathways was evident. Concerns about being labelled, confidentiality and not understanding the support structures available were identified as key obstacles to disclosure. Addressing obstacles and enablers is imperative to shape future interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA): Development and Psychometric Properties of a Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Caporino, Nicole E.; McQuarrie, Susanna; Settipani, Cara A.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Crawley, Sarah; Beidas, Rinad S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    The Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA) was developed to assess parental beliefs about their child’s anxiety, parents’ perceived ability to cope with their child’s anxiety and to help their child manage anxious symptoms, and to evaluate parents’ understanding of various parenting strategies in response to their child’s anxiety. The study evaluated the PABUA in mother-child dyads (N = 192) seeking treatment for youth anxiety. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution and identified PABUA scales of Overprotection, Distress, and Approach (with Cronbach’s alpha ranging from .67 to .83). Convergent and divergent validity of PABUA scales was supported by the pattern of associations with measures of experiential avoidance, beliefs related to children’s anxiety, empathy, trait anxiety, and depressive symptoms; parent-reported family functioning; parent- and youth-reported anxiety severity; and parent-reported functional impairment (n = 83). Results provide preliminary support for the PABUA as a measure of parental attitudes and beliefs about anxiety, and future studies that investigate this measure with large and diverse samples are encouraged. PMID:26970877

  5. Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA): Development and psychometric properties of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Caporino, Nicole E; McQuarrie, Susanna; Settipani, Cara A; Podell, Jennifer L; Crawley, Sarah; Beidas, Rinad S; Kendall, Philip C

    2016-04-01

    The Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA) was developed to assess parental beliefs about their child's anxiety, parents' perceived ability to cope with their child's anxiety and to help their child manage anxious symptoms, and to evaluate parents' understanding of various parenting strategies in response to their child's anxiety. The study evaluated the PABUA in mother-child dyads (N=192) seeking treatment for youth anxiety. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution and identified PABUA scales of Overprotection, Distress, and Approach (with Cronbach's alpha ranging from .67 to .83). Convergent and divergent validity of PABUA scales was supported by the pattern of associations with measures of experiential avoidance, beliefs related to children's anxiety, empathy, trait anxiety, and depressive symptoms; parent-reported family functioning; parent- and youth-reported anxiety severity; and parent-reported functional impairment (n=83). Results provide preliminary support for the PABUA as a measure of parental attitudes and beliefs about anxiety, and future studies that investigate this measure with large and diverse samples are encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. What underlies public attitudes towards the constitutionalization of the EU? Evidence from Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Clements

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the factors underlying public attitudes in Britain towards recent attempts to provide the EU with a constitution. In the context of the incremental constitutionalization of the EU, this article represents a detailed assessment of attitudes in a traditionally Eurosceptic country. It builds upon insights from existing strands of work analysing public opinion on EU-related issues. The impact of economic interests, national identity, party cues and political sophistication are assessed using data from a single-country and a crossnational survey. The data are analysed using binary logistic regression estimation. The main findings are that both party ‘cues’ and national identity play an important role in underpinning public opinion. These findings hold up when general support for the EU is accounted for. There are mixed findings in relation to the sociodemographic factors. The findings provide important clues as to what structures public opposition towards further political integration.

  7. Changing public attitudes towards corporal punishment: the effects of statutory reform in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J V

    2000-08-01

    One justification for a statutory ban on physical punishment is that passage of such legislation changes public attitudes towards the use of this form of parental discipline. The experience in Sweden is often cited as an example of legislation which changed public opinion. The aim of this brief article is to review the public opinion findings in Sweden in order to evaluate in greater detail the impact of changing the law. A search was conducted to generate all published and publicly-available quantitative surveys of the public in Sweden and elsewhere. The results of time-series analysis of the data are clear. The 1979 legal reform in Sweden did not reduce the level of public support for parental use of corporal punishment as a means of disciplining children. Support for physical punishment began declining years before the reform was passed and the decline was in no way accelerated by the law reform. Changes in public opinion may have generated the legal reform, but the reverse is not true. Data from other jurisdictions also support the view that there is no relationship between the status of the law and the nature of public views with regard to corporal punishment. This result is consistent with analyses of the effects of legal reforms in other areas. The Swedish ban on corporal punishment did not affect public attitudes. Changing public views requires other initiatives.

  8. Attitudes toward Euthanasia in Hong Kong--A Comparison between Physicians and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-lin; Fok, Shiu-yeu

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that compared the attitudes of 618 respondents of a general household survey and a random sample of 1,197 physicians toward different types of euthanasia in Hong Kong. The general public was found to agree with active euthanasia and non-voluntary euthanasia and was neutral about passive…

  9. The Role of Public and Self-Stigma in Predicting Attitudes toward Group Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Shechtman, Zipora; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Public and self-stigmas have been implicated as factors in the underutilization of individual counseling. However, group counseling is also underutilized, and yet scholars know very little about the role of different types of stigma on attitudes toward seeking group counseling. Therefore, the current study examined the relationships between public…

  10. PUBLIC KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND OPINIONS ABOUT PHYSICAL CHILD ABUSE IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GIL, DAVID G.; NOBLE, JOHN H.

    THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND OPINIONS OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC ON CHILD ABUSE AND RELATED ISSUES WERE INVESTIGATED WITH A STANDARD, MULTI-STAGE AREA PROBABILITY SAMPLE OF NON-INSTITUTIONAL UNITED STATES RESIDENTS 21 OR OLDER (1520 RESPONDENTS), IN A SURVEY DESIGNED BY BRANDEIS UNIVERSITY AND CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL OPINION RESEARCH CENTER. A…

  11. Socio-legal implication and public attitudes of rural women on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-legal implication and public attitudes of rural women on abortion in Southwestern, Nigeria. ... There is a need for mass enlightenment, improvement on legalising abortion laws, and provision of medical and surgical technologies to ensure access to safe abortion services. Keywords: Socio-legal, Abortion, Rural ...

  12. Public Awareness, Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The general public's responses to people with intellectual disabilities influence the likely success or failure of policies aimed at increasing their social inclusion. The present paper provides a review of general population based research into awareness, attitudes and beliefs regarding intellectual disability published in English between 1990…

  13. Public attitudes to climate change and carbon mitigation—Implications for energy-associated behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstede, Chris von; Andersson, Maria; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This work explores public opinions regarding climate change and mitigation options and examines how psychological factors, such as attitudes, norms, and willingness to pay, determine self-reported energy-efficient behaviour. The aim is to create knowledge for the design and implementation of policy measures. The results of an opinion poll conducted in 2005 and 2010 are compared. The number of respondents favouring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions was substantially lower in 2010 than in 2005, whereas there was an increase in the number of people who acknowledged that lifestyle changes are necessary to counteract climate changes. This indicates an increased awareness among the public of the need for lifestyle changes, which could facilitate implementation of policies promoting environmental behaviour. Renewable energy and energy saving measures were ranked as the top two measures for mitigating climate change in both polls. In determining which energy behaviours of the public are determined by psychological factors, an analysis of the 2010 survey revealed that respondents with pro-environmental attitudes towards global warming favour significantly increased use of renewable energy technologies and greater engagement in energy-efficient behaviours. - Highlights: ► Public opinion place priority to environmental issues and beliefs to change current lifestyle. ► A decline in favoring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions in 2010 compare to 2005 poll. ► Environmental attitudes relate to favor of renewable energy technologies. ► Environmental attitudes relate to households energy efficient behaviour

  14. Gender Difference in Achievement and Attitude of Public Secondary School Students towards Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwatelure, Temitayo Abayomi

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on the gender difference in attitude and academic performance of students in selected public secondary schools in Akoko Land. The population for this study was made up of all the Junior Secondary Schools Three (JSS3) students in Akoko Land. Three hypotheses were raised to guide this study. 1626 student, (810 males, 816…

  15. Public attitudes toward child sexual abuse in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bringing public attention to the topic of sexual harrassment of children in Serbia during 2010 as well as the series of arrests of persons suspected of “peadophilia“, encouraged authors to conduct a study which will analyze the public opinion about sexual child abuse. The study is conducted using a sample of 804 people in three comparative categories, laymans, professionals who work with potential victims and sexual abusers, and students of the Belgrade university. Besides assessing how well the persons in question are informed and assessing their concrete knowledge, the authors will evaluate standpoints in five dimensions questioning the perception of the term child, the term abuser and cause often abusing, stands regarding punative measures for sexual delinquents, stands regarding victimization of children with developmental disorders and finally the perception of the child regarding the abuse.

  16. Overcoming negative tendencies concerning public attitude to potentially dangerous technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, A.; Shmelev, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Moscow Scientific industrial Association RADON is an enterprise with potentially dangerous technology. RADON fulfils the collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of radioactive waste from Moscow region. The inhabitants of this region consider it, and that is true, to be essentially dangerous. We understood, that it is necessary to change the situation and give the public the true information about RADON's activity. For this purpose 4 years ago we developed a new Department, the Department or External Relations

  17. Public attitudes towards photovoltaic developments: Case study from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsantopoulos, Georgios; Arabatzis, Garyfallos; Tampakis, Stilianos

    2014-01-01

    The present decade is considered to be vitally important both as regards addressing energy requirements and for environmental protection purposes. The decisions taken, both on an individual and a collective level, will have a decisive impact on the environment, and primarily on climate change, due to the increased energy demands and the need to reduce carbon use in energy generation. The present study was designed and carried out while an extensive debate was ongoing in Greece regarding changes to the legislative framework that would specifically disallow new applications for the installation of photovoltaic systems; its aim is to depict the attitude of Greek citizens, through the completion of 1068 questionnaires. The research results show that over half the respondents are informed about the use of photovoltaic systems for electricity generation. Furthermore, almost half are willing to invest in such systems, either at home or on a plot of land. The factors contributing to the installation of photovoltaic systems are mainly “environmental”, “financial” and “social”. Finally, the citizens who are most willing to invest in residential photovoltaic systems are mainly university or technical school graduates; they would rather take such a decision after being motivated by institutional bodies and would do so for reasons of recognition. - Highlights: • The circumstances for RES are favorable both in the EU and in Greece. • The growth of renewable energy sources, particularly photovoltaic systems, is provenly following an upward trend. • The photovoltaic electricity production is an environmentally-friendly, sustainable and socially acceptable answer to the future energy requirements of society. • The Greek citizens state that they are adequately informed and sufficiently willing to invest in photovoltaic systems either residentially or in a plot of land

  18. Community attitudes toward breastfeeding in public places among Western Australia Adults, 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xingqiong; Daly, Alison; Pollard, Christina Mary; Binns, Colin William

    2013-05-01

    Community attitudes toward breastfeeding in public influence how comfortable women feel about continuing breastfeeding. Knowledge of the social context helps target breastfeeding-promoting interventions. To examine trends in Western Australian adult attitudes toward breastfeeding in public places. As part of 5 cross-sectional surveys from the Western Australian Nutrition Monitor Survey Series conducted between 1995 and 2009, 5496 adults aged 18 to 64 years were asked whether it was acceptable for mothers to breastfeed their babies in public places, including shopping centers, workplaces, and restaurants, and on public transport. Descriptive statistics and multinomial regressions were used to describe factors associated with attitudes toward publicly breastfeeding. There was no change in the acceptance of breastfeeding in shopping centers, restaurants, and workplaces and on public transport over time, but in 2009, significantly fewer people said that it was unacceptable to breastfeed in public compared with 1995. Women, people older than 44 years, those born outside Australia, and the less educated were those most likely to say that breastfeeding in public was unacceptable. In the years that the question was asked, more than 97% of respondents said that breastfeeding was acceptable if a separate room was provided. Making breastfeeding acceptable and pleasant for mothers in public spaces is a key policy recommendation. Women, people older than 44 years, and those born outside Australia were most likely to respond that breastfeeding in public was unacceptable unless a room was provided. Given that, on average, 70% of the population said that breastfeeding in public was acceptable, investigation into why some women do not think so is warranted.

  19. Measuring and Understanding Public Opinion on Human Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Misook

    2012-01-01

    The theory of evolution has long generated controversy in American society, but Americans' attitudes about human evolution are often neglected in studies of "culture wars" and the nature of mass belief systems more generally (Berkman and Plutzer 2010; Freeland and Houston 2009). Gallup and other survey organizations have polled…

  20. A territorial understanding of sustainability in public development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Péti, Márton

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability theories in European Union (EU) development policies are facing significant challenges: it is difficult to transmit context-specific, publicly communicable messages; the recent development policies strengthen the concurrent development paradigm of economic growth and competitiveness; ‘climate change’ became a more popular environmental integration term than sustainability in the last few years. However, due to the recent crises of the economic growth, there is a great chance to reintroduce a sustainability-based development. A territorial/regional understanding of sustainability can also be an answer for the current challenges, a platform for refreshing the concept with relevant, specific messages that are close to the everyday life. This paper summarises the ‘territorial system’-based basic principles of territorial sustainability in a model called AUTHARSIIV (AUTonomy, HARmony, Solidarity, Innovation, Identity and Values). This is a supplementary sustainability content specified for the context of spatial/regional development or planning. The paper also examines the presence of ‘general and territorial sustainability’ in regional development programmes, and case studies on applying the territorial sustainability principles in planning, assessment, and implementation. According to the results, sustainability is rarely adapted to the conditions of a given sector or a region, and the territorial aspect of sustainability is underrepresented even in territorial programmes. Therefore, the paper proposes a new planning and assessment system that is based on a set of regionally legitimate sustainability values.

  1. A territorial understanding of sustainability in public development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peti, Marton, E-mail: mpeti@vati.hu

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability theories in European Union (EU) development policies are facing significant challenges: it is difficult to transmit context-specific, publicly communicable messages; the recent development policies strengthen the concurrent development paradigm of economic growth and competitiveness; 'climate change' became a more popular environmental integration term than sustainability in the last few years. However, due to the recent crises of the economic growth, there is a great chance to reintroduce a sustainability-based development. A territorial/regional understanding of sustainability can also be an answer for the current challenges, a platform for refreshing the concept with relevant, specific messages that are close to the everyday life. This paper summarises the 'territorial system'-based basic principles of territorial sustainability in a model called AUTHARSIIV (AUTonomy, HARmony, Solidarity, Innovation, Identity and Values). This is a supplementary sustainability content specified for the context of spatial/regional development or planning. The paper also examines the presence of 'general and territorial sustainability' in regional development programmes, and case studies on applying the territorial sustainability principles in planning, assessment, and implementation. According to the results, sustainability is rarely adapted to the conditions of a given sector or a region, and the territorial aspect of sustainability is underrepresented even in territorial programmes. Therefore, the paper proposes a new planning and assessment system that is based on a set of regionally legitimate sustainability values.

  2. Attitudes and values expected of public health nursing students at graduation: A delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Mika; Takizawa, Hiroko

    2018-03-09

    The skills and knowledge of the competencies expected of public health nursing (PHN) students at graduation have been clarified; however, the attitudes and values have not yet been studied in Japan. The objective of this study was to identify and reach a consensus among experts on the attitudes and values expected of PHN students at graduation. This survey was conducted as a two-stage Delphi study. We selected the following experts: 248 teachers in the faculty of public health nursing at a university as academic experts, and 250 public health nurses who were also experienced clinical instructors as clinical experts. The round 1 mailed survey was conducted using a questionnaire about the necessity and importance of attitudes and values, and 211 experts responded (42.4%, clinical; n = 124, academic; n = 87). In the Round 2 survey, the experts consisted of 60.2% of the round 1 participants (clinical; n = 73, academic; n = 54). Descriptive statistics were used for multiple imputation. We identified a total of 13 attitudes and values expected of PHN students, and reached ≥90% consensus for most items (except for one). Regarding the expected achievement level at graduation, there was no difference between clinical and academic experts except for one item. Consensus was clearly achieved for 13 attitudes and values expected of PHN students, as well as importance and expected achievement level at graduation. In the future, it is important to examine strategies that can effectively develop these attitudes and values through basic and continuous education. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring public attitudes towards approaches to discussing costs in the clinical encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Marion; Sommers, Roseanna; Logan, Jean; Weidmer, Beverly; Chen, Shirley; Goold, Susan; Pearson, Steven; Donley, Greer; McGlynn, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Patients' willingness to discuss costs of treatment alternatives with their physicians is uncertain. To explore public attitudes toward doctor-patient discussions of insurer and out-of-pocket costs and to examine whether several possible communication strategies might enhance patient receptivity to discussing costs with their physicians. Focus group discussions and pre-discussion and post-discussion questionnaires. Two hundred and eleven insured individuals with mean age of 48 years, 51 % female, 34 % African American, 27 % Latino, and 50 % with incomes below 300 % of the federal poverty threshold, participated in 22 focus groups in Santa Monica, CA and in the Washington, DC metro area. Attitudes toward discussing out-of-pocket and insurer costs with physicians, and towards physicians' role in controlling costs; receptivity toward recommended communication strategies regarding costs. Participants expressed more willingness to talk to doctors about personal costs than insurer costs. Older participants and sicker participants were more willing to talk to the doctor about all costs than younger and healthier participants (OR = 1.8, p = 0.004; OR = 1.6, p = 0.027 respectively). Participants who face cost-related barriers to accessing health care were in greater agreement than others that doctors should play a role in reducing out-of-pocket costs (OR = 2.4, p = 0.011). Participants did not endorse recommended communication strategies for discussing costs in the clinical encounter. In contrast, participants stated that trust in one's physician would enhance their willingness to discuss costs. Perceived impediments to discussing costs included rushed, impersonal visits, and clinicians who are insufficiently informed about costs. This study suggests that trusting relationships may be more conducive than any particular discussion strategy to facilitating doctor-patient discussions of health care costs. Better public understanding of how medical

  4. Parties heed (with caution): Public knowledge of and attitudes towards party finance in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanHeerde-Hudson, Jennifer; Fisher, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Despite comprehensive reform ( Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act ) and recent review (Phillips Review in 2007) of party finance in Britain, public opinion of party finance remains plagued by perceptions of corruption, undue influence from wealthy donors, carefree and wasteful spending and, more generally, from the perception that there is just 'too much money' in politics. In this article we argue that knowledge of and attitudes to party finance matter, not least because advocates of reform have cited public opinion as evidence for reform. However, because attitudes to party finance are part of a broader attitudinal structure, opinion-led reforms are unlikely to succeed in increasing public confidence. Using data generated from YouGov's online panel (N=2,008), we demonstrate that the public know little of the key provisions regulating party finance and attitudes to party finance can be explained along two underlying dimensions - Anti-Party Finance and Reformers . As such, we consider whether parties and politicians should be freed from the constraints of public opinion in reforming party finance.

  5. Development of the public attitude model toward nuclear power in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Sung Choi; Sun, Ho Lee; Nam, Zin Cho; Byong, Whi Lee

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the structure of public attitude towards nuclear power plants in Korea. Special emphasis is given to the issues of public acceptance in relation to perceived benefits, perceived risk, judged safety, and safety satisfaction. The national survey data of 1995 by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety is analyzed with a latent class model and logistic regression. The latent class model is used to construct benefit and risk factors. With these factors and safety-related variables, a public attitude model is developed by logistic regression which enables the relationships between national or local acceptance of nuclear power and explanatory variables to be quantified. The results show that the attitude structure is somewhat different by gender. Subjectively perceived risk is found to be the most influential factor for local acceptance. The odds of local acceptance with the best risk perception is about 16 times the odds with the worst perception for males and about 7.7 times for females. From the results of this analysis, it is clear that subjective satisfaction with nuclear safety is a more important factor for explaining public acceptance rather than judgment of it. These important findings should be reflected in the public acceptance improvement strategy for the nuclear power program

  6. Looking beyond superficial knowledge gaps: understanding public representations of biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.; Fischer, A.; Rink, D.; Young, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Lack of public support for, and protest against, biodiversity management measures have often been explained by the apparently inadequate knowledge of biodiversity in the general public. In stark contrast to this assumption of public ignorance, our results from focus group discussions in The

  7. Attitudes of South Asian men in the UK toward women and their understanding of and justification for domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Harjinder

    2015-01-01

    To date nothing is known about the attitudes of South Asian men in the UK toward women and domestic violence. Issues related to South Asian men and communities have remained largely under the surface due to religious and cultural sensitivity. The aim of the research is to examine the attitudes of South Asian men in London and the South East of England toward women and their understanding and justification of domestic violence. More specifically, the research explores a range of cultural and r...

  8. Future pandemics and vaccination: Public opinion and attitudes across three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determann, Domino; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; French, Jeff; Voeten, Helene A; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Das, Enny; Korfage, Ida J

    2016-02-03

    Understanding public opinion and attitudes regarding vaccination is crucial for successful outbreak management and effective communication at the European level. We explored national differences by conducting focus group discussions in The Netherlands, Poland and Sweden. Discussions were structured using concepts from behavioural models. Thematic analysis revealed that participants would base their vaccination decision on trade-offs between perceived benefits and barriers of the vaccine also taking into account the seriousness of the new outbreak. Except for those having chronic diseases, participants expected a low infection risk, resulting in a low willingness to get vaccinated. Information about the health status of cases was considered important since this might change perceived susceptibility. Participants displayed concerns about vaccine safety due to the limited available time to produce and test vaccines in the acute situation of a new pandemic. Swedish participants mentioned their tendency of doing the right thing and following the rules, as well as to get vaccinated because of solidarity with other citizens and social influences. This appeared much less prominent for the Dutch and Polish participants. However, Swedish participants indicated that their negative experiences during the Influenza A/H1N1 2009 pandemic decreases their acceptance of future vaccinations. Polish participants lacked trust in their national (public) health system and government, and were therefore sceptical about the availability and quality of vaccines in Poland. Although participants overall expressed similar considerations, important differences between countries stand out, such as previous vaccination experiences, the degree of adherence to social norms, and the degree of trust in health authorities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumin, Xie; Woo, Stephanie Mu-Lian; Lei, Zhang

    2013-12-16

    In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People's Republic of China.

  10. Public knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about homeless people: evidence for compassion fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, B G; Schwartz, S; Moore, R; Phelan, J; Struening, E; Stueve, A; Colten, M E

    1995-08-01

    Media reports suggest that the public is becoming impatient with the homeless--that so-called "compassion fatigue" has gripped the nation. This characterization of public sentiment could have important policy consequences-- restrictive measures can be justified by growing public impatience, and progressive housing policies seem feasible within a hostile climate of opinion. But evidence to support the compassion fatigue notion is anecdotal. We examine the issue by tracking the results of public opinion polls and by reporting detailed evidence from a nationwide random-digit dial telephone survey (N = 1,507) concerning knowledge attitudes and beliefs about homeless people. To be sure, the public sees homelessness as an undesirable social problem and wants something done about it. However, although the homeless are clearly stigmatized, there is little evidence to suggest that the public has lost compassion and is unwilling to support policies to help homeless people.

  11. Attitudes to the public release of comparative information on the quality of general practice care: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Martin N; Hiscock, Julia; Sibbald, Bonnie

    2002-11-30

    To examine the attitudes of service users, general practitioners, and clinical governance leads based in primary care trusts to the public dissemination of comparative reports on quality of care in general practice, to guide the policy and practice of public disclosure of information in primary care. Qualitative focus group study using mock quality report cards as prompts for discussion. 12 focus groups held in an urban area in north west England and a semirural area in the south of England. 35 service users, 24 general practitioners, and 18 clinical governance leads. There was general support for the principle of publishing comparative information, but all three stakeholder groups expressed concerns about the practical implications. Attitudes were strongly influenced by experience of comparative reports from other sectors-for example, school league tables. Service users distrusted what they saw as the political motivation driving the initiative, expressed a desire to "protect" their practices from political and managerial interference, and were uneasy about practices being encouraged to compete against each other. General practitioners focused on the unfairness of drawing comparisons from current data and the risks of "gaming" the results. Clinical governance leads thought that public disclosure would damage their developmental approach to implementing clinical governance. The initial negative response to the quality reports seemed to diminish on reflection. Despite support for the principle of greater openness, the planned publication of information about quality of care in general practice is likely to face considerable opposition, not only from professional groups but also from the public. A greater understanding of the practical implications of public reporting is required before the potential benefits can be realised.

  12. Survey of undergraduate medical students on their understanding and attitude towards the discipline of radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Daya Nand; Rath, Goura Kishor; Parashar, Akhil; Singh, Prashant

    2010-01-01

    The discipline of radiotherapy (RT) in India is considered a low priority subject. Postgraduate (PG) students rarely choose RT as a career option. The possible reasons could be: 1) limited availability of PG course training centers, 2) limited job prospects, etc. We decided to conduct a survey of undergraduate (UG) medical students to find out their awareness, understanding, and attitude toward the subject of RT. A simple 12-point questionnaire was designed to assess the level of awareness, understanding, and attitude. It was handed over personally or sent by e-mail or post to UG students of various medical colleges in India. The data provided by respondents was analyzed. During the period from January to June 2008, 400 questionnaires were distributed. A total of 155 respondents sent their responses. Twenty-eight of them (18%) opined that RT is not a part of the bachelor of medicine and bachelor of surgery (MBBS) curriculum at their institute. About 84% replied that not more than 10 theory lectures/practical classes are assigned to RT during the entire UG period. About one-third of the respondents stated that there are no separate clinical postings for RT. According to 54% of the respondents, RT is still a low priority subject in the PG setting and the majority (70%) thought that inadequate exposure at the UG level and lack of awareness about the current prospects of RT are the main reasons for this. The results of our survey indicate that the RT is still a low priority subject in India, mainly due to the poor exposure to the discipline and low awareness of the subject of RT during the UG program. The Medical Council of India (MCI) needs to ensure that adequate importance is given to RT in the MBBS curriculum so as to enhance awareness regarding the subject and increase exposure to this specialty.

  13. Public attitudes of wind energy in Texas: Local communities in close proximity to wind farms and their effect on decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swofford, Jeffrey; Slattery, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Wind energy is now recognized as an important energy resource throughout the world. Within the United States, the state of Texas currently has the largest wind energy capacity with 8797 total megawatts and an additional 660 MW under construction. With this rapid growth, it is important to achieve a better understanding of how wind energy is being perceived by the public. This paper explores three research strands: (i) describing the environmental attitudes of a population in close proximity to a wind farm development, (ii) determining the influence that proximity has on wind energy attitudes, and (iii) determining if the Not-In-My-Backyard (Nimby) phenomenon is appropriate for explaining human perceptions of wind energy. A survey questionnaire was developed to explore perceptions of wind energy in the region as well as general attitudes about energy and the environment. Results regarding general wind energy attitudes signify overall public support for wind energy. In addition, those living closest to the wind farm indicate the lowest levels of support, while those living farthest away indicate much stronger support. Findings support the view that the use of Nimby does not adequately explain the attitudes of local wind farm opposition. Alternative explanations and planning implications are discussed with a focus on public participation and education.

  14. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns. PMID:18653793

  15. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danishevski, K; Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2008-08-01

    Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face to face in November 2007. Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% thought that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living in a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters of respondents believing that these companies definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal cigarettes. The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns.

  16. Drivers of Public Attitudes towards Small Wind Turbines in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerian Tatchley

    Full Text Available Small Wind Turbines (SWTs are a growing micro-generation industry with over 870,000 installed units worldwide. No research has focussed on public attitudes towards SWTs, despite evidence the perception of such attitudes are key to planning outcomes and can be a barrier to installations. Here we present the results of a UK wide mail survey investigating public attitudes towards SWTs. Just over half of our respondents, who were predominantly older, white males, felt that SWTs were acceptable across a range of settings, with those on road signs being most accepted and least accepted in hedgerows and gardens. Concern about climate change positively influenced how respondents felt about SWTs. Respondent comments highlight visual impacts and perceptions of the efficiency of this technology are particularly important to this sector of the UK public. Taking this into careful consideration, alongside avoiding locating SWTs in contentious settings such as hedgerows and gardens where possible, may help to minimise public opposition to proposed installations.

  17. Drivers of Public Attitudes towards Small Wind Turbines in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatchley, Cerian; Paton, Heather; Robertson, Emma; Minderman, Jeroen; Hanley, Nicholas; Park, Kirsty

    2016-01-01

    Small Wind Turbines (SWTs) are a growing micro-generation industry with over 870,000 installed units worldwide. No research has focussed on public attitudes towards SWTs, despite evidence the perception of such attitudes are key to planning outcomes and can be a barrier to installations. Here we present the results of a UK wide mail survey investigating public attitudes towards SWTs. Just over half of our respondents, who were predominantly older, white males, felt that SWTs were acceptable across a range of settings, with those on road signs being most accepted and least accepted in hedgerows and gardens. Concern about climate change positively influenced how respondents felt about SWTs. Respondent comments highlight visual impacts and perceptions of the efficiency of this technology are particularly important to this sector of the UK public. Taking this into careful consideration, alongside avoiding locating SWTs in contentious settings such as hedgerows and gardens where possible, may help to minimise public opposition to proposed installations. PMID:27011356

  18. Public awareness and attitudes toward epilepsy in Saudi Arabia is improving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthaffar, Osama Y; Jan, Mohammed M

    2014-04-01

    To examine public awareness and attitudes toward epilepsy in Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia. A focused 10-item questionnaire was designed to survey public awareness and attitudes toward epilepsy. Personal interviews were conducted randomly by one author in preselected public places in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during March and April 2011. Seven hundred and forty-nine interviews were completed during the study period. Most participants (77.4%) had prior knowledge of epilepsy, and 52% believed that epilepsy is an organic disease. This correlated with their educational level, as those with higher levels of education were more likely to link epilepsy to organic causes (p=0.008). However, 15% also linked epilepsy to evil spirit possession, and up to 37% preferred spiritual rituals and religious healing to medical treatments. Although most respondents (61%) would accept an epileptic patient in a regular job, 71% (particularly males) reported reservations in marrying someone with epilepsy (p=0.001). The awareness and attitudes of the Saudi public toward epilepsy are showing some improvement. However, it is still thought to be linked to evil spirit possession by some, and spiritual rituals and religious healing are commonly believed to be effective treatments. Targeted areas for focused education were identified.

  19. Determinants of attitude to volunteering in psychiatry: results of a public opinion survey in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Christoph; Nordt, Carlos; Falcato, Luis; Rössler, Wulf

    2002-09-01

    The United Nations proclaimed 2001 the "International Year of Volunteers". Little is known about factors influencing the attitude to volunteering in psychiatry. However, knowledge about these factors is important as target groups to be addressed by an awareness and promotion campaign could be identified. To determine the influence of demographic, psychological and sociological factors on the attitude to volunteering in psychiatry. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the results of an opinion survey conducted on a representative population sample in Switzerland (n = 1737). Public attitude is mostly positive. It depends, however, on the form of volunteering. Two explanatory models for volunteering in psychiatry were found: first, the "antipathetic person" having social distance to and negative stereotypes towards the mentally ill. Second, the "people with social responsibility and commitment" who have former experience in volunteering, a positive attitude to community psychiatry, interest in mass media, a social profession and perceive discrimination of mentally ill persons. Age and gender are significant predictors. An awareness and promotion campaign to use the vast potential of people willing to volunteer in psychiatry can be primarily focused on those with a basic interest in social issues. Volunteering must be limited in time and responsibility. Contacting people with a positive attitude by mass media is a promising way.

  20. Similar pressures, different contexts: public attitudes toward government intervention for health care in 21 nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuzawa, Saeko; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Pescosolido, Bernice A

    2008-12-01

    Health care systems worldwide are experiencing similar pressures such as rising cost, aging populations, and increased burden of disease. While policy makers in all countries face these challenges, their responses must consider local pressures, particularly the implicit social contract between the state, medicine, and insurers. We argue that public attitudes provide a window into the social context in which policy decisions are embedded. Using data from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP), we compare public attitudes toward government involvement in health care in 21 countries, testing the associations between various national-level variables (e.g., health care expenditures, aging of population, health care traditions) and public opinions. Specifically, we posit four national-level hypotheses ("health care traditions," "expenditure crisis," "demographic crisis," "changing disease profile crisis"), one individual-level hypothesis ("individual vulnerability"), and two cross-level hypotheses ("cultural socialization" and "health care need"). Our findings indicate that public attitudes cluster around the historical organization of health care, but also relate to current economic and demographic realities. Individuals in countries adopting the "National Health Service Model" (the state directly provides health care but complete state control is absent) or the "Centralized Model" (the state directly provides health care and has much control) are more supportive of government involvement in health care than those in the "Insurance Model" (the state is limited to maintenance of the system) countries. However citizens in countries currently spending more on health care and having a greater burden of chronic illness are less supportive. Our results cast doubt on arguments that increased cost will result in a questioning of the contract between the state and citizens in the social provision of health care. We end by discussing implications for recent work in

  1. Knowledge and Attitude about Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis among Healthcare Workers in Public Health Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bony Wiem Lestari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a significant public health problem and poses a threat to global tuberculosis (TB control. In 2015, at least 504 new MDR-TB cases were identified in Indonesia. Treating MDR-TB patients is very challenging. It may take more than two years for MDR-TB treatment. Therefore, it is crucial healthcare workers (HCWs are knowledgeable about MDR-TB. The aim of this study was to measure level of knowledge and attitude regarding MDR-TB among HCWs in public health centres. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 73 Public Health Centres in Bandung the capital of West Java Province from August until November 2015. The samples were 73 TB nurses and 32 laboratory staff. A self-administered questionnaire was given comprising 27 knowledge questions and 29 attitude questions. Correlation between knowledge and attitude scores was calculated by Pearson correlation test. Results: The majority of study participants were women (82.9%, married (92.4%, nursing staff (65.7% with history of TB training (98.1%. Most of the participants were 40-59 years old (69.5% with working experience in TB programme < 10 years (69.5%. Less than half (38.1% of study participants had good knowledge. In terms of attitude, more than half (53.3% of study participants had a positive attitude towards MDR-TB. Conclusions: The level of knowledge among HCWs about MDR-TB is still at an unacceptable level. Certain educational interventions aim to ensure prompt diagnosis, implement infection control and accurate treatment should be established among those HCWs.

  2. Survey II of public and leadership attitudes toward nuclear power development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    In August 1975, Ebasco Services Incorporated released results of a survey conducted by Louis Harris and Associates, Inc. to determine attitudes of the American public and its leaders toward nuclear power development in the U.S. Results showed, among other things, that the public favored building nuclear power plants; that they believed we have an energy shortage that will not go away soon; that they were not willing to make environmental sacrifices; and that, while favoring nuclear power development, they also had concerns about some aspects of nuclear power. Except for the environmental group, the leadership group felt the same way the public does. A follow-up survey was made in July 1976 to measure any shifts in attitudes. Survey II showed that one of the real worries that remains with the American public is the shortage of energy; additionally, the public and the leaders are concerned about the U.S. dependence on imported oil. With exception of the environmentalists, the public and its leaders support a host of measures to build energy sources, including: solar and oil shale development; speeding up the Alaskan pipeline; speeding up off-shore drilling; and building nuclear power plants. The public continues to be unwilling to sacrifice the environment. There is less conviction on the part of the public that electric power will be in short supply over the next decade. The public believes the days of heavy dependence on oil or hydroelectric power are coming to an end. By a margin of 3 to 1, the public favors building more nuclear power plants in the U.S., but some concerns about the risks have not dissipated. Even though the public is worried about radioactivity escaping into the atmosphere, they consider nuclear power generation more safe than unsafe

  3. Public Understanding of Sustainable Development: Some Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent surveys of public opinion claim that there is now widespread acceptance of the need for sustainable development, and that the general public, through its social and consumer activity is already successfully engaged. However, in all this, the focus has primarily been on individual and family behaviours such as recycling and…

  4. The birth of mindpolitics : Understanding nudging in public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Rik; Schuilenburg, Marc

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the question: 'In what ways have nudging and other behavioural techniques entered the realm of policymaking for public health and what does that mean for the way contemporary society is governed?' In our genealogy of Dutch public health policy, we have identified four periods:

  5. Understanding Public-Private Collaboration Configurations for International Information Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klievink, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Collaboration between the public and the private sector is seen as an instrument to make governance smarter, more effective, and more efficient. However, whereas there is literature on public-private collaboration, very little of it addresses how these collaborations can be shaped to make use of the

  6. Mathematical Model of the Public Understanding of Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisniakov, V.; Prisniakova, L.

    The success in deployment of the space programs now in many respects depends on comprehension by the citizens of necessity of programs, from "space" erudition of country. Purposefulness and efficiency of the "space" teaching and educational activity depend on knowledge of relationships between separate variables of such process. The empirical methods of ``space'' well-information of the taxpayers should be supplemented by theoretical models permitting to demonstrate a ways of control by these processes. Authors on the basis of their experience of educational activity during 50- years of among the students of space-rocket profession obtain an equation of ``space" state of the society determining a degree of its knowledge about Space, about achievements in its development, about indispensable lines of investigations, rates of informatization of the population. It is supposed, that the change of the space information consists of two parts: (1) - from going of the information about practical achievements, about development special knowledge requiring of independent financing, and (2) from intensity of dissemination of the ``free" information of a general educational line going to the population through mass-media, book, in family, in educational institutions, as a part of obligatory knowledge of any man, etc. In proposed model the level space well-information of the population depends on intensity of dissemination in the society of the space information, and also from a volume of financing of space-rocket technology, from a part of population of the employment in the space-rocket programs, from a factor of education of the population in adherence to space problems, from welfare and mentality of the people, from a rate of unemployment and material inequality. Obtained in the report on these principles the equation of a space state of the society corresponds to catastrophe such as cusp, the analysis has shown which one ways of control of the public understanding of space

  7. Controversies in hybrid banking: attitudes of Swiss public umbilical cord blood donors toward private and public banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manegold, Gwendolin; Meyer-Monard, Sandrine; Tichelli, André; Granado, Christina; Hösli, Irene; Troeger, Carolyn

    2011-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stored in public inventories has become an alternative stem cell source for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The potential use of autologous UCB from private banks is a matter of debate. In the face of the limited resources of public inventories, a discussion on "hybrid" public and private UCB banking has evolved. We aimed to explore the attitudes of the donating parents toward public and private UCB banking. A standardized, anonymous questionnaire was sent to the most recent 621 public UCB donors including items regarding satisfaction with recruitment process, the need for a second consent before release of the UCB unit for stem cell transplantation, and the donors' views on public and private UCB banking. Furthermore, we asked about their views on UCB research. Of the questionnaires, 48% were returned, and 16% were lost due to mail contact. Of our donors, 95% would donate to the public bank again. As much as 35% of them were convinced that public banking was useful. Whereas 27% had never heard about private UCB banking, 34% discussed both options. Nearly 70% of donors opted for public banking due to altruism and the high costs of private banking. Of our public UCB donors, 81% stated that they did not need a re-consent before UCB release for stem cell transplantation. In case of sample rejection, 53.5% wanted to know details about the particular research project. A total of 9% would not consent. Almost all donors would choose public banking again due to altruism and the high costs of private banking. Shortly after donation, mail contact with former UCB donors was difficult. This might be a relevant issue in any sequential hybrid banking.

  8. Construct and concurrent validity of a prototype questionnaire to survey public attitudes toward stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Kenneth O; Reichel, Isabella K; Yaruss, J Scott; Lubker, Bobbie Boyd

    2009-03-01

    Construct validity and concurrent validity were investigated in a prototype survey instrument, the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Experimental Edition (POSHA-E). The POSHA-E was designed to measure public attitudes toward stuttering within the context of eight other attributes, or "anchors," assumed to range from negative (e.g., "mental illness"), to neutral (e.g., "left handed"), to positive (e.g., "intelligent"). Two respondent samples, each composed of 32 adults, completed the POSHA-E on two occasions. Both samples were reported in previously published studies [Reichel, I., & St. Louis, K. O. (2004). Effects of emotional intelligence training in graduate fluency disorders courses. In A. Packman, A. Meltzer, & H. F. M. Peters (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th world congress on fluency disorders (pp. 474-481). Nijmegen, The Netherlands: Nijmegen University Press; St. Louis, K. O., Lubker, B. B., Yaruss, J. S., & Aliveto, E. F. (in press). Development of a prototype questionnaire to survey public attitudes toward stuttering: Reliability of the second prototype. Contemporary Issues in Communication Sciences and Disorders]. One sample completed the POSHA-E twice, two weeks apart, and the results were analyzed for test-retest reliability (T-R). Another sample consisted of graduate students completing the POSHA-E before and after a course in fluency disorders (VAL) to measure changes in students' attitudes toward stuttering. This group also filled out the Bipolar Adjective Scale (BAS) to obtain a second measure of attitudes toward stuttering. Comparing the two groups, VAL respondents' mean ratings about stuttering changed more, and generally in the expected direction of more "positive" attitudes, than T-R respondents' ratings. Moreover, VAL rating changes were in similar directions on the POSHA-E and the BAS. Results of the study permit the interpretation that the POSHA-E satisfies indicators of construct and concurrent validity, and provides evidence that it

  9. The Traditional Model Does Not Explain Attitudes Toward Euthanasia: A Web-Based Survey of the General Public in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkamo-Moisio, Anja; Kvist, Tarja; Laitila, Teuvo; Kangasniemi, Mari; Ryynänen, Olli-Pekka; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2017-08-01

    The debate about euthanasia is ongoing in several countries including Finland. However, there is a lack of information on current attitudes toward euthanasia among general Finnish public. The traditional model for predicting individuals' attitudes to euthanasia is based on their age, gender, educational level, and religiosity. However, a new evaluation of religiosity is needed due to the limited operationalization of this factor in previous studies. This study explores the connections between the factors of the traditional model and the attitudes toward euthanasia among the general public in the Finnish context. The Finnish public's attitudes toward euthanasia have become remarkably more positive over the last decade. Further research is needed on the factors that predict euthanasia attitudes. We suggest two different explanatory models for consideration: one that emphasizes the value of individual autonomy and another that approaches euthanasia from the perspective of fears of death or the process of dying.

  10. Public attitudes toward geological disposal of carbon dioxide in Canada : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, J.

    2005-01-01

    A research project investigating the public's perceptions of the risks and benefits of the geologic disposal of carbon dioxide (GDC) technology was presented. Data for the project was collected in 2 phases. Focus groups were conducted in order to understand the likely range of attitudes and concerns about the technology. The information obtained from the focus groups was then used to design an Internet-based survey for administration to a sample of 1967 Canadians. The survey included questions about climate change and GDC as well as a discrete choice experiment. Linear multiple regression analysis was used to identify the determinants of the respondents' support for GDC. Results showed that while a strong majority of Canadians believed that climate change was occurring, climate change ranked very low in importance compared to other national issues, and was the lowest ranked environmental issue. Knowledge of GDC was low, and the vast majority of those who had heard of GDC could not identify what environmental problem it was meant to address. The most important benefits of GDC were seen to be its utility as a bridging technology while long-term climate change solutions are developed; the potential for its use in enhanced oil recovery; and its ability to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the risks of GDC were rated as more important than the benefits, and included concerns about unknown future impacts; contamination of groundwater; the risk of a carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) leak; and risks to plants and animals. It was concluded that respondents were slightly supportive of GDC development in Canada, and perceived the technology as having a net positive impact on the environment. GDC was seen as less risky than normal oil and gas industry operations, nuclear power, or coal-burning power plants. It was concluded that GDC is less popular then energy efficiency and renewable energy alternatives, and should be used in combination with these technologies in order to

  11. Understanding News Values: Secret to Good Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Rita Haugh

    1981-01-01

    Explains the news values that journalists use. Shows English teachers and administrators how they can apply this knowledge of news media to improve public relations between the school and the community. (RL)

  12. Public and private attitudes towards 'green' electricity: the case of Swedish wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    There exists a political goal in Sweden and elsewhere to increase the use of renewable energy and wind power seems to be a favourable choice from an environmental perspective. However, although the public generally expresses a positive attitude towards wind power, the experience often shows that specific wind power projects face resistance from the local population. This paper analyses the attitudes towards wind power among the electricity consumers as well as the foundations of these attitudes. Results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1000 Swedish house owners. According to the results, the public is generally positive towards wind power. The probability of finding an average individual in support of wind power decreases with age and income. People with an interest in environmental issues are, however, more likely to be positive towards wind power than the average respondent and the results do not support the NIMBY-hypothesis. In addition, people that are more inclined to express public preferences are also more likely to be positive towards wind electricity than people who are less inclined to do so. These results imply, for instance, that the potential of markets for 'green' electricity may be limited, other support schemes is thus required if the politically stated goal to increase wind power capacity is to be fulfilled

  13. Public and Healthcare Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes toward Binge Eating Disorder: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Lynn Reas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with obesity and related medical comorbidities. The aim is to provide a brief, state-of-the-art review of the major and recent findings to inform educational and awareness campaigns, stigma reduction interventions, as well as current clinical practice and future research. A narrative approach was used to synthesize emerging literature on the public and healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward individuals with BED in comparison to other eating disorders (EDs or mental illness. A total of 13 articles were reviewed. Nine studies investigated community samples and four studies investigated healthcare professionals. The reviewed literature suggested that BED is perceived by the public as less impairing, less severe, and “easier-to-treat” than other EDs. Attitudes and beliefs reflecting perceived blameworthiness and lack of self-discipline were ascribed to vignettes with BED. Community studies indicated a low level of public awareness that BED constitutes a discreet eating disorder. The literature on healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward BED remains very limited. The few existing studies suggest encouraging trends in recognition and diagnostic accuracy, yet there remains a need for increased clinical awareness of BED-associated medical complications and knowledge of full BED diagnostic criteria.

  14. Public and Healthcare Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes toward Binge Eating Disorder: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, Deborah Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with obesity and related medical comorbidities. The aim is to provide a brief, state-of-the-art review of the major and recent findings to inform educational and awareness campaigns, stigma reduction interventions, as well as current clinical practice and future research. A narrative approach was used to synthesize emerging literature on the public and healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward individuals with BED in comparison to other eating disorders (EDs) or mental illness. A total of 13 articles were reviewed. Nine studies investigated community samples and four studies investigated healthcare professionals. The reviewed literature suggested that BED is perceived by the public as less impairing, less severe, and “easier-to-treat” than other EDs. Attitudes and beliefs reflecting perceived blameworthiness and lack of self-discipline were ascribed to vignettes with BED. Community studies indicated a low level of public awareness that BED constitutes a discreet eating disorder. The literature on healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward BED remains very limited. The few existing studies suggest encouraging trends in recognition and diagnostic accuracy, yet there remains a need for increased clinical awareness of BED-associated medical complications and knowledge of full BED diagnostic criteria. PMID:29160843

  15. Public perceptions about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward people living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudnia, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Negative and discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are one of the biggest experienced challenges by people suffering from HIV, and these attitudes have been regarded as a serious threat to the fundamental rights of all infected people who are affected or associated with this disease in Iran. This study aimed to determine the relationship between public perception about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA . The present study was conducted using a descriptive and survey design. Data were collected from 450 patients (236 male and 214 female) in Tehran and Yazd cities. The research instruments were modified HIV-related knowledge/attitude and perception questions about PLWHA, and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. The results showed that prevalence of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA in the studied population was 60.0%. There was a significant negative correlation between citizens' awareness about HIV/AIDS, HIV-related attitudes, negative perception toward people with HIV/AIDS symptoms and their discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA (p AIDS explained for 23.7% of the variance of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. Negative public perceptions about HIV/AIDS in Iran associated with discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA and cultural beliefs in Iran tend to stigmatize and discriminate against the LWHA.

  16. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-03-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites

  17. Religious beliefs and public attitudes toward nanotechnology in Europe and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.; Shih, Tsung-Jen; Dalrymple, Kajsa E.; Ho, Shirley S.

    2009-02-01

    How do citizens make sense of nanotechnology as more applications reach the market and the mainstream media start to debate the potential risks and benefits of technology? As with many other political and scientific issues, citizens rely on cognitive shortcuts or heuristics to make sense of issues for which they have low levels of knowledge. These heuristics can include predispositional factors, such as ideological beliefs or value systems, and also short-term frames of reference provided by the media or other sources of information. Recent research suggests that `religious filters' are an important heuristic for scientific issues in general, and nanotechnology in particular. A religious filter is more than a simple correlation between religiosity and attitudes toward science: it refers to a link between benefit perceptions and attitudes that varies depending on respondents' levels of religiosity. In surveys, seeing the benefits of nanotechnology is consistently linked to more positive attitudes about nanotechnology among less religious respondents, with this effect being significantly weaker for more religious respondents. For this study, we have combined public opinion surveys in the United States with Eurobarometer surveys about public attitudes toward nanotechnology in Europe to compare the influence of religious beliefs on attitudes towards nanotechnology in the United States and Europe. Our results show that respondents in the United States were significantly less likely to agree that nanotechnology is morally acceptable than respondents in many European countries. These moral views correlated directly with aggregate levels of religiosity in each country, even after controlling for national research productivity and measures of science performance for high-school students.

  18. Contingent Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Support, Workplace Attitudes, and Teaching Evaluations at a Public Research University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Young Cha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research examines contingent faculty’s perception of organizational support, workplace attitudes, and Student Ratings of Teaching (SRT in a large public research university to investigate their employee-organization relationship. According to t-tests and regression analyses for samples of 2,229 faculty and instructional staff who answered the survey and had SRT data (tenured and tenure-track faculty: 1,708, 76.6% of total; contingent faculty: 521, 23.4% of total, employment relationship of contingent faculty in this institution was closer to a combined economic and social exchange model than to a pure economic exchange model or underinvestment model. Contingent faculty’s satisfaction with work, satisfaction with coworkers, perception of being supported at work, and affective organizational commitment were higher than tenured and tenure-track faculty at a statistically significant level. In addition, contingent faculty had higher SRT mean results in all areas of SRT items in medium-size (10-30 classes and in ‘class presentation,’ ‘feedback,’ ‘deeper understanding,’ and ‘interest stimulated’ in large-size (30-50 classes than Tenured and Tenure-track Faculty. These results not only refute the misconception that contingent faculty have too little time to provide students with feedback but also support that they provide students with good teaching, at least in medium-size and large-size classes. Whereas these results might be partially attributable to the relatively stable status of contingent faculty in this study (who work for more than 50 percent FTE, they indicate that, as a collective, contingent faculty also represent a significant contributor to the university, who are satisfied with their work, enjoy the community they are in, and are committed to their institution.

  19. Engaging Nigerian community pharmacists in public health programs: assessment of their knowledge, attitude and practice in Enugu metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offu, Ogochukwu; Anetoh, Maureen; Okonta, Matthew; Ekwunife, Obinna

    2015-01-01

    The Nigerian health sector battles with control of infectious diseases and emerging non-communicable diseases. Number of healthcare personnel involved in public health programs need to be boosted to contain the health challenges of the country. Therefore, it is important to assess whether community pharmacists in Nigeria could be engaged in the promotion and delivery of various public health interventions. This study aimed to assess level of knowledge, attitude and practice of public health by community pharmacists. The cross sectional survey was carried out in Enugu metropolis. Questionnaire items were developed from expert literature. Percentage satisfactory knowledge and practice were obtained by determining the percentage of community pharmacists that were able to list more than 2 activities or that stated the correct answer. Attitude score represents the average score on the 5 point Likert scale for each item. Chi square and Fisher's exact test were used to test for statistically significant difference in knowledge, attitude and practice of public health between different groups of community pharmacists. Forty pharmacists participated in the survey. About one third of the participants had satisfactory knowledge of public health. With the exception of one item in attitude assessment, average item score ranged from 'agreed' to 'strongly agreed'. Study participants scored below satisfactory on practice of public health. Knowledge, attitude and practice of public health were not influenced by years of practice, qualification and prior public health experience. Reported barriers to the practice of public health include inadequate funds, lack of time, lack of space, cooperation of clients, inadequate staff, government regulation, insufficient knowledge, and remuneration. Level of knowledge and practice of public health by community pharmacists were not satisfactory although they had a positive attitude towards practice of public health. The findings highlight the

  20. Teachers' attitudes and perceptions about preparation of public schools to assist students with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carral San Laureano, Florentino; Gutiérrez Manzanedo, José Vicente; Moreno Vides, Pablo; de Castro Maqueda, Guillermo; Fernández Santos, Jorge R; Ponce González, Jesús Gustavo; Ayala Ortega, María Del Carmen

    2018-04-01

    To assess teachers' attitudes and perceptions about preparation of public primary and secondary education schools in the Puerto Real University Hospital (Cádiz, Spain) area to care for students with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) METHODS: A descriptive observational study where answers to an attitude and perception questionnaire on the preparation of schools to care for pupils with T1DM were analyzed. A total of 765 teachers (mean age, 44.3±8.8 years; 61.7% women) from 44 public schools in the area of the Puerto Real University Hospital were selected by random sampling. Overall, 43.2% of teachers surveyed had or had previously had students with T1DM, but only 0.8% had received specific training on diabetes. 18.9% of teachers reported that one of their students with T1DM had experienced at least one episode of hypoglycemia at school, and half of them felt that their school was not prepared to deal with diabetic emergencies. 6.4% stated that their school had glucagon in its first aid kit, and 46.9% would be willing to administer it personally. Women, physical education teachers, and headmasters had a more positive perception of the school than their colleagues. Teachers with a positive perception of school preparation and with a positive attitude to administer glucagon were significantly younger than those with no positive perception and attitude. The study results suggest that teachers of public schools in our health area have not been specifically trained in the care of patients with T1DM and perceive that their educational centers are not qualified to address diabetic emergencies. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Teachers' Understanding of Students' Attitudes and Values toward Physical Activity in Physical Education Dropout Rates and Adolescent Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Structured interviews were used to explore 10th grade teachers' understanding of students' attitudes and values toward physical education and physical activity as a variable in students' probability of dropping physical education and adolescent obesity. When asked how school-based physical education could help combat the problem of students…

  2. The Effect of Using Virtual Laboratory on Grade 10 Students' Conceptual Understanding and Their Attitudes towards Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faour, Malak Abou; Ayoubi, Zalpha

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using (VL) on grade 10 students' conceptual understanding of the direct current electric circuit and their attitudes towards physics. The research used a quantitative experimental approach. The sample of the study was formed of 50 students of the tenth grade, aged 14 to 16 years old, of an official secondary…

  3. Effectiveness of Science-Technology-Society (STS) Instruction on Student Understanding of the Nature of Science and Attitudes toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Behiye; Akcay, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    The study reports on an investigation about the impact of science-technology-society (STS) instruction on middle school student understanding of the nature of science (NOS) and attitudes toward science compared to students taught by the same teacher using traditional textbook-oriented instruction. Eight lead teachers used STS instruction an…

  4. Drama-Based Science Teaching and Its Effect on Students' Understanding of Scientific Concepts and Their Attitudes towards Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Osama H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of drama-based science teaching on students' understanding of scientific concepts and their attitudes towards science learning. The study also aimed to examine if there is an interaction between students' achievement level in science and drama-based instruction. The sample consisted of (87) of 7th grade students…

  5. Can Slovakia to survive without nuclear energy? State and perspectives of nuclear energetics. Attitudes of public to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchomel, J.; Murinova, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors deals with the review of the state of nuclear energetics in the Slovak Republic. Perspectives of nuclear energy and renewable sources of energy as well as attitudes of public to nuclear energy are discussed

  6. Understanding the consequences of public social media use for work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2017-01-01

    Social media has slowly become ubiquitous in the workplace; however, the use of these technologies has been associated with both positive and negative consequences. Using the JD-R model, this study examines these positive and negative consequences of the public social media use for work. Survey data

  7. Understanding media publics and the antimicrobial resistance crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark; Whittaker, Andrea; Lindgren, Mia; Djerf-Pierre, Monika; Manderson, Lenore; Flowers, Paul

    2017-06-08

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) imperils health for people across the world. This enormous challenge is being met with the rationalisation of prescription, dispensing and consumption of antimicrobials in clinical settings and in the everyday lives of members of the general population. Individuals need to be reached outside clinical settings to prepare them for the necessary changes to the pharmaceutical management of infections; efforts that depend on media and communications and, therefore, how the AMR message is mediated, received and applied. In 2016, the UK Review on Antimicrobial Resistance called on governments to support intense, worldwide media activity to promote public awareness and to further efforts to rationalise the use of antimicrobial pharmaceuticals. In this article, we consider this communications challenge in light of contemporary currents of thought on media publics, including: the tendency of health communications to cast experts and lay individuals in opposition; the blaming of individuals who appear to 'resist' expert advice; the challenges presented by negative stories of AMR and their circulation in public life, and; the problems of public trust tied to the construction and mediation of expert knowledge on the effective management of AMR.

  8. Teaching Chinese Students: Understanding Their Public Sector Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Cynthia; Coleman, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Teaching Chinese students in an American university can be both challenging and rewarding. Cultural and language differences can lead to some superficial confusion and interpretational problems. However, the vast differences in the ways Chinese students view the role of the public sector, as compared to the US, can mean that the instructors and…

  9. Challenging effective public outreach activities for increasing mutual understanding of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Ikuko

    2006-01-01

    An outreach activity is two-way communication for communicating information. The public outreach activities of USA and Japan for increasing mutual understanding of nuclear energy, and the effective outreach activities are stated. On USA, many communicators in the member of ANS (American Nuclear Society) play an active part in the outreach activities for the policy makers, educators, students, and stakeholders. NEI (Nuclear Energy Institute, USA) provides people with useful information such as benefits and safety control system of nuclear energy, and it has carried out an attitude survey. FPL (Florida Power and Light Company) selected the communicators by ten evaluation items and they made a group and a clear grasp of the goal, needs, and plans and then communicated residents, and sent out questionnaires. Some examples of the special education program for training the communicators in USA are described. In Japan, JAEA gave lessons of nuclear energy, radiation and disaster prevention at the primary, junior high and high schools, friendly talks with local residents, preparing the teaching materials with residents and training of communicators. (S.Y.)

  10. Attitudes of the general public and electric power company employees toward nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Hisashi

    1997-01-01

    We conducted an awareness survey targeted at members of the general public residing in urban areas and in areas scheduled for construction of nuclear power plants as well as employees of electric power company in order to determine the awareness and attitude structures of people residing near scheduled construction sites of nuclear power plants with respect to nuclear power generation, and to examine ways of making improvements in terms of promoting nuclear power plant construction sites. Analysis of those results revealed that there are no significant differences in the awareness and attitudes of people residing in urban areas and in areas near scheduled construction sites. On the contrary, a general sense of apprehension regarding the construction of nuclear power plants was observed common to both groups. In addition, significant differences in awareness and attitudes with respect to various factors were determined to exist between members of the general public residing in urban areas and scheduled construction sites and employees of electric power company. (author)

  11. Scholarly and Public Views: Understanding Narratives around Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teggatz, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    How people come to conceptualize and understand science topics has implications for how they learn, communicate about, and relate to science. This dissertation conceptualizes and examines "cultural narratives" as cognitive tools used by individuals and shared through culture. Using nanotechnology as a case study I argue that people may…

  12. Public Attitudes to Nuclear Power - It's Not (just) About Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimston, M.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear industry frequently accuses the public of having an 'irrational' fear of radiation, and sees it as a mission to 'educate' the public in order to improve their attitudes towards atomic energy. In fact there is little evidence that facts per se affect attitudes: in forming opinions people apply a 'common sense' rationality based on a range of factors, of which information is only one. 'Public information' campaigns may actually contribute to fears of radiation in the nuclear power context. Better communication - e.g. not banging on so much about safety - would undoubtedly help to put nuclear power into a proper perspective. But while the industry and its regulators continue to do silly things and treat nuclear power and radiation as if they are vastly more dangerous than they actually are - in the bizarre hope that this will put people's minds at rest rather than inevitably doing precisely the opposite - then only truly irrational members of the public will be convinced. Krsko may be a test case - can the waste debate be brought back onto a 'rational' footing. (author).

  13. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnathan Julia A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.

  14. Understanding Attitude Measurement: Exploring Meaning and Use of the PATT Short Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenningsson, Johan; Hultén, Magnus; Hallström, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    The pupils' attitudes toward technology survey (PATT) has been used for 30 years and is still used by researchers. Since it was first developed, the validity of the questionnaire constructs has primarily been discussed from a statistical point of view, while few researchers have discussed the type of attitudes and interest that the questionnaire…

  15. FACOTRS TO DETERMINE RISK PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE, AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ADAPTATION POLICY OF THE PUBLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kenshi; Sugimoto, Takuya; Kubota, Hiromi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Mitsuru

    This study clarifies the factors to determine risk perception of climate change and attitudes toward adaptation policy by analyzing the data collecting from Internet survey to the general public. The results indicate the followings: 1) more than 70% people perceive some sort of risk of climate change, and most people are awaken to wind and flood damage. 2) most people recognize that mitigation policy is much more important than adaptation policy, whereas most people assume to accept adaptation policy as self-reponsibility, 3) the significant factors to determinane risk perception of climate chage and attitude towerd adaptation policy are cognition of benefits on the policy and procedural justice in the policy process in addion to demographics such as gender, experience of disaster, intension of inhabitant.

  16. Public perceptions of industrial risks: the context of public attitudes toward radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    1981-06-01

    A survey was made to determine the public risk perception of several industrial hazards. A free response approach was used in order for respondents to generate their own alternatives. The general class of hazard investigated here included all hazardous industrial facilities. The free response survey was used to study public perception of: (a) the closeness of the nearest hazardous industrial facility (as estimated by the respondent); (b) the sort of facility it is; (c) the sorts of risk associated with it; and (d) the persons placed at risk by it. Respondents also identified the risks of, and the persons placed at risk by, both a toxic chemical disposal facility and a nuclear waste disposal facility. Results of this study thus can inform us of the unprompted concerns of the public regarding a wide variety of industrial facilities

  17. Public perceptions of industrial risks: the context of public attitudes toward radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.

    1981-06-01

    A survey was made to determine the public risk perception of several industrial hazards. A free response approach was used in order for respondents to generate their own alternatives. The general class of hazard investigated here included all hazardous industrial facilities. The free response survey was used to study public perception of: (a) the closeness of the nearest hazardous industrial facility (as estimated by the respondent); (b) the sort of facility it is; (c) the sorts of risk associated with it; and (d) the persons placed at risk by it. Respondents also identified the risks of, and the persons placed at risk by, both a toxic chemical disposal facility and a nuclear waste disposal facility. Results of this study thus can inform us of the unprompted concerns of the public regarding a wide variety of industrial facilities.

  18. Changes in Attitudes Towards Bariatric Surgery After 5 Years in the German General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Franziska Ulrike Christine Else; Dietrich, A; Stroh, C; Riedel-Heller, S G; Luck-Sikorski, C

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in attitudes of the general public towards bariatric surgery and other interventions that can be part of obesity management, during the last 5 years. 1007 participants were randomly selected and interviewed. Apart from socio-demographic data, interviews also included causal reasons for obesity as well as questions regarding treatment methods and their believed effectiveness. Results were compared with data published 5 years ago. Surgery is seen as a rather ineffective method to reduce weight in obesity and is recommended less often by the general public compared to the assessment 5 years ago. Public health-implications should inform about obesity and benefits of surgery as an intervention to improve individual health conditions.

  19. Attitudes in Korea toward Introducing Smart Policing Technologies: Differences between the General Public and Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyungBin Moon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions of both public and police when introducing smart policing technologies. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to survey preferences of the public and police toward introduction of such technologies and conduct simulation analysis to compare changes in the acceptance of various scenarios. The study divides cybercrime policing into prevention and investigation. The sample included 500 members of the public and 161 police officers. The results show that the public thinks an increase in yearly taxes and invasion of privacy are the most important factors. Conversely, the police think factors enhancing the efficiency of policing are most important. Moreover, when smart policing technologies are introduced, the public and police perceive more utility in the prevention and investigation of cybercrime, respectively. Few studies in this field separate the prevention and investigation of crimes, or compare perceptions of the public and police toward the introduction of smart policing technologies. This study’s quantitative analysis provides insights lacking in previous literature.

  20. What the public think about hypnosis and hypnotherapy: A narrative review of literature covering opinions and attitudes of the general public 1996-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouwel, Matthew; Jolly, Kate; Greenfield, Sheila

    2017-06-01

    To describe the public's understanding of hypnosis and openness to hypnotherapy. A comprehensive search of English language peer reviewed journal articles from 1st January 1996-11th March 2016 was performed over 9 databases (Medline, PubMed, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, Embase (excerpta medica), PsychInfo, Cochrane, Science citation index-expanded, Conference citation index) and a title-only search of Google scholar. 39 keyword combinations were employed: hypnosis, hypnotherapy, hypnotic, perception, beliefs, knowledge, view, opinion and understanding, in singular and plural where appropriate. A search of the bibliographies of eligible articles was undertaken. Inclusion criteria - Articles containing original data regarding the general public's attitudes towards hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Exclusion criteria - Non-therapy hypnosis (forensic, entertainment) materials and those concerned with groups likely to possess prior or professional knowledge of hypnosis, (hypnotists, clinicians and psychologists). Analysis was conducted in line with the questions. 31 articles were identified, covering diverse populations. Most people believe that: hypnosis is an altered state which requires collaboration to enter; once hypnotized perception changes; hypnotherapy is beneficial for psychological issues and is supportive of medical interventions; hypnosis can also enhance abilities especially memory. People are open to hypnotherapy subject to validation from the psychological or medical establishment. Similarity of opinion is more apparent than difference. Most people are positive towards hypnotherapy, and would consider its use under the right circumstances. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Media evolution and public understanding of climate science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann E

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs public opinion data from a nationally representative probability sample to examine how information encounters and exposure to different media sources relate to individuals' beliefs about global warming. The analyses indicate that media source exposure (i.e., exposure to news and information about science presented through different media outlets), intentional information exposure (i.e., deliberate exposure to global warming news coverage), and inadvertent information exposure (i.e., unplanned exposure to news and information about science that is encountered online while searching for other forms of information) relate to beliefs about global warming, in significant and meaningful ways. Namely, the findings show that both intentional information exposure and inadvertent online information exposure associate with disbelief in human-made causes, catalysts, and consequences of global warming. Theoretical and social implications of the findings are discussed and contextualized in light of the rapidly evolving media environment.

  2. A new public health context to understand male sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichiello, Victor; Scott, John; Callander, Denton

    2015-03-24

    Researching male sex work offers insight into the sexual lives of men and women while developing a more realistic appreciation for the changing issues associated with male sex work. This type of research is important because it not only reflects a growing and diversifying consumer demand for male sex work, but also because it enables the construction of knowledge that is up-to-date with changing ideas around sex and sexualities. This paper discusses a range of issues emerging in the male sex industry. Notably, globalisation and technology have contributed to the normalisation of male sex work and reshaped the landscape in which the male sex industry operates. As part of this discussion, we review STI and HIV rates among male sex workers at a global level, which are widely disparate and geographically contextual, with rates of HIV among male sex workers ranging from 0% in some areas to 50% in others. The Internet has reshaped the way that male sex workers and clients connect and has been identified as a useful space for safer sex messages and research that seeks out hidden or commonly excluded populations. We argue for a public health context that recognises the emerging and changing nature of male sex work, which means programs and policies that are appropriate for this population group. Online communities relating to male sex work are important avenues for safer sexual messages and unique opportunities to reach often excluded sub-populations of both clients and male sex workers. The changing structure and organisation of male sex work alongside rapidly changing cultural, academic and medical discourses provide new insight but also new challenges to how we conceive the sexualities of men and male sex workers. Public health initiatives must reflect upon and incorporate this knowledge.

  3. Non-invasive prenatal genetic testing: a study of public attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S E; Farrimond, H R

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnostic (NIPD) tests are being developed using cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation. NIPD tests avoid or reduce the need for invasive diagnostic procedures for conditions like Down syndrome. Discussion of ethical and social implications of these techniques is increasing. We report findings from a study of public attitudes relevant to the introduction of NIPD. A key aim was to examine the range of attitudes relevant to NIPD within a diverse sample. Qualitative analysis of written free text 'first responses' to a written neutral description of NIPD as part of a Q-methodology study conducted with a purposive sample of the UK population (n = 71). The majority (63%) of respondents described their first response as positive. However, respondents displayed ambivalence, expressing positive views of individual/medical rationale for NIPD and unease concerning public health rationale and societal implications. Unease related to eugenic reasoning underlying existing prenatal testing, 'too much control' in reproduction, commercial provision, information and support requirements for expanded testing, and limiting the use of testing. These findings suggest that regulating and monitoring commercial provision of NIPD services, and monitoring introduction and clinical use, are a public preference. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xie Shumin,1 Stephanie Mu-Lian Woo,2 Zhang Lei3 1Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 2Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China Abstract: In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People's Republic of China. Keywords: influencing factors, attitudes, organ transplantation, organ failure

  5. Regional media coverage influences the public's negative attitudes to policy implementation success in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Mio; Tiainen, Anne; Hanning, Marianne

    2015-12-01

    One central aspect of health literacy is knowledge of patients' rights. Being an important source of information about health and health care, the media may influence health literacy and act as a policy implementer. To investigate whether regional news media coverage in Sweden is linked to (i) the public's awareness and knowledge of a patient's rights policy, the waiting-time guarantee and (ii) the public's attitudes to how the guarantee's time limits are met, that is, implementation success. Three types of data are used. First, a national telephone survey of the public's awareness, knowledge and attitudes; second, media coverage information from digital media monitoring; and third, official waiting-time statistics. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses are performed with the 21 Swedish county councils/regions as a base. In the county councils/regions, non-awareness ranged from 1 to 15% and knowledge from 47 to 67%. There are relatively large differences between population groups. The amount of regional media coverage shows no significant correlation to the level of awareness and knowledge. There is, however, a significant correlation to both positive and negative attitudes; the latter remains after controlling for actual waiting times. At the national level, the media function as a policy implementer, being the primary source of information. At the regional level, the media are part of the political communication, reporting more extensively in county councils/regions where the population holds negative views towards the achievement in implementing the guarantee. We conclude that Swedish authorities should develop its communication strategies to bridge health literacy inequalities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparing stigmatising attitudes towards people with substance use disorders between the general public, GPs, mental health and addiction specialists and clients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boekel, L.C.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van Weeghel, J.; Garretsen, H.F.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are among the most severely stigmatised conditions; however, little is known about the nature of these stigmatising attitudes. Aims: To assess and compare stigmatising attitudes towards persons with SUDs among different stakeholders: general public, general

  7. Public information attitudes towards nuclear energy and the IAEA role in public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Hans-Friedrich

    1998-01-01

    It includes information on the relation that exists between the Division of Public Information of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and different journalists, in answering questions on nuclear energy and nuclear applications. Also, questions whenever there was a rumor or a report of a receives a growing number of E-mail letters from all over the world, on the same subjects. Increasingly, international organizations are contacted by journalists and the public, for information on incidents and accidents, in the nuclear or the radiation field. This article states that the interest on nuclear energy, isotopes and radiation is focusing in the public media on following points: the fear for an accident; the fear for radiation escaping; the belief that nuclear power plants are too expensive; the belief that electricity could be saved; the belief that nuclear wastes cannot be properly disposed; the fear for unsafe transport; the fears that the neighbors operate their plants carelessly; and fears that radiation treatment makes food or agricultural products radioactive or poisonous. (S. Grainger)

  8. 75 FR 61706 - Request for Public Comments Regarding Small and Medium Enterprises' Understanding of and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... widely accepted or agreed upon definition of medium enterprises. However, industry and government... Public Comments Regarding Small and Medium Enterprises' Understanding of and Compliance With the Export... the public regarding small and medium enterprises' (SMEs) understanding of and compliance with export...

  9. Understanding the Experience of Women in Undergraduate Engineering Programs at Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jessica Ohanian

    2017-01-01

    Women earn bachelor's degrees in engineering at a rate of less than 17% at public universities in California. The purpose of this study was to understand how women experience undergraduate engineering programs at public universities. To understand this lack of attainment, a qualitative methodology and Feminist Poststructuralist perspective were…

  10. Try It Again, Uncle Sam: The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools. [Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, William J.; Calderon, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools reveals that Americans say they know a lot more this year about the Common Core State Standards than they indicated a year ago, and they like it a lot less. Americans also say local school boards should have the greatest influence in deciding what is taught in the…

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards zoonoses among public health workers in Nyanza province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Omemo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the knowledge and attitude of public health workers (PHWs with respect to emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases and the practice of one health approach in the surveillance of zoonoses in the community. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 randomly selected districts of Nyanza province, Kenya. One hundred and ten randomly-selected PHWs were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Data were collected on their knowledge, attitudes and practices about common zoonotic diseases. Eighty-nine (81% questionnaires were received back. Eighty-seven (98% said they discuss zoonotic diseases with the local villagers during their community health work. The most commonly discussed disease was rabies (n=39. Seventy-six (85% respondents reported ever discussing zoonoses with their veterinary colleagues. Over 85% of the PHWs asked for refresher training on H1N1, and 51% require training on highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1. Despite fair knowledge of rabies among the PHWs in Nyanza province, there is need for improving their attitude of the emerging and reemerging zoonoses. There is also need to improve their practice in terms of collaboration with the veterinarians in zoonoses surveillance in the community.

  12. Place matters: Contextualizing the roles of religion and race for understanding Americans' attitudes about homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Amy; Boyd, Katharine A; Hayes, Brittany E

    2016-05-01

    As laws and policies related to homosexuality have evolved, Americans' attitudes have also changed. Race and religion have been established as important indicators of feelings about homosexuality. However, researchers have given almost no attention to how county characteristics shape Americans' attitudes. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling techniques, we examine how personal characteristics and the religious and racial context of a county shape feelings about homosexuality drawing on data from the American National Election Survey and information about where respondents reside. We find that African Americans initially appear less tolerant than other racial groups, until we account for the geographical distribution of attitudes across the nation. Additionally, once we consider religious involvement, strength of belief, and religious affiliation African Americans appear to have warmer feelings about homosexuality than whites. Drawing on the moral communities' hypothesis, we also find that the strength of religiosity amongst county residents heightens the influence of personal religious beliefs on disapproving attitudes. There is also a direct effect of the proportion conservative Protestant, whereby people of all faiths have cooler attitudes towards homosexual individuals when they reside in a county with a higher proportion of conservative Protestants. Finally, we do not find any evidence for an African American cultural influence on attitudes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Using network analysis to understand public policy for wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantoch-Wood, Angus; Connor, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    The UK′s wave energy sector is at a pre-commercial stage transitioning from prototype/demonstration towards a revenue supported industry. A host of advantages that could be realised through successful commercialisation include; the potential to generate 40–50 TWh/yr, £3.7bn of export, and 10,000+ jobs by 2020 (with tidal). Despite this, criticisms have been made about the lack of; coordination between funding bodies, communication between stakeholders and overly centralised actors. Although the value of strong problem solving networks has been noted, problems arise in validating the presence, nature and value of relationships as well as identification of tacit and informal linkages. Here network analysis is used to validate these criticisms and provide insight into sector activities. It is shown that although high levels of interaction are occurring overall, there are wide disparities. Prime movers are clearly present and less mature developers are isolated from the system as it develops norms and practices. This, combined with government fund gating has led to a Matthew effect whereby some have access to finance and are shaping institutional norms while others struggle. Although convergence is expected, a lack of public sector coordination, transparency of decision making and comparability between devices has reduced both investor and stakeholder legitimacy. -- Highlights: •Network analysis of the UK wave energy sector. •Introduction of network analysis metrics as an analytical tool within innovation systems. •Identification of government fund gating for technologies within UK wave energy sector. •Identification of Mathew effect among device developers within the UK wave energy sector

  14. Public opinion research in France: A new approach through people's values understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bres-Tutino, France; Pages, Jean-Pierre; Leger, Laurent

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear energy perception by the public has not only technical aspects but is also relevant to public debate and related to people's values. The developed countries and affluent societies, have been showing, in particular, a shift towards post-materialist values. Some of these values and needs environment protection, quality of life, involvement in decision-making process (government, corporates) must be taken into account when analysing public opinion towards nuclear energy. That is the reason why since 1992 a yearly nuclear barometer survey has been run, jointly, by the main corporations involved in nuclear research and industry CEA, the French Atomic Energy Commission, COGEMA, EDF and FRAMATOME. This barometer includes not only quantitative indicators but also, several series of questions on public attitude towards risk perception, controversial issues discussed in the media, potential energy sources for the future, politicians credibility etc. In addition, a very detailed public segmentation allows researchers to analyse similarities and differences related to age, gender, level of education of the population. This paper intends to give some concrete examples and current results on French public attitude towards nuclear energy and on the relation between social values and support for nuclear power

  15. Exploring potentials of sense-making theory for understanding social processes in public hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    This paper has point of departure in a planning process on energy infrastructure in Denmark and focuses on a particular public hearing meeting characterised by trenchant opposition and distrust to the authorities among the public. It points at the need to understand the interaction between author...... of such a public meeting and the importance of trust and openness in the social processes in a public hearing....... authorities and the public in such planning often characterised by conflict. A sense-making framework is developed based on Karl Weick's theory to investigate how participants at the meeting change their understanding aspects like other actors' opinions and the infrastructure project. Through interviews...

  16. Nuclear power, climate change and energy security: Exploring British public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, Adam; Venables, Dan; Spence, Alexa; Poortinga, Wouter; Demski, Christina; Pidgeon, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Public attitudes towards nuclear power in the UK have historically been deeply divided, but as concern about climate change and energy security has exerted an increasing influence on British energy policy, nuclear power has been reframed as a low-carbon technology. Previous research has suggested that a significant proportion of people may 'reluctantly accept' nuclear power as a means of addressing the greater threat of climate change. Drawing on the results of a national British survey (n=1822), the current study found that attitudes towards nuclear remain divided, with only a minority expressing unconditional acceptance. In general, people who expressed greater concern about climate change and energy security and possessed higher environmental values were less likely to favour nuclear power. However, when nuclear power was given an explicit 'reluctant acceptance' framing - allowing people to express their dislike for nuclear power alongside their conditional support - concerns about climate change and energy security became positive predictors of support for nuclear power. These findings suggest that concern about climate change and energy security will only increase acceptance of nuclear power under limited circumstances-specifically once other (preferred) options have been exhausted. - Highlights: → We report data from 2005 to 2010 of British attitudes towards nuclear power and climate change. → Changes in attitudes over the time period were relatively modest. → British population remained relatively divided on nuclear power in 2010. → Concern about climate change was negatively related to evaluations of nuclear power. → Different framings of the issue alter the balance of support for nuclear power.

  17. What's in a name? Commonalities and differences in public understanding of "climate change" and "global warming"

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmarsh, Lorraine E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from a survey of public understanding of climate change and global warming amongst residents in the south of England. Whereas much previous research has relied on survey checklists to measure public understanding of climate change, this study employed a more qualitative approach to reveal participants' unprompted conceptions of climate change and global warming. Overall, the findings show a tendency for the public to dissociate themselves from the causes, impact...

  18. Impact of social media as an instructional component on content knowledge, attitudes, and public engagement related to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sallie E.

    Social media (SM) are considered important avenues to reach citizens and engage them in social change. Given the widespread use of SM and their potential to enhance communication, they could also have significant influence when used as an educational tool. Educators are exploring whether classroom SM use has instructional benefits, such as enhancing interactivity and engagement. It is critical to understand the potential of SM for creating meaningful learning environments and public engagement pathways. Much work remains to understand the use of SM in this context and how to use them effectively. This study draws on active learning theory to examine the impact of SM as an instructional component with community college students learning to make connections among science, social responsibility, and global understanding in an environmental biology course (the Course). Using global climate change as a theme, the Course included a Facebook instructional component. A pretest--posttest, nonrandomized comparison group design was used to measure the impact of Facebook as an integrated component of the Course. The treatment and comparison groups were determined to be comparable based on demographics, access and ownership of digital devices, and SM use despite non-random assignment. No statistically significant differences were found between groups on these factors. The intervention consisted of semester-long required use of Facebook for the treatment group. The impact of the SM intervention was measured in three areas: (a) content knowledge, (b) attitudes toward climate change, and (c) public engagement actions and intentions to act. At the conclusion of the Course, no discernable difference was measured in content knowledge gains between the two groups. However, students who used Facebook experienced statistically significant differences in attitude, becoming increasingly concerned about global climate change. The comparison group demonstrated statistically significant

  19. The public and professionals reason similarly about the management of non-native invasive species: a quantitative investigation of the relationship between beliefs and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Anke; Selge, Sebastian; van der Wal, René; Larson, Brendon M H

    2014-01-01

    Despite continued critique of the idea of clear boundaries between scientific and lay knowledge, the 'deficit-model' of public understanding of ecological issues still seems prevalent in discourses of biodiversity management. Prominent invasion biologists, for example, still argue that citizens need to be educated so that they accept scientists' views on the management of non-native invasive species. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey with members of the public and professionals in invasive species management (n = 732) in Canada and the UK to investigate commonalities and differences in their perceptions of species and, more importantly, how these perceptions were connected to attitudes towards species management. Both native and non-native mammal and tree species were included. Professionals tended to have more extreme views than the public, especially in relation to nativeness and abundance of a species. In both groups, species that were perceived to be more abundant, non-native, unattractive or harmful to nature and the economy were more likely to be regarded as in need of management. While perceptions of species and attitudes towards management thus often differed between public and professionals, these perceptions were linked to attitudes in very similar ways across the two groups. This suggests that ways of reasoning about invasive species employed by professionals and the public might be more compatible with each other than commonly thought. We recommend that managers and local people engage in open discussion about each other's beliefs and attitudes prior to an invasive species control programme. This could ultimately reduce conflict over invasive species control.

  20. Public attitudes to nuclear power: the role of local authority radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, W.

    1989-01-01

    We are all conscious of the importance of energy to our modern society. Unfortunately, every energy source available brings with its benefits some attendant hazards to the environment and health. These risks and benefits must be evaluated and weighed against one another. Somerset, in the west of England, has two nuclear reactors at Hinkley Point, a Magnox and an AGR. With a public inquiry to start in October 1988 into the building of a PWR at Hinkley Point, nuclear issues are very much in mind. This paper discusses local attitudes in Somerset to nuclear power and mentions some of the reasons for them. It identifies a need for more and better public information, focusing on information about radiation in the environment. It describes the actions Somerset has taken to meet this need, and considers the role of this action in the broader regional and national context. (author)

  1. Attitudes and attitude change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    attitude theory. Why is this important? Attitudinal concepts can be found in every area of marketing. Concepts like ad liking, brand attitude, quality perception, product preference, perceived benefit, perceived risk, perceived value, and customer satisfaction can all be understood as particular types......, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Research on consumer attitudes takes two...... perspectives: Understanding attitude structure: how is an attitude cognitively represented in a consumer's mind, including its components (intra-attitudinal structure) and its associations with other psychological variables (inter-attitudinal structure)? Understanding information processing: what...

  2. Understanding the antecedents of consumers' attitudes towards doggy bags in restaurants: Concern about food waste, culture, norms and emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Sirieix, Lucie; Lála , Jan; Kocmanová, Klára

    2017-01-01

    Based on a qualitative study with 20 respondents in France and 20 respondents from the Czech Republic, this study aims to better understand how consumers’ concern about food waste, culture, social norms and emotions contribute to consumers’ attitudes and behaviors related to doggy bags. Results highlight a double paradox between conflicting norms and emotions: personal norms encourage not to waste while salient social norms encourage leaving leftovers; asking for a doggy bag generates immedia...

  3. Public perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia: Influencing factors in a multi-racial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; George, Elizabeth; Tan, Jin-Ai Mary Anne

    2011-03-30

    Thalassaemia is a common public health problem in Malaysia and about 4.5 to 6% of the Malays and Chinese are carriers of this genetic disorder. The major forms of thalassaemia result in death in utero of affected foetuses (α-thalassaemia) or life-long blood transfusions for survival in β-thalassaemia. This study, the first nationwide population based survey of thalassaemia in Malaysia, aimed to determine differences in public awareness, perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia in the multi-racial population in Malaysia. A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey of a representative sample of multi-racial Malaysians aged 18 years and above was conducted between July and December 2009. Of a total of 3723 responding households, 2846 (76.4%) have heard of thalassaemia. Mean knowledge score was 11.85 (SD ± 4.03), out of a maximum of 21, with higher scores indicating better knowledge. Statistically significant differences (P culturally acceptable in the reduction of pregnancies with thalassaemia major. The findings provide insights into culturally congruent educational interventions to reach out diverse socio-demographic and ethnic communities to increase knowledge and cultivate positive attitudes toward prevention of thalassaemia.

  4. Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

  5. Can Environmental Education Actions Change Public Attitudes? An Example Using the Pond Habitat and Associated Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Eunice; Quintino, Victor; Palhas, Jael; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Teixeira, José

    2016-01-01

    Ponds provide vital ecological services. They are biodiversity hotspots and important breading sites for rare and endangered species, including amphibians and dragonflies. Nevertheless, their number is decreasing due to habitat degradation caused by human activities. The "Ponds with Life" environmental education project was developed to raise public awareness and engagement in the study of ponds by promoting the direct contact between the public and nature, researchers and pedagogical hands-on exploration activities. A pre-post- project survey was set-up to assess the effects of the project on the environmental consciousness, knowledge and attitude changes towards ponds and the associated biodiversity of school students aged 15 to 18. The survey questions were based on Likert scales and their pre-post project comparisons used an innovative multivariate hypothesis testing approach. The results showed that the project improved the students' knowledge and attitudes towards ponds and associated biodiversity, especially the amphibians. Ponds can be found or constructed in urban areas and despite small sized, they proved to be interesting model habitats and living laboratories to foster environmental education, by encompassing a high number of species and a fast ecological succession.

  6. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Oral Health of Public School Children of Batangas City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JENNIFER U. DOTADO-MADERAZO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries among Filipino children ranked second worst among 21 World Health Organization Western Pacific countries. A recent National Oral Health Survey showed that 97 percent of Grade 1 students and 82 percent of Grade 2 students surveyed suffered from tooth decay. WHO (2007 urges governments to “ promote oral health in schools, aiming at developing healthy lifestyles and self care practices in children”. The study assessed the dental health education of public school children in Batangas City to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices of the respondents on oral health; to determine the significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their assessment on the dental health education and propose a program to improve the project. This study used a descriptive type of research and distributed a standardized questionnaire to 279 public school children of Ilijan, Sta. Rita Kalsada and Julian Pastor Memorial Elementary School. The participants were selected randomly. The findings of the study showed that there is an observed significant to highly significant relationship between the school and the assessment on oral health in terms of knowledge, attitude and practices. This means that their assessment is affected by the school where they belong.

  7. Public knowledge and attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Hong Kong: telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chair, S Y; Hung, Maria S Y; Lui, Joseph C Z; Lee, Diana T F; Shiu, Irene Y C; Choi, K C

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the public's knowledge and attitudes about cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Hong Kong. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Hong Kong. Hong Kong residents aged 15 to 64 years. The knowledge and attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Among the 1013 respondents, only 214 (21%) reported that they had received cardiopulmonary resuscitation training. The majority (72%) of these trained respondents had had their latest training more than 2 years earlier. The main reasons for not being involved in cardiopulmonary resuscitation training included lack of time or interest, and "not necessary". People with full-time jobs and higher levels of education were more likely to have such training. Respondents stating they had received cardiopulmonary resuscitation training were more willing to try it if needed at home (odds ratio=3.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-4.6; Pcase of emergencies. Overall cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge of the respondents was low (median=1, out of 8). Among all the respondents, only four of them (0.4%) answered all the questions correctly. Knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was still poor among the public in Hong Kong and the percentage of population trained to perform it was also relatively low. Efforts are needed to promote educational activities and explore other approaches to skill reinforcement and refreshment. Besides, we suggest enacting laws to protect bystanders who offer cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and incorporation of relevant training course into secondary school and college curricula.

  8. Public knowledge and attitudes towards the 60Co incident in Qixian County, Henan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Cuiping; Cheng Xiaojun; Zhang Qinfu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate radiation risk perception and nuclear acceptance after the 60 Co stuck source incident in June 2009 in Qixian County, Henan Province. Methods: From March to April 2010, 23 hamlets and 2 schools from 5 towns in Qixian County were selected, while 3 hamlets and 2 schools from 3 towns were used as control in Huixian County, 135 km away where no any impact of the incident was found. Face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted among three groups including mass public, elite public (representatives of public opinion, such as physicians, teachers, governmental officials, administrative personnel, private entrepreneurs), and middle school students (the third grade students in junior middle schools and the first grade students in senior middle schools). Results: A total of 1 340 valid questionnaires were collected. The public knowledge levels about radiation and nuclear power were low among all groups in two areas and public knowledge levels in Qixian County were higher than those in Huixian County. In both areas.the knowledge levels of the students were higher than those among the elite public, and that among the general public were the lowest. The knowledge levels of males and those with higher educational levels were higher than those of females and those with lower educational levels. More than 40.0% of the respondents supported the idea to build nuclear power plants in China, but only a small part of them supported to build nuclear power plants in their own areas. The percentages of opponents against local nuclear power plant construction were especially higher among the students and those with higher educational levels. More than 60% of the mass public and elite public believed the explanation of the government. More than 80% of the respondents held negative attitudes towards the performance of the Qixian County Government in dealing with this incident. The student gave the lowest evaluation of the credibility and the specific performance

  9. Understanding pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors: a mixed-methods study of homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Sussell, Jesse; Golinelli, Daniela; Zhou, Annie; Kennedy, David P; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2012-12-01

    Pregnancy rates are substantially higher among homeless youth than in the general population of youth, yet little is known about homeless adolescents' and young adults' pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors. Pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors were examined among two samples of sexually active homeless 13-24-year-olds in Los Angeles County. Data from 37 semistructured interviews conducted in March-April 2011 were analyzed using standard qualitative methods. Data from a structured survey with 277 respondents, conducted between October 2008 and August 2009, were analyzed primarily using regression modeling. More than half of interview respondents held ambivalent attitudes toward pregnancy, and ambivalent youth reported less contraceptive use than others. The interviews identified several potential influences on pregnancy attitudes: barriers associated with homelessness, readiness to settle down, desire to achieve goals, belief that a child would create something positive in life, and family and partners. In the survey, having positive attitudes toward pregnancy was positively associated with duration of homelessness (odds ratio, 1.6), contact with relatives (1.1) and relationship commitment (1.8); it was negatively associated with frequency of drinking (0.9). Relationship commitment was positively associated with nonuse of an effective contraceptive method at last sex (1.5). Effective and accessible pregnancy prevention and family planning programs for homeless youth are needed. Youths' ambivalence toward pregnancy and feelings of relationship commitment warrant attention as possible areas for programs to address. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  10. Understanding the audience: Improving the impact of public performance reporting on quality of care.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelaher, Margaret; Canaway, Rachel; Bismark, Marie; Dunt, David

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Despite its’ promise public performance reporting has had little impact on improving quality of care for consumers. In this study we examine consumer advocates, purchasers and providers’ understanding of public performance reporting and how it contributes to quality of care. The aim of the study is to improve the impact of public performance on quality of care.Theory: Public performance reporting is hypothesised to improve quality of care by eliciting organisational response to ...

  11. Harsh Parenting, Deviant Peers, Adolescent Risky Behavior: Understanding the Meditational Effect of Attitudes and Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppl, Tricia K; Dhalewadikar, Jui; Lohman, Brenda J

    2016-09-01

    Although research supports the influence of parents and peers on adolescent risky behavior, less is known about mechanisms proposed to explain this relation. This study examined the influence of adolescent attitudes and intentions about such behaviors. Prospective, longitudinal data came from rural youth who participated throughout adolescence (n= 451). Observed harsh parenting and relationship with deviant peers was assessed in early adolescence, attitudes and intentions were measured during middle adolescence, and risky behavior was assessed in late adolescence. Results indicated that parenting and deviant peers was related to engagement in tobacco use, alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Moreover, attitudes and intentions mediated this relationship even after parent use and adolescent early involvement in these behaviors were taken into account.

  12. Survey of Public Understanding on Energy Resources including Nuclear Energy (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se-Moon; Song, Sun-Ja

    2007-01-01

    Women in Nuclear-Korea (WINK) surveyed the public understanding on various energy resources in early September 2006 to offer the result for establishment of the nuclear communication policy. The reason why this survey includes other energy resources is because the previous works are only limited on nuclear energy, and also aimed to know the public's opinion on the present communication skill of nuclear energy for the public understanding. The present study is purposed of having data how public understands nuclear energy compared to other energies, such as fossil fuels, hydro power, and other sustainable energies. The data obtained from this survey have shown different results according to the responded group; age, gender, residential area, etc. Responded numbers are more than 2,000 of general public and university students. The survey result shows that nuclear understanding is more negative in women than in men, and is more negative in young than older age

  13. The impact of staff training on special educational needs professionals' attitudes toward and understanding of applied behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Sinéad; Reading, Benjamin E; McDowell, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Research-based evidence points to the efficacy and value of applied behavior analysis (ABA) in meeting the needs of individuals with learning disabilities and autism. Nonetheless, public, government, and professional perception of ABA can be negative. The current study was designed to measure the impact of a short intervention on professionals' attitudes toward, and knowledge of, ABA. Teachers and classroom assistants from two separate schools for children with severe learning difficulties completed a self-report survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward ABA. They were then presented with a 90-min training module designed to increase their knowledge of the history of ABA and their functional assessment skills. Following training, the self-report was readministered. The mean scores for each group increased only after the training had been delivered. Further research is needed to address the impact of training on classroom practice.

  14. Examining Thought Processes to Understand the Impact of Water Conservation Messages on Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Joy N.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Martin, Emmett T.; Warner, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Water availability issues have plagued many regions around the world and is viewed as the top issue facing the world. As a result, encouraging water conservation has become a priority for agricultural communicators. Previous research suggests strategically framed messages can impact attitudes about water conservation, but whether this change is a…

  15. The Relationship between Preservice Science Teachers' Attitude toward Astronomy and Their Understanding of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    2016-01-01

    Turkish preservice science teachers have been taking a two-credit astronomy class during the last semester of their undergraduate program since 2010. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between preservice science teachers' astronomy misconceptions and their attitudes toward astronomy. Preservice science teachers were given an…

  16. Understanding Students' Attitudes about Group Work: What Does This Suggest for Instructors of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Melanie Beth; O'Connor, Abigail H.

    2013-01-01

    A survey was administered to college students to gain insight into their attitudes about classroom group work. Students responded that group work is generally a positive experience; however, they do not necessarily prefer it to individual assignments. Students' responses also indicated concerns about instructors' motivations for using…

  17. Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

  18. Understanding Learning Styles, Attitudes and Intentions in Using e-Learning System: Evidence from Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyal, Afzaal H.; Rahman, Mohd Noah A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the students' learning style, their attitudes about educational technologies in general and e-learning management system (e-LMS) in particular and their behavioral intentions to use the e-learning platform in a single institution of higher learning in Brunei Darussalam. In this study, a survey, using the VARK Questionnaire…

  19. Understanding barriers to organized breast cancer screening in France: women's perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrat, Emilie; Le Breton, Julien; Djassibel, Memtolom; Veerabudun, Kalaivani; Brixi, Zahida; Attali, Claude; Renard, Vincent

    2013-08-01

    The participation rate in organized breast cancer screening in France is lower than recommended. Non-participants either use opportunistic screening or do not use either screening modality. To assess any differences in perceptions, attitudes and knowledge related to breast cancer screening between users of opportunistic screening and non-users of any screening mammograms and to identify potential barriers to participation in organized screening. Six focus groups were conducted in May 2010 with 34 French non-participants in organized screening, 15 who used opportunistic screening (OpS group) and 19 who used no screening (NoS group). The guide used for both groups explored perceptions and attitudes related to health, cancer and screening; perceptions of femininity; and knowledge about breast cancer screening. Thematic content analysis was performed. Perceptions, attitudes and knowledge differed between the two groups. Women in the OpS group perceived a high susceptibility to breast cancer, visited their gynaecologist regularly, were unfamiliar with organized screening modalities and had doubts about its quality. NoS women had very high- or low-perceived susceptibility to breast cancer, knew about screening modalities, had doubts about its usefulness and expressed negative opinions of mammograms. Differences in perceptions and attitudes related to breast cancer screening partially explain why some women choose opportunistic screening or no screening. General practitioners and gynaecologists are in a unique position to provide individually tailored preventative messages to improve participation in organized screening.

  20. Understanding Climate Change Perceptions, Attitudes, and Needs of Forest Service Resource Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Franco; Tara J. Haan

    2015-01-01

    Surveys were collected to assess Forest Service (FS) resource managers' perceptions, attitudes, and informational needs related to climate change and its potential impacts on forests and grasslands. Resource managers with three background types were surveyed. All participants generally considered themselves to be well-informed on climate change issues, although...

  1. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Public awareness and attitudes to living organ donation: systematic review and integrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Chapman, Jeremy R; Wong, Germaine; Josephson, Michelle A; Craig, Jonathan C

    2013-09-15

    The deceased-donor organ shortage has driven widespread adoption of living-donor transplantation. Yet, public views on living donation are not well understood. This study aims to synthesize studies on public awareness and attitudes toward living organ donation. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched to September 2012. Summary estimates from survey data were obtained by random effects meta-analysis. Qualitative descriptive synthesis of each study was performed. Forty-seven studies involving 34,610 respondents were included. The proportion of respondents aware of living organ donation was 76.7% (4 studies, n=3248; 95% confidence interval, 46.2%-97.0%; I=99.7%). The majority were in favor of living directed donation (85.5% (11 studies, n=15,836; 95% confidence interval, 81.6%-89.6%; I=98%), with recipient and community benefit as the rationale provided. However, barriers included fear of surgical and health risks, lack of knowledge, respect for cultural norms, financial loss, distrust in hospitals, and avoiding recipient indebtedness. The public voiced concern about possible risks or an obligatory pressure exerted on the donor. Many supported reimbursement for out-of-pocket expenses, paid leave, wait-listing priority, health insurance, and donor acknowledgment. There was strong opposition to financial incentives, which they believed risked exploitation and inequity and diminished voluntary altruistic donation. The public is generally supportive of living donation and articulated important equity and ethical considerations for protecting the health and safety of living donors. This supports increased public engagement and strengthening of a shared view among professionals and the public in living donation practice and policy.

  3. Predicting Scientific Understanding of Prospective Elementary Teachers: Role of Gender, Education Level, Courses in Science, and Attitudes toward Science and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David D.; Morris, John D.

    2005-01-01

    A multiple regression analysis of the relationship between prospective teachers' scientific understanding and Gender, Education Level (High School, College), Courses in Science (Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Earth Science, Astronomy, and Agriculture), Attitude Towards Science, and Attitude Towards Mathematics is reported. Undergraduate elementary…

  4. Effect of deliberation on the public's attitudes toward consent policies for biobank research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Tom; De Vries, Raymond G; Kim, H Myra; Gordon, Linda; Ryan, Kerry A; Krenz, Chris D; Jewell, Scott; Kim, Scott Y H

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we evaluate the effect of education and deliberation on the willingness of members of the public to donate tissue to biobank research and on their attitudes regarding various biobank consent policies. Participants were randomly assigned to a democratic deliberation (DD) group, an education group that received only written materials, and a control group. Participants completed a survey before the deliberation and two surveys post-deliberation: one on (or just after) the deliberation day, and one 4 weeks later. Subjects were asked to rate 5 biobank consent policies as acceptable (or not) and to identify the best and worst policies. Analyses compared acceptability of different policy options and changes in attitudes across the three groups. After deliberation, subjects in the DD group were less likely to find broad consent (defined here as consent for the use of donations in an unspecified range of future research studies, subject to content and process restrictions) and study-by-study consent acceptable. The DD group was also significantly less likely to endorse broad consent as the best policy (OR = 0.34), and more likely to prefer alternative consent options. These results raise ethical challenges to the current widespread reliance on broad consent in biobank research, but do not support study-by-study consent.

  5. Exploring the relationship between public opinion and personal attitudes and behavior toward lesbians and gay men: social conformity revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Carole J

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between social conformity, gender-role egalitarianism, and personal levels of heterosexism, or prejudice based on same-sex orientation. Mock public opinion polls of a positive or negative nature regarding same-sex orientation were used to study attitudinal and behavioral change of participants and attitude-behavior consistency. The study sample included 194 undergraduate students from a Midwestern university. A correlation existed between participants' traditional gender role beliefs and heterosexism. Participants who viewed the positive public opinion poll demonstrated behavioral support for a lesbian and gay organization, as did participants with positive attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Findings are analyzed within a social prejudice framework.

  6. Understanding caregivers' attitudes towards physical punishment of children: evidence from 34 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Claudia; Khan, Shane M

    2011-12-01

    necessary. This discrepancy between attitudes and behaviors is observed, although to different extents, in all the countries and across groups of mothers/primary caregivers with different levels of education and wealth. The data presented in this article are among the few resources available to help develop a more global understanding of caregivers' motivation in using violent discipline across a multitude of low- and middle-income countries. As such, the analysis of these data provides important insights for the development of effective strategies that will promote positive parenting practices. However, further data collection and analysis are needed to fully understand the reasons why physical punishment is used - even when caregivers do not think such method is necessary - opening the door for an even sharper programmatic response to change the practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. From Headline to Hard Grind: The Importance of Understanding Public Administration in Achieving Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Flynn, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Many public policy programs fail to translate ambitious headlines to on-the-ground action. The reasons for this are many and varied, but for public administration and management scholars a large part of the gap between ambition and achievement is the challenge associated with the operation of the machinery of government itself, and how it relates to the other parties that it relies on to fulfill these outcomes. In their article, Carey and Friel set out key reasons why public health scholars should seek to better understand important ideas in public administration. In commenting on their contribution, I draw out two critical questions that are raised by this discussion: (i) what are boundaries and what forms do they take? and (ii) why work across boundaries? Expanding on these key questions extends the points made by Carey and Friel on the importance of understanding public administration and will better place public health scholars and practitioners to realise health outcomes. PMID:27694672

  8. Public Attitudes towards Monetary Integration in Seven New Member States of the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőcs Csongor-Ernő

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Existing work on euro support has provided insights into the dynamics of preferences, but most of these studies focus on older member states that already form an integral part of the Eurozone. This article inquires into public attitudes towards monetary integration in new member states of the EU: Poland, the Czech Republic, Romania, Hungary, Croatia, Bulgaria and Lithuania. Focusing on the cross-sectional variation of preferences, it applies multilevel logit regression to test three perspectives – economic, conceptual and political – using individual-level survey data and NUTS-2 regional statistical data from seven countries for 2013. One of its novel findings is that beliefs such as the one that European Monetary Union (EMU adherence will cause a spiral in economic inflation are powerful disincentives to euro support in these countries.

  9. Attitudes and perceptions of the general Malaysian public regarding family presence during resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Keng Sheng; Ghani, Zuhailah Abdul

    2014-08-01

    Family presence (FP) during resuscitation is an increasingly favoured trend, as it affords many benefits to the critically ill patient's family members. However, a previously conducted study showed that only 15.8% of surveyed Malaysian healthcare staff supported FP during resuscitation. This cross-sectional study used a bilingual self-administered questionnaire to examine the attitudes and perceptions of the general Malaysian public toward the presence of family members during resuscitation of their loved ones. The questionnaires were randomly distributed to Malaysians in three different states and in the federal territory of Kuala Lumpur. Out of a total of 190 survey forms distributed, 184 responses were included for analysis. Of the 184 respondents, 140 (76.1%) indicated that they favoured FP during resuscitation. The most common reason cited was that FP during resuscitation provides family members with the assurance that everything possible had been done for their loved ones (n = 157, 85.3%). Respondents who had terminal illnesses were more likely to favour FP during resuscitation than those who did not, and this was statistically significant (95.0% vs. 73.8%; p = 0.04). FP during resuscitation was favoured by a higher percentage of the general Malaysian public as compared to Malaysian healthcare staff. This could be due to differences in concerns regarding the resuscitation process between members of the public and healthcare staff.

  10. Food irradiation: public attitudes at Argentina; Alimentos irradiados: actitud del consumidor en Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, Clara A.; Curzio, Osvaldo A. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Lab. de Radioisotopos

    1999-11-01

    The paper show the research and development activities conducted in the South National University in relation to the consumer attitude about irradiated foodstuff in general, and irradiated onions in particular. Marketing trials were conducted in three opportunities in Bahia Blanca and Buenos Aires cities. Two surveys were carried out with handouts distributed to the public: the first was a general survey intended to find out how much supermarket customers know about food preservation by means of ionizing irradiation, and how much interest the public and in buying onions treated with ionizing radiation; the second survey was carried out with the members of the public who had bought the treated onions. The form asked for the reason for buying irradiated onions, the opinion about the product, and whether the product would be purchase again. The results encourage the transference of irradiation technology with an important economic benefit for the productive sector. Also, these studies may be used as a useful tool to start the introduction of irradiated food in MERCORSUR countries. (author) 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Uncharted 'tearitory': mapping Australian therapist experiences, attitudes, and understandings of their in-session tears

    OpenAIRE

    Brownlie, Megan Ruth

    2017-01-01

    This study explored psychotherapist experiences of and attitudes to in-session crying. Historically, therapists were encouraged to hide their emotions from clients. Subsequently, self-disclosure and empathy theory and research developed with a focus on verbal modes of self-disclosure and empathic communication, to the neglect of the non-verbal dimension of these interventions. The current study attempted to locate therapist tearfulness within the theoretical discourses on self-disclosure and ...

  12. Understanding the Organization of Public Health Delivery Systems: An Empirical Typology

    OpenAIRE

    Mays, Glen P; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Bhandari, Michelyn W; Smith, Sharla A

    2010-01-01

    Context: Policy discussions about improving the U.S. health care system increasingly recognize the need to strengthen its capacities for delivering public health services. A better understanding of how public health delivery systems are organized across the United States is critical to improvement. To facilitate the development of such evidence, this article presents an empirical method of classifying and comparing public health delivery systems based on key elements of their organizational s...

  13. Track leading to decision of 'framework for nuclear energy policy'. Reading the public attitude with public opinions (the second). Framework for nuclear energy policy (as of July 2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The Government decides to respect the 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy', which was decided by the Atomic Energy Commission on October 11th, 2005, as a basic principle for the nuclear energy policy and promote research, development and utilization of nuclear science and engineering. The Atomic Energy Commission asked the public to comment on the draft and held Public Hearings at five different venues. The Planning Council finalized the draft, taking the 1717 opinions from 701 citizens thus gathered into the consideration. Reading the public attitude with public opinions had been conducted by the author, which showed a large percentage of the consent to the policy and, at the same time, the necessity for the nation to make more efforts to communicate with the public in simple and more concise terms or listen to the public, and also to gain the public trust through education and public relations. The pros and cons both commented that the mass media was not fair. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Public's attitudes on participation in a biobank for research: an Italian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteri, Corinna; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Togni, Elena; Parker, Michael

    2014-11-26

    The creation of biobanks depends upon people's willingness to donate their samples for research purposes and to agree to sample storage. Moreover, biobanks are a public good that requires active participation by all interested stakeholders at every stage of development. Therefore, knowing public's attitudes towards participation in a biobank and biobank management is important and deserves investigation. A survey was conducted among family members of patients attending the outpatient department of our institute for a geriatric or neurological visit, documenting their willingness to participate in a biobank and their views on the legal-ethical aspects of biobank management. Information regarding subjects' attitudes on biomedical research in general and genetic research in particular was also collected. Participants' data on biobanks were compared with data previously collected from the Italian ethics committees (ECs) to evaluate the extent to which lay people and ethics committees share views and concerns regarding biobanks. One hundred forty-five subjects took part in the survey. The willingness to give biological samples for the constitution of a biobank set up for research purposes was declared by 86% of subjects and was modulated by subjects' education. People in favour of providing biological samples for a biobank expressed a more positive view on biomedical research than did people who were not in favour; attitude towards genetic research in dementia was the strongest predictor of participation. Different from ECs that prefer specific consent (52%) and do not choose the option of broad consent (8%) for samples collection in a biobank, participants show a clear preference for broad consent (57%), followed by partially restricted consent (16%), specific consent (15%), and multi-layered consent (12%). Almost all of the subjects available to contribute to a biobank desire to receive both individual research results and research results of general value, while

  15. Understanding the threats posed by non-native species: public vs. conservation managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe E Gozlan

    Full Text Available Public perception is a key factor influencing current conservation policy. Therefore, it is important to determine the influence of the public, end-users and scientists on the prioritisation of conservation issues and the direct implications for policy makers. Here, we assessed public attitudes and the perception of conservation managers to five non-native species in the UK, with these supplemented by those of an ecosystem user, freshwater anglers. We found that threat perception was not influenced by the volume of scientific research or by the actual threats posed by the specific non-native species. Media interest also reflected public perception and vice versa. Anglers were most concerned with perceived threats to their recreational activities but their concerns did not correspond to the greatest demonstrated ecological threat. The perception of conservation managers was an amalgamation of public and angler opinions but was mismatched to quantified ecological risks of the species. As this suggests that invasive species management in the UK is vulnerable to a knowledge gap, researchers must consider the intrinsic characteristics of their study species to determine whether raising public perception will be effective. The case study of the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva reveals that media pressure and political debate has greater capacity to ignite policy changes and impact studies on non-native species than scientific evidence alone.

  16. Sociology and the public understanding of science: from rationalization to rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, S

    2001-03-01

    This paper contributes to the reappraisal of sociological theories of modernity inspired by the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK). As much as these theories rely on received ideas about the nature of science that SSK has called into doubt, so do they rely on ideas about the public understanding of science. Public understanding of science has been assumed to conform to the monolithic logic and perception of science associated with rationalization, leading to an impoverished view of the cognitive outlook of the modern individual. Rationalization has become the basis for the construction of theoretical critique of science divorced from any clear reference to public understanding, with the result that theory has encountered considerable problems in accounting for public scepticism towards science. However, rather than question rationalization, the more typical strategy has been to propose radical changes in the modernization process, such as postmodernism and the risk society. Against this, an alternative view of public understanding is advanced drawn from SSK and rhetorical psychology. The existence of the sociological critique of science, and SSK in particular, suggests that the meaning of science in modernity is not monolithic but multiple, arising out of a central dilemma over the universal form of knowledge-claims and their necessarily particular, human and social grounding. This dilemma plays out not only in intellectual discourses about science, but also in the public's understanding of science. This argument is used to call for further sociological research into public understanding and to encourage sociologists to recognize the central importance of the topic to a proper understanding of modernity.

  17. Understanding attitudes toward adolescent vaccination and the decision-making dynamic among adolescents, parents and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Charitha; Schaffer, Sarah E; Dombkowski, Kevin J; Dempsey, Amanda F

    2012-07-07

    With several new vaccine recommendations specifically targeting adolescents, improving adolescent vaccination rates has become a major health priority. Vaccination attitudes are an important, modifiable target for new interventions. Prior research has examined primarily the attitudes and beliefs of adolescents, parents or healthcare providers separately without exploring the decision-making dynamic among these stakeholders. We sought to identify potentially modifiable barriers in the vaccine decision process among adolescents, parents and healthcare providers that could be addressed through interventions implemented within the adolescent's medical home. We conducted a qualitative study of adolescents, their parents and healthcare providers, recruited from four primary care practices in Michigan. For each practice, three separate focus group discussions (adolescents, parents and healthcare providers, for a total of 12 focus groups) were conducted to explore vaccination attitudes, possible interventions to improve vaccine uptake and access to and use of technology for vaccination interventions. Themes that emerged from the focus group discussions were categorized using an inductive, iterative process, and analysis focused on highlighting similarities and differences among the three perspectives. Participants included 32 adolescents, 33 parents and 28 providers. The majority of parents and adolescents were female. Lack of knowledge about recommended adolescent vaccinations was universally recognized among the three groups and was perceived to be the underlying driver of low immunization rates. Notably, each group did not appear to fully appreciate the challenges faced by the other stakeholders with respect to adolescent vaccination. Adolescents were seen as having a greater role in the vaccine decision-making dynamic than previously suggested. Provider-based interventions such as educational tools and reminder-recall notices were identified as important components of

  18. Impact of Cloud Services on Students' Attitude towards Mathematics Education in Public Universities in Benue State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iji, Clement Onwu; Abah, Joshua Abah; Anyor, Joseph Wuave

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the impact of cloud services on students' attitude towards mathematics education in public universities in Benue State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The instrument for the study is the researcher-developed Cloud Service Impact Questionnaire--CSIQ (Cronbach Alpha Coefficient = 0.92). The…

  19. Teachers' Demographic Factors on Attitude towards Guidance and Counselling Services in Public Primary Schools of Kimilili Subcounty, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasilumbi, Wesonga Joanne; Jenniffer, Munyau K.; Prisca, Tarus

    2016-01-01

    The government of Kenya through the Ministry of education banned corporal punishment in schools. This necessitated strengthening of guidance and counseling (G&C) services in schools. This study aimed to: determine the teachers' attitude towards guidance and counseling services in public primary schools in Kimilili Sub-County and determine the…

  20. Faculty Members' Attitudes towards the Performance Appraisal Process in the Public Universities in Light of Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ashqar, Wafaa Mohammed Ali

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to detect the level of faculty members' attitudes at public universities towards the performance appraisal process and its relationship with some variables (gender, college, scientific rank, university, teaching experience, and age). The study sample consisted of (320) faculty members of both sexes in three public…

  1. Public attitudes towards preventive genomics and personal interest in genetic testing to prevent disease: a survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, E.; Henneman, L.; van El, C.G.; Cornel, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genetic testing and family history assessment can be used as an aid in the prevention of common chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine public attitudes and interests towards offering genetic testing and family history-based risk assessment for common chronic disease

  2. Achievement Anxiety of Prospective Teachers: A Research in the Context of Their Attitudes towards Public Staff Selection Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ümmet, Durmus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the achievement anxiety of prospective teachers according to their attitudes to Public Staff Selection Examination (KPSS) and some demographic variables. The study group consists of 312 graduated and final year prospective teachers studying at different faculties of education and science and literature in…

  3. Actitud Hacia las Matematicas: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes Toward Mathematics: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Feijoo, Nelida

    Investigations about attitudes toward mathematics carried out in the past decade were revised. The instruments used to measure attitudes toward mathematics were analysed as well as the attitudes toward different aspects of mathematics, their relation with other school subjects and their stability through time. Opinions about the influence of…

  4. Investigation and Strategic Analysis of Public Willingness and Attitudes Toward Organ Donation in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Zheng, J; Liu, W; Ding, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, H; Zou, Y; Fu, Y

    2015-10-01

    China officially initiated deceased organ donation in 2010. Much progress has been made since then. However, compared with the developed countries in Europe and America, there is still a large gap. In this study, we investigate the willingness and attitude of the general public in East China and the factors that affect organ donation, and propose specific recommendations for promoting it. A simple and random sample was questioned. The data were analyzed statistically using SPSS 19.0 software, χ(2) test, and logistic regression. A total of 1200 questionnaires were issued; of these, 1105 were recovered, with 1074 effective questionnaires, for an effective rate of 89.5%. Among these, 426 respondents (39.7%) were willing to donate, 529 (49.3%) were in favor of donation but would not donate themselves; and 119 (11.1%) were against donation. Women (P promotion by relevant organizations. Much needs to be done to promote organ donation in China; targeted publicity will help to improve the work efficiency of organ donation; improvement of relevant policies and regulations, and establishment of a fair and transparent organ allocation system are key to the development of organ donation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of public attributions, attitudes, and stigma in regard to depression among children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brea L; Pescosolido, Bernice A; Martin, Jack K; McLeod, Jane D; Jensen, Peter S

    2007-05-01

    This study compared public attributions and attitudes toward adult and child depression, with a focus on problem recognition, medical and social causes, help-seeking recommendations, perceptions of violence, and the use of coercion. The investigators compared data from two special modules of the 1996 and 2002 nationally representative General Social Survey on public response to mental illness. Respondents answered questions regarding a vignette in which an adult had depression (N=193) or one in which a child had depression (N=312). Respondents evaluated childhood depression as more serious than adult depression (83% versus 51%, respectively) and saw a greater potential for violence toward others among children with depression (40% for children versus 30% for adults). More respondents endorsed treatment of all types, including coerced care, for children with depression. However, significantly fewer recommended talking to family and friends about a child's mental health problem. Americans are more concerned about children's depression than adults' depression and reveal more prejudice regarding perceptions of dangerousness. More respondents endorsed formal care than informal care and advice. However, the heightened stigma surrounding childhood depression poses unique challenges for youths with depression and their families.

  6. Understanding of and attitudes to organ donation and transplantation: a survey among Italian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Daniele; De Bona, Manuela; Ruminati, Rino; Ermani, Mario; Naccarato, Remo; Burra, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    Students have a positive attitude to organ donation and transplantation, usually associated with their personal willingness to donate their organs after death. The aim of this study was to evaluate the opinions of university students on transplantation and organ donation, at a single Italian university. University undergraduates attending the first year on five different courses in 2001 were surveyed at Padua University by using an anonymous 13-item questionnaire. 97.2% of the students completed the questionnaire (77.4% females, mean age 20.4 yr); they were attending Medicine (33.8%), Agriculture (5.9%), Veterinary Medicine (11.4%), Psychology (18.5%) and Educational Sciences (30.4%). The majority was aware of the problem of the paucity of organ donations and deaths on the waiting list in Italy. Most students would accept transplantation in the case of a human donor (97%), an artificial organ (95%) or an animal donor (76%); and 87% of them were prepared to donate their own organs after death. No differences were seen when students attending science courses were compared with those attending art courses. Italian university students have a very positive attitude and willingness to donate their own organs after death, with no differences emerging as regards type of university education.

  7. The impact of nonverbal communication on iranian young EFL learners’ attitudes and understanding of lexical items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi, Manoochehr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research sets at investigating the importance of nonverbal communication (NVC in L2 teaching and learning. More specifically, it studies the effect of teaching gestures that can be perceived and do not come directly from physical language. Communication is a means of sharing ideas, feelings, and attitudes. It is separated into two parts; verbal and nonverbal. Verbal communication uses language, while nonverbal communication is behaviors that can be perceived indirectly from physical language. The participants of the study included 60 Iranian young learners of English selected from among a population of 100 EFL young learners at a private language institute. The participants were divided into two experimental and control groups based on random sampling. Both groups were instructed 15 lexical items. Experimental group was taught using NVC such as gesture and some pertinent pictures whereas control group was instructed using verbal communication (VC and some relevant pictures for six sessions during a month. Then the participants in both groups were tested orally to check their amount of progress. The data were fed into the computer and were analyzed by SPSS using t-test. The results show significant differences between experimental and control groups displaying that experimental group outperformed control group. Also, a questionnaire was distributed among the participants based on Likert scale. The achieved data were analyzed by SPSS and the mean score showed high positive attitudes towards NVC in L2 teaching and learning

  8. An ecological public health approach to understanding the relationships between sustainable urban environments, public health and social equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The environmental determinants of public health and social equity present many challenges to a sustainable urbanism-climate change, water shortages and oil dependency to name a few. There are many pathways from urban environments to human health. Numerous links have been described but some underlying mechanisms behind these relationships are less understood. Combining theory and methods is a way of understanding and explaining how the underlying structures of urban environments relate to public health and social equity. This paper proposes a model for an ecological public health, which can be used to explore these relationships. Four principles of an ecological public health-conviviality, equity, sustainability and global responsibility-are used to derive theoretical concepts that can inform ecological public health thinking, which, among other things, provides a way of exploring the underlying mechanisms that link urban environments to public health and social equity. Theories of more-than-human agency inform ways of living together (conviviality) in urban areas. Political ecology links the equity concerns about environmental and social justice. Resilience thinking offers a better way of coming to grips with sustainability. Integrating ecological ethics into public health considers the global consequences of local urban living and thus attends to global responsibility. This way of looking at the relationships between urban environments, public health and social equity answers the call to craft an ecological public health for the twenty-first century by re-imagining public health in a way that acknowledges humans as part of the ecosystem, not separate from it, though not central to it. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Off to the Courts? Or the Agency? Public Attitudes on Bureaucratic and Legal Approaches to Policy Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Mulroy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A key curiosity in the operation of the American regulatory state lies with its hybrid structure, defined by centralized, bureaucratic approaches but also more decentralized actions such as lawsuits brought by private citizens in the courts. While current research on these two pathways focuses at the elite level—exploring how and why political actors and institutions opt for legal or administrative strategies for implementing different public policies—there is little research that examines public attitudes toward how policy is enforced in the U.S. Given that the public is a key partner in this process, this paper integrates public attitudes into the discussion, tapping into conceptions of “big government,” privatization, and the tort reform movement. Using original data from a series of vignette-based experiments included in the 2014 Cooperative Congressional Election Survey, we examine public preferences about how policy is regulated—by private citizens in the courts or by government officials in agencies—across a broad number of policy areas. We offer one of the first studies that adjudicates the boundaries of public attitudes on litigation and bureaucratic regulation in the U.S., offering implications for how elites might approach the design of policy implementation for different issue areas.

  10. Understanding the components of publication success: a survey of academic award recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Anne M; Rowland, Heather; Gruman, Cynthia A

    2003-04-01

    This study examines predictors of publication number in career development awardees. We examined whether daily writing predicted publication number among junior faculty. We surveyed 94 career development awardees; the survey consisted of 28 questions in four domains: characteristics, environment, writing practices, and attitudes about writing. Variables that contributed positively to publication number included male gender and those with a negative effect were clinical research and perceiving the need to write as a requirement for advancement. In subgroup analysis of junior faculty, a habit of writing daily was predictive of greater publication numbers. Career development awardees published more first-authored manuscripts if they were male, were involved in nonclinical research, and did not perceive writing as a requirement for advancement. These factors highlight the need to explore the lower overall publication productivity in women and in clinical investigators. Junior faculty members that write daily publish more manuscripts, regardless of gender, research type, or motivators. The benefits of daily writing warrant direct study if not empiric implementation.

  11. Modelling associations between public understanding, engagement and forest conditions in the Inland Northwest, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Hartter

    Full Text Available Opinions about public lands and the actions of private non-industrial forest owners in the western United States play important roles in forested landscape management as both public and private forests face increasing risks from large wildfires, pests and disease. This work presents the responses from two surveys, a random-sample telephone survey of more than 1500 residents and a mail survey targeting owners of parcels with 10 or more acres of forest. These surveys were conducted in three counties (Wallowa, Union, and Baker in northeast Oregon, USA. We analyze these survey data using structural equation models in order to assess how individual characteristics and understanding of forest management issues affect perceptions about forest conditions and risks associated with declining forest health on public lands. We test whether forest understanding is informed by background, beliefs, and experiences, and whether as an intervening variable it is associated with views about forest conditions on publicly managed forests. Individual background characteristics such as age, gender and county of residence have significant direct or indirect effects on our measurement of understanding. Controlling for background factors, we found that forest owners with higher self-assessed understanding, and more education about forest management, tend to hold more pessimistic views about forest conditions. Based on our results we argue that self-assessed understanding, interest in learning, and willingness to engage in extension activities together have leverage to affect perceptions about the risks posed by declining forest conditions on public lands, influence land owner actions, and affect support for public policies. These results also have broader implications for management of forested landscapes on public and private lands amidst changing demographics in rural communities across the Inland Northwest where migration may significantly alter the composition of

  12. UK public attitudes to the nuclear industry: the effect of the Sellafield visitor centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Rogers, J.

    1993-01-01

    Public support for the nuclear industry appears to be growing in the UK at a time when environmental awareness is also prominent. Perceived advantages from nuclear power range from conservation of scare fossil reserves through to maintaining a worldwide technical competitiveness. Within the UK, the Sellafield Visitors Centre has proved to be a large tourist attraction, as well as successfully presenting information in a form that is easy to understand. (author)

  13. Understanding academic clinicians' varying attitudes toward the treatment of childhood obesity in Canada: a descriptive qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Karen; Pemberton, Julia; Frankfurter, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    This qualitative study aims to understand academic physicians' attitudes towards the treatment of pediatric obesity in Canada. A stratified sample of 24 participants (surgeons, pediatricians, family practitioners) were recruited from 4 Canadian regions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and transcribed. A codebook was developed through iterative data reduction and conceptual saturation ensured. Validity was ensured through triangulation, audit trail, and member-checking. This study revealed 45 themes with regional, specialty, and experiential differences. Quebec and Ontario emphasized education of physicians and parents to improve treatment and favored surgical intervention. Half of surgeons felt surgery was the only successful treatment option, while non-surgeons favored behavioral interventions. Experienced physicians in Western Canada desired more evidence to improve patient care, while inexperienced physicians focused on early detection and home environments. Across Canada participants advocated for program development and system change. Respondents expressed family involvement as integral to treatment success and shifting away from blame and moving towards a healthy lifestyles approach. Canadian regional differences in physicians' attitudes towards pediatric obesity treatment exist, influenced by experience and specialty. We will understand how themes identified in this study influence real life clinical decision making by applying these results to create a discrete choice-based conjoint survey. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 'From fragmented to interdisciplinary understanding of integrated antenatal and postnatal care'-an interprofessional project between public health nursing students and midwifery students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Ingvild; Olufsen, Vibeke

    2014-03-01

    in Norway, it is expected that public health nurses and midwives will collaborate in providing integrated antenatal and postnatal care. In practice, however, the extent of formal and informal collaboration between these two groups of health professionals appears limited. In this context, an interprofessional project was initiated, bringing together student public health nurses and midwives in a four-step programme. The objective was to develop the students' understanding of interdisciplinary collaboration in antenatal and postnatal care. to gain knowledge of the students' experiences of the interprofessional project and their interdisciplinary understanding of integrated antenatal and postnatal care. the students wrote reflective notes on their experiences, and this qualitative material was analysed through systematic text condensation. the students gained awareness about each professional group's competence and responsibilities. They developed an interdisciplinary understanding, which is essential for continuity in antenatal and postnatal care. Changes in knowledge and attitudes during the project helped to develop the students' positive attitude towards future interdisciplinary collaborative practice. the success of this project was due to the students' experiences during the four-step programme. They developed an interdisciplinary understanding in which loyalty to the family was more important than interprofessional disputes and boundaries. To enhance collaboration between the two professions it is essential that this programme is emphasised by the management and is integrated into the curriculum for both educational programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubairu Iliyasu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6% reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P <0.05. Most respondents, 303 (79.1%, were willing to donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88, marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1, religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10 and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35 were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%, children (21.3%, spouses (14.6% and other relatives (13.4%. Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%, moral obligation (21.4% and compassion (11.9%, among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation.

  16. Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Lawan, Umar M; Abubakar, Mustapha; Adamu, Bappa

    2014-01-01

    Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF) requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6%) reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88), marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1), religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10) and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35) were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%), children (21.3%), spouses (14.6%) and other relatives (13.4%). Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%), moral obligation (21.4%) and compassion (11.9%), among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation.

  17. The swine flu vaccine, public attitudes, and researcher interpretations: a systematic review of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire

    2016-06-24

    During pandemics, health authorities may be uncertain about the spread and severity of the disease and the effectiveness and safety of available interventions. This was the case during the swine flu (H1N1) pandemic of 2009-2010, and governments were forced to make decisions despite these uncertainties. While many countries chose to implement wide scale vaccination programmes, few accomplished their vaccination goals. Many research studies aiming to explore barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake have been conducted in the aftermath of the pandemic, including several qualitative studies. 1. To explore public attitudes to the swine flu vaccine in different countries through a review of qualitative primary studies. 2. To describe and discuss the implications drawn by the primary study authors. Systematic review of qualitative research studies, using a broadly comparative cross case-study approach. Study quality was appraised using an adaptation of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) quality assessment tool. The review indicates that the public had varying opinions about disease risk and prevalence and had concerns about vaccine safety. Most primary study authors concluded that participants were uninformed, and that more information about the disease and the vaccine would have led to an increase in vaccine uptake. We find these conclusions problematic. We suggest instead that people's questions and concerns were legitimate given the uncertainties of the situation at the time and the fact that the authorities did not have the necessary information to convince the public. Our quality assessment of the included studies points to a lack of reflexivity and a lack of information about study context. We suggest that these study weaknesses are tied to primary study authors' lack of acknowledgement of the uncertainties surrounding the disease and the vaccine. While primary study authors suggest that authorities could increase vaccine uptake through increased

  18. Public Opinion on Organ Donation After Death and Its Influence on Attitudes Toward Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijing, Luo; Wenzhao, Xie; Wei, Wei; Qiquan, Wan; Xuantong, Deng

    2016-08-18

    BACKGROUND China officially launched a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death to overcome the shortage of available organs since 2011. Voluntary organ donation by deceased citizens became the only source of transplant organs beginning January 1, 2015. To investigate public opinions on organ donation by deceased donors, and discuss the effect of these opinions on the willingness and attitude of the public regarding voluntary organ donation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We designed a questionnaire. The survey was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in Changsha City, and 417 valid questionnaires were recovered. RESULTS A total of 162 respondents explicitly expressed a willingness to donate organs, and 269 believed that the organ donors' relatives should be compensated. A total of 255 respondents thought it acceptable to complete the donation-consent form when receiving a driver's license. Among the respondents, 65.3% did not agree with the statement "My body is bestowed by my parents, and to donate my body parts would not display filial respect"; 88.9% agreed that "It is necessary to consider the willingness of my family"; 74.4% agreed that "Donated organs have not been fairly and appropriately used; the wealthy and celebrities have been favored"; and 61.4% agreed that "Organ donation laws and regulations are not well developed, and organ donations will result in unnecessary difficulties." More than 80% believed that organ donation and transplantation extend life. CONCLUSIONS Public opinions on organ donation after death are associated with various factors, including traditional values, religious beliefs, compensation mechanisms, donor registration, institutional credibility, and ideals.

  19. Patient and public attitudes towards informed consent models and levels of awareness of Electronic Health Records in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Fiona; Papoutsi, Chrysanthi; Reed, Julie E; Marston, Cicely; Bell, Derek; Majeed, Azeem

    2015-04-01

    The development of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) forms an integral part of the information strategy for the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK, with the aim of facilitating health information exchange for patient care and secondary use, including research and healthcare planning. Implementing EHR systems requires an understanding of patient expectations for consent mechanisms and consideration of public awareness towards information sharing as might be made possible through integrated EHRs across primary and secondary health providers. To explore levels of public awareness about EHRs and to examine attitudes towards different consent models with respect to sharing identifiable and de-identified records for healthcare provision, research and planning. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered to adult patients and members of the public in primary and secondary care clinics in West London, UK in 2011. In total, 5331 individuals participated in the survey, and 3157 were included in the final analysis. The majority (91%) of respondents expected to be explicitly asked for consent for their identifiable records to be accessed for health provision, research or planning. Half the respondents (49%) did not expect to be asked for consent before their de-identified records were accessed. Compared with White British respondents, those from all other ethnic groups were more likely to anticipate their permission would be obtained before their de-identified records were used. Of the study population, 59% reported already being aware of EHRs before the survey. Older respondents and individuals with complex patterns of interaction with healthcare services were more likely to report prior awareness of EHRs. Individuals self-identifying as belonging to ethnic groups other than White British, and those with lower educational qualifications were less likely to report being aware of EHRs than White British respondents and respondents with degree-level education

  20. Patient and public attitudes towards informed consent models and levels of awareness of Electronic Health Records in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Fiona; Papoutsi, Chrysanthi; Reed, Julie E.; Marston, Cicely; Bell, Derek; Majeed, Azeem

    2015-01-01

    Background The development of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) forms an integral part of the information strategy for the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK, with the aim of facilitating health information exchange for patient care and secondary use, including research and healthcare planning. Implementing EHR systems requires an understanding of patient expectations for consent mechanisms and consideration of public awareness towards information sharing as might be made possible through integrated EHRs across primary and secondary health providers. Objectives To explore levels of public awareness about EHRs and to examine attitudes towards different consent models with respect to sharing identifiable and de-identified records for healthcare provision, research and planning. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered to adult patients and members of the public in primary and secondary care clinics in West London, UK in 2011. In total, 5331 individuals participated in the survey, and 3157 were included in the final analysis. Results The majority (91%) of respondents expected to be explicitly asked for consent for their identifiable records to be accessed for health provision, research or planning. Half the respondents (49%) did not expect to be asked for consent before their de-identified records were accessed. Compared with White British respondents, those from all other ethnic groups were more likely to anticipate their permission would be obtained before their de-identified records were used. Of the study population, 59% reported already being aware of EHRs before the survey. Older respondents and individuals with complex patterns of interaction with healthcare services were more likely to report prior awareness of EHRs. Individuals self-identifying as belonging to ethnic groups other than White British, and those with lower educational qualifications were less likely to report being aware of EHRs than White British respondents and

  1. Understanding Student Attitudes about Distance Education: The Importance of Excitement and Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Smidt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative study investigated student attitudes toward distance education at a midsized, mid-Atlantic state university in the United States. The research question was: Do feelings of excitement and fear moderate and/or mediate the relationship between online learning experiences and student opinions about the current state of online education, namely that institutions were pushing too much instruction online? Data was collected from students via an online survey. Findings suggested: (a students with online experience who were fearful of this learning mode were the most likely to report that their institutions were pushing too much online learning, (b regardless of online learning experience, students who were excited about this learning mode were less likely to think that their institutions were pushing too much online learning.

  2. Furthering better communication and understanding of nuclear issues through public education: a public school teacher's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danfelser, M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent reports of national commissions and study groups have pointed out that the American educational system is not meeting the needs of its students. Uniformly, the reports call for a new instructional focus designed to achieve the goal of ''universal scientific and technological literacy for citizenship.'' The population's inability to deal with numerous controversial science-related social issues forms the basis for this call for educational reform. Foremost on the list of science-related social issues are nuclear issues in general and the storage of nuclear waste in particular. The National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) 1983 publication ''Guidelines for Teaching Science Related Social Issues'' was designed to encourage stronger instructional emphasis on science-related social issues, and to provide social studies teachers with a rational and structure for the presentation of the issues. This paper discusses the dilemmas faced by educators who attempt to deal with science-related social issues. Also, it addresses the need for instructional materials in order to effectively address nuclear issues in the classroom

  3. The stigmatizing effect of visual media portrayals of obese persons on public attitudes: does race or gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; Heuer, Chelsea A

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obese persons are frequently stigmatized in news media. The present study is the first to systematically compare public reactions to positive and negative images of obese persons accompanying news reports on obesity (while manipulating gender and race of the target)and their effects on generalized attitudes and social distance toward obese persons. The authors conducted 3 randomized experimental studies using online surveys to assess public perceptions of positive versus stereotypical images of obese adults (who varied by gender and race) accompanying a neutral news report about obesity. The sample included 1,251 adults, who were recruited through a national survey panel during May of 2010. Participants who viewed negative, stereotypical images of obese targets increased social distance, antifat attitudes, and ratings of laziness and dislike toward obese persons, whereas positive, nonstereotypical images induced more positive attitudes. These findings remained consistent when accounting for sociodemographic variables. African American female obese targets portrayed in images evoked higher ratings of dislike and social distance compared with Caucasian targets, but ratings were similar for male and female targets. This study provides evidence that images of obese person accompanying written media influence public attitudes toward obese people, and may reinforce weight stigmatization if images contain stereotypical portrayals of obese persons. Implications for efforts to report about obesity in the news media are discussed.

  4. Free-Roaming Dogs in Nepal: Demographics, Health and Public Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massei, G; Fooks, A R; Horton, D L; Callaby, R; Sharma, K; Dhakal, I P; Dahal, U

    2017-02-01

    In Nepal, most dogs are free to roam and may transmit diseases to humans and animals. These dogs often suffer from malnutrition and lack basic health care. Minimal information is available about their demographics and about public attitudes concerning dogs and diseases. We carried out a study in Chitwan District (central Nepal), to collect baseline data on free-roaming owned dog demographics, assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of dog owners concerning dogs and rabies, evaluate rabies vaccination coverage and anthelmintic treatment of dogs, measure dogs' response to rabies vaccination and assess dog health through body condition scores and parasites. We conducted household interviews with owners of free-roaming female dogs (n = 60) and administered dogs with rabies vaccination and anthelmintics. Dog owners regularly fed free-roaming dogs but provided minimal health care; 42% of respondents did not claim ownership of the dog for which they provided care. We collected skin, faecal and blood samples for parasite identification and for measuring rabies virus-specific antibodies. Ninety-two per cent of dog owners were aware of the routes of rabies virus transmission, but only 35% described the correct post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) following a dog bite. Twenty-seven per cent of the dogs had measurable rabies virus-specific antibody titres and 14% had received anthelmintics in the previous year. Following rabies vaccination, 97% of dogs maintained an adequate antibody titre for ≥6 months. Most dogs appeared healthy, although haemoprotozoans, endoparasites and ectoparasites were identified in 12%, 73% and 40% of the dogs, respectively. Poor skin condition and parasite load were associated. Seventy-four per cent of the females had litters in 1 year (mean litter size = 4.5). Births occurred between September and February; we estimated 60% mortality in puppies. We concluded that vaccination coverage, PEP awareness and anthelmintic treatment should be

  5. Book Review: United by or Against Euroscepticism? An Assessment of Public Attitudes towards Europe in the Context of the Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ulman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Published as a collection of academic articles under the coordination of PhDs Alina Bârgăoanu, Loredana Radu and Diego Varela, the volume “United by or Against Euroscepticism? An Assessment of Public Attitudes towards Europe in the Context of the Crisis” draws a comprehensive image of the public attitudes concerning the European Union, with an emphasis on what has been known as Euroscepticism. Doubled by different perspectives and supported by multiple sources, the phenomenon is coloured in balanced tones from an unbiased light. Euroscepticism and the broader context of the leadership crisis in the EU are permanently mirrored in this book as a connection between the two is sought. The argumentation can be followed logically and chronologically, as it gradually unveils EU public support from the union level to the national level and from the beginning of the crisis towards its expected end.

  6. Does the recent intensification of nationalistic and xenophobic attitudes in Eastern European countries adversely affect public mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodziak, Andrzej; Różyk-Myrta, Alicja; Wolińska, Agnieszka

    2016-10-24

    The authors postulate that the recent intensification of the nationalist and xenophobic attitude in Poland and other Eastern European countries is detrimental to public mental health. The xenophobic attitude is accompanied by a higher incidence of anxiety and depression, disputes due to the polarization of opinions, a sense of embarrassment and a sense of contradictions with so-called Christian values, unfavorable demographic predictions and reduced life satisfaction. The authors attempt to describe the sequence of adverse events that led to the intensification of xenophobia and characterize the current state of public mental health in European countries. They formulate and propose possible actions which could counteract the consequences of that transformation. The actions which may be undertaken to counteract the deterioration of public mental health can be based on the recommendations of so-called 'positive psychology' and 'positive psychiatry' as well as the principles of strengthening local social capital.

  7. Polish society attitudes towards nuclear power, ionizing radiation applications and radioactive waste management (Report on public opinion polls)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, Stanislaw

    1999-01-01

    In Poland, during parliamentary debate on Foundations for the 'Polish energy policies up to 2010', the importance of public attitudes toward nuclear power has been recalled repeatedly in the context of the future development of nuclear power in Poland. In the governmental document, accepted by Polish Parliament on 1 January 1996, it has been stated that nuclear power plant construction is not foreseen up to the year 2010; nevertheless it has been assumed that the appraisals of the economic feasibility and of the public acceptance level for such investments will be conducted. Thus, the need for such assessments of public opinions and attitudes toward nuclear power has been recognized and accepted by the highest legislative power organ in Poland

  8. Museum Monsters and Victorious Viruses: Improving Public Understanding of Emerging Biomedical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Judy; Jee, Benjamin; Matuk, Camilla; McQuillan, Julia; Spiegel, Amy N.; Uttal, David

    2015-01-01

    Although microbes directly impact everyone's health, most people have limited knowledge about them. In this article, we describe a museum and media public education campaign aimed at helping diverse audiences better understand emerging knowledge about microbes and infectious disease. Funded primarily by the Science Education Partnership (SEPA) program of the National Institutes of Health, this campaign involved crosscutting programs designed to extend impacts throughout a broad public audience. PMID:26392634

  9. Informing people about radiation risks: a review of obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, V.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on informing people about radiation risks. The paper focuses on obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication. The paper concludes with a set of guidelines for communicating information about radiation risks to the public. The paper also includes an appendix that reviews the literature on one of the most important tools for communicating information about radiation risks: risk comparisons

  10. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumin, Xie; Woo, Stephanie Mu-Lian; Lei, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People’s Republic of China. PMID:24368880

  11. The Component Model of Infrastructure: A Practical Approach to Understanding Public Health Program Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia P.

    2014-01-01

    Functioning program infrastructure is necessary for achieving public health outcomes. It is what supports program capacity, implementation, and sustainability. The public health program infrastructure model presented in this article is grounded in data from a broader evaluation of 18 state tobacco control programs and previous work. The newly developed Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) addresses the limitations of a previous model and contains 5 core components (multilevel leadership, managed resources, engaged data, responsive plans and planning, networked partnerships) and 3 supporting components (strategic understanding, operations, contextual influences). The CMI is a practical, implementation-focused model applicable across public health programs, enabling linkages to capacity, sustainability, and outcome measurement. PMID:24922125

  12. Public Sharing and Understanding of Scientific Data - with the Illustration of Weather Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danna Shen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The sharing of scientific data is a problem that attracts worldwide attention. In answer, governments have started to establish many systems to provide the public with scientific data. However, sometimes the access does not consider the public's practical need but just stands as an "official" prototype. In this research, a questionnaire was devised to understand a Beijing citizen's practical need for scientific data and to explore the inconsistency between the needs of the public and the information published by the government. The research looks to find a more effective way to solve this problem.

  13. National character and communication. Attitude toward nuclear power plant and its public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Chikio; Morikawa, Shinichi.

    1994-01-01

    The attitude structure toward nuclear power plant is analyzed with the attitudes toward relevant matters, for example image for nuclear power, knowledge of nuclear power, attitudes toward energy and environment, anxiety about various matters, cognition of risk, social and political attitudes and Japanese national character. Six types are revealed, that is to say, indifference group (13%), strongly favorable group (11%), strongly unfavorable group (9%), fairly favorable group (12%), fairly unfavorable group (5%), and intermediate group (50%). Strongly favorable and unfavorable groups are similar in some points and different in other points, for they are both rational whereas the former is optimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and less interested in environmental problems, and the latter is pessimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and extremely sensitive to environmental problems. The intermediate group has so-called Japanese -like characteristics. It is shown that the emotional persuasion and that based on fact presentation are particularly desirable for this group. (author)

  14. National character and communication. Attitude toward nuclear power plant and its public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Chikio [Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tokyo (Japan); Morikawa, Shinichi

    1994-05-01

    The attitude structure toward nuclear power plant is analyzed with the attitudes toward relevant matters, for example image for nuclear power, knowledge of nuclear power, attitudes toward energy and environment, anxiety about various matters, cognition of risk, social and political attitudes and Japanese national character. Six types are revealed, that is to say, indifference group (13%), strongly favorable group (11%), strongly unfavorable group (9%), fairly favorable group (12%), fairly unfavorable group (5%), and intermediate group (50%). Strongly favorable and unfavorable groups are similar in some points and different in other points, for they are both rational whereas the former is optimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and less interested in environmental problems, and the latter is pessimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and extremely sensitive to environmental problems. The intermediate group has so-called Japanese -like characteristics. It is shown that the emotional persuasion and that based on fact presentation are particularly desirable for this group. (author)

  15. National character and communication. Attitude toward nuclear power plant and its public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Chikio [Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tokyo (Japan); Morikawa, Shinichi

    1995-10-01

    The attitude structure toward nuclear power plant is analyzed with the attitudes toward relevant matters, for example image for nuclear power, knowledge of nuclear power, attitudes toward energy and environment, anxiety about various matters, cognition of risk, social and political attitudes and Japanese national character. Six types are revealed, that is to say, indifference group (13%), strongly favorable group (11%), strongly unfavorable group (9%), fairly favorable group (12%), fairly unfavorable group (5%), and intermediate group (50%). Strongly favorable and unfavorable groups are similar in some points and different in other points, for they are both rational whereas the former is optimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and less interested in environmental problems, and the latter is pessimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and extremely sensitive to environmental problems. The intermediate group has so-called Japanese-like characteristics. It is shown that the emotional persuasion and that based on fact presentation are particularly desirable for this group. (author)

  16. The decline and rise of coronary heart disease: understanding public health catastrophism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David S; Greene, Jeremy A

    2013-07-01

    The decline of coronary heart disease mortality in the United States and Western Europe is one of the great accomplishments of modern public health and medicine. Cardiologists and cardiovascular epidemiologists have devoted significant effort to disease surveillance and epidemiological modeling to understand its causes. One unanticipated outcome of these efforts has been the detection of early warnings that the decline had slowed, plateaued, or even reversed. These subtle signs have been interpreted as evidence of an impending public health catastrophe. This article traces the history of research on coronary heart disease decline and resurgence and situates it in broader narratives of public health catastrophism. Juxtaposing the coronary heart disease literature alongside the narratives of emerging and reemerging infectious disease helps to identify patterns in how public health researchers create data and craft them into powerful narratives of progress or pessimism. These narratives, in turn, shape public health policy.

  17. Using UV photoaged photography to better understand Western Australian teenagers' attitudes towards adopting sun-protective behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Myra F; Westbrook, Dominique; Chang, Paul

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the viewing of a personal photoaged photograph had the capacity to alter Western Australian teenagers' pro-tanning attitudes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen teenagers. The teenagers' pro-tanning attitudes prior to viewing their photoaged photograph are encapsulated in the study's central theme: 'You've got to look after your skin and use sunscreen, but I always forget!'. Post-viewing their photoaged facial image many teenagers reiterated their intentions to adopt (when they remembered) skin-protective measures. However, photoaged photography did not alter other teenagers' intention to tan. NEW KNOWLEDGE: Teenagers who choose to continue to tan were aware of the long-term health risks associated with ultra-violet over-exposure. However, their desire remained strong to emulate the media promoted image of bronzed youth being popular individuals. Indeed, the social benefits of being considered attractive to their peers became an attitudinal barrier to the teenagers' adoption of skin-protective behaviours. Those teenagers who changed their pro-tanning attitudes following their viewing of their ultra-violet photoaged photograph did so because of the shock they received when they saw their sun-damaged facial image. This suggests that photoageing photography can be effective with many adolescents because it reduces the cause-and-effect delay that exists between the occurrence of sun-damage and its visual presentation in later-life. Greater effort needs to be focused on increasing teenagers' understanding of how sun-damage occurs, when it is appropriate to apply sunscreen, as well as in changing the prevailing media image of an attractive body being a tanned body.

  18. Business Process Re-engineering in Saudi Arabia: A Survey of Understanding and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This survey was conducted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA to investigate the level of awareness of BPR. Respondents (customers, employees, and Managers had different educational backgrounds and were from private and public sectors. Findings of the study indicate a general awareness of BPR in KSA.

  19. Understanding Death Attitudes: The Integration of Movies, Positive Psychology, and Meaning Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Ryan M.; Schulenberg, Stefan E.

    2011-01-01

    The portrayal of death is one of the most common themes in movies and is often unrealistic, promoting misconceptions to the public. However, there are also many films that portray death acceptance in an instructive way. Such films depict the development of character strengths useful in embracing life and lessening death anxiety, namely zest,…

  20. Test - retest reliability of two instruments for measuring public attitudes towards persons with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leufstadius Christel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has identified stigmatization as a major threat to successful treatment of individuals with mental illness. As a consequence several anti-stigma campaigns have been carried out. The results have been discouraging and the field suffers from lack of evidence about interventions that work. There are few reports on psychometric data for instruments used to assess stigma, which thus complicates research efforts. The aim of the present study was to investigate test-retest reliability of the Swedish versions of the questionnaires: FABI and "Changing Minds" and to examine the internal consistency of the two instruments. Method Two instruments, fear and behavioural intentions (FABI and "Changing Minds", used in earlier studies on public attitudes towards persons with mental illness were translated into Swedish and completed by 51 nursing students on two occasions, with an interval of three weeks. Test-retest reliability was calculated by using weighted kappa coefficient and internal consistency using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results Both instruments attain at best moderate test-retest reliability. For the Changing Minds questionnaire almost one fifth (17.9% of the items present poor test-retest reliability and the alpha coefficient for the subscales ranges between 0.19 - 0.46. All of the items in the FABI reach a fair or a moderate agreement between the test and retest, and the questionnaire displays a high internal consistency, alpha 0.80. Conclusions There is a need for development of psychometrically tested instruments within this field of research.

  1. Public Attitudes on the Ethics of Deceptively Planting False Memories to Motivate Healthy Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Robert A; Berkowitz, Shari R; Roche, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that planting false memories could have positive behavioral consequences. The idea of deceptively planting 'beneficial' false memories outside of the laboratory raises important ethical questions, but how might the general public appraise this moral dilemma? In two studies, participants from the USA and UK read about a fictional 'false-memory therapy' that led people to adopt healthy behaviors. Participants then reported their attitudes toward the acceptability of this therapy, via scale-rating (both studies) and open-text (study 2) responses. The data revealed highly divergent responses to this contentious issue, ranging from abject horror to unqualified enthusiasm. Moreover, the responses shed light on conditions that participants believed would make the therapy less or more ethical. Whether or not deceptively planting memories outside the lab could ever be justifiable, these studies add valuable evidence to scientific and societal debates on neuroethics, whose relevance to memory science is increasingly acute. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Public Attitudes on the Ethics of Deceptively Planting False Memories to Motivate Healthy Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Shari R.; Roche, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Summary Researchers have proposed that planting false memories could have positive behavioral consequences. The idea of deceptively planting ‘beneficial’ false memories outside of the laboratory raises important ethical questions, but how might the general public appraise this moral dilemma? In two studies, participants from the USA and UK read about a fictional ‘false‐memory therapy’ that led people to adopt healthy behaviors. Participants then reported their attitudes toward the acceptability of this therapy, via scale‐rating (both studies) and open‐text (study 2) responses. The data revealed highly divergent responses to this contentious issue, ranging from abject horror to unqualified enthusiasm. Moreover, the responses shed light on conditions that participants believed would make the therapy less or more ethical. Whether or not deceptively planting memories outside the lab could ever be justifiable, these studies add valuable evidence to scientific and societal debates on neuroethics, whose relevance to memory science is increasingly acute. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Applied Cognitive Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28111495

  3. Public Knowledge and Attitude toward Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Tokat Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yilmaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The World health Organization (WHO declares Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fe­ver (CCHF endemic in Turkey. Despite the magnitude of problem, no documented evi­dence exists in Turkey, which reveals the aware­ness and practices of the country's adult popula­tion regarding CCHF, its spread, symptoms, treatment, and preven­tion. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding CCHF in people visit­ing terti­ary care hospital in Tokat, Turkey."nMethods: This questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients' rela­tives or guardians who ad­mitted pediatric outpatient clinics during May-July 2008. The question­naire was composed of 25 questions."nResults: A total of 1034 respondents participated in the survey. Sufficient knowledge about CCHF was not found in 28.9% of the sample. Literate individuals were relatively better informed about CCHF as compared to the illiterate peo­ple. Television and radio were con­sidered as the most important and useful source of information on the disease."nConclusion: We have found insufficient knowledge on CCHF in our population. It is thought to have no chance of suc­cess against a fatal disease such as CCHF, which has serious consequences, without the contribution of commu­nity. It is clear that there are important tasks for health, agri­culture, and media sectors to improve public knowledge and awareness about CCHF. "n Keywords: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Public knowledge, Survey, Turkey

  4. Attitudes and relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo De Ferrari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The interaction between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry influences physicians' attitudes and prescribing behavior. Although largely studied in the US, this topic has not been well studied in resource-poor settings, where a close relationship between physicians and industry still exists. OBJECTIVE: To describe physician interactions with and attitudes towards the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study through an anonymous, self-filled questionnaire distributed among faculty and trainee physicians of five different clinical departments working in a Peruvian public general hospital. A transcultural validation of an existing Spanish questionnaire was performed. Exposure to marketing activities, motivations to contact pharmaceutical representatives and attitudes towards industry were studied. Collected data was analyzed by degree of training, clinical department, gender and teaching status. Attitudes were measured on a four-point LIKERT scale. RESULTS: 155 physicians completed the survey, of which 148 were included in the study sample. 94.5% of attending physicians reported ongoing encounters with pharmaceutical representatives. The most common industry-related activities were receiving medical samples (91.2%, promotional material (87.8% and attending meetings in restaurants (81.8%. Respondents considered medical samples and continuing medical education the most ethically acceptable benefits. We found significant differences between attendings and residents, and teaching and non-teaching attendings. An association between the amount of encounters with pharmaceutical representatives, and attitudes towards industry and acceptance of medical samples was found. CONCLUSIONS: A close physician-industry relationship exists in the population under study. The contact is established mainly through pharmaceutical representatives. Medical samples are the most received

  5. Nuclear power in China after Fukushima: understanding public knowledge, attitudes, and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand for energy, the past decade has seen the revitalization of nuclear power technologies and many countries adopting nuclear power as a priority strategy in their energy policy. However, Japan’s Fukushima nuclear crisis, following the tsunami on 11 March 2011, challenged

  6. Female public Jordanian university undergraduate students' intentions and attitudes toward breastfeeding: application of self-objectification theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Nahla; Hatamleh, Reem; Khader, Yousef

    2013-11-01

    Breastfeeding is the natural way of feeding infants and an important public health issue. Representation women as sexual objects by highlighting their bodies as mainly for the desire of men causes women to prioritise their physical appearance and internalise sexual objectification of their bodies. Such ideologies make women less comfortable to accept other functions of their bodies such as the reproductive functions, including breastfeeding and childbirth. To describe, in a sample of female undergraduate students, attitudes toward breastfeeding, level of self-objectification and to examine whether women's attitudes and the intention of breastfeeding is related to the level of self-objectification. An exploratory, cross-sectional design was used. All female undergraduate university students, attending a large university in the Northern part of Jordan were eligible to participate. A convenience sample of 600 female students from both health professional and non-health professional schools were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire designed to collect data on students' intentions and attitudes toward breastfeeding and self-objectification, with a response rate of 82.6% (n=496). Ethical approval was obtained from the Scientific Research Board of the Jordan University of Science and Technology prior to the start of the study. The majority of the students gave favourable responses towards the attitude statements and reported a commitment to breastfeeding Students' attitudes toward breastfeeding correlated significantly with self-objectification. Participants with negative attitudes towards breastfeeding were more likely to internalise and accept the socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance (r = -0.098, p = 0.029). Participants' intention to breastfeed correlated negatively with self-objectification and those who intended to breastfeed were more likely to reject the socio-cultural attitudes towards the "apearance" subscale (r = 0.097, p = 0.031). The

  7. Possible Biases of Researchers' Attitudes Toward Video Games: Publication Trends Analysis of the Medical Literature (1980-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Aviv; Rovner, Mitchell; Appel, David Ian; Abrams, Aaron W; Rotem, Michal; Bloch, Yuval

    2016-07-18

    The study of video games is expanding, and so is the debate regarding their possible positive and deleterious effects. As controversies continue, several researchers have expressed their concerns about substantial biases existing in the field, which might lead to the creation of a skewed picture, both in the professional and in the lay literature. However, no study has tried to examine this issue quantitatively. The objective of our study was to examine possible systematic biases in the literature, by analyzing the publication trends of the medical and life sciences literature regarding video games. We performed a complete and systematic PubMed search up to December 31, 2013. We assessed all 1927 articles deemed relevant for their attitude toward video games according to the focus, hypothesis, and authors' interpretation of the study results, using a 3-category outcome (positive, negative, and neutral). We assessed the prevalence of different attitudes for possible association with year of publication, location of researchers, academic discipline, methodological research, and centrality of the publishing journals. The attitude toward video games presented in publications varied by year of publication, location, academic discipline, and methodological research applied (Pvideo games. Readers, both lay and professional, should weigh these contextual variables when interpreting studies' results, in light of the possible bias they carry. The results also support a need for a more balanced, open-minded approach toward video games, as it is likely that this complex phenomenon carries novel opportunities as well as new hazards.

  8. Possible Biases of Researchers’ Attitudes Toward Video Games: Publication Trends Analysis of the Medical Literature (1980–2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Mitchell; Appel, David Ian; Abrams, Aaron W; Rotem, Michal; Bloch, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of video games is expanding, and so is the debate regarding their possible positive and deleterious effects. As controversies continue, several researchers have expressed their concerns about substantial biases existing in the field, which might lead to the creation of a skewed picture, both in the professional and in the lay literature. However, no study has tried to examine this issue quantitatively. Objective The objective of our study was to examine possible systematic biases in the literature, by analyzing the publication trends of the medical and life sciences literature regarding video games. Methods We performed a complete and systematic PubMed search up to December 31, 2013. We assessed all 1927 articles deemed relevant for their attitude toward video games according to the focus, hypothesis, and authors’ interpretation of the study results, using a 3-category outcome (positive, negative, and neutral). We assessed the prevalence of different attitudes for possible association with year of publication, location of researchers, academic discipline, methodological research, and centrality of the publishing journals. Results The attitude toward video games presented in publications varied by year of publication, location, academic discipline, and methodological research applied (Pvideo games. Readers, both lay and professional, should weigh these contextual variables when interpreting studies’ results, in light of the possible bias they carry. The results also support a need for a more balanced, open-minded approach toward video games, as it is likely that this complex phenomenon carries novel opportunities as well as new hazards. PMID:27430187

  9. Public attitudes to organ donation among a sample of urban-dwelling South African adults: a 2012 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheredge, H R; Turner, R E; Kahn, D

    2013-01-01

    Published literature suggests that attitudes toward organ donation in South Africa are generally positive. However, there has been a decline in the actual number of transplants taking place annually, which is not consistent with expressed positive attitudes. Assess the attitudes of a representative sample of the urban-dwelling South African population toward organ donation and how these might affect transplant numbers. A structured questionnaire was utilized to measure attitudes among a study population of 1048 adults in five major metropolitan areas of South Africa. Field work was undertaken by supervised field workers. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Eighty-nine percent (89%) of respondents had heard of organ donation, and 77% indicated that they would accept an organ transplant if necessary. Seventy percent (70%) of respondents specified they would be willing to donate their own organs after death, while 67% expressed willingness to donate a relative's organs after death. Participants were more positive about kidney donation than any other organ. Public attitudes toward organ donation among this population are generally positive. Recommendations include cultural and linguistic sensitivity in educational and advertising campaigns, as well as extensive research into other possible causes of organ shortage. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Public understandings of nature: a case study of local knowledge about "natural" forest conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Hull; David P. Robertson; Angelina Kendra

    2001-01-01

    This study is intended to serve as an explicit and specific example of the social construction of nature. It is motivated by the need to develop a more sophisticated language for a critical public dialogue about society's relationship with nature. We conducted a case study of environmental discourse in one local population in hopes of better understanding how a...

  11. Public Understanding of Cognitive Neuroscience Research Findings: Trying to Peer beyond Enchanted Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzer, Tina A.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…

  12. Models of Understanding: Historical Constructions of Breast Cancer in Medicine and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The era of technical and scientific progress ushered in with the twentieth century brought new medical knowledge such as the Halstead 'radical' mastectomy, which promised a cure for breast cancer. These advances in medical knowledge were premised on an epidemiological model of disease, which shaped the treatment and public understanding of breast…

  13. 76 FR 77115 - Amendments to the Export Administration Regulations: Facilitating Enhanced Public Understanding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ..., and 774 [Docket No. 110627356-1475-01] RIN 0694-AF29 Amendments to the Export Administration Regulations: Facilitating Enhanced Public Understanding of the Provisions That Implement the Comprehensive U.S... rule, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by...

  14. Understanding Quality in Context: Child Care Centers, Communities, Markets, and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohacek, Monica; Adams, Gina C.; Kisker, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Early care and education can prepare children for school, but while some preschool and child care programs do an excellent job, others are inadequate and some may even harm healthy development. This study focuses on child care center directors to better understand why there is so much variation, and how public initiatives can better help…

  15. Why should I care? Engaging students in conceptual understanding using global context to develop social attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, S. E.; Welstead, C.; Pritchard, M.

    2014-12-01

    A glance through the Harvard Business Review reveals many suggestions and research pieces reviewing sales and marketing techniques. Most educators will be familiar with the notion that making accurate first impressions and being responsive, whilst maintaining pace is critical to engaging an audience. There are lessons to be learnt from industry that can significantly impact upon our teaching. Eisenkraft, in his address to the NSTA, proposed four essential questions. This presentation explores one of those questions: 'Why should I care?', and discusses why this question is crucial for engaging students by giving a clear purpose for developing their scientific understanding. Additionally, this presentation explores how The ISF Academy has adapted the NGSS, using the 14 Grand Engineering Challenges and the IB MYP, to provide current, authentic global contexts, in order to give credibility to the concepts, understandings and skills being learnt. The provision of global contexts across units and within lessons supports a platform for students to have the freedom to explore their own sense of social responsibility. The Science Department believes that planning lessons with tasks that elaborate on the student's new conceptualisations, has helped to transfer the student's new understanding into social behavior beyond the classroom. Furthermore, extension tasks have been used to transfer conceptual understanding between different global contexts.

  16. Do Students Understand Our Course Structure? Implications for Important Classroom Attitudes and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elicker, Joelle D.; Foust, Michelle Singer; Perry, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of a course's structure may influence how well students understand what is expected of them. Using the foundation of the industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology literature, the authors modified a measure of "Perceived System Knowledge" (Williams & Levy, 1992) for employee performance appraisal to be appropriate for…

  17. Alcohol, liver disease, and transplantation: shifting attitudes and new understanding leads to changes in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathurin, Philippe; Lucey, Michael R

    2018-04-01

    Review the current status of liver transplantation for patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) will increase as a source of patients requiring liver transplantation. Attitudes to use of liver transplantation as rescue therapy for patients with severe alcohol-related hepatitis are changing. The long-term health of ALD liver transplantation recipients requires continued assistance to patients with AUD. Liver transplantation of patients with ALD increased during the last decade and we predict that this trend will continue because of the decline in the number of hepatitis C virus-infected candidates. Concomitantly, a shift in the selection for liver transplantation has occurred of patients with severe alcohol-related hepatitis not responding to medical therapy. Although rescue liver transplantation is a valuable option for patients with severe alcohol-related hepatitis, worldwide practice regarding rescue liver transplantation remains very heterogeneous. There is increasing recognition that excessive consumption of alcohol after liver transplantation is harmful to graft function and patient survival. Factors associated with relapse are younger age at liver transplantation and shorter duration of sobriety prior to liver transplantation. The long-term health of the ALD liver transplant recipient requires continued assistance regarding AUD, a lifelong disorder of craving, relapse, and remission. However, there have been very few studies evaluating best practices for long-term addiction care in transplant recipients. After liver transplantation, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, infections, and cancer increases over time. Addiction to tobacco constitutes an important issue that must be considered as tobacco cessation may decrease the incidence of tobacco-related cardiovascular and lung disease and aerodigestive cancers.

  18. Public Understanding of Science in turbulent times III: Deficit to dialogue, champions to critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallman, Melanie

    2016-02-01

    As part of the 20th Anniversary of the Public Understanding of Science journal, the journal has been reflecting on how the field and journal have developed. This research note takes a closer look at some of the trends, considering the journal's 50 most cited papers and using IRaMuTeQ, an open-source computer text analysis technique. The research note presents data that show that the move within public engagement from deficit to dialogue has been followed by a further shift from championing dialogue to criticising its practice. This shift has taken place alongside a continued, but changing, interest in media coverage, surveys and models of public understanding. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Experimental public speaking: contributions to the understanding of the serotonergic modulation of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Leal, Cybele; Graeff, Frederico Guilherme; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta

    2014-10-01

    Public speaking is widely used as a model of experimental fear and anxiety. This review aimed to evaluate the effects of pharmacological challenges on public speaking responses and their implications for the understanding of the neurobiology of normal and pathological anxiety, specifically panic disorder. We also describe methodological features of experimental paradigms using public speaking as an inducer of fear and stress. Public speaking is a potent stressor that can provoke significant subjective and physiological responses. However, variations in the manners in which public speaking is modelled can lead to different responses that need to be considered when interpreting the results. Results from pharmacological studies with healthy volunteers submitted to simulated public speaking tests have similarities with the pharmacological responses of panic patients observed in clinical practice and panic patients differ from controls in the response to the public speaking test. These data are compatible with the Deakin and Graeff hypothesis that serotonin inhibits fear, as accessed by public speaking tasks, and that this inhibition is likely related to the actions of serotonin in the dorsal periaqueductal grey matter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Qualitative Study of Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Implications for Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissland, James H.; Munger, Richard

    Efforts to foster mental health care in society have always been hampered by the stigma attached to mental illness. To identify differential patterns of attitude hierarchies among people who live in or provide mental health services in a typical urban area, 54 adults participated in a Q methodology study of their attitudes toward mental illness.…

  1. Understanding Situated Social Interactions: A Case Study of Public Places in the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paay, Jeni; Kjeldskov, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    these and their situated interactions. In response, this paper addresses the challenge of informing design of mobile services for fostering social connections by using the concept of place for studying and understanding peoples’ social activities in a public built environment. We present a case study of social experience...... of a physical place providing an understanding of peoples’ situated social interactions in public places of the city derived through a grounded analysis of small groups of friends socialising out on the town. Informed by this, we describe the design and evaluation of a mobile prototype system facilitating......Ubiquitous and mobile computer technologies are increasingly being appropriated to facilitate people’s social life outside the work domain. Designing such social and collaborative technologies requires an understanding of peoples’ physical and social context, and the interplay between...

  2. Biobanking for research: a survey of patient population attitudes and understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Rahm, Alanna Kulchak; Wrenn, Michelle; Carroll, Nikki M.; Feigelson, Heather Spencer

    2013-01-01

    Population-based biobanks are a critical resource for genetic research. It is important to know what potential participants understand about the risks and benefits of providing samples in order to ensure adequate informed consent. Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO) is currently planning a biobank where adult members would be asked to contribute an additional tube of blood during a routine blood draw. Adult KPCO members in clinic waiting rooms were asked to read an informational brochure and in...

  3. Developing Public Health Initiatives through Understanding Motivations of the Audience at Mass-Gathering Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Alison; Ranse, Jamie; Munn, Matthew Brendan

    2018-04-01

    This report identifies what is known about audience motivations at three different mass-gathering events: outdoor music festivals, religious events, and sporting events. In light of these motivations, the paper discusses how these can be harnessed by the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services. Lastly, motivations tell what kinds of interventions can be used to achieve an understanding of audience characteristics and the opportunity to develop tailor-made programs to maximize safety and make long-lasting public health interventions to a particular "cohort" or event population. A lot of these will depend on what the risks/hazards are with the particular populations in order to "target" them with public health interventions. Audience motivations tell the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services about the types of behaviors they should expect from the audience and how this may affect their health while at the event. Through these understandings, health promotion and event safety messages can be developed for a particular type of mass-gathering event based on the likely composition of the audience in attendance. Health promotion and providing public information should be at the core of any mass-gathering event to minimize public health risk and to provide opportunities for the promotion of healthy behaviors in the local population. Audience motivations are a key element to identify and agree on what public health information is needed for the event audience. A more developed understanding of audience behavior provides critical information for event planners, event risk managers, and Emergency Medical Services personnel to better predict and plan to minimize risk and reduce patient presentations at events. Mass-gathering event organizers and designers intend their events to be positive experiences and to have meaning for those who attend. Therefore, continual vigilance to improve public health effectiveness and efficiency can become best practice at events

  4. Comparison of attitudes toward disability and people with disability among caregivers, the public, and people with disability: findings from a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaolan Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A negative attitude toward disability is one of the potential barriers for people with disability (PWD to achieve social equality. Although numerous studies have investigated attitudes toward disability, few have evaluated personal attitudes toward disability among PWD, and made comparisons with attitudes of healthy respondents. This study was to investigate and compare the attitudes of PWD, caregivers, and the public toward disability and PWD in China, to identify discrepancies in attitude among the three groupsand to examine potential influencing factors of attitude within each group. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2912 PWD, 507 caregivers, and 354 members of the public in Guangzhou, China. Data were collected on participants’ socio-demographic information and personal attitudes toward disability using the Attitude to Disability Scale (ADS. ANOVA and ANCOVA were applied to compare the level of attitude among the three groups. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between each background factor and attitude within each group. Results Over 90 % of caregivers were PWD’s family members. After controlling the socio-demographic characteristics, caregivers had the lowest total scores of ADS (caregivers: 47.7; PWD: 52.3; the public: 50.5. Caregivers who had taken care of PWD for longer durations of time had a more negative attitude toward disability. In contrast, PWD who had been disabled for longer times had a more positive attitude toward disability. Conclusions The current national social security system of China does not adequately support PWD’s family-member caregivers who may need assistance coping with their life with PWDs. More research is needed, and the development of a new health-care model for PWD is warranted.

  5. Understanding the organization of public health delivery systems: an empirical typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Glen P; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Bhandari, Michelyn W; Smith, Sharla A

    2010-03-01

    Policy discussions about improving the U.S. health care system increasingly recognize the need to strengthen its capacities for delivering public health services. A better understanding of how public health delivery systems are organized across the United States is critical to improvement. To facilitate the development of such evidence, this article presents an empirical method of classifying and comparing public health delivery systems based on key elements of their organizational structure. This analysis uses data collected through a national longitudinal survey of local public health agencies serving communities with at least 100,000 residents. The survey measured the availability of twenty core public health activities in local communities and the types of organizations contributing to each activity. Cluster analysis differentiated local delivery systems based on the scope of activities delivered, the range of organizations contributing, and the distribution of effort within the system. Public health delivery systems varied widely in organizational structure, but the observed patterns of variation suggested that systems adhere to one of seven distinct configurations. Systems frequently migrated from one configuration to another over time, with an overall trend toward offering a broader scope of services and engaging a wider range of organizations. Public health delivery systems exhibit important structural differences that may influence their operations and outcomes. The typology developed through this analysis can facilitate comparative studies to identify which delivery system configurations perform best in which contexts.

  6. Track leading to decision of 'framework for nuclear energy policy'. Reading the public attitude with public opinions (the first). Contents of a new plan (as of June 2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The Government decides to respect the 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy', which was decided by the Atomic Energy Commission on October 11th, 2005, as a basic principle for the nuclear energy policy and promote research, development and utilization of nuclear science and engineering. The Planning Council asked public opinion and received 758 opinions from 393 citizens. The Council continued the deliberation taking these opinions and compiled a preliminary draft of the 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy'. Reading the public attitude with public opinions had been conducted by the author, which showed the necessity for the nation to communicate crucial issues such as the nation's role of nuclear program's implementation, reasons for further promotion of nuclear program and its impacts on environments as well as more preferable introduction of new energy or energy conservation in stead of nuclear power, more to the public. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Abuse of disabled parking: Reforming public's attitude through persuasive multimedia strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya, W A J W; Zain, M Z M

    2014-01-01

    Attitude is one of the factors that contribute to the abuse of disabled parking. The attitude's components are affective, cognitive and behavioral and may be formed in various ways including learning and persuasion. Using learning and persuasion approach, this study has produced a persuasive multimedia aiming to form a positive attitude toward disabled persons in order to minimize the rate of disabled parking abuse. The persuasive multimedia was developed using Principle of Social Learning draws from Persuasive Technology as learning strategy at macro persuasion level, and modality and redundancy principles draw from Multimedia Learning Principles as design strategy at micro persuasion level. In order to measure the effectiveness of the persuasive multimedia, 93 respondents were selected in a 2 × 2 quasi experimental research design for experiment. Attitude components of affective, cognitive and behavioral were measured using adapted instrument from the Multi Dimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons With Disabilities (MAS). Result of the study shows that the persuasive multimedia which designed based on Social Learning Theory at macro persuasion level is capable of forming positive attitude toward disabled person. The cognitive component of the attitude found to be the most responsive component. In term of design strategy at the micro persuasion level, modality found to be the most significant strategy compare to redundancy. While males are more responsive to the persuasive multimedia compare to females

  8. Abuse of disabled parking: Reforming public's attitude through persuasive multimedia strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, W. A. J. W.; Zain, M. Z. M.

    2014-02-01

    Attitude is one of the factors that contribute to the abuse of disabled parking. The attitude's components are affective, cognitive and behavioral and may be formed in various ways including learning and persuasion. Using learning and persuasion approach, this study has produced a persuasive multimedia aiming to form a positive attitude toward disabled persons in order to minimize the rate of disabled parking abuse. The persuasive multimedia was developed using Principle of Social Learning draws from Persuasive Technology as learning strategy at macro persuasion level, and modality and redundancy principles draw from Multimedia Learning Principles as design strategy at micro persuasion level. In order to measure the effectiveness of the persuasive multimedia, 93 respondents were selected in a 2 × 2 quasi experimental research design for experiment. Attitude components of affective, cognitive and behavioral were measured using adapted instrument from the Multi Dimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons With Disabilities (MAS). Result of the study shows that the persuasive multimedia which designed based on Social Learning Theory at macro persuasion level is capable of forming positive attitude toward disabled person. The cognitive component of the attitude found to be the most responsive component. In term of design strategy at the micro persuasion level, modality found to be the most significant strategy compare to redundancy. While males are more responsive to the persuasive multimedia compare to females.

  9. Public Knowledge and Attitude toward Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Tokat Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yilmaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World health Organization (WHO declares Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fe­ver (CCHF endemic in Turkey. Despite the magnitude of problem, no documented evi­dence exists in Turkey, which reveals the aware­ness and practices of the country's adult popula­tion regarding CCHF, its spread, symptoms, treatment, and preven­tion. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding CCHF in people visit­ing terti­ary care hospital in Tokat, Turkey.Methods: This questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients' rela­tives or guardians who ad­mitted pediatric outpatient clinics during May-July 2008. The question­naire was composed of 25 questions.Results: A total of 1034 respondents participated in the survey. Sufficient knowledge about CCHF was not found in 28.9% of the sample. Literate individuals were relatively better informed about CCHF as compared to the illiterate peo­ple. Television and radio were con­sidered as the most important and useful source of information on the disease.Conclusion: We have found insufficient knowledge on CCHF in our population. It is thought to have no chance of suc­cess against a fatal disease such as CCHF, which has serious consequences, without the contribution of commu­nity. It is clear that there are important tasks for health, agri­culture, and media sectors to improve public knowledge and awareness about CCHF.

  10. Understanding Attitudes and Pro-Environmental Behaviors in a Chilean Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás C. Bronfman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection and restoration are some of the major challenges faced by our society. To address this problem, it is fundamental to understand pro-environmental behaviors in the population, as well as the factors that determine them. There are, however, very few studies conducted in Latin America that are focused in understanding the environmental behavior of its citizens. The main goal of this research was to study the environmental behaviors of a Chilean community and identify the factors that determine them. To that end, a diverse set of environmental behaviors (power and water conservation, environmentally-aware consumer behavior, biodiversity protection, rational automobile use and ecological waste management and sociodemographic and attitudinal factors—based on the VBN model—were evaluated. Survey data was obtained from a statistically representative sample (N = 1537 in Santiago, Chile. Our results suggest that several participants displayed tendencies that favor more responsible environmental behaviors, with high environmental concern, and demonstrating their ample awareness of the consequences of failing to protect the environment. Nevertheless, the highest average scores of environmental behavior were related to low cost behaviors and those that imposed the fewest behavioral restrictions. In global terms, we concluded that the youngest subjects in the lowest socioeconomic group obtained the lowest scores across the pro-environmental behavior spectrum.

  11. The impact of an environmental health education intervention on the knowledge and attitudes of students of public health graduate programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron Martinez, Edna L.

    The principal aim of this study is to ascertain any changes, if any, in the level of environmental knowledge and attitudes among graduate students, after being exposed to a Core Course in Public Health that included Environmental Health topics, as compared with a group of students that did not take courses in said field. The investigation followed a quasi-experimental design. A questionnaire derived from, The Survey of Environmental Issue Attitudes and The New Environmental Paradigm Growth and Technology Scale, was distributed through a pre- and post-test method. The total sample consisted of 75 students of Graduate Programs in the University of Puerto Rico. Forty-one students (experimental group) were selected at random, while 34 students (control group) were chosen by availability. The results of this study showed that the education pursued in the field of Environmental Health had no significant effects on students, as to any changes in their attitudes toward the environment, as compared with the control group. Forty-nine of the students, that is, 65%, showed attitudes corresponding to a level of neutrality, which usually leads to egocentric attitudes. Significant differences were demonstrated, on a scale from 1 to 100, regarding the relative importance given to several issues, 8.82 points were scored for the topic of population control, 15.16 for the subject of water quality improvement, 14.59 for the deterring of global warming, and 13.97 for the improvement of air quality. As to the measurement of ecocentric attitudes there was a significant difference, p watch on television. One of the implications of this study is that the impact of environmental education on the learning-teaching processes, at the undergraduate and graduate level, must be reevaluated by academic institutions

  12. Impact of the TEPCO incident on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation. Periodic survey No.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Atsuko

    2003-01-01

    The impact of the TEPCO incident, was examined, using the data collected by public opinion polls on power generation, which have been conducted persistently since 1993. The survey revealed that there were no negative changes in the public's attitude overall (including their concerns about nuclear power accidents, their sense of danger of such accidents, the image of organizations involved in nuclear power generation, their confidence in such organizations, and their opinion on the use of nuclear power generation), and that the TEPCO incident had no impact on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation. In contrast with the JCO accident, which did affect the public's attitude to nuclear power generation, the TEPCO incident left a strong impression on few people, and public awareness was limited. Such low public awareness is deemed to relate to its lack of impact on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation. In the case of the JCO accident, even individuals who had limited exposure to the mass media were highly of it, whereas in the case of the TEPCO incident, individuals who were relatively unexposed to the mass media were substantially less aware of the incident than their more mass-media-exposed counterparts. This is deemed to have been due to the difference in mass media reports. A comparison of newspaper articles covering the TEPCO and the JCO accident substantiated the quantitative difference in mass media reports: articles on the former numbered less than half of the latter. Correlation analysis with respect to the awareness of the TEPCO incident was conducted, in order to identify the impact of the incident on individuals with a high level of awareness. Such individuals were highly confident that safe operation is being regarded as the top-priority objective by staff at the nuclear power plants, indicating that their confidence was not undermined by the TEPCO incident. However, there was a high level of distrust, that the truth about safety is

  13. Assessing Public Attitudes and Behaviour to Household Waste Management in Cameroon to Drive Strategy Development: A Q Methodological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence O. Mbeng

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Household waste is an environmental and public health problem, especially for the large cities in Sub-Saharan African countries. While the improper management of household waste in Cameroon is linked to the systematic failure of policy makers and municipal authorities to identify the most sustainable ways of dealing with it in such a manner that is in line is with their socio-economic aspirations, the impact of public attitudes and behaviour has been neglected. It is in this context that this paper uses Q-methodology, a powerful methodology for identifying the different trends in behaviour in the management of household waste in Douala, Cameroon.

  14. What is preventing relevant understanding of climate science in the public, media, and policy arenas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    We need to do a critical self examination of why the communication has thus far failed to sufficiently convey relevance in order to provide a basis for public and policy-maker understanding of the science. This session will focus on major impediments to communicating relevance and the foundations of climate science in two target audiences, those that are unsure, and those that have been misled. The question of 'why' is key. Considerations focus on social psychology and confluence effects that improve, or impede, climate communications and achievement of relevant understanding. Key components of human understanding require context in order to be addressed. Understanding these components form the basis for more effective climate communications.

  15. Job attitudes and well-being among public vs. private physicians: organizational justice and job control as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Kuusio, Hannamaria; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko

    2011-08-01

    The present study examined whether there are differences in job-related attitudes and well-being among physicians working in private sector and public sector. In addition, we examined whether psychosocial factors (organizational justice and job control) could mediate these possible differences in different sectors. Cross-sectional survey data from the Finnish Health Professional Study was used. A random sample of Finnish physicians included 1522 women and 1047 men aged 25-65 years. Outcome variables were job satisfaction, organizational commitment, psychological distress, work ability and sleeping problems. Job control and organizational justice were measured using established questionnaires. Series of regression analyses were performed and the mediational effects were tested following the procedures outlined by Baron and Kenny. Physicians working in private sector had higher levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment and lower levels of psychological distress and sleeping problems when compared with physicians working in public sector. Private physicians also had higher levels of organizational justice, which acted as a mediator behind more positive attitudes and better well-being in private sector. Private physicians had higher levels of job control but it did not act as a mediator. Private physicians feel better than public physicians and this is partly due to higher organizational justice in private sector. Public health care organizations should invest effort to increase the fairness in their organizations and management and pay more attention in improving the well-being of their employees, which could possibly increase the attractiveness of public sector as a career option.

  16. A narrative review of the empirical evidence on public attitudes on brain death and vital organ transplantation: the need for better data to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Seema K; Kasper, Kenneth; Miller, Franklin G

    2015-04-01

    Vital organ transplantation is premised on 'the dead donor rule': donors must be declared dead according to medical and legal criteria prior to donation. However, it is controversial whether individuals diagnosed as 'brain dead' are really dead in accordance with the established biological conception of death-the irreversible cessation of the functioning of the organism as a whole. A basic understanding of brain death is also relevant for giving valid, informed consent to serve as an organ donor. There is therefore a need for reliable empirical data on public understanding of brain death and vital organ transplantation. We conducted a review of the empirical literature that identified 43 articles with approximately 18,603 study participants. These data demonstrate that participants generally do not understand three key issues: (1) uncontested biological facts about brain death, (2) the legal status of brain death and (3) that organs are procured from brain dead patients while their hearts are still beating and before their removal from ventilators. These data suggest that, despite scholarly claims of widespread public support for organ donation from brain dead patients, the existing data on public attitudes regarding brain death and organ transplantation reflect substantial public confusion. Our review raises questions about the validity of consent for vital organ transplantation and suggests that existing data are of little assistance in developing policy proposals for organ transplantation from brain dead patients. New approaches to rigorous empirical research with educational components and evaluations of understanding are urgently needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Public health triangulation: approach and application to synthesizing data to understand national and local HIV epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberle-Grasse John

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health triangulation is a process for reviewing, synthesising and interpreting secondary data from multiple sources that bear on the same question to make public health decisions. It can be used to understand the dynamics of HIV transmission and to measure the impact of public health programs. While traditional intervention research and metaanalysis would be ideal sources of information for public health decision making, they are infrequently available, and often decisions can be based only on surveillance and survey data. Methods The process involves examination of a wide variety of data sources and both biological, behavioral and program data and seeks input from stakeholders to formulate meaningful public health questions. Finally and most importantly, it uses the results to inform public health decision-making. There are 12 discrete steps in the triangulation process, which included identification and assessment of key questions, identification of data sources, refining questions, gathering data and reports, assessing the quality of those data and reports, formulating hypotheses to explain trends in the data, corroborating or refining working hypotheses, drawing conclusions, communicating results and recommendations and taking public health action. Results Triangulation can be limited by the quality of the original data, the potentials for ecological fallacy and "data dredging" and reproducibility of results. Conclusions Nonetheless, we believe that public health triangulation allows for the interpretation of data sets that cannot be analyzed using meta-analysis and can be a helpful adjunct to surveillance, to formal public health intervention research and to monitoring and evaluation, which in turn lead to improved national strategic planning and resource allocation.

  18. Gender and Public Understanding of Science: Darwinism in the 19th Century Brazilian Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moema de Rezende Vergara

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the recent works about Brazilian public understanding of science, gender has been poorly used as an analytical category. This paper has as its main goal to bridge this gap by analyzing a section called ‘Letters for a Lady‘, in the journal O Vulgarizador that sought to teach all about Darwinism to women in the Brazil of the 19th century. So the notion of gender will help us understand the tension between masculinity and femininity in the text written by the literary critic Rangel S. Paio.

  19. Does media coverage influence public attitudes towards welfare recipients? The impact of the 2011 English riots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; de Vries, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Following the shooting of Mark Duggan by police on 4 August 2011, there were riots in many large cities in the UK. As the rioting was widely perceived to be perpetrated by the urban poor, links were quickly made with Britain's welfare policies. In this paper, we examine whether the riots, and the subsequent media coverage, influenced attitudes toward welfare recipients. Using the British Social Attitudes survey, we use multivariate difference-in-differences regression models to compare attitudes toward welfare recipients among those interviewed before (pre-intervention: i.e. prior to 6 August) and after (post-intervention: 10 August-10 September) the riots occurred (N = 3,311). We use variation in exposure to the media coverage to test theories of media persuasion in the context of attitudes toward welfare recipients. Before the riots, there were no significant differences between newspaper readers and non-readers in their attitudes towards welfare recipients. However, after the riots, attitudes diverged. Newspaper readers became more likely than non-readers to believe that those on welfare did not really deserve help, that the unemployed could find a job if they wanted to and that those on the dole were being dishonest in claiming benefits. Although the divergence was clearest between right-leaning newspaper and non-newspaper readers, we do not a find statistically significant difference between right- and left-leaning newspapers. These results suggest that media coverage of the riots influenced attitudes towards welfare recipients; specifically, newspaper coverage of the riots increased the likelihood that readers of the print media expressed negative attitudes towards welfare recipients when compared with the rest of the population. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  20. Agriculture and the European public: Agendas, attitudes, and the management of issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    . Non-trade concerns on environmental protection, rural development, food safety, and technological barriers were routinely criticised as concealed protectionism. Since the end of the Fischler era, the multifunctionality concept has largely disappeared from official EU vocabulary, and trade...... attitudes towards specific agricultural issues are embedded in systems of more general socio-political attitudes and values, and identifies the psychological processes through which issues rise or fall on individual agendas. Finally, recommendations are outlined as to how agricultural researchers, producers...

  1. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research. Copyright

  2. Investigating Changes in Student Attitudes and Understanding of Science through Participation in Citizen Science Projects in College Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Carolin; Cobb, Bethany E.

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade, web-based “citizen science” projects such as the Zooniverse have allowed volunteers and professional scientists to work together for the advancement of science. While much attention has been paid to the benefits to science from these new projects, less attention has been paid to their impact on the participants and, in particular, to the projects’ potential to impact students who might engage in these projects through coursework. We report on a study engaging students in introductory astronomy classes at the George Washington University and Wheelock College in an assignment in which each student individually contributed to a “physics” or “space” citizen science project of their choice, and groups of students worked together to understand and articulate the scientific purpose of a citizen science project to which they all contributed. Over the course of approximately four weeks, the students kept logs of their individual contributions to the project, and recorded a brief reflection on each of their visits (noting, for example, interesting or confusing things they might encounter along the way). The project culminated with each group delivering a creative presentation that demonstrated their understanding of both the science goals of the project and the value of their own contributions to the project. In this talk, we report on the experience of the students with the project and on an assessment of the students’ attitudes toward science and knowledge of the process of science completed before the introduction of the assignment and again at its conclusion.

  3. Understanding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies: key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhung; Wilson, Nick; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-11-01

    Pricing policies such as taxes and subsidies are important tools in preventing and controlling a range of threats to public health. This is particularly so in tobacco and alcohol control efforts and efforts to change dietary patterns and physical activity levels as a means of addressing increases in noncommunicable diseases. To understand the potential impact of pricing policies, it is critical to understand the nature of price elasticities for consumer products. For example, price elasticities are key parameters in models of any food tax or subsidy that aims to quantify health impacts and cost-effectiveness. We detail relevant terms and discuss key issues surrounding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies.

  4. Iodine nutrition status and knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Tehranian women following 2 decades without public education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Nazeri, Pantea; Amiri, Parisa; Mehran, Ladan; Shakeri, Nezhat; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the association of iodine nutrition status and knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Tehranian women after 2 decades without updating public education. Cross-sectional study. Eight health care centers from 4 district areas of Tehran. A total of 383 women aged ≥ 19 years, randomly selected. Iodine concentration of 24-hour urine samples, iodine content of household salts, and knowledge, attitude, and practice scores regarding iodine nutrition and iodized salt. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify the association of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) 100 μg/L (P = .001). Risk of UIC education level, region of residence, and iodine content of salt was significantly associated with intermediate practice score (odds ratio = 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-13.2). Marginally suboptimal iodine status in women of childbearing age can be attributed to inappropriate practices, but not to knowledge and attitude. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporal changes in the attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas among adults in the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Maja; Helbech, Bodil; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The population's attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas is important for their passing, implementation and compliance. Smoking bans are believed to reduce the social acceptability of smoking, and once people experience them, public support increases - also among pre-ban sceptics....... This study aimed to examine the temporal changes in public attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas from 2007 to 2010 and whether these changes differed across educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Methods: Data from two surveys among adults (aged 25-79 years......) in 2007 and 2010 in the Capital Region of Denmark (n=36,472/42,504, response rate = 52.3) was linked with data on sex, age and educational attainment from central registers. Age-standardised prevalence of supportive attitude towards smoking bans was estimated. Temporal changes in supportive attitude were...

  6. On the Understandability of Public Domain Icons: Effects of Gender and Age

    OpenAIRE

    Berget, Gerd; Sandnes, Frode Eika

    2015-01-01

    Icons and symbols are often deployed in graphical user interfaces. It is commonly believed that icons add to the user friendliness of products. Devel‐ opers have great trust in icon libraries and they are likely to use icons they under‐ stand themselves without verifying users’ understanding. Interfaces relying on icons that are misinterpreted can lead to erroneous operation. In this study a set of icons in the public domain was interpreted by 64 participants to assess how well general icons ...

  7. Measuring public understanding on Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) electricity bills using ordered probit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, WNRA; Ramli, NA

    2017-09-01

    In 2016, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) had introduced an upgrade in its Billing and Customer Relationship Management (BCRM) as part of its long-term initiative to provide its customers with greater access to billing information. This includes information on real and suggested power consumption by the customers and further details in their billing charges. This information is useful to help TNB customers to gain better understanding on their electricity usage patterns and items involved in their billing charges. Up to date, there are not many studies done to measure public understanding on current electricity bills and whether this understanding could contribute towards positive impacts. The purpose of this paper is to measure public understanding on current TNB electricity bills and whether their satisfaction towards energy-related services, electricity utility services, and their awareness on the amount of electricity consumed by various appliances and equipment in their home could improve this understanding on the electricity bills. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are used to achieve these objectives. A total of 160 respondents from local universities in Malaysia participated in a survey used to collect relevant information. Using Ordered Probit model, this paper finds respondents that are highly satisfied with the electricity utility services tend to understand their electricity bills better. The electric utility services include management of electricity bills and the information obtained from utility or non-utility supplier to help consumers manage their energy usage or bills. Based on the results, this paper concludes that the probability to understand the components in the monthly electricity bill increases as respondents are more satisfied with their electric utility services and are more capable to value the energy-related services.

  8. Expanding the understanding of motivation in the theory of public service contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    The understanding of what drives efficient performance is only partial in the standard theory of public service contracting where performance essentially is explained as dependent on extrinsic incentives. In this paper I claim that intrinsic motivations and the dynamics between intrinsic motivati......The understanding of what drives efficient performance is only partial in the standard theory of public service contracting where performance essentially is explained as dependent on extrinsic incentives. In this paper I claim that intrinsic motivations and the dynamics between intrinsic...... motivations and extrinsic incentives also have a role for explaining performance. This role is not limited to shifts from the public to the private service sector, as suggested by current supplements to standard theory, but it is also extended to play a part in on-going and recurrent contractual relationships...... with private service providers. In order to address my claim, I provide an embedded case study based on qualitative data of motivations and motivational dynamics within a set of external contractual relations managed through a performance management scheme by a public contracting agency. I find...

  9. Public attitudes towards and demand for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles. A review of the evidence and methodological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetano Roche, Maria; Mourato, Susana; Fischedick, Manfred; Pietzner, Katja; Viebahn, Peter

    2010-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication and demand-side policies for alternative energy require sound knowledge of preferences and determinants of demand of the public and consumers. To date, public attitudes towards new transport technologies have been studied under very different conceptual frameworks. This paper gives an overview of the various conceptual frameworks and methodologies used, where four main approaches can be distinguished: general attitudinal surveys, risk perception studies, non-market economic valuation studies, and other approaches such as those based on semiotic theory. We then review the findings of the recent literature on acceptance, attitudes and preferences for hydrogen and fuel cell end-use technologies, focusing on vehicles. These studies are then contrasted with related research into alternative fuel vehicles. The paper finally discusses the main trends in research and avenues for further work in this field. We recommend, among other things, the use of approaches that build knowledge and familiarity with the technology prior to the exploration of attitudes, and the set up of studies that take a whole-systems perspective of hydrogen technologies and that look at hydrogen in the context of other competing clean technologies. (author)

  10. Public attitudes towards and demand for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles. A review of the evidence and methodological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetano Roche, Maria [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany); Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science (United Kingdom); Mourato, Susana [Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science (United Kingdom); Fischedick, Manfred; Pietzner, Katja; Viebahn, Peter [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication and demand-side policies for alternative energy require sound knowledge of preferences and determinants of demand of the public and consumers. To date, public attitudes towards new transport technologies have been studied under very different conceptual frameworks. This paper gives an overview of the various conceptual frameworks and methodologies used, where four main approaches can be distinguished: general attitudinal surveys, risk perception studies, non-market economic valuation studies, and other approaches such as those based on semiotic theory. We then review the findings of the recent literature on acceptance, attitudes and preferences for hydrogen and fuel cell end-use technologies, focusing on vehicles. These studies are then contrasted with related research into alternative fuel vehicles. The paper finally discusses the main trends in research and avenues for further work in this field. We recommend, among other things, the use of approaches that build knowledge and familiarity with the technology prior to the exploration of attitudes, and the set up of studies that take a whole-systems perspective of hydrogen technologies and that look at hydrogen in the context of other competing clean technologies. (author)

  11. Public attitudes towards and demand for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles: A review of the evidence and methodological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetano Roche, Maria, E-mail: maria.yetano@wupperinst.or [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany) and Department of Geography and Environment; London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Mourato, Susana [Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Fischedick, Manfred; Pietzner, Katja; Viebahn, Peter [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication and demand-side policies for alternative energy require sound knowledge of preferences and determinants of demand of the public and consumers. To date, public attitudes towards new transport technologies have been studied under very different conceptual frameworks. This paper gives an overview of the various conceptual frameworks and methodologies used, where four main approaches can be distinguished: general attitudinal surveys, risk perception studies, non-market economic valuation studies, and other approaches such as those based on semiotic theory. We then review the findings of the recent literature on acceptance, attitudes and preferences for hydrogen and fuel cell end-use technologies, focusing on vehicles. These studies are then contrasted with related research into alternative fuel vehicles. The paper finally discusses the main trends in research and avenues for further work in this field. We recommend, among other things, the use of approaches that build knowledge and familiarity with the technology prior to the exploration of attitudes, and the set up of studies that take a whole-systems perspective of hydrogen technologies and that look at hydrogen in the context of other competing clean technologies.

  12. An Exploration of Public Attitudes Toward LGBTI Rights in the Gauteng City-Region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Faraaz; Trangoš, Guy

    2016-10-01

    South Africa's legal framework on the rights of sexual minorities is one of the most progressive in the world. Despite this, discrimination and violence against gay and lesbian people continues to be a challenge. Using large-scale survey data gathered in the Gauteng City-Region, this study examines public attitudes related to homosexuality. Most respondents to the survey felt that sexual minorities should have equal rights. However, a considerable proportion of respondents also held negative views toward gay and lesbian individuals, with close to two fifths of respondents believing that homosexuality is against the values of their community, and over 12% of participants holding the view that it is acceptable to be violent toward gays and lesbians. Further analysis also consists of an examination of responses cross-tabulated with the variables of race, gender, age, and education, revealing that younger, well-educated South Africans tend to be the most tolerant, but also exhibiting large variances in attitudes within groups.

  13. 'Chernobyl' in the public opinion of the Federal Republic of Germany - risk perception, political attitudes and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennen, L.; Peters, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    The information behaviour of the population after Chernobyl was characterized by a sceptical attitude to reporting in the media, which was frequently considered to be inaccurate. A critical attitude was, however, also revealed towards primary information sources such as the government, opposition, nuclear research centres, industry, action groups and ecological research institutes. The majority of the population are evidently oriented both towards statements from established institutions such as the government and nuclear research centres as well as to information from institutions and persons critical of nuclear energy; they therefore did not shut their eyes to contradictions in the published information. It became clear that a majority of the respondents had a preference for a decentralized information policy where the public has unimpeded access to as many information sources as possible. (orig.) [de

  14. Inpatients' use, understanding, and attitudes towards traditional, complementary and alternative therapies at a provincial New Zealand hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Amanda; Duncan, Bruce; McHugh, Patrick; Shaw, John; Wilson, Craig

    2008-07-25

    To assess the use and attitudes towards traditional, complementary and alternative medicine and therapies (TCAM) by inpatients of a provincial hospital. Ninety-two Gisborne Hospital inpatients were interviewed face-to-face over a 4-week period using a standardised questionnaire. Of the 92 people interviewed, 84 patients (91%) had used an average of 6.4 TCAM modalities. Most common therapies used were massage (n=62), vitamins (n=5), chiropractor (n=45), and herbal therapies (n=41). Of the 84 people who have used TCAM, 79 (94%) used more than one therapy. Nineteen patients (23%) used 10 or more different therapies. Maori and Non-Maori respondents used the majority of TCAM modalities equally apart from a few notable exceptions. Only 10 (11%) of the 92 patients in this study recalled having been asked by a doctor if they were using TCAM. Fifty-five (65%) of those who use TCAM believed that it is safe. This study of in-patients interviewed at Gisborne Hospital had the highest rate of TCAM use published to date. Most of these patients intend to continue using TCAM (86%), seek pluralistic care for their maladies and select from a broad array of modalities rooted in the community. Patients are not telling their doctors about this use, not because patients fear disapproval, but they are simply not being asked. Patients do not volunteer this information because they believe that TCAM use is safe and are unaware of its potential risks. There are ethnic trends in the selection of TCAM modalities and potential exists to reach some hard to reach populations through integrated care. The high prevalence of TCAM use in an in-patient population and patients' naivety regarding risks and interactions underscores the need for greater cooperation between orthodox and complementary practitioners, effective regulation with emphasis given to public safety, the need for new funding for TCAM research, increased undergraduate and postgraduate medical TCAM education, and better information

  15. ¿What about bullying?¿ An experimental field study to understand students¿ attitudes towards bullying and victimization in Italian middle schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Attitudes towards bullying at school are influential in understanding and preventing bullying behaviour but they should be measured with reference to the particular conditions under which bullying takes place. Aims. To establish how far positive and negative judgments of bullying and

  16. Do public programs in ‘energy regions’ affect citizen attitudes and behavior?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatzl, Stefanie; Brudermann, Thomas; Reinsberger, Kathrin; Posch, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effect of regional and municipal measures for promoting energy transition on citizen attitudes and behavior. We compare one township that has successfully implemented a comprehensive and systematic energy-saving program (the so-called e5 program) with a township without such a program. The results indicate that despite the program's ambitious aims, e5 implementation has almost no impact on citizen attitudes and behavior. In fact, there are some signs that it might even have slight negative side effects. - Highlights: • Comprehensive and systematic municipal energy transition framework. • Implemented measures slightly impact citizen attitudes. • Implemented measures yield only marginal positive effects on behavior. • Transition framework might also be accompanied by negative behavioral side effects. • Behavioral reactions need to be considered in transition frameworks

  17. Using Twitter to Understand Public Perceptions Regarding the #HPV Vaccine: Opportunities for Public Health Nurses to Engage in Social Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Mitchell, Emma M; Sun, Emily; Kennedy, Christine

    2017-07-01

    Given the degree of public mistrust and provider hesitation regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, it is important to explore how information regarding the vaccine is shared online via social media outlets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the content of messaging regarding the HPV vaccine on the social media and microblogging site Twitter, and describe the sentiment of those messages. This study utilized a cross-sectional descriptive approach. Over a 2-week period, Twitter content was searched hourly using key terms "#HPV and #Gardasil," which yielded 1,794 Twitter posts for analysis. Each post was then analyzed individually using an a priori coding strategy and directed content analysis. The majority of Twitter posts were written by lay consumers and were sharing commentary about a media source. However, when actual URLs were shared, the most common form of share was linking back to a blog post written by lay users. The vast majority of content was presented as polarizing (either as a positive or negative tweet), with 51% of the Tweets representing a positive viewpoint. Using Twitter to understand public sentiment offers a novel perspective to explore the context of health communication surrounding certain controversial issues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Education and communication to increase public understanding of nuclear technology peaceful uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Denise S.; Passos, Igor S., E-mail: denise@omiccron.com.br [Omiccron Programacao Grafica, Atibaia, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear technology helps to improve the quality of our everyday life. Nevertheless, there is still great misinformation and the issue divides public opinion. Several surveys were conducted over the past years to study public acceptance of Nuclear Technology in Brazil and worldwide. GlobeScan (2005), for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Eurobarometers (2010), published by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD), report similar socio-demographic trends: the higher the education level, the more favorable is public opinion towards nuclear power. Taking into account education and communication are crucial to increase public knowledge and understanding of the benefits of Nuclear Technology and that Internet access has increased strongly all over the country, this educational project aims to take advantage of the potential of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to disseminate the peaceful use of nuclear technology and its benefits, informing children and teenagers, as well as parents and teachers, who are most often unaware of the matter. Whereas Internet access has increased strongly for both public and private schools all over the country, this web-based educational project, entitled Radioatividades (Radioactivities), provides short courses, curiosities and interactive activities covering topics related to Nuclear Technology and its beneficial applications in several areas, such as medicine, agriculture, industry, art and electric power generation. The project uses the combination of multiple technologies and last generation internet resources. Our target is the dissemination of information, promoting the benefits of Nuclear Technology for new generations, contributing to public acceptance of Nuclear Technology, combating misinformation in our society, omission of the media and knowledge fragmentation. Education transforms old prejudices and inspires new thoughts, stimulating

  19. Education and communication to increase public understanding of nuclear technology peaceful uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Denise S.; Passos, Igor S.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear technology helps to improve the quality of our everyday life. Nevertheless, there is still great misinformation and the issue divides public opinion. Several surveys were conducted over the past years to study public acceptance of Nuclear Technology in Brazil and worldwide. GlobeScan (2005), for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Eurobarometers (2010), published by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD), report similar socio-demographic trends: the higher the education level, the more favorable is public opinion towards nuclear power. Taking into account education and communication are crucial to increase public knowledge and understanding of the benefits of Nuclear Technology and that Internet access has increased strongly all over the country, this educational project aims to take advantage of the potential of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to disseminate the peaceful use of nuclear technology and its benefits, informing children and teenagers, as well as parents and teachers, who are most often unaware of the matter. Whereas Internet access has increased strongly for both public and private schools all over the country, this web-based educational project, entitled Radioatividades (Radioactivities), provides short courses, curiosities and interactive activities covering topics related to Nuclear Technology and its beneficial applications in several areas, such as medicine, agriculture, industry, art and electric power generation. The project uses the combination of multiple technologies and last generation internet resources. Our target is the dissemination of information, promoting the benefits of Nuclear Technology for new generations, contributing to public acceptance of Nuclear Technology, combating misinformation in our society, omission of the media and knowledge fragmentation. Education transforms old prejudices and inspires new thoughts, stimulating

  20. Public Place Smoke-Free Regulations, Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Related Beliefs, Awareness, Attitudes, and Practices among Chinese Urban Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between smoke-free regulations in public places and secondhand smoke exposure and related beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and behavior among urban residents in China. Methods: We selected one city (Hangzhou as the intervention city and another (Jiaxing as the comparison. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection, and implemented at two time points across a 20-month interval. Both unadjusted and adjusted logistic methods were considered in analyses. Multiple regression procedures were performed in examining variation between final and baseline measures. Results: Smoke-free regulations in the intervention city were associated with a significant decline in personal secondhand smoke exposure in government buildings, buses or taxis, and restaurants, but there was no change in such exposure in healthcare facilities and schools. In terms of personal smoking beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and practices, the only significant change was in giving quitting advice to proximal family members. Conclusions: There was a statistically significant association between implementation of smoke-free regulations in a city and inhibition of secondhand tobacco smoking exposure in public places. However, any such impact was limited. Effective tobacco control in China will require a combination of strong public health education and enforcement of regulations.

  1. Understanding Caregivers' Attitudes towards Physical Punishment of Children: Evidence from 34 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Claudia; Khan, Shane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents findings on caregivers' attitudes towards physical punishment of children from 34 household surveys conducted in low- and middle-income countries in 2005 and 2006. The article analyzes the variability in attitudes by background characteristics of the respondents to examine whether various factors at the individual…

  2. Dispelling the Myths: Can Psychoeducation Change Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleban, Holly; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The public desires more punitive sentencing for sex offenders; however, treatment has been shown to be most effective in increasing public safety. It has been suggested that public education about the benefits of sex offender treatment could influence public policy. The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief psychoeducational…

  3. Public attitudes toward programs designed to enhance forest related benefits on private lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Dennis; Mark J. Twery; Michael A. Rechlin; Bruce Hansen

    2003-01-01

    Public agencies may at times provide education, technical help, tax incentives, or other forms of aid to private landowners to help them enhance their land in ways that benefit the public. Since public funds are used to pay these expenses, it is important that program goals be correlated with underlying public values and concerns. We used a conjoint ranking survey to...

  4. Teaching science as inquiry in US and in Japan: A cross-cultural comparison of science teachers' understanding of, and attitudes toward inquiry-based teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosa, Sachiko

    Since the publication of the National Science Education Standards in 1996, learning science through inquiry has been regarded as the heart of science education. However, the TIMSS 1999 Video Study showed that inquiry-based teaching has been taking place less in the United States than in Japan. This study examined similarities and differences in how Japanese and American middle-school science teachers think and feel about inquiry-based teaching. Teachers' attitudes toward the use of inquiry in science teaching were measured through a survey instrument (N=191). Teachers' understanding of inquiry-based teaching was examined through interviews and classroom observations in the United States (N=9) and Japan (N=15). The results show that in spite of the variations in teachers' definitions of inquiry-based teaching, teachers in both countries strongly agree with the idea of inquiry-based teaching. However, little inquiry-based teaching was observed in either of the countries for different reasons. The data indicate that Japanese teachers did not generally help students construct their own understanding of scientific concepts in spite of well-planned lesson structures and activity set-ups. On the other hand, the observational data indicate that American teachers often lacked meaningful science content in spite of their high level of pedagogical knowledge. The need for addressing the importance of scientific concepts in teacher preparation programs in higher education institutions in the US is advocated. To the Japanese science education community, the need for teachers' acquisition of instructional strategies for inquiry-based teaching is strongly addressed.

  5. An Examination of Attitudes towards Women in Leadership Positions in Public Universities in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfawzan, Norah Saad

    2017-01-01

    Despite opportunities for female leadership in the field of higher education made available through gender-segregation policies, women leaders are underrepresented in Saudi Arabia (Jamjoom & Kelly, 2013). There are obstacles that Saudi women face when seeking leadership positions in higher education, including societal attitudes on gender. Due…

  6. Addiction Counseling Competencies: The Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Professional Practice. Technical Assistance Publication Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This document presents knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are needed for achieving and practicing the competencies listed in Addiction Counseling Competencies, as written by the National Curriculum Committee of the Addiction Technology Transfer Center Program. The document is intended to provide guidance for the professional treatment of…

  7. Students Opinions and Attitudes towards Physical Education Classes in Kuwait Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Heyam Reda; Mohammad, Mona Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate student opinion and attitude toward physical education classes. Two thousand seven hundred (2700) students answered the survey: 1239 (45.3%) were male students and 1497 (54.7%) were female from Kuwait six districts: Al_Hawalli, Al_Asimah, Al_Jahra, Al_Mobarak, Al_Farwniah, Al_Ahmadi. Weight Status was determined…

  8. English Variety for the Public Domain in Kenya: Speakers' Attitudes and Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioko, Angelina Nduku; Muthwii, Margaret Jepkirui

    2003-01-01

    The study sought to establish the attitudes of Kenyan speakers (n = 210) towards three varieties of English: (1) ethnically marked Kenyan English, (2) standard Kenyan English and (3) native speaker English (British, American, Australian, etc). Of the three varieties, the most preferred by both rural and urban respondents for use in the media and…

  9. Accuracy, Authenticity, Fidelity: Aesthetic Realism, the "Deficit Model," and the Public Understanding of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Fernando

    2018-03-01

    Argument "Deficit model" designates an outlook on the public understanding and communication of science that emphasizes scientific illiteracy and the need to educate the public. Though criticized, it is still widespread, especially among scientists. Its persistence is due not only to factors ranging from scientists' training to policy design, but also to the continuance of realism as an aesthetic criterion. This article examines the link between realism and the deficit model through discussions of neurology and psychiatry in fiction film, as well as through debates about historical movies and the cinematic adaptation of literature. It shows that different values and criteria tend to dominate the realist stance in different domains: accuracy for movies concerning neurology and psychiatry, authenticity for the historical film, and fidelity for adaptations of literature. Finally, contrary to the deficit model, it argues that the cinema is better characterized by a surplus of meaning than by informational shortcomings.

  10. Publication Ethics and the Emerging Scientific Workforce: Understanding ‘Plagiarism’ in a Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Zhao, Hui; McHugh, Michelle K.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific publication has long been dominated by the English language and is rapidly moving towards near complete hegemony of English, while the majority of the world’s publishing scientists are not native English speakers. This imbalance has important implications for training in and enforcement of publication ethics, particularly with respect to plagiarism. A lack of understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and the use of a linguistic support strategy known as patchwriting can lead to inadvertent misuse of source material by non-native speakers writing in English as well as to unfounded accusations of intentional scientific misconduct on the part of these authors. A rational and well-informed dialogue about this issue is needed among both native English speaking and non-native English speaking writers, editors, educators, and administrators. Recommendations for educating and training are provided. PMID:22104051

  11. The Yin and Yang of U.S. Image: Using Focus Groups to Understand Anti-U.S. Attitudes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Bell

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative surveys conducted over the past decades have shown that west Europeans, and Italians in particular, tend to hold generally favorable attitudes toward the United States. Even casual observation of the domestic media, however, reveals equally consistent critical attitudes toward the U.S. Especially now that public debate over the future of the transatlantic alliance has become more pronounced, it has become necessary to look under the surface and investigate Europeans' attitudes toward the U.S. This paper presents one piece of a larger project: in April 2002, focus groups were conducted among Italian adults selected for their negative opinions of the U.S. This paper discusses the design of these focus groups, how they were carried out, and some key findings. It argues for the usefulness of this less-common use of focus groups, to give depth and perspective to long-established quantitative trends. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0402249

  12. Surveys of public knowledge and attitudes with regard to antibiotics in Poland: Did the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns change attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazińska, Beata; Strużycka, Izabela; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    2017-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health problem. Monitoring the level of knowledge regarding antibiotics is a part of the European Union Community strategy against antimicrobial resistance. Objective To assess knowledge by the general public in Poland regarding antibiotics, AMR, and the impact of the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns. Methods The repeated cross-sectional study was developed and carried out among the general public in Poland (in 5 waves between 2009 and 2011, embracing a total of 5004 respondents). The survey was based on a self-designed questionnaire, and carried out by Millward Brown SMG/KRC, using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI). Results A high percentage of Polish adults had used antibiotics within the 12 months preceding their participation in the study (38%). Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the respondents’ gender, age, education and employment status. The majority of the antibiotics used were prescribed by physicians (90%). In all five waves, 3% of the respondents purchased an antibiotic without a prescription. Prescriptions were mostly obtained from a general practitioner. The prevailing reasons for taking antibiotics were the common cold, sore throat, cough and flu. Approximately 40% of the respondents expected a prescription for an antibiotic against the flu. The vast majority knew that antibiotics kill bacteria (80%) but at the same time 60% of respondents believed antibiotics kill viruses. Physicians, pharmacists, hospital staff and nurses were mentioned as the most trustworthy sources of information. A third of the respondents declared to have come across information on the prudent use of antibiotics in the preceding 12 months. In the fifth wave, nearly half of the participants (48%), who had come across information about antibiotics in the preceding 12 months declared that the information resulted in a change in their attitude towards antibiotic use. Conclusion

  13. Surveys of public knowledge and attitudes with regard to antibiotics in Poland: Did the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns change attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazińska, Beata; Strużycka, Izabela; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health problem. Monitoring the level of knowledge regarding antibiotics is a part of the European Union Community strategy against antimicrobial resistance. To assess knowledge by the general public in Poland regarding antibiotics, AMR, and the impact of the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns. The repeated cross-sectional study was developed and carried out among the general public in Poland (in 5 waves between 2009 and 2011, embracing a total of 5004 respondents). The survey was based on a self-designed questionnaire, and carried out by Millward Brown SMG/KRC, using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI). A high percentage of Polish adults had used antibiotics within the 12 months preceding their participation in the study (38%). Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the respondents' gender, age, education and employment status. The majority of the antibiotics used were prescribed by physicians (90%). In all five waves, 3% of the respondents purchased an antibiotic without a prescription. Prescriptions were mostly obtained from a general practitioner. The prevailing reasons for taking antibiotics were the common cold, sore throat, cough and flu. Approximately 40% of the respondents expected a prescription for an antibiotic against the flu. The vast majority knew that antibiotics kill bacteria (80%) but at the same time 60% of respondents believed antibiotics kill viruses. Physicians, pharmacists, hospital staff and nurses were mentioned as the most trustworthy sources of information. A third of the respondents declared to have come across information on the prudent use of antibiotics in the preceding 12 months. In the fifth wave, nearly half of the participants (48%), who had come across information about antibiotics in the preceding 12 months declared that the information resulted in a change in their attitude towards antibiotic use. The survey generated information about the

  14. Surveys of public knowledge and attitudes with regard to antibiotics in Poland: Did the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns change attitudes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Mazińska

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health problem. Monitoring the level of knowledge regarding antibiotics is a part of the European Union Community strategy against antimicrobial resistance.To assess knowledge by the general public in Poland regarding antibiotics, AMR, and the impact of the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns.The repeated cross-sectional study was developed and carried out among the general public in Poland (in 5 waves between 2009 and 2011, embracing a total of 5004 respondents. The survey was based on a self-designed questionnaire, and carried out by Millward Brown SMG/KRC, using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI.A high percentage of Polish adults had used antibiotics within the 12 months preceding their participation in the study (38%. Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the respondents' gender, age, education and employment status. The majority of the antibiotics used were prescribed by physicians (90%. In all five waves, 3% of the respondents purchased an antibiotic without a prescription. Prescriptions were mostly obtained from a general practitioner. The prevailing reasons for taking antibiotics were the common cold, sore throat, cough and flu. Approximately 40% of the respondents expected a prescription for an antibiotic against the flu. The vast majority knew that antibiotics kill bacteria (80% but at the same time 60% of respondents believed antibiotics kill viruses. Physicians, pharmacists, hospital staff and nurses were mentioned as the most trustworthy sources of information. A third of the respondents declared to have come across information on the prudent use of antibiotics in the preceding 12 months. In the fifth wave, nearly half of the participants (48%, who had come across information about antibiotics in the preceding 12 months declared that the information resulted in a change in their attitude towards antibiotic use.The survey generated information about

  15. Cross-Sectional Survey on the Dengue Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Practices Among Students and Staff of a Public University in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugova, H; Wallis, S

    2017-04-01

    Behavioural impact programmes are especially effective for dengue control and prevention. Universities are key settings for health promotion, so understanding factors that influence the practice of dengue prevention within a university community becomes important. This study aimed to examine the factors affecting dengue knowledge, attitude and preventive practices amongst students and staff of a public university. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 372 students and staff of the NDUM were recruited by stratified sampling method. Data were collected via self-administered pre-tested structured questionnaires covering socio-demography and dengue KAP. Data were analysed descriptively. For bivariate analysis, Chi square test was applied. To explore the factors independently associated with the practice of dengue prevention, a logistic regression model was introduced. Overall, the participants had moderate dengue-related knowledge, good attitudes and good preventive practices. The majority had misconceptions about mosquito biting habits (83.8 %), seasonality of dengue epidemics (73.2 %), and mosquito breeding sites (70.3 %). Staff were more likely to have good dengue-related knowledge (p dengue knowledge and monthly average household income (p = 0.008), age (p dengue was associated with being a non-Malay (p = 0.034), having higher monthly average household income (p = 0.047) and tertiary education (p dengue knowledge and dengue attitudes were significantly and positively associated with practice of dengue prevention. Dengue preventive strategies amongst university students and staff should focus on maintaining good dengue-related preventive practices. Educational campaigns should mainly target students, young staff members, and those with lower level of education and income.

  16. Understanding attitudes, barriers and challenges in a small island nation to disease and partner notification for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, O Peter; Carter, Anne O; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda

    2015-05-02

    In Barbados sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV are not notifiable diseases and there is not a formal partner notification (PN) programme. Objectives were to understand likely attitudes, barriers, and challenges to introducing mandatory disease notification (DN) and partner notification (PN) for HIV and other STIs in a small island state. Six key informants identified study participants. Interviews were conducted, recorded, transcribed and analysed for content using standard methods. Participants (16 males, 13 females, median age 59 years) included physicians, nurses, and representatives from governmental, youth, HIV, men's, women's, church, and private sector organisations. The median estimated acceptability by society of HIV/STI DN on a scale of 1 (unacceptable) to 5 (completely acceptable) was 3. Challenges included; maintaining confidentiality in a small island; public perception that confidentiality was poorly maintained; fear and stigma; testing might be deterred; reporting may not occur; enacting legislation would be difficult; and opposition by some opinion leaders. For PN, contract referral was the most acceptable method and provider referral the least. Contract referral unlike provider referral was not "a total suspension of rights" while taking into account that "people need a little gentle pressure sometimes". Extra counselling would be needed to elicit contacts or to get patients to notify partners. Shame, stigma and discrimination in a small society may make PN unacceptable and deter testing. With patient referral procrastination may occur, and partners may react violently and not come in for care. With provider referral patients may have concerns about confidentiality including neighbours becoming suspicious if a home visit is used as the contact method. Successful contact tracing required time and effort. With contract referral people may neither inform contacts nor say that they did not. Strategies to overcome barriers to DN and PN

  17. Adequacy of benefits, distributive justice and individual attitudes and behaviors: A case of public community colleges staff Adequacy of benefits, distributive justice and individual attitudes and behaviors: A case of public community colleges staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Cheekiong

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the indirect effect of distributive justice in the relationship between adequacy of benefits and individual attitudes and behaviors (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment using 190 usable questionnaires gathered from employees in Malaysian public community colleges (MPCOLLEGE sector. The outcome of stepwise regression analysis showed that the inclusion of distributive justice in the analysis had increased the effect of adequacy of benefits on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Furthermore, this finding confirms that distributive justice does act as a full mediating variable in the benefits program model of the organizational sector sample. In addition, implications and limitations of this study, as well as directions for future research are discussed.This study was conducted to examine the indirect effect of distributive justice in the relationship between adequacy of benefits and individual attitudes and behaviors (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment using 190 usable questionnaires gathered from employees in Malaysian public community colleges (MPCOLLEGE sector. The outcome of stepwise regression analysis showed that the inclusion of distributive justice in the analysis had increased the effect of adequacy of benefits on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Furthermore, this finding confirms that distributive justice does act as a full mediating variable in the benefits program model of the organizational sector sample. In addition, implications and limitations of this study, as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  18. Understanding the Correlations between Social Attention and Topic Trends of Scientific Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianlei Dong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We propose and apply a simplified nowcasting model to understand the correlations between social attention and topic trends of scientific publications. Design/methodology/approach: First, topics are generated from the obesity corpus by using the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA algorithm and time series of keyword search trends in Google Trends are obtained. We then establish the structural time series model using data from January 2004 to December 2012, and evaluate the model using data from January 2013. We employ a state-space model to separate different non-regression components in an observational time series (i.e. the tendency and the seasonality and apply the “spike and slab prior” and stepwise regression to analyze the correlations between the regression component and the social media attention. The two parts are combined using Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques to obtain our results. Findings: The results of our study show that (1 the number of publications on child obesity increases at a lower rate than that of diabetes publications; (2 the number of publication on a given topic may exhibit a relationship with the season or time of year; and (3 there exists a correlation between the number of publications on a given topic and its social media attention, i.e. the search frequency related to that topic as identified by Google Trends. We found that our model is also able to predict the number of publications related to a given topic. Research limitations: First, we study a correlation rather than causality between topics' trends and social media. As a result, the relationships might not be robust, so we cannot predict the future in the long run. Second, we cannot identify the reasons or conditions that are driving obesity topics to present such tendencies and seasonal patterns, so we might need to do “field” study in the future. Third, we need to improve the efficiency of our model by finding more efficient

  19. Effects of the criticality accident at Tokai-mura on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Atsuko; Hayashi, Chikio

    2000-01-01

    The objective of our study was to clarify the effects on the public's attitude of nuclear power and the criticality accident that occurred at the JCO plant in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki Prefecture. For this purpose, we conducted an awareness survey in the Kansai and Kanto areas two months after the accident. Analysis was made on the basis of the comparison of the survey results with the data that the Institute of Nuclear Safety System had accumulated through continuous awareness surveys on nuclear power generation (regular surveys) since 1993. The public's reactions were twofold. On one hand, there were emotional reactions about accidents in nuclear facilities and a reduction in the sense of security. On the other hand, there were reactions concerning the image of nuclear power plant workers and demand on electricity utilities for enhanced employee education and training. The latter reactions correspond to the problems pointed out after the JCO accident. Regarding the utilization of nuclear power generation, the opinion that 'the utilization of nuclear power generation is unavoidable' accounts for 60% of those surveyed. With the opinion that 'nuclear power generation should be utilized' added, 70% of those surveyed take an affirmative attitude to nuclear power utilization. This situation has remained about the same since 1998, the year before the JCO accident. Using the quantification method III to analyze a number of questionnaires about nuclear power generation such as the anxiety about it, we determined overall attitude indexes regarding nuclear power to perform a time sequence comparison. The comparison shows that the attitude after the JCO accident tended to be more negative than in 1998. However, no significant difference in the overall indexes is seen between 1993 and 1998. Judging the comparison results on the basis of the time span starting in 1993 allows us to conclude that the JCO accident has not greatly contributed to worsening the attitude towards nuclear

  20. Effects of structured versus non-structured learning on achievement and attitudes of fifth graders in a public aquarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Merryl Audrey

    diminishing attitudinal scores. The fact that students' learning-style variations for sociological, design, and perceptual preferences were simultaneously accommodated in this setting may have contributed to the overall positive effects of this structure-based intervention. The diversified teaching resources of the exhibit and the sense of self-empowerment in a student-directed environment may have elevated students' attitudes regardless of their learning-style need for structure. The students' acceptance of a trip sheet that promoted the understanding of science concepts may have contributed to academic success.