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Sample records for understanding postprandial inflammation

  1. Effect of dietary advanced glycation end products on postprandial appetite, inflammation, and endothelial activation in healthy overweight individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Malene Wibe; Bak, Monika Judyta; Andersen, Jeanette Marker

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress.......Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress....

  2. Effects of an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise on postprandial lipemia and airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ariel M; Kurti, Stephanie P; Smith, Joshua R; Rosenkranz, Sara K; Harms, Craig A

    2016-03-01

    A high-fat meal (HFM) induces an increase in blood lipids (postprandial lipemia; PPL), systemic inflammation, and acute airway inflammation. While acute exercise has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering effects, it is unknown whether exercise prior to an HFM will translate to reduced airway inflammation post-HFM. Our purpose was to determine the effects of an acute bout of exercise on airway inflammation post-HFM and to identify whether any protective effect of exercise on airway inflammation was associated with a reduction in PPL or systemic inflammation. In a randomized cross-over study, 12 healthy, 18- to 29-year-old men (age, 23.0 ± 3.2 years; height, 178.9 ± 5.5 cm; weight, 78.5 ± 11.7 kg) consumed an HFM (1 g fat/1 kg body weight) 12 h following exercise (EX; 60 min at 60% maximal oxygen uptake) or without exercise (CON). Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO; measure of airway inflammation), triglycerides (TG), and inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor-necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6) were measured while fasted at 2 h and 4 h post-HFM. FENO increased over time (2 h: CON, p = 0.001; EX, p = 0.002, but not by condition (p = 0.991). TG significantly increased 2 and 4 h post-HFM (p 0.05). There were no relationships between FENO and TG or systemic inflammatory markers for any time point or condition (p > 0.05). In summary, an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise performed 12 h prior to an HFM did not change postprandial airway inflammation or lipemia in healthy, 18- to 29-year-old men.

  3. Profiling the Oxylipin and Endocannabinoid Metabolome by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS in Human Plasma to Monitor Postprandial Inflammation.

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    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Späth, Jana; Zivkovic, Angela M; Nording, Malin L

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive lipids, including oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and related compounds may function as specific biochemical markers of certain aspects of inflammation. However, the postprandial responsiveness of these compounds is largely unknown; therefore, changes in the circulating oxylipin and endocannabinoid metabolome in response to a challenge meal were investigated at six occasions in a subject who freely modified her usual diet. The dietary change, and especially the challenge meal itself, represented a modification of precursor fatty acid status, with expectedly subtle effects on bioactive lipid levels. To detect even the slightest alteration, highly sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods for bioactive lipid profiling was employed. A previously validated UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for profiling the endocannabinoid metabolome was used, while validation of an UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for oxylipin analysis was performed with acceptable outcomes for a majority of the parameters according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for linearity (0.9938 oxylipin and endocannabinoid metabolome. To summarize, we have shown proof-of-concept of our UPLC-ESI-MS/MS bioactive lipid protocols for the purpose of monitoring subtle shifts, and thereby useful to address lipid-mediated postprandial inflammation.

  4. Profiling the Oxylipin and Endocannabinoid Metabolome by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS in Human Plasma to Monitor Postprandial Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gouveia-Figueira

    Full Text Available Bioactive lipids, including oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and related compounds may function as specific biochemical markers of certain aspects of inflammation. However, the postprandial responsiveness of these compounds is largely unknown; therefore, changes in the circulating oxylipin and endocannabinoid metabolome in response to a challenge meal were investigated at six occasions in a subject who freely modified her usual diet. The dietary change, and especially the challenge meal itself, represented a modification of precursor fatty acid status, with expectedly subtle effects on bioactive lipid levels. To detect even the slightest alteration, highly sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS methods for bioactive lipid profiling was employed. A previously validated UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for profiling the endocannabinoid metabolome was used, while validation of an UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for oxylipin analysis was performed with acceptable outcomes for a majority of the parameters according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for linearity (0.9938 < R2 < 0.9996, limit of detection (0.0005-2.1 pg on column, limit of quantification (0.0005-4.2 pg on column, inter- and intraday accuracy (85-115% and precision (< 5%, recovery (40-109% and stability (40-105%. Forty-seven of fifty-two bioactive lipids were detected in plasma samples at fasting and in the postprandial state (0.5, 1, and 3 hours after the meal. Multivariate analysis showed a significant shift of bioactive lipid profiles in the postprandial state due to inclusion of dairy products in the diet, which was in line with univariate analysis revealing seven compounds (NAGly, 9-HODE, 13-oxo-ODE, 9(10-EpOME, 12(13-EpOME, 20-HETE, and 11,12-DHET that were significantly different between background diets in the postprandial state (but not at fasting. The only change in baseline levels at fasting was

  5. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

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    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  6. Probiotic yogurt and acidified milk similarly reduce postprandial inflammation and both alter the gut microbiota of healthy, young men.

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    Burton, Kathryn J; Rosikiewicz, Marta; Pimentel, Grégory; Bütikofer, Ueli; von Ah, Ueli; Voirol, Marie-Jeanne; Croxatto, Antony; Aeby, Sébastien; Drai, Jocelyne; McTernan, Philip G; Greub, Gilbert; Pralong, François P; Vergères, Guy; Vionnet, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    Probiotic yogurt and milk supplemented with probiotics have been investigated for their role in 'low-grade' inflammation but evidence for their efficacy is inconclusive. This study explores the impact of probiotic yogurt on metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers, with a parallel study of gut microbiota dynamics. The randomised cross-over study was conducted in fourteen healthy, young men to test probiotic yogurt compared with milk acidified with 2 % d-(+)-glucono-δ-lactone during a 2-week intervention (400 g/d). Fasting assessments, a high-fat meal test (HFM) and microbiota analyses were used to assess the intervention effects. Baseline assessments for the HFM were carried out after a run-in during which normal milk was provided. No significant differences in the inflammatory response to the HFM were observed after probiotic yogurt compared with acidified milk intake; however, both products were associated with significant reductions in the inflammatory response to the HFM compared with the baseline tests (assessed by IL6, TNFα and chemokine ligand 5) (Pyogurt intake (FC=-1·3, P adj=0·03), increased abundance of Bifidobacterium species after acidified milk intake (FC=1·4, P adj=0·04) and detection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus (FC=7·0, P adjyogurt intake. Probiotic yogurt and acidified milk similarly reduce postprandial inflammation that is associated with a HFM while inducing distinct changes in the gut microbiota of healthy men. These observations could be relevant for dietary treatments that target 'low-grade' inflammation.

  7. Physical Activity Protects the Human Brain against Metabolic Stress Induced by a Postprandial and Chronic Inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruimboom, Leo; Raison, Charles L.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that chronic systemic low-grade inflammation is at the root of many, if not all, typically Western diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome. While much focus has been given to sedentary lifestyle as a cause of chronic inflammation, it is less often

  8. Physical Activity Protects the Human Brain against Metabolic Stress Induced by a Postprandial and Chronic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Pruimboom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become clear that chronic systemic low-grade inflammation is at the root of many, if not all, typically Western diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome. While much focus has been given to sedentary lifestyle as a cause of chronic inflammation, it is less often appreciated that chronic inflammation may also promote a sedentary lifestyle, which in turn causes chronic inflammation. Given that even minor increases in chronic inflammation reduce brain volume in otherwise healthy individuals, the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and sedentary behaviour may explain why humans have lost brain volume in the last 30,000 years and also intelligence in the last 30 years. We review evidence that lack of physical activity induces chronic low-grade inflammation and, consequently, an energy conflict between the selfish immune system and the selfish brain. Although the notion that increased physical activity would improve health in the modern world is widespread, here we provide a novel perspective on this truism by providing evidence that recovery of normal human behaviour, such as spontaneous physical activity, would calm proinflammatory activity, thereby allocating more energy to the brain and other organs, and by doing so would improve human health.

  9. Understanding about the classification of pulp inflammation

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    Trijoedani Widodo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Since most authors use the reversible pulpitis and irreversible pulpitis classification, however, many dentists still do not implement these new classifications. Research was made using a descriptive method by proposing questionnaire to dentists from various dental clinics. The numbers of the dentists participating in this research are 22 dentists. All respondents use the diagnosis sheet during their examinations on patients. Nonetheless, it can't be known what diagnosis card used and most of the dentists are still using the old classification. Concerning responses given towards the new classification: a the new classification had been heard, however, it was not clear (36.3%; b the new classification has never been heard at all (63.6%. Then, responses concerning whether a new development is important to be followed-up or not: a there are those who think that information concerning new development is very important (27.2%; b those who feel that it is important to have new information (68.3%; c those who think that new information is not important (8%. It concluded that information concerning the development of classification of pulp inflammation did not reach the dentists.

  10. The postprandial situation as a pro-inflammatory condition.

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    de Vries, Marijke A; Klop, Boudewijn; Eskes, Silvia A; van der Loos, Theo L J M; Klessens-Godfroy, Françoise J M; Wiebolt, Janneke; Janssen, Hans W; Westerman, Elsbeth M; Castro Cabezas, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial lipemia has been associated with cardiovascular disease. The current pathophysiological concept is that postprandial remnant lipoproteins migrate into the subendothelial space and that remnants activate circulating leukocytes and endothelial cells. Activated monocytes adhere to endothelial adhesion molecules, facilitating subendothelial migration of monocytes. These cells differentiate into macrophages, with the risk of foam cell formation, due to uptake of remnants and modified lipoproteins. Evidence is emerging that specific interventions may reduce the atherogenic postprandial inflammation. Fruits rich in polyphenols, virgin olive oil, carotenoids and exercise have recently been found to reduce postprandial inflammation. Pharmaceutical interventions with fibrates or statins not only improve the overall lipid profile, but reduce postprandial inflammation as well. This review will deal with the current concept of postprandial inflammation in relation to the development of atherosclerosis and potential interventions to reduce postprandial inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. The contributions of fasting and postprandial blood glucose increments to oxidative stress and inflammation in dyslipidemic type 2 diabetic patients with stable ischemic heart disease.

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    Djindjic, Boris; Kostic, Tomislav; Radovanovic, Zoran; Djindjic, Natasa; Lazovic, Marko; Zivic, Misko; Perisic, Zoran; Krstic, Nebojsa

    2017-01-15

    Contributions of fasting and postprandial blood glucose increments on level of inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (IHD) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) was evaluated. Ninety T2DM patients (60 with IHD and 30 without IHD) treated with metformin and/or sulphonylurea were enrolled in cross-sectional nested case-control clinical study. The areas under the six-point daily glucose curve above the fasting glucose concentrations (AUCpp) and over 5.5mmol/L (AUCbg) were calculated to determine postprandial (AUCpp) and fasting (AUCbg-AUCpp) glucose increments. Malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl group (PCO), fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (hsCRP), leukocyte count and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were determined. AUCbg-AUCpp 58.2 (95%CI 40.6-75.8) was higher in IHD group compared to non-IHD 36.9 (95%CI 23.5-50.2) mmol*h/L. They had significantly higher ICAM-1 (mean±SD) 72.70±30.6 vs. 60.22±22.6ng/mL and MDA 16.47±4.5 vs. 13.42±4.01μmol/g plasma proteins, but similar PCO, VCAM-1, fibrinogen, hsCRP concentration and leukocyte count. AUCpp positively correlated with MDA (r=0.45) and ICAM-1 (r=0.32) in the presence of IHD, and VCAM-1 (r=0.44) in the absence of IHD. AUCbg-AUCpp positively correlated with PCO (r=0.45) in the absence of IHD. The analysis revealed that AUCpp over turning point of 0mmol*h/L was associated with high MDA and ICAM-1 expression in diabetics with IHD. AUCbg-AUCpp over 30mmol*h/L leads to high oxidative protein modification in diabetics without IHD. In T2DM patients with stable IHD, AUCpp at any point, significantly contributes to increasing of MDA and ICAM-1 expression. Fasting blood glucose increment showed significant correlation with carbonyl content in diabetics without IHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Contribution of proteomics to our understanding of periodontal inflammation.

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    Bostanci, Nagihan; Bao, Kai

    2017-02-01

    Periodontal diseases entail the inflammatory destruction of the tooth supporting (periodontal) tissues and may eventually lead tooth loss. Severe periodontal disease (or periodontitis) affects approximately 10% of the global population. Periodontitis not only severely deteriorates people's quality of life by impairing the dentition but also adversely affects systemic health. The present review paper highlights the advancements made in our understanding of inflammatory periodontal diseases by the use of proteomic technologies. The novel information comes from both clinical and in vitro studies, the former investigating samples of saliva and gingival crevicular fluid in patients with periodontal disease, whereas the latter utilizing host cell/tissue-bacteria/biofilm interaction models of relevance to periodontal disease. A broad range of information on protein profiles can be obtained, which is useful, however needs to be individually validated by golden-standard sensitive antibody-based methods. The development of the employed proteomic platform technologies will help complete in breadth and in depth the protein profiles of periodontal disease. The so-far collected data highlights the importance of moving away from the concept of a handful of proteins being responsible for the pathogenesis of the disease, and start to accept that there are "signatures" of proteins and associated pathways that lead to this. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. No effect of anti-inflammatory medication on postprandial and postexercise muscle protein synthesis in elderly men with slightly elevated systemic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Kasper Juel; Reitelseder, Søren; Malmgaard-Clausen, Nikolai Mølkjær

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, some individuals develop slightly increased inflammation as they age. In elderly inflamed rats, the muscle response to protein feeding is impaired, whereas it can be maintained by treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...... increase in systemic inflammation does not affect the basal myofibrillar FSR or the myofibrillar FSR responses, which suggests that elderly individuals with slightly increased inflammation can benefit from protein ingestion and resistance exercise to stimulate muscle protein anabolism. Moreover, the NSAID...

  14. Smoking, inflammatory patterns, and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia

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    Background: Smoking is associated with increased postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PPT). Inflammation and insulin resistance are potential "drivers" for this phenomenon. We tested whether inflammatory patterns and/or insulin resistance explain the effect of smoking on PPT. Methods: Men and women i...

  15. Postprandial Hyperlipidemia and Remnant Lipoproteins

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    Yamashita, Shizuya

    2017-01-01

    Fasting hypertriglyceridemia is positively associated with the morbidity of coronary heart disease (CHD), and postprandial (non-fasting) hypertriglyceridemia is also correlated with the risk status for CHD, which is related to the increase in chylomicron (CM) remnant lipoproteins produced from the intestine. CM remnant particles, as well as oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) or very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants, are highly atherogenic and act by enhancing systemic inflammation, platelet activation, coagulation, thrombus formation, and macrophage foam cell formation. The cholesterol levels of remnant lipoproteins significantly correlate with small, dense LDL; impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and CHD prevalence. We have developed an assay of apolipoprotein (apo)B-48 levels to evaluate the accumulation of CM remnants. Fasting apoB-48 levels correlate with the morbidity of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, type III hyperlipoproteinemia, the metabolic syndrome, hypothyroidism, chronic kidney disease, and IGT. Fasting apoB-48 levels also correlate with carotid intima-media thickening and CHD prevalence, and a high apoB-48 level is a significant predictor of CHD risk, independent of the fasting TG level. Diet interventions, such as dietary fibers, polyphenols, medium-chain fatty acids, diacylglycerol, and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), ameliorate postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, moreover, drugs for dyslipidemia (n-3 PUFA, statins, fibrates or ezetimibe) and diabetes concerning incretins (dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitor or glucagon like peptide-1 analogue) may improve postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. Since the accumulation of CM remnants correlates to impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and atherosclerotic cardiovascular events, further studies are required to investigate the characteristics, physiological activities, and functions of CM remnants for the development of new interventions to reduce atherogenicity. PMID

  16. [Understanding and treatment strategy of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease based on chronic inflammation].

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    Murakami, Tomohiko

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged inflammation continuously promotes the infiltration of macrophages in the organization and chronically induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IL-1. In periodontal tissues, these inflammatory cytokines enhance the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts, which cause destruction of the alveolar bone. Therefore, inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production leads to the prevention or treatment of periodontal disease. IL-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that strongly enhances the bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts. Elucidation of mechanisms for the production of IL-1 is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. This paper reviews recent findings of the molecular mechanisms regulating IL-1 production and focuses on inflammasome.

  17. Understanding Post-Prandial Hyperglycemia in Patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: A Web-based Survey in Germany, the UK, and USA

    OpenAIRE

    Brod, Meryl; Nikolajsen, Annie; Weatherall, James; Pfeiffer, Kathryn M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To explore how patients with diabetes experience post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPH) or elevated blood glucose (BG) following a meal. Methods A web-based survey of patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes using bolus insulin in Germany, the USA, and the UK was conducted. Results A total of 906 respondents completed the survey. PPH was a frequent occurrence among patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; 61.9% of respondents had experienced PPH in the past week, and differences by di...

  18. Postprandial hypoglycemic syndrome

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    Т.V. Chaychenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial hypoglycemic syndrome, or reactive hypoglycemia, — vegetative symptoms, such as weakness, fatigue, hunger, nausea, palpitations, anxiety, tremor, sweating occurring one to two hours after ingestion. The syndrome is poorly described in literature and most of the information is disparate. Laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of postprandial reactive hypoglycemia are quite controversial, but most authors tend to consider that it is a blood glucose level, which is below 3.9 mmol/l for two hours after meal. Hypoglycemia is an unbalance between glucose influx to the circulation (from endogenous glucose production or exogenous glucose delivery and glucose efflux. The balance between glucose intake and consumption is controlled by a complex balance of glycoregulatory hormones. Insulin, glucagon and adrenaline are effective for several minutes, but cortisol and growth hormone — for seve-ral hours. This explains the presence of immediate and delayed various effects: adrenergic, neuroglycopenic ones and gastroin-testinal discomfort. Postprandial syndrome mechanisms are similar to post-gastric bypass patients with morbid obesity. The most likely cause of reactive hypoglycemia is post-prandial hypersecretion of insulin under the influence of glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, which is a component of the enteroendocrine system and acts at the cephalic phase of satiety. Both post-gastric bypass and relatively healthy individuals have symptoms after the meal rich of simple carbohydrates. Symptoms could be effectively reduced by low glycemic index diet rich of dietary fibers. When the effect is insufficient, it is recommended to use acarbose as an α-glucosidase inhibitor, which is the main stimulation of GLP-1 secretion. Thus, obesity epidemics based on the inadequate nutritional habits in the children makes the postprandial syndrome feasible, and it requires further studies. At the same time, healthy diet can significantly improve

  19. Effect of Dietary Lipids on Endotoxemia Influences Postprandial Inflammatory Response.

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    López-Moreno, Javier; García-Carpintero, Sonia; Jimenez-Lucena, Rosa; Haro, Carmen; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A; Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Tinahones, Francisco J; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Roche, Helen M; López-Miranda, José; Camargo, Antonio

    2017-09-06

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) results in postprandial metabolic alterations that predisposes one to a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and increased oxidative stress. We aimed to assess the effect of the consumption of the quantity and quality of dietary fat on fasting and postprandial plasma lipopolysaccharides (LPS). A subgroup of 75 subjects with metabolic syndrome was randomized to receive 1 of 4 diets: HSFA, rich in saturated fat; HMUFA, rich in monounsaturated fat; LFHCC n-3, low-fat, rich in complex carbohydrate diet supplemented with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; LFHCC low-fat, rich in complex carbohydrate diet supplemented with placebo, for 12 weeks each. We administered a fat challenge reflecting the fatty acid composition of the diets at postintervention. We determined the plasma lipoproteins and glucose and gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and adipose tissue. LPS and LPS binding protein (LBP) plasma levels were determined by ELISA, at fasting and postprandial (4 h after a fat challenge) states. We observed a postprandial increase in LPS levels after the intake of the HSFA meal, whereas we did not find any postprandial changes after the intake of the other three diets. Moreover, we found a positive relationship between the LPS plasma levels and the gene expression of IkBa and MIF1 in PBMC. No statistically significant differences in the LBP plasma levels at fasting or postprandial states were observed. Our results suggest that the consumption of HSFA diet increases the intestinal absorption of LPS which, in turn, increases postprandial endotoxemia levels and the postprandial inflammatory response.

  20. Recent advances in understanding the roles of vascular endothelial cells in allergic inflammation.

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    Shoda, Tetsuo; Futamura, Kyoko; Orihara, Kanami; Emi-Sugie, Maiko; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji; Matsuda, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Allergic disorders commonly involve both chronic tissue inflammation and remodeling caused by immunological reactions to various antigens on tissue surfaces. Due to their anatomical location, vascular endothelial cells are the final responders to interact with various exogenous factors that come into contact with the epithelial surface, such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and antigens. Recent studies have shed light on the important roles of endothelial cells in the development and exacerbation of allergic disorders. For instance, endothelial cells have the greatest potential to produce several key molecules that are deeply involved in allergic inflammation, such as periostin and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17). Additionally, endothelial cells were recently shown to be important functional targets for IL-33--an essential regulator of allergic inflammation. Notably, almost all endothelial cell responses and functions involved in allergic inflammation are not suppressed by corticosteroids. These corticosteroid-refractory endothelial cell responses and functions include TNF-α-associated angiogenesis, leukocyte adhesion, IL-33-mediated responses and periostin and TARC production. Therefore, these unique responses and functions of endothelial cells may be critically involved in the pathogenesis of various allergic disorders, especially their refractory processes. Here, we review recent studies, including ours, which have elucidated previously unknown pathophysiological roles of vascular endothelial cells in allergic inflammation and discuss the possibility of endothelium-targeted therapy for allergic disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding Post-Prandial Hyperglycemia in Patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: A Web-based Survey in Germany, the UK, and USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Meryl; Nikolajsen, Annie; Weatherall, James; Pfeiffer, Kathryn M

    2016-06-01

    To explore how patients with diabetes experience post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPH) or elevated blood glucose (BG) following a meal. A web-based survey of patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes using bolus insulin in Germany, the USA, and the UK was conducted. A total of 906 respondents completed the survey. PPH was a frequent occurrence among patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; 61.9% of respondents had experienced PPH in the past week, and differences by diabetes type were not significant. More than half of the respondents reported that they knew they were experiencing PPH because they had measured their BG (64.8%) and/or because they "just didn't feel right" (51.9%). The most frequently reported reasons given for PPH were eating more fat/sugar than estimated (31.2%) and over-eating in terms of their calculated bolus insulin dose (30.4%). The most common situations/factors contributing to PPH were stress (27.4%), eating at a restaurant (24.9%), being busy (21.1%), and/or feeling tired (19.2%). The most frequent corrective actions respondents took following PPH were testing BG and taking bolus insulin based on the reading (62.0%), and/or eating less/more carefully at their next meal or snack (18.8%). Additionally, significant differences in the reasons and contributing factors given for PPH and corrective actions following PPH, as well as emotions experienced when taking bolus insulin, were found by diabetes type. These findings shed light on how patients with diabetes experience and manage PPH on a day-to-day basis and have implications for improving diabetes self-management. Clinicians and diabetes educators should help patients address eating habits and lifestyle issues that may contribute to PPH. This study was sponsored by Novo Nordisk.

  2. Definition of postprandial lipaemia.

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    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bilianou, Helen; Panotopoulos, George

    2011-05-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by non-fasting hypertriglyceridaemia that is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. This review considers the definition of PPL and the methodology for assessing this process.

  3. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized...... by non-fasting hypertriglyceridaemia that is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. This review considers the definition of PPL and the methodology for assessing this process....

  4. Understanding the impact of infection, inflammation and their persistence in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia

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    Jherna eBalany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concerted interaction of genetic and environmental factors act on the preterm human immature lung with inflammation being the common denominator leading to the multifactorial origin of the most common chronic lung disease in infants – bronchopulmonary dysplasia or BPD. Adverse perinatal exposure to infection/inflammation with added insults like invasive mechanical ventilation, exposure to hyperoxia and sepsis causes persistent immune dysregulation. In this review article we have attempted to analyze and consolidate current knowledge about the role played by persistent prenatal and postnatal inflammation in the pathogenesis of BPD. While some parameters of the early inflammatory response (neutrophils, cytokines etc. may not be detectable after days to weeks of exposure to noxious stimuli, they have already initiated the signaling pathways of the inflammatory process / immune cascade and have affected permanent defects structurally and functionally in the BPD lungs. Hence translational research aimed at prevention / amelioration of BPD needs to focus on dampening the inflammatory response at an early stage to prevent the cascade of events leading to lung injury with impaired healing resulting in the pathologic pulmonary phenotype of alveolar simplification and dysregulated vascularization characteristic of BPD.

  5. Understanding the Impact of Infection, Inflammation, and Their Persistence in the Pathogenesis of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balany, Jherna; Bhandari, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    The concerted interaction of genetic and environmental factors acts on the preterm human immature lung with inflammation being the common denominator leading to the multifactorial origin of the most common chronic lung disease in infants - -bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Adverse perinatal exposure to infection/inflammation with added insults like invasive mecha nical ventilation, exposure to hyperoxia, and sepsis causes persistent immune dysregulation. In this review article, we have attempted to analyze and consolidate current knowledge about the role played by persistent prenatal and postnatal inflammation in the pathogenesis of BPD. While some parameters of the early inflammatory response (neutrophils, cytokines, etc.) may not be detectable after days to weeks of exposure to noxious stimuli, they have already initiated the signaling pathways of the inflammatory process/immune cascade and have affected permanent defects structurally and functionally in the BPD lungs. Hence, translational research aimed at prevention/amelioration of BPD needs to focus on dampening the inflammatory response at an early stage to prevent the cascade of events leading to lung injury with impaired healing resulting in the pathologic pulmonary phenotype of alveolar simplification and dysregulated vascularization characteristic of BPD.

  6. Inflammation and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Inflammation and Heart Disease Updated:Jun 13,2017 Understand the risks of inflammation. Although it is not proven that inflammation causes ...

  7. Postprandial lipaemia and vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Genovefa; Ooi, Teik Chye

    2013-07-01

    In this review we discuss the postprandial pathophysiological mechanisms that promote vascular disease, the evidence for a role of postprandial lipaemia (PPL) in vascular disease and the effect of modifiable and nonmodifiable factors in PPL. PPL refers to the dynamic changes in serum lipids and lipoproteins (mainly in serum triglycerides) that occur after a fat load or a meal. Recent data indicate that postprandial or nonfasting triglyceride levels are better predictors of cardiovascular risk, suggesting that efficiency of postprandial handling of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins plays a role in the causation of vascular disease. The recent finding that postprandial serum triglyceride levels are even better than fasting serum triglyceride levels as predictors of vascular disease indicate that it is better to measure an index of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (in most cases serum triglyceride levels) in the postprandial period than in the postabsorptive fasting state. Moreover, by the time the postabsorptive state is reached, some of these proatherogenic triglyceride-rich lipoprotein changes may be missed in the measurement.

  8. Methods to study postprandial lipemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Teik Chye; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Postprandial lipemia (PPL) refers to a dynamic sequence of plasma lipid/lipoprotein changes induced by ingestion of food. PPL results from absorption of digested dietary lipids which form chylomicrons (CM) and increased hepatic production of VLDL, stimulated by increased delivery of fats...... such as the amount and type of food consumed, and (b) endogenous factors such as the metabolic/genetic status of the subjects, on PPL. To study PPL appropriately, different methods are used to suit the study goal. This paper provides an overview of the methodological aspects of PPL testing. It deals with markers...... of postprandial lipoproteins, testing conditions and protocols and interpretation of postprandial data. The influence of the meal itself will not be discussed as it is the subject of another paper in this series....

  9. Postprandial Endotoxemia Linked With Chylomicrons and Lipopolysaccharides Handling in Obese Versus Lean Men: A Lipid Dose-Effect Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vors, Cécile; Pineau, Gaëlle; Drai, Jocelyne; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Pesenti, Sandra; Laville, Martine; Laugerette, Fabienne; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne; Vidal, Hubert; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2015-09-01

    Postprandial endotoxemia is a metabolic risk factor, which has been shown to originate from the intestinal absorption of gut lipopolysaccharides (LPS) using nonphysiological high-fat tests. This study aimed to determine whether different realistic fat amounts can modulate postprandial dynamics and handling of LPS by varying postprandial lipidemia in humans of different body mass indices. In a randomized, controlled, cross-over study in nutrition research center, eight normal-weight (NW) and eight obese age-matched men, without diabetes nor dyslipidemia, ingested breakfasts containing 10 vs 40 g fat. Blood samples, leukocytes, and chylomicron-rich fractions were obtained during 8 h. Plasma and chylomicron-endotoxemia, plasma LPS transporters (LBP, sCD14) and IL-6, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) translocation, and IL-6 gene expression of immune cells were measured. The postprandial fatty acid handling after ingesting 40 g fat was previously published as primary outcome. The secondary outcomes were inflammatory ones including postprandial endotoxemia, LPS handling, and plasma markers of inflammation after ingesting 10 or 40 g fat. Chylomicronemia increased in all subjects according to ingested fat amount (P postprandial endotoxemia after 40 g (P postprandial response of plasma IL-6. However, the area under the curve (AUC) of IL-6 in obese was higher than in NW (P Postprandial endotoxemia is modulated by ingested fat amount in obese men. LPS handling in plasma through chylomicrons and LBP seems critical in driving the acute inflammatory response. The pathophysiological importance of repeated postprandial endotoxemia excursions and their contribution to a vicious cycle of LBP-driven low-grade inflammation deserve further investigation in the nutritional management of cardio-metabolic risk prevention.

  10. Breaking Up Prolonged Sitting Alters the Postprandial Plasma Lipidomic Profile of Adults With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Megan S; Dempsey, Paddy C; Sethi, Parneet; Mundra, Piyushkumar A; Mellett, Natalie A; Weir, Jacquelyn M; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W; Meikle, Peter J; Kingwell, Bronwyn A

    2017-06-01

    Postprandial dysmetabolism in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is exacerbated by prolonged sitting and may trigger inflammation and oxidative stress. It is unknown what impact countermeasures to prolonged sitting have on the postprandial lipidome. In this study, we investigated the effects of regular interruptions to sitting, compared with prolonged sitting, on the postprandial plasma lipidome. Randomized crossover experimental trial. Participants underwent three 7-hour conditions: uninterrupted sitting (SIT); light-intensity walking interruptions (LW); and simple resistance activity interruptions (SRA). Baseline (fasting) and 7-hour (postprandial) plasma samples from 21 inactive overweight/obese adults with T2D were analyzed for 338 lipid species using mass spectrometry. Using mixed model analysis (controlling for baseline outcome variable, gender, body mass index, and condition order), the percentage change in lipid species (baseline to 7 hours) was compared between conditions with Benjamini-Hochberg correction. Thirty-seven lipids were different between conditions (P postprandial elevations in diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, and phosphatidylethanolamines were attenuated in LW and SRA. Plasmalogens and lysoalkylphosphatidylcholines were reduced in SIT, compared with attenuated reductions or elevations in LW and SRA. Phosphatidylserines were elevated with LW, compared with reductions in SIT and SRA. Compared with SIT, LW and SRA were associated with reductions in lipids associated with inflammation; increased concentrations of lipids associated with antioxidant capacity; and differential changes in species associated with platelet activation. Acutely interrupting prolonged sitting time may impart beneficial effects on the postprandial plasma lipidome of adults with T2D. Evidence on longer-term intervention is needed. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  11. Metabolomics reveals differences in postprandial responses to breads and fasting metabolic characteristics associated with postprandial insulin demand in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzami, Ali A; Shrestha, Aahana; Morrison, David A; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2014-06-01

    Changes in serum metabolic profile after the intake of different food products (e.g., bread) can provide insight into their interaction with human metabolism. Postprandial metabolic responses were compared after the intake of refined wheat (RWB), whole-meal rye (WRB), and refined rye (RRB) breads. In addition, associations between the metabolic profile in fasting serum and the postprandial concentration of insulin in response to different breads were investigated. Nineteen postmenopausal women with normal fasting glucose and normal glucose tolerance participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover meal study. The test breads, RWB (control), RRB, and WRB, providing 50 g of available carbohydrate, were each served as a single meal. The postprandial metabolic profile was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance and targeted LC-mass spectrometry and was compared between different breads using ANOVA and multivariate models. Eight amino acids had a significant treatment effect (P effect (P fasting metabolic profile and the postprandial concentration of insulin. Women with higher fasting concentrations of leucine and isoleucine and lower fasting concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines had higher insulin responses despite similar glucose concentration after all kinds of bread (cross-validated ANOVA, P = 0.048). High blood concentration of branched-chain amino acids, i.e., leucine and isoleucine, has been associated with the increased risk of diabetes, which suggests that additional consideration should be given to bread proteins in understanding the beneficial health effects of different kinds of breads. The present study suggests that the fasting metabolic profile can be used to characterize the postprandial insulin demand in individuals with normal glucose metabolism that can be used for establishing strategies for the stratification of individuals in personalized nutrition. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Postprandial hyperglycemia impairs vascular endothelial function in healthy men by inducing lipid peroxidation and increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine:arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Eunice; Noh, Sang K; Ballard, Kevin D; Matos, Manuel E; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2011-11-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia induces vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and increases future cardiovascular disease risk. We hypothesized that postprandial hyperglycemia would decrease vascular function in healthy men by inducing oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses and increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine:arginine (ADMA:arginine), a biomarker that is predictive of reduced NO biosynthesis. In a randomized, cross-over design, healthy men (n = 16; 21.6 ± 0.8 y) ingested glucose or fructose (75 g) after an overnight fast. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), plasma glucose and insulin, antioxidants, malondialdehyde (MDA), inflammatory proteins, arginine, and ADMA were measured at regular intervals during the 3-h postprandial period. Baseline FMD did not differ between trials (P > 0.05). Postprandial FMD was reduced following the ingestion of glucose only. Postprandial MDA concentrations increased to a greater extent following the ingestion of glucose compared to fructose. Plasma arginine decreased and the ratio of ADMA:arginine increased to a greater extent following the ingestion of glucose. Inflammatory cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules were unaffected by the ingestion of either sugar. Postprandial AUC(0-3 h) for FMD and MDA were inversely related (r = -0.80; P lipid peroxidation suppresses postprandial vascular function. Collectively, these findings suggest that postprandial hyperglycemia in healthy men reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilation by increasing lipid peroxidation independent of inflammation. Postprandial alterations in arginine and ADMA:arginine also suggest that acute hyperglycemia may induce VED by decreasing NO bioavailability through an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. Additional work is warranted to define whether inhibiting lipid peroxidation and restoring arginine metabolism would mitigate hyperglycemia-mediated decreases in vascular function.

  13. Clinical Considerations and Mechanistic Determinants of Postprandial Lipemia in Older Adults12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanos, Christos S.

    2014-01-01

    The typical diet of individuals in Western societies results in metabolic responses associated with fed-state fat metabolism for most of the daily life of the individual. This fat metabolism is characterized specifically by an increase in the concentration of plasma lipids, primarily triglycerides. Increased postprandial lipemia, which is typically observed in older individuals (i.e., >65 y old), has now emerged as an important correlate of cardiovascular disease risk. An understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the increased postprandial lipemia in older individuals becomes, therefore, of particular clinical importance in any effort to explain and address the well-documented increase in cardiovascular disease risk as individuals age. Current evidence points to an increase in the accumulation of ingested lipid in lipoprotein particles of hepatic origin, together with an overall accumulation of lipid in these lipoproteins during the postprandial period, as primary contributors to the postprandial lipemia in older persons. When this evidence is considered together with the evidence suggesting large atherogenic potential of lipoproteins of hepatic origin, this can, at least in part, explain the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in older individuals. Understanding changes in the metabolism of ingested fat in the immediate postprandial period with advancing age, and how lifestyle interventions such as diet and physical exercise can ameliorate the increase in postprandial lipemia in older individuals, is important in order to address the increased cardiovascular disease risk in this particularly affected and growing segment of the population. PMID:24829469

  14. Clinical considerations and mechanistic determinants of postprandial lipemia in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanos, Christos S

    2014-05-01

    The typical diet of individuals in Western societies results in metabolic responses associated with fed-state fat metabolism for most of the daily life of the individual. This fat metabolism is characterized specifically by an increase in the concentration of plasma lipids, primarily triglycerides. Increased postprandial lipemia, which is typically observed in older individuals (i.e., >65 y old), has now emerged as an important correlate of cardiovascular disease risk. An understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the increased postprandial lipemia in older individuals becomes, therefore, of particular clinical importance in any effort to explain and address the well-documented increase in cardiovascular disease risk as individuals age. Current evidence points to an increase in the accumulation of ingested lipid in lipoprotein particles of hepatic origin, together with an overall accumulation of lipid in these lipoproteins during the postprandial period, as primary contributors to the postprandial lipemia in older persons. When this evidence is considered together with the evidence suggesting large atherogenic potential of lipoproteins of hepatic origin, this can, at least in part, explain the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in older individuals. Understanding changes in the metabolism of ingested fat in the immediate postprandial period with advancing age, and how lifestyle interventions such as diet and physical exercise can ameliorate the increase in postprandial lipemia in older individuals, is important in order to address the increased cardiovascular disease risk in this particularly affected and growing segment of the population. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Hypoglycemic indices of Vernonia amygdalina on postprandial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... with that of another indigenous vegetable also identified to be taken by diabetic patients, Gongronema ... glucose levels were checked at fasting (0 min) and postprandially at 30 min intervals for 2 h. ... most postprandial time points and for area-under-curve (AUC) values: AUC reductions; Vernonia, 15%;.

  16. Model-Based Quantification of the Systemic Interplay between Glucose and Fatty Acids in the Postprandial State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fianne L P Sips

    Full Text Available In metabolic diseases such as Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, the systemic regulation of postprandial metabolite concentrations is disturbed. To understand this dysregulation, a quantitative and temporal understanding of systemic postprandial metabolite handling is needed. Of particular interest is the intertwined regulation of glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, due to the association between disturbed NEFA metabolism and insulin resistance. However, postprandial glucose metabolism is characterized by a dynamic interplay of simultaneously responding regulatory mechanisms, which have proven difficult to measure directly. Therefore, we propose a mathematical modelling approach to untangle the systemic interplay between glucose and NEFA in the postprandial period. The developed model integrates data of both the perturbation of glucose metabolism by NEFA as measured under clamp conditions, and postprandial time-series of glucose, insulin, and NEFA. The model can describe independent data not used for fitting, and perturbations of NEFA metabolism result in an increased insulin, but not glucose, response, demonstrating that glucose homeostasis is maintained. Finally, the model is used to show that NEFA may mediate up to 30-45% of the postprandial increase in insulin-dependent glucose uptake at two hours after a glucose meal. In conclusion, the presented model can quantify the systemic interactions of glucose and NEFA in the postprandial state, and may therefore provide a new method to evaluate the disturbance of this interplay in metabolic disease.

  17. INFLUENCE OF ACARBOSE ON POSTPRANDIAL DYSMETABOLISM: RESULTS OF AN OPEN-LABEL RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ya. Cherniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate postprandial changes of lipid and glucose profiles, inflammation markers levels and flow-mediated vasodilatation in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS and to estimate acarbose course treatment efficacy in glucose intolerant patients.Material and methods. A total of 114 MS patients (83 men, 31 women were examined, MS was associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in 55 cases. At the first stage postpran- dial dynamics of flow-mediated dilation (FMD, lipid profile parameters, inflammation markers and insulin levels were estimated. At the second stage patients with MS and IGT (n=55 were randomly assigned to the two groups of treatment. Patients of the first group (n=28 had non-drug treatment. Patients of the second group (n=27 received acarbose 300 mg/day for 3 months in addition to recommendations for lifestyle change. 3 months later postprandial values of lipid and glucose profiles parameters, inflammation markers levels and FMD were reassessed. Results. MS patients with IGT revealed maximal disorders in metabolic parameters during postprandial period: increase in the plasma levels of total cholesterol by 6.1%, high density lipoproteins – by 1.7%, and triglycerides – by 27.87%, increase in atherogenic index by 4.8%, and plasma concentrations of glucose – by 54.7%, insulin – by 30.2%, HOMA index – by 73.3%, as well as concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP – by 49.7%, tumor necrose factor alpha – by 20.8%, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 – by 51.9%. FMD decreased by 34.3%.After 12 weeks of the acarbose treatment we had revealed positive dynamics of studied indices in postprandial period as compared to an only non-drug management: levels of glucose in- creased by 24.1% vs 44.4%, insulin – by 14.4% vs 24.4%, CRP – by 19.9% vs 36.6%, IL-6 – by 25.1% vs 41.7%; postprandial FMD decreased by 18.9% vs 31.1%.Conclusion. Prescription of acarbose 300 mg/day for 12 weeks in glucose intolerant patients is characterized

  18. Food perception and postprandial lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, M D

    2006-08-30

    The postprandial response to macronutrients in the diet, particularly carbohydrates and fats, underpins the detrimental changes in metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance or postprandial hyperlipaemia) and later pathology (insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes or atherosclerosis) associated with Westernised diets. Research has shown that in addition to what and how much we eat, eating behaviour in itself may be implicated in postprandial regulation. The process of ingestion stimulates cholinergic-vagal activity, irrespective of what is eaten, important in determining both the absorption and subsequent utilisation of nutrients but also potentially food intake through effects on hunger and satiety. Modifications in this aspect of physiology have the potential to influence all aspects of postprandial metabolism and subsequent disease risk in humans.

  19. Postprandial dysmetabolism: Too early or too late?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christos; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Tsirona, Sofia; Kountouras, Dimitrios; Kassi, Georgia; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-07-01

    Postprandial dysmetabolism is a postprandial state characterized by abnormal metabolism of glucose and lipids and, more specifically, of elevated levels of glucose and triglyceride (TG) containing lipoproteins. Since there is evidence that postprandial dysmetabolism is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, due to macro- and microvascular complications, as well as with conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), it is recommended that clinicians be alert for early detection and management of this condition. Management consists of a holistic approach including dietary modification, exercise and use of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic medication aiming to decrease the postprandial values of circulating glucose and triglycerides. This review aims to explain glucose and lipid homeostasis and the impact of postprandial dysmetabolism on the cardiovascular system as well as to offer suggestions with regard to the therapeutic approach for this entity. However, more trials are required to prevent or reverse early and not too late the actual tissue damage due to postprandial dysmetabolism.

  20. Dietary cocoa butter or refined olive oil does not alter postprandial hsCRP and IL-6 concentrations in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholstrup, Tine; Teng, Kim-Tiu; Raff, Marianne

    2011-04-01

    Contrary to other long chain saturated fatty acids (SFA), fats high in stearic acid do not raise plasma cholesterol concentrations, however, a slight elevation in inflammatory markers, plasma fibrinogen and interleukin-6 (IL-6), has been observed in the fasting state. The effect of stearic acid on inflammation in the postprandial state has not yet been reported. We conducted a single blind crossover, randomized, postprandial study to compare the effects of a fat load of cocoa butter high in stearic acid and olive oil in ten healthy women. The test meals contained 1 g of fat per kg body weight (mean 62 g). Blood samples were collected at 0 (fasting), 4 and 6 h. Both diets resulted in a significant increase in serum triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration over time (P = 0.003) and a decrease in serum IL-6 concentration after 4 h followed by an increase to post absorptive values after 6 h (P < 0.001); whereas serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration was not affected. There was no difference between diets in effects on serum TAG, hsCRP and IL-6 concentrations and no association between postprandial lipemia and inflammatory markers. High intake of dietary fats increase postprandial serum TAG, however, may not affect inflammatory markers postprandially. Thus, fat rich in stearic acid does not seem to increase postprandial inflammation.

  1. Risks of Misinterpretation in the Evaluation of the Effect of Fruit-Based Drinks in Postprandial Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Peluso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that some fruit-based drinks (FBD may delay the onset of postprandial stress, which is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases. The majority of the studies, which have investigated the effects of FBD on postprandial stress, involved a placebo that was a drink with the same content in sugars or carbohydrates of the FBD, but without the bioactive antioxidant compounds. These studies were aimed more at evaluating the effect of the antioxidants rather than the effect of the FBD as a whole. Only 4 studies compared the effect of FBD with water as control and did not support the hypothesis that FBD could inhibit postprandial dysmetabolism, as well as the studies that compared the effect of orange juice and cola. Overall, the results suggest a complex relationship between postprandial dysmetabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the inflammatory and oxidative stress markers need further analytical validation and normal ranges should be established in order to reach a firm conclusion. Finally, caution should be taken in the interpretation of the effect of FBD in postprandial studies and the reviewed results suggest that dietary recommendations should aim to limit rather than increase sugar-sweetened beverages consumption.

  2. Introduction to the DISRUPT postprandial database: subjects, studies and methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Kim G.; Clarke, Dave T.; Murray, Peter; Lovegrove, Julie A.; O’Malley, Brendan; Minihane, Anne M.; Williams, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism in the postprandial state are recognised as important risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to create a comprehensive, standardised database of postprandial studies to provide insights into the physiological factors that influence postprandial lipid and glucose responses. Data were collated from subjects (n = 467) taking part in single and sequential meal postprandial studies conducted by...

  3. Postprandial Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia in Bariatric Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heide, L. J.M.; Emous, M.; van Beek, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (PHH) is a complication of bariatric surgery, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The true incidence is not known as the definition of PHH is not clear. Continuous glucose monitoring shows a prevalence of hypoglycemia in 75% of patients, with only 1 in 5

  4. Retroperitoneal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001255.htm Retroperitoneal inflammation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Retroperitoneal inflammation is swelling that occurs in the retroperitoneal space. ...

  5. Casein Compared with Whey Proteins Affects the Organization of Dietary Fat during Digestion and Attenuates the Postprandial Triglyceride Response to a Mixed High-Fat Meal in Healthy, Overweight Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, François; Valette, Marion; Lopez, Christelle; Fouillet, Hélène; Famelart, Marie-Hélène; Mathé, Véronique; Airinei, Gheorghe; Benamouzig, Robert; Gaudichon, Claire; Tomé, Daniel; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Huneau, Jean François

    2015-12-01

    Postprandial lipemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The potential impacts of the type/nature of dietary protein on postprandial lipemia and associated dysregulations have been insufficiently investigated. We investigated the postprandial effect of including in a high-fat meal some milk protein fractions that markedly differ in their physicochemical properties and composition [either casein (CAS), whey protein (WHE), or α-lactalbumin-enriched whey protein (LAC)]. The protein fractions were incorporated as 15% energy in a high-fat meal in a 3-period, crossover postprandial study of 10 healthy overweight men with an elevated waist circumference (>94 cm). We measured postprandial changes in plasma lipids, amino acids, glucose, and oxidative stress markers, vascular function (using pulse contour analysis), and low-grade inflammation (using plasma markers). We also characterized in vitro the meal structures, including the size of the fat globule, and possible changes during digestion. The type of protein did not affect postprandial plasma glucose, amino acids, insulin, or nonesterified fatty acids, but, compared with WHE and LAC, which did not differ, CAS markedly reduced postprandial triglycerides (TGs), achieving a 22 ± 10% reduction in the 6-h area under the curve (P postprandial oxidative stress (plasma hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde), endothelial dysfunction (salbutamol-induced changes in pulse contour analysis), or low-grade inflammation. In vitro studies showed that when the pH of the meal decreased to stomach pH values, the reduction in the solubility of casein resulted in a phase separation between fat and protein, whereas the proteins in the other meals remained suspended with fat globules. In healthy overweight men, casein has specific physical interactions with fat that affect postprandial TGs, leading to the formation of fewer chylomicrons or an increase in chylomicron clearance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  6. Dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA reduces weight gain and improves postprandial lipaemia and the associated inflammatory response in the obese JCR:LA-cp rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanali, Z; Ametaj, B N; Field, C J; Proctor, S D; Vine, D F

    2010-02-01

    Postprandial dyslipidaemia occurs in obesity and insulin resistance (IR), and is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. We have recently established that the JCR:LA-cp rodent model develops postprandial dyslipidaemia concomitant with complications of the metabolic syndrome. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are proposed to modulate plasma lipids, serum hormone levels, lipoprotein metabolism and the inflammatory state; however, results remain inconsistent during conditions of IR. To assess the acute metabolic and inflammatory effects of dietary fish oil supplementation on existing postprandial dyslipidaemia in the JCR:LA-cp model. JCR:LA-cp rats (14 weeks of age) were fed either a control, isocaloric, lipid balanced diet (15% w/w total fat, 1.0% cholesterol, P:S ratio 0.4), a lipid balanced diet with 5% n-3 PUFA [fish oil derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] or a lipid balanced diet with 10% n-3 PUFA for 3 weeks. Fasting plasma lipid, cytokine levels, postprandial chylomicron (apoB48) metabolism and the postprandial inflammatory response [haptoglobin and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP)] were assessed following a standardized 'oral fat challenge'. n-3 PUFA treatment resulted in a significant improvement (i.e. decrease) in the postprandial response for triglyceride (45%) (p postprandial haptoglobin (165%) (p postprandial lipid metabolism and components of the associated inflammatory response in the JCR:LA-cp rat. Further, moderate dose n-3 PUFA supplementation may reduce corresponding body weight during conditions of hypercholesterolaemia and/or modulate inflammation associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

  7. Hypoxia and Mucosal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Sean P.; Campbell, Eric L.; Kominsky, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Sites of inflammation are defined by significant changes in metabolic activity. Recent studies have suggested that O2 metabolism and hypoxia play a prominent role in inflammation so-called “inflammatory hypoxia,” which results from a combination of recruited inflammatory cells (e.g., neutrophils and monocytes), the local proliferation of multiple cell types, and the activation of multiple O2-consuming enzymes during inflammation. These shifts in energy supply and demand result in localized regions of hypoxia and have revealed the important function off the transcription factor HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) in the regulation of key target genes that promote inflammatory resolution. Analysis of these pathways has provided multiple opportunities for understanding basic mechanisms of inflammation and has defined new targets for intervention. Here, we review recent work addressing tissue hypoxia and metabolic control of inflammation and immunity. PMID:27193451

  8. Exercise and Dietary-Mediated Reductions in Postprandial Lipemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisance, Eric P.; Fisher, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipemia produces long-term derangements in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism, vascular endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and sympathetic hyperactivity which are strongly linked to atherogenesis. The purpose of this review is to (1) provide a qualitative analysis of the available literature examining the dysregulation of postprandial lipid metabolism in the presence of obesity, (2) inspect the role of adiposity distribution and sex on postprandial lipid metabolism, and (3) examine the role of energy deficit (exercise- and/or energy restriction-mediated), isoenergetic low-carbohydrate diets, and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid supplementation on postprandial lipid metabolism. We conclude from the literature that central adiposity primarily accounts for sex-related differences in postprandial lipemia and that aerobic exercise attenuates this response in obese or lean men and women to a similar extent through potentially unique mechanisms. In contrast, energy restriction produces only mild reductions in postprandial lipemia suggesting that exercise may be superior to energy restriction alone as a strategy for lowering postprandial lipemia. However, isoenergetic very low-carbohydrate diets and n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduce postprandial lipemia indicating that macronutrient manipulations reduce postprandial lipemia in the absence of energy restriction. Therefore, interactions between exercise/energy restriction and alterations in macronutrient content remain top priorities for the field to identify optimal behavioral treatments to reduce postprandial lipemia. PMID:25061524

  9. Exercise and Dietary-Mediated Reductions in Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. Plaisance

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial hyperlipemia produces long-term derangements in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism, vascular endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and sympathetic hyperactivity which are strongly linked to atherogenesis. The purpose of this review is to (1 provide a qualitative analysis of the available literature examining the dysregulation of postprandial lipid metabolism in the presence of obesity, (2 inspect the role of adiposity distribution and sex on postprandial lipid metabolism, and (3 examine the role of energy deficit (exercise- and/or energy restriction-mediated, isoenergetic low-carbohydrate diets, and omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid supplementation on postprandial lipid metabolism. We conclude from the literature that central adiposity primarily accounts for sex-related differences in postprandial lipemia and that aerobic exercise attenuates this response in obese or lean men and women to a similar extent through potentially unique mechanisms. In contrast, energy restriction produces only mild reductions in postprandial lipemia suggesting that exercise may be superior to energy restriction alone as a strategy for lowering postprandial lipemia. However, isoenergetic very low-carbohydrate diets and n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduce postprandial lipemia indicating that macronutrient manipulations reduce postprandial lipemia in the absence of energy restriction. Therefore, interactions between exercise/energy restriction and alterations in macronutrient content remain top priorities for the field to identify optimal behavioral treatments to reduce postprandial lipemia.

  10. Postprandial changes in plasma acylcarnitine concentrations as markers of fatty acid flux in overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Roman, Maria A; Sweetman, Lawrence; Valdez, Maressa J; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2012-02-01

    This study determined whether reductions in postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acid (FFA) flux would lead to reductions in plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentrations. Plasma AC was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the fasting state and over 6 hours after a high-fat (50% energy) meal was fed to 16 overweight and obese subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivities. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by insulin-modified, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test; substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry; blood metabolite and hormone concentrations biochemically; and fatty acid flux by using stable isotope tracers. Lean body mass and fasting fat oxidation correlated positively (r > 0.522, P 0.515, P Conditions that impact fatty acid flux contribute to the control of postprandial plasma AC concentrations. These data underscore the need for a better understanding of postprandial fatty acid oxidation and dietary fat delivery in the setting of adipose insulin resistance to determine how postprandial lipemia contributes to chronic disease risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Does chronic physical activity level modify the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the postprandial period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Stephanie P; Rosenkranz, Sara K; Chapes, Stephen K; Teeman, Colby S; Cull, Brooke J; Emerson, Sam R; Levitt, Morton H; Smith, Joshua R; Harms, Craig A

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that a single high-fat meal (HFM) leads to increased airway inflammation. However, exercise is a natural anti-inflammatory and may modify postprandial airway inflammation. The postprandial airway inflammatory response is likely to be modified by chronic physical activity (PA) level. This study investigated whether chronic PA modifies the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the postprandial period in both insufficiently active and active subjects. Thirty-nine nonasthmatic subjects (20 active, 13 males/7 females) who exceeded PA guidelines (≥150 min moderate-vigorous PA/week) and 19 insufficiently active (6 males/13 females) underwent an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion to determine peak oxygen uptake. Subjects were then randomized to a condition (COND), either remaining sedentary (CON) or exercising (EX) post-HFM. Exercise was performed at the heart rate corresponding to 60% peak oxygen uptake on a treadmill for 1 h post-HFM (63% fat, 10 kcal/kg body weight). Blood lipids and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO: marker of airway inflammation) were measured at baseline and 2 h and 4 h post-HFM. Sputum differential cell counts were performed at baseline and 4 h post-HFM. The mean eNO response for all groups increased at 2 h post-HFM (∼6%) and returned to baseline by 4 h (p = 0.03). There was a time × COND interaction (p = 0.04), where EX had a greater eNO response at 4 h compared with CON. Sputum neutrophils increased at 4 h post-HFM (p postprandial period, regardless of habitual activity level.

  12. Exercise and Dietary-Mediated Reductions in Postprandial Lipemia

    OpenAIRE

    Plaisance, Eric P.; Fisher, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipemia produces long-term derangements in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism, vascular endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and sympathetic hyperactivity which are strongly linked to atherogenesis. The purpose of this review is to (1) provide a qualitative analysis of the available literature examining the dysregulation of postprandial lipid metabolism in the presence of obesity, (2) inspect the role of adiposity distribution and sex on postprandial lipid metabolism, and ...

  13. Postprandial hyperglykaemi. Postprandiale blodglukosesvingninger og kardiovaskulaer sygdom samt sendiabetiske komplikationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten; Brock, Birgitte; Schmitz, Ole

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that postprandial hyperglycaemia may be a unique risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease, although the predictive value has been minor or disappeared after compensation for other cardiovascular risk factors. Pathophysiological studies have demo...... have focused on specific treatment of postprandial hyperglycaemia. Therefore, the importance of postprandial hyperglycaemia for development of diabetic complications and atherosclerosis is unclear.......Epidemiological studies have suggested that postprandial hyperglycaemia may be a unique risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease, although the predictive value has been minor or disappeared after compensation for other cardiovascular risk factors. Pathophysiological studies have...

  14. Postprandial VLDL-TG metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Johansen, Rakel Fuglsang; Jensen, Michael D; Nielsen, Søren

    2017-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with excess postprandial lipemia due to accumulation of chylomicrons and VLDL particles. This is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. However, whether the excess lipemia is associated with an impaired suppression of VLDL-TG secretion and/or reduced clearance into adipose tissue is unknown. We measured the postprandial VLDL-TG secretion, clearance and adipose tissue storage to test the hypothesis that impaired postprandial suppression of VLDL-TG secretion, combined with impaired VLDL-TG storage in adipose tissue, is associated with excess postprandial lipemia. We studied 11 men with type 2 diabetes and 10 weight-matched non-diabetic men using ex-vivo labeled VLDL-TG tracers during an oral high-fat mixed-meal tolerance test to measure postprandial VLDL-TG secretion, clearance and storage. In addition, adipose tissue biopsies were analyzed for LPL activity and cellular storage factors. Men with type 2 diabetes had greater postprandial VLDL-TG concentration compared to non-diabetic men. However, postprandial VLDL-TG secretion rate was similar in the two groups with equal suppression of VLDL-TG secretion rate (≈50%) and clearance rate. In addition, postprandial VLDL-TG storage was similar in the two groups in both upper body and lower body subcutaneous adipose tissue. Despite greater postprandial VLDL-TG concentration, men with type 2 diabetes have similar postprandial suppression of VLDL-TG secretion and a similar ability to store VLDL-TG in adipose tissue compared to non-diabetic men. This may indicate that abnormalities in postprandial VLDL-TG metabolism are a consequence of obesity/insulin resistance more than a result of type 2 diabetes per se. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparisons of the Postprandial Inflammatory and Endotoxaemic Responses to Mixed Meals in Young and Older Individuals: A Randomised Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber M. Milan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia are determinants of cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk which are amplified by high fat meals. We aimed to examine the determinants of postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia in older and younger adults following a high fat mixed meal. In a randomised cross-over trial, healthy participants aged 20–25 and 60–75 years (n = 15/group consumed a high-fat breakfast and a low-fat breakfast. Plasma taken at baseline and post-meal for 5 h was analysed for circulating endotoxin, cytokines (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, and inflammatory gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Older subjects had lower baseline PBMC expression of Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX-1 but greater insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3 and circulating MCP-1 compared to younger subjects. After either meal, there were no age differences in plasma, chylomicron endotoxin, or plasma LBP concentrations, nor in inflammatory cytokine gene and protein expression (MCP-1, IL-1β, and TNF-α. Unlike younger participants, the older group had decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD-2 expression after the meals. After a high-fat meal, older adults have no increased inflammatory or endotoxin response, but an altered oxidative stress gene response compared with younger adults. Healthy older adults, without apparent metabolic dysfunction, have a comparable postprandial inflammatory and endotoxaemia response to younger adults.

  16. Comparison of different methods to investigate postprandial lipaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, A. J. H. H. M.; Alipour, A.; Sijmonsma, T. P.; Verseyden, C.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Plokker, H. W. M.; Castro Cabezas, M.

    2009-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidaemia has been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated which of the generally used methods to test postprandial lipaemia differentiated best between patients with premature CAD (50 +/- 4 years, n=20) and healthy controls. Furthermore, the effects of

  17. Impact of postprandial glycaemia on health and prevention of disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, E.E.; Antoine, J.M.; Benton, D.; Bjorck, I.; Bozzetto, L.; Brouns, F.; Diamant, M.; Dye, L.; Hulshof, T.; Holst, J.J.; Lamport, D.J.; Laville, M.; Lawton, C.L.; Meheust, A.; Nilson, A.; Normand, S.; Rivellese, A.A.; Theis, S.; Torekov, S.S.; Vinoy, S.

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial glucose, together with related hyperinsulinemia and lipidaemia, has been implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, available evidence is discussed on postprandial glucose in

  18. Association between postprandial symptoms and gastric emptying after sleeve gastrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgerhart, Jan S.; van Rutte, Pim W. J.; Edelbroek, Michela A. L.; Wyndaele, Dirk N. J.; Smulders, Johannes F.; van de Meeberg, Paul C.; Siersema, Peter D.; Smout, André J. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric procedure. However, postprandial symptoms can compromise its beneficial effect. It is not known if a changed gastric emptying and these symptoms are related. This study aimed to assess the association between postprandial symptoms and

  19. Postprandial hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk: focus on incretins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is only partially reduced by intensive glycemic control. Diabetic dyslipidemia is suggested to be an additional important contributor to CVD risk in T2DM. Multiple lipid lowering medications effectively reduce fasting LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and several of them routinely reduce CVD risk. However, in contemporary Western societies the vasculature is commonly exposed to prolonged postprandial hyperlipidemia. Metabolism of these postprandial carbohydrates and lipids yields multiple proatherogenic products. Even a transient increase in these factors may worsen vascular function and induces impaired endothelial dependent vasodilatation, a predictor of atherosclerosis and future cardiovascular events. There is a recent increased appreciation for the role of gut-derived incretin hormones in controlling the postprandial metabolic milieu. Incretin-based medications have been developed and are now used to control postprandial hyperglycemia in T2DM. Recent data indicate that these medications may also have profound effects on postprandial lipid metabolism and may favorably influence several cardiovascular functions. This review discusses (1) the postprandial state with special emphasis on postprandial lipid metabolism and its role in endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk, (2) the ability of incretins to modulate postprandial hyperlipidemia and (3) the potential of incretin-based therapeutic strategies to improve vascular function and reduce CVD risk. PMID:21736746

  20. Postprandial hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk: focus on incretins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koska Juraj

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in type 2 diabetes (T2DM is only partially reduced by intensive glycemic control. Diabetic dyslipidemia is suggested to be an additional important contributor to CVD risk in T2DM. Multiple lipid lowering medications effectively reduce fasting LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and several of them routinely reduce CVD risk. However, in contemporary Western societies the vasculature is commonly exposed to prolonged postprandial hyperlipidemia. Metabolism of these postprandial carbohydrates and lipids yields multiple proatherogenic products. Even a transient increase in these factors may worsen vascular function and induces impaired endothelial dependent vasodilatation, a predictor of atherosclerosis and future cardiovascular events. There is a recent increased appreciation for the role of gut-derived incretin hormones in controlling the postprandial metabolic milieu. Incretin-based medications have been developed and are now used to control postprandial hyperglycemia in T2DM. Recent data indicate that these medications may also have profound effects on postprandial lipid metabolism and may favorably influence several cardiovascular functions. This review discusses (1 the postprandial state with special emphasis on postprandial lipid metabolism and its role in endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk, (2 the ability of incretins to modulate postprandial hyperlipidemia and (3 the potential of incretin-based therapeutic strategies to improve vascular function and reduce CVD risk.

  1. Postprandial gallbladder emptying in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    -induced GLP1 secretion combined with the findings of reduced postprandial gallbladder emptying in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) led us to speculate whether reduced postprandial GLP1 responses in some patients with T2DM arise as a consequence of diabetic gallbladder dysmotility. DESIGN AND METHODS...

  2. Trans-Resveratrol Supplementation and Endothelial Function during the Fasting and Postprandial Phase: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial in Overweight and Slightly Obese Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Made, Sanne M; Plat, Jogchum; Mensink, Ronald P

    2017-06-12

    Studies on the effects of the long-term intake of trans -resveratrol on vascular function are conflicting. In addition, postprandial effects of long-term trans- resveratrol intake on endothelial function are not known. We therefore supplemented 45 overweight and slightly obese volunteers (25 men and 20 women) with a mean (±SD) age of 61 ± 7 years and body mass index of 28.3 ± 3.2 kg/m² in random order trans -resveratrol (2 × 75 mg/day) or placebo capsules for 4 weeks, separated by a washout period of at least 4 weeks. At the end of each intervention period, brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was measured before and after meal consumption. Plasma biomarkers for endothelial function, inflammation, and glucose and lipid metabolism were also determined. Compared with the placebo, trans -resveratrol did not affect fasting FMD (2.9 ± 1.4% vs. 3.0 ± 1.9%; p = 0.69). After the postprandial test, changes in FMD (-0.7 ± 2.3% vs. 0.2 ± 2.6%; p = 0.13) were also not significantly different. Postprandial changes in biomarkers were also comparable. In conclusion, for overweight and slightly obese volunteers, a daily intake of 150 mg of trans -resveratrol for 4 weeks does not change plasma biomarkers of endothelial function or inflammation in the fasting state or postprandial phase.

  3. Olive oil and walnut breakfasts reduce the postprandial inflammatory response in mononuclear cells compared with a butter breakfast in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Gómez, Yolanda; López-Miranda, José; Blanco-Colio, Luis M; Marín, Carmen; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Ruano, Juan; Paniagua, Juan A; Rodríguez, Fernando; Egido, Jesús; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2009-06-01

    Inflammation is crucial in all stages of atherosclerosis, and few studies have investigated the effect of dietary fat on markers of inflammation related to this disease during the postprandial period. To evaluate the chronic effects of dietary fat on the postprandial expression of proinflammatory genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in healthy subjects. 20 healthy men followed three different diets for 4 weeks each, according to a randomized crossover design: Western diet: 15% protein, 47% carbohydrates (CHO), 38% fat (22% saturated fatty acid (SFA)); Mediterranean diet: 15% protein, 47% CHO, 38% fat (24% monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)); CHO-rich and n-3 diet: 15% protein, 55% CHO, butter breakfast: 35% SFA; olive oil breakfast: 36% MUFA; walnut breakfast: 16% PUFA, 4% alpha-linolenic acid (LNA). The butter breakfast induced a higher increase in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha messenger RNA (mRNA) expression than the olive oil or walnut breakfasts (P=0.014) in PBMCs. Moreover, we found a higher postprandial response in the mRNA of interleukin (IL)-6 with the intake of butter and olive oil breakfasts than with the walnut breakfast (P=0.025) in these cells. However, the effects of the three fatty breakfasts on the plasma concentrations of these proinflammatory parameters showed no significant differences (P=N.S.). Consumption of a butter-enriched meal elicits greater postprandial expression of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA in PBMCs, compared to the olive oil and walnut breakfasts.

  4. Consumption of high-fat meal containing cheese compared to a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of saturated fatty acids (SFA) to minimize cardiovascular disease risk, however not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. It is proposed that the effect of SFA on postprandial inflammation is influenced by the specific composition and...

  5. Strength exercise and training in postprandial lipaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Correa, C; Rebolledo Cobos, R C; Reischak-Oliveira, Á

    2015-09-01

    The development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been associated to alterations on lipid profile as well found during postprandial period, phenomenon known as postprandial lipaemia (PL). Physical exercise is currently the major non-pharmacological intervention used to prevention and reduction of risk factors to developing of CVD. For this reason, there is growing interest under the effects of physical exercise, especially strength training, on regulation and balance of lipid metabolism, particularly of risk groups such as post-menopausal women that have more prone to CVD than men and lose much of the cardioprotective effect of estradiol during and after menopause period. In this review, we seek to compare the results of articles that addressed the beneficial effects of strength training on PL. We used articles selected in databases PubMed, Scopus and EBSCO dating from the year 1975-2012, with many quotes from leading researchers in subject and published in international journals. All studies were obtained to report at least three variables of interest. The authors of this review concluded that strength training proves to be effective in reducing PL concentrations by inducing an improvement of basal energy demand, can be seen as an important strategy to treatment of chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  6. Postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni (Serpentes: Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR Stuginski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakes that can ingest prey that are proportionally large have high metabolic rates during digestion. This great increase in metabolic rate (specific dynamic action - SDA may create a significant augment in the animal's body temperature. The present study investigated postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni. Briefly, two groups of snakes were fed meals equivalent to 17 ± 3% and 32 ± 5% of their body weight and were observed for 72 hours, in which thermal images of each snake were taken with an infrared camera in a thermostable environment with a constant air temperature of 30°C. The results showed a significant increase in snake surface temperature, with a thermal peak between 33 and 36 hours after feeding. The meal size had a great impact on the intensity and duration of the thermogenic response. Such increase in temperature appears to be connected with the huge increase in metabolic rates during digestion of relatively large prey by snakes that feed infrequently. The ecologic implication of the thermogenic response is still not well understood; however, it is possible that its presence could affect behaviors associated with the snake digestion, such as postprandial thermophily.

  7. A guiding map for inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netea, Mihai G; Balkwill, Frances; Chonchol, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Biologists, physicians and immunologists have contributed to the understanding of the cellular participants and biological pathways involved in inflammation. Here, we provide a general guide to the cellular and humoral contributors to inflammation as well as to the pathways that characterize infl...

  8. Metabolic syndrome and gender differences in postprandial lipaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Anagnostopoulou, Katherine K; Pavlidis, Antonis N; Salpea, Klelia D; Iraklianou, Stella A; Hoursalas, Ioannis S; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Cokkinos, Dennis V

    2006-08-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidaemia may be a predictor of vascular risk. We evaluated postprandial lipaemia after an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) in men (n=41) and women (n=21) with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Triglyceride (TG) levels were measured before and 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after the fat load. Men showed a greater plasma TG response 8 h after the fat load (284+/-117 versus 224+/-126 mg/dl, P=0.029). Only fasting TG levels significantly predicted the TG area under the curve (AUC) and incremental AUC. Men had a more pronounced postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia and seem to have delayed TG clearance.

  9. Effect of exercise timing on elevated postprandial glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamoto, Yoichi; Goya, Ryoma; Yamada, Yosuke; Yoshimura, Eichi; Nishimura, Sena; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    There is no consensus regarding optimal exercise timing for reducing postprandial glucose (PPG). The purpose of the present study was to determine the most effective exercise timing. Eleven participants completed four different exercise patterns 1 ) no exercise; 2 ) preprandial exercise (jogging); 3 ) postprandial exercise; and 4 ) brief periodic exercise intervention (three sets of 1-min jogging + 30 s of rest, every 30 min, 20 times total) in a random order separated by a minimum of 5 days. Preprandial and postprandial exercise consisted of 20 sets of intermittent exercise (1 min of jogging + 30 s rest per set) repeated 3 times per day. Total daily exercise volume was identical for all three exercise patterns. Exercise intensities were 62.4 ± 12.9% V̇o 2peak Blood glucose concentrations were measured continuously throughout each trial for 24 h. After breakfast, peak blood glucose concentrations were lower with brief periodic exercise (99 ± 6 mg/dl) than those with preprandial and postprandial exercise (109 ± 10 and 115 ± 14 mg/dl, respectively, P glucose concentrations were lower with brief periodic exercise than those with postprandial exercise (97 ± 5 and 108 ± 8 mg/dl, P glucose concentrations did not significantly differ among exercise patterns. Areas under the curve over 24 h and 2 h postprandially did not differ among exercise patterns. These findings suggest that brief periodic exercise may be more effective than preprandial and postprandial exercise at attenuating PPG in young active individuals. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This was the first study to investigate the effect of different exercise timing (brief periodic vs. preprandial vs. postprandial exercise) on postprandial glucose (PPG) attenuation in active healthy men. We demonstrated that brief periodic exercise attenuated peak PPG levels more than preprandial and postprandial exercise, particularly in the morning. Additionally, PPG rebounded soon after discontinuing postprandial

  10. Postprandial metabolomics: A pilot mass spectrometry and NMR study of the human plasma metabolome in response to a challenge meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimpour, Masoumeh; Surowiec, Izabella; Wu, Junfang [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden); Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden); Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Pinto, Rui [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden); Bioinformatics Infrastructure for Life Sciences (Sweden); Trygg, Johan [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden); Zivkovic, Angela M. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, CA 95616 (United States); Nording, Malin L., E-mail: malin.nording@umu.se [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden)

    2016-02-18

    The study of postprandial metabolism is relevant for understanding metabolic diseases and characterizing personal responses to diet. We combined three analytical platforms – gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) – to validate a multi-platform approach for characterizing individual variation in the postprandial state. We analyzed the postprandial plasma metabolome by introducing, at three occasions, meal challenges on a usual diet, and 1.5 years later, on a modified background diet. The postprandial response was stable over time and largely independent of the background diet as revealed by all three analytical platforms. Coverage of the metabolome between NMR and GC-MS included more polar metabolites detectable only by NMR and more hydrophobic compounds detected by GC-MS. The variability across three separate testing occasions among the identified metabolites was in the range of 1.1–86% for GC-MS and 0.9–42% for NMR in the fasting state at baseline. For the LC-MS analysis, the coefficients of variation of the detected compounds in the fasting state at baseline were in the range of 2–97% for the positive and 4–69% for the negative mode. Multivariate analysis (MVA) of metabolites detected with GC-MS revealed that for both background diets, levels of postprandial amino acids and sugars increased whereas those of fatty acids decreased at 0.5 h after the meal was consumed, reflecting the expected response to the challenge meal. MVA of NMR data revealed increasing postprandial levels of amino acids and other organic acids together with decreasing levels of acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, also independent of the background diet. Together these data show that the postprandial response to the same challenge meal was stable even though it was tested 1.5 years apart, and that it was largely independent of background diet. This work demonstrates the efficacy of a

  11. Postprandial metabolomics: A pilot mass spectrometry and NMR study of the human plasma metabolome in response to a challenge meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimpour, Masoumeh; Surowiec, Izabella; Wu, Junfang; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Pinto, Rui; Trygg, Johan; Zivkovic, Angela M.; Nording, Malin L.

    2016-01-01

    The study of postprandial metabolism is relevant for understanding metabolic diseases and characterizing personal responses to diet. We combined three analytical platforms – gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) – to validate a multi-platform approach for characterizing individual variation in the postprandial state. We analyzed the postprandial plasma metabolome by introducing, at three occasions, meal challenges on a usual diet, and 1.5 years later, on a modified background diet. The postprandial response was stable over time and largely independent of the background diet as revealed by all three analytical platforms. Coverage of the metabolome between NMR and GC-MS included more polar metabolites detectable only by NMR and more hydrophobic compounds detected by GC-MS. The variability across three separate testing occasions among the identified metabolites was in the range of 1.1–86% for GC-MS and 0.9–42% for NMR in the fasting state at baseline. For the LC-MS analysis, the coefficients of variation of the detected compounds in the fasting state at baseline were in the range of 2–97% for the positive and 4–69% for the negative mode. Multivariate analysis (MVA) of metabolites detected with GC-MS revealed that for both background diets, levels of postprandial amino acids and sugars increased whereas those of fatty acids decreased at 0.5 h after the meal was consumed, reflecting the expected response to the challenge meal. MVA of NMR data revealed increasing postprandial levels of amino acids and other organic acids together with decreasing levels of acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, also independent of the background diet. Together these data show that the postprandial response to the same challenge meal was stable even though it was tested 1.5 years apart, and that it was largely independent of background diet. This work demonstrates the efficacy of a

  12. Increased Plasma Availability of L-arginine in the Postprandial Period Decreases the Postprandial Lipemia in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Guilherme M.; Meyer, Christian; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Katsanos, Christos S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Older adults have exaggerated postprandial lipemia (PPL), which increases their risk for cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine the effects of increased plasma L-arginine availability on the oxidation of ingested fat (enriched with [1,1,1-13C]-triolein) and plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations during the postprandial period in older subjects. Methods On one day, eight healthy subjects (67.8 ± 1.3 years old) received an intravenous infusion of L-arginine during the first hour of the postprandial period (L-ARG), while on a separate day they received saline (control trial; CON). Results The 8-h area under the curve (AUC0–8h) describing the postprandial plasma TG concentrations was considerably lower in the L-ARG trial than the CON trial (−4 ± 21 vs 104 ± 21 mg·dL−1·h; P postprandial oxidation of the ingested lipid was not different between the trials, but the average contribution of ingested-oleate to the oleate of TG of the plasma small TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL; Sf = 20–400) was lower in the L-ARG trial (11 ± 1 vs 18 ± 2%; P postprandial period decreases the PPL in older adults, in association with a decrease in the postprandial contribution of ingested lipid into TG of the plasma small TRL. PMID:22959634

  13. Aqueous Extract of Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Vinegar Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Normoglycemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adlin Yusoff

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nypa fruticans Wurmb. vinegar, commonly known as nipa palm vinegar (NPV has been used as a folklore medicine among the Malay community to treat diabetes. Early work has shown that aqueous extract (AE of NPV exerts a potent antihyperglycemic effect. Thus, this study is conducted to evaluate the effect of AE on postprandial hyperglycemia in an attempt to understand its mechanism of antidiabetic action. AE were tested via in vitro intestinal glucose absorption, in vivo carbohydrate tolerance tests and spectrophotometric enzyme inhibition assays. One mg/mL of AE showed a comparable outcome to the use of phloridzin (1 mM in vitro as it delayed glucose absorption through isolated rat jejunum more effectively than acarbose (1 mg/mL. Further in vivo confirmatory tests showed AE (500 mg/kg to cause a significant suppression in postprandial hyperglycemia 30 min following respective glucose (2 g/kg, sucrose (4 g/kg and starch (3 g/kg loadings in normal rats, compared to the control group. Conversely, in spectrophotometric enzymatic assays, AE showed rather a weak inhibitory activity against both α-glucosidase and α-amylase when compared with acarbose. The findings suggested that NPV exerts its anti-diabetic effect by delaying carbohydrate absorption from the small intestine through selective inhibition of intestinal glucose transporters, therefore suppressing postprandial hyperglycemia.

  14. Natural resolution of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Marcelo O; Van Dyke, Thomas E

    2013-10-01

    Inflammation is a protective response essential for maintaining human health and for fighting disease. As an active innate immune reaction to challenge, inflammation gives rise to clinical cardinal signs: rubor, calor, dolor, tumor and functio laesa. Termination of acute inflammation was previously recognized as a passive process; a natural decay of pro-inflammatory signals. We now understand that the natural resolution of inflammation involves well-integrated, active, biochemical programs that return tissues to homeostasis. This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the role of endogenous lipid mediators that modulate cellular fate and inflammation. Biosynthesis of eicosanoids and other lipids in exudates coincides with changes in the types of inflammatory cells. Resolution of inflammation is initiated by an active class switch in lipid mediators, such as classic prostaglandins and leukotrienes, to the production of proresolution mediators. Endogenous pro-resolving lipid mediators, including arachidonic acid-derived lipoxins, aspirin-triggered lipoxins, ω3-eicosapentaenoic acid-derived resolvins of the E-series, docosahexaenoic acid-derived resolvins of the D-series, protectins and maresins, are biosynthesized during the resolution phase of acute inflammation. Depending on the type of injury and the type of tissue, the initial cells that respond are polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes/macrophages, epithelial cells or endothelial cells. The selective interaction of specific lipid mediators with G protein-coupled receptors expressed on innate immune cells (e.g. G protein-coupled receptor 32, lipoxin A4 receptor/formyl peptide receptor2, chemokine-like receptor 1, leukotriene B4 receptor type 1 and cabannoid receptor 2) induces cessation of leukocyte infiltration; vascular permeability/edema returns to normal with polymorphonuclear neutrophil death (mostly via apoptosis), the nonphlogistic infiltration of monocyte/macrophages and the removal

  15. Where Does Inflammation Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasucci, Luigi M; La Rosa, Giulio; Pedicino, Daniela; D'Aiello, Alessia; Galli, Mattia; Liuzzo, Giovanna

    2017-09-01

    This review focuses on the complex relationship between inflammation and the onset of acute coronary syndrome and heart failure. In the last few years, two important lines of research brought new and essential information to light in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome: a) the understanding of the immune mediate mechanisms of inflammation in Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) and b) evidence that the inflammatory mechanisms associated with atherosclerosis and its complications can be modulated by anti-inflammatory molecules. A large amount of data also suggests that inflammation is a major component in the development and exacerbation of heart failure (HF), in a symbiotic relationship. In particular, recent evidence underlies peculiar aspects of the phenomenon: oxidative stress and autophagy; DAMPS and TLR-4 signaling activation; different macrophages lineage and the contribution of NLRP-3 inflammasome; adaptive immune system. A possible explanation that could unify the pathogenic mechanism of these different conditions is the rising evidence that increased bowel permeability may allow translation of gut microbioma product into the circulation. These findings clearly establish the role of inflammation as the great trigger for two of the major cardiovascular causes of death and morbidity. Further studies are needed, to better clarify the issue and to define more targeted approaches to reduce pathological inflammation while preserving the physiological one.

  16. Influence of stearic acid on postprandial lipemia and hemostatic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Thomas A B; Berry, Sarah E E

    2005-12-01

    It has been suggested that fats rich in stearic acid may result in exaggerated postprandial lipemia and have adverse effects on hemostatic function. The effects of test meals containing different saturated and monounsaturated FA were compared in healthy subjects in a series of studies to investigate this hypothesis. Stearic acid, when present as cocoa butter, resulted in similar postprandial lipemia and factor VII activation compared with a meal containing high-oleic sunflower oil. Stearic acid when presented as shea butter or as randomized stearate-rich TAG resulted in decreased postprandial lipemia and decreased postprandial activation of factor VII. Stearic acid-rich test meals did not result in impaired fibrinolytic activity compared with either a low-fat meal or a meal high in oleate. The difference in responses between the different stearic acid-rich fats appears to be due to varying solid fat contents of the fats at 37 degrees C.

  17. Postprandial gut hormone responses and glucose metabolism in cholecystectomized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Hare, Kristine J; Martens, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    -rich liquid meal (2,200 kJ). Basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), cholecystokinin (CCK), and gastrin were measured. Furthermore, gastric emptying and duodenal and serum...... bile acids were measured. We found similar basal glucose concentrations in the two groups, whereas cholecystectomized subjects had elevated postprandial glucose excursions. Cholecystectomized subjects had reduced postprandial concentrations of duodenal bile acids, but preserved postprandial plasma GLP......-1 responses, compared with control subjects. Also, cholecystectomized patients exhibited augmented fasting glucagon. Basal plasma CCK concentrations were lower and peak concentrations were higher in cholecystectomized patients. The concentrations of GIP, GLP-2, and gastrin were similar in the two...

  18. Effect of Plukenetia volubilis Linneo (sacha inchi) on postprandial triglycerides

    OpenAIRE

    Huamán, Juan; Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.; Chávez, Katterine; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.; Castañeda, Erdwin; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.; Carranza, Santiago; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.; Chávez, Tania; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.; Beltrán, Yuri; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.; Caffo, Carlos; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.; Cadillo, Rómulo; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.; Cadenillas, Jeff; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Postprandial lipemia is a coronary risk factor and is affected by omega-3 fatty acids. There is evidence that omega-3 acids decrease plasma lipids. Plukenetia volubilis Linne (sacha inchi) is rich in omega-3. Objectives: To determine the effect of sacha inchi ingestion on postprandial triglycerides in young adults. Design: Quasi-experimental study. Setting: Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Participants: Medical students. Interventions: To 12 randomly select...

  19. Influence of Acute Coffee Consumption on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Trepanowski, John F.; Farney, Tyler M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 differe...

  20. Impact of postprandial glucose control on diabetes-related complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten

    2016-01-01

    that more closely approximate 'normal' physiological postprandial responses, as well as technologies that advance the mode of insulin delivery or optimize methods to sense glycemic levels and variation. In conclusion, the precise role of postprandial hyperglycemia in relation to development of diabetic...... complications is unclarified and is one of the remaining unanswered questions in diabetes. Nevertheless, current evidence supports PPG control as an important strategy to consider in the comprehensive management plan of individuals with diabetes....

  1. Impact of postprandial glycaemia on health and prevention of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaak, E E; Antoine, J-M; Benton, D

    2012-01-01

    and exercise perfomance. Nevertheless, postprandial glycaemia is interrelated with many other (risk) factors as well as to fasting glucose. In many studies, meal-related glycaemic response is not sufficiently characterized, or the methodology with respect to the description of food or meal composition...... to health and disease. Also of importance is the evaluation of the potential role of the time course of postprandial glycaemia....

  2. Glucocorticoids and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Rainer H; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that once bound to their receptor interact with the DNA binding domain. Almost 1000-2000 genes are sensitive to their effects, including immune/inflammatory response genes. However, their role in pathophysiology and therapy is still debated. We performed a literature survey using the key words glucocorticoids, inflammation, autoimmune disease, rheumatology and adrenal glands in order to define important targets for this review on glucocorticoids. Considering endogenous/exogenous glucocorticoids in chronic inflammatory diseases brought up five major points for discussion: inadequately low production of endogenous cortisol relative to systemic inflammation (the disproportion principle); changes of the systemic and local cortisol-to-cortisone shuttle (reactivation and degradation of cortisol); inflammation-induced glucocorticoid resistance; highlights of present glucocorticoid therapy; and the role of circadian rhythms in action of cortisol. Much of this information becomes understandable in the context of neurohormonal energy regulation as recently summarized. The optimization of long-term low-dose glucocorticoid therapy in chronic inflammatory diseases arises from the understanding of the above mentioned aspects. Since glucocorticoid resistance is a consequence of inflammation, adequate anti-inflammatory therapy is mandatory. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Physical activity status and postprandial lipaemia in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, M; Park, J H; Takahashi, M; Burns, S; Kim, H S; Suzuki, K; Nakamura, Y

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity-induced lowering of postprandial lipaemia is short-lived. However, little is known regarding the role of physical activity status on postprandial lipaemia. The purpose of the present study was to compare postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations in active and inactive older adults. A total of 26 older adults (aged 69.8±0.9 years, mean±SEM; 10 male and 16 female) were analysed in a cross-sectional design. Based on accelerometer data, participants were divided into either the active group (≥150 min/week of moderate-intensity physical activity, N=15) or the inactive group (postprandially. After adjusting for fasting triacylglycerol concentrations, body mass, body mass index and waist circumference, postprandial capillary triacylglycerol concentrations were significantly lower in the active than inactive group ( P=0.046). These findings demonstrate that regular physical activity lowers postprandial lipaemia independent of the acute effects of physical activity in older adults. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Postprandial lipaemia, oxidative stress and endothelial function: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J P; Johnson, B; Padilla, J; Mather, K

    2010-02-01

    Postprandial lipaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction is felt to be mediated by increases in oxidative stress. In this review, we have examined the cross-sectional relationships found among these three variables. We found 20 studies conducted by 16 independent investigative teams through a Medline search from 1980 to 2008; studies were required to report correlations between at least two of the three variables of interest in studies of humans. This review is divided into (i) discussions on the biomarkers and other measures of postprandial lipaemia, oxidative stress and endothelial function; (ii) associations reported among the three variables; and (iii) other considerations including alternative intervention studies. Triglycerides and free fatty acids are robust and well-standardised biomarkers of lipaemia. Measures of oxidative stress ranged from electron spin techniques to measures of lipid peroxidation and are limited by lack of standardisation. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation is the most commonly used measure of endothelial function. The associations between postprandial lipaemia and oxidative stress and between postprandial lipaemia and endothelial function are strong and consistent. However, the association between postprandial oxidative stress and endothelial function appears weak, at least using current approaches to measurement of oxidative stress. These observations are consistent with the proposed concept that oxidative stress mediates the adverse effects of postprandial lipaemia on endothelial function; they are limited by the difficulties in measuring oxidative stress. Efforts directed at optimising and standardising the measurement of oxidative stress will be of value in future works in this area.

  5. Effect of a single bout of aerobic exercise on high-fat meal-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Kelly N Z; Summers, Corey M; Valentine, Rudy J

    2017-06-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is involved in the development of metabolic disorders including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome. Aerobic exercise has been shown to be anti-inflammatory and attenuate postprandial blood lipids, however, the effect of exercise on postprandial inflammation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of a single bout of aerobic exercise against postprandial lipemia and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) inflammation and to evaluate associations with changes in the energy-sensing enzyme, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Healthy male subjects (n=12, age=23±2, %Fat=19±2) reported to the laboratory following an overnight fast (12-14h) on two separate occasions for consumption of a high-fat meal (HFM). Participants completed an acute bout of aerobic exercise the afternoon prior to one of the HFM visits. Results indicate that the single bout of moderate aerobic exercise increased AMPK signaling in PBMCs, as shown by increased phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (p-ACC). This may be due to decreases in the AMPK inhibitory kinases PKD and GSK3β. Additionally, prior moderate intensity exercise decreased postprandial lipemia (PPL) and some mediators of the inflammatory pathway, such as p-NF-κB. These findings that acute aerobic exercise improves AMPK and NF-κB signaling in human PBMCs contribute support to the anti-inflammatory roles of exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of medications used for the management of diabetes and obesity on postprandial lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadou, Ioanna; Grigoropoulou, Pinelop; Katsilambros, Nicholas; Tentolouris, Nicholas

    2008-11-01

    Postprandial lipemia has emerged as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. In this systematic review we examined the effect of the medications used for the management of diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia on postprandial lipemia. It should be mentioned that no standardization exists for a test meal and for the duration of observation postprandially to allow for direct comparisons between the published studies. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance are associated with enhanced postprandial lipemia. Insulin is effective in reducing both fasting and post prandial total triglyceride levels as well as triglycerides contained in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein sub-fractions. Additionally, the newer rapid-acting insulin analogues seem to be more effective in the reduction of postprandial lipemia than the short-acting human insulins. Acarbose ameliorates postprandial lipemia and reduces the atherogenic chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein remnants. Metformin reduces both fasting and postprandial triglyceridemia, fasting and post-prandial free fatty acids and may increase the concentrations of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Sulfonylureas reduce fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels while data on the effect on high density lipoprotein levels are inconsistent. The effect of meglitinides on postprandial lipid metabolism is neutral. Rosiglitazone decreases fasting and postprandial free fatty acids but has no significant effect on fasting and postprandial triglycerides. Pioglitazone has additional beneficial effects on lipid metabolism because it reduces postprandial free fatty acids, fasting and postprandial triglycerides and increases high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Limited available data suggest that glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues and vildagliptin reduce postprandial lipemia through reduction of intestinally-derived triglycerides. No data exist on the effect of sitagliptin on postprandial lipemia. Orlistat

  7. Single vagus nerve stimulation reduces early postprandial C-peptide levels but not other hormones or postprandial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M W; van Nierop, F S; Koopman, F A; Eggink, H M; Gerlag, D M; Chan, M W; Zitnik, R; Vaz, F M; Romijn, J A; Tak, P P; Soeters, M R

    2018-02-01

    A recent study in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using electrical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) to activate the inflammatory reflex has shown promising effects on disease activity. Innervation by the autonomic nerve system might be involved in the regulation of many endocrine and metabolic processes and could therefore theoretically lead to unwanted side effects. Possible effects of VNS on secretion of hormones are currently unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a single VNS on plasma levels of pituitary hormones and parameters of postprandial metabolism. Six female patients with RA were studied twice in balanced assignment (crossover design) to either VNS or no stimulation. The patients selected for this substudy had been on VNS therapy daily for at least 3 months and at maximum of 24 months. We compared 10-, 20-, and 30-min poststimulus levels to baseline levels, and a 4-h mixed meal test was performed 30 min after VNS. We also determined energy expenditure (EE) by indirect calorimetry before and after VNS. VNS did not affect pituitary hormones (growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone), postprandial metabolism, or EE. Of note, VNS reduced early postprandial insulin secretion, but not AUC of postprandial plasma insulin levels. Cortisol and catecholamine levels in serum did not change significantly. Short stimulation of vagal activity by VNS reduces early postprandial insulin secretion, but not other hormone levels and postprandial response. This suggests VNS as a safe treatment for RA patients.

  8. Greater expression of postprandial inflammatory genes in humans after intervention with saturated when compared to unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort-Pires, Milena; Crisma, Amanda Rabello; Bordin, Silvana; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta G

    2017-11-02

    Inflammation plays a key role in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Fatty acids and fiber intake can selectively alter gene expression by modifying inflammation. We compared the postprandial expression of inflammatory genes after 2 distinct high-fat breakfast meals, before and after 1-month dietary interventions. This crossover clinical trial included 18 individuals at low-to-moderate cardiometabolic risk participating in evaluations before and after two 4-week breakfast interventions-one rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and the other in unsaturated fatty acids (unSFA) and fiber. Participants underwent meal tests with similar compositions to the breakfasts. Variables were compared by Student t test. The expression of inflammatory genes in leukocytes was analyzed using RT-PCR. Before and after the intervention with the SFA-enriched breakfast, this meal test induced a higher relative postprandial IL-1β expression compared to the responses to the unSFA and fiber-enriched meal (p = 0.02). On the other hand, following the intervention with the unSFA-fiber-enriched breakfast, postprandial IL-6 expression showed a reduction tendency comparing to the pre-intervention value (p = 0.08). Although fasting IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and IFN-γ expressions had not changed after interventions, their circulating levels increased after the SFA-enriched meal test but not after the unSFA meal (p value between changes fatty acids and fiber influence cardiometabolic risk profile by modulating inflammatory gene expression and circulating biomarkers. This study is registered at the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC ID: RBR-98x6b5). Available at: http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br .

  9. Effect of grape seed extract on postprandial oxidative status and metabolic responses in men and women with the metabolic syndrome - randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indika Edirisinghe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This investigation was undertaken to determine whether a grape seed extract (GSE that is rich in mono-, oligo- and poly- meric polyphenols would modify postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS.Background: MetS is known to be associated with impaired glucose tolerance and poor glycemic control. Consumption of a meal high in readily available carbohydrates and fat causes postprandial increases in glycemia and lipidemia and markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Materials/methods: After an overnight fast, twelve subjects with MetS (5 men and 7 women consumed a breakfast meal high in fat and carbohydrate in a cross-over design. A GSE (300 mg or placebo capsule was administrated 1 hr before the meal (-1 hr. Changes in plasma insulin, glucose, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers were measured hourly for 6 hr. Results: Plasma hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC measured as the positive incremental area under the curve (-1 to 5 hr was significantly increased when the meal was preceded by GSE compared with placebo (P0.05. No changes in inflammatory markers were evident. Conclusion: These data suggest that GSE enhances postprandial plasma antioxidant status and reduces the glycemic response to a meal, high in fat and carbohydrate in subjects with the MetS.

  10. AT1 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in relation to Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Klop

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent data suggest that the renin-angiotensin system may be involved in triglyceride (TG metabolism. We explored the effect of the common A1166C and C573T polymorphisms of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R gene on postprandial lipemia. Methods. Eighty-two subjects measured daytime capillary TG, and postprandial lipemia was estimated as incremental area under the TG curve. The C573T and A1166C polymorphisms of the AT1R gene were determined. Results. Postprandial lipemia was significantly higher in homozygous carriers of the 1166-C allele (9.39±8.36 mM*h/L compared to homozygous carriers of the 1166-A allele (2.02±6.20 mM*h/L (P<0.05. Postprandial lipemia was similar for the different C573T polymorphisms. Conclusion. The 1166-C allele of the AT1R gene seems to be associated with increased postprandial lipemia. These data confirm the earlier described relationships between the renin-angiotensin axis and triglyceride metabolism.

  11. Monocyte Conversion During Inflammation and Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratofil, Rachel M; Kubes, Paul; Deniset, Justin F

    2017-01-01

    Monocytes are circulating leukocytes important in both innate and adaptive immunity, primarily functioning in immune defense, inflammation, and tissue remodeling. There are 2 subsets of monocytes in mice (3 subsets in humans) that are mobilized from the bone marrow and recruited to sites of inflammation, where they carry out their respective functions in promoting inflammation or facilitating tissue repair. Our understanding of the fate of these monocyte subsets at the site of inflammation is constantly evolving. This brief review highlights the plasticity of monocyte subsets and their conversion during inflammation and injury. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Midkine in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig T. Weckbach

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 13 kDa heparin-binding growth factor midkine (MK was originally identified as a molecule involved in the orchestration of embryonic development. Recent studies provided evidence for a new role of MK in acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Accordingly, several inflammatory diseases including nephritis, arthritis, atherosclerosis, colitis, and autoimmune encephalitis have been shown to be alleviated in the absence of MK in animal models. Reduced leukocyte recruitment to the sites of inflammation was found to be one important mechanism attenuating chronic inflammation when MK was absent. Furthermore, MK was found to modulate expression of proinflammatory cytokines and the expansion of regulatory T-cells. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of MK in different inflammatory disorders and summarize the knowledge of MK biology.

  13. Comparison of different methods to investigate postprandial lipaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oostrom, A J H H M; Alipour, A; Sijmonsma, T P; Verseyden, C; Dallinga-Thie, G M; Plokker, H W M; Castro Cabezas, M

    2009-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidaemia has been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated which of the generally used methods to test postprandial lipaemia differentiated best between patients with premature CAD (50+/-4 years, n=20) and healthy controls. Furthermore, the effects of rosuvastatin 40 mg/day on postprandial parameters were assessed. Standardised oral fat-loading tests (OFLT) and ambulant self-measurements of daylong capillary triglycerides (TGc) were performed. Total responses of individual lipoproteins, plasma TG (TGp) and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) were estimated as area under the curve (AUC). Most AUCs were highest in untreated patients and reached control levels after rosuvastatin. From all AUCs, RLP-C-AUC was best associated to TGp-AUC in untreated patients and controls (adjusted R2=0.84, beta=0.92, p.

  14. Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M

    2013-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....

  15. Helicobacter pylori colonization critically depends on postprandial gastric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Roland; Azevedo-Vethacke, Marina; Groll, Claudia; Garten, Désirée; Josenhans, Christine; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Schreiber, Sören

    2012-01-01

    The risk of Helicobacter pylori infection is highest in childhood, but the colonization process of the stomach mucosa is poorly understood. We used anesthetized Mongolian gerbils to study the initial stages of H. pylori colonization. Prandial and postprandial gastric conditions characteristic of humans of different ages were simulated. The fraction of bacteria that reached the deep mucus layer varied strongly with the modelled postprandial conditions. Colonization success was weak with fast gastric reacidification typical of adults. The efficiency of deep mucus entry was also low with a slow pH decrease as seen in pH profiles simulating the situation in babies. Initial colonization was most efficient under conditions simulating the postprandial reacidification and pepsin activation profiles in young children. In conclusion, initial H. pylori colonization depends on age-related gastric physiology, providing evidence from an in vivo infection model that suggests an explanation why the bacterium is predominantly acquired in early childhood. PMID:23251780

  16. Postprandial gastro-oesophageal reflux demonstrated by radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, P.R.; Mohr Madsen, K.; Naeser, A.; Thommesen, P.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation to detect food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal (GE) reflux was carried out in 54 consecutive fasting patients, 35 of whom experienced reflux while 19 did not. All patients then received a standard meal (566 kcal), and the investigation was repeated 1 h afterward. Of the 35 with GE reflux in the fasting state, 33 also had GE reflux in the postprandial state, and 17 of the 19 patients with no GE reflux while fasting also had none in the postprandial state. It is concluded that the radiological method can identify most patients in whom food-stimulated GE reflux could be of clinical significance. (orig.) [de

  17. Postprandial gastro-oesophageal reflux demonstrated by radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, P.R.; Mohr Madsen, K.; Naeser, A.; Thommesen, P. (Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1991-05-01

    An investigation to detect food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal (GE) reflux was carried out in 54 consecutive fasting patients, 35 of whom experienced reflux while 19 did not. All patients then received a standard meal (566 kcal), and the investigation was repeated 1 h afterward. Of the 35 with GE reflux in the fasting state, 33 also had GE reflux in the postprandial state, and 17 of the 19 patients with no GE reflux while fasting also had none in the postprandial state. It is concluded that the radiological method can identify most patients in whom food-stimulated GE reflux could be of clinical significance. (orig.).

  18. Effects of hypoxic exposure during feeding on SDA and postprandial cardiovascular physiology in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane; Axelsson, Michael; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Some Atlantic cod in the Bornholm Basin undertake vertical foraging migrations into severely hypoxic bottom water. Hypoxic conditions can reduce the postprandial increase in gastrointestinal blood flow (GBF). This could subsequently postpone or reduce the postprandial increase in oxygen consumption...... (MO2), i.e. the SDA, leading to a disturbed digestion. Additionally, a restricted oxygen uptake could result in an oxygen debt that needs to be compensated for upon return to normoxic waters and this may also affect the ability to process the food. Long-term cardio-respiratory measurements were made...... on fed G. morhua in order to understand how the cardio-respiratory system of feeding fish respond to a period of hypoxia and a subsequent return to normoxia. These were exposed to 35% water oxygen saturation for 90 minutes, equivalent to the time and oxygen level cod voluntarily endure when searching...

  19. Increased postprandial energy expenditure may explain superior long term weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass compared to vertical banded gastroplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Werling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gastric bypass results in greater weight loss than Vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In addition to effects on energy intake the two bariatric techniques may differentially influence energy expenditure (EE. Gastric bypass in rats increases postprandial EE enough to result in elevated EE over 24 hours. This study aimed to investigate alterations in postprandial EE after gastric bypass and VBG in humans. METHODS: Fourteen women from a randomized clinical trial between gastric bypass (n = 7 and VBG (n = 7 were included. Nine years postoperatively and at weight stability patients were assessed for body composition and calorie intake. EE was measured using indirect calorimetry in a respiratory chamber over 24 hours and focused on the periods surrounding meals and sleep. Blood samples were analysed for postprandial gut hormone responses. RESULTS: Groups did not differ regarding body composition or food intake either preoperatively or at study visit. Gastric bypass patients had higher EE postprandially (p = 0.018 and over 24 hours (p = 0.048 compared to VBG patients. Postprandial peptide YY (PYY and glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1 levels were higher after gastric bypass (both p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Gastric bypass patients have greater meal induced EE and total 24 hours EE compared to VBG patients when assessed 9 years postoperatively. Postprandial satiety gut hormone responses were exaggerated after gastric bypass compared to VBG. Long-term weight loss maintenance may require significant changes in several physiological mechanisms which will be important to understand if non-surgical approaches are to mimic the effects of bariatric surgery.

  20. Cytokines and intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamias, Giorgos; Cominelli, Fabio

    2016-11-01

    Cytokines of the intestinal microenvironment largely dictate immunological responses after mucosal insults and the dominance of homeostatic or proinflammatory pathways. This review presents important recent studies on the role of specific cytokines in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. The particular mucosal effects of cytokines depend on their inherent properties but also the cellular origin, type of stimulatory antigens, intermolecular interactions, and the particular immunological milieu. Novel cytokines of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family, including IL-33 and IL-36, have dominant roles in mucosal immunity, whereas more established ones such as IL-18 are constantly enriched with unique properties. Th17 cells are important mucosal constituents, although their profound plasticity, makes the specific set of cytokines they secrete more important than their mere numbers. Finally, various cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-like cytokine 1A, and death receptor, 3 demonstrate dichotomous roles with mucosa-protective function in acute injury but proinflammatory effects during chronic inflammation. The role of cytokines in mucosal health and disease is increasingly revealed. Such information not only will advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of gut inflammation, but also set the background for development of reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and cytokine-specific therapies.

  1. Peritoneal dialysis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloso, Marina Souza Silva; Otoni, Alba; de Paula Sabino, Adriano; de Castro, Whocely Victor; Pinto, Sérgio Wyton Lima; Marinho, Maria Aparecida Silva; Rios, Danyelle Romana Alves

    2014-03-20

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a kidney replacement therapy for end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Despite being a lifesaving treatment, the rate of mortality in patients under PD is elevated, mainly due to the chronic peritoneal dysfunction which is characterized by inflammation, peritoneal fibrosis and neoangiogenesis. The inflammatory process is trigged and modulated by the type of the peritoneal dialysis solutions (PDSs) used during PD. Currently, different PDSs are commercially available: (i) the conventional solutions; (ii) solutions of neutral pH containing low concentration of glucose degradation products (GDPs); (iii) solutions with icodextrin; and (iv) solutions containing taurine. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the different types of peritoneal dialysis solutions used during PD and their relationship with systemic and intraperitoneal inflammation. Some studies suggested that solutions of neutral pH containing low concentration of GDPs, icodextrin and taurine have better biocompatibility and lower influence on the inflammatory process compared to the conventional one. On the other hand, the studies, in general, were performed with a small population and for a short period of time. Therefore, further well-designed and -controlled clinical trials with larger number of individuals are required in order to better understand the role of different peritoneal dialysis solution types in the development of inflammation in patients with chronic peritoneal dialysis. Accordingly, studies that are more well-designed, well-controlled and with a larger number of patients are needed to explain and define the role of different types of PDS in the inflammation development in patients with chronic peritoneal dialysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ileoanal pouch function is related to postprandial pouch tone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steens, J.; Bemelman, W. A.; Meijerink, W. J.; Griffioen, G.; van Hogezand, R. A.; Masclee, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Functional impairments are frequently observed in patients with an ileoanal pouch. Meal ingestion increases pouch tone and motility. Little is known, however, about the influence of meal-stimulated pouch characteristics on pouch function. The aim was to characterize basal and postprandial pouch

  3. The Physiological Effect of Detarium Bread Meal on the Postprandial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Physiological Effect of Detarium Bread Meal on the Postprandial Profile of Noninsulin Dependent Diabetic Mellitus (NIDDM) Subjects. ... The result showed a significant reduction on the incremental glucose levels after the consumption of the Detariumm bread at 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. The incremental insulin ...

  4. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  5. Determinants of postprandial plasma bile acid kinetics in human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiamoncini, J.; Yiorkas, A.M.; Gedrich, K.; Rundle, M.; Alsters, S.I.; Roeselers, G.; Broek, T.J. van den; Clavel, T.; Lagkouvardos, I.; Wopereis, S.; Frost, G.; Ommen, B. van; Blakemore, A.I.; Daniel, H.

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) are signaling molecules with a wide range of biological effects, also identified among the most responsive plasma metabolites in the postprandial state. We here describe this response to different dietary challenges and report on key determinants linked to its interindividual

  6. Postprandial fate of amino acids: adaptation to molecular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    During the postprandial phase dietary proteins are digested to peptides and amino acids and absorbed. Once absorbed the peptides are further hydrolyzed to amino acids and transported to the tissues. These amino acids are largely incorporated into body proteins. Not all amino acids are, however,

  7. The autonomic nervous system regulates postprandial hepatic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinstroop, Eveline; la Fleur, Susanne E; Ackermans, Mariette T; Foppen, Ewout; Wortel, Joke; Kooijman, Sander; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Rensen, Patrick C N; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2013-05-15

    The liver is a key organ in controlling glucose and lipid metabolism during feeding and fasting. In addition to hormones and nutrients, inputs from the autonomic nervous system are also involved in fine-tuning hepatic metabolic regulation. Previously, we have shown in rats that during fasting an intact sympathetic innervation of the liver is essential to maintain the secretion of triglycerides by the liver. In the current study, we hypothesized that in the postprandial condition the parasympathetic input to the liver inhibits hepatic VLDL-TG secretion. To test our hypothesis, we determined the effect of selective surgical hepatic denervations on triglyceride metabolism after a meal in male Wistar rats. We report that postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations were significantly elevated in parasympathetically denervated rats compared with control rats (P = 0.008), and VLDL-TG production tended to be increased (P = 0.066). Sympathetically denervated rats also showed a small rise in postprandial triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.045). On the other hand, in rats fed on a six-meals-a-day schedule for several weeks, a parasympathetic denervation resulted in >70% higher plasma triglycerides during the day (P = 0.001), whereas a sympathetic denervation had no effect. Our results show that abolishing the parasympathetic input to the liver results in increased plasma triglyceride levels during postprandial conditions.

  8. Exponential increase in postprandial blood-glucose exposure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Postprandial glucose excursions contribute significantly to average blood glucose, glycaemic variability and cardiovascular risk. Carbohydrate counting is a method of insulin dosing that balances carbohydrate load to insulin dose using a fixed ratio. Many patients and current insulin pumps calculate insulin ...

  9. Gastric emptying and postprandial symptoms after Billroth II resection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, A. J.; Akkermans, L. M.; Roelofs, J. M.; Pasma, F. G.; Oei, H. Y.; Wittebol, P.

    1987-01-01

    Gastric emptying was studied in 18 symptomatic and 16 asymptomatic patients after Billroth II (BII) resection (without vagotomy) and the possible relationships between emptying and postprandial symptoms in these patients were assessed. The BII patients were compared with 20 nonoperated patients who

  10. Flattening postprandial blood glucose responses with guar gum: acute effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIvor, M E; Cummings, C C; Leo, T A; Mendeloff, A I

    1985-01-01

    It has been proposed that high-carbohydrate, high-fiber (HCF) diets might serve as useful therapeutic modality in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). One problem in evaluating clinical trials of this therapy is that, by their very nature, the trials cannot be double blinded. We have developed HCF and placebo granola-type bars using complex absorbable carbohydrate and guar gum fiber to circumvent this methodologic problem. The HCF bars, when consumed with an ad lib. diet, assure an HCF intake without imposing other dietary restrictions. To test the short-term efficacy of the bars, 9 normal adult volunteers, 2 women with impaired glucose tolerance, and 20 patients with NIDDM consumed the bars alone or with meals. Blood glucose responses when HCF bars were consumed alone were blunted when compared with the placebo response (P less than 0.0005 to P less than 0.002), with the most marked suppression occurring in the early postprandial period. In contrast, when the bars were consumed along with breakfast, HCF and placebo responses were virtually identical in the early postprandial period, but showed a progressively greater difference from 90 to 240 min (P less than 0.02 to P less than 0.0005). When consumed with lunch as well as breakfast, the HCF bars caused flattening of blood glucose responses during the late postprandial period after breakfast and maintained flattened responses during the early and late postprandial periods after lunch (P less than 0.05 to P less than 0.005). It is concluded that these HCF bars can be used to blunt postprandial blood glucose responses, in subjects with either normal or abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.

  11. Comparison of three commercially available prescription diet regimens on short-term post-prandial serum glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Sako, T; Lee, P; Nishimaki, Y; Fukuta, H; Mizutani, H; Honjo, T; Arai, T

    2009-10-01

    Dietary therapy is an important treatment component for diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, the impact of three different commercially available diet regiments (1 general use and 2 aimed for treating obesity and DM) on short-term post-prandial serum glucose and insulin concentrations of five healthy cats to better understand what impact each of these diets may have for diabetic cats. The diet regiments used in this study were as follows: C/D dry (General Use- Low protein, High fat, High carbohydrate, and Low fiber), M/D dry (DM- High protein, High fat, Low carbohydrate, and High Fiber), and W/D dry (DM- Low Protein, Low Fat, High Carbohydrate, and High Fiber). No significant difference in post-prandial serum glucose levels were observed with the C/D (84.6 +/- 1.5 mg/dl) and W/D (83.8 +/- 1.4 mg/dl) dry diets when compared to pre-prandial fasting levels (83.9 +/- 1.4 mg/dl). However, a significant reduction was observed with the M/D diet (78.9 +/- 0.8 mg/dl) which had 50-60% less carbohydrates than either C/D or W/D diet. Unlike what was observed with post-prandial glucose levels, an interesting pattern emerged with post-prandial insulin levels, which were increasing with W/D, C/D, and M/D diets in that order (1.1 +/- 0.2, 1.7 +/- 0.2, and 2.3 +/- 0.2 ng/ml respectively). Most surprising, though, was the fact that the W/D diet did not seem to stimulate insulin secretion as compared to pre-prandial levels (1.1 +/- 0.1 ng/ml) in healthy cats. Interestingly, the W/D diet had high levels of carbohydrate and low levels of protein. Coincidentally, the only diet (M/D) which had a significant reduction in post-prandial glucose also showed the highest increase in post-prandial insulin in healthy cats. Therefore, dietary amounts of carbohydrate, fat, protein and fiber can all have an individual impact on post-prandial glycemia and subsequent insulin requirement levels. Just as concepts regarding dietary management of people with DM are evolving, investigators are

  12. Endogenous Receptor Agonists: Resolving Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Bannenberg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled resolution or the physiologic resolution of a well-orchestrated inflammatory response at the tissue level is essential to return to homeostasis. A comprehensive understanding of the cellular and molecular events that control the termination of acute inflammation is needed in molecular terms given the widely held view that aberrant inflammation underlies many common diseases. This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the role of arachidonic acid and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA–derived lipid mediators in regulating the resolution of inflammation. Using a functional lipidomic approach employing LC-MS-MS–based informatics, recent studies, reviewed herein, uncovered new families of local-acting chemical mediators actively biosynthesized during the resolution phase from the essential fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. These new families of local chemical mediators are generated endogenously in exudates collected during the resolution phase, and were coined resolvins and protectins because specific members of these novel chemical families control both the duration and magnitude of inflammation in animal models of complex diseases. Recent advances on the biosynthesis, receptors, and actions of these novel anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators are reviewed with the aim to bring to attention the important role of specific lipid mediators as endogenous agonists in inflammation resolution.

  13. Acute metabolic response to fasted and postprandial exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima FD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Filipe Dinato de Lima,1,2 Ana Luiza Matias Correia,1 Denilson da Silva Teixeira,2 Domingos Vasco da Silva Neto,2 Ítalo Sávio Gonçalves Fernandes,2 Mário Boratto Xavier Viana,2 Mateus Petitto,2 Rodney Antônio da Silva Sampaio,2 Sandro Nobre Chaves,2 Simone Teixeira Alves,2 Renata Aparecida Elias Dantas,2 Márcio Rabelo Mota2 1University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 2Universitary Center of Brasília (UniCEUB, Brasília, DF, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the acute metabolic response to exercise in fasting and postprandial. For this, ten individuals were submitted to an incremental treadmill test, with an initial speed of 5 and 1 km/h increments every minute, with no inclination, and a body composition assessment. After this 1st day, all volunteers were submitted to two experimental procedures (fasting and postprandial, with an aerobic exercise performed for 36 minutes at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption. At postprandial procedure, all subjects ingested a breakfast containing 59.3 g of carbohydrate (76.73%, 9.97 g of protein (12.90%, 8.01 g of lipids (10.37%, with a total energy intake of 349.17 kcal. An analysis of plasma concentration of triglycerides, lactate, and glucose was performed in two stages: before and after exercise. The Shapiro–Wilk test was used to verify the normality of the data. For analysis of glucose concentration, plasma lactate, and triglycerides, we used a repeated measures analysis of variance factorial 2×2, with Bonferroni multiple comparison test. The significance level of P<0.05 was adopted. The results indicated a maintenance level of glucose at fasting and a decrease in glucose concentration at postprandial exercise. Both conditions increase plasma lactate. Triglycerides also increased in the two experimental conditions; however, after exercise fasting, the increase was significantly higher than in the postprandial exercise. These data suggest that both exercises could increase

  14. Connexins and their channels in inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Michaël; Decrock, Elke; Wang, Nan; Leybaert, Luc; Kwak, Brenda R.; Green, Colin R.; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation may be caused by a variety of factors and is a hallmark of a plethora of acute and chronic diseases. The purpose of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cell injury trigger, to clear out dead cells from damaged tissue and to initiate tissue regeneration. Despite the wealth of knowledge regarding the involvement of cellular communication in inflammation, studies on the role of connexin-based channels in this process have only begun to emerge in the last few years. In this paper, a state-of-the-art overview of the effects of inflammation on connexin signaling is provided. Vice versa, the involvement of connexins and their channels in inflammation will be discussed by relying on studies that use a variety of experimental tools, such as genetically modified animals, small interfering RNA and connexin-based channel blockers. A better understanding of the importance of connexin signaling in inflammation may open up towards clinical perspectives. PMID:27387655

  15. Risk of postprandial insulin resistance: the liver/vagus rapport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Maria Paula; Lima, Inês S; Gaspar, Joana M; Afonso, Ricardo A; Patarrão, Rita S; Kim, Young-Bum; Ribeiro, Rogério T

    2014-03-01

    Ingestion of a meal is the greatest challenge faced by glucose homeostasis. The surge of nutrients has to be disposed quickly, as high concentrations in the bloodstream may have pathophysiological effects, and also properly, as misplaced reserves may induce problems in affected tissues. Thus, loss of the ability to adequately dispose of ingested nutrients can be expected to lead to glucose intolerance, and favor the development of pathologies. Achieving interplay of several organs is of upmost importance to maintain effectively postprandial glucose clearance, with the liver being responsible of orchestrating global glycemic control. This dogmatic role of the liver in postprandial insulin sensitivity is tightly associated with the vagus nerve. Herein, we uncover the behaviour of metabolic pathways determined by hepatic parasympathetic function status, in physiology and in pathophysiology. Likewise, the inquiry expands to address the impact of a modern lifestyle, especially one's feeding habits, on the hepatic parasympathetic nerve control of glucose metabolism.

  16. Starch and fibre intake and glucose postprandial response of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Monti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fibre has been studied to reduce the postprandial glucose response of dogs, but the results are inconsistent. Starch intake, however, was not properly considered in the published studies. The effects of starch and fibre intake on the postprandial glucose response were studied in non-obese adult dogs. Cellulose (CEL, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, pea fibre (PE and sugarcane fibre (SCF were combined to form six diets with starch contents ranging from 33% to 42%: SCF+CEL and PE+CEL diets, both with high insoluble fibre (IF=22% and low soluble fibre (SF=2.5% content; SCF+CMC and PE+CMC diets with high SF (SF=4.5%; IF=19% content; and CMC and CEL diets with low dietary fibre (14% content. The diets were fed in two amounts, providing an intake of 9.5g or 12.5g of starch (kg0.75-1 day-1, totaling 12 treatments. Each diet was fed to six dogs conditioned to consume all of the daily food in 10min. Their plasma glucose levels were measured before and during 480min after food intake. Results of fibre and starch intake and their interactions were compared by repeated measures ANOVA and the Tukey test (P0.05. High-dose starch intake, however, induced a higher glycaemia at 180 and 240min after the meal and a greater maximal glycaemia and greater area under the glucose curve (P<0.05. A range in insoluble and soluble fibre intake does not change postprandial glucose response, and the amount of starch intake is a main factor for the postprandial glucose response of healthy non-obese dogs.

  17. Postprandial hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk: focus on incretins

    OpenAIRE

    Ansar, Sameer; Koska, Juraj; Reaven, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is only partially reduced by intensive glycemic control. Diabetic dyslipidemia is suggested to be an additional important contributor to CVD risk in T2DM. Multiple lipid lowering medications effectively reduce fasting LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and several of them routinely reduce CVD risk. However, in contemporary Western societies the vasculature is commonly exposed to prolonged postprandial hyperlipi...

  18. Lixisenatide reduces postprandial hyperglycaemia via gastrostatic and insulinotropic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Reinhard H A; Stechl, Jens; Steinstraesser, Axel; Golor, Georg; Pellissier, Franck

    2015-09-01

    Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial, short-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist. Its main antidiabetic effect is to delay gastric emptying to control postprandial plasma glucose excursions. The dose-response relationship of the integrated insulinotropic and gastrostatic response to lixisenatide in healthy volunteers after a standardized liquid meal was investigated. Twenty healthy subjects received acetaminophen 1000 mg with a standardized liquid meal 60 min after a single subcutaneous injection of placebo or lixisenatide 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 µg in randomized order separated by a 2- to 7-day washout. Acetaminophen pharmacokinetics served as a surrogate to assess rate of gastric emptying. Postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucagon were assessed for 5 h after the meal test, and lixisenatide pharmacokinetics were determined for 6 h. After lixisenatide administration and prior to the standardized meal, insulin and C-peptide transiently increased, while fasting plasma glucose decreased in a dose-dependent manner. After the meal, postprandial plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide were dose proportionally reduced with lixisenatide versus placebo for up to 6 h. Compared with placebo, glucagon levels were transiently lower after any lixisenatide dose, with more sustained reductions after the meal and no apparent dose-related trends. Acetaminophen absorption was significantly reduced and delayed compared with placebo for lixisenatide doses ≥5 µg and demonstrated dose-dependent slowing of gastric emptying. Lixisenatide displayed near dose-proportional exposure, with gastrointestinal events increasing with dose. Lixisenatide reduced fasting plasma glucose via stimulation of glucose-dependent insulin release and controlled postprandial plasma glucose by delaying gastric emptying, demonstrating it to be a valuable option for overall glycaemic control. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetes Metabolism Research and Reviews published by John

  19. Postprandial changes in the exhalation of radon from the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Markun, F.; Plondke, N.J.

    1978-01-01

    The exhalation of radon originally inhaled from the home environment and dissolved in body fluids and tissues has been studied serially for periods of several hours in six persons. The observation of a pronounced postprandial peak in the rate of exhalation of radon shows that the similar peak observed in the exhalation of radon produced from radium in vivo results from the flushing of a reservoir in soft tissue and not from a change in the fraction lost from bone

  20. Effect of sprint interval versus continuous cycling on postprandial lipaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Min Sze; Mok, Alexander; Yap, Mei Chan; Burns, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    The present study compares the effect of a single bout of sprint interval cycling against continuous cycling on postprandial lipaemia. Participants were nine healthy volunteers (five male), aged 20-26 years. Each participant undertook three 2-d trials in a random order. On day 1, participants rested (control), undertook a single 20 minute bout of continuous cycling at 70% of maximum oxygen uptake or completed four 30-second bouts of sprint interval cycling on a cycle ergometer, separated by 4.5 minutes of recovery. On day 2, participants rested and consumed a test meal (75% fat). Triacylglycerol concentrations were measured fasting and for 6 hours after the meal. The total area under the triacylglycerol concentration against time curve was similar among trials (mean (SD): control, 9.51 (3.50) mmol · l(-1) compared with continuous cycling, 8.58 (3.08) mmol · l(-1) compared with sprint interval cycling, 9.28 (1.89) mmol · l(-1); P = 0.517). There was no difference in the pattern of TAG response to the test meal among trials (trial × time interaction, P = 0.637). The present study found no effect of sprint interval or continuous cycling on postprandial lipaemia, with the reason for this finding unclear. Future studies need to more precisely determine the relationship between exercise and postprandial lipaemia across different types of exercise.

  1. Hypertriglyceridaemia, postprandial lipaemia and non-HDL cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, Claudia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Athyros, Vasilios G

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels within healthy limits decreases the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD) and cardiovascular (CV) events. The predictive value of elevated TG levels for coronary artery disease (CAD) seen in univariate analysis tends to disappear on multivariate analyses, especially when correction is made for HDL-C. The relationship between TG and HDL-C is complex and not fully understood. Hydrolysis of TG by lipoprotein lipase converts HDL subclass 3 to a larger lipoprotein enriched in both phospholipid and TG. This process occurs in postprandial lipaemia (PPL). An additional factor for the complex relationship between TGs and CV risk is that the lipoproteins which transport plasma TG (chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins and their remnants) are heterogeneous particles. Therefore, they may differ in their level of atherogenicity. PPL is a physiological process during which plasma lipoproteins and their subclasses undergo variations in concentration and composition following consumption of food, particularly fatty food. "Postprandial hyperlipidaemia" is the quantitative/qualitative alteration of this normal process. These lipoprotein alterations could play a role in the development of CV disease (CVD). However, lipid levels used to evaluate CV risk are usually measured in the fasting state. This review focuses on TG, PPL, postprandial hyperlipidaemia and non-HDL-C, their relationships and potential predictive role in atherogenesis and CVD.

  2. Influence of Acute Coffee Consumption on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 different occasions, 16 men and women consumed a high-fat milk shake followed by either 16 ounces of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or bottled water. Blood samples were collected before and at 2 and 4 hours following intake of the milk shake and analyzed for triglycerides (TAG, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 , and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC. Results Values for TAG and MDA ( P 0.05. Conclusions Acute coffee consumption following a high-fat milk shake has no impact on postprandial oxidative stress.

  3. Postprandial lipids accelerate and redirect nitric oxide consumption in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, Kurt; Schroeder, Hobe J; Longo, Lawrence D; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2016-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and O2 are both three-to four-fold more soluble in biological lipids than in aqueous solutions. Their higher concentration within plasma lipids accelerates NO autoxidation to an extent that may be of importance to overall NO bioactivity. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that increased plasma lipids after a high-fat meal appreciably accelerate NO metabolism and alter the byproducts formed. We found that plasma collected from subjects after consumption of a single high-fat meal had a higher capacity for NO consumption and consumed NO more rapidly compared to fasting plasma. This increased NO consumption showed a direct correlation with plasma triglyceride concentrations (p = 0.006). The accelerated NO consumption in postprandial plasma was reversed by removal of the lipids from the plasma, was mimicked by the addition of hydrophobic micelles to aqueous buffer, and could not be explained by the presence of either free hemoglobin or ceruloplasmin. The products of NO consumption were shifted in postprandial plasma, with 55% more nitrite (n = 12, p = 0.002) but 50% less SNO (n = 12, p = 0.03) production compared to matched fasted plasma. Modeling calculations indicated that NO autoxidation was accelerated by about 48-fold in the presence of plasma lipids. We conclude that postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins exert a significant influence on NO metabolism in plasma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutritionally Mediated Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many sources of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress that trigger inflammatory cascades along short and long time frames. These events are primarily mediated via NFκB. On the short-term scale postprandial inflammation is characterized by an increase in circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and is mirrored on the long-term by proinflammatory gene expression changes in the adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of obese individuals. Specifically the upregulation of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, CXCL2/MIP-2α, and CXCL3/MIP-2β is noted because these changes have been observed in both adipocytes and PBMC of obese humans. In comparing numerous human intervention studies it is clear that pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory consumption choices mediate gene expression in humans adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Arachidonic acid and saturated fatty acids (SFAs both demonstrate an ability to increase pro-inflammatory IL-8 along with numerous other inflammatory factors including IL-6, TNFα, IL-1β, and CXCL1 for arachidonic acid and IGB2 and CTSS for SFA. Antioxidant rich foods including olive oil, fruits, and vegetables all demonstrate an ability to lower levels of IL-6 in PBMCs. Thus, dietary choices play a complex role in the mediation of unavoidable oxidative stress and can serve to exacerbate or dampen the level of inflammation.

  5. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L. Dordevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD; body mass index (BMI 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water, carbohydrate (maltodextrin or lipid (dairy-cream. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h, as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03 and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001 decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  6. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordevic, Aimee L; Pendergast, Felicity J; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K; Larsen, Amy E; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  7. Inflammation of the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glaucoma (Video) Macular Degeneration Additional Content Medical News Inflammation of the Orbit (Inflammatory Orbital Pseudotumor) By James ... Introduction to Eye Socket Disorders Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Inflammation of the Orbit Orbital Cellulitis Preseptal Cellulitis Tumors ...

  8. Inflammation and coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom

    2010-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of sepsis, inflammation and coagulation play a pivotal role. Increasing evidence points to an extensive cross-talk between these two systems, whereby inflammation leads to activation of coagulation, and coagulation also considerably affects inflammatory activity. Molecular

  9. Inflammation in tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addona, Alessio; Maffulli, Nicola; Formisano, Silvestro; Rosa, Donato

    2017-10-01

    Pain and functional limitation are frequent in symptomatic tendinopathy. The essential lesion of tendinopathy is a failed healing response. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in a failed healing response during the early stages of pathogenesis of tendinopathy would help to develop new and effective treatments. The role of inflammation in the development of tendon pathologies has been revived during the last few years, in particular during the first phases of tendinopathies, when "early tendinopathy" may not be clinically evident. This review outlines the possible molecular events that occur in the first phases of tendinopathy onset, stressing the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines, proteolytic enzymes, growth factors and healing genes in the development of tendon disorders. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of inflammation on respiratory plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocker, Austin D; Stokes, Jennifer A; Powell, Frank L; Huxtable, Adrianne G

    2017-01-01

    Breathing is a vital homeostatic behavior and must be precisely regulated throughout life. Clinical conditions commonly associated with inflammation, undermine respiratory function may involve plasticity in respiratory control circuits to compensate and maintain adequate ventilation. Alternatively, other clinical conditions may evoke maladaptive plasticity. Yet, we have only recently begun to understand the effects of inflammation on respiratory plasticity. Here, we review some of common models used to investigate the effects of inflammation and discuss the impact of inflammation on nociception, chemosensory plasticity, medullary respiratory centers, motor plasticity in motor neurons and respiratory frequency, and adaptation to high altitude. We provide new data suggesting glial cells contribute to CNS inflammatory gene expression after 24h of sustained hypoxia and inflammation induced by 8h of intermittent hypoxia inhibits long-term facilitation of respiratory frequency. We also discuss how inflammation can have opposite effects on the capacity for plasticity, whereby it is necessary for increases in the hypoxic ventilatory response with sustained hypoxia, but inhibits phrenic long term facilitation after intermittent hypoxia. This review highlights gaps in our knowledge about the effects of inflammation on respiratory control (development, age, and sex differences). In summary, data to date suggest plasticity can be either adaptive or maladaptive and understanding how inflammation alters the respiratory system is crucial for development of better therapeutic interventions to promote breathing and for utilization of plasticity as a clinical treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inflammation and its resolution and the musculoskeletal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Gallo

    2017-07-01

    The translational potential of this article: Understanding the mechanisms of inflammation and its resolution is therefore critical for the development of effective regenerative, and therapeutic strategies in orthopaedics.

  12. Acute differential effects of milk-derived dietary proteins on postprandial lipaemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hartvigsen, Merete; Mortensen, L.S.

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single...

  13. From inflammation to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniluk, A; Koper, O; Kemona, H; Dymicka-Piekarska, V

    2017-02-01

    The participation of inflammation in the progression of cancer for many years have been the subject of research. In the 19th century, there was evidence that an acute inflammation may inhibit the development of cancer. However, chronic inflammation affects the progression of the disease. Today, it is known that inflammation and cancer use similar mechanisms of development such as severe cell proliferation or angiogenesis. It has been shown that prolonged presence of inflammatory cells and factors in the tumor microenvironment can accelerate its growth and inhibit apoptosis of transformed cells. In this article we present a brief history of the discovery mechanisms and potential links between acute and chronic inflammation and cancer.

  14. Exaggerated postprandial lipaemia and lower post-heparin lipoprotein lipase activity in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kim G; Knapper-Francis, Jacky M E; Morgan, Linda M; Webb, Diane H; Zampelas, Antonis; Williams, Christine M

    2003-10-01

    An exaggerated postprandial lipaemic response is thought to play a central role in the development of an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype, a recognized lipid risk factor for coronary heart disease. A small number of limited studies have compared postprandial lipaemia in subjects of varying age, but have not investigated mechanisms underlying age-associated changes in postprandial lipaemia. In order to test the hypothesis that impaired lipaemia in older subjects is associated with loss of insulin sensitivity, the present study compared the postprandial lipaemic and hormone responses for 9 h following a standard mixed meal in normolipidaemic healthy young and middle-aged men. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activities were determined in post-heparin plasma 9 h postprandially and on another occasion under fasting conditions. Postprandial plasma glucose (Ppostprandial LPL and HL activities were also significantly lower in the middle-aged men compared with the young men (Ppostprandial TAG response in middle-aged men than young men was attributed to the accumulation of dietary-derived TAG-rich lipoproteins (densitypostprandial LPL and HL activities were markedly lower in middle-aged men, but lack of statistical associations between measures of insulin response and post-heparin lipase activities, as well as between insulin and measures of postprandial lipaemia, suggest that this lower activity cannot be attributed to lack of sensitivity of lipases to activation by insulin. Alternatively, post-heparin lipase activities may not be good markers for the insulin-sensitive component of lipase that is activated postprandially.

  15. Differential effects of proteins and carbohydrates on postprandial blood pressure-related responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F. M.; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.; Serroyen, Jan; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Diet composition may affect blood pressure (BP), but the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare postprandial BP-related responses to the ingestion of pea protein, milk protein and egg-white protein. In addition, postprandial BP-related responses to the ingestion of

  16. Microbiota, inflammation and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Yolanda; Moya-Pérez, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between metabolism and immunity play a pivotal role in the development of obesity-associated chronic co-morbidities. Obesity involves impairment of immune function affecting both the innate and adaptive immune system. This leads to increased risk of infections as well as chronic low-grade inflammation, which in turn causes metabolic dysfunction (e.g. insulin resistance) and chronic disease (e.g. type-2 diabetes). Gut microbiota has emerged as one of the key factors regulating early events triggering inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic dysfunction. This effect seems to be related to diet- and obesity-associated changes in gut microbiota composition and to increased translocation of immunogenic bacterial products, which activate innate and adaptive immunity in the gut and beyond, contributing to an increase in inflammatory tone. Innate immune receptors, like Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are known to be up-regulated in the tissue affected by most inflammatory disorders and activated by both specific microbial components and dietary lipids. This triggers several signaling transduction pathways (e.g. JNK and IKKβ/NF-κB), leading to inflammatory cytokine and chemokine (TNF-α, IL-1, MCP1) production and to inflammatory cell recruitment, causing insulin resistance. T-cell differentiation into effector inflammatory or regulatory T cells also depends on the type of TLR activated and on cytokine production, which in turn depends upon gut microbiota-diet interactions. Here, we update and discuss our current understanding of how gut microbiota could contribute to defining whole-body metabolism by influencing diverse components of the innate and adaptive immune system, both locally and systemically.

  17. Unusual Giant Adrenal Myelolipoma with Chronic Mild Postprandial Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Soylemez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal myelolipomas are rare, small, benign, non-functioning tumors, which must be histopathologically differentiated from other tumors such as lipomas or liposarcomas. They are usually identified incidentally during autopsy, imaging or laparotomy. Occasionally, they may present acutely due to complications such as abdominal pain from retroperitoneal bleeding or systemic symptoms of infection. In differantial diagnosis, Magnetic Resonance Imaging may be useful to show characterize of tissue and relationship with other organs. We report a 66-year-old man with a giant adrenal myelolipoma clinically presenting with chronic mild postprandial pain with a brief review of the literature.

  18. Postprandial thermogenesis and substrate oxidation are unaffected by sleep restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ari; Rising, Russell; Wolfe, Scott; Albu, Jeanine B.; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives The extent to which alterations in energy expenditure (EE) in response to sleep restriction contribute to the short sleep-obesity relationship is not clearly defined. Short sleep may induce changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of food (TEF), and postprandial substrate oxidation. Subjects/Methods Ten females (age and BMI: 22-43 y and 23.4-28 kg/m2) completed a randomized, crossover study assessing the effects of short (4 h/night) and habitual (8 h/night) sleep duration on fasting and postprandial RMR and respiratory quotient (RQ). Measurements were taken after 3 nights using whole-room indirect calorimetry. The TEF was assessed over a 6-h period following consumption of a high-fat liquid meal. Results Short vs. habitual sleep did not affect RMR (1.01 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 kcal/min; p=0.23). Fasting RQ was significantly lower after short vs. habitual sleep (0.84 ± 0.01 and 0.88 ± 0.01; p=0.028). Postprandial EE (short: 1.13 ± 0.04 and habitual: 1.10 ± 0.04, p=0.09) and RQ (short: 0.88 ± 0.01 and habitual: 0.88 ± 0.01, p=0.50) after the high-fat meal were not different between conditions. TEF was similar between conditions (0.24 ± 0.02 kcal/min in both; p=0.98), as was the ~6-h incremental area under the curve (1.16 ± 0.10 and 1.17 ± 0.09 kcal/min x 356 min after short and habitual sleep, respectively; p=0.92). Conclusions Current findings observed in non-obese healthy premenopausal women do not support the hypothesis that alterations in TEF and postprandial substrate oxidation are major contributors to the higher rate of obesity observed in short sleepers. In exploring a role of sleep duration on EE, research should focus on potential alterations in physical activity to explain the increased obesity risk in short sleepers. PMID:24352294

  19. Extended-Release Niacin/Laropiprant Improves Overall Efficacy of Postprandial Reverse Cholesterol Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Petra; Waldmann, Elisa; Huby, Thierry; Gall, Julie; Couvert, Philippe; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Chapman, John; Frisdal, Eric; Lesnik, Philippe; Parhofer, Klaus G; Le Goff, Wilfried; Guerin, Maryse

    2016-02-01

    Postprandial atherogenic lipoproteins, characterizing high-risk patients, correlate positively with cardiovascular events. Although the effect of niacin on fasting lipids is well established, its impact on atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway and on functional features of circulating lipoproteins during the postprandial state remains indeterminate. We evaluated RCT pathway during postprandial phase in dyslipidemic patients displaying a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol phenotype. Ten subjects on stable statin therapy received 1 g/20 mg extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT) for 4 weeks followed by 2 g/40 mg ERN/LRPT for additional 8 weeks. At each experimental period, postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and major steps of RCT, including cholesterol efflux from human macrophages, cholesteryl ester transfer protein-mediated cholesteryl ester transfer, and hepatic HDL-cholesteryl ester selective uptake were evaluated. Equally, the capacity of postprandial HDL particles isolated from patients before and after ERN/LRPT treatment to mediate RCT to feces was evaluated in vivo in human apolipoprotein B/cholesteryl ester transfer protein double transgenic mouse model. Compared with baseline, ERN/LRPT significantly reduced postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (incremental area under the curve-triglyceride: -53%; P=0.02). Postprandial increase in endogenous plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity was completely abolished after ERN/LRPT treatment. Despite a slight reduction in plasma cholesterol efflux capacity from human THP-1 macrophages, evaluation of global RCT efficacy by combining both ex vivo and in vivo approaches indicate that postprandial HDL particles formed under ERN/LRPT therapy displayed a greater capacity for HDL-mediated RCT to feces. ERN/LRPT treatment efficiently attenuates atherogenic postprandial lipemia and stimulates HDL-mediated cholesterol return to the liver and elimination into feces during

  20. Effects of the amount of rice in meals on postprandial blood pressure in older people with postprandial hypotension: a within-subjects design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jung Tae; Lee, Eunjoo

    2015-08-01

    To determine the effect of the amount of rice carbohydrates consumed during mealtime on the extent of decrease in postprandial blood pressure in older people with postprandial hypotension. The incidence of postprandial hypotension is as high as 74% in older people with hypertension. A within-subjects repeated measures design was used. Thirty-nine older people in nursing homes received a full serving and a half-serving of rice on two separate days, in random order blood pressure and heart rate were measured before each meal and every 15 minutes for a total of 120 minutes after each meal. Data were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance and the paired t-test with a Bonferroni adjustment using IBM spss version 19.0. The control and intervention conditions yielded significantly different patterns in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Postprandial hypotension was less frequent under the intervention condition; however, decrease in rice intake did not significantly affect heart rate. Reducing the amount of rice intake per meal prevents postprandial blood pressure decreases in the older people. Small and frequent meals with decreased carbohydrate content are recommended to prevent postprandial hypotension and its complications in the older people. Patients, dieticians and caregivers of older patients should be aware of the importance of diet, especially of decreasing the amount of carbohydrate in a meal. Smaller and more frequent meals are recommended for older people to slow gastric emptying. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Intestinal Cgi-58 deficiency reduces postprandial lipid absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Guo, Feng; Ma, Yinyan; Zhu, Hongling; Wang, Freddy; Xue, Bingzhong; Shi, Hang; Yang, Jian; Yu, Liqing

    2014-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58), a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein, promotes intracellular triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis in vitro. Mutations in human CGI-58 cause TG accumulation in numerous tissues including intestine. Enterocytes are thought not to store TG-rich LDs, but a fatty meal does induce temporary cytosolic accumulation of LDs. Accumulated LDs are eventually cleared out, implying existence of TG hydrolytic machinery in enterocytes. However, identities of proteins responsible for LD-TG hydrolysis remain unknown. Here we report that intestine-specific inactivation of CGI-58 in mice significantly reduces postprandial plasma TG concentrations and intestinal TG hydrolase activity, which is associated with a 4-fold increase in intestinal TG content and large cytosolic LD accumulation in absorptive enterocytes during the fasting state. Intestine-specific CGI-58 knockout mice also display mild yet significant decreases in intestinal fatty acid absorption and oxidation. Surprisingly, inactivation of CGI-58 in intestine significantly raises plasma and intestinal cholesterol, and reduces hepatic cholesterol, without altering intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, intestinal CGI-58 is required for efficient postprandial lipoprotein-TG secretion and for maintaining hepatic and plasma lipid homeostasis. Our animal model will serve as a valuable tool to further define how intestinal fat metabolism influences the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  2. Insulinoma presenting with post-prandial hypoglycaemia following fundoplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Y Qian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulinomas are rare neuroendocrine tumours that classically present with fasting hypoglycaemia. This case report discusses an uncommon and challenging case of insulinoma soon after upper gastrointestinal surgery. A 63-year-old man presented with 6 months of post-prandial hypoglycaemia beginning after a laparoscopic revision of Toupet fundoplication. Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia was confirmed during a spontaneous episode and in a mixed-meal test. Localisation studies including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS and gallium dotatate positron emission tomography (68Ga Dotatate PET were consistent with a small insulinoma in the mid-body of the pancreas. The lesion was excised and histopathology was confirmed a localised well-differentiated neuroendocrine pancreatic neoplasm. There have been no significant episodes of hypoglycaemia since. This case highlights several key points. Insulinoma should be sought in proven post-prandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia – even in the absence of fasting hypoglycaemia. The use of nuclear imaging targeting somatostatin and GLP1 receptors has improved accuracy of localisation. Despite these advances, accurate surgical resection can remain challenging.

  3. Intestinal Cgi-58 deficiency reduces postprandial lipid absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xie

    Full Text Available Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58, a lipid droplet (LD-associated protein, promotes intracellular triglyceride (TG hydrolysis in vitro. Mutations in human CGI-58 cause TG accumulation in numerous tissues including intestine. Enterocytes are thought not to store TG-rich LDs, but a fatty meal does induce temporary cytosolic accumulation of LDs. Accumulated LDs are eventually cleared out, implying existence of TG hydrolytic machinery in enterocytes. However, identities of proteins responsible for LD-TG hydrolysis remain unknown. Here we report that intestine-specific inactivation of CGI-58 in mice significantly reduces postprandial plasma TG concentrations and intestinal TG hydrolase activity, which is associated with a 4-fold increase in intestinal TG content and large cytosolic LD accumulation in absorptive enterocytes during the fasting state. Intestine-specific CGI-58 knockout mice also display mild yet significant decreases in intestinal fatty acid absorption and oxidation. Surprisingly, inactivation of CGI-58 in intestine significantly raises plasma and intestinal cholesterol, and reduces hepatic cholesterol, without altering intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, intestinal CGI-58 is required for efficient postprandial lipoprotein-TG secretion and for maintaining hepatic and plasma lipid homeostasis. Our animal model will serve as a valuable tool to further define how intestinal fat metabolism influences the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  4. Loneliness predicts postprandial ghrelin and hunger in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M; Fagundes, Christopher P; Peng, Juan; Belury, Martha A; Andridge, Rebecca R; Malarkey, William B; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-04-01

    Loneliness is strongly linked to poor health. Recent research suggests that appetite dysregulation provides one potential pathway through which loneliness and other forms of social disconnection influence health. Obesity may alter the link between loneliness and appetite-relevant hormones, one unexplored possibility. We examined the relationships between loneliness and both postmeal ghrelin and hunger, and tested whether these links differed for people with a higher versus lower body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). During this double-blind randomized crossover study, women (N=42) ate a high saturated fat meal at the beginning of one full-day visit and a high oleic sunflower oil meal at the beginning of the other. Loneliness was assessed once with a commonly used loneliness questionnaire. Ghrelin was sampled before the meal and postmeal at 2 and 7h. Self-reported hunger was measured before the meal, immediately postmeal, and then 2, 4, and 7h later. Lonelier women had larger postprandial ghrelin and hunger increases compared with less lonely women, but only among participants with a lower BMI. Loneliness and postprandial ghrelin and hunger were unrelated among participants with a higher BMI. These effects were consistent across both meals. These data suggest that ghrelin, an important appetite-regulation hormone, and hunger may link loneliness to weight gain and its corresponding negative health effects among non-obese people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of various carbohydrate sources on postprandial glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations in obese cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Ueda, K; Lee, P; Oda, H; Ishioka, K; Sako, T

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate is an important source of energy, which can significantly affect postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels in cats. In healthy animals, this is not a big concern; however, in obese and diabetic animals, this is an important detail. In the present study, the impact of four different carbohydrate sources (glucose, maltose, corn starch, and trehalose) on short-term post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations was investigated with four obese cats. Each of the carbohydrate sources was added to a commercial wet food diet for feeding the animals. A significant difference was observed in postprandial glucose, insulin, and NEFA area under the curve (AUC) values between each carbohydrate source in obese cats. Furthermore, glucose and maltose induced the highest postprandial glucose and insulin AUC values, whereas trehalose induced the lowest postprandial glucose and insulin AUC value amongst all carbohydrate sources, respectively, in obese cats. However, trehalose has a higher risk of inducing side effects, such as diarrhea, as compared to other carbohydrate sources. As such, different carbohydrate sources appear to have a very significant impact on post-prandial glycemia and subsequent insulin requirement levels in obese cats. These results might be useful when selecting a prescription diet for obese or diabetic cats. In addition, maltose appears to be capable of inducing experimentally evoked postprandial hyperglycemia in obese cats, which may serve as a good tool for use to check the impact and effectiveness of newly developed oral hypoglycemic drugs or supplements for cats in future experiments.

  6. Thirty days of resveratrol supplementation does not affect postprandial incretin hormone responses, but suppresses postprandial glucagon in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, F K; Konings, E; Timmers, S

    2013-01-01

    ) or placebo for 30 days in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design with a 4-week washout period. At the end of each intervention period a standardized meal test (without co-administration of resveratrol) was performed. RESULTS: Resveratrol supplementation had no impact on fasting plasma concentrations......-induced secretion of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1. We investigated postprandial incretin hormone and glucagon responses in obese human subjects before and after 30 days of resveratrol supplementation. METHODS: Postprandial plasma responses of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1...... and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon were evaluated in 10 obese men [subjects characteristics (mean ± standard error of the mean): age 52 ± 2 years; BMI 32 ± 1 kg/m(2) , fasting plasma glucose 5.5 ± 0.1 mmol/l] who had been given a dietary supplement of resveratrol (Resvida(®) 150 mg/day...

  7. Effect of sildenafil on gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Søndergaard, S B; Fuglsang, S

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sildenafil is known to block phosphodiesterase type 5, which degrades nitric oxide-stimulated cyclic guanosine monophosphate, thereby relaxing smooth muscle cells in various organs. The effect of sildenafil on gastric motor function after a meal was investigated in healthy humans...... gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions. RESULTS: The area under the curve of gastric retention versus time of liquid or solid radiolabelled marker was not changed by sildenafil intake, nor was the postprandial frequency of antral contractions affected by sildenafil. CONCLUSION......: A single dose of 50 mg sildenafil does not change gastric emptying or postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy volunteers....

  8. The Göttingen minipig as a model for postprandial hyperlipidaemia in man: experimental observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A K; Bladbjerg, E-M; Marckmann, P

    2002-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidaemia is believed to be atherogenic. This study aimed to establish a minipig model to investigate determinants of postprandial lipid metabolism. In a randomized cross-over design seven minipigs were subjected to six different feeding regimens: intragastric fat loads of 1, 2...... on the triglyceride response was observed. We found no significant differences in triglyceride response whether 2 g fat (Intralipid kg(-1) was given in one or two fractions, with or without pre-feeding. We conclude that postprandial hyperlipidaemia in minipigs can be induced by gavaging an emulgated lipid solution (1...

  9. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    to men postprandially, irrespective of fasting levels or ongoing statin therapy. This might have implications in the atherosclerotic process and on any difference in the risk of CVD between genders. Keywords: Cholesterol; diabetes mellitus type-2; fasting; gender; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase......Objective. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an independent and modifiable risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial lipid metabolism has been linked to CVD, but little is known about the postprandial LDL-C profile in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM...

  10. Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Leyva, Misti J; Fu, Dongxu; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary cocoa is an important source of flavonoids and is associated with favorable cardiovascular disease effects, such as improvements in vascular function and lipid profiles, in nondiabetic adults. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with adverse effects on postprandial serum glucose, lipids, inflammation, and vascular function. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food–style meal. Methods: Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols; lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and vascular measurements were conducted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially on each study day. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment. Results: Over the 6-h study, and specifically at 1 and 4 h, cocoa increased HDL cholesterol vs. placebo (overall Δ: 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P ≤ 0.01) but had no effect on total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and hsCRP. Cocoa increased serum insulin concentrations overall (Δ: 5.2 ± 3.2 mU/L; P postprandial period, an overall decrease in large artery elasticity was found after cocoa consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01886989. PMID:26338890

  11. Skeletal muscle regeneration is modulated by inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle regeneration is a complex process orchestrated by multiple steps. Recent findings indicate that inflammatory responses could play central roles in bridging initial muscle injury responses and timely muscle injury reparation. The various types of immune cells and cytokines have crucial roles in muscle regeneration process. In this review, we briefly summarise the functions of acute inflammation in muscle regeneration. The translational potential of this article: Immune system is closely relevant to the muscle regeneration. Understanding the mechanisms of inflammation in muscle regeneration is therefore critical for the development of effective regenerative, and therapeutic strategies in muscular disorders. This review provides information for muscle regeneration research regarding the effects of inflammation on muscle regeneration. Keywords: Chronic muscle disorders, Cytokines, Immune cells, Inflammation, Muscle regeneration, Muscle stem cells

  12. Commercially available gluten-free pastas elevate postprandial glycemia in comparison to conventional wheat pasta in healthy adults: a double-blind randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C S; Snyder, D; Smith, C

    2017-09-20

    Given the popularity of gluten-free diets, research regarding the health implications of gluten-free (GF) products is necessary. This study compared the postprandial glycemic responses to three GF pastas commonly available in the U.S. market to that of wheat pasta in healthy adults. Thirteen healthy non-smoking men and women from a university campus population were enrolled in this randomized 4 × 4 block crossover study and completed all four treatments. Participants followed a standardized diet and activity protocol the day prior to testing, and one week separated testing periods. The test meal (a macaroni and cheese dish prepared with conventional wheat pasta or with GF pasta composed of either brown rice, rice and corn, or corn and quinoa flours) was consumed under observation, and blood was sampled in the fasted state and at one-half hour intervals for the first 2 hours following meal ingestion. A significant pasta × time interaction was observed for the incremental postprandial glycemia curves (p = 0.036, repeated measures ANOVA; effect size [partial eta squared], 0.943). Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant difference for the 30-minute postprandial blood glucose concentrations: the plasma glucose concentration was 57% higher for the GF rice and corn pasta compared to traditional wheat pasta (p = 0.011). Since postprandial glycemia was higher for GF pasta composed of rice and corn flours compared to wheat pasta, more research is needed to understand how the substitute ingredients for GF pastas impact health parameters and disease risk.

  13. d-Allulose enhances postprandial fat oxidation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tomonori; Kanasaki, Akane; Hayashi, Noriko; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Nagata, Yasuo; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    d-Allulose, a C-3 epimer of d-fructose, has been reported to decrease body weight and adipose tissue weight in animal studies and is expected to be a potent antiobese sweetener. Our animal study suggested that one of the mechanisms of d-allulose's antiobesity function is an increase in energy expenditure. However, a few studies have thus far explored the underlying mechanism in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a single ingestion of d-allulose on postprandial energy metabolism in healthy participants. Thirteen healthy men and women (mean age of 35.7 ± 2.1 y and body mass index 20.9 ± 0.7 kg/m 2 ) were studied. The study was a randomized, single-blind crossover design with a 1-wk washout period. At 30 min after taking 5 g of d-allulose or 10 mg of aspartame without any sugar as a control, overnight-fasted participants ingested a standardized meal, and energy metabolism was evaluated by a breath-by-breath method. During the experiment, blood was collected and biochemical parameters such as plasma glucose were analyzed. In the d-allulose-treated group, the area under the curve of fat oxidation was significantly higher than in the control group (10.5 ± 0.4 versus 9.6 ± 0.3 kJ·4 h·kg -1 body weight [BW]; P allulose group than in the control group. No other parameters such as insulin, total cholesterol, or triacylglycerol were modified. d-Allulose enhances postprandial fat oxidation in healthy humans, indicating that it could be a novel sweetener to control and maintain healthy body weight, probably through enhanced energy metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Postprandial metabolism and inflammatory markers in overweight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauren, B C; Portal, V L; Beltrami, F G; dos Santos, T J; Pellanda, L C

    2014-08-01

    Lifestyle changes have an impact on lipid metabolism. The overload of circulating lipids may lead to endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and exaggerated inflammatory response, which may be further aggravated in the presence of overweight. This study aims to describe the postprandial metabolism and inflammatory response in overweight and normal-weight adolescents. Sixty-two adolescents aged 11-18 years were divided into two groups: overweight (OW; n=38) and normal weight (NW; n=24). Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), glucose, insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen and leukocytes were collected for fasting and 4 and 6 h after a oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) consisting of a high-fat meal with 1.000 Kcal, 27.4% carbohydrates, 14.7% protein and 57.8% lipids (30.4% saturated, 32.7% monounsaturated, 26.5% polyunsaturated fatty acids and 288 mg TC). Data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA, multiple linear regression, and Pearson, Spearman and partial correlations. OW adolescents showed significantly higher fasting values of TC (P=0.036), LDL-C (P=0.010), fibrinogen (P=0.036) and hs-CRP (P=0.004). All variables, except for glucose, increased in response to OFTT, but there were no interactions between group and time. body mass index z-score was positively correlated to LDL-C, TG, fibrinogen and hs-CRP, and inversely correlated to HDL-C. In conclusion, adolescents with OW showed higher TC, LDL-C and inflammatory markers levels than NW adolescents. These findings have clinical implications for prevention of chronic diseases, as we spend most of our days in a postprandial state.

  15. Resting metabolic rate and postprandial thermogenesis in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, K R; Dunaif, A

    1990-07-01

    To determine whether the high frequency of obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO) is related to a defect in energy expenditure, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the thermic response to a standard meal were compared in 10 obese PCO women, nine obese but otherwise normal women, and 11 lean women. All groups were matched with respect to age and fat-free mass and the two obese groups were matched for degree of obesity. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry for 3 h on two days: (1) in the postabsorptive state; and (2) after a 720 kcal (3014 kJ) liquid mixed meal. The thermic effect of food, calculated as 3 h postprandial minus fasting RMR, was significantly greater for the lean [52.9 +/- 5.5 kcal/3 h (221 +/- 23 kJ/3 h)] than the obese [17.2 +/- 5.1 kcal/3 h (72 +/- 21 kJ/3 h)] and the PCO women [22.8 +/- 5.2 kcal/3 h (95 +/- 22 kJ/3)], P less than 0.001). The thermic effect of food was negatively related to percent body fat (r = -0.694, P less than 0.001). Resting metabolic rate did not differ significantly among the three groups, and was strongly related to fat-free mass (r = 0.687, P less than 0.001). These results confirm previous reports of blunted thermogenesis in obese individuals, but provide no evidence of altered resting metabolic rate or postprandial thermogenesis in women with PCO compared with normal women of similar degree of obesity.

  16. L’inflammation postprandiale : les données récentes suggèrent un rôle préventif des protéines alimentaires et de leur nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariotti François

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now well known that a high-energy meal that is rich in saturated fat and sugars induces the transient appearance of some metabolic dysregulations and inflammatory-related phenomena in the postprandial state, in close association with the increase in plasma triglycerides and glucose. Documented features of postprandial inflammation include the increase in plasma inflammatory markers related to the systemic level (e.g. proinflammatory cytokines or the vascular endothelium (e.g. adhesion molecules, the activation of blood leucocytes, and different physiological markers of ‘‘endothelial dysfunction’’, which relates to the transition of the endothelium toward a pro-inflammatory atherogenic phenotype. The role of fat and carbohydrates in postprandial inflammation has been much studied, while the impact of dietary protein has been overlooked. The present review will focus on the few recent studies that have examined the effect of dietary protein, and different dietary protein sources, on postprandial inflammation and reported a favorable impact on endothelial function. The literature also showed that arginine and cysteine are important amino acids in mediating these effects. Some further studies in this setting are warranted to better characterize and analyze the potential benefit of different dietary protein sources for cardiovascular risk.

  17. Postprandial Plasma Concentrations of Individual Bile Acids and FGF-19 in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; van Nierop, F Samuel; Kulik, Willem

    2016-01-01

    controls, but differences were not statistically significant due to considerable variation. CONCLUSION: Postprandial plasma patterns of bile acids with FXR agonistic properties (CDCA, DCA, and CA) and FXR antagonistic properties (UDCA) in T2D patients support the notion of a "T2D-bile acid-FGF-19......CONTEXT: Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may...... be implicated in postprandial glucose metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To describe postprandial plasma concentrations of 12 individual bile acids and FGF-19 in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and healthy controls. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study, performed at the Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital...

  18. Moderate doses of alcoholic beverages with dinner and postprandial high density lipoprotein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.; Veenstra, J.; Tol, A. van; Groener, J.E.M.; Schaafsma, G.

    1998-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, postprandial changes in plasma lipids, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels

  19. Mechanisms of gastric emptying disturbances in chronic and acute inflammation of the distal gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Beglinger, Christoph; Holst, Jens Juul

    2009-01-01

    It is unclear why patients with inflammation of the distal bowel complain of symptoms referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract, specifically to gastric emptying (GE) disturbances. Thus we aimed to determine occurrence and putative pathomechanisms of gastric motor disorders in such patients...... and correlated with GE parameters. Results were given in means +/- SD. Compared with CON, GE half time (T) was prolonged by 50% in CD (115 +/- 55 vs. 182 +/- 95 min, P = 0.037). Six CD, 2 DIV, and 2 UC patients had pathological T (>200 min). Postprandial plasma glucose was increased in all patients...

  20. Impact of Diabetes-Specific Nutritional Formulas versus Oatmeal on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, GLP-1 and Postprandial Lipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottalib, Adham; Mohd-Yusof, Barakatun-Nisak; Shehabeldin, Mohamed; Pober, David M; Mitri, Joanna; Hamdy, Osama

    2016-07-22

    Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs) are frequently used as part of medical nutrition therapy for patients with diabetes. This study aims to evaluate postprandial (PP) effects of 2 DSNFs; Glucerna (GL) and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC) versus oatmeal (OM) on glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG). After an overnight fast, 22 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes were given 200 kcal of each of the three meals on three separate days in random order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min. Glucose area under the curve (AUC0-240) after GL and UGC was lower than OM (p related to their unique blends of amino acids, carbohydrates and fat.

  1. Sterile inflammation in acute liver injury: myth or mystery?

    OpenAIRE

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation during liver injury normally serves as a mechanism for cleaning up debris and as a stimulant for regeneration. However, aberrant levels of inflammation can provoke further liver injury and inhibit regeneration through the release of damaging reactive oxygen species. Considerable effort has gone into understanding the mechanisms that control the switch between healthy and pathological inflammation. The identification of a receptor system that detects damage-associated molecular pa...

  2. An Update on Accumulating Exercise and Postprandial Lipaemia: Translating Theory Into Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Miyashita, Masashi; Burns, Stephen F; Stensel, David J

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, significant research attention has been given to the acute effect of a single bout of exercise on postprandial lipaemia. A large body of evidence supports the notion that an acute bout of aerobic exercise can reduce postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations. However, this effect is short-lived emphasising the important role of regular physical activity for lowering TAG concentrations through an active lifestyle. In 1995, the concept of accumulating physical ...

  3. Study of Postprandial Lipaemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Exenatide versus Liraglutide

    OpenAIRE

    Voukali, Maria; Kastrinelli, Irene; Stragalinou, Sapfo; Tasiopoulou, Dimitra; Paraskevopoulou, Pinelopi; Katsilambros, Nicholas; Kokkinos, Alexandros; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Ioannidis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic approaches based on the actions of the incretin hormone GLP-1 have been widely established in the management of T2DM. Nevertheless, much less research has been aimed at elucidating the role of GLP-1 in lipid metabolism and in particular postprandial dyslipidemia. Exenatide and liraglutide are two GLP-1 receptor agonists which are currently available as subcutaneously administered treatment for T2DM but their chronic effects on postprandial lipaemia have not been well investigated....

  4. The solid fat content of stearic acid-rich fats determines their postprandial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Sarah E E; Miller, George J; Sanders, Thomas A B

    2007-06-01

    The process of randomization is used commercially to harden fats as an alternative to partial hydrogenation, but its effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors are uncertain. The objective was to compare the chronic and acute effects of randomization of a fat rich in 1,3-distearyl, 2-oleyl glycerol on fasting and postprandial lipids, glucose, insulin, and activated clotting factor VII (FVIIa) concentrations. A crossover design study in 16 men compared fasting and postprandial lipid, glucose, insulin, and FVIIa concentrations at baseline and after a 3-wk diet providing 30 g unrandomized or randomized shea butter and sunflower oil blends (SSOBs), both of which contained approximately 50% stearic acid. Fecal fat excretion was measured during each dietary period. Postprandial changes were assessed after the consumption of meals providing 50 g test fat. A subsequent study compared postprandial changes after the consumption of an oleic acid-rich sunflower oil meal and an unrandomized SSOB meal. Both SSOBs were well digested and absorbed. Randomization did not affect fasting or postprandial lipid, glucose, insulin, or FVIIa concentrations. Compared with the oleic acid-rich meal, the unrandomized SSOB resulted in 53% lower postprandial lipemia, 23% higher hepatic lipase activity, and a 25% lower postprandial increase in FVIIa concentration. The solid fat contents at 37 degrees C were 22%, 41%, and 0% with the unrandomized SSOB, randomized SSOB, and oleic acid-rich meals, respectively. Stearic acid-rich triacylglycerol in both unrandomized and randomized forms does not adversely affect lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The high proportion of solid fat at 37 degrees C may explain the decreased postprandial lipemic response.

  5. Effect of growth hormone (GH) on fasting and postprandial metabolism in GH deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepp, R; Stettler, C; Diem, P; Christ, E R

    2010-10-01

    Hypopituitarism with adult-onset growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to premature and progressive atherosclerosis. An underlying cause of atherosclerosis is increased insulin resistance. Elevated fasting and postprandial glucose and lipid levels may contribute to premature atherosclerosis. We studied effects of growth hormone replacement (GHRT) on fasting and postprandial metabolic parameters as well as on insulin sensitivity in patients with adult-onset GHD. Using a standardized mixed meal, we studied insulin, glucose, non-esterified free fatty acid (NEFA) and triglycerides (TG) concentrations in the fasting state and during a 4 h postprandial period in 15 patients with adult-onset GHD before and after 4 months of GHRT. Identical investigations were performed in healthy matched control subjects. GHD patients before and after GHRT: GHRT did not result in significant changes in fasting glucose, insulin, NEFA and TG concentrations. In the postprandial period GHRT resulted in a non-significant increase in glucose and a decrease in NEFA levels in the presence of unchanged postprandial insulin and TG concentrations. GHD patients vs. control subjects: GHD patients showed similar fasting glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations, but TG were increased. In the postprandial period GHD patients exhibited similar glucose and TG, but increased insulin and NEFA concentrations. GHRT patients vs. control subjects: Patients after GHRT had similar fasting glucose, insulin and NEFA, but increased TG concentrations. In the postprandial period patients after GHRT had increased glucose and insulin levels in the presence of similar NEFA and TG concentrations. While impaired insulin action in patients with GHD translates mainly by an impaired fasting TG metabolism, GHRT induced insulin resistance additionally encompasses postprandial glucose metabolism. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Effect of Spirulina maxima on Postprandial Lipemia in Young Runners: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Durán, Patricia Victoria; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Trained people exhibit low plasma concentrations of triacylglcyerols in both fasting and postprandial states. Exercise practice is commonly believed to improve postprandial lipemia. In addition, elevated postprandial lipemia is an indicator of poor lipid clearance, and it has been associated with atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and obesity. Spirulina maxima is an edible microorganism with a high nutritional value. When it is consumed, beneficial properties to health have been demonstrated, such as hypolipemic and antihypertensive properties in human beings. This work evaluates the effects of orally administrated S. maxima on postprandial lipemia in a young Mexican sporting population after 15 days of consumption, as a possible alternative treatment to improve their lipid clearance. Forty-one runners (10–26 years old; 21 men and 20 women) volunteered to participate in the study. All of them were physically active for at least 1 year before the study and were not undergoing training during the study. The subjects consumed 5 g of Spirulina during 15 days. Before and after the treatment with Spirulina, they consumed (12 h fasting) a standardized meal with high fat content (53.2% total calories). Postprandial lipemia was measured at 1.5, 3, and 4.5 h after the fatty meal. Fasting plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were lower after Spirulina treatment than before treatment. In addition, the postprandial area under the curve of TAG concentrations was lower after the treatment with Spirulina. Sixty-two percent of the youngest runners (10–16 years) studied exhibited the best response to the treatment. Orally administered S. maxima decreased postprandial lipemia in sporting teenagers. The youngest people were the most responsive to the beneficial effects of Spirulina on postprandial lipemia. PMID:22738038

  7. Fundamentals of inflammation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serhan, Charles N; Ward, Peter A; Gilroy, Derek W

    2010-01-01

    .... Uncontrolled inflammation has emerged as a pathophysiologic basis for many widely occurring diseases in the general population that were not initially known to be linked to the inflammatory response...

  8. Postprandial lipaemia and endothelial adhesion molecules in pre- and postmenopausal Spanish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppen, S; Pérez-Granados, A M; Navas-Carretero, S; Vaquero, M P

    2010-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipaemia is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. To compare postprandial lipaemia and fasting adhesion molecules levels in healthy young premenopausal(PrW) and postmenopausal (PoW) Spanish women. Twenty healthy PrW and 18 healthy PoW participated in a postprandial 7-hour intervention study. All participants were given a fat-rich standard meal (11.8% saturated, 39.7% monounsaturated, and 6.6% polyunsaturated) after a 12 h fast. Blood samples were taken at baseline and at 60, 120, 240, 360 and 420 min after eating. Triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (Chol), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were determined in fasting serum samples and TAG and total Chol postprandial levels were measured. Anthropometric data, serum lipid and sICAM-1 presented significant higher values in PoW compared to PrW, but sVCAM-1 did not significantly differ between groups. Postprandial TAG and Chol concentrations in PoW were significantly higher than in PrW (p postprandial response to a fat rich meal and soluble intercellular adhesion molecules concentrations indicate a higher cardiovascular risk pattern in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal women. Soluble vascular adhesion molecule levels seem to be influenced not only by age and menopause, but also other factors like usual diet.

  9. MTP gene polymorphisms and postprandial lipemia in familial combined hyperlipidemia: effects of treatment with atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Boudewijn; Verseyden, Caroline; Ribalta, Josep; Salazar, Juliana; Masana, Luis; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2014-01-01

    The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is involved in hepatic and intestinal apoB secretion. We studied the effect of the functional MTP-493G/T polymorphism on fasting and postprandial lipoproteins in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) before and after treatment with atorvastatin. Eight FCH heterozygote carriers of the rare -493T allele were compared to 9 matched FCH homozygotes for the wild-type allele in a pilot study. Oral fat loading tests were carried out to measure triglycerides (TG) and apo B48 and B100 in the different fractions of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) before and after treatment with atorvastatin. Before treatment, TG were similar between the -493T allele carriers and non-carriers. In the T-allele carriers, a trend was observed for increased postprandial apo B48 and B100 concentrations in Sf >400 and Sf 60-400 compared to non-carriers. After treatment, fasting and postprandial TG were significantly lowered in carriers of the T allele, but atorvastatin had no effect on postprandial TG in non-carriers. Atorvastatin resulted in similar reductions of apo B48 and B100 in TRLs in both groups. The MTP-493G/T polymorphism modulates postprandial apo B48 and apo B100 of TRLs in FCH. Atorvastatin decreases postprandial TG in T-allele carriers with FCH. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute Effect of Metformin on Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia through Delayed Gastric Emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Morino, Katsutaro; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Murata, Koichiro; Sekine, Osamu; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-06-16

    Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is a potential target for cardiovascular disease prevention in patients with diabetic dyslipidemia. Metformin has been reported to reduce plasma triglyceride concentrations in the postprandial states. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the triglyceride-lowering effect of metformin. Here, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid metabolism after olive oil-loading in 129S mice fed a high fat diet for three weeks. Metformin administration (250 mg/kg) for one week decreased postprandial plasma triglycerides. Pre-administration (250 mg/kg) of metformin resulted in a stronger triglyceride-lowering effect (approximately 45% lower area under the curve) than post-administration. A single administration (250 mg/kg) of metformin lowered plasma postprandial triglycerides comparably to administration for one week, suggesting an acute effect of metformin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. To explore whole body lipid metabolism after fat-loading, stomach size, fat absorption in the intestine, and fat oxidation ( 13 C/ 12 C ratio in expired CO₂ after administration of glyceryl-1- 13 C tripalmitate) were measured with and without metformin (250 mg/kg) pre-treatment. In metformin-treated mice, larger stomach size, lower fat oxidation, and no change in lipid absorption were observed. In conclusion, metformin administration before fat loading reduced postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, most likely by delaying gastric emptying.

  11. Effects of angiopoietin-like protein 3 deficiency on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein metabolism1[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicocci, Ilenia; Tikka, Anna; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Metso, Jari; Montali, Anna; Ceci, Fabrizio; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Fontana, Mario; Di Costanzo, Alessia; Maranghi, Marianna; Rosano, Aldo; Ehnholm, Christian; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Jauhiainen, Matti

    2016-01-01

    The consequences of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) deficiency on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein metabolism has not been investigated in humans. We studied 7 homozygous (undetectable circulating ANGPTL3 levels) and 31 heterozygous (50% of circulating ANGPTL3 levels) subjects with familial combined hypolipidemia (FHBL2) due to inactivating ANGPTL3 mutations in comparison with 35 controls. All subjects were evaluated at fasting and during 6 h after a high fat meal. Postprandial lipid and lipoprotein changes were quantified by calculating the areas under the curve (AUCs) using the 6 h concentration data. Plasma changes of β-hydroxybutyric acid (β-HBA) were measured as marker of hepatic oxidation of fatty acids. Compared with controls, homozygotes showed lower incremental AUCs (iAUCs) of total TG (−69%, P postprandial lipemia, but the difference was significant only for the iAUC of apoB-48 (−28%; P postprandial period, homozygotes, but not heterozygotes, showed a lower increase of β-HBA. Our findings demonstrate that complete ANGPTL3 deficiency associates with highly reduced postprandial lipemia probably due to faster catabolism of intestinally derived lipoproteins, larger expansion of the postprandial FFA pool, and decreased influx of dietary-derived fatty acids into the liver. These results add information on mechanisms underlying hypolipidemia in FHBL2. PMID:27040449

  12. Salivary composition in obese vs normal-weight subjects: towards a role in postprandial lipid metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vors, C; Drai, J; Gabert, L; Pineau, G; Laville, M; Vidal, H; Guichard, E; Michalski, M-C; Feron, G

    2015-09-01

    In the pathophysiological context of obesity, oral exposure to dietary fat can modulate lipid digestion and absorption, but underlying in-mouth mechanisms have not been clearly identified. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that salivary components related to dietary fat sensitivity would differ according to body mass index (BMI) and postprandial lipid metabolism in young men. Saliva was collected from nine normal-weight (BMI=22.3±0.5 kg m(-2)) and nine non-morbid obese (BMI=31.7±0.3 kg m(-2)) men before an 8-h postprandial metabolic exploration test involving the consumption of a 40-g fat meal, in which obese subjects revealed a delayed postprandial lipid metabolism. Nine salivary characteristics (flow, protein content, lipolysis, amylase, proteolysis, total antioxidant status, lysozyme, lipocalin 1 and carbonic anhydrase-VI) were investigated. We show that, under fasting conditions, salivary lipolysis was lower in obese vs normal-weight subjects, whereas proteolysis and carbonic anhydrase VI were higher. We reveal through multivariate and Mann-Whitney analysis that differences in fasting salivary lipolysis and proteolysis between both groups are related to differences in postprandial lipid metabolism including exogenous fatty-acid absorption and β-oxidation. These results suggest a potential role of salivary composition on postprandial lipid metabolism and bring novel causal hypotheses on the links between salivary composition, sensitivity to dietary fat oral income and postprandial lipid metabolism according to BMI.

  13. ABCA1 gene variants regulate postprandial lipid metabolism in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Fuentes, Francisco; Marin, Carmen; Gómez-Luna, Purificación; Camargo, Antonio; Parnell, Laurence D; Ordovas, Jose Maria; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2010-05-01

    Genetic variants of ABCA1, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, have been linked to altered atherosclerosis progression and fasting lipid concentration, mainly high-density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein A1; however, results from different studies have been inconsistent. To further characterize the effects of ABCA1 variants in human postprandial lipid metabolism, we studied the influence of 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (i27943 [rs2575875]; i48168 [rs4149272]; R219K [rs2230806]) in the postprandial lipemia of 88 normolipidemic young men who were given a fatty meal. For i27943 and i48168 single nucleotide polymorphisms, fasting and postprandial values of apolipoprotein A1 were higher and postprandial lipemia was much lower in homozygotes for the major alleles, total triglycerides in plasma, and large triglyceride-rich lipoprotein triglycerides. These persons also showed a higher apolipoprotein A1/apolipoprotein B ratio. Major allele homozygotes for i48168 and i27943 showed additionally higher high-density lipoproteins and lower postprandial apolipoprotein B. Our work shows that major allele homozygotes for ABCA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms i27943 and i48168 have a lower postprandial response as compared to minor allele carriers. This finding may further characterize the role of ABCA1 in lipid metabolism.

  14. Effects of angiopoietin-like protein 3 deficiency on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicocci, Ilenia; Tikka, Anna; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Metso, Jari; Montali, Anna; Ceci, Fabrizio; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Fontana, Mario; Di Costanzo, Alessia; Maranghi, Marianna; Rosano, Aldo; Ehnholm, Christian; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Jauhiainen, Matti; Arca, Marcello

    2016-06-01

    The consequences of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) deficiency on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein metabolism has not been investigated in humans. We studied 7 homozygous (undetectable circulating ANGPTL3 levels) and 31 heterozygous (50% of circulating ANGPTL3 levels) subjects with familial combined hypolipidemia (FHBL2) due to inactivating ANGPTL3 mutations in comparison with 35 controls. All subjects were evaluated at fasting and during 6 h after a high fat meal. Postprandial lipid and lipoprotein changes were quantified by calculating the areas under the curve (AUCs) using the 6 h concentration data. Plasma changes of β-hydroxybutyric acid (β-HBA) were measured as marker of hepatic oxidation of fatty acids. Compared with controls, homozygotes showed lower incremental AUCs (iAUCs) of total TG (-69%, P postprandial lipemia, but the difference was significant only for the iAUC of apoB-48 (-28%; P postprandial period, homozygotes, but not heterozygotes, showed a lower increase of β-HBA. Our findings demonstrate that complete ANGPTL3 deficiency associates with highly reduced postprandial lipemia probably due to faster catabolism of intestinally derived lipoproteins, larger expansion of the postprandial FFA pool, and decreased influx of dietary-derived fatty acids into the liver. These results add information on mechanisms underlying hypolipidemia in FHBL2. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Reduction of blood oxygen levels enhances postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in Burmese python (Python bivittatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slay, Christopher E; Enok, Sanne; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias

    2014-05-15

    Physiological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by reversible enlargement of cardiomyocytes and changes in chamber architecture, which increase stroke volume and via augmented convective oxygen transport. Cardiac hypertrophy is known to occur in response to repeated elevations of O2 demand and/or reduced O2 supply in several species of vertebrate ectotherms, including postprandial Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus). Recent data suggest postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in P. bivittatus is a facultative rather than obligatory response to digestion, though the triggers of this response are unknown. Here, we hypothesized that an O2 supply-demand mismatch stimulates postprandial cardiac enlargement in Burmese pythons. To test this hypothesis, we rendered animals anemic prior to feeding, essentially halving blood oxygen content during the postprandial period. Fed anemic animals had heart rates 126% higher than those of fasted controls, which, coupled with a 71% increase in mean arterial pressure, suggests fed anemic animals were experiencing significantly elevated cardiac work. We found significant cardiac hypertrophy in fed anemic animals, which exhibited ventricles 39% larger than those of fasted controls and 28% larger than in fed controls. These findings support our hypothesis that those animals with a greater magnitude of O2 supply-demand mismatch exhibit the largest hearts. The 'low O2 signal' stimulating postprandial cardiac hypertrophy is likely mediated by elevated ventricular wall stress associated with postprandial hemodynamics. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Simulating the postprandial stomach: physiological considerations for dissolution and release testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziolek, Mirko; Garbacz, Grzegorz; Neumann, Marco; Weitschies, Werner

    2013-05-06

    Food effects on drug release and absorption from solid oral dosage forms are a common biopharmaceutical problem. The fed state is characterized by different motility and secretory activity of the complete gastrointestinal (GI) tract compared to fasting conditions. Due to long gastric transit times, the postprandial stomach plays an essential role for drug release and the appearance of food effects. Therefore, a concise comprehension of the relationship between food intake and its effect on drug release from solid oral dosage forms is essential to understand their dissolution behavior under fed conditions. This review describes important aspects of stomach physiology occurring after meal ingestion with particular reference to the FDA standard breakfast. A brief overview of oral and gastric food processing and their potential influence on drug release is given. The key factors affecting the intragastric dissolution of solid oral dosage forms and their regional distribution in the stomach are discussed. Additionally, the effects of food properties on gastric emptying kinetics are presented. Mechanical aspects such as intragastric pressures and hydrodynamics caused by gastric peristalsis are defined. The initial state and the dynamic changes of the gastric content during digestion are characterized since the different physicochemical aspects such as pH value, buffer capacity, rheological properties or surface tension may be essential for the in vivo dissolution profiles of oral dosage forms. Possible effects of the discrete interplay of the physiological factors on the in vivo drug delivery behavior of solid oral dosage forms are discussed.

  17. Effects of cereal breakfasts on postprandial glucose, appetite regulation and voluntary energy intake at a subsequent standardized lunch; focusing on rye products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björck Inger ME

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye products have been demonstrated to lower the acute insulin demand, induce a low and prolonged blood glucose response (high Glycemic Profile, GP and reduce subclinical inflammation. These products may therefore contribute to a lowered risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardio vascular disease. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the mechanism for a reduced postprandial insulin demand with rye products, and to explore possible appetite regulating properties. Methods 10 healthy subjects were served breakfast meals (50 g of available starch with endosperm- or whole grain rye breads, with and without lactic acid, boiled whole grain rye- (RK or wheat (WK kernels, or white wheat bread reference (WWB in random order in a cross-over design. Plasma concentrations of glucose, ghrelin, serum insulin, free fatty acids, adiponectin, breath hydrogen excretion (H2, and subjective satiety was evaluated during the postprandial phase. 270 min after the breakfast, an ad lib lunch buffet was served and the voluntary energy intake (EI was registered. Results All rye products and WK induced lower insulinemic indices (II than WWB. A lower incremental insulin peak following breakfast correlated with a lower EI at lunch (r = 0.38. A low II was related to improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (fullness AUC 0-60 min, r = -0.36. RK induced a higher GP compared to WWB and WK. A higher GP was related to a lowered desire to eat before lunch (AUC 210-270 and to a lower concentration of ghrelin in the late postprandial phase after breakfast (270 min, r = -0.29 and -0.29, which in turn was related to a lower voluntary EI (r = 0.43 and 0.33. The RK breakfast improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (0-60 min compared to WWB, and induced a lower EI at lunch (-16%. A high content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast products was related to improved satiety (0-60 min, r = 0.68 for fullness, and a higher breath H2

  18. Exercise alleviates depression related systemic inflammation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sion, however our understanding of how to use exercise effectively in COPD patients to alleviate depression related systemic inflammation is incomplete ... bidities (i.e. cardiovascular disease risk factors and glyce- mic control). A prospective ..... T, Ross R. An exercise intervention without weight loss. African Health Sciences ...

  19. Characterization and differentiation of equine experimental local and early systemic inflammation by expression responses of inflammation-related genes in peripheral blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anne Mette L; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    , the aim of this study was to investigate the innate peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) immune response to local inflammation in horses, and to compare this response with the PBL immune response during the early phase of acute systemic inflammation. Expression of 22 selected inflammation-related genes......Local inflammation may progress into systemic inflammation. To increase our understanding of the basic immunological processes during transition of equine local inflammation into a systemic state, investigation into the equine systemic immune response to local inflammation is warranted. Therefore...... in horses initiated an innate transcriptional response in PBLs, which differed from the transcriptional response during the early phase of systemic inflammation. This study may provide new insights into the immunobiology of PBLs during the transition of local inflammation into a systemic state....

  20. Postprandial Plasma Phospholipids in Men Are Influenced by the Source of Dietary Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Peter J; Barlow, Christopher K; Mellett, Natalie A; Mundra, Piyushkumar A; Bonham, Maxine P; Larsen, Amy; Cameron-Smith, David; Sinclair, Andrew; Nestel, Paul J; Wong, Gerard

    2015-09-01

    Postprandial lipemia represents a risk factor for chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the effect of dietary fat on the plasma lipidome in the postprandial period. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dairy fat and soy oil on circulating postprandial lipids in men. Men (40-60 y old, nonsmokers; n = 16) were randomly assigned in a crossover design to consume 2 breakfast meals of dairy-based or soy oil-based foods. The changes in the plasma lipidome during the 4-h postprandial period were analyzed with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and included 316 lipid species in 23 classes and subclasses, representing sphingolipids, phospholipids, glycerolipids, and sterols. Nonparametric Friedman tests showed significant changes in multiple plasma lipid classes, subclasses, and species in the postprandial period after both dairy and soy meals. No difference was found in triglyceridemia after each meal. However, 6 endogenous lipid classes increased after dairy but decreased after soy (P postprandial plasma phospholipids in men relate to the diet composition and the relative size of the endogenous phospholipid pools. Despite similar lipemic responses as measured by changes in triglyceride concentrations, the differential responses to dairy and soy meals derived through lipidomic analysis of phospholipids suggest differences in the metabolism of soybean oil and dairy fat. The increased concentrations of plasmalogens, with potential antioxidant capacity, in the postprandial period after dairy but not soy meals may represent a further important difference in the response to these sources of fat. The trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12610000562077. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Theobromine does not affect postprandial lipid metabolism and duodenal gene expression, but has unfavorable effects on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Ridder, de Rogier J.J.; Plat, Jogchum

    2018-01-01

    Background & aims: Chocolate consumption is associated with a decreased risk for CVD. Theobromine, a compound in cocoa, may explain these effects as it favorably affected fasting serum lipids. However, long-term effects of theobromine on postprandial metabolism as well as underlying mechanisms

  2. Sex Differences in Depression: Does Inflammation Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Heather M; Padin, Avelina C; Kuo, Jennifer L; Hughes, Spenser; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-10-01

    Women become depressed more frequently than men, a consistent pattern across cultures. Inflammation plays a key role in initiating depression among a subset of individuals, and depression also has inflammatory consequences. Notably, women experience higher levels of inflammation and greater autoimmune disease risk compared to men. In the current review, we explore the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and depression and describe how this link may be particularly relevant for women. Compared to men, women may be more vulnerable to inflammation-induced mood and behavior changes. For example, transient elevations in inflammation prompt greater feelings of loneliness and social disconnection for women than for men, which can contribute to the onset of depression. Women also appear to be disproportionately affected by several factors that elevate inflammation, including prior depression, somatic symptomatology, interpersonal stressors, childhood adversity, obesity, and physical inactivity. Relationship distress and obesity, both of which elevate depression risk, are also more strongly tied to inflammation for women than for men. Taken together, these findings suggest that women's susceptibility to inflammation and its mood effects may contribute to sex differences in depression. Depression continues to be a leading cause of disability worldwide, with women experiencing greater risk than men. Due to the depression-inflammation connection, these patterns may promote additional health risks for women. Considering the impact of inflammation on women's mental health may foster a better understanding of sex differences in depression, as well as the selection of effective depression treatments.

  3. Inflammation: a trigger for acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAGER, Hendrik B.; NAHRENDORF, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall and a major cause of death worldwide. One of atherosclerosis’ most dreadful complications are acute coronary syndromes that comprise ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and unstable angina. We now understand that inflammation substantially contributes to the initiation, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerosis. In this review, we will focus on the role of inflammatory leukocytes, which are the cellular protagonists of vascular inflammation, in triggering disease progression and, ultimately, the destabilization that causes acute coronary syndromes.

  4. Sinonasal inflammation in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; Konge, Lars; Thomsen, Sf

    2013-01-01

    In this review we demonstrate that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) frequently report sinonasal symptoms. Furthermore, we present evidence that smoking on its own can cause nasal disease, and that in COPD patients, nasal inflammation mimics that of the bronchi. All...... this evidence suggests that COPD related sinonasal disease does exist and that smoking on its own rather than systemic inflammation triggers the condition. However, COPD related sinonasal disease remains to be characterized in terms of symptoms and endoscopic findings. In addition, more studies are needed...... to quantify the negative impact of sinonasal symptoms on the quality of life in COPD patients....

  5. Bioenergetic dysfunction and inflammation in alzheimer's disease: a possible connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Wilkins

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD subject brains. Inflammation-relevant genes are increasingly implicated in AD genetic studies, and inflammatory cytokines to some extent even function as peripheral biomarkers. What underlies AD inflammation is unclear, but no foreign agent has been implicated. This suggests that internally produced damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs may drive inflammation in AD. A more complete characterization and understanding of AD-relevant DAMPs could advance our understanding of AD and suggest novel therapeutic strategies. In this review, we consider the possibility that mitochondria, intracellular organelles that resemble bacteria in many ways, trigger and maintain chronic inflammation in AD subjects. Data supporting the possible nexus between AD-associated bioenergetic dysfunction are discussed.

  6. Postprandial Triglyceride Is Associated with Fasting Triglyceride and HOMA-IR in Korean Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Hee Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies indicate postprandial triglyceride (TG had a better association with cardiovascular events and metabolic syndrome than fasting TG. The authors of the present study investigated the metabolic and clinical relevance of postprandial TG.MethodsIn a cross-sectional retrospective study, the authors of the present study compared fasting and postprandial TG and analyzed the relationship between postprandial TG and various demographic and metabolic parameters in 639 Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D, group I, n=539 and impaired fasting glucose (IFG, group II, n=100 after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (total 500 kcal, 17.5 g fat, 68.5 g carbohydrate, and 17.5 g protein.ResultsFasting and postprandial TG were significantly correlated (r=0.973, r=0.937, P<0.001 in group I and II, respectively. Of the variables, total cholesterol, waist circumference and body mass index were significantly correlated with fasting and postprandial TG in both groups. Only postprandial TG showed a significant correlation with glucose metabolic parameters (e.g., postprandial glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], and fasting C-peptide in subjects with T2D. Multiple regression analysis showed fasting TG and HOMA-IR could be predictable variables for postprandial TG in subjects with T2D.ConclusionPostprandial TG was very strongly correlated with fasting TG. The authors of the present study suggest insulin resistance may be more associated with postprandial TG than fasting TG in Korean T2D patients on a low-fat diet.

  7. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt.) significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52.0% in maltose and sucrose

  8. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumurugan Kavitha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt. significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52

  9. Neurobiology of inflammation-associated anorexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gautron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Compelling data demonstrate that inflammation-associated anorexia directly results from the action of pro-inflammatory factors, primarily cytokines and prostaglandins E2, on the nervous system. For instance, the aforementioned pro-inflammatory factors can stimulate the activity of peripheral sensory neurons, and induce their own de novo synthesis and release into the brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid. Ultimately, it results in the mobilization of a specific neural circuit that shuts down appetite. The present article describes the different cell groups and neurotransmitters involved in inflammation-associated anorexia and examines how they interact with neural systems regulating feeding such as the melanocortin system. A better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying inflammation-associated anorexia will help to develop appetite stimulants for cancer and AIDS patients.

  10. Eucaloric Ketogenic Diet Reduces Hypoglycemia and Inflammation in Mice with Endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandivada, Prathima; Fell, Gillian L; Pan, Amy H; Nose, Vania; Ling, Pei-Ra; Bistrian, Bruce R; Puder, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Dietary strategies to alter the immune response to acute inflammation have the potential to improve outcomes in critically ill patients. A eucaloric ketogenic diet (EKD), composed predominantly of fat with very small amounts of carbohydrate, can provide adequate caloric support while minimizing spikes in blood glucose and reducing oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an EKD on glycemic control and the inflammatory response after acute endotoxemia in mice. Mice received either an EKD or a carbohydrate-based control diet (CD) for 4 weeks. Animals subsequently underwent either a 2-h fast (postprandial) or an overnight fast (postabsorptive), and half of the animals in each diet group were randomized to receive either intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (1 mg/kg) or an equivalent volume of saline. Glycemic response, insulin resistance, inflammatory cytokine levels, and the expression of key inflammatory and metabolic genes were measured. After endotoxin challenge, hypoglycemia was more frequent in mice fed a CD than an EKD in the postprandial period. This was due in part to the preservation of hepatic glycogen stores despite endotoxin exposure and prolonged fasting in mice fed an EKD. Furthermore, mice fed the CD had higher levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the postabsorptive period, with a fivefold higher expression of hepatic NFκB compared to mice fed the EKD in both fasting periods. These results suggest that the unique metabolic state induced by an EKD can alter the response to acute inflammation in mice.

  11. Alteration of postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations with meal frequency and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaley, Jill A; Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Fairchild, Timothy J

    2014-11-14

    A frequent eating pattern may alter glycaemic control and augment postprandial insulin concentrations in some individuals due to the truncation of the previous postprandial period by a subsequent meal. The present study examined glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) responses in obese individuals when meals were ingested in a high-frequency pattern (every 2 h, 6M) or in a low-frequency pattern (every 4 h, 3M) over 12 h. It also examined these postprandial responses to high-frequency, high-protein meals (6MHP). In total, thirteen obese subjects completed three 12 h study days during which they consumed 6276 kJ (1500 kcal): (1) 3M - 15 % protein and 65 % carbohydrate; (2) 6M - 15 % protein and 65 % carbohydrate; (3) 6MHP - 45 % protein and 35 % carbohydrate. Blood samples were collected every 10 min and analysed for glucose, insulin, C-peptide and GIP. Insulin total AUC (tAUC) and peak insulin concentrations (Pmeal frequency or composition. In obese subjects, ingestion of meals in a low-frequency pattern does not alter glucose tAUC, but increases postprandial insulin responses. The substitution of carbohydrates with protein in a frequent meal pattern results in tighter glycaemic control and reduced postprandial insulin responses.

  12. Postprandial administration of intranasal insulin intensifies satiety and reduces intake of palatable snacks in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallschmid, Manfred; Higgs, Suzanne; Thienel, Matthias; Ott, Volker; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2012-04-01

    The role of brain insulin signaling in the control of food intake in humans has not been thoroughly defined. We hypothesized that the hormone contributes to the postprandial regulation of appetite for palatable food, and assessed the effects on appetite and snack intake of postprandial versus fasted intranasal insulin administration to the brain in healthy women. Two groups of subjects were intranasally administered 160 IU insulin or vehicle after lunch. Two hours later, consumption of cookies of varying palatability was measured under the pretext of a taste test. In a control study, the effects of intranasal insulin administered to fasted female subjects were assessed. Compared with placebo, insulin administration in the postprandial but not in the fasted state decreased appetite as well as intake and rated palatability of chocolate chip cookies (the most palatable snack offered). In both experiments, intranasal insulin induced a slight decrease in plasma glucose but did not affect serum insulin concentrations. Data indicate that brain insulin acts as a relevant satiety signal during the postprandial period, in particular reducing the intake of highly palatable food, and impacts peripheral glucose homeostasis. Postprandial intranasal insulin administration might be useful in curtailing overconsumption of snacks with accentuated rewarding value.

  13. Effects on cognitive performance of modulating the postprandial blood glucose profile at breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A; Radeborg, K; Björck, I

    2012-09-01

    Considering the importance of glucose as a brain substrate, the postprandial rate of glucose delivery to the blood could be expected to affect cognitive functions. The purpose was to evaluate to what extent the rate of glucose absorption affected measures of cognitive performance in the postprandial period. In addition, cognitive performance was evaluated in relation to individual glucoregulation. A white wheat bread (WWB) enriched with guar gum (G-WWB) with the capacity to produce a low but sustained blood glucose net increment was developed. The G-WWB was evaluated in the postprandial period after breakfast with respect to effects on cognitive function (working memory and selective attention (SA)) in 40 healthy adults (49-71 years, body mass index 20-29 kg/m(2)), using a high glycaemic index WWB for comparison in a randomised crossover design. The G-WWB improved outcome in the cognitive tests (SA test) in the later postprandial period (75-225 min) in comparison with the WWB (Pimportance of carbohydrate foods that induces a low but sustained blood glucose profile in enhancing postprandial cognitive functions.

  14. Bread making technology influences postprandial glucose response: a review of the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamataki, Nikoleta S; Yanni, Amalia E; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2017-04-01

    Lowering postprandial glucose and insulin responses may have significant beneficial implications for prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders. Bread is a staple food consumed worldwide in a daily basis, and the use of different baking technologies may modify the glucose and insulin response. The aim of this review was to critically record the human studies examining the application of different bread making processes on postprandial glucose and insulin response to bread. Literature is rich of results which show that the use of sourdough fermentation instead of leavening with Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to modulate glucose response to bread, whereas evidence regarding its efficacy on lowering postprandial insulin response is less clear. The presence of organic acids is possibly involved, but the exact mechanism of action is still to be confirmed. The reviewed data also revealed that the alteration of other processing conditions (method of cooking, proofing period, partial baking freezing technology) can effectively decrease postprandial glucose response to bread, by influencing physical structure and retrogradation of starch. The development of healthier bread products that benefit postprandial metabolic responses is crucial and suggested baking conditions can be used by the bread industry for the promotion of public health.

  15. Clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and remnant cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Freiberg, Jacob J

    2011-01-01

    Non-fasting triglycerides are measured at any time within up to 8 h (14 h) after any normal meal, while postprandial triglycerides are measured at a fixed time point within up to 8 h (14 h) of a standardised fat tolerance test. The simplest possible way of evaluating remnant cholesterol is non......-fasting/postprandial total cholesterol minus low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol minus high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Elevated levels of non-fasting/postprandial triglycerides directly correlate with elevated remnant cholesterol. In the general population, 38% of men have non......-fasting/postprandial triglycerides > 2mmol/L (>176 mg/dL) while 45% of men have non-fasting/postprandial triglyceride levels of 1-2 mmol/L (89-176 mg/dL); corresponding fractions in women are 20% and 47%. Also, 31% of men have remnant cholesterol levels > 1mmol/L (>39 mg/dL) while 46% of men have remnant cholesterol levels of 0...

  16. Blood pressure variability in the elderly. Association between postprandial and sleeping periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abrão Garcia

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The variability of arterial blood pressure (BP is considered an important cardiovascular risk factor. Objective: To verify the possible associations between the postprandial and the sleeping blood pressure variability. Methods: This study evaluated systolic, diastolic, mean, pulse pressures and heart variability in 69 elderly patients in preprandial, postprandial and sleeping periods. One 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was used for measurements and the results were showed in the time-rate index. Results: We observed a decrease in the systolic blood pressure values from preprandial to postprandial and to the sleeping periods (124.7 ± 14.6, 113.2 ± 15.3 and 108.5 ± 13.9mmHg, respectively; p = 0.003. Associations between BP variability of the postprandial and sleeping periods were obtained for systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure. Conclusion: The correlation between postprandial and sleeping BP variability has rarely been demonstrated in the literature. These correlations between BP changes after eating and during sleep might suggest that both events could coexist in other clinical situations.

  17. Inulin Improves Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia by Modulating Gene Expression in the Small Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Hiel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in the context of obesity. Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate, known for its beneficial properties in metabolic disorders. We investigated the impact of inulin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and on lipid metabolism in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Mice received a control or a western diet for 4 weeks and were further supplemented or not with inulin for 2 weeks (0.2 g/day per mouse. We performed a lipid tolerance test, measured mRNA expression of genes involved in postprandial lipid metabolism, assessed post-heparin plasma and muscle lipoprotein lipase activity and measured lipid accumulation in the enterocytes and fecal lipid excretion. Inulin supplementation in western diet-fed mice decreases postprandial serum triglycerides concentration, decreases the mRNA expression levels of Cd36 (fatty acid receptor involved in lipid uptake and sensing and apolipoprotein C3 (Apoc3, inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase in the jejunum and increases fecal lipid excretion. In conclusion, inulin improves postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by targeting intestinal lipid metabolism. This work confirms the interest of using inulin supplementation in the management of dyslipidemia linked to obesity and cardiometabolic risk.

  18. Effects of roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on postprandial fructose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowska, Anna; De Giorgi, Sara; Theytaz, Fanny; Campos, Vanessa; Hodson, Leanne; Stefanoni, Nathalie; Rey, Valentine; Schneiter, Philippe; Laville, Martine; Giusti, Vittorio; Gabert, Laure; Tappy, Luc

    2016-03-01

    Fructose is partly metabolized in small bowel enterocytes, where it can be converted into glucose or fatty acids. It was therefore hypothesized that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) may significantly alter fructose metabolism. We performed a randomized clinical study in eight patients 12-17 months after RYGB and eight control (Ctrl) subjects. Each participant was studied after ingestion of a protein and lipid meal (PL) and after ingestion of a protein+lipid+fructose+glucose meal labeled with (13) C-fructose (PLFG). Postprandial blood glucose, fructose, lactate, apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48), and triglyceride (TG) concentrations, (13) C-palmitate concentrations in chylomicron-TG and VLDL-TG, fructose oxidation ((13) CO2 production), and gluconeogenesis from fructose (GNGf) were measured over 6 hours. After ingestion of PLFG, postprandial plasma fructose, glucose, insulin, and lactate concentrations increased earlier and reached higher peak values in RYGB than in Ctrl. GNGf was 33% lower in RYGB than Ctrl (P = 0.041), while fructose oxidation was unchanged. Postprandial incremental areas under the curves for total TG and chylomicrons-TG were 72% and 91% lower in RYGB than Ctrl (P = 0.064 and P = 0.024, respectively). ApoB48 and (13) C-palmitate concentrations were not significantly different. Postprandial fructose metabolism was not grossly altered, but postprandial lipid concentrations were markedly decreased in subjects having had RYGB surgery. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  19. Effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise on postprandial plasma triacylglycerol in sedentary young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Martin; Chan Moy Fat, Rachel; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2014-02-01

    High-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) such as the 30-s Wingate test attenuates postprandial triacylglycerol (TG), however, the ability of shorter versions of HIIE to reduce postprandial TG is undetermined. Thus, the effect of 8-s sprinting bouts of HIIE on blood TG levels of 12 females after consumption of a high-fat meal (HFM) was examined. Twelve young, sedentary women (BMI 25.1 ± 2.3 kg/m²; age 21.3 ± 2.1 years) completed a maximal oxygen uptake test and then on different days underwent either an exercise or a no-exercise postprandial TG condition. Both conditions involved consuming a HFM after a 12-hr fast. The HFM, in milkshake form provided 4170 kJ (993 Kcal) of energy and 98 g fat. Order was counter-balanced. In the exercise condition participants completed 20-min of HIIE cycling consisting of repeated bouts of 8 s sprint cycling (100-115 rpm) and 12 s of active rest (easy pedaling) 14 hr before consuming the HFM. Blood samples were collected hourly after the HFM for 4 hr. Total postprandial TG was 13% lower, p = .004, in the exercise (5.84 ± 1.08 mmol L⁻¹ 4 h⁻¹) compared with the no-exercise condition (6.71 ± 1.63 mmol L⁻¹ 4 h⁻¹). In conclusion, HIIE significantly attenuated postprandial TG in sedentary young women.

  20. The acute effects of psyllium on postprandial lipaemia and thermogenesis in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khossousi, A; Binns, C W; Dhaliwal, S S; Pal, S

    2008-05-01

    Overweight and obesity is one of the risk factors for developing CVD. At present, very little is known about the acute effects of dietary fibre on lipids, glucose and insulin, resting energy expenditure and diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese individuals. This study examined the postprandial metabolic effects of dietary fibre in overweight and obese men. Ten overweight and obese men consumed a mixed meal accompanied by either a high-fibre or low-fibre supplement on two separate visits, in a random order, 1 week apart. Two isoenergetic breakfast meals with similar composition were consumed by ten overweight/obese men. The meals contained either a low (3 g) or high (15 g) amount of fibre, low-fibre meal (LFM) and high-fibre meal (HFM) respectively. Analysis was carried out using paired t test and ANOVA. Serum TAG incremental area under the curve during 6 h of the postprandial period was significantly lower after the consumption of HFM compared with LFM. At the first hour of the postprandial period, plasma apo B48 concentration after consumption of HFM was significantly lower compared with LFM. The resting energy expenditure and diet-induced thermogenesis after both meals was similar during 6 h of the postprandial period. Collectively, these findings suggest that a single acute dose of dietary fibre in the form of psyllium supplement can decrease arterial exposure to TAG and modify chylomicron responses in the postprandial period.

  1. Post-prandial reactive hypoglycaemia and diarrhea caused by idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Kottekkattu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The majority of cases of post-prandial reactive hypoglycemia are considered idiopathic. Abnormalities of B-cell function and glucose regulation by insulin and glucagon have been postulated as causes but associated gastrointestinal dysfunction has not been reported. We report the first case of accelerated gastric emptying associated with post-prandial reactive hypoglycemia, abdominal bloating and diarrhea. We consider that gastric dysmotility is an important cause of this condition as treatment of the underlying abnormal gastric emptying allows effective control of symptoms. Case presentation A 20-year-old Caucasian woman presented with post-prandial fatigue, sweating, nausea, faintness and intermittent confusion, which had led to pre-syncope and syncope on occasions. She also experienced marked abdominal bloating and diarrhea over the same period. These episodes responded to oral administration of sweet drinks. Her symptoms were ameliorated by modification of her diet. Conclusion This is an original case report of the association of idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying with post-prandial reactive hypoglycemia and diarrhea. Family physicians, endocrinologists and gastroenterologists often consult patients with a constellation of post-prandial symptoms, which are considered to be idiopathic in most cases. This case indicates that gastric dysmotility might be the primary cause of these symptoms in some patients and, if found, offers a therapeutic target which in our case was successful.

  2. Inulin Improves Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia by Modulating Gene Expression in the Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, Sophie; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Rodriguez, Julie; Pachikian, Barbara D; Bouzin, Caroline; Thissen, Jean-Paul; Cani, Patrice D; Bindels, Laure B; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2018-04-25

    Postprandial hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in the context of obesity. Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate, known for its beneficial properties in metabolic disorders. We investigated the impact of inulin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and on lipid metabolism in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Mice received a control or a western diet for 4 weeks and were further supplemented or not with inulin for 2 weeks (0.2 g/day per mouse). We performed a lipid tolerance test, measured mRNA expression of genes involved in postprandial lipid metabolism, assessed post-heparin plasma and muscle lipoprotein lipase activity and measured lipid accumulation in the enterocytes and fecal lipid excretion. Inulin supplementation in western diet-fed mice decreases postprandial serum triglycerides concentration, decreases the mRNA expression levels of Cd36 (fatty acid receptor involved in lipid uptake and sensing) and apolipoprotein C3 ( Apoc3 , inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase) in the jejunum and increases fecal lipid excretion. In conclusion, inulin improves postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by targeting intestinal lipid metabolism. This work confirms the interest of using inulin supplementation in the management of dyslipidemia linked to obesity and cardiometabolic risk.

  3. Postprandial Metabolism of Macronutrients and Cardiometabolic Risk: Recent Developments, Emerging Concepts, and Future Directions12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Bruno, Richard S; Tasali, Esra; Lewis, Gary F; Schneeman, Barbara O; Rains, Tia M

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Although the role of habitual lifestyle factors such as physical activity and dietary patterns in increasing CVD risk has long been appreciated, less is known about how acute daily activities may cumulatively contribute to long-term disease risk. Here, the term acute refers to metabolic responses occurring in a short period of time after eating, and the goal of this article is to review recently identified stressors that can occur after meals and during the sleep-wake cycle to affect macronutrient metabolism. It is hypothesized that these events, when repeated on a regular basis, contribute to the observed long-term behavioral risks identified in population studies. In this regard, developments in research methods have supported key advancements in 3 fields of macronutrient metabolism. The first of these research areas is the focus on the immediate postmeal metabolism, spanning from early intestinal adsorptive events to the impact of incretin hormones on these events. The second topic is a focus on the importance of meal components on postprandial vasculature function. Finally, some of the most exciting advances are being made in understanding dysregulation in metabolism early in the day, due to insufficient sleep, that may affect subsequent processing of nutrients throughout the day. Key future research questions are highlighted which will lead to a better understanding of the relations between nocturnal, basal (fasting), and early postmeal events, and aid in the development of optimal sleep and targeted dietary patterns to reduce cardiometabolic risk. PMID:26980820

  4. Postprandial Metabolism of Macronutrients and Cardiometabolic Risk: Recent Developments, Emerging Concepts, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Parks, Elizabeth J; Bruno, Richard S; Tasali, Esra; Lewis, Gary F; Schneeman, Barbara O; Rains, Tia M

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Although the role of habitual lifestyle factors such as physical activity and dietary patterns in increasing CVD risk has long been appreciated, less is known about how acute daily activities may cumulatively contribute to long-term disease risk. Here, the term acute refers to metabolic responses occurring in a short period of time after eating, and the goal of this article is to review recently identified stressors that can occur after meals and during the sleep-wake cycle to affect macronutrient metabolism. It is hypothesized that these events, when repeated on a regular basis, contribute to the observed long-term behavioral risks identified in population studies. In this regard, developments in research methods have supported key advancements in 3 fields of macronutrient metabolism. The first of these research areas is the focus on the immediate postmeal metabolism, spanning from early intestinal adsorptive events to the impact of incretin hormones on these events. The second topic is a focus on the importance of meal components on postprandial vasculature function. Finally, some of the most exciting advances are being made in understanding dysregulation in metabolism early in the day, due to insufficient sleep, that may affect subsequent processing of nutrients throughout the day. Key future research questions are highlighted which will lead to a better understanding of the relations between nocturnal, basal (fasting), and early postmeal events, and aid in the development of optimal sleep and targeted dietary patterns to reduce cardiometabolic risk. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Impact of Diabetes-Specific Nutritional Formulas versus Oatmeal on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, GLP-1 and Postprandial Lipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adham Mottalib

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs are frequently used as part of medical nutrition therapy for patients with diabetes. This study aims to evaluate postprandial (PP effects of 2 DSNFs; Glucerna (GL and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC versus oatmeal (OM on glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, free fatty acids (FFA and triglycerides (TG. After an overnight fast, 22 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes were given 200 kcal of each of the three meals on three separate days in random order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min. Glucose area under the curve (AUC0–240 after GL and UGC was lower than OM (p < 0.001 for both. Insulin positive AUC0–120 after UGC was higher than after OM (p = 0.02. GLP-1 AUC0–120 and AUC0–240 after GL and UGC was higher than after OM (p < 0.001 for both. FFA and TG levels were not different between meals. Intake of DSNFs improves PP glucose for 4 h in comparison to oatmeal of similar caloric level. This is achieved by either direct stimulation of insulin secretion or indirectly by stimulating GLP-1 secretion. The difference between their effects is probably related to their unique blends of amino acids, carbohydrates and fat.

  6. Inflammation, Immunity, and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agita, Arisya; Alsagaff, M Thaha

    2017-04-01

    The immune system, inflammation and hypertension are related to each other. Innate and adaptive immunity system triggers an inflammatory process, in which blood pressure may increase, stimulating organ damage. Cells in innate immune system produce ROS, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which aimed at killing pathogens. Long-term inflammation process increases ROS production, causing oxidative stress which leads to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function is to regulate blood vessel tone and structure. When inflammation lasts, NO bioavailability decreases, disrupting its main function as vasodilator, so that blood vessels relaxation and vasodilatation are absent. Effector T cells and regulatory lymphocytes, part of the adaptive immune system, plays role in blood vessels constriction in hypertension. Signals from central nervous system and APC activates effector T lymphocyte differentiation and accelerate through Th-1 and Th-17 phenotypes. Th-1 and Th-17 effectors participate in inflammation which leads to increased blood pressure. One part of CD4+ is the regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress immune response activation as they produce immunosuppressive cytokines, such as TGF-β and IL-10. Adoptive transfer of Tregs cells can reduce oxidative stress in blood vessels, endothelial dysfunction, infiltration of aortic macrophages and T cells as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma circulation.

  7. Inflammation, Immunity, and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arisya Agita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The immune system, inflammation and hypertension are related to each other. Innate and adaptive immunity system triggers an inflammatory process, in which blood pressure may increase, stimulating organ damage. Cells in innate immune system produce ROS, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which aimed at killing pathogens. Long-term inflammation process increases ROS production, causing oxidative stress which leads to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function is to regulate blood vessel tone and structure. When inflammation lasts, NO bioavailability decreases, disrupting its main function as vasodilator, so that blood vessels relaxation and vasodilatation are absent. Effector T cells and regulatory lymphocytes, part of the adaptive immune system, plays role in blood vessels constriction in hypertension. Signals from central nervous system and APC activates effector T lymphocyte differentiation and accelerate through Th-1 and Th-17 phenotypes. Th-1 and Th-17 effectors participate in inflammation which leads to increased blood pressure. One part of CD4+ is the regulatory T cells (Tregs that suppress immune response activation as they produce immunosuppressive cytokines, such as TGF-β and IL-10. Adoptive transfer of Tregs cells can reduce oxidative stress in blood vessels, endothelial dysfunction, infiltration of aortic macrophages and T cells as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma circulation.

  8. CNS and inflammation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    overproduction8. The most intense interest in inflammation in the. CNS has arisen from its potential role in diseases including acute brain injury, stroke, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, motor neurone disease, movement disorders, and more recently some psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and schizophrenia.

  9. Inflammation and Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akiyama, H.; Barger, S.; Barnum, S.; Bradt, B.; Bauer, J.; Cole, G. M.; Cooper, N. R.; Eikelenboom, P.; Emmerling, M.; Fiebich, B. L.; Finch, C. E.; Frautschy, S.; Griffin, W. S.; Hampel, H.; Hull, M.; Landreth, G.; Lue, L.; Mrak, R.; Mackenzie, I. R.; McGeer, P. L.; O'Banion, M. K.; Pachter, J.; Pasinetti, G.; Plata-Salaman, C.; Rogers, J.; Rydel, R.; Shen, Y.; Streit, W.; Strohmeyer, R.; Tooyoma, I.; van Muiswinkel, F. L.; Veerhuis, R.; Walker, D.; Webster, S.; Wegrzyniak, B.; Wenk, G.; Wyss-Coray, T.

    2000-01-01

    Inflammation clearly occurs in pathologically vulnerable regions of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, and it does so with the full complexity of local peripheral inflammatory responses. In the periphery, degenerating tissue and the deposition of highly insoluble abnormal materials are classical

  10. Immunsystemet ved kronisk inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity has evolved as a defence against infections and as an important repair mechanism after physical injury. If elimination of microbes and healing is not achieved, or if the immune system is dysregulated, chronic inflammation ensues. Immune cells become engaged in prolonged...

  11. Idiopathic granulomatous orbital inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombaerts, I.; Schlingemann, R. O.; Goldschmeding, R.; Koornneef, L.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: Granulomatous orbital inflammation may occur as an isolated condition of unknown origin. These idiopathic granulomatous lesions are believed to belong to the orbital pseudotumor group by some authors, whereas others consider them sarcoidosis limited to the orbit. The aim of this study is to

  12. Cytokines and intraocular inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekzema, R.; Murray, P. I.; Kijlstra, A.

    1990-01-01

    Although new endogenous mediators of inflammatory and immune responses are reported almost on a monthly basis, the cytokines IL-1, TNF, and IL-6 have emerged as the primary regulators of local inflammation in man. In this paper, uveitogenic and other properties of these particular cytokines are

  13. Adipose Tissue Remodeling as Homeostatic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Itoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has accumulated indicating that obesity is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Obese adipose tissue is characterized by dynamic changes in cellular composition and function, which may be referred to as “adipose tissue remodeling”. Among stromal cells in the adipose tissue, infiltrated macrophages play an important role in adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. We have demonstrated that a paracrine loop involving saturated fatty acids and tumor necrosis factor-α derived from adipocytes and macrophages, respectively, aggravates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. Notably, saturated fatty acids, which are released from hypertrophied adipocytes via the macrophage-induced lipolysis, serve as a naturally occurring ligand for Toll-like receptor 4 complex, thereby activating macrophages. Such a sustained interaction between endogenous ligands derived from parenchymal cells and pathogen sensors expressed in stromal immune cells should lead to chronic inflammatory responses ranging from the basal homeostatic state to diseased tissue remodeling, which may be referred to as “homeostatic inflammation”. We, therefore, postulate that adipose tissue remodeling may represent a prototypic example of homeostatic inflammation. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying homeostatic inflammation may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat obesity-related complications.

  14. inflammation and iron metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dzedzej

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Following acute physical activity, blood hepcidin concentration appears to increase in response to exercise-induced inflammation, but the long-term impact of exercise on hepcidin remains unclear. Here we investigated changes in hepcidin and the inflammation marker interleukin-6 to evaluate professional basketball players’ response to a season of training and games. The analysis also included vitamin D (25(OHD3 assessment, owing to its anti-inflammatory effects. Blood samples were collected for 14 players and 10 control non-athletes prior to and after the 8-month competitive season. Athletes’ performance was assessed with the NBA efficiency score. At the baseline hepcidin correlated with blood ferritin (r=0.61; 90% CL ±0.31, but at the end of the season this correlation was absent. Compared with the control subjects, athletes experienced clear large increases in hepcidin (50%; 90% CI 15-96% and interleukin-6 (77%; 90% CI 35-131% and a clear small decrease in vitamin D (-12%; 90% CI -20 to -3% at the season completion. Correlations between change scores of these variables were unclear (r = -0.21 to 0.24, 90% CL ±0.5, but their uncertainty generally excluded strong relationships. Athletes were hence concluded to have experienced acute inflammation at the beginning but chronic inflammation at the end of the competitive season. At the same time, the moderate correlation between changes in vitamin D and players’ performance (r=0.43 was suggestive of its beneficial influence. Maintaining the appropriative concentration of vitamin D is thus necessary for basketball players’ performance and efficiency. The assessment of hepcidin has proven to be useful in diagnosing inflammation in response to chronic exercise.

  15. Postprandial lipaemia, metabolic syndrome and LDL particle size in urbanised South African blacks with and without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntyintyane, L M; Panz, V R; Raal, F J; Gill, G V

    2008-02-01

    Postprandial lipaemia, characterised by a rise in triglycerides (TG) after eating, is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Small, dense, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles are implicated in atherogenesis. Little is known about postprandial lipaemia or small, dense LDL particles in urbanised black South Africans. Assess postprandial lipaemia in black CAD patients with and without MetS and measure their fasting and postprandial lipid profiles and LDL particles. Anthropometric data, biochemical variables and LDL particles were measured in 40 patients and 20 control subjects. Twenty three patients met International Diabetes Federation criteria for MetS and were subdivided according to fasting TG concentration either or = 1.7 mmol/l. Postprandial lipaemia was assessed by an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) and area under the curve (AUC). CAD patients with and without MetS had similar fasting lipid profiles, postprandial responses during OFTT and AUCs. MetS patients with fasting TG > or = 1.7 mmol/l had greater postprandial responses (P Postprandial lipaemia was common in black CAD patients, including patients with MetS. Fasting TG concentration was the strongest determinant. Small, dense LDL particles were highly associated with CAD.

  16. Alteration in lipoprotein lipase activity bound to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the postprandial state in type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruneta-Deloche, Valérie; Sassolas, Agnès; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Berthezène, François; Ponsin, Gabriel; Moulin, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Postprandial lipid metabolism is largely dependent upon lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which hydrolyses triglycerides (TGs). The time course of LPL activity in the postprandial state following a single meal has never been studied, because its determination required heparin injection. Recently, we have

  17. Postprandial Triglyceride Is Associated with Fasting Triglyceride and HOMA-IR in Korean Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo Hee; Lee, Byung-Wan; Won, Hee Kwan; Moon, Jae Hoon; Kim, Kwang Joon; Kang, Eun Seok; Cha, Bong Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2011-08-01

    Recent studies indicate postprandial triglyceride (TG) had a better association with cardiovascular events and metabolic syndrome than fasting TG. The authors of the present study investigated the metabolic and clinical relevance of postprandial TG. In a cross-sectional retrospective study, the authors of the present study compared fasting and postprandial TG and analyzed the relationship between postprandial TG and various demographic and metabolic parameters in 639 Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D, group I, n=539) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG, group II, n=100) after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (total 500 kcal, 17.5 g fat, 68.5 g carbohydrate, and 17.5 g protein). Fasting and postprandial TG were significantly correlated (r=0.973, r=0.937, PHOMA-IR], and fasting C-peptide) in subjects with T2D. Multiple regression analysis showed fasting TG and HOMA-IR could be predictable variables for postprandial TG in subjects with T2D. Postprandial TG was very strongly correlated with fasting TG. The authors of the present study suggest insulin resistance may be more associated with postprandial TG than fasting TG in Korean T2D patients on a low-fat diet.

  18. Impaired first-phase insulin response predicts postprandial blood glucose increment in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, C; Rosenfalck, A M; Dejgaard, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between postprandial blood glucose and first-phase insulin response and, furthermore, to assess whether the intravenous glucagon stimulation test can be used as a predictor for increased postprandial glucose in patients with recently diagnosed...... type 2 diabetes....

  19. Hepatic lipogenesis and a marker of hepatic lipid oxidation, predict postprandial responses of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, Niina; Adiels, Martin; Söderlund, Sanni; Stennabb, Sanna; Ahola, Tytti; Hakkarainen, Antti; Borén, Jan; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2014-08-01

    Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms are still unclear. Here it was tested if hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and lipid oxidation influence the postprandial responses of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) in humans. The contribution of hepatic DNL to hepatic TRL production was analyzed in 67 men and women with a moderate range of BMI after a fat-rich meal. Also, lipase activities, liver fat, and 3-OH-butyrate were quantitated as an indicator of β-oxidation. Lipoproteins and metabolic markers were measured in fasting and postprandial blood samples. Postprandial DNL correlates with postprandial TG and apolipoprotein (apo) C-III responses in plasma and with TG, apoB48 and apoB100 responses in TRLs and their larger remnant particles. Fasting and 8-h postprandial DNL was inversely related to 3-OH-butyrate but not to liver fat content. Fasting apoC-III and 3-OH-butyrate, but not liver fat, independently predicted fasting DNL. The fasting and 8-h postprandial rate of DNL was inversely associated with the hepatic lipid oxidation in humans. DNL contributes significantly to the TG content in TRLs but not to the amount of liver fat, suggesting that an imbalance between DNL and fat oxidation contributes to postprandial atherogenic dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  20. Influence of clinical and lipid variables on the magnitude of postprandial lipemia in subjects with and without hipertriglyceridemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Eugenia Pérez G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The postprandial lipemia is characterized by some prolonged increase in circulation of triglycerides rich lipoproteins that can produce atherosclerosis, which is an important cause of death in our population. Objective. To evaluate the effect of lipidic and clinical variables on the values of postprandial lipemia in subjects with and without hipertriglyceridemia. Materials and methods. Forty-eight subjects of both sexes were studied, half of them, with basal triglycerides above 200mg/dl, who ingested a standardized lipidic load (breakfast with 30g of fat and then they were followed during seven hours gathering total blood every hour to determine the level of postprandial triglycerides and the postprandial lipemia values. The later data was correlated with clinical variables as age, body mass index, waist circumference, among other; and with lipidic variable as total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and basal triglycerides. Results. There was alteration in the clearence of postprandial triglycerides in those subjects with a basal concentration of triglycerides above 186 mg/dl. The clinical variables most related tothe magnitude of postprandial lipemia were age (p=0.009 and waist perimeter, while the lipidic variables that were strongly related with the postprandial lipemia were the basal triglycerides concentration (p=<0.001, the VLDL cholesterol (p=<0.001 and the HDL cholesterol(p=0.041. Conclusion. The variables that could predict the behavior of postprandial triglycerides in the individuals of this study are age, waist perimeter, VLDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and the basal triglycerides concentration.

  1. Effect of modified dairy fat on postprandial and fasting plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandström, B.; Hermansen, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    compared to D diet (P = 0.009).Postprandial samples were taken at two different occasions (i) at day 21, after breakfast and lunch and (ii) on the last day of the study 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after afat load. Postprandial plasma triacylglycerol and chylomicron triacylglycerol showed higher peak values after D...

  2. Is testing for postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after gastric bypass necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Michèle; Meier, Claudia; Herren, Sylvia; Aubry, Emilie; Steffen, Rudolf; Stanga, Zeno

    2017-11-23

    Postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (pHH) is an increasingly reported complication after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). As pHH can cause life-threatening emergencies if occurring without warning symptoms, challenge testing may detect patients at risk. The study objective was to determine the frequency of occurrence of pHH with or without symptoms of hypoglycemia after RYGB. We undertook an observational cohort study of consecutive, unselected patients approximately one year after uncomplicated RYGB. To simulate normal habits, all patients received a standardized carbohydrate-rich solid mixed meal. Plasma glucose and insulin were measured at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min thereafter. Symptoms were classified as autonomous or neuroglycopenic. Patients with hypoglycemia (plasma glucose meal. 113 patients were included. Total weight loss at the first follow-up check (14 ± 0.4 months) was 33.97 ± 9.3%. After the carbohydrate-rich meal, glucose dropped to meal. The pHH occurred in 11.5% (n = 13) of patients. Asymptomatic patients (5.3%, n = 6) carried an increased risk (p = 0.008) for pHH. One patient needed emergency treatment after sudden loss of consciousness after the carbohydrate-rich meal. The occurrence of pHH was quite high in our study population with 11.5% thereof 5.3% asymptomatic. We therefore suggest that detection of these patients warrants a screening of patients after RYGB. At-risk patients should than be adequately advised to avoid carbohydrate-rich meals in order to optimize risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. A whey protein supplement decreases post-prandial glycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Alexandra L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incidence of diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance are associated with high glycemic load diets. Identifying food components that decrease post-prandial glycemia may be beneficial for developing low glycemic foods and supplements. This study explores the glycemic impact of adding escalating doses of a glycemic index lowering peptide fraction (GILP from whey to a glucose drink. Methods Ten healthy subjects (3M, 7F, 44.4 ± 9.3 years, BMI 33.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2 participated in an acute randomised controlled study. Zero, 5, 10 and 20 g of protein from GILP were added to a 50 g glucose drink. The control (0 g of GILP meal was repeated 2 times. Capillary blood samples were taken fasting (0 min and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after the start of the meal and analyzed for blood glucose concentration. Results Increasing doses of GILP decreased the incremental areas under the curve in a dose dependant manner (Pearson's r = 0.48, p = 0.002. The incremental areas (iAUC under the glucose curve for the 0, 5, 10, and 20 g of protein from GILP were 231 ± 23, 212 ± 23, 196 ± 23, and 138 ± 13 mmol.min/L respectively. The iAUC of the 20 g GILP was significantly different from control, 5 g GILP and 10 g GILP (p Conclusion Addition of GILP to a oral glucose bolus reduces blood glucose iAUC in a dose dependent manner and averages 4.6 ± 1.4 mmol.min/L per gram of GILP. These data are consistent with previous research on the effect of protein on the glycemic response of a meal.

  4. Effects of hypoxic exposure during feeding on SDA and postprandial cardiovascular physiology in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane W Behrens

    Full Text Available Some Atlantic cod in the Bornholm Basin undertake vertical foraging migrations into severely hypoxic bottom water. Hypoxic conditions can reduce the postprandial increase in gastrointestinal blood flow (GBF. This could subsequently postpone or reduce the postprandial increase in oxygen consumption (MO(2, i.e. the SDA, leading to a disturbed digestion. Additionally, a restricted oxygen uptake could result in an oxygen debt that needs to be compensated for upon return to normoxic waters and this may also affect the ability to process the food. Long-term cardio-respiratory measurements were made on fed G. morhua in order to understand how the cardio-respiratory system of feeding fish respond to a period of hypoxia and a subsequent return to normoxia. These were exposed to 35% water oxygen saturation for 90 minutes, equivalent to the time and oxygen level cod voluntarily endure when searching for food in the Bornholm Basin. We found that i gastric and intestinal blood flows, cardiac output and MO(2 increased after feeding, ii gastric and intestinal blood flows were spared in hypoxia, and iii there were no indications of an oxygen debt at the end of the hypoxic period. The magnitude and time course of the measured variables are similar to values obtained from fish not exposed to the hypoxic period. In conclusion, when cod in the field search for and ingest prey under moderate hypoxic conditions they appear to stay within safe limits of oxygen availability as we saw no indications of an oxygen debt, or negative influence on digestive capacity, when simulating field observations.

  5. Effects of hypoxic exposure during feeding on SDA and postprandial cardiovascular physiology in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Jane W; Axelsson, Michael; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Seth, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Some Atlantic cod in the Bornholm Basin undertake vertical foraging migrations into severely hypoxic bottom water. Hypoxic conditions can reduce the postprandial increase in gastrointestinal blood flow (GBF). This could subsequently postpone or reduce the postprandial increase in oxygen consumption (MO(2)), i.e. the SDA, leading to a disturbed digestion. Additionally, a restricted oxygen uptake could result in an oxygen debt that needs to be compensated for upon return to normoxic waters and this may also affect the ability to process the food. Long-term cardio-respiratory measurements were made on fed G. morhua in order to understand how the cardio-respiratory system of feeding fish respond to a period of hypoxia and a subsequent return to normoxia. These were exposed to 35% water oxygen saturation for 90 minutes, equivalent to the time and oxygen level cod voluntarily endure when searching for food in the Bornholm Basin. We found that i) gastric and intestinal blood flows, cardiac output and MO(2) increased after feeding, ii) gastric and intestinal blood flows were spared in hypoxia, and iii) there were no indications of an oxygen debt at the end of the hypoxic period. The magnitude and time course of the measured variables are similar to values obtained from fish not exposed to the hypoxic period. In conclusion, when cod in the field search for and ingest prey under moderate hypoxic conditions they appear to stay within safe limits of oxygen availability as we saw no indications of an oxygen debt, or negative influence on digestive capacity, when simulating field observations.

  6. The Effect of Agave tequilana Weber Inulin on Postprandial Ghrelin Concentration in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Haro, Betsabe; Robles-Cervantes, Jose A; Gonzalez-Ortiz, Manuel; Martinez-Abundis, Esperanza; Espinel-Bermudez, Claudia; Gallegos-Arreola, Martha P; Morgado-Castillo, Karina C

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of Agave tequilana Weber inulin on postprandial ghrelin levels in obese patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over design was performed. A total of 14 patients were allocated into two groups: one group received a drink that contained 500 mL lemon water, 24 g of A. tequilana Weber inulin, and 75 g glucose and the other group received a placebo drink with 500 mL lemon drink and 75 g of glucose. After a 7-day washout period, the groups were crossed. The primary outcome measure was postprandial ghrelin levels between minute 240 and minute 270. A. tequilana Weber inulin did not change postprandial ghrelin concentration in obese patients.

  7. Low postprandial circulating inactive ghrelin: role of early satiety in undernourished children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Khadijehsadat; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Falahzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-11-01

    To determine difference in the levels of circulating inactive ghrelin between undernourished and healthy children. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in undernourished children from southwestern Iran, from July 2011 through July 2012. Postprandial inactive ghrelin levels were measured in 40 undernourished children and sex- and age-matched healthy controls by enzyme immunoassay. The levels of postprandial inactive ghrelin were considerably lower in undernourished compared to the healthy children (6.4 vs. 12.9, P < 0.001). Among the undernourished children, the level of inactive ghrelin was significantly lower in girls than in boys (5.8 vs. 7.1, P = 0.032). Thus, the levels of inactive ghrelin was found to be low in undernourished children compared to healthy children. Early loss of appetite might be a result of low circulating inactive ghrelin levels in the postprandial state in undernourished children.

  8. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene S; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.......3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride...

  9. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  10. Theobromine does not affect postprandial lipid metabolism and duodenal gene expression, but has unfavorable effects on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; Boekschoten, Mark V; de Ridder, Rogier J J; Plat, Jogchum

    2018-04-01

    Chocolate consumption is associated with a decreased risk for CVD. Theobromine, a compound in cocoa, may explain these effects as it favorably affected fasting serum lipids. However, long-term effects of theobromine on postprandial metabolism as well as underlying mechanisms have never been studied. The objective was to evaluate the effects of 4-week theobromine consumption (500 mg/day) on fasting and postprandial lipid, lipoprotein and glucose metabolism, and duodenal gene expression. In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 44 healthy men and women, with low baseline HDL-C concentrations consumed 500 mg theobromine or placebo daily. After 4-weeks, fasting blood was sampled and subjects participated in a 4-h postprandial test. Blood was sampled frequently for analysis of lipid and glucose metabolism. In a subgroup of 10 men, 5 h after meal consumption duodenal biopsies were taken for microarray analysis. 4-weeks theobromine consumption lowered fasting LDL-C (-0.21 mmol/L; P = 0.006), and apoB100 (-0.04 g/L; P = 0.022), tended to increase HDL-C (0.03 mmol/L; P = 0.088) and increased hsCRP (1.2 mg/L; P = 0.017) concentrations. Fasting apoA-I, TAG, FFA, glucose and insulin concentrations were unchanged. In the postprandial phase, theobromine consumption increased glucose (P = 0.026), insulin (P = 0.011) and FFA (P = 0.003) concentrations, while lipids and (apo)lipoproteins were unchanged. In duodenal biopsies, microarray analysis showed no consistent changes in expression of genes, pathways or gene sets related to lipid, cholesterol or glucose metabolism. It is not likely that the potential beneficial effects of cocoa on CVD can be ascribed to theobromine. Although theobromine lowers serum LDL-C concentrations, it did not change fasting HDL-C, apoA-I, or postprandial lipid concentrations and duodenal gene expression, and unfavorably affected postprandial glucose and insulin responses. This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov under

  11. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to low-fat meals, high-fat meals are known to cause postprandial factor VII (FVII) activation, but the mechanism is unknown. To study the postprandial FVII activation in detail, 18 young men consumed in randomized order high-fat or low-fat test meals. Fasting and non-fasting blood samples...... by monocytes, factor XII or insulin in postprandial FVII activation was observed. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor and prothrombin fragment 1+2, a marker of thrombin generation, were not affected postprandially after either the high-fat or the low-fat meals. Our findings indicate that triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins activate prokallikrein postprandially, which might form an important initial event in FVII activation after consumption of high-fat meals....

  12. Relationship of gastric emptying or accommodation with satiation, satiety, and postprandial symptoms in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawi, Houssam; Camilleri, Michael; Acosta, Andres; Vazquez-Roque, Maria; Oduyebo, Ibironke; Burton, Duane; Busciglio, Irene; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2017-11-01

    The contributions of gastric emptying (GE) and gastric accommodation (GA) to satiation, satiety, and postprandial symptoms remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between GA or GE with satiation, satiety, and postprandial symptoms in healthy overweight or obese volunteers (total n = 285, 73% women, mean BMI 33.5 kg/m 2 ): 26 prospectively studied obese, otherwise healthy participants and 259 healthy subjects with previous similar GI testing. We assessed GE of solids, gastric volumes, calorie intake at buffet meal, and satiation by measuring volume to comfortable fullness (VTF) and maximum tolerated volume (MTV) by using Ensure nutrient drink test (30 ml/min) and symptoms 30 min after MTV. Relationships between GE or GA with satiety, satiation, and symptoms were analyzed using Spearman rank ( r s ) and Pearson ( R ) linear correlation coefficients. We found a higher VTF during satiation test correlated with a higher calorie intake at ad libitum buffet meal ( r s = 0.535, P symptom score ( R = 0.132, P = 0.026). There was no significant correlation between GA and satiation, satiety, postprandial symptoms, or GE. We concluded that GE of solids, rather than GA, is associated with postprandial symptoms, satiation, and satiety in healthy participants. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A higher volume to comfortable fullness postprandially correlated with a higher calorie intake at ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying of solids is correlated to satiation (volume to fullness and maximum tolerated volume) and satiety (the calorie intake at buffet meal) and symptoms of nausea, pain, and aggregate symptom score after a fully satiating meal. There was no significant correlation between gastric accommodation and either satiation or satiety indices, postprandial symptoms, or gastric emptying. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. The influence of 30 minutes of light to moderate intensity cycling on postprandial lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Martina; Wenk, Caspar; Colombani, Paolo C

    2006-06-01

    Elevated postprandial lipemia is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, and bouts of moderate intensity exercise of 60 min or more are often reported to lower postprandial lipemia. Information on moderate intensity exercise bouts of shorter duration corresponding to the current recommendations of health-maintaining exercise (i.e. 30 min or energy expenditure of approximately 630 kJ), however, is scarce. Therefore, we searched for the lowest exercise intensity during 30 min of light to moderate intensity cycling that still reduced postprandial lipemia. We employed a repeated measures cross-over design. Twelve healthy, not endurance trained, young men performed three activity trials (30 min cycling with a target energy expenditure of 420, 630 and 840 kJ) before ingestion of two mixed meals with a macronutrient composition corresponding to current recommendations and a control trial (no physical activity before meal ingestion). Capillary triacylglycerol was measured in the fasting state and hourly for 6 h after the first meal. Respiratory gases were analyzed in the fasting state, and 3 and 6 h after the first meal. Triacylglycerol and respiratory responses between the trials were compared with analyses of variance. Postprandial lipemia and the incremental area under the triacylglycerol curve were not significantly different with the activity trials compared with the control trial. The postprandial respiratory exchange ratio was also not significantly affected by activity. Thirty minutes of light to moderate intensity cycling did not reduce postprandial lipemia after two mixed meals with a moderate fat content in healthy, not endurance trained, young men.

  14. Postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Role of hepatic and extrahepatic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firth, R.G.; Bell, P.M.; Marsh, H.M.; Hansen, I.; Rizza, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    Patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have both preprandial and postprandial hyperglycemia. To determine the mechanism responsible for the postprandial hyperglycemia, insulin secretion, insulin action, and the pattern of carbohydrate metabolism after glucose ingestion were assessed in patients with NIDDM and in matched nondiabetic subjects using the dual isotope and forearm catheterization techniques. Prior to meal ingestion, hepatic glucose release was increased (P less than 0.001) in the diabetic patients measured using (2-/sup 3/H) or (3-/sup 3/H) glucose. After meal ingestion, patients with NIDDM had excessive rates of systemic glucose entry (1,316 +/- 56 vs. 1,018 +/- 65 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.01), primarily owing to a failure to suppress adequately endogenous glucose release (680 +/- 50 vs. 470 +/- 32 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.01) from its high preprandial level. Despite impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production during a hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp (P less than 0.001) and decreased postprandial C-peptide response (P less than 0.05) in NIDDM, percent suppression of hepatic glucose release after oral glucose was comparable in the diabetic and nondiabetic subjects (45 +/- 3 vs. 39 +/- 2%). Although new glucose formation from meal-derived three-carbon precursors (53 +/- 3 vs. 40 +/- 7 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.05) was greater in the diabetic patients, it accounted for only a minor part of this excessive postprandial hepatic glucose release. Postprandial hyperglycemia was exacerbated by the lack of an appropriate increase in glucose uptake whether measured isotopically or by forearm glucose uptake. Thus excessive hepatic glucose release and impaired glucose uptake are involved in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with NIDDM.

  15. Postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Role of hepatic and extrahepatic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firth, R.G.; Bell, P.M.; Marsh, H.M.; Hansen, I.; Rizza, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have both preprandial and postprandial hyperglycemia. To determine the mechanism responsible for the postprandial hyperglycemia, insulin secretion, insulin action, and the pattern of carbohydrate metabolism after glucose ingestion were assessed in patients with NIDDM and in matched nondiabetic subjects using the dual isotope and forearm catheterization techniques. Prior to meal ingestion, hepatic glucose release was increased (P less than 0.001) in the diabetic patients measured using [2- 3 H] or [3- 3 H] glucose. After meal ingestion, patients with NIDDM had excessive rates of systemic glucose entry (1,316 +/- 56 vs. 1,018 +/- 65 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.01), primarily owing to a failure to suppress adequately endogenous glucose release (680 +/- 50 vs. 470 +/- 32 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.01) from its high preprandial level. Despite impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production during a hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp (P less than 0.001) and decreased postprandial C-peptide response (P less than 0.05) in NIDDM, percent suppression of hepatic glucose release after oral glucose was comparable in the diabetic and nondiabetic subjects (45 +/- 3 vs. 39 +/- 2%). Although new glucose formation from meal-derived three-carbon precursors (53 +/- 3 vs. 40 +/- 7 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.05) was greater in the diabetic patients, it accounted for only a minor part of this excessive postprandial hepatic glucose release. Postprandial hyperglycemia was exacerbated by the lack of an appropriate increase in glucose uptake whether measured isotopically or by forearm glucose uptake. Thus excessive hepatic glucose release and impaired glucose uptake are involved in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with NIDDM

  16. Fasting and postprandial levels of a novel anorexigenic peptide nesfatin in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anık, Ahmet; Çatlı, Gönül; Abacı, Ayhan; Küme, Tuncay; Bober, Ece

    2014-07-01

    Nesfatin-1, a recently discovered anorexigenic peptide, is expressed in several tissues, including pancreatic islet cells and central nervous system. However, its pathophysiological role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance remains unknown. To investigate the possible involvement of nesfatin-1 in the pathogenesis of childhood obesity, we examined the relationship between fasting and postprandial nesfatin-1 concentrations and metabolic/antropometric parameters in obese children. The study included obese children with a body mass index >95th percentile. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, fasting and postprandial (120th min) nesfatin-1 levels were measured to evaluate the metabolic parameters. Different cutoff values for prepubertal and pubertal stages were used to determine the status of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (prepubertal >2.5, pubertal >4). The percentage of body fat was measured using bioelectric impedance analysis. Seventy-one obese children were included in this study. There was no statistically significant difference between fasting and postprandial nesfatin-1 levels in obese subjects (0.70 ± 0.15 and 0.69 ± 0.14 ng/mL, p>0.05, respectively). Insulin resistance was observed in 58% (41/71) of the cases. There was no significant difference in either fasting or postprandial serum nesfatin-1 levels between the insulin-resistant and non-resistant groups (p>0.05). There was no correlation between fasting and postprandial serum nesfatin-1 levels and anthropometric and metabolic parameters in insulin-resistant and non-resistant groups. In this study, there was no significant increase in the postprandial level of nesfatin-1. This observation suggested that oral glucose load in obese children may not be sufficient for nesfatin-1 response and that nesfatin-1 may not have an effect as a short-term regulator of food intake.

  17. The effects of a weakly acidic meal on gastric buffering and postprandial gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K; Francis, D L; See, J A; Geno, D M; Katzka, D A

    2011-09-01

    Exclusion of the meal during ambulatory pH monitoring presumes that a meal completely buffers gastric acid and reflux of acidic food content cannot be distinguished from gastric acid. However, the ability of a meal to completely buffer gastric acid remains unclear. To determine the effect of a weakly acid meal on gastric buffering and oesophageal acid exposure. Patients undergoing multichannel intraluminal impedance pH studies were given a standard weakly acidic meal (pH = 5.9). Gastric and oesophageal pH was measured during the meal and in 15 min intervals for 2 h postprandially. The study included 30 patients, with pathological acid reflux detected in 18 patients. Complete gastric buffering occurred in seven patients (23%) and was lost in all patients within 75 min of the meal. Oesophageal acid was detected in 33% of patients within 30 min of the meal and 81% of patients during the 2 h postprandial period. Postprandial oesophageal acid exposure was greater in patients with pathological acid reflux (9 ± 2.7% vs. 1.7 ± 0.8% P = 0.05) with a trend towards more incomplete gastric acid buffering and significant differences when measuring weak acid reflux (pH 4-5). Acid reflux rarely occurred in the absence of gastric acid, with gastric acid present in 74 of 79 (94%) fifteen minute postprandial intervals with acid reflux. The ability of a meal to buffer gastric acid is poor. Early postprandial oesophageal acid reflux occurs in a substantial proportion of patients. Addition of a weakly acidic or pH neutral meal to ambulatory pH monitoring may unmask early postprandial acid reflux and provide data on gastric acid buffering. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Incorporating freeze-dried strawberry powder into a high-fat meal does not alter postprandial vascular function or blood markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Gaugler, Trent L; Lambert, Joshua D; Proctor, David N; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-02-01

    Postprandial dysmetabolism-an exaggerated spike in triglycerides, glucose, and insulin-increases cardiovascular disease risk by inducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may blunt these effects when they are incorporated into a high-fat, calorie-dense meal. Strawberries are a rich source of polyphenols, but there is little research on their postprandial effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of adding 40 g freeze-dried strawberry powder (∼1 lb. or 0.45 kg fresh strawberries) to a high-fat (50 g total fat) meal on postprandial vascular function, as well as triglyceride, glucose, and insulin responses. Healthy, overweight or obese [mean ± SEM body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 31 ± 0.5] adults (mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 2 y; 17 men and 13 women) consumed a control meal and a strawberry meal in a randomized crossover design. Testing sessions were separated by ≥1 wk for men and ∼1 mo for women to control for hormonal variations. Blood samples were obtained before the meal and 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h after the meal. Central blood pressure and arterial stiffness indexes were measured at baseline and 2 and 4 h postmeal with the use of pulse waveform analysis. There were no significant differences between the strawberry and control meals for any outcomes. Consumption of either meal significantly decreased the augmentation index at 2 and 4 h (P < 0.002) and significantly increased triglycerides, insulin, and glucose at all time points (P < 0.001) relative to baseline. The strawberry intervention did not alter vascular function or attenuate postprandial metabolic derangements in triglycerides, glucose, or insulin relative to the control meal. Additional research is needed to clarify whether strawberries or other polyphenol-rich interventions improve postprandial responses, and future studies should take into account the acute meal-induced improvements in measures of vascular function. This trial was registered

  19. Effects of acute ingestion of different fats on oxidative stress and inflammation in overweight and obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peairs Abigail D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies show that obese individuals have prolonged elevations in postprandial lipemia and an exacerbated inflammatory response to high fat meals, which can increase risk for cardiovascular diseases. As epidemiological studies indicate an association between type of fat and circulating inflammatory markers, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of different fat sources on inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight and obese individuals. Methods Eleven overweight and obese subjects consumed three high fat milkshakes rich in monounsaturated fat (MFA, saturated fat (SFA, or long-chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fat (O3FA in random order. Blood samples collected at baseline, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours postprandial were analyzed for markers of inflammation (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP, oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin-F2α (8-epi and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, and metabolic factors (glucose, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids, and triglycerides (TG. Results O3FA enhanced NF-kB activation compared to SFA, but did not increase any inflammatory factors measured. Conversely, SFA led to higher ICAM-1 levels than MFA (p = 0.051, while MFA increased TG more than SFA (p Conclusions While most of the inflammatory factors measured had modest or no change following the meal, ICAM-1 and NF-κB responded differently by meal type. These results are provocative and suggest that type of fat in meals may differentially influence postprandial inflammation and endothelial activation.

  20. COPD exacerbations, inflammation and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathoorn, Derk

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes investigations into the inflammation in COPD, and its treatment. Inflammation in COPD is a central factor in the onset of the disease and its progression. During acute deteriorations of the disease, exacerbations, the inflammation is more severe, and depending on the cause of

  1. Bioenergetic Dysfunction and Inflammation in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Possible Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, Heather M.; Carl, Steven M.; Greenlief, Alison C. S.; Festoff, Barry W.; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) subject brains. Inflammation-relevant genes are increasingly implicated in AD genetic studies, and inflammatory cytokines to some extent even function as peripheral biomarkers. What underlies AD inflammation is unclear, but no “foreign” agent has been implicated. This suggests that internally produced damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs) molecules may drive inflammation in AD. A more complete characterization and understanding of AD-...

  2. ACUTE CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO PRE-PRANDIAL AND POSTPRANDIAL EXERCISE IN ACTIVE MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Rabelo Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Pre-prandial exercise promotes greater mobilization of fat metabolism due to the increased release of catecholamines, cortisol, and glucagon. However, this response affects how the cardiovascular system responds to exercise. Objective: To evaluate the response of systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, heart rate (HR and rate-pressure product (RPP to pre- and postprandial exercise. Methods: Ten physically active male subjects (25.50 ± 2.22 years underwent two treadmill protocols (pre- and postprandial performed for 36 minutes at 65% of VO2max on different days. On both days, subjects attended the laboratory on a 10-hour fasting state. For the postprandial session, volunteers ingested a pre-exercise meal of 349.17 kcal containing 59.3 g of carbohydrates (76.73%, 9.97 g of protein (12.90%, and 8.01 g of lipids (10.37%. Blood pressure, HR and RPP were measured before and after exercise. The 2x2 factorial Anova with the multiple comparisons test of Bonferroni was applied to analyze cardiovascular variables in both moments (pre- vs. postprandial. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: Systolic (121.70 ± 7.80 vs. 139.78 ± 12.91 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (66.40 ± 9.81 vs. 80.22 ± 8.68 mmHg increased significantly after exercise only in the postprandial session (p<0.05. HR increased significantly (p<0.05 after both protocols (64.20 ± 15.87 vs. 141.20 ± 10.33 bpm pre-prandial and 63.60 ± 8.82 vs. 139.20 ± 10.82 bpm postprandial. RPP had a similar result (8052.10 ± 1790.68 vs. 18382.60 ± 2341.66 mmHg.bpm in the pre-prandial session and 7772.60 ± 1413.76 vs. 19564.60 ± 3128.99 mmHg.bpm in the postprandial session. Conclusion: These data suggest that fasted exercise does not significantly alter the blood pressure. Furthermore, the meal provided before the postprandial exercise may promote a greater blood pressure responsiveness during exercise.

  3. Exercise and postprandial lipaemia: effects on peripheral vascular function, oxidative stress and gastrointestinal transit

    OpenAIRE

    Clegg, Miriam E.; McClean, Conor; Davison, Gareth W.; Murphy, H. Marie; Trinick, Tom; Duly, Ellie; McLaughlin, Jim; Fogarty, Mark; Shafat, Amir

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Postprandial lipaemia may lead to an increase in oxidative stress, inducing endothelial dysfunction. Exercise can slow gastric emptying rates, moderating postprandial lipaemia. The purpose of this study was to determine if moderate exercise, prior to fat ingestion, influences gastrointestinal transit, lipaemia, oxidative stress and arterial wall function. Eight apparently healthy males (age 23.6 ± 2.8 yrs; height 181.4 ± 8.1 cm; weight 83.4 ± 16.2 kg; all data mean ± SD) participated...

  4. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli

    2015-01-01

    with a similar composition were created using different processing conditions. The postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response to bread with a compact structure (flat bread, FB) was compared to bread with a porous structure (control bread, CB) in a randomized, crossover study with ten healthy male...... or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products....

  5. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie R. Wilburn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Methods Eight apparently healthy men (Mean ± SEM; age = 27 ± 2 years participated in a crossover study to examine the effects of acute resistance exercise on next-day postprandial lipemia resulting from a high-fructose, high-fat meal. Participants completed three separate two-day conditions in a random order: (1 EX-COMP: a full-body weightlifting workout with the provision of additional kilocalories to compensate for the estimated net energy cost of exercise on day 1, followed by the consumption of a high-fructose, high-fat liquid test meal the next morning (day 2 (~600 kcal and the determination of the plasma glucose, lactate, insulin, and TAG responses during a six-hour postprandial period; (2 EX-DEF: same condition as EX-COMP but without exercise energy compensation on day 1; and (3 CON: no exercise control. Results The six-hour postprandial plasma insulin and lactate responses did not differ between conditions. However, the postprandial plasma TAG concentrations were 16.5% and 24.4% lower for EX-COMP (551.0 ± 80.5 mg/dL x 360 minutes and EX-DEF (499.4 ± 73.5 mg/dL x 360 minutes, respectively, compared to CON (660.2 ± 95.0 mg/dL x 360 minutes ( P < 0.05. Conclusions A single resistance exercise bout, performed ~15 hours prior to a high-fructose, high-fat meal, attenuated the postprandial TAG response, as compared to a no-exercise control condition, in healthy, resistance-trained men.

  6. Influence of meal composition on postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of vasoactive peptides in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Høst, U; Kelbaek, H

    1996-01-01

    In a randomized cross-over study healthy non-obese male human subjects received standardized isocaloric, isovolumetric meals consisting of either carbohydrate, protein or fat and a non-caloric control meal consisting of an equal volume of water. Peripheral venous plasma concentrations of calcitonin...... that the postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of CGRP, VIP and PYY are dependent on the caloric meal composition. The VIP, but not the CGRP and PYY concentrations seem to be influenced by gastric distension. The physiological significance of the postprandial alterations in peripheral concentrations...

  7. Inflammation in Epileptic Encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandra, Oleksii; Moshé, Solomon L; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2017-01-01

    West syndrome (WS) is an infantile epileptic encephalopathy that manifests with infantile spasms (IS), hypsarrhythmia (in ~60% of infants), and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The etiologies of WS can be structural-metabolic pathologies (~60%), genetic (12%-15%), or of unknown origin. The current treatment options include hormonal treatment (adrenocorticotropic hormone and high-dose steroids) and the GABA aminotransferase inhibitor vigabatrin, while ketogenic diet can be given as add-on treatment in refractory IS. There is a need to identify new therapeutic targets and more effective treatments for WS. Theories about the role of inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis and treatment of WS have emerged, being supported by both clinical and preclinical data from animal models of WS. Ongoing advances in genetics have revealed numerous genes involved in the pathogenesis of WS, including genes directly or indirectly involved in inflammation. Inflammatory pathways also interact with other signaling pathways implicated in WS, such as the neuroendocrine pathway. Furthermore, seizures may also activate proinflammatory pathways raising the possibility that inflammation can be a consequence of seizures and epileptogenic processes. With this targeted review, we plan to discuss the evidence pro and against the following key questions. Does activation of inflammatory pathways in the brain cause epilepsy in WS and does it contribute to the associated comorbidities and progression? Can activation of certain inflammatory pathways be a compensatory or protective event? Are there interactions between inflammation and the neuroendocrine system that contribute to the pathogenesis of WS? Does activation of brain inflammatory signaling pathways contribute to the transition of WS to Lennox-Gastaut syndrome? Are there any lead candidates or unexplored targets for future therapy development for WS targeting inflammation? © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inflammation in epileptic encephalopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandra, Oleksii; Moshé, Solomon L.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

    2017-01-01

    West syndrome (WS) is an infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EE) that manifests with infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia (in ~60% of infants) and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The etiologies of WS can be structural-metabolic pathologies (~60%), genetic (12–15%) or of unknown origin. The current treatment options include hormonal treatment [adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and high dose steroids], the GABA aminotransferase inhibitor vigabatrin, while ketogenic diet can be given as add-on treatment in refractory IS. There is a need to identify new therapeutic targets and more effective treatments for WS. Theories about the role of inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis and treatment of WS have emerged, being supported by both clinical and preclinical data from animal models of WS. Ongoing advances in genetics have revealed numerous genes involved in the pathogenesis of WS, including genes directly or indirectly involved in inflammation. Inflammatory pathways also interact with other signaling pathways implicated in WS, such as the neuroendocrine pathway. Furthermore, seizures may also activate pro-inflammatory pathways raising the possibility that inflammation can be a consequence of seizures and epileptogenic processes. With this targeted review we plan to discuss the evidence pro and against the following key questions. Does activation of inflammatory pathways in the brain cause epilepsy in WS and does it contribute to the associated comorbidities and progression? Can activation of certain inflammatory pathways be a compensatory or protective event? Are there interactions between inflammation and the neuroendocrine system that contribute to the pathogenesis of West syndrome? Does activation of brain inflammatory signaling pathways contribute to the transition of WS to Lennox-Gastaut syndrome? Are there any lead candidates or unexplored targets for future therapy development for WS targeting inflammation? PMID:28427564

  9. Effects of inflammation on stem cells: together they strive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizil, Caghan; Kyritsis, Nikos; Brand, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation entails a complex set of defense mechanisms acting in concert to restore the homeostatic balance in organisms after damage or pathogen invasion. This immune response consists of the activity of various immune cells in a highly complex manner. Inflammation is a double-edged sword as it is reported to have both detrimental and beneficial consequences. In this review, we discuss the effects of inflammation on stem cell activity, focusing primarily on neural stem/progenitor cells in mammals and zebrafish. We also give a brief overview of the effects of inflammation on other stem cell compartments, exemplifying the positive and negative role of inflammation on stemness. The majority of the chronic diseases involve an unremitting phase of inflammation due to improper resolution of the initial pro-inflammatory response that impinges on the stem cell behavior. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of crosstalk between the inflammatory milieu and tissue-resident stem cells is an important basis for clinical efforts. Not only is it important to understand the effect of inflammation on stem cell activity for further defining the etiology of the diseases, but also better mechanistic understanding is essential to design regenerative therapies that aim at micromanipulating the inflammatory milieu to offset the negative effects and maximize the beneficial outcomes. PMID:25739812

  10. Reorganization of neuronal circuits of the central olfactory system during postprandial sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro eYamaguchi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic changes in neuronal circuits often occur in association with specific behavioral states. In this review, we focus on an emerging view that neuronal circuits in the olfactory system are reorganized along the wake-sleep cycle. Olfaction is crucial to sustaining the animals’ life, and odor-guided behaviors have to be newly acquired or updated to successfully cope with a changing odor world. It is therefore likely that neuronal circuits in the olfactory system are highly plastic and undergo repeated reorganization in daily life. A remarkably plastic feature of the olfactory system is that newly generated neurons are continually integrated into neuronal circuits of the olfactory bulb (OB throughout life. New neurons in the OB undergo an extensive selection process, during which many are eliminated by apoptosis for the fine tuning of neuronal circuits. The life and death decision of new neurons occurs extensively during a short time window of sleep after food consumption (postprandial sleep, a typical daily olfactory behavior. We review recent studies that explain how olfactory information is transferred between the OB and the olfactory cortex (OC along the course of the wake-sleep cycle. Olfactory sensory input is effectively transferred from the OB to the OC during waking, while synchronized top-down inputs from the OC to the OB are promoted during the slow-wave sleep. We discuss possible neuronal circuit mechanisms for the selection of new neurons in the OB, which involves the encoding of olfactory sensory inputs and memory trace formation during waking and internally generated activities in the OC and OB during subsequent sleep. The plastic changes in the OB and OC are well coordinated along the course of olfactory behavior during wakefulness and postbehavioral rest and sleep. We therefore propose that the olfactory system provides an excellent model in which to understand behavioral state-dependent plastic mechanisms of the neuronal

  11. Crystals, inflammation, and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Ann K

    2011-03-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) and basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals are common components of osteoarthritic joint fluids and tissues. Why these crystals form and how they contribute to joint damage in osteoarthritis remain unclear. With renewed interest in inflammation as a key component of osteoarthritis the role of calcium-containing crystals in this common disease warrants re-examination. There is ample evidence supporting a pathogenic role for inflammation in osteoarthritis, and the innate immune system likely participates in this inflammatory process. Recent work reinforces the almost universal existence of calcium-containing crystals in tissues from patients with end-stage osteoarthritis. Calcium-containing crystals may contribute to inflammation in osteoarthritis tissues through their direct interactions with components of the innate immune system, as well as by inducing or amplifying other inflammatory signals. There is increasing evidence that calcium-containing crystals contribute to osteoarthritis and their inflammatory properties may mediate detrimental effects through innate immunity signals. Calcium-containing crystals may thus represent important therapeutic targets in osteoarthritis.

  12. Effect of feed restriction on performance and postprandial nutrient metabolism in pigs co-infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floc'h, Nathalie; Deblanc, Céline; Cariolet, Roland; Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V; Merlot, Elodie; Simon, Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    As nutritional status and inflammation are strongly connected, feeding and nutritional strategies could be effective to improve the ability of pigs to cope with disease. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of a feed restriction on the ability of pigs to resist and be tolerant to a coinfection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and the European H1N1 swine influenza virus, and the consequences for nutrient metabolism, with a focus on amino acids. Two groups of specific pathogen-free pigs were inoculated with Mhp and H1N1 21 days apart. One group was fed ad libitum, the other group was subjected to a two-week 40% feed restriction starting one week before H1N1 infection. The two respective mock control groups were included. Three days post-H1N1 infection, 200 g of feed was given to pigs previously fasted overnight and serial blood samples were taken over 4 hours to measure plasma nutrient concentrations. Throughout the study, clinical signs were observed and pathogens were detected in nasal swabs and lung tissues. Feed-restricted pigs presented shorter hyperthermia and a positive mean weight gain over the 3 days post-H1N1 infection whereas animals fed ad libitum lost weight. Both infection and feed restriction reduced postprandial glucose concentrations, indicating changes in glucose metabolism. Post-prandial plasma concentrations of the essential amino acids histidine, arginine and threonine were lower in co-infected pigs suggesting a greater use of those amino acids for metabolic purposes associated with the immune response. Altogether, these results indicate that modifying feeding practices could help to prepare animals to overcome an influenza infection. Connections with metabolism changes are discussed.

  13. Effect of feed restriction on performance and postprandial nutrient metabolism in pigs co-infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Le Floc'h

    Full Text Available As nutritional status and inflammation are strongly connected, feeding and nutritional strategies could be effective to improve the ability of pigs to cope with disease. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of a feed restriction on the ability of pigs to resist and be tolerant to a coinfection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp and the European H1N1 swine influenza virus, and the consequences for nutrient metabolism, with a focus on amino acids. Two groups of specific pathogen-free pigs were inoculated with Mhp and H1N1 21 days apart. One group was fed ad libitum, the other group was subjected to a two-week 40% feed restriction starting one week before H1N1 infection. The two respective mock control groups were included. Three days post-H1N1 infection, 200 g of feed was given to pigs previously fasted overnight and serial blood samples were taken over 4 hours to measure plasma nutrient concentrations. Throughout the study, clinical signs were observed and pathogens were detected in nasal swabs and lung tissues. Feed-restricted pigs presented shorter hyperthermia and a positive mean weight gain over the 3 days post-H1N1 infection whereas animals fed ad libitum lost weight. Both infection and feed restriction reduced postprandial glucose concentrations, indicating changes in glucose metabolism. Post-prandial plasma concentrations of the essential amino acids histidine, arginine and threonine were lower in co-infected pigs suggesting a greater use of those amino acids for metabolic purposes associated with the immune response. Altogether, these results indicate that modifying feeding practices could help to prepare animals to overcome an influenza infection. Connections with metabolism changes are discussed.

  14. Differences in postprandial hemodynamic response on a high protein versus a high carbohydrate diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dopheide, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Several intervention trials have shown that diet composition affects blood pressure (BP). In this study we focused on postprandial hemodynamic changes on a high carbohydrate versus a high protein diet. Design and Method: In this randomized double-blind parallel group study, 53 adult

  15. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  16. An update on accumulating exercise and postprandial lipaemia: translating theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Masashi; Burns, Stephen F; Stensel, David J

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, significant research attention has been given to the acute effect of a single bout of exercise on postprandial lipaemia. A large body of evidence supports the notion that an acute bout of aerobic exercise can reduce postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations. However, this effect is short-lived emphasising the important role of regular physical activity for lowering TAG concentrations through an active lifestyle. In 1995, the concept of accumulating physical activity was introduced in expert recommendations with the advice that activity can be performed in several short bouts throughout the day with a minimum duration of 10 minutes per activity bout. Although the concept of accumulation has been widely publicised, there is still limited scientific evidence to support it but several studies have investigated the effects of accumulated activity on health-related outcomes to support the recommendations in physical activity guidelines. One area, which is the focus of this review, is the effect of accumulating exercise on postprandial lipaemia. We propose that accumulating exercise will provide additional physical activity options for lowering postprandial TAG concentrations relevant to individuals with limited time or exercise capacity to engage in more structured forms of exercise, or longer bouts of physical activity. The benefits of accumulated physical activity might translate to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in the long-term.

  17. Study of postprandial lipaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus: exenatide versus liraglutide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voukali, Maria; Kastrinelli, Irene; Stragalinou, Sapfo; Tasiopoulou, Dimitra; Paraskevopoulou, Pinelopi; Katsilambros, Nicholas; Kokkinos, Alexandros; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Ioannidis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic approaches based on the actions of the incretin hormone GLP-1 have been widely established in the management of T2DM. Nevertheless, much less research has been aimed at elucidating the role of GLP-1 in lipid metabolism and in particular postprandial dyslipidemia. Exenatide and liraglutide are two GLP-1 receptor agonists which are currently available as subcutaneously administered treatment for T2DM but their chronic effects on postprandial lipaemia have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of treatment with either liraglutide or exenatide for two weeks on postprandial lipaemia in obese subjects with T2DM. This study was a single-center, two-armed, randomized, controlled 2-week prospective intervention trial in 20 subjects with T2DM. Patients were randomized to receive either liraglutide or exenatide treatment and underwent a standardized meal tolerance test early in the morning after 10 h fast at baseline (visit 1, beginning of treatment) and after a two-week treatment period (visit 2). Exenatide and liraglutide both appear to be equally effective in lowering postprandial lipaemia after the first administration and after a two-week treatment. The mechanisms which lead to this phenomenon, which seem to be independent of gastric emptying, are yet to be studied.

  18. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W. J.; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J.; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J.; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G.

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with

  19. Reduced postprandial GLP-1 responses in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, L; Vilsbøll, T; Nielsen, T

    2013-01-01

    AIM: We investigated postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and again following delivery when normal glucose tolerance (NGT) was re-established. METHODS: Eleven women with GDM [plasma glucose (PG) concentration...

  20. Influence of antioxidant rich fresh vegetable juices on starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashok K; Reddy, K Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kumar, D Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin B; Madhusudana, K

    2011-09-01

    This research analyzed the major chemical components and multiple antioxidant activities present in the fresh juice of eight vegetables, and studied their influence on starch induced postprandial glycemia in rats. A SDS-PAGE based protein fingerprint of each vegetable juice was also prepared. The yields of juice, chemical components like total proteins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and free radicals like the ABTS˙(+) cation, DPPH, H(2)O(2), scavenging activities and reducing properties for NBT and FeCl(3) showed wide variations. Vegetable juice from brinjal ranked first in displaying total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of rats with vegetable juices moderated starch induced postprandial glycemia. The fresh juice from the vegetables ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd and chayote significantly mitigated postprandial hyperglycemic excursion. Total polyphenol concentrations present in vegetable juices positively influenced ABTS˙(+) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. However, NBT reducing activity of juices was positively affected by total protein concentration. Contrarily, however, high polyphenol content in vegetable juice was observed to adversely affect the postprandial antihyperglycemic activity of vegetable juices. This is the first report exploring antihyperglycemic activity in these vegetable juices and highlights the possible adverse influence of high polyphenol content on the antihyperglycemic activity of the vegetable juices. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  1. Rosiglitazone decreases postprandial production of acylation stimulating protein in type 2 diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Garry D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated plasma ASP and its precursor C3 in type 2 diabetic men with/without rosiglitazone (ROSI treatment compared to healthy non-obese men. We tested (1 whether plasma ASP or C3 are altered postprandially in subcutaneous adipose tissue or forearm muscle effluent assessed by arteriovenous (A-V differences in healthy lean men and older obese diabetic men and (2 whether treatment with ROSI changes the arteriovenous gradient of ASP and/or C3. Methods In this ongoing placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blinded study, AV differences following a mixed meal were measured in diabetic men (n = 6 as compared to healthy men (n = 9. Results Postprandial arterial and adipose venous TG and venous NEFA were increased in diabetics vs. controls (p Conclusion Increased postprandial venous production of ASP is specific for adipose tissue (absent in forearm muscle. Increased postprandial C3 and ASP in diabetic subjects is consistent with an ASP resistant state, this state is partially normalized by treatment with ROSI.

  2. Diagnosis of bile acid diarrhoea by fasting and postprandial measurements of fibroblast growth factor 19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Christian; Syversen, Charlotte; Bouchelouche, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A deficiency in the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) has been described in patients with bile acid diarrhoea (BAD), but fasting FGF19 levels have insufficient diagnostic power. We assess whether single postprandial sampling of FGF19 has greater discriminative value than...

  3. Early improvement of postprandial lipemia after bariatric surgery in obese type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffo, E; Nosso, G; Lupoli, R; Cotugno, M; Saldalamacchia, G; Vitolo, G; Angrisani, L; Cutolo, P P; Rivellese, A A; Capaldo, B

    2014-05-01

    Bariatric surgery (BS) is able to positively influence fasting lipid profile in obese type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM), but no data is available on the impact of BS on postprandial lipid metabolism neither on its relation with incretin hormones. We evaluated the short-term (2 weeks) effects of BS on fasting and postprandial lipid metabolism in obese T2DM patients and the contribution of changes in active GLP-1. We studied 25 obese T2DM patients (age = 46 ± 8 years, BMI = 44 ± 7 kg/m2), of which 15 underwent sleeve gastrectomy and 10 underwent gastric bypass. Lipid and incretin hormone concentrations were evaluated for 3 h after ingestion of a liquid meal before and 2 weeks after BS. After BS, there was a significant reduction in body weight (p lipids (p postprandial lipemia. The fall in fasting triglycerides is associated with an improvement of insulin resistance, while the reduction of postprandial lipemia is likely related to reduced intestinal lipid absorption consequent to bariatric surgery.

  4. Postprandial triglyceride response in young adult men and familial risk for coronary atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Stiphout, W.A.H.J. van; Krauss, X.H.; Havekes, L.M.; Bruijn, A.M. de; Tol, A. van; Hofman, A.

    1994-01-01

    Setting: Coronary angiography departments of four central general hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients: 80 sons (mean age, 24.8 years) of men with severe coronary artery disease and 55 sons (mean age, 23.2 years) of controls. Measurements: Postprandial levels of serum triglycerides, retinyl

  5. Greater impairment of postprandial triacylglycerol than glucose response in metabolic syndrome subjects with fasting hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kim G; Walden, Charlotte M; Murray, Peter; Smith, Adrian M; Minihane, Anne M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Williams, Christine M

    2013-08-01

    Studies have started to question whether a specific component or combinations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components may be more important in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to examine the impact of the presence of raised fasting glucose as a MetS component on postprandial lipaemia. Men classified with the MetS underwent a sequential test meal investigation, in which blood samples were taken at regular intervals after a test breakfast (t=0 min) and lunch (t=330 min). Lipids, glucose and insulin were measured in the fasting and postprandial samples. MetS subjects with 3 or 4 components were subdivided into those without (n=34) and with (n=23) fasting hyperglycaemia (≥5.6 mmol/l), irrespective of the combination of components. Fasting lipids and insulin were similar in the two groups, with glucose significantly higher in the men with glucose as a MetS component (Ppostprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) response in men with fasting hyperglycaemia. Greater glucose AUC (Ppostprandial TAG and glucose response. Our data analysis has revealed a greater impairment of postprandial TAG than glucose response in MetS subjects with raised fasting glucose. The worsening of postprandial lipaemic control may contribute to the greater CVD risk reported in individuals with MetS component combinations which include hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of Postprandial Lipaemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Exenatide versus Liraglutide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Voukali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic approaches based on the actions of the incretin hormone GLP-1 have been widely established in the management of T2DM. Nevertheless, much less research has been aimed at elucidating the role of GLP-1 in lipid metabolism and in particular postprandial dyslipidemia. Exenatide and liraglutide are two GLP-1 receptor agonists which are currently available as subcutaneously administered treatment for T2DM but their chronic effects on postprandial lipaemia have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of treatment with either liraglutide or exenatide for two weeks on postprandial lipaemia in obese subjects with T2DM. This study was a single-center, two-armed, randomized, controlled 2-week prospective intervention trial in 20 subjects with T2DM. Patients were randomized to receive either liraglutide or exenatide treatment and underwent a standardized meal tolerance test early in the morning after 10 h fast at baseline (visit 1, beginning of treatment and after a two-week treatment period (visit 2. Exenatide and liraglutide both appear to be equally effective in lowering postprandial lipaemia after the first administration and after a two-week treatment. The mechanisms which lead to this phenomenon, which seem to be independent of gastric emptying, are yet to be studied.

  7. Ext1 heterozygosity causes a modest effect on postprandial lipid clearance in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Hans L.; Bernelot Moens, Sophie J.; Gordts, Philip L. S. M.; Stanford, Kristin I.; Foley, Erin M.; van den Boogert, Marjolein A. W.; Witjes, Julia J.; Hassing, H. Carlijne; Tanck, Michael W.; van de Sande, Michiel A. J.; Levels, J. Han; Kastelein, John J. P.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Esko, Jeff D.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2015-01-01

    Elevated nonfasting TG-rich lipoprotein levels are a risk factor for CVD. To further evaluate the relevance of LDL-receptor (LDLr) pathway and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in TG homeostasis, we analyzed fasting and postprandial TG levels in mice bearing combined heterozygous mutations in

  8. Resistant starch and arabinoxylan augment SCFA absorption, but affect postprandial glucose and insulin responses differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Anne Krog; Theil, Peter Kappel; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2014-01-01

    fitted with catheters in the mesenteric artery, the portal and hepatic vein, and a flowprobe around the portal vein and included in a double 3x3 crossover design with three daily feedings (at 9.00, 14.00 and 19.00 hours). Fasting and 5 hours postprandial blood samples were collected after 7 days...

  9. Measures of postprandial wellness after single intake of two protein-carbohydrate meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Brink, E.J.; Stafleu, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    The general feeling of wellness after food consumption may play an important role in regulating food intake. This exploratory study aimed at identifying and evaluating measures of such postprandial wellness, tentatively defined as subjective appreciation of life after food intake. The study had a

  10. Postprandial triglyceridemia after single dose of alcohol in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudráková, E; Poledne, R; Kovář, J

    2013-03-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption provides protection against cardiovascular disease primarily due to increase of HDL-cholesterol. However, it also has some adverse effects on metabolism of triglycerides (TG). Therefore, we addressed the question how a single dose of alcohol affects postprandial lipemia and activities of two enzymes playing a critical role in regulation of triglyceridemia, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL). Eight healthy volunteers were given a single dose of alcohol (vodka; 0.6 g of ethanol/kg of body weight) together with a fat load (0.7 g of fat/kg of body weight) in an experimental breakfast or together with dinner 12 h before the experimental breakfast. In comparison to control experiment, alcohol given with breakfast induced increased and prolonged postprandial response of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL; d Alcohol given in the evening before the experiment increased fasting TG concentration but did not affect changes in TRL and IDL concentrations. LPL activity measured both in vivo using intravenous fat tolerance test and in vitro and HTGL activity were determined at the end of experiments (after 7.5 h of postprandial lipemia study). Neither was affected by a single dose of alcohol. Single dose of alcohol induces immediate and profound changes in metabolism of TRL and IDL. The same dose of alcohol given 12 h before meal does affect baseline TG concentration but not the postprandial changes of triglyceridemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment and clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Kovar, Jan

    2011-01-01

    -fasting TGs as a risk factor for CVD and provide a suggested classification of non-fasting TG concentration. Secondly, we sought to describe methodologies to evaluate postprandial TG using a fat tolerance test (FTT) in the clinic. Thirdly, we discuss the role of non-fasting lipids in the treatment...

  12. Dairy proteins, dairy lipids, and postprandial lipemia in persons with abdominal obesity (DairyHealth)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Bohl; Bjørnshave, Ann; Rasmussen, Kia V

    2015-01-01

    (whey or casein) and 63 g milk fat (with high or low MC-SFA content) daily. Before and after the intervention, a high-fat meal test was performed. We measured changes from baseline in fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48; reflecting chylomicrons of intestinal origin...

  13. Effect of L-NMMA on postprandial transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, D. P.; Tiel-van Buul, M. M.; Tytgat, G. N.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    In a previous study we showed that nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibition by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) reduced the number of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) triggered by gastric balloon distention. The role of NO in postprandial TLESRs and gastroesophageal reflux,

  14. Effects of two different types of fast food on postprandial metabolism in normal and overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramel, A; Gudmundsdottir, F D; Thorsdottir, I

    2012-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of a conventional and an unconventional fast-food meal on postprandial metabolism in normal and in overweight subjects. Twenty-five healthy normal (n = 12) and overweight (n = 13) volunteers (21-39 years) participated in this randomized, dietary cross-over study and received two test meals (matched in energy and energy giving nutrients) after an overnight fast with 1 week between test days. The conventional fast-food meal was a hamburger meal (hamburger, bacon, cola drink, calculated glycemic load = 48.7), the unconventional fast food was a salmonburger meal (fiber-rich sourdough rye bread, salad with vinegar, orange juice, glycemic load = 46.0). Blood samples were taken before and after the meal and analyzed for glucose (before 20, 40, 60 and 80 min) and insulin (before 1, 2 and 3 h). Postprandial increases in glucose and insulin were 44% lower after the unconventional meal (Pfast food can have less effect on blood insulin and glucose postprandially compared with conventional fast food matched in energy and energy giving nutrients. The difference between meals in insulin response is associated with higher BMI. Thus, improvement in food quality might help to control postprandial increases in blood glucose and blood insulin.

  15. Evaluating Crossbred Red Rice Variants for Postprandial Glucometabolic Responses: A Comparison with Commercial Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Hee Se

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11 against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white using 50-g carbohydrate equivalents provided to 12 normoglycaemic adults in a crossover design. Venous blood was drawn fasted and postprandially for three hours. Glycaemic (GI and insulin (II indices, incremental areas-under-the-curves for glucose and insulin (IAUCins, indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, lactate and peptide hormones (motilin, neuropeptide-Y, orexin-A were analyzed. The lowest to highest trends for GI and II were similar i.e., UKMRC9 < Basmati < Thai red < UKMRC10 < UKMRC11 < Jasmine. Postprandial insulinaemia and IAUCins of only UKMRC9 were significantly the lowest compared to Jasmine. Crude protein and fiber content correlated negatively with the GI values of the test rice. Although peptide hormones were not associated with GI and II characteristics of test rice, early and late phases of prandial neuropeptide-Y changes were negatively correlated with postprandial insulinaemia. This study indicated that only UKMRC9 among the new rice crossbreeds could serve as an alternative cereal option to improve diet quality of Asians with its lowest glycaemic and insulinaemic burden.

  16. The influence of glucagon on postprandial hyperglycaemia in children 5 years after onset of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredheim, Siri; Andersen, Marie-Louise M; Pörksen, Sven

    2015-01-01

    comprised 129 children (66 boys) with type 1 diabetes whose mean (SD) age at onset was 10.0 (3.9) years. Liquid mixed-meal tests were performed prospectively at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and a subset of 40 patients completed follow-up at 60 months. Postprandial (90 min) plasma levels of glucagon, glucose (PG...... associated negatively with postprandial C-peptide (p = 0.017). A doubling in postprandial glucagon corresponded to a 3% relative increase in HbA1c levels (p = 0.0045). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Postprandial glucagon levels were associated with deterioration of glycaemic control and declining beta cell...... levels increased 160% from 1 to 60 months after diagnosis (p 0.0001). A doubling in postprandial PG corresponded to a 21% increase in postprandial glucagon levels (p = 0.0079), whereas a doubling in total GLP-1 levels corresponded to a 33% increase in glucagon levels (p 0.0001). Postprandial glucagon...

  17. Postprandial fullness correlates with rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum but not with chronic gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is evaluating the correlation of postprandial fullness with chronic gastritis or rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum, based on double-contrast barium X-ray imaging. Methods 253 healthy subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray examination were analyzed. Chronic gastritis was judged from mucosal atrophy and hypertrophic thickened folds on barium X-ray images. For the gastric excretion, the tips of barium flow on the single-contrast frontal barium X-ray images of the stomach were classified into four categories; V type (all the barium remained in the stomach), V-H type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum but the tip of barium remained in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb), H-V type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum and the tip of barium was in the distal half of duodenal the bulb, but no barium was observed in the descending part of the duodenum), and H type (some barium had flowed into the descending part of the duodenum). The chi-square test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test were used for evaluation. Results Chronic gastritis was observed in 72 subjects, among which 21 subjects (29.2%) presented with postprandial fullness. For the remaining 181 subjects without chronic gastritis, 53 subjects (29.3%) complained of postprandial fullness. There is no significant correlation between chronic gastritis and postprandial fullness (p = 0.973). For the rapid flow of gastric content into duodenum, all the 253 subjects comprised 136 subjects with V type (in the stomach), 40 subjects with V-H type (in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb), 21 subjects with H-V type (in the distal half of the duodenal bulb), and 56 subjects with H type (in the descending part of the duodenum). Postprandial fullness was present in 30 subjects with V type (22.1%), 9 subjects with V-H type (22.5%), 8 subjects with H-V type (38.1%), and 27 subjects with H type (48.2%). There is a distinct correlation between postprandial

  18. Postprandial fullness correlates with rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum but not with chronic gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamichi Nobutake

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is evaluating the correlation of postprandial fullness with chronic gastritis or rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum, based on double-contrast barium X-ray imaging. Methods 253 healthy subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray examination were analyzed. Chronic gastritis was judged from mucosal atrophy and hypertrophic thickened folds on barium X-ray images. For the gastric excretion, the tips of barium flow on the single-contrast frontal barium X-ray images of the stomach were classified into four categories; V type (all the barium remained in the stomach, V-H type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum but the tip of barium remained in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb, H-V type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum and the tip of barium was in the distal half of duodenal the bulb, but no barium was observed in the descending part of the duodenum, and H type (some barium had flowed into the descending part of the duodenum. The chi-square test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test were used for evaluation. Results Chronic gastritis was observed in 72 subjects, among which 21 subjects (29.2% presented with postprandial fullness. For the remaining 181 subjects without chronic gastritis, 53 subjects (29.3% complained of postprandial fullness. There is no significant correlation between chronic gastritis and postprandial fullness (p = 0.973. For the rapid flow of gastric content into duodenum, all the 253 subjects comprised 136 subjects with V type (in the stomach, 40 subjects with V-H type (in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb, 21 subjects with H-V type (in the distal half of the duodenal bulb, and 56 subjects with H type (in the descending part of the duodenum. Postprandial fullness was present in 30 subjects with V type (22.1%, 9 subjects with V-H type (22.5%, 8 subjects with H-V type (38.1%, and 27 subjects with H type (48.2%. There is a distinct correlation between

  19. Inflammation, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Maat, M.P.M.; Bladbjerg, E.M.; Drivsholm, T.

    2003-01-01

    of inflammatory and hemostatic markers and the severity of atherosclerosis is not yet well studied. We have evaluated 325 men and 370 women of 60 years, participating in the Danish Glostrup study. We diagnosed atherosclerosis by ultrasonographic measurement of intima-media thickness (IMT) of the right carotid...... CRP and the other hemostatic variables and the number of plaques. Genetic variation in the t-PA and MTHFR gene was associated with IMT. In conclusion, in the Glostrup population study, thrombosis and inflammation are associated with the severity of atherosclerosis, as reflected by IMT and plaque...

  20. Immunsystemet ved kronisk inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity has evolved as a defence against infections and as an important repair mechanism after physical injury. If elimination of microbes and healing is not achieved, or if the immune system is dysregulated, chronic inflammation ensues. Immune cells become engaged in prolonged...... reactions with other cell types in vessels and organs, frequently with superimposed autoreactive T-cells and autoantibody-producing B-cells/plasma cells. The processes are distinguished on the basis of clinical manifestations in organ-specific and systemic inflammatory diseases. The underlying factors...

  1. Hepatic insulin resistance both in prediabetic and diabetic patients determines postprandial lipoprotein metabolism: from the CORDIOPREV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Acuña, A; Alcala-Diaz, J F; Delgado-Lista, J; Torres-Peña, J D; Lopez-Moreno, J; Camargo, A; Garcia-Rios, A; Marin, C; Gomez-Delgado, F; Caballero, J; Van-Ommen, B; Malagon, M M; Perez-Martinez, P; Lopez-Miranda, J

    2016-04-19

    Previous evidences have shown the presence of a prolonged and exaggerated postprandial response in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its relation with an increase of cardiovascular risk. However, the response in prediabetes population has not been established. The objective was to analyze the degree of postprandial lipemia response in the CORDIOPREV clinical trial (NCT00924937) according to the diabetic status. 1002 patients were submitted to an oral fat load test meal (OFTT) with 0.7 g fat/kg body weight [12 % saturated fatty acids (SFA), 10 % polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), 43 % monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), 10 % protein and 25 % carbohydrates]. Serial blood test analyzing lipid fractions were drawn at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h during postprandial state. Postprandial triglycerides (TG) concentration at any point >2.5 mmol/L (220 mg/dL) has been established as undesirable response. We explored the dynamic response in 57 non-diabetic, 364 prediabetic and 581 type 2 diabetic patients. Additionally, the postprandial response was evaluated according to basal insulin resistance subgroups in patients non-diabetic and diabetic without pharmacological treatment (N = 642). Prevalence of undesirable postprandial TG was 35 % in non-diabetic, 48 % in prediabetic and 59 % in diabetic subgroup, respectively (p postprandial response compared with those non-diabetic patients (p postprandial response of TG compared with those patients with muscle-IR or without any insulin-resistance respectively (p postprandial response increases progressively according to non-diabetic, prediabetic and type 2 diabetic state and it is higher in patients with liver insulin-resistance. To identify this subgroup of patients is important to treat more intensively in order to avoid future cardiometabolic complications.

  2. BET bromodomain proteins and epigenetic regulation of inflammation: implications for type 2 diabetes and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Dequina A; Andrieu, Guillaume; Strissel, Katherine J; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S; Denis, Gerald V

    2017-01-01

    Chronic inflammation drives pathologies associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and breast cancer. Obesity-driven inflammation may explain increased risk and mortality of breast cancer with T2D reported in the epidemiology literature. Therapeutic approaches to target inflammation in both T2D and cancer have so far fallen short of the expected improvements in disease pathogenesis or outcomes. The targeting of epigenetic regulators of cytokine transcription and cytokine signaling offers one promising, untapped approach to treating diseases driven by inflammation. Recent work has deeply implicated the Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal domain (BET) proteins, which are acetylated histone "readers", in epigenetic regulation of inflammation. This review focuses on inflammation associated with T2D and breast cancer, and the possibility of targeting BET proteins as an approach to regulating inflammation in the clinic. Understanding inflammation in the context of BET protein regulation may provide a basis for designing promising therapeutics for T2D and breast cancer.

  3. Acute effects of pomegranate extract on postprandial lipaemia, vascular function and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Aarati Susan; Capel-Williams, Gabriella M; Berry, Sarah E E; Hall, Wendy L

    2012-12-01

    We investigated whether a test drink enriched in pomegranate polyphenols, consumed with a high-fat meal, can reduce postprandial lipaemia and improve vascular function and blood pressure compared to placebo. Nineteen young, healthy men completed a randomized, controlled crossover trial. The active drink (containing a pomegranate extract) was consumed during a high-fat meal (ET-DUR) or 15 min before (ET-PRE), and the placebo drink (no pomegranate extract) was consumed during the high-fat meal (CONTROL). Postprandial lipaemia was assessed by venous plasma TAG 0-2 h, and capillary plasma TAG 0-4 h. Blood pressure and digital volume pulse, to measure reflection index (DVP-RI) and stiffness index (DVP-SI), were monitored at baseline, 2 and 4 h. There was no inhibition of postprandial lipaemia by the active drink compared to CONTROL. ET-PRE caused a greater increase in the venous plasma TAG at 2 h compared to CONTROL and ET-DUR (treatment effect P = 0.001). The incremental area under the curve 0-4 h for capillary plasma TAG was not significantly different between treatments. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased in the ET-PRE and ET-DUR groups to a lesser extent than the CONTROL group (treatment effect P = 0.041). There were no treatment effects for DVP-RI, DVP-SI or diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, the consumption of a single drink containing ET-rich pomegranate extract did not decrease postprandial plasma TAG concentrations, but suppressed the postprandial increase in SBP following the high-fat meal.

  4. Postprandial lipaemia does not affect resting haemodynamic responses but does influence cardiovascular reactivity to dynamic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Chowienczyk, Philip J; Sanders, Thomas A B

    2010-09-01

    Postprandial lipaemia impairs endothelial function, possibly by changes in oxidative stress, but whether this affects cardiac output and/or systemic vascular resistance (SVR) at rest and in response to dynamic exercise remains uncertain. The present study set out to investigate the effects of a high-fat meal (HFM) v. a low-fat, high-carbohydrate meal (HCM) on cardiac output and SVR. A HFM (50 g fat) and an isoenergetic HCM (5 g fat) were randomly fed to thirty healthy adults using a crossover design. Cardiac output, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) were measured, and stroke volume and SVR were calculated over a 3 h rest following the meal, during exercise 3 h postprandially and for 45 min post-exercise. Blood samples were collected at fasting, 3 h postprandially and immediately post-exercise. Plasma TAG increased by 63.8 % 3 h following the HFM, and NEFA fell by 94.1% 3 h after the HCM. There was a 9.8% rise in plasma 8-isoprostane-F2alpha concentration following the HFM, and a 6.2% fall following the HCM. Cardiac output increased postprandially, but the difference between meals at rest or exercise was not statistically significant. The HFM resulted in a 3.2 mmHg (95% CI 0.7, 5.7) smaller increase in exercise mean arterial BP compared with the HCM due to a greater fall in exercise SVR. Postprandial lipaemia induced by a HFM does not affect cardiac output and/or SVR at rest, but it blunts the increase in BP during exercise.

  5. Elevated fasting and postprandial C-terminal telopeptide after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodi, Negar; Alaghband-Zadeh, Jamshid; Cross, Gemma F; Werling, Malin; Fändriks, Lars; Docherty, Neil G; Olbers, Torsten; Dew, Tracy; Sherwood, Roy A; Vincent, Royce P; le Roux, Carel W

    2017-07-01

    Background Roux-en-Y gastric bypass increases circulating bile acid concentrations, known mediators of postprandial suppression of markers of bone resorption. Long-term data, however, indicate that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass confers an increased risk of bone loss on recipients. Methods Thirty-six obese individuals, median age 44 (26-64) with median body mass index at baseline of 42.5 (40.4-46) were studied before and 15 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. After an overnight fast, patients received a 400 kcal mixed meal. Blood samples were collected premeal then at 30-min periods for 120 min. Pre and postmeal samples were analysed for total bile acids, parathyroid hormone and C-terminal telopeptide. Results Body weight loss post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was associated with a median 4.9-fold increase in peak postprandial total bile acid concentration, and a median 2.4-fold increase in cumulative food evoked bile acid response. Median fasting parathyroid hormone, postprandial reduction in parathyroid hormone and total parathyroid hormone release over 120 min remained unchanged after surgery. After surgery, median fasting C-terminal telopeptide increased 2.3-fold, peak postprandial concentrations increased 3.8-fold and total release was increased 1.9-fold. Conclusions Fasting and postprandial total bile acids and C-terminal telopeptide are increased above reference range after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. These changes occur in spite of improved vitamin D status with supplementation. These results suggest that post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass increases in total bile acids do not effectively oppose an ongoing resorptive signal operative along the gut-bone axis. Serial measurement of C-terminal telopeptide may be of value as a risk marker for long-term skeletal pathology in patients post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  6. TM6SF2 rs58542926 variant affects postprandial lipoprotein metabolism and glucose homeostasis in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Giovanni; Cipolla, Ugo; Cassader, Maurizio; Pinach, Silvia; Saba, Francesca; De Michieli, Franco; Paschetta, Elena; Bongiovanni, Daria; Framarin, Luciana; Leone, Nicola; Berrutti, Mara; Rosina, Floriano; Corvisieri, Stefania; Molinaro, Federica; Sircana, Antonio; Gambino, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    Mechanisms underlying the opposite effects of transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) rs58542926 C>T polymorphism on liver injury and cardiometabolic risk in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are unclear. We assessed the impact of this polymorphism on postprandial lipoprotein metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and nutrient oxidation in NAFLD. Sixty nonobese nondiabetic normolipidemic biopsy-proven NAFLD patients and 60 matched controls genotyped for TM6SF2 C>T polymorphism underwent: indirect calorimetry; an oral fat tolerance test with measurement of plasma lipoprotein subfractions, adipokines, and incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); and an oral glucose tolerance test with minimal model analysis of glucose homeostasis. The TM6SF2 T-allele was associated with higher hepatic and adipose insulin resistance, impaired pancreatic β-cell function and incretin effect, and higher muscle insulin sensitivity and whole-body fat oxidation rate. Compared with the TM6SF2 C-allele, the T-allele entailed lower postprandial lipemia and nefaemia, a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile, and a postprandial cholesterol (Chol) redistribution from smaller atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions to larger intestinal and hepatic VLDL1 subfractions. Postprandial plasma VLDL1-Chol response independently predicted the severity of liver histology. In conclusion, the TM6SF2 C>T polymorphism affects nutrient oxidation, glucose homeostasis, and postprandial lipoprotein, adipokine, and GIP responses to fat ingestion independently of fasting values. These differences may contribute to the dual and opposite effect of this polymorphism on liver injury and cardiometabolic risk in NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Dietary oil composition differentially modulates intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal derived endotoxin and the subsequent endotoxemia can be considered major predisposing factors for diseases such as atherosclerosis, sepsis, obesity and diabetes. Dietary fat has been shown to increase postprandial endotoxemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different dietary oils on intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia using swine as a model. We hypothesized that oils rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA would augment, while oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA would attenuate intestinal endotoxin transport and circulating concentrations. Methods Postprandial endotoxemia was measured in twenty four pigs following a porridge meal made with either water (Control, fish oil (FO, vegetable oil (VO or coconut oil (CO. Blood was collected at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours postprandial and measured for endotoxin. Furthermore, ex vivo ileum endotoxin transport was assessed using modified Ussing chambers and intestines were treated with either no oil or 12.5% (v/v VO, FO, cod liver oil (CLO, CO or olive oil (OO. Ex vivo mucosal to serosal endotoxin transport permeability (Papp was then measured by the addition of fluorescent labeled-lipopolysaccharide. Results Postprandial serum endotoxin concentrations were increased after a meal rich in saturated fatty acids and decreased with higher n-3 PUFA intake. Compared to the no oil control, fish oil and CLO which are rich in n-3 fatty acids reduced ex vivo endotoxin Papp by 50% (P  Conclusion Overall, these results indicate that saturated and n-3 PUFA differentially regulate intestinal epithelial endotoxin transport. This may be associated with fatty acid regulation of intestinal membrane lipid raft mediated permeability.

  8. Redox homeostasis in stomach medium by foods: The Postprandial Oxidative Stress Index (POSI) for balancing nutrition and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, Joseph; Selhub, Jacob; Shpaizer, Adi; Rabkin, Boris; Shacham, Inbal; Tirosh, Oren

    2017-08-01

    Red-meat lipid peroxidation in the stomach results in postprandial oxidative stress (POS) which is characterized by the generation of a variety of reactive cytotoxic aldehydes including malondialdehyde (MDA). MDA is absorbed in the blood system reacts with cell proteins to form adducts resulting in advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs), producing dysfunctional proteins and cellular responses. The pathological consequences of ALEs tissue damage include inflammation and increased risk for many chronic diseases that are associated with a Western-type diet. In earlier studies we used the simulated gastric fluid (SGF) condition to show that the in vitro generation of MDA from red meat closely resembles that in human blood after consumption the same amount of meat. In vivo and in vitro MDA generations were similarly suppressed by polyphenol-rich beverages (red wine and coffee) consumed with the meal. The present study uses the in vitro SGF to assess the capacity of more than 50 foods of plant origin to suppress red meat peroxidation and formation of MDA. The results were calculated as reducing POS index (rPOSI) which represents the capacity in percent of 100g of the food used to inhibit lipid peroxidation of 200g red-meat a POSI enhancer (ePOSI). The index permitted to extrapolate the need of rPOSI from a food alone or in ensemble such Greek salad, to neutralize an ePOSI in stomach medium, (ePOS-rPOSI=0). The correlation between the rPOSI and polyphenols in the tested foods was R 2 =0.75. The Index was validated by comparison of the predicted rPOSI for a portion of Greek salad or red-wine to real inhibition of POS enhancers. The POS Index permit to better balancing nutrition for human health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Redox homeostasis in stomach medium by foods: The Postprandial Oxidative Stress Index (POSI for balancing nutrition and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kanner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Red-meat lipid peroxidation in the stomach results in postprandial oxidative stress (POS which is characterized by the generation of a variety of reactive cytotoxic aldehydes including malondialdehyde (MDA. MDA is absorbed in the blood system reacts with cell proteins to form adducts resulting in advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs, producing dysfunctional proteins and cellular responses. The pathological consequences of ALEs tissue damage include inflammation and increased risk for many chronic diseases that are associated with a Western-type diet. In earlier studies we used the simulated gastric fluid (SGF condition to show that the in vitro generation of MDA from red meat closely resembles that in human blood after consumption the same amount of meat. In vivo and in vitro MDA generations were similarly suppressed by polyphenol-rich beverages (red wine and coffee consumed with the meal. The present study uses the in vitro SGF to assess the capacity of more than 50 foods of plant origin to suppress red meat peroxidation and formation of MDA. The results were calculated as reducing POS index (rPOSI which represents the capacity in percent of 100 g of the food used to inhibit lipid peroxidation of 200 g red-meat a POSI enhancer (ePOSI. The index permitted to extrapolate the need of rPOSI from a food alone or in ensemble such Greek salad, to neutralize an ePOSI in stomach medium, (ePOS–rPOSI=0. The correlation between the rPOSI and polyphenols in the tested foods was R2=0.75. The Index was validated by comparison of the predicted rPOSI for a portion of Greek salad or red-wine to real inhibition of POS enhancers. The POS Index permit to better balancing nutrition for human health.

  10. An additional bolus of rapid-acting insulin to normalise postprandial cardiovascular risk factors following a high-carbohydrate high-fat meal in patients with type 1 diabetes: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew D; Walker, Mark; Ajjan, Ramzi A; Birch, Karen M; Gonzalez, Javier T; West, Daniel J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate an additional rapid-acting insulin bolus on postprandial lipaemia, inflammation and pro-coagulation following high-carbohydrate high-fat feeding in people with type 1 diabetes. A total of 10 males with type 1 diabetes [HbA 1c 52.5 ± 5.9 mmol/mol (7.0% ± 0.5%)] underwent three conditions: (1) a low-fat (LF) meal with normal bolus insulin, (2), a high-fat (HF) meal with normal bolus insulin and (3) a high-fat meal with normal bolus insulin with an additional 30% insulin bolus administered 3-h post-meal (HFA). Meals had identical carbohydrate and protein content and bolus insulin dose determined by carbohydrate-counting. Blood was sampled periodically for 6-h post-meal and analysed for triglyceride, non-esterified-fatty acids, apolipoprotein B48, glucagon, tumour necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, human tissue factor activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Continuous glucose monitoring captured interstitial glucose responses. Triglyceride concentrations following LF remained similar to baseline, whereas triglyceride levels following HF were significantly greater throughout the 6-h observation period. The additional insulin bolus (HFA) normalised triglyceride similarly to low fat 3-6 h following the meal. HF was associated with late postprandial elevations in tumour necrosis factor alpha, whereas LF and HFA was not. Fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue factor pathway levels were similar between conditions. Additional bolus insulin 3 h following a high-carbohydrate high-fat meal prevents late rises in postprandial triglycerides and tumour necrosis factor alpha, thus improving cardiovascular risk profile.

  11. Effects of soy or milk protein during a high-fat feeding challenge on oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipids in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christina G; Brown, Blakely D; Dufner, Danielle; Thorland, William G

    2006-03-01

    Soy isoflavones may impede atherogenic processes associated with cardiovascular disease. Research suggests that the postprandial generation of TG-rich remnants contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. The purpose of the current study was to determine if 39 g soy (85 mg aglycone isoflavones, treatment) compared with 40 g milk protein (0 mg aglycone isoflavones, control) in combination with a high-fat meal can modify postprandial, atherogenic-associated events and biomarkers for oxidative stress, inflammation, and thrombosis. Fifteen healthy men (20-47 yr) participated in a double-blind cross-over meal-challenge study occurring on two nonconsecutive days. The study meals consisted of two high-fat apple muffins consumed with either a soy or milk shake (229 mL, 41% fat, 41% carbohydrate, and 18% protein). Blood samples were obtained at baseline (fasted) and hours two, four, and six postprandial. Plasma TG significantly increased in both treatment and control meal challenges compared with baseline. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between treatment (soy) and control (milk) for ex vivo copper-induced LDL oxidation, serum C-reactive protein, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum fibrinogen, or plasma lipids (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, TG). IL-6-concentrations significantly decreased as a function of time during either meal challenge (P = 0.005). These data suggest that consumption of soy or milk protein in conjunction with a high-fat meal does not acutely modify postprandial oxidative stress, inflammation, or plasma lipid concentrations in young, healthy men.

  12. Endometriosis and possible inflammation markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hsing Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Infiltration of peritoneal macrophages and local proinflammatory mediators in the peritoneal microenvironment affect ovarian function and pelvic anatomy leading to the symptoms and signs of endometriosis. The identification of a noninvasive marker for endometriosis will facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. This review provides an overview of local microenvironmental inflammation and systemic inflammation biomarkers in endometriosis.

  13. Diets high in palmitic acid (16:0), lauric and myristic acids (12:0 + 14:0), or oleic acid (18:1) do not alter postprandial or fasting plasma homocysteine and inflammatory markers in healthy Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Phooi Tee; Ng, Tony Kock Wai; Lee, Verna Kar Mun; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2011-12-01

    Dietary fat type is known to modulate the plasma lipid profile, but its effects on plasma homocysteine and inflammatory markers are unclear. We investigated the effects of high-protein Malaysian diets prepared with palm olein, coconut oil (CO), or virgin olive oil on plasma homocysteine and selected markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in healthy adults. A randomized-crossover intervention with 3 dietary sequences of 5 wk each was conducted in 45 healthy subjects. The 3 test fats, namely palmitic acid (16:0)-rich palm olein (PO), lauric and myristic acid (12:0 + 14:0)-rich CO, and oleic acid (18:1)-rich virgin olive oil (OO), were incorporated at two-thirds of 30% fat calories into high-protein Malaysian diets. No significant differences were observed in the effects of the 3 diets on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and the inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interferon-γ. Diets prepared with PO and OO had comparable nonhypercholesterolemic effects; the postprandial total cholesterol for both diets and all fasting lipid indexes for the OO diet were significantly lower (P acids prepared with either PO or CO, and an OO diet that was high in oleic acid, did not alter postprandial or fasting plasma concentrations of tHcy and selected inflammatory markers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00941837.

  14. PET imaging of inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscombe, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases are common place and often chronic. Most inflammatory cells have increased uptake of glucose which is enhanced in the presence of local cytokines. Therefore, imaging glucose metabolism by the means of 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) holds significant promise in imaging focal inflammation. Most of the work published involved small series of patients with either vasculitis, sarcoid or rheumatoid arthritis. It would appear that FDG PET is a simple and effective technique to identify inflammatory tissue in these conditions. There is even some work to suggest that by comparing baseline and early post therapy scans clinical outcome can be predicted. This would appear to be true with vasculitis as well as retroperitoneal fibrosis. The number of patients in each study is small but the evidence is compelling enough to recommend FDG PET imaging in the routine care of these patients.

  15. Inflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Johnny; Kern, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes causes a number of metabolic and physiologic abnormalities in the retina, but which of these abnormalities contribute to recognized features of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is less clear. Many of the molecular and physiologic abnormalities that have been found to develop in the retina in diabetes are consistent with inflammation. Moreover, a number of anti-inflammatory therapies have been found to significantly inhibit development of different aspects of DR in animal models. Herein, we review the inflammatory mediators and their relationship to early and late DR, and discuss the potential of anti-inflammatory approaches to inhibit development of different stages of the retinopathy. We focus primarily on information derived from in vivo studies, supplementing with information from in vitro studies were important. PMID:21635964

  16. Role of inflammation in the aging bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmagid, Samir M; Barbe, Mary F; Safadi, Fayez F

    2015-02-15

    Chronic inflammation in aging is characterized by increased inflammatory cytokines, bone loss, decreased adaptation, and defective tissue repair in response to injury. Aging leads to inherent changes in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation, resulting in impaired osteoblastogenesis. Also, the pro-inflammatory cytokines increase with aging, leading to enhanced myelopoiesis and osteoclastogenesis. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) play pivotal roles in osteoblast differentiation, the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and subsequent bone repair. However, during aging, little is known about the role of macrophages in the differentiation and function of MSC and HSC. Aged mammals have higher circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines than young adults, supporting the hypothesis of increased inflammation with aging. This review will aid in the understanding of the potential role(s) of pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages in differentiation and function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in relation to aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of different fractions of whey protein on postprandial lipid and hormone responses in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, L.S.; Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hartvigsen, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Exacerbated postprandial lipid responses are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Dietary proteins influence postprandial lipemia differently, and whey protein has a preferential lipid-lowering effect. We compared the effects of different whey protein fractions...... in the incremental area under the curve over the 480-min period.Conclusions:A supplement of four different whey protein fractions to a fat-rich meal had similar effects on postprandial triglyceride responses in type 2 diabetic subjects. Whey isolate and whey hydrolysate caused a higher insulin response...... on postprandial lipid and hormone responses added to a high-fat meal in type 2 diabetic subjects.Subjects/Methods:A total of 12 type 2 diabetic subjects ingested four isocaloric test meals in randomized order. The test meals contained 100¿g of butter and 45¿g of carbohydrate in combination with 45¿g of whey...

  18. Effects of growth hormone deficiency and recombinant growth hormone therapy on postprandial gallbladder motility and cholecystokinin release.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschetta, A.; Twickler, M.; Rehfeld, J.F.; Ooteghem, N.A. van; Castro Cabezas, M.; Portincasa, P.; Berge-Henegouwen, G.P. van; Erpecum, K.J. van

    2004-01-01

    In addition to cholecystokinin, other hormones have been suggested to be involved in regulation of postprandial gallbladder contraction. We aimed to evaluate effects of growth hormone (GH) on gallbladder contractility and cholecystokinin release. Gallbladder and gastric emptying (by ultrasound) and

  19. Effect of dairy calcium or supplementary calcium intake on postprandial fat metabolism, appetite, and subsequent energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, J.K.; Nielsen, S.; Holst, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: High calcium intake has been shown to increase fecal fat excretion. Objective: Our aim was to examine whether a high calcium intake from dairy products or from supplements affects postprandial fat metabolism and appetite through fat malabsorption. Design: Four different isocaloric meals...... postprandially. Results: Dairy calcium significantly diminished the postprandial lipid response. The baseline adjusted area under the curve for chylomicron triacylglycerol was approximate to 17% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.02) and approximate to 19% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.007) than after the LC meal...... and approximate to 15% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.0495) and approximate to 17% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.02) than after the Suppl meal. No consistent effects of calcium on appetite sensation, or on energy intake at the subsequent meal, or on the postprandial responses of cholecystokinin, glucagon...

  20. The effect of statin alone or in combination with ezetimibe on postprandial lipoprotein composition in obese metabolic syndrome patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajer, Gideon R.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; van Vark-van der Zee, Leonie C.; Visseren, Frank L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia are essential features of metabolic syndrome. Statins decrease fasting lipid levels but fail to reduce fat load induced hypertriglyceridemia. We established whether ezetimibe combined with simvastatin differently influences post fat load

  1. Leptin increases skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase and postprandial lipid metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoo, William T; Stob, Nicole R; Ammon, Stefen; Levin, Nancy; Eckel, Robert H

    2011-03-01

    The ability of leptin to preserve lean tissue during weight loss may be in part due to differences in nutrient partitioning. Because lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a key role in partitioning lipid nutrients, this study was conducted to test the hypothesis that leptin would modify the tissue-specific regulation of LPL and result in increased lipid oxidation and decreased storage. The effects of daily intraperitoneal leptin injections (2 mg/kg body weight) over 2 weeks on LPL activity and postprandial lipid metabolism were tested in both wild-type (WT), leptin-deficient ob/ob obese mice and mice pair fed to the leptin-treated mice. On the experimental day, mice were given food by gavage, blood was drawn periodically, and adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were harvested for measurements of LPL activity at 240 minutes. After 2 weeks of leptin administration, skeletal muscle LPL (SMLPL) activity was increased in leptin-treated compared with pair-fed (P = .012) and WT (P = .002) mice. There was no effect of leptin or pair feeding on postprandial adipose tissue LPL activity. In ob/ob mice, leptin treatment normalized the decrease in postprandial free fatty acid concentration (P = .066). Leptin had no effect on either the area under the triglyceride (TG) excursion or the integrated area under the TG excursion in WT mice. In ob/ob mice, however, the TG excursion was lower in the leptin-treated than the pair-fed mice by area under the TG excursion (P = .012) and was lower than in the WT mice by integrated area under the TG excursion (P = .027). As expected, 2 weeks of leptin treatment decreased body weight in both the WT and ob/ob mice (-2.6% and -10.4%, respectively). Leptin treatment increased SMLPL, an effect that may have contributed to the leptin-induced weight loss. The leptin-induced decreased postprandial TG excursion in ob/ob mice suggests that leptin acts to augment clearance of postprandial TG-rich lipoprotein lipid and that this increase may in part be secondary

  2. Short term aerobic exercise training increases postprandial pancreatic polypeptide but not peptide YY concentrations in obese individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaley, Jill A.; Heden, Timothy D.; Liu, Ying; Whaley-Connell, Adam T.; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C.; Fairchild, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Short-term exercise training improves glycemic control, but the effect of short-term training on postprandial satiety peptide responses or perceived satiety remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that short-term aerobic exercise training (15 days) would alter postprandial pancreatic and gut peptide [pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and peptide YY (PYY)] responses and perceived appetite and satiety in obese individuals. Subjects Thirteen healthy obese men and women (age: 42±2 y; BMI: 3...

  3. Effect of Miglitol, an α-Glucosidase Inhibitor, on Postprandial Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    KANEKO Yukiyo; KUBOKI Koji; HIROI Naoki; WATANABE Takehiko; NISHIMURA Chiaki; YOSHINO Gen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The effects of miglitol on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with diet alone. Subjects and Methods: A meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed in 26 diabetic patients before and 2 weeks after 150 mg/day miglitol treatment, with the second MTT performed in patients after they had taken a dose of 50 mg miglitol. Results: Miglitol treatment decreased postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin levels 30...

  4. Postprandial lipaemia induces an acute decrease of insulin sensitivity in healthy men independently of plasma NEFA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, M T; Niederwanger, A; Kranebitter, M; Tautermann, C; Ciardi, C; Tatarczyk, T; Patsch, J R

    2006-07-01

    Typical Western diets cause postprandial lipaemia for 18 h per day. We tested the hypothesis that postprandial lipaemia decreases insulin sensitivity. Employing a randomised crossover design, we administered two types of virtually isocaloric meals to ten healthy volunteers on two separate occasions. The meals (Meals 1 and 2) were both designed to produce a rise in triglycerides, but only Meal 1 generated a rise in NEFA, too. Insulin sensitivity, as quantified by an IVGTT with minimal model analysis, was calculated postabsorptively at 08.00 h and postprandially at 13.00 h, i.e. 3 h after meal ingestion. Triglycerides rose from 0.91+/-0.31 mmol/l postabsorptively to 2.08+/-0.70 mmol/l postprandially with Meal 1 (p=0.005) and from 0.92+/-0.41 to 1.71+/-0.79 mmol/l with Meal 2 (p=0.005). Neither the triglyceride levels at 13.00 h, nor the post-meal AUCs for triglycerides were statistically different between Meal 1 and Meal 2. NEFA rose from 0.44+/-0.17 mmol/l postabsorptively to 0.69+/-0.16 mmol/l postprandially with Meal 1 (p=0.005) and showed no significant change with Meal 2 (0.46+/-0.31 mmol/l postabsorptively vs 0.36+/-0.32 mmol/l postprandially, p=0.09). Both the NEFA level at 13.00 h and the post-meal AUC for NEFA were significantly higher after Meal 1 than Meal 2. Compared with the postabsorptive state, insulin sensitivity decreased postprandially after each of the two meals to a comparable degree (Meal 1: -53%, p=0.02; Meal 2: -45%, p=0.005). Our study reveals a drop in insulin sensitivity during postprandial lipaemia and strongly suggests that decreased insulin sensitivity is brought about by elevated plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins independently of plasma NEFA levels.

  5. Agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL cholesterol measured with 3 methods in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, Merete

    2011-01-01

    LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is a modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor. We used 3 LDL-C methods to study the agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL-C in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients.......LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is a modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor. We used 3 LDL-C methods to study the agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL-C in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients....

  6. Different postprandial lipid metabolism and insulin resistance between non-diabetic patients with and without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akihiro; Monma, Yuto; Kajitani, Shoko; Kozu, Katsuya; Ikeda, Shohei; Noda, Kazuki; Nakajima, Sota; Endo, Hideaki; Takahashi, Tohru; Nozaki, Eiji

    2015-11-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia have been thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has an impact on lipid metabolism, however, little is known about the relationship between the postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism in normoglycemic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). To compare the postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism in normoglycemic patients with and without CAD, a total of 36 normoglycemic patients: 19 patients with stable CAD (CAD group, age 60.2±11.3 years) and 17 patients without CAD (Non-CAD group, age 60.4±9.6 years) were loaded with a high-fat and high-glucose test meal, and the changes in serum level of the lipid and glucose parameters were monitored before and 0, 2, 4, and 6h later. In the Non-CAD group, postprandial serum levels of triglycerides (TG) and remnant-like particle cholesterol increased significantly and reached peak levels at the 4th hour and decreased significantly at the 6th hour of observation, whereas those levels in CAD group kept rising during 6h of observation. Although there was no significant difference in the area under the curves (AUCs) for the postprandial plasma glucose levels between CAD and Non-CAD group, the AUCs for the postprandial plasma insulin and C-peptide levels were significantly higher in the CAD group than in the Non-CAD group. The AUCs for postprandial TG levels showed good correlation with those for postprandial plasma insulin and C-peptide levels (insulin: r=0.455, ppostprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia may have a close relationship in CAD patients without DM and might play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis even before the onset of diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Resolution of inflammation: mechanisms and opportunity for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Ana L; Sousa, Lirlândia P; Lucas, Christopher D; Rossi, Adriano G; Pinho, Vanessa; Teixeira, Mauro M

    2013-08-01

    Inflammation is a beneficial host reaction to tissue damage and has the essential primary purpose of restoring tissue homeostasis. Inflammation plays a major role in containing and resolving infection and may also occur under sterile conditions. The cardinal signs of inflammation dolor, calor, tumor and rubor are intrinsically associated with events including vasodilatation, edema and leukocyte trafficking into the site of inflammation. If uncontrolled or unresolved, inflammation itself can lead to further tissue damage and give rise to chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity with eventual loss of organ function. It is now evident that the resolution of inflammation is an active continuous process that occurs during an acute inflammatory episode. Successful resolution requires activation of endogenous programs with switch from production of pro-inflammatory towards pro-resolving molecules, such as specific lipid mediators and annexin A1, and the non-phlogistic elimination of granulocytes by apoptosis with subsequent removal by surrounding macrophages. These processes ensure rapid restoration of tissue homeostasis. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of resolution of inflammation, highlighting the pharmacological strategies that may interfere with the molecular pathways which control leukocyte survival and clearance. Such strategies have proved beneficial in several pre-clinical models of inflammatory diseases, suggesting that pharmacological modulation of the resolution process may be useful for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene Polymorphism, S447X, on Postprandial Triacylglycerol and Glucose Response to Sequential Meal Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatwan, Israa M; Minihane, Anne-Marie; Williams, Christine M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Jackson, Kim G; Vimaleswaran, Karani S

    2016-03-18

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key rate-limiting enzyme for the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in chylomicrons and very low-density lipoprotein. Given that postprandial assessment of lipoprotein metabolism may provide a more physiological perspective of disturbances in lipoprotein homeostasis compared to assessment in the fasting state, we have investigated the influence of two commonly studied LPL polymorphisms (rs320, HindIII; rs328, S447X) on postprandial lipaemia, in 261 participants using a standard sequential meal challenge. S447 homozygotes had lower fasting HDL-C (p = 0.015) and a trend for higher fasting TAG (p = 0.057) concentrations relative to the 447X allele carriers. In the postprandial state, there was an association of the S447X polymorphism with postprandial TAG and glucose, where S447 homozygotes had 12% higher TAG area under the curve (AUC) (p = 0.037), 8.4% higher glucose-AUC (p = 0.006) and 22% higher glucose-incremental area under the curve (IAUC) (p = 0.042). A significant gene-gender interaction was observed for fasting TAG (p = 0.004), TAG-AUC (Pinteraction = 0.004) and TAG-IAUC (Pinteraction = 0.016), where associations were only evident in men. In conclusion, our study provides novel findings of an effect of LPL S447X polymorphism on the postprandial glucose and gender-specific impact of the polymorphism on fasting and postprandial TAG concentrations in response to sequential meal challenge in healthy participants.

  9. Acute differential effects of milk-derived dietary proteins on postprandial lipaemia in obese non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer-Jensen, J; Hartvigsen, M L; Mortensen, L S; Astrup, A; de Vrese, M; Holst, J J; Thomsen, C; Hermansen, K

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single-blinded clinical intervention study with crossover design. A total of 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 44-74, BMI: 30-41.4 kg m(-2)) were included. On 4 different days the subjects ingested a high-fat meal with the following energy distribution: 66% energy from fat (100 g of butter), 15% of energy from carbohydrate (90 g of white wheat bread) and 19% of energy from protein (45 g of pure protein). Our primary variable was plasma triglyceride measured in the 8-h postprandial period. Secondarily, retinyl palmitate, non-esterified free fatty acids, glucose, insulin, glucagon, GLP-1 and GIP, active and total grehlin and cholecystokinin were measured. We observed no statistically significant (P=0.8) differences between meals on our primary variable that is, triglycerides. Whey hydrolysate was associated with a significantly (P=0.02) smaller postprandial suppression of non-esterified free fatty acids compared with the other dietary proteins. We did not observe significant differences in postprandial lipaemia to the four milk-derived dietary proteins. Whey hydrolysate caused less postprandial suppression of free fatty acids.

  10. A Model of NEFA Dynamics with Focus on the Postprandial State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelic, K.; Hallgreen, Christine E.; Colding-Jorgensen, M.

    2009-01-01

    lipolysis results in a net export of NEFA from adipose tissue to other tissues. Postprandially, the rise in insulin results in: Decreased lipolysis; a higher rate of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity; and decreased NEFA uptake and reesterification by adipose tissue stimulation of reesterification....... The result is a drop in plasma NEFA after a carbohydrate containing meal. When insulin returns to postabsorptive levels, a rebound in plasma NEFA often occurs. This rebound is due to a restoration of lipolysis, a decrease in NEFA reesterification by adipose tissue and an increased LPL-as insulin activates...... dynamics. Insulin is the major regulator of NEFA metabolism in the postprandial state. Plasma NEFA levels are thus highly dependent on the insulin concentration, the insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue, and the maximal lipolytic rate. In the postabsorptive state, e.g., at low insulin, adipose tissue...

  11. Effects of Smoking Versus Nonsmoking on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Heavy Smokers Compared With Nonsmokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Magnus F; Bagger, Jonatan I; Lund, Asger

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies suggest that smoking increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that smoking-derived nicotine and ensuing activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the gastrointestinal tract and the autonomic nervous system would have a detrimental effect...... meal intake) and one without smoking. Twelve age-, sex-, and BMI-matched nonsmokers underwent an identical meal test without smoking. RESULTS: The smokers were characterized by higher fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon compared with the nonsmokers. Among smokers, cigarette smoking before...... in association with meal intake decreases the postprandial plasma glucose concentrations, possibly through decreased gastric emptying, and that elevated fasting glucagon concentrations rather than smoking-induced alterations in postprandial glucose and hormone responses may be associated with the elevated risk...

  12. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1 inhibition perturbs postprandial gut hormone release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua V Lin

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1 is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. However, the degree of DGAT1 inhibition required for metabolic benefits is unclear. Here we show that partial DGAT1 deficiency in mice suppressed postprandial triglyceridemia, led to elevations in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY only following meals with very high lipid content, and did not protect from diet-induced obesity. Maximal DGAT1 inhibition led to enhanced GLP-1 and PYY secretion following meals with physiologically relevant lipid content. Finally, combination of DGAT1 inhibition with dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibition led to further enhancements in active GLP-1 in mice and dogs. The current study suggests that targeting DGAT1 to enhance postprandial gut hormone secretion requires maximal inhibition, and suggests combination with DPP-4i as a potential strategy to develop DGAT1 inhibitors for treatment of metabolic diseases.

  13. Recreational football practice attenuates postprandial lipaemia in normal and overweight individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Darren J; Bangsbo, Jens; Nassis, George P

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of playing football on postprandial lipaemia in normal and overweight individuals. METHODS: Fifteen (7 normal weight, age = 32.3 ± 6.0 years, BMI = 22.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2 and 8 overweight, age = 33.3 ± 5.5 years, BMI = 29.2 ± 3.2 kg/m2.......14 to - 0.88; ES = 0.68) groups in the FOOT compared to the CON. The postprandial incremental area under the curve for triglycerides was 31% lower in the normal weight group (ES = 0.79) for the FOOT compared to CON trial and a discernible trend was shown for the overweight group (22%; ES = 0.51). Two...

  14. Dietary macronutrients and feeding frequency affect fasting and postprandial concentrations of hormones involved in appetite regulation in adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbs, D C; Vester Boler, B M; Ridge, T K; Spears, J K; Graves, T K; Swanson, K S

    2010-12-01

    Identifying dietary effects on appetite-regulating hormones will enhance our understanding of appetite control. Before complex diets are tested, effects of specific macronutrients or feeding frequency should be identified. The objectives of this nutrition study were to identify differences in endocrine response with feeding frequency (Exp. 1) and after a single dose of a sole macronutrient (Exp. 2). A control diet supplying similar energy content from carbohydrate, protein, and fat was fed to maintain ideal BW. In Exp. 1, 8 healthy adult (1.9 ± 0.1 yr old) female hound cross dogs with an average BW of 22 kg (4.8 ± 0.8 BCS based on a 9-point scale) were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments (fed once or twice daily) in a crossover design. After a 14-d adaptation period, a blood sample was taken (10 mL) before feeding, and samples were collected every 2 h postprandially for 24 h. In Exp. 2, dogs were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. After a 6-d adaptation period, the normal meal on d 7 was replaced with a bolus of maltodextrin (50 g in water; CARB), canned chicken (50 g; PROT), lard (25 g; fat), or water (200 mL). A blood sample (10 mL) was taken at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, and 360 min postprandial. Total ghrelin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, and glucose concentrations were measured. Data were analyzed to compare changes from baseline and area under the curve (AUC) among treatments. In Exp. 1, all hormones were quite variable throughout the day, with a few insulin and GLP-1 differences because of feeding frequency. In Exp. 2, CARB produced a marked peak in glucose and insulin concentrations compared with PROT, fat, or water, resulting in increased glucose (P < 0.001) and insulin (P = 0.07) incremental AUC values. On the other hand, the fat treatment led to increased GLP-1 concentrations over time. Ghrelin AUC was not different among treatments. The circulating hormone data were highly

  15. Postprandial prolactin suppression appears absent in antipsychotic-treated male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, Klara; Broberg, Brian V; Bak, Nikolaj; Madsen, Anna; Mortensen, Henrik B; Søgaard, Birgitte; Szecsi, Pal B; Knop, Filip K; Lublin, Henrik; Ebdrup, Bjørn H

    2015-10-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common side-effect of antipsychotic treatment. Antipsychotics and hyperprolactinemia are both considered risk factors of metabolic disturbances and diabetes. Investigations on prolactin response to meal ingestion in antipsychotic-treated patients are missing. In a case-control design, 49 antipsychotic-treated, clinically stable, non-diabetic, schizophrenia spectrum male patients were compared with 93 healthy male controls by age (33.1, SD 7.4 vs. 32.9, SD 6.6 years), body mass index (26.2, SD 4.6 vs. 26.1, SD 3.9 kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (96.4, SD 13.0 vs. 96.7, SD 11.9 cm). Serum-prolactin was measured in the morning and 90 min after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (2268 kJ). Fasting prolactin levels varied considerably, and mean fasting prolactin levels did not significantly differ between patients and controls (12.33, SD 11.58 vs. 10.06, SD 8.67 ng/ml, p = 0.623). In the controls, postprandial serum prolactin was significantly reduced (Δ -2.53, SD 9.75 ng/ml, p = 0.016). In antipsychotic-treated patients postprandial serum prolactin tended to increase (Δ 2.62, SD 10.96 ng/ml, p = 0.081). Analyses of subgroups based on the prolactinogenic liability of their antipsychotic treatment indicated 22 to 65% higher postprandial prolactin levels with high and intermediate prolactinogenic antipsychotics. A physiological postprandial suppression of serum prolactin appears absent in antipsychotic-treated males. Marked variability in fasting prolactin levels may reflect individual variations in the diurnal cycle. Uniform acquisition procedures accounting for diurnal variation and food intake may enhance reliability of prolactin levels in antipsychotic-treated male patients. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Meal frequency differentially alters postprandial triacylglycerol and insulin concentrations in obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Heden, Tim; Liu, Ying; Sims, Lauren; Whaley-Connell, Adam T.; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C.; Kanaley, Jill A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare postprandial lipemia, oxidative stress, antioxidant activity, and insulinemia between a three and six isocaloric high carbohydrate meal frequency pattern in obese women. In a counterbalanced order eight obese women completed two, 12 h conditions in which they consumed 1500 calories (14% protein, 21% fat, and 65% carbohydrate) either as three 500 calorie liquid meals every 4 h or six 250 calorie liquid meals every 2 h. Blood samples were taken every 30 min ...

  17. Postprandial lipaemia and its relation to premature atherosclerosis in middle-aged men

    OpenAIRE

    Boquist, Susanna

    2000-01-01

    The present research programme was set up to investigate whether pertubations of the metabolism of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are related to premature atherosclerosis and to determine if treatment with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (atorvastatin) improves deranged alimentary lipaemia in postinfarction patients with combined hyperlipidaemia. The relation between plasma insulin and alimentary lipaemia was investigated as we...

  18. Exercise and postprandial lipaemia: effects on peripheral vascular function, oxidative stress and gastrointestinal transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Miriam; McClean, Conor; Davison, W Gareth; Murphy, H Marie; Trinick, Tom; Duly, Ellie; McLaughlin, Jim; Fogarty, Mark; Shafat, Amir

    2007-01-01

    Postprandial lipaemia may lead to an increase in oxidative stress, inducing endothelial dysfunction. Exercise can slow gastric emptying rates, moderating postprandial lipaemia. The purpose of this study was to determine if moderate exercise, prior to fat ingestion, influences gastrointestinal transit, lipaemia, oxidative stress and arterial wall function. Eight apparently healthy males (age 23.6 ± 2.8 yrs; height 181.4 ± 8.1 cm; weight 83.4 ± 16.2 kg; all data mean ± SD) participated in the randomised, crossover design, where (i) subjects ingested a high-fat meal alone (control), and (ii) ingested a high-fat meal, preceded by 1 h of moderate exercise. Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) was examined at baseline, post-exercise, and in the postprandial period. Gastric emptying was measured using the 13C-octanoic acid breath test. Measures of venous blood were obtained prior to and following exercise and at 2, 4 and 6 hours post-ingestion. PWV increased (6.5 ± 1.9 m/sec) at 2 (8.9 ± 1.7 m/sec) and 4 hrs (9.0 ± 1.6 m/sec) post-ingestion in the control group (time × group interaction, P postprandially (pooled exercise and control data, P < 0.05). There were no changes in gastric emptying, cholesterol, or C-reactive protein levels. These data suggest that acute exercise prior to the consumption of a high-fat meal has the potential to reduce vascular impairments. PMID:17973988

  19. SORT1 protective allele is associated with attenuated postprandial: lipaemia in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Kimberly E; Karlos, Angela E; Gnatiuk, Elizabeth A; Shearer, Jane; Reimer, Raylene A; Hittel, Dustin S

    2014-10-01

    Elevated levels of lipids and lipoproteins have strong genetic determinants and are recognized as key risk factors for atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease, particularly in the postprandial state. The aim of the study to determine whether young adults, when stratified by genotype at the rs646776 variant of the 1p13 locus, displayed differential postprandial responses to an oral fat tolerance test. Participants (n=30) received a high-fat mixed meal (91 g; 55% kcal from fat) after an overnight fast and a fat-exclusion meal (3.9 g; 6% kcal from fat) at 8 hours postprandially. Blood samples were obtained at t=0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours for lipoprotein analyses via nuclear magnetic resonance profiling. Carriers of the minor, protective allele (TC/CC) displayed lower fasting (TC/CC, 30.1±3.0 nmol/L versus TT, 48.8±5.1 nmol/L; Ppostprandial (TC/CC, 44.2±3.1 nmol/L versus TT, 57.0±4.5 nmol/L; P=0.03) very low-density lipoprotein and chylomicron particle number in addition to triglyceride content when compared with individuals homozygous for the major, risk allele (TT). We report a novel association between the SORT1 1p13 locus and extent of postprandial lipaemia. These results provide evidence of decreased exposure to atherogenic particles in carriers of the minor SORT1 allele, suggesting relative protection against cardiovascular disease when compared with TT homozygotes. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. The APOB insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs17240441) influences postprandial lipaemia in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Vimaleswaran, Karani Santhanakrishnan; Minihane, Anne M; Li, Yue; Gill, Rosalyn; Lovegrove, Julie A; Williams, Christine M; Jackson, Kim G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: \\ud Apolipoprotein (apo)B is the structural apoprotein of intestinally- and liver- derived lipoproteins and plays an important role in the transport of triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol. Previous studies have examined the association between the APOB insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism (rs17240441) and postprandial lipaemia in response to a single meal; however the findings have been inconsistent with studies often underpowered to detect genotype-lipaemia associations, f...

  1. Postprandial morphological response of the intestinal epithelium of the Burmese python (Python molurus).

    OpenAIRE

    Lignot, J.H.; Helmstetter, C.; Secor, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The postprandial morphological changes of the intestinal epithelium of Burmese pythons were examined using fasting pythons and at eight time points after feeding. In fasting pythons, tightly packed enterocytes possess very short microvilli and are arranged in a pseudostratified fashion. Enterocyte width increases by 23% within 24 h postfeeding, inducing significant increases in villus length and intestinal mass. By 6 days postfeeding, enterocyte volume had peaked, following as much as an 80% ...

  2. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Rehfeld, Jens F; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G

    2015-10-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with a similar composition were created using different processing conditions. The postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response to bread with a compact structure (flat bread, FB) was compared to bread with a porous structure (control bread, CB) in a randomized, crossover study with ten healthy male volunteers. Pasta (PA), with a very compact structure, was used as the control. The rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE), endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate (GCR) was calculated using stable isotopes. Furthermore, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, several intestinal hormones and bile acids were analyzed. The structure of FB was considerably more compact compared to CB, as confirmed by microscopy, XRT analysis (porosity) and density measurements. Consumption of FB resulted in lower peak glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (ns) responses and a slower initial RaE compared to CB. These variables were similar to the PA response, except for RaE which remained slower over a longer period after PA consumption. Interestingly, the GCR after FB was higher than expected based on the insulin response, indicating increased insulin sensitivity or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products.

  3. A Novel Selective PPARα Modulator (SPPARMα), K-877 (Pemafibrate), Attenuates Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairyo, Masami; Kobayashi, Takuya; Masuda, Daisaku; Kanno, Koutaro; Zhu, Yinghong; Okada, Takeshi; Koseki, Masahiro; Ohama, Tohru; Nishida, Makoto; Sakata, Yasushi; Yamashita, Shizuya

    2018-02-01

    Fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PHTG) are caused by the accumulation of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins and their remnants, which have atherogenic effects. Fibrates can improve fasting and PHTG; however, reduction of remnants is clinically needed to improve health outcomes. In the current study, we investigated the effects of a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator (SPPARMα), K-877 (Pemafibrate), on PHTG and remnant metabolism. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) only, or an HFD containing 0.0005% K-877 or 0.05% fenofibrate, from 8 to 12 weeks of age. After 4 weeks of feeding, we measured plasma levels of TG, free fatty acids (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, and apolipoprotein (apo) B-48/B-100 during fasting and after oral fat loading (OFL). Plasma lipoprotein profiles after OFL, which were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and fasting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity were compared among the groups. Both K-877 and fenofibrate suppressed body weight gain and fasting and postprandial TG levels and enhanced LPL activity in mice fed an HFD. As determined by HPLC, K-877 and fenofibrate significantly decreased the abundance of TG-rich lipoproteins, including remnants, in postprandial plasma. Both K-877 and fenofibrate decreased intestinal mRNA expression of ApoB and Npc1l1; however, hepatic expression of Srebp1c and Mttp was increased by fenofibrate but not by K-877.Hepatic mRNA expression of apoC-3 was decreased by K-877 but not by fenofibrate. K-877 may attenuate PHTG by suppressing the postprandial increase of chylomicrons and the accumulation of chylomicron remnants more effectively than fenofibrate.

  4. Effect of macronutrients, age, and obesity on 6- and 24-h postprandial glucose metabolism in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, Margarethe; Jordan, Erin T; Glushka, John; Kley, Saskia; Patil, Avinash; Waldron, Mark; Prestegard, James H; Ferguson, Duncan C; Wu, Shaoxiong; Olson, Darin E

    2011-12-01

    Obesity and age are risk factors for feline diabetes. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that age, long-term obesity, and dietary composition would lead to peripheral and hepatorenal insulin resistance, indicated by higher endogenous glucose production (EGP) in the fasted and postprandial state, higher blood glucose and insulin, and higher leptin, free thyroxine, and lower adiponectin concentrations. Using triple tracer-(2)H(2)O, [U-(13)C(3)] propionate, and [3,4-(13)C(2)] glucose infusion, and indirect calorimetry-we investigated carbohydrate and fat metabolic pathways in overnight-fasted neutered cats (13 young lean, 12 old lean, and 12 old obese), each fed three different diets (high protein with and without polyunsaturated fatty acids, and high carbohydrate) in a crossover design. EGP was lowest in fasted and postprandial obese cats despite peripheral insulin resistance, indicated by hyperinsulinemia. Gluconeogenesis was the most important pathway for EGP in all groups, but glycogen contributed significantly. Insulin and leptin concentrations were higher in old than in young lean cats; adiponectin was lowest in obese cats but surprisingly highest in lean old cats. Diet had little effect on metabolic parameters. We conclude that hepatorenal insulin resistance does not develop in the fasted or postprandial state, even in long-term obese cats, allowing the maintenance of euglycemia through lowering EGP. Glycogen plays a major role in EGP, especially in lean fasted cats, and in the postprandial state. Aging may predispose to insulin resistance, which is a risk factor for diabetes in cats. Mechanisms underlying the high adiponectin of healthy old lean cats need to be further explored.

  5. Sodium bicarbonated mineral water decreases postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal women compared to a low mineral water

    OpenAIRE

    Schoppen, S.; Pérez Granados, Ana M.; Carbajal, A.; Sarriá, Beatriz; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.; Gómez-Gerique, J.A.; Vaquero, M. Pilar

    2005-01-01

    The role of bicarbonated mineral waters on lipid metabolism and lipoprotein concentrations in man has scarcely been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether drinking sodium bicarbonated mineral water affects postprandial cholesterol and triacylglycerol metabolism in postmenopausal women. In a three-way, randomised, crossover study, eighteen healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodium bicarbonated mineral waters (bicarbonated mineral water 1 and bicarbonated mineral wa...

  6. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Josic, Julija; Olsson, Anna Thol?n; Wickeberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. Methods The study was conducted on 14 hea...

  7. Effect of macronutrients, age, and obesity on 6- and 24-h postprandial glucose metabolism in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Erin T.; Glushka, John; Kley, Saskia; Patil, Avinash; Waldron, Mark; Prestegard, James H.; Ferguson, Duncan C.; Wu, Shaoxiong; Olson, Darin E.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and age are risk factors for feline diabetes. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that age, long-term obesity, and dietary composition would lead to peripheral and hepatorenal insulin resistance, indicated by higher endogenous glucose production (EGP) in the fasted and postprandial state, higher blood glucose and insulin, and higher leptin, free thyroxine, and lower adiponectin concentrations. Using triple tracer—2H2O, [U-13C3] propionate, and [3,4-13C2] glucose infusion, and indirect calorimetry—we investigated carbohydrate and fat metabolic pathways in overnight-fasted neutered cats (13 young lean, 12 old lean, and 12 old obese), each fed three different diets (high protein with and without polyunsaturated fatty acids, and high carbohydrate) in a crossover design. EGP was lowest in fasted and postprandial obese cats despite peripheral insulin resistance, indicated by hyperinsulinemia. Gluconeogenesis was the most important pathway for EGP in all groups, but glycogen contributed significantly. Insulin and leptin concentrations were higher in old than in young lean cats; adiponectin was lowest in obese cats but surprisingly highest in lean old cats. Diet had little effect on metabolic parameters. We conclude that hepatorenal insulin resistance does not develop in the fasted or postprandial state, even in long-term obese cats, allowing the maintenance of euglycemia through lowering EGP. Glycogen plays a major role in EGP, especially in lean fasted cats, and in the postprandial state. Aging may predispose to insulin resistance, which is a risk factor for diabetes in cats. Mechanisms underlying the high adiponectin of healthy old lean cats need to be further explored. PMID:21940405

  8. The effects of omeprazole on interdigestive motility and early postprandial levels of gastrin and secretin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N

    1992-01-01

    Ten healthy men participated in a crossover study, and the experiments took place after 10 days of treatment (40 mg omeprazole every morning). Blood samples were drawn at fixed intervals during a complete migrating motor complex (MMC) cycle. The manometric pressure tube was removed after passage ...... plasma gastrin, ii) a decrease in secretin in phases I and III, iii) an augmented meal-stimulated gastrin response, and iv) a secretin response characterized by a significantly lower mean in the immediate postprandial period....

  9. Experimental dog model for assessment of fasting and postprandial fatty acid metabolism: pitfalls and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, S; Benrezzak, O; Battista, M C; Naimi, F; Labbé, S M; Frisch, F; Normand-Lauzière, F; Gallo-Payet, N; Carpentier, A C; Baillargeon, J P

    2015-07-01

    The dog is a widely-used model for conducting metabolic studies. This is mainly due to its large size and its physiology which is relatively similar to that of humans. Here, we attempted to optimize a postprandial metabolic study protocol used in dogs. Following acclimatization, female mongrel dogs underwent 9 h profiling for time-course baseline plasma data on triglyceride, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels. One week later, carotid and jugular catheters were surgically inserted for sampling and infusions. Initial post-operative care, based on the literature (Protocol 1), consisted of analgesia (buprenorphine every 8-12 h and 2-3 doses/day of acepromazine), restriction by Pavlov harness within cages, and a two- to three-day recovery period. Throughout the experiment, dogs received a lipid tracer diluted in 5% bovine serum albumin (BSA). Compared with baseline, animals vomited (n = 6/6) and exhibited high ACTH + cortisol levels (stress biomarkers), resulting in blunted triglyceride peak levels. To avoid these undesirable effects, post-operative care was modified (Protocol 2) as follows: animals (n = 19) were given a single dose of buprenorphine and no acepromazine, were unrestrained and free to move within cages, the recovery period was extended to seven days, and the lipid tracer was diluted in 0.002% versus 5% BSA. Using this modified protocol, postprandial plasma-triglyceride and ACTH/cortisol patterns were similar to baseline values. Controlling for stressors, as well as for factors which may alter proper digestion, is critical for all postprandial metabolic studies. Our results show that an optimized postprandial metabolic protocol used in dogs reduces experimental variability, while improving animal care and comfort. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Effect of glycemic state on postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akihiro; Monma, Yuto; Kajitani, Shoko; Noda, Kazuki; Nakajima, Sota; Endo, Hideaki; Takahashi, Tohru; Nozaki, Eiji

    2016-09-01

    Both postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia have been thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, and to be a potent risk factor for cardiovascular event. To examine effects of glycemic state on postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), a total of 112 consecutive male pati ents with angiographically confirmed CAD were loaded with a high-fat and high-glucose test meal. CAD patients were divided into three groups as "non-diabetic", "prediabetic", and "diabetic" CAD groups. The serum triglyceride (TG) and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) levels at the 6th hour in diabetic CAD group showed significantly higher than non-diabetic CAD group, and the incremental area under the curves (iAUCs) of these levels in diabetic CAD group were significantly greater than non-diabetic CAD group (TG, P = 0.0194; RLP-C, P = 0.0219). There were no significant differences in the iAUCs of TG or RLP-C between prediabetic and non-diabetic CAD group. The AUCs of plasma insulin levels or insulin resistance index (IRI): (AUCs of insulin) × (AUCs of glucose) as the insulin resistance marker were greater in diabetic CAD group than non-diabetic CAD group (insulin, P = 0.0373; IRI, P = 0.0228). The AUCs of serum TG or RLP-C levels showed a correlation with the AUCs of plasma insulin (AUC-TG, r = 0.5437, P postprandial hyperlipidemia in CAD patients. Diabetic, but not prediabetic state, may be a risk for postprandial impaired lipid metabolism in CAD patients.

  11. Postprandial lipid responses to standard carbohydrates used to determine glycaemic index values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-López, Sonia; Ausman, Lynne M; Matthan, Nirupa R; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2013-11-01

    Prior studies assessing the metabolic effects of different types of carbohydrates have focused on their glycaemic response. However, the response of postprandial cardiometabolic risk indicators has not been considered in these studies. The present study assessed postprandial lipid responses to two forms of carbohydrates used as reference foods for glycaemic index determinations, white bread (50 g available carbohydrate) and glucose (50 g), under controlled conditions and with intra-individual replicate determinations. A total of twenty adults (20–70 years) underwent two cycles of challenges with each pair of reference foods (four challenges/person), administered in a random order on separate days under standard conditions. Serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and NEFA), glucose and insulin were monitored for 5 h post-ingestion. Oral glucose resulted in greater glycaemic and insulinaemic responses than white bread for the first 90 min and a greater subsequent decline after 120 min (P =0·0001). The initial decline in serum NEFA concentrations was greater after the oral glucose than after the white bread challenge, as was the rebound after 150 min (P = 0·001). Nevertheless, the type of carbohydrate had no significant effect on postprandial total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Following an initial modest rise in TAG concentrations in response to both challenges, the values dropped below the fasting values for oral glucose but not for the white bread challenge. These data suggest that the type of carbohydrate used to determine the glycaemic index, bread or glucose, has little or modest effects on postprandial plasma cholesterol concentrations. Differences in TAG and NEFA concentrations over the 5 h time period were modest, and their clinical relevance is unclear.

  12. Sleeve gastrectomy in rats improves postprandial lipid clearance by reducing intestinal triglyceride secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefater, Margaret A; Sandoval, Darleen A; Chambers, Adam P; Wilson-Pérez, Hilary E; Hofmann, Susanna M; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2011-09-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for atherosclerotic heart disease and is associated with the consumption of high-fat diets and obesity. Bariatric surgeries result in superior and more durable weight loss than dieting. These surgeries are also associated with multiple metabolic improvements, including reduced plasma lipid levels. We investigated whether the beneficial effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) on plasma lipid levels are weight independent. VSG was performed on Long-Evans rats with diet-induced obesity. Controls were sham-operated animals who were either pair-fed or ad libitum-fed. We measured fasting and postprandial levels of plasma lipid. To determine hepatic and intestinal triglyceride secretion, we injected the lipase inhibitor poloxamer 407 alone or before oral lipid gavage. (13)C-Triolein was used to estimate postprandial uptake of lipid in the intestine. Rats that received VSG and high-fat diets had markedly lower fasting levels of plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and phospholipid than obese and lean (pair-fed) controls that were fed high-fat diets. Rats that received VSG had a marked, weight-independent reduction in secretion of intestinal triglycerides. VSG did not alter total intestinal triglyceride levels or size of the cholesterol storage pool nor did it affect the expression of genes in the intestine that control triglyceride metabolism and synthesis. VSG did not affect fasting secretion of triglyceride, liver weight, hepatic lipid storage, or transcription of genes that regulate hepatic lipid processing. VSG reduced postprandial levels of plasma lipid, independently of body weight. This resulted from reduced intestinal secretion of triglycerides following ingestion of a lipid meal and indicates that VSG has important effects on metabolism. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of acute interval sprinting exercise on postprandial lipemia of sedentary young men

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Aaron; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Postprandial lipemia (PPL) contributesto the development of atherosclerosis. In females, repeated 8-second bouts of interval sprinting exercise reduced PPL, however, the effect of 8-second bouts of interval sprinting on PPL of overweight males is undetermined. Thus, the effect of 8-secondsof interval sprinting for 20 min, the night before ingestion of a high-fat meal (HFM), on plasma triacylglycerol(TG) levelswas examined. [Methods] Ten overweight males acted as participants (BMI = ...

  14. Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to pre-germinated brown rice in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiko; Mizukuchi, Aya; Kise, Mitsuo; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Yoshihara, Rie; Yokoyama, Jyunichi

    2005-08-01

    Effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations were compared with brown rice (BR) and white rice (WR) in two studies. In the first study, we investigated the time course of postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations after ingesting 25% (W/V) glucose solution, PGBR, BR or WR in 19 healthy young subjects. In the second study, dose-dependent effect of PGBR on the time course of postprandial blood glucose concentrations was compared among 4 different mixtures of PGBR and WR in 13 healthy young subjects. They were solely PGBR, 2/3 PGBR (PGBR: WR = 2 : 1), 1/3 PGBR (PGBR : WR = 1 : 2) and solely WR. Each sample was studied on a different day. The samples were selected randomly by the subjects. All the rice samples contained 50 g of available carbohydrates. The previous day the subjects ate the assigned dinner by 9:00 pm and then were allowed only water until the examination. The next morning, they ingested each test rice sample with 150 ml of water in 5-10 min. Blood was collected into capillary tubes from finger at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the ingestion. The incremental areas under the curve (IAUC) of blood glucose concentrations (IAUC-Glc) for 120 min after the administration of PGBR and BR were lower than those after WR. In contrast the IAUC-Glc of BR and PGBR were not different (Study 1). The higher the ratio of PGBR/WR, the lower the glycemic index became (Study 2). These results suggest that intake of PGBR instead of WR is effective for the control of postprandial blood glucose concentration without increasing the insulin secretion.

  15. Is Cancer Cachexia Attributed to Impairments in Basal or Postprandial Muscle Protein Metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, Astrid M H; Olde Damink, Steven W; Schols, Annemie M W J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-08-16

    Cachexia is a significant clinical problem associated with very poor quality of life, reduced treatment tolerance and outcomes, and a high mortality rate. Mechanistically, any sizeable loss of skeletal muscle mass must be underpinned by a structural imbalance between muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates. Recent data indicate that the loss of muscle mass with aging is, at least partly, attributed to a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to protein feeding. Whether such anabolic resistance is also evident in conditions where cachexia is present remains to be addressed. Only few data are available on muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates in vivo in cachectic cancer patients. When calculating the theoretical changes in basal or postprandial fractional muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates that would be required to lose 5% of body weight within a six-month period, we can define the changes that would need to occur to explain the muscle mass loss observed in cachectic patients. If changes in both post-absorptive and postprandial muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates contribute to the loss of muscle mass, it would take alterations as small as 1%-2% to induce a more than 5% decline in body weight. Therefore, when trying to define impairments in basal and/or postprandial muscle protein synthesis or breakdown rates using contemporary stable isotope methodology in cancer cachexia, we need to select large homogenous groups of cancer patients (>40 patients) to allow us to measure physiological and clinically relevant differences in muscle protein synthesis and/or breakdown rates. Insight into impairments in basal or postprandial muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates in cancer cachexia is needed to design more targeted nutritional, pharmaceutical and/or physical activity interventions to preserve skeletal muscle mass and, as such, to reduce the risk of complications, improve quality of life, and lower mortality rates during the various

  16. Postprandial proximal gastric acid pocket and gastric pressure in patients after gastric surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Herbella, F. A. M. [UNIFESP; Vicentine, F. P. P. [UNIFESP; Del Grande, J. C. [UNIFESP; Patti, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundAn unbuffered postprandial proximal gastric acid pocket (PPGAP) has been demonstrated in normal individuals (NI) and patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). the role of gastric anatomy and gastric motility in the physiology of the PPGAP remains elusive. This study aims to analyze the correlation of PPGAP with proximal gastric pressure after gastric surgery.MethodsA total of 26 individuals were studied: eight patients after open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) for morb...

  17. Adipocyte LDL receptor–related protein–1 expression modulates postprandial lipid transport and glucose homeostasis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Susanna M.; Zhou, Li; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Greer, Todd; Grant, Erin; Wancata, Lauren; Thomas, Andrew; Pfluger, Paul T.; Basford, Joshua E.; Gilham, Dean; Herz, Joachim; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Hui, David Y.

    2007-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity and its serious consequences such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer are rapidly becoming a major global health threat. Therefore, understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which dietary fat causes obesity and diabetes is of paramount importance in order to identify preventive and therapeutic strategies. Increased dietary fat intake results in high plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL). Tissue uptake of TGRL has been shown to promote glucose intolerance. We generated mice with an adipocyte-specific inactivation of the multifunctional receptor LDL receptor–related protein–1 (LRP1) to determine its role in mediating the effects of TGRL on diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Knockout mice displayed delayed postprandial lipid clearance, reduced body weight, smaller fat stores, lipid-depleted brown adipocytes, improved glucose tolerance, and elevated energy expenditure due to enhanced muscle thermogenesis. We further demonstrated that inactivation of adipocyte LRP1 resulted in resistance to dietary fat–induced obesity and glucose intolerance. These findings identify LRP1 as a critical regulator of adipocyte energy homeostasis, where functional disruption leads to reduced lipid transport, increased insulin sensitivity, and muscular energy expenditure. PMID:17948131

  18. Molecular and genetic inflammation networks in major human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongzhong; Forst, Christian V; Sayegh, Camil E; Wang, I-Ming; Yang, Xia; Zhang, Bin

    2016-07-19

    It has been well-recognized that inflammation alongside tissue repair and damage maintaining tissue homeostasis determines the initiation and progression of complex diseases. Albeit with the accomplishment of having captured the most critical inflammation-involved molecules, genetic susceptibilities, epigenetic factors, and environmental factors, our schemata on the role of inflammation in complex diseases remain largely patchy, in part due to the success of reductionism in terms of research methodology per se. Omics data alongside the advances in data integration technologies have enabled reconstruction of molecular and genetic inflammation networks which shed light on the underlying pathophysiology of complex diseases or clinical conditions. Given the proven beneficial role of anti-inflammation in coronary heart disease as well as other complex diseases and immunotherapy as a revolutionary transition in oncology, it becomes timely to review our current understanding of the molecular and genetic inflammation networks underlying major human diseases. In this review, we first briefly discuss the complexity of infectious diseases and then highlight recently uncovered molecular and genetic inflammation networks in other major human diseases including obesity, type II diabetes, coronary heart disease, late onset Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and sporadic cancer. The commonality and specificity of these molecular networks are addressed in the context of genetics based on genome-wide association study (GWAS). The double-sword role of inflammation, such as how the aberrant type 1 and/or type 2 immunity leads to chronic and severe clinical conditions, remains open in terms of the inflammasome and the core inflammatome network features. Increasingly available large Omics and clinical data in tandem with systems biology approaches have offered an exciting yet challenging opportunity toward reconstruction of more comprehensive and dynamic molecular and genetic

  19. Macrophages and bone inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoli Gu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bone metabolism is tightly regulated by the immune system. Accelerated bone destruction is observed in many bone diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, fracture, and particle-induced osteolysis. These pathological conditions are associated with inflammatory responses, suggesting the contribution of inflammation to bone destruction. Macrophages are heterogeneous immune cells and are polarized into the proinflammatory M1 and antiinflammatory M2 phenotypes in different microenvironments. The cytokines produced by macrophages depend on the macrophage activation and polarization. Macrophages and macrophage-derived cytokines are important to bone loss in inflammatory bone disease. Recent studies have shown that macrophages can be detected in bone tissue and interact with bone cells. The interplay between macrophages and bone cells is critical to bone formation and repair. In this article, we focus on the role of macrophages in inflammatory bone diseases, as well as discuss the latest studies about macrophages and bone formation, which will provide new insights into the therapeutic strategy for bone disease.

  20. Upregulation of fatty acid synthesis and the suppression of hepatic triglyceride lipase as a direct cause of hereditary postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Naoki; Ito, Tsunekata; Ohwada, Kazuo; Fujii, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    Rabbits with hereditary postprandial hypertriglyceridemia exhibit central obesity and are regarded as a reliable model for metabolic syndrome. This study was performed to gain insight into the affected process of lipid metabolism and into the causative genes of the postprandial hypertriglyceridemia rabbits. Eleven genes that play key roles in lipid metabolism were selected, their mRNA levels were assessed by quantitative PCR, and their expressions were compared among postprandial hypertriglyc...

  1. Meal frequency differentially alters postprandial triacylglycerol and insulin concentrations in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Sims, Lauren J; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C; Kanaley, Jill A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare postprandial lipemia, oxidative stress, antioxidant activity, and insulinemia between a three and six isocaloric high-carbohydrate meal frequency pattern in obese women. In a counterbalanced order, eight obese women completed two, 12-h conditions in which they consumed 1,500 calories (14% protein, 21% fat, and 65% carbohydrate) either as three 500 calorie liquid meals every 4-h or six 250 calorie liquid meals every 2-h. Blood samples were taken every 30 min and analyzed for triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, myeloperoxidase, paraoxonase-1 activity, and insulin. The TAG incremental area under the curve (iAUC) during the three meal condition (321 ± 129 mg/dl · 12 h) was significantly lower (P = 0.04) compared with the six meal condition (481 ± 155 mg/dl · 12 h). The insulin iAUC during the three meal condition (5,549 ± 1,007 pmol/l · 12 h) was significantly higher (P = 0.05) compared with the six meal condition (4,230 ± 757 pmol/l(.) 12 h). Meal frequency had no influence on the other biochemical variables. Collectively, a three and six isocaloric high-carbohydrate meal frequency pattern differentially alters postprandial TAG and insulin concentrations but has no effect on postprandial cholesterol, oxidative stress, or antioxidant activity in obese women. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  2. Evaluating Crossbred Red Rice Variants for Postprandial Glucometabolic Responses: A Comparison with Commercial Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Se, Chee-Hee; Chuah, Khun-Aik; Mishra, Ankitta; Wickneswari, Ratnam; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

    2016-05-20

    Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11) against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white) using 50-g carbohydrate equivalents provided to 12 normoglycaemic adults in a crossover design. Venous blood was drawn fasted and postprandially for three hours. Glycaemic (GI) and insulin (II) indices, incremental areas-under-the-curves for glucose and insulin (IAUCins), indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, lactate and peptide hormones (motilin, neuropeptide-Y, orexin-A) were analyzed. The lowest to highest trends for GI and II were similar i.e., UKMRC9 red rice. Although peptide hormones were not associated with GI and II characteristics of test rice, early and late phases of prandial neuropeptide-Y changes were negatively correlated with postprandial insulinaemia. This study indicated that only UKMRC9 among the new rice crossbreeds could serve as an alternative cereal option to improve diet quality of Asians with its lowest glycaemic and insulinaemic burden.

  3. Acarbose improved severe postprandial hypotension in a patient with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, E; Goda, K; Nagata, K; Kitaoka, H; Ohsawa, N; Hanafusa, T

    2001-01-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is defined as a decrease of systolic blood pressure by more than 20 mmHg after meals. Severe PPH is a troublesome diabetic complication, which has no established means of treatment. We encountered a patient who had diabetes mellitus complicated by severe PPH and attempted to treat this problem using several medications (octreotide, midodrine hydrochloride, and acarbose). A 58-year-old male with diabetic triopathy complained of orthostatic dizziness and vertigo after meals. The blood pressure was monitored for 24 h with an ambulatory blood pressure monitor, revealing that the systolic blood pressure decreased markedly after breakfast and dinner by 45 and 50 mmHg, respectively. PPH was not improved by a subcutaneous injection of octreotide. Administration of midodrine hydrochloride reduced the frequency of hypotensive episodes from twice to once daily, but the magnitude of the postprandial fall in blood pressure was still around 30 mmHg. After the patient started to receive acarbose therapy, the postprandial fall in blood pressure was diminished to 18 mmHg and his symptoms largely disappeared. For the treatment of PPH in diabetic patients, our experience suggests that it may be appropriate to try first on alpha-glucosidase inhibitor like acarbose.

  4. Postprandial lipaemia: effects of sitting, standing and walking in healthy normolipidaemic humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, M; Park, J-H; Takahashi, M; Suzuki, K; Stensel, D; Nakamura, Y

    2013-01-01

    Long periods of sedentary behaviour may adversely affect health irrespective of overall physical activity levels. This study compared the effects of sitting, standing and walking on postprandial lipaemia in healthy normolipidaemic Japanese men. 15 participants, aged 26.8±2.0 years (mean±SD), completed 3, 2-day trials in a random order: 1) sitting (control), 2) standing, and 3) walking. On day 1 of the sitting trial, participants rested. On day 1 of the standing trial, participants stood for six, 45-min periods. On day 1 of the walking trial, participants walked briskly for 30 min at approximately 60% of maximum heart rate. On day 2 of each trial, participants rested and consumed test meals for breakfast and lunch. Venous blood samples were collected in the morning and afternoon on day 1, and in the fasted state (0 h) and at 2, 4 and 6 h postprandially on day 2. On day 2 area under the serum triacylglycerol concentration vs. time curve was 18% lower on the walking trial than the sitting and standing trials (1-factor ANOVA, P=0.015). Hence postprandial lipaemia was not reduced after standing but was reduced after low-volume walking compared with sitting in healthy normolipidaemic Japanese men. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Exercise and postprandial lipaemia: effects on peripheral vascular function, oxidative stress and gastrointestinal transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLaughlin Jim

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Postprandial lipaemia may lead to an increase in oxidative stress, inducing endothelial dysfunction. Exercise can slow gastric emptying rates, moderating postprandial lipaemia. The purpose of this study was to determine if moderate exercise, prior to fat ingestion, influences gastrointestinal transit, lipaemia, oxidative stress and arterial wall function. Eight apparently healthy males (age 23.6 ± 2.8 yrs; height 181.4 ± 8.1 cm; weight 83.4 ± 16.2 kg; all data mean ± SD participated in the randomised, crossover design, where (i subjects ingested a high-fat meal alone (control, and (ii ingested a high-fat meal, preceded by 1 h of moderate exercise. Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV was examined at baseline, post-exercise, and in the postprandial period. Gastric emptying was measured using the 13C-octanoic acid breath test. Measures of venous blood were obtained prior to and following exercise and at 2, 4 and 6 hours post-ingestion. PWV increased (6.5 ± 1.9 m/sec at 2 (8.9 ± 1.7 m/sec and 4 hrs (9.0 ± 1.6 m/sec post-ingestion in the control group (time × group interaction, P

  6. Sex-associated effect of CETP and LPL polymorphisms on postprandial lipids in familial hypercholesterolaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvaki Christina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed the gender-specific influence of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (TaqIB, I405V and lipoprotein lipase (S447X polymorphisms on the response to an oral fat tolerance test in heterozygotes for familial hypercholesterolaemia. Methods We selected and genotyped 80 men and postmenopausal women heterozygous for familial hypercholesterolaemia (main group as well as 11 healthy control subjects. Patients were subgrouped based on their response to oral fat tolerance test. The oral fat tolerance test was defined as pathological when postprandial triglyceride concentration was higher than the highest triglyceride concentration observed in healthy subjects (220 mg/dl at any time (2, 4, 6 or 8 h. Results In the pathological subgroup, men had significantly higher incremental area under the curve after oral fat tolerance test than postmenopausal women. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed a gender association of TaqIB and I405V influence on postprandial lipaemia in this subgroup. Conclusion In conclusion, it seems that gender and TaqIB polymorphism of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene were both associated with the distribution of triglyceride values after oral fat tolerance test, only in subjects with a pathological response to oral fat tolerance test. Specifically, men carrying the B2 allele of the TaqIB polymorphism showed a higher postprandial triglyceride peak and a delayed return to basal values compared with women carrying B2. However, further investigations in larger populations are required to replicate and confirm these findings.

  7. Postprandial lipemia and cardiovascular diseases: the beneficial role of strength exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Correa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD has been linked with changes to the lipid profile that can be observed during the postprandial period, a phenomenon known as postprandial lipemia (PL. Physical exercise is currently the number one non-pharmacological intervention employed for prevention and reduction of risk factors for the development of CVD. This in turn has created a growing interest in the effects of physical exercise on regulation and equilibrium of lipid metabolism. In this review we compare the results of studies that have investigated the beneficial effects of strength training on PL. We analyzed articles identified in the PubMed, Scopus and EBSCO databases published from 1975 to 2013 in international journals. Studies were selected for review if they covered at least two of four keywords. The results of these studies lead to the conclusion that strength training is effective for reduction of postprandial lipemia because it increases baseline energy expenditure. This type of training can be prescribed as an important element in strategies to treat chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis.

  8. Additive effects of gastric volumes and macronutrient composition on the sensation of postprandial fullness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Pritchard, S E; Major, G; Hoad, C L; Mellows, M; Hussein, M O; Costigan, C; Fox, M; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2015-03-01

    Intake of food or fluid distends the stomach and triggers mechanoreceptors and vagal afferents. Wall stretch and tension produces a feeling of fullness. Duodenal infusion studies assessing gastric sensitivity by barostat have shown that the products of fat digestion have a greater effect on the sensation of fullness and also dyspeptic symptoms than carbohydrates. We tested here the hypothesis that fat and carbohydrate have different effects on gastric sensation under physiological conditions using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gastric volumes. Thirteen healthy subjects received a rice pudding test meal with added fat or added carbohydrate on two separate occasions and underwent serial postprandial MRI scans for 4.5 h. Fullness was assessed on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Gastric half emptying time was significantly slower for the high-carbohydrate meal than for the high-fat meal, P=0.0327. Fullness significantly correlated with gastric volumes for both meals; however, the change from baseline in fullness scores was higher for the high-fat meal for any given change in stomach volume (P=0.0147), despite the lower energy content and faster gastric emptying of the high-fat meal. Total gastric volume correlates positively and linearly with postprandial fullness and ingestion of a high-fat meal increases this sensation compared with high-carbohydrate meal. These findings can be of clinical interest in patients presenting with postprandial dyspepsia whereby manipulating gastric sensitivity by dietary intervention may help to control digestive sensations.

  9. Improved postprandial glycaemic control with insulin Aspart in type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Thorsby, P; Kjems, L

    2000-01-01

    The effect on postprandial blood glucose control of an immediately pre-meal injection of the rapid acting insulin analogue Aspart (IAsp) was compared with that of human insulin Actrapid injected immediately or 30 minutes before a test meal in insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients with residual....../kg) immediately (Act0) or 30 minutes before (Act-30) a test meal. We studied 25 insulin-requiring type 2 diabetic patients, including 14 males and 11 females, with a mean age of 59.7 years (range, 43-71), body mass index 28.3 kg/m2 (range, 21.9-35.0), HbA1c 8.5% (range, 6.8-10.0), glucagon-stimulated C-peptide 1.......0 nmol/l (range, 0.3-2.5) and diabetes duration 12.5 years (range, 3.0-26.0). Twenty-two patients completed the study. A significantly improved postprandial glucose control was demonstrated with IAsp as compared to Act0, based on a significantly smaller postprandial blood glucose excursion (IAsp, 899...

  10. Exercise effects on postprandial glycemia, mood, and sympathovagal balance in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colberg, Sheri R; Grieco, Carmine R; Somma, C Thomas

    2014-04-01

    To compare the impact of walking with a recreational activity on postprandial glycemia, heart rate variability, and mood state following the dinner meal. Participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) participated in 3 trials on different days in random order after ingestion of a standardized dinner meal (300 ± 6 kcals). University clinical testing laboratory. Twelve participants (9 female, 3 male; 58.7 ± 2.4 years) with uncomplicated T2D not taking insulin or beta-blocker medications. Thirty minutes of self-paced walking on a treadmill (TM), 30 minutes of table tennis played continuously against the iPong robot (TT), and 30 minutes of rest (CON) undertaken 30 minutes after the start of ingestion of the same dinner meal on three occasions within a week. Blood glucose was measured at 30-minute intervals through 180 minutes starting immediately prior to the dinner meal. Profile of Mood States was completed before and immediately following exercise or rest. Sympathovagal balance (heart rate variability) was measured prior to eating and 30 minutes after trial completion. Compared with TT or CON, TM resulted in significantly lower postprandial blood glucose (P mood state nor HRV were significantly different among trials. Thirty minutes of self-paced walking following the dinner meal may be more effective at lowering postprandial glycemia in T2D than a similar duration of table tennis played continuously against a robot. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Milk Polar Lipids Affect In Vitro Digestive Lipolysis and Postprandial Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Manon; Bourlieu, Claire; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Penhoat, Armelle; Cheillan, David; Pineau, Gaëlle; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Trauchessec, Michèle; Claude, Mathilde; Ménard, Olivia; Géloën, Alain; Laugerette, Fabienne; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Polar lipid (PL) emulsifiers such as milk PLs (MPLs) may affect digestion and subsequent lipid metabolism, but focused studies on postprandial lipemia are lacking. We evaluated the impact of MPLs on postprandial lipemia in mice and on lipid digestion in vitro. Female Swiss mice were gavaged with 150 μL of an oil-in-water emulsion stabilized with 5.7 mg of either MPLs or soybean PLs (SPLs) and killed after 1, 2, or 4 h. Plasma lipids were quantified and in the small intestine, gene expression was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Emulsions were lipolyzed in vitro using a static human digestion model; triglyceride (TG) disappearance was followed by thin-layer chromatography. In mice, after 1 h, plasma TGs tended to be higher in the MPL group than in the SPL group (141 μg/mL vs. 90 μg/mL; P = 0.07) and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were significantly higher (64 μg/mL vs. 44 μg/mL; P lipid intestinal hydrolysis and promote more rapid intestinal lipid absorption and sharper kinetics of lipemia. Postprandial lipemia in mice can be modulated by emulsifying with MPLs compared with SPLs, partly through differences in chylomicron assembly, and TG hydrolysis rate as observed in vitro. MPLs may thereby contribute to the long-term regulation of lipid metabolism. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Minor Contribution of Endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-2 to Postprandial Lipemia in Obese Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matikainen, Niina; Björnson, Elias; Söderlund, Sanni

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Glucose and lipids stimulate the gut-hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but the effect of these on human postprandial lipid metabolism is not fully clarified. OBJECTIVE: To explore the responses of GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP after...... and after a fat-rich meal in 65 healthy obese (BMI 26.5-40.2 kg/m2) male subjects. Triglycerides (TG), apoB48 and apoB100 in TG-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL1 and VLDL2) were measured after the fat-rich meal. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postprandial responses (area under the curve, AUC) for glucose...... and GIP correlated significantly with plasma TG- and apoB48 AUCs but the contribution was very modest. CONCLUSIONS: In obese males, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP responses to a fat-rich meal are greater than following an OGTT. However, the most important explanatory variable for postprandial TG excursion...

  13. Fasting and postprandial levels of ghrelin, leptin and insulin in lean, obese and anorexic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Hanna; Gibas-Dorna, Magdalena; Kupsz, Justyna; Piątek, Małgorzata; Piątek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ghrelin, leptin and insulin are involved in neurohormonal regulation of energetic homeostasis. Aim We investigated the correlation between nutritional status and plasma levels of leptin, ghrelin and insulin in lean, obese and anorexic subjects. Material and methods Nineteen obese and 18 anorexic adults were enrolled in the study. Seventeen adults with normal body mass index (BMI) served as controls. Blood samples were taken twice: before breakfast and 2 h after breakfast. Fasting and postprandial ghrelin, leptin and insulin were examined. The following correlations were estimated: between BMI and basal level of tested hormones, between insulin and ghrelin, and between insulin and leptin. The threshold level of significance was p ≤ 0.05 for all calculations. Results Basal insulin level was lowest in anorexic patients and greatest in obese subjects. Fasting plasma ghrelin was lower in obesity and higher in anorexia as compared with the controls. Comparing with controls, fasting leptin levels were higher in obese and lower in anorexic subjects. There was positive correlation between BMI and basal leptin level in obesity. A significant postprandial increase was noted for insulin in all studied groups. Increased leptin and decreased ghrelin levels were detected 2 h after a meal in the control group. In obese patients, postprandial leptin was lower than before food intake, and fasting leptin showed positive correlation with basal insulin level. Conclusions Basal plasma ghrelin, leptin and insulin levels differ according to nutritional status. Impaired ghrelin and leptin secretion and insulin sensitivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of eating disorders. PMID:24868288

  14. The Role of Episodic Postprandial Peptides in Exercise-Induced Compensatory Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Catherine; Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Hellström, Per M; Näslund, Erik; Finlayson, Graham

    2017-11-01

    Prolonged physical activity gives rise to variable degrees of body weight and fat loss, and is associated with variability in appetite control. Whether these effects are modulated by postprandial, peptides is unclear. We examined the role of postprandial peptide response in compensatory eating during 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and in response to high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HFLC) and low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LFHC) meals. Of the 32 overweight/obese individuals, 16 completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 16 nonexercising control subjects were matched for age and body mass index. Exercisers were classified as responders or nonresponders depending on net energy balance from observed compared with expected body composition changes from measured energy expenditure. Plasma samples were collected before and after meals to compare profiles of total and acylated ghrelin, insulin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and total peptide YY (PYY) between HFLC and LFHC meals, pre- and postexercise, and between groups. No differences between pre- and postintervention peptide release. Responders had greater suppression of acylated ghrelin (P exercise. Responders to exercise-induced weight loss showed greater suppression of acylated ghrelin and greater release of GLP-1 and total PYY at baseline. Therefore, episodic postprandial peptide profiles appear to form part of the pre-existing physiology of exercise responders and suggest differences in satiety potential may underlie exercise-induced compensatory eating. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  15. Evaluation of Postprandial Total Antioxidant Activity in Normal and Overweight Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Arslan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Postprandial changes acutely alter some mechanisms in body. There are many studies showing blood oxidative status changes after food intake, and supplementation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a standardized meal on serum total antioxidant activity (TAA in normal weight and overweight individuals. Material and Method: Fourteen normal weight and twelve overweight individuals were given a standardized meal in the morning after an overnight fast. Serum TAA, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were measured at baseline, 3rd hour, and 6th hour after the meal in both groups.Results: In both normal and overweight groups, the difference between baseline and 3rd hour was significant for TAA. The TAA of the overweight group was also significantly lower than the TAA of the normal weight group at 3rd hour. However, there was no significant correlation between lipid parameters and TAA levels. Discussion: The present study shows that postprandial oxidative damage occurs more prominently in overweight individuals than in normal weight individuals. Postprandial changes acutely induce oxidative stress and impair the natural antioxidant defense mechanism. It should be noted that consuming foods with antioxidants in order to avoid various diseases and complications is useful, particularly in obese subjects.

  16. The Influence of Pre-Exercise Glucose versus Fructose Ingestion on Subsequent Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Jen Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of low glycemic index (LGI carbohydrate (CHO before exercise induced less insulin response and higher fat oxidation than that of high GI (HGI CHO during subsequent exercise. However, the effect on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate ingestion of CHO drinks with different GI using fructose and glucose before endurance exercise on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile. Eight healthy active males completed two experimental trials in randomized double-blind cross-over design. All participants ingested 500 mL CHO (75 g solution either fructose (F or glucose (G before running on the treadmill at 60% VO2max for 1 h. Participants were asked to take an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT immediately after the exercise. Blood samples were obtained for plasma and serum analysis. The F trial was significantly lower than the G trial in TG total area under the curve (AUC; 9.97 ± 3.64 vs. 10.91 ± 3.56 mmol × 6 h/L; p = 0.033 and incremental AUC (6.57 ± 2.46 vs. 7.14 ± 2.64 mmol/L × 6 h, p = 0.004. The current data suggested that a pre-exercise fructose drink showed a lower postprandial lipemia than a glucose drink after the subsequent high-fat meal.

  17. PAIN AND INFLAMMATION. PART 1. PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Karateev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relief of suffering, which is associated with a rapid and complete elimination of painful sensations, is the most important challenge facing physicians of many specialties. It is obvious that it can be solved only when you understand clearly the processes governing the development and chronization of pain. Inflammation, a universal adaptive mechanism that always accompanies damage to living tissues, plays a key role. Part 1 of this review considers the main stages of development of an inflammatory response, beginning with primary damage accompanied by the release of molecules acting as an alarm and ending with the deployment of a complete picture of the inflammatory response with the involvement of many cell elements and the overexpression of cytokines and proinflammatory mediators. The biological basis of the peripheral and central nociceptive sensitization phenomenon that is rigidly associated with inflammation is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on the possible natural completion of the inflammatory response, on the adaptive mechanisms regulating this process and on the reasons that prevent this and determines inflammation chronization.

  18. Nutrition, inflammation, and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wärnberg, Julia; Gomez-Martinez, Sonia; Romeo, Javier; Díaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Marcos, Ascensión

    2009-02-01

    Inflammation, particularly low-grade chronic inflammation, appears to affect several brain functions, from early brain development to the development of neurodegenerative disorders and perhaps some psychiatric diseases. On the other hand, nutrition and dietary components and patterns have a plethora of anti- and pro-inflammatory effects that could be linked to cognitive function. Even a modest effect of nutrition on cognitive decline could have significant implications for public health. This paper summarizes the available evidence regarding inflammation as a key mechanism in cognitive function and nutritional pro- or anti-inflammatory effects with the purpose of linking the apparent disparate disciplines of nutrition, immunity, and neurology.

  19. Inflammation-related cancer or cancer-related inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    T.G, Shrihari

    2018-01-01

    Inflammationis the body’s defensive action against various stimuli such as physical orchemical or infectious agents. Acute inflammation and their mediators help intissue repair and healing. If the inflammation aggravates chronically,non-resolved, dysregulated immune system, results release of various inflammatorymediators such as free radicals (ROS and RNS), cytokines, chemokines, growthfactors and proteolytic enzymes produced by innate and adaptive immune cellsactivate transcriptional factor...

  20. Increased Postprandial GIP and Glucagon Responses, But Unaltered GLP-1 Response after Intervention with Steroid Hormone, Relative Physical Inactivity, And High-Calorie Diet in Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina; Bagger, Jonatan I

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Increased postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon responses and reduced postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses have been observed in some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The causality of these pathophysiological traits...... postprandial GLP-1 responses as observed in some individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus....... is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of insulin resistance and reduced glucose tolerance on postprandial GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon responses in healthy subjects. Research Design and Methods:A 4-h 2200 KJ-liquid meal test was performed in 10 healthy Caucasian males without family history of diabetes...

  1. Post-prandial effects of hazelnut-enriched high fat meal on LDL oxidative status, oxidative and inflammatory gene expression of healthy subjects: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, L; Merra, G; Botta, R; Gualtieri, P; Manzo, A; Perrone, M A; Mazza, M; Cascapera, S; De Lorenzo, A

    2017-04-01

    Postprandial oxidative stress is characterized by an increased susceptibility of the organism towards oxidative damage after consumption of a meal rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates. Micronutrients modulate the immune system and exert a protective action by reducing low-density lipoproteins oxidation (ox-LDL) via induction of antioxidant enzymes. The clinical study was a randomized and cross-over trial, conducted through the CONSORT flowchart. We evaluated the gene expression of 103 genes related to oxidative stress (HOSp) and human inflammasome pathways (HIp), and ox-LDL level at fasting and after 40 g raw "Tonda Gentile delle Langhe" hazelnut consumption, in association with a McDonald's® Meal (McDM) in 22 healthy human volunteers. Ox-LDL levels significantly increased comparing no dietary treatment (NDT) vs. McDM, and decreased comparing McDM vs. McDM + H (pMcDM: 3.88% HIp and 17.48% HOSp; (B) NDT vs. McDM + H: 17.48% HIp and 23.30% HOSp; (C) McDM vs. McDM + H: 17.48% HIp and 33.98% HOSp. Hazelnut consumption reduced post prandial risk factors of atherosclerosis, such as ox-LDL, and the expression of inflammation and oxidative stress related genes. Chronic studies on larger population are necessary before definitive conclusions.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids improve postprandial lipaemia in patients with nephrotic range proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Samira; Cooney, Josephine; Packard, Christopher J; Caslake, Muriel; Deighan, Christopher J

    2009-07-01

    Patients with nephrotic range proteinuria have a marked increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Qualitative and quantitative changes in lipids and lipoproteins contribute to this increased risk with an abundance of atherogenic triglyceride (TG) rich apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins. TG rich lipoproteins predominate postprandially and are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Omega-3 fatty acids derived from fish oils have been shown to have beneficial effects on lipids and lipoproteins in patients without proteinuria. 17 patients with nephrotic range proteinuria and 17 age and sex matched controls were studied. Postprandial lipaemia was assessed in patients and controls, before and after 8 weeks treatment with 4 g daily of omega-3 fatty acids (Omacor). A standard fat load (90 g) was administered and blood sampling was performed in the fasting state and at 2, 4, 6 and 8h after the fat load. Chylomicrons and VLDL(1) density fraction was isolated from plasma by density ultracentrifugation. Postprandial chylomicron and VLDL(1) triglyceride concentrations were measured and quantified using the incremental area under the curve (AUC) method. Baseline postprandial chylomicron TG AUC was greater in patients compared with controls: median 18.5 mmol/lh (interquartile range 8.9-32.6) vs 9.3 mmol/lh (4.8-14.4) p=0.05. Following treatment patient chylomicron AUC fell [mean reduction 6.8 mmol/lh (95% CI 0.1-13.6) p=0.05]. No significant reduction in chylomicron AUC was observed in the controls [mean reduction 3.9 mmol/lh (95% CI -3.6 to 11.5)]. As a result, following 8 weeks treatment with omega-3 fatty acids, patient and control chylomicron AUC were no longer significantly different [patients 13.5 mmol/lh (7.4-22.9), controls 7.2 mmol/lh (4.6-14.5) both median and IQR, p=nsd]. VLDL(1) TG AUC did not differ at baseline between patients and controls. Furthermore, there was no significant effect on VLDL(1) AUC following treatment in either

  3. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass normalizes the blunted postprandial bile acid excursion associated with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N N; Pfalzer, A; Kaplan, L M

    2013-12-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are nutrient-responsive hormones that modulate energy balance through cell surface and nuclear receptors. Postprandial plasma BAs have been found to be decreased in obesity. We aimed to determine whether meal-stimulated circulating BA levels are altered by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), an operation that modifies the neurohumoral determinants of food intake and energy expenditure to cause significant and durable weight loss. Longitudinal study measuring fasting and postprandial plasma BAs before and after RYGB. Five obese surgical patients and eight lean controls underwent frequent blood sampling after a standard liquid meal. Obese subjects were also tested at 1, 4 and 40 weeks after RYGB. Primary and secondary circulating BAs, as well as their glycine and taurine conjugates, were measured via reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy. We found that postprandial excursion of conjugated BAs was 52.4% lower in obese than in lean individuals by area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis (378 vs 793 μmol min l(-1), respectively, P<0.05). By 40 weeks after RYGB, the meal-induced rise in conjugated BAs increased by 55.5% to the level of healthy lean controls (378 pre-op vs 850 μmol min l(-) post-op by AUC analyses, P<0.05). In contrast, postprandial concentrations of unconjugated BAs were similar in lean and obese individuals and were not affected by surgery. In light of the growing evidence that BAs have key roles in glucose, lipid and energy homeostasis, the observation that RYGB normalizes the blunted postprandial circulating BA response in obesity suggests that BAs may contribute to the improvement in meal-related physiology seen after RYGB. Further studies are warranted to examine this hypothesis and to determine the degree to which an augmented BA response to nutrient ingestion may mediate the increased incretin response, brown adipose tissue activation and thermic effect of feeding that has been observed after

  4. Theobromine consumption does not improve fasting and postprandial vascular function in overweight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; van den Driessche, Jose J; Joris, Peter J; Plat, Jogchum

    2018-01-12

    Theobromine, a component of cocoa, may favorably affect conventional lipid-related cardiovascular risk markers, but effects on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and other vascular function markers are not known. To evaluate the effects of 4-week theobromine consumption (500 mg/day) on fasting and postprandial vascular function markers. In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 44 apparently healthy overweight (N = 30) and obese (N = 14) men and women with low HDL-C concentrations, consumed daily 500 mg theobromine or placebo for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, FMD, peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), augmentation index (AIx), pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure (BP) and retinal microvasculature measurements were performed. These measurements were carried out under fasting conditions and 2.5 h after a high-fat mixed meal challenge. 4-week theobromine consumption did not change fasting vascular function markers, except for a decrease in central AIx (cAIx, - 1.7 pp, P = 0.037) and a trend towards smaller venular calibers (- 2 µm, P = 0.074). Consuming a high-fat mixed meal decreased FMD (0.89 pp, P = 0.002), reactive hyperemia index (RHI, - 0.30, P Theobromine did not modify these postprandial effects, but increased postprandially the brachial artery diameter (0.03 cm, P = 0.015), and decreased the cAIx corrected for a HR of 75 (cAIx75, - 5.0 pp, P = 0.004) and peripheral AIx (pAIx, - 6.3 pp, P = 0.017). Theobromine consumption did not improve fasting and postprandial endothelial function, but increased postprandial peripheral arterial diameters and decreased the AIx. These findings do not suggest that theobromine alone contributes to the proposed cardioprotective effects of cocoa. This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov under study number NCT02209025.

  5. Impaired postprandial endothelial function depends on the type of fat consumed by healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Sarah E E; Tucker, Sally; Banerji, Radhika; Jiang, Benyu; Chowienczyk, Phillip J; Charles, Sonia M; Sanders, Thomas A B

    2008-10-01

    Postprandial lipemia impairs endothelial function possibly via an oxidative stress mechanism. A stearic acid-rich triacylglycerol (TAG) (shea butter) results in a blunted postprandial increase in plasma TAG compared with an oleic acid-rich TAG; however, its acute effects on endothelial function and oxidative stress are unknown. A randomized crossover trial (n = 17 men) compared the effects of 50 g fat, rich in stearic acid [shea butter blend (SA)] or oleic acid [high oleic sunflower oil (HO)], on changes in endothelial function [brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD)], arterial tone [pulse wave analysis (PWA), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV(c-f))], and oxidative stress (plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha) at fasting and 3 h following the test meals. The postprandial increase in plasma TAG was lower (66% lower incremental area under curve) following the SA meal [28.3 (9.7, 46.9)] than after the HO meal [83.4 (57.0, 109.8); P < 0.001] (geometric means with 95% CI, arbitary units). Following the HO meal, there was a decrease in FMD [-3.0% (-4.4, -1.6); P < 0.001] and an increase in plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha [10.4ng/L (3.8, 16.9); P = 0.005] compared with fasting values, but no changes followed the SA meal. The changes in 8-isoprostane F2alpha and FMD differed between meals and were 14.0 ng/L (6.4, 21.6; P = 0.001) and 1.75% (0.10, 3.39; P = 0.02), respectively. The reductions in PWA and PWV c-f did not differ between meals. This study demonstrates that a stearic acid-rich fat attenuates the postprandial impairment in endothelial function compared with an oleic acid-rich fat and supports the hypothesis that postprandial lipemia impairs endothelial function via an increase in oxidative stress.

  6. Rethinking periodontal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenbacher, Steven; Barros, Silvana P; Beck, James D

    2008-08-01

    Clinical signs and symptoms, as well as medical and dental history, are all considered in the clinical determination of gingival inflammation and periodontal disease severity. However, the "biologic systems model" highlights that the clinical presentation of periodontal disease is closely tied to the underlying biologic phenotype. We propose that the determination and integration of subject-level factors, microbial composition, systemic immune response, and gingival tissue inflammatory mediator responses will better reflect the biology of the biofilm-gingival interface in a specific patient and may provide insights on clinical management. Disease classifications and multivariable models further refine the biologic basis for the increasing severity of periodontal disease expression. As such, new classifications may better identify disease-susceptible and treatment-non-responsive individuals than current classifications that are heavily influenced by probing and attachment level measurements alone. New data also suggest that the clinical characteristics of some complex diseases, such as periodontal disease, are influenced by the genetic and epigenetic contributions to clinical phenotype. Although the genetic basis for periodontal disease is considered imperative for setting an inflammatory capacity for an individual and, thus, a threshold for severity, there is evidence to suggest an epigenetic component is involved as well. Many factors long associated with periodontitis, including bacterial accumulations, smoking, and diabetes, are known to produce strong epigenetic changes in tissue behavior. We propose that we are now able to rethink periodontal disease in terms of a biologic systems model that may help to establish more homogeneous diagnostic categories and can provide insight into the expected response to treatment.

  7. Apoptosis and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Haanen

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades it has been recognized that cell death is not the consequence of accidental injury, but is the expression of a cell suicide programme. Kerr et al. (1972 introduced the term apoptosis. This form of cell death is under the influence of hormones, growth factors and cytokines, which depending upon the receptors present on the target cells, may activate a genetically controlled cell elimination process. During apoptosis the cell membrane remains intact and the cell breaks into apoptotic bodies, which are phagocytosed. Apoptosis, in contrast to necrosis, is not harmful to the host and does not induce any inflammatory reaction. The principal event that leads to inflammatory disease is cell damage, induced by chemical/physical injury, anoxia or starvation. Cell damage means leakage of cell contents into the adjacent tissues, resulting in the capillary transmigration of granulocytes to the injured tissue. The accumulation of neutrophils and release of enzymes and oxygen radicals enhances the inflammatory reaction. Until now there has been little research into the factors controlling the accumulation and the tissue load of granulocytes and their histotoxic products in inflammatory processes. Neutrophil apoptosis may represent an important event in the control of intlamtnation. It has been assumed that granulocytes disintegrate to apoptotic bodies before their fragments are removed by local macrophages. Removal of neutrophils from the inflammatory site without release of granule contents is of paramount importance for cessation of inflammation. In conclusion, apoptotic cell death plays an important role in inflammatory processes and in the resolution of inflammatory reactions. The facts known at present should stimulate further research into the role of neutrophil, eosinophil and macrophage apoptosis in inflammatory diseases.

  8. The effect of exercise intensity and excess postexercise oxygen consumption on postprandial blood lipids in physically inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Laurel A; Papadakis, Zacharias; Rogers, Katie M; Moncada-Jiménez, José; Taylor, J Kyle; Grandjean, Peter W

    2017-09-01

    Reductions in postprandial lipemia have been observed following aerobic exercise of sufficient energy expenditure. Increased excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) has been documented when comparing high- versus low-intensity exercise. The contribution of EPOC energy expenditure to alterations in postprandial lipemia has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low- and high-intensity exercise on postprandial lipemia in healthy, sedentary, overweight and obese men (age, 43 ± 10 years; peak oxygen consumption, 31.1 ± 7.5 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ; body mass index, 31.8 ± 4.5 kg/m 2 ) and to determine the contribution of EPOC to reductions in postprandial lipemia. Participants completed 4 conditions: nonexercise control, low-intensity exercise at 40%-50% oxygen uptake reserve (LI), high-intensity exercise at 70%-80% oxygen uptake reserve (HI), and HI plus EPOC re-feeding (HI+EERM), where the difference in EPOC energy expenditure between LI and HI was re-fed in the form of a sports nutrition bar (Premier Nutrition Corp., Emeryville, Calif., USA). Two hours following exercise participants ingested a high-fat (1010 kcals, 99 g sat fat) test meal. Blood samples were obtained before exercise, before the test meal, and at 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially. Triglyceride incremental area under the curve was significantly reduced following LI, HI, and HI+EERM when compared with nonexercise control (p 0.05). In conclusions, prior LI and HI exercise equally attenuated postprandial triglyceride responses to the test meal. The extra energy expended during EPOC does not contribute significantly to exercise energy expenditure or to reductions in postprandial lipemia in overweight men.

  9. Impact of meal fatty acid composition on postprandial lipaemia, vascular function and blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Kumari M; Weech, Michelle; Jackson, Kim G; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2018-03-16

    CVD are the leading cause of death in women globally, with ageing associated with progressive endothelial dysfunction and increased CVD risk. Natural menopause is characterised by raised non-fasting TAG concentrations and impairment of vascular function compared with premenopausal women. However, the mechanisms underlying the increased CVD risk after women have transitioned through the menopause are unclear. Dietary fat is an important modifiable risk factor relating to both postprandial lipaemia and vascular reactivity. Meals rich in SFA and MUFA are often associated with greater postprandial TAG responses compared with those containing n-6 PUFA, but studies comparing their effects on vascular function during the postprandial phase are limited, particularly in postmenopausal women. The present review aimed to evaluate the acute effects of test meals rich in SFA, MUFA and n-6 PUFA on postprandial lipaemia, vascular reactivity and other CVD risk factors in postmenopausal women. The systematic search of the literature identified 778 publications. The impact of fat-rich meals on postprandial lipaemia was reported in seven relevant studies, of which meal fat composition was compared in one study described in three papers. An additional study determined the impact of a high-fat meal on vascular reactivity. Although moderately consistent evidence suggests detrimental effects of high-fat meals on postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal (than premenopausal) women, there is insufficient evidence to establish the impact of meals of differing fat composition. Furthermore, there is no robust evidence to conclude the effect of meal fatty acids on vascular function or blood pressure. In conclusion, there is an urgent requirement for suitably powered robust randomised controlled trials to investigate the impact of meal fat composition on postprandial novel and established CVD risk markers in postmenopausal women, an understudied population at increased cardiometabolic risk.

  10. Acute effects of plant stanol esters on postprandial metabolism and its relation with changes in serum lipids after chronic intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, E; Mensink, R P; Lütjohann, D; Plat, J

    2015-01-01

    Plant stanol esters lower serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C), but responses between individuals vary widely. As the ability of subjects to respond to acute dietary challenges may reflect the flexibility to adapt to changes on the longer term, we related subjects' acute postprandial metabolic changes to changes in serum lipoproteins after chronic intake of plant stanol esters. In a double-blind crossover design, 20 healthy subjects received in random order a high-fat shake enriched with or without plant stanol esters (4 g). Blood samples were taken during 4 h to examine lipid, glucose and lipoprotein profiles. Two subjects dropped out. For the 3 weeks after this postprandial test, the subjects who received the shake with plant stanol esters continued the consumption of plant stanol-enriched (3g/day) margarine and subjects receiving the control shake in the postprandial test consumed for the next 3 weeks a control margarine. After the washout period, subjects received the other shake and margarines. The margarine enriched with plant stanol esters lowered concentrations of total cholesterol by 7.3% (Plipid and glucose metabolism during the postprandial phase. However, the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of the postprandial glucose concentration after consuming the control shake correlated positively with changes in fasting concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, apoB100, total VLDL, small VLDL and intermediate-density lipoprotein after 3 weeks. A single dose of plant stanol esters does not change postprandial lipid and lipoprotein profiles. However, postprandial glucose responses may predict the effects of chronic plant stanol ester consumption.

  11. Alveolar inflammation in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Martina; Worlitzsch, Dieter; Viglio, Simona

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In infected lungs of the cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, opportunistic pathogens and mutated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) contribute to chronic airway inflammation that is characterized by neutrophil/macrophage infiltration, cytokine release...

  12. Lamin in inflammation and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Joseph R; Chen, Haiyang; Zheng, Xiaobin; Zheng, Yixian

    2016-06-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of tissue function and an increased susceptibility to injury and disease. Many age-associated pathologies manifest an inflammatory component, and this has led to the speculation that aging is at least in part caused by some form of inflammation. However, whether or not inflammation is truly a cause of aging, or is a consequence of the aging process is unknown. Recent work using Drosophila has uncovered a mechanism where the progressive loss of lamin-B in the fat body upon aging triggers systemic inflammation. This inflammatory response perturbs the local immune response of the neighboring gut tissue and leads to hyperplasia. Here, we will discuss the literature connecting lamins to aging and inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Allergic Respiratory Inflammation and Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Kawa

    2015-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis are inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. Respiratory inflammation of the adaptive and innate immune system is the focus of this review, and chronic inflammation is not limited to the respiratory tissue. The inflammatory response, which consists of phagocytes, eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes, spreads along the respiratory tract, leading to tissue damage. Mast cells and eosinophils are commonly recognized for their detrimental role in allergic reactions o...

  14. Lamin in inflammation and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Joseph R.; Chen, Haiyang; Zheng, Xiaobin; Zheng, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of tissue function and an increased susceptibility to injury and disease. Many age-associated pathologies manifest an inflammatory component, and this has led to the speculation that aging is at least in part caused by some form of inflammation. However, whether or not inflammation is truly a cause of aging, or is a consequence of the aging process is unknown. Recent work using Drosophila has uncovered a mechanism where the progressive loss of lami...

  15. Endometriosis and possible inflammation markers

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Hsing Wu; Kuei-Yang Hsiao; Shaw-Jenq Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Infiltration of peritoneal macrophages and local proinflammatory mediators in the peritoneal microenvironment affect ovarian function and pelvic anatomy leading to the symptoms and signs of endometriosis. The identification of a noninvasive marker for endometriosis will facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. This review provides an overview of local microenvironmental inflammation and systemic inflam...

  16. Inflammation in Asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashraf

    practitioners and physicians' assistants if they are part of the health care community. Knowledge at this level should include a background in immunology obtained during medical training and should include an understanding of hypersensitivity mechanisms. (Gell and Coombs I-IV); major mechanisms of host defense; the ...

  17. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http://www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284 PMID:21899741

  18. Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 reduces postprandial and fasting serum non-esterified fatty acid levels in Japanese hypertriacylglycerolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Akihiro; Kadooka, Yukio; Kato, Ken; Shirouchi, Bungo; Sato, Masao

    2014-02-19

    Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) inhibits dietary fat absorption in rats and exerts preventive effects on abdominal adiposity in rats and humans. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of LG2055 on postprandial serum lipid responses in Japanese subjects with hypertriacylglycerolemia after the intake of oral fat-loading test (OFLT) meals. We conducted a single-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, repeated-measure intervention trial. Twenty subjects initially ingested the fermented milk (FM) without LG2055 for 4 weeks (control FM period), followed by a 4-week washout period, and then consumed FM containing LG2055 for 4 weeks (active FM period). The subjects were asked to consume FM at 200 g/day. At the end of each 4-week period, an 8-h OFLT was conducted. Blood samples were collected at fasting and every hour for 8 h after OFLT meal intake. Thereafter, postprandial serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) levels and fasting blood parameters were measured. The OFLT showed that the postprandial serum NEFA levels from 120 to 480 min and the postprandial serum TAG level at 120 min in the active FM period were significantly (P fasting serum NEFA level in the active FM period significantly (P probiotic LG2055 reduced postprandial and fasting serum NEFA levels, suggesting its possible contribution to the reduction of the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. UMIN000011605.

  19. The chronic effects of fish oil with exercise on postprandial lipaemia and chylomicron homeostasis in insulin resistant viscerally obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slivkoff-Clark Karin M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are associated with a postprandial accumulation of atherogenic chylomicron remnants that is difficult to modulate with lipid-lowering therapies. Dietary fish oil and exercise are cardioprotective interventions that can significantly modify the metabolism of TAG-rich lipoproteins. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exercise and fish oil act in combination to affect chylomicron metabolism in obese men with moderate insulin resistance. Methods The single blind study tested the effect of fish oil, exercise and the combined treatments on fasting and postprandial chylomicron metabolism. Twenty nine men with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to take fish oil or placebo for four weeks, before undertaking an additional 12 week walking program. At baseline and at the end of each treatment, subjects were tested for concentrations of fasting apo B48, plasma lipids and insulin. Postprandial apo B48 and TAG kinetics were also determined following ingestion of a fat enriched meal. Results Combining fish oil and exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the fasting apo B48 concentration, concomitant with attenuation of fasting TAG concentrations and the postprandial TAGIAUC response (p Conclusion Fish oil was shown to independently improve plasma TAG homeostasis but did not resolve hyper-chylomicronaemia. Instead, combining fish oil with chronic exercise reduced the plasma concentration of pro-atherogenic chylomicron remnants; in addition it reduced the fasting and postprandial TAG response in viscerally obese insulin resistant subjects.

  20. Links between coagulation, inflammation, regeneration, and fibrosis in kidney pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Álvarez, Beatriz; Liapis, Helen; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) involves nephron injury leading to irreversible nephron loss, ie, chronic kidney disease (CKD). Both AKI and CKD are associated with distinct histological patterns of tissue injury, but kidney atrophy in CKD involves tissue remodeling with interstitial inflammation and scarring. No doubt, nephron atrophy, inflammation, fibrosis, and renal dysfunction are associated with each other, but their hierarchical relationships remain speculative. To better understand the pathophysiology, we provide an overview of the fundamental danger response programs that assure host survival upon traumatic injury from as early as the first multicellular organisms, ie, bleeding control by coagulation, infection control by inflammation, epithelial barrier restoration by re-epithelialization, and tissue stabilization by mesenchymal repair. Although these processes assure survival in the majority of the populations, their dysregulation causes kidney disease in a minority. We discuss how, in genetically heterogeneous population, genetic variants shift balances and modulate danger responses toward kidney disease. We further discuss how classic kidney disease entities develop from an insufficient or overshooting activation of these danger response programs. Finally, we discuss molecular pathways linking, for example, inflammation and regeneration or inflammation and fibrosis. Understanding the causative and hierarchical relationships and the molecular links between the danger response programs should help to identify molecular targets to modulate kidney injury and to improve outcomes for kidney disease patients.

  1. Inflammation induced by Bothrops asper venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Catarina; Cury, Yara; Moreira, Vanessa; Picolo, Gisele; Chaves, Fernando

    2009-07-01

    Inflammation is a major characteristic of envenomation by snakes from viperine and crotaline species. Bothrops asper snake venom elicits, among other alterations, a pronounced inflammatory response at the site of injection both in humans and experimental animals. This review describes the current status of our understanding of the inflammatory reaction, including pain, triggered by Bothrops asper venom. The experimental studies on the action of this venom as well as the complex network of chemical mediators involved are summarized. Moreover, aspects of the molecular mechanisms orchestrating this important response to envenomation by Bothrops asper are presented. Considering that isolated toxins are relevant tools for understanding the actions of the whole venom, studies dealing with the mechanisms of inflammatory and nociceptive properties of phospholipases A(2), a metalloproteinase and serine-proteases isolated from Bothrops asper venom are also described.

  2. Postprandial Insulin and Triglycerides after Different Breakfast Meal Challenges: Use of Finger Stick Capillary Dried Blood Spots to Study Postprandial Dysmetabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Sonia; Groves, Margaret N.; Zava, David T.; Kapur, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Background High levels of insulin and lipids following a meal are recognized risk factors for atherosclerosis. Monitoring such risk factors in the general population is hampered by the inconvenience of venipuncture blood collection, particularly for both premeal and postmeal analyses. This study examined insulin and triglyceride levels in dried blood spots (DBSs) collected after different breakfast meal challenges to assess the potential of this method for risk assessment. Methods Glucose levels were measured using a glucose meter, and insulin and triglycerides were determined in DBS samples collected from 19 healthy volunteers before and at four time points up to 2.5 h after consuming each of five typical breakfast meals varying in nutritional composition. Results At 2 h, glucose was within normal postprandial values (<140 mg/dl) for all meals; significantly lower glucose was seen after meal 2 (the lowest carbohydrate content) compared to the other meals. Insulin returned to normal fasting levels (<15 μIU/ml) in significantly more subjects (90%) after meal 2 and significantly fewer subjects (31%) after meal 4 (highest carbohydrate content) than the other meals. Triglycerides were elevated to a similar extent in all subjects, with no significant differences between meals; levels were still rising at 2.5 h. Conclusions Subjects were able to collect blood spots with minimum disruption to their normal daily activities. Relative ease of collection, analyte stability in dried blood, and the close correlation with serum levels that we have previously demonstrated makes DBS a convenient and simple tool for assessing the individual impact of different diets on postprandial dysmetabolism. PMID:20307382

  3. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk.

  4. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk. PMID:26389951

  5. The Effect of Tofogliflozin Treatment on Postprandial Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Japanese Men With Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Junji; Sakurai, Masaru; Kakuda, Masahiro; Takekoshi, Noboru

    2017-05-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are highly related to the development of atherosclerosis. Sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have attracted attention as a new class of anti-diabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of tofogliflozin on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism in Japanese male patients with type 2 diabetes. Ten Japanese men with type 2 diabetes (average age 66.3 years) were orally administered tofogliflozin (20 mg per day) for 8 weeks followed by a subsequent 8 weeks of washout of the agent. At 0, 8 and 16 weeks, postprandial metabolic parameters were measured at 0, 60 and 120 min after cookie ingestion. There were significant reductions in body weight and body mass index at 8 weeks. There was a reduction in HbA1c at 8 weeks, which returned to pretreatment levels at 16 weeks. Serum insulin levels did not change during the entire study period under either fasting or postprandial state. The area under the curve of plasma glucagon significantly increased at 8 weeks. There were no changes in lipid and lipoprotein levels either in fasting or postprandial state except for tendency toward reduction in postprandial triglycerides at 8 weeks and increase in HDL-C at 16 weeks. Tofogliflozin treatment causes an improvement of postprandial glucose metabolism but not considerable postprandial lipid metabolism.

  6. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  7. Differential postprandial lipoprotein responses in type 2 diabetic men with and without clinical evidence of a former myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Marius; Thomsen, Claus; Gotzsche, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Postprandial lipemia plays an important role in the development of coronary heart disease through an elevation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In type 2 diabetic male subjects, our aim was to compare postprandial lipemia in a high-risk population with former myocardial infarction (MI......, insulin, or lipid lowering pharmacological treatment were exclusion criteria. After a maximal exercise tolerance test and echocardiography, the subjects underwent a hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp and a vitamin A fat loading test. Plasma triglyceride levels in the case group were significantly higher...... responses in the chylomicron-fraction from the case group were significantly higher (iAUC 311,502 +/- 194,933 vs. 187,004 +/- 102,928 ng x 480 min./ml; p = 0.035). Type 2 diabetic males with prior MI had higher postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein responses than those without MI, indicating that high...

  8. Pecans acutely increase plasma postprandial antioxidant capacity and catechins and decrease LDL oxidation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudthagosol, Chatrapa; Haddad, Ella Hasso; McCarthy, Katie; Wang, Piwen; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive constituents of pecan nuts such as γ-tocopherol and flavan-3-ol monomers show antioxidant properties in vitro, but bioavailability in humans is not known. We examined postprandial changes in plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and in concentrations of tocopherols, catechins, oxidized LDL, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in response to pecan test meals. Sixteen healthy men and women (23-44 y, BMI 22.7 ± 3.4) were randomly assigned to 3 sequences of test meals composed of whole pecans, blended pecans, or an isocaloric meal of equivalent macronutrient composition but formulated of refined ingredients in a crossover design with a 1-wk washout period between treatments. Blood was sampled at baseline and at intervals up to 24 h postingestion. Following the whole and blended pecan test meals, plasma concentrations of γ-tocopherols doubled at 8 h (P < 0.001) and hydrophilic- and lipophilic-ORAC increased 12 and 10% at 2 h, respectively. Post whole pecan consumption, oxidized LDL decreased 30, 33, and 26% at 2, 3, and 8 h, respectively (P < 0.05), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate concentrations at 1 h (mean ± SEM; 95.1 ± 30.6 nmol/L) and 2 h (116.3 ± 80.5 nmol/L) were higher than at baseline (0 h) and after the control test meal at 1 h (P < 0.05). The postprandial molar ratio of MDA:triglycerides decreased by 37, 36, and 40% at 3, 5, and 8 h, respectively (P < 0.05), only when whole and blended pecan data were pooled. These results show that bioactive constituent of pecans are absorbable and contribute to postprandial antioxidant defenses.

  9. Digesting or swimming? Integration of the postprandial metabolism, behavior and locomotion in a frequently foraging fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Li-Juan; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2017-02-01

    Fish that are active foragers usually perform routine activities while digesting their food; thus, their postprandial swimming capacity and related behavior adjustments might be ecologically important. To test whether digestion affect swimming performance and the relationships of digestion with metabolism and behavior in an active forager, we investigated the postprandial metabolic response, spontaneous swimming activities, critical swimming speed (Ucrit), and fast-start escape performance of both fasted and digesting (3h after feeding to satiation) juvenile rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus). Feeding to satiation elicited a 50% increase in the oxygen consumption rate, which peaked at 3h after feeding and returned to the prefeeding state after another 3h. However, approximately 50% and 90% of individuals resumed feeding behavior at 2 and 3h postfeeding, respectively, although the meal size varied substantially. Digestion showed no effect on either steady swimming performance as suggested by the Ucrit or unsteady swimming performance indicated by the maximum linear velocity in fast-start escape movement. However, digesting fish showed more spontaneous activity as indicated by the longer total distance traveled, mainly through an increased percentage of time spent moving (PTM). A further analysis found that fasting individuals with high swimming speed were more inclined to increase their PTM during digestive processes. The present study suggests that as an active forager With a small meal size and hence limited postprandial physiological and morphological changes, the swimming performance of rose bitterling is maintained during digestion, which might be crucial for its active foraging mode and anti-predation strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Postprandial morphological response of the intestinal epithelium of the Burmese python (Python molurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignot, Jean-Hervé; Helmstetter, Cécile; Secor, Stephen M

    2005-07-01

    The postprandial morphological changes of the intestinal epithelium of Burmese pythons were examined using fasting pythons and at eight time points after feeding. In fasting pythons, tightly packed enterocytes possess very short microvilli and are arranged in a pseudostratified fashion. Enterocyte width increases by 23% within 24 h postfeeding, inducing significant increases in villus length and intestinal mass. By 6 days postfeeding, enterocyte volume had peaked, following as much as an 80% increase. Contributing to enterocyte hypertrophy is the cellular accumulation of lipid droplets at the tips and edges of the villi of the proximal and middle small intestine, but which were absent in the distal small intestine. At 3 days postfeeding, conventional and environmental scanning electron microscopy revealed cracks and lipid extrusion along the narrow edges of the villi and at the villus tips. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the rapid postprandial lengthening of enterocyte microvilli, increasing 4.8-fold in length within 24 h, and the maintaining of that length through digestion. Beginning at 24 h postfeeding, spherical particles were found embedded apically within enterocytes of the proximal and middle small intestine. These particles possessed an annular-like construction and were stained with the calcium-stain Alizarine red S suggesting that they were bone in origin. Following the completion of digestion, many of the postprandial responses were reversed, as observed by the atrophy of enterocytes, the shortening of villi, and the retraction of the microvilli. Further exploration of the python intestine will reveal the underlying mechanisms of these trophic responses and the origin and fate of the engulfed particles.

  11. Impact of improving postprandial glycemic control with intensifying insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Tamer

    2017-11-01

    Worldwide, many people with type 2 diabetes are not at recommended glycemic targets and remain at increased risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Reaching recommended glycemic targets requires normalizing both fasting and postprandial glucose (PPG). For some patients, this will require addition of a prandial insulin delivered by injection to control PPG excursions. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests an association between postprandial hyperglycemia and cardiovascular disease, and thus, expert guidelines recommend that treatment for elevated PPG not be delayed. Indeed, studies have demonstrated that PPG makes the greatest contribution to HbA 1c in patients who are approaching, but have not yet reached HbA 1c insulin is critical in suppressing hepatic glucose output (and therefore PPG levels) after a meal. Rapid-acting insulin analogs, with their faster onset and shorter duration of action, offer advantages over regular human insulin. Unfortunately, even with improved pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics, rapid-acting insulin analogs are still unable to fully reproduce the rapid release of insulin into the portal circulation and suppression of hepatic glucose output that occurs in the individual without diabetes after starting a meal. The next generation of rapid-acting insulin analogs will have an even more favorable pharmacokinetic profile that should allow patients to further improve glycemic control. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) represents another option for intensifying therapy and improving postprandial control in some patients, and studies have shown that the benefits are sustainable long-term. However, it is currently unclear which patients stand to benefit the most from the extra expense and complexity of a CSII regimen, and further studies are needed.

  12. Partially hydrogenated soybean oil reduces postprandial t-PA activity compared with palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H; Seljeflot, I; Solvoll, K; Pedersen, J I

    2001-04-01

    The effects of dietary trans fatty acids on fasting and diurnal variation in hemostatic variables are not known. This study compares the effects of three diets with three different margarines, one based on palm oil (PALM-diet), one based on partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO, TRANS-diet) and one with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-diet) on diurnal postprandial hemostatic variables. A strictly controlled dietary Latin square study was performed and nine young female participants consumed each of the diets for 17 days in a random order. The sum of the cholesterol-increasing fatty acids (C12:0, C14:0, C16:0) was 36.3% of total fatty acids in the PALM-diet, the same as the sum of saturated-(C12:0, C14:0, C16:0) (12.5%) and trans fatty acids (23.1%) in the TRANS-diet. The sum of C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0 was 20.7% in the PUFA-diet. The amount of fat made up 30-31% of energy in all diets. Nine participants completed the study. The diurnal postprandial state level of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity was significantly decreased on the TRANS-diet compared with the PALM-diet. t-PA activity was also decreased on the PUFA-diet compared with PALM-diet but the difference was below statistical significance (P=0.07, Bonferonni adjusted). There were no significant differences in either fasting levels or in circadian variation of t-PA antigen, PAI-1 activity, PAI-antigen, factor VII coagulant activity or fibrinogen between the three diets. Our results indicate that dietary trans fatty acids from PHSO has an unfavourable effect on postprandial t-PA activity and thus possibly on the fibrinolytic system compared with palm oil.

  13. Sodium bicarbonated mineral water decreases postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal women compared to a low mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppen, Stefanie; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Carbajal, Angeles; Sarriá, Beatriz; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Gómez-Gerique, Juan A; Pilar Vaquero, M

    2005-10-01

    The role of bicarbonated mineral waters on lipid metabolism and lipoprotein concentrations in man has scarcely been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether drinking sodium bicarbonated mineral water affects postprandial cholesterol and triacylglycerol metabolism in postmenopausal women. In a three-way, randomised, crossover study, eighteen healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodium bicarbonated mineral waters (bicarbonated mineral water 1 and bicarbonated mineral water 2) and a low mineral water (500 ml of each) with a standard fat-rich meal (4552 kJ; 75.3 g fat). The bicarbonated waters were rich in sodium and bicarbonate and bicarbonated mineral water 1 contained 5.7 times more fluoride than bicarbonated mineral water 2. Fasting blood samples and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60, 120, 240, 360 and 420 min after the end of the meal consumption. Cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined in serum and chylomicrons. A significant water consumption effect was observed in the total area under the curve (TAUC) of serum and chylomicron triacylglycerols (ANOVA, P=0.008 and P=0.027, respectively). TAUC of serum triacylglycerols for bicarbonated mineral water 2 was significantly lower compared to low mineral water (Bonferroni, P=0.039). Peak concentration of serum triacylglycerols showed a significant water effect (P=0.025). Changes in chylomicron cholesterol were not significantly affected by the type of water. Bicarbonated mineral waters 1 and 2 did not show any significant differences. Drinking sodium bicarbonate-rich mineral waters reduces postprandial lipaemia in healthy postmenopausal women compared to drinking a low mineral water.

  14. Absence of exendin-4 effects on postprandial glucose and lipids in the Gila monster, Heloderma suspectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel, Carolyn M; Denardo, Dale F

    2007-01-01

    Circulating nutrients serve as energy resources for functioning tissues throughout the body. While the tight regulation of plasma nutrients has been extensively studied in mammals, investigations into specific metabolic regulators in reptiles have been limited and have revealed conflicting results. The peptide exendin-4, which was isolated from the saliva of Gila monsters, Heloderma suspectum, has demonstrated prolonged plasma glucose-lowering properties in mammals. Although exendin-4 has often been labeled a venom protein, circulating plasma levels of exendin-4 have been shown to increase in response to feeding. Because exendin-4 has glucose-regulating effects in mammals, we hypothesized that post-prandial elevation in circulating exendin-4 levels in Gila monsters reduces plasma glucose and triglycerides. To examine the effect of exendin-4 on circulating nutrients, we measured plasma glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels of Gila monsters in response to one of four treatments: fed live mice (a natural post-prandial increase in exendin-4), force-fed dead mice while anesthetized (no post-prandial exendin-4 increase), force-fed dead mice while anesthetized and injected with exendin-4 immediately after feeding (exogenous increase in exendin-4), and force-fed dead mice while anesthetized and injected with exendin-4 24 h after feeding (delayed exogenous increase in exendin-4). After prey ingestion, glucose and triglyceride levels increased significantly over time in all treatment groups, but there was no significant treatment effect. Plasma exendin-4 levels showed significant time and treatment effects, but did not correspond to glucose and triglyceride levels. Our results demonstrate that plasma nutrient levels in Gila monsters respond relatively slowly to feeding and that exendin-4 does not have the same effect on circulating glucose in Gila monsters as it does in mammals. Further studies are necessary to determine whether circulating exendin-4 has an alternate

  15. Effectiveness of acarbose in treating elderly patients with diabetes with postprandial hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Lixin

    2017-04-01

    : Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is a common condition that occurs primarily in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of acarbose for PPH; it also investigated possible mechanisms behind PPH development. This single-blind, randomized controlled trial included 91 elderly patients with T2DM, aged between 60 and 80 years, who were inpatients at Beijing Hospital between March 2012 and November 2014. The patients were included into one of three groups: Group A, patients with T2DM without PPH; Group B, patients with T2DM with PPH receiving placebo; and Group C, patients with T2DM with PPH receiving acarbose. After an overnight fast, patients received a single dose of acarbose (100 mg) or placebo and then consumed a standardized 450 kcal meal. Blood pressure, glucose levels, heart rate (HR), and catecholamine levels were evaluated. Acarbose ameliorated PPH as determined by significant improvements in the duration and maximal fall in blood pressure (both p<0.001); however, no differences in HR and blood glucose levels were observed. In patients with PPH, blood pressure was correlated with blood glucose and HR variability values (p<0.05). Correlations between epinephrine and glucagon-like peptide-1 with blood pressure in groups A and C were largely lost in group B. Acarbose reduced postprandial blood pressure fluctuations in elderly patients with diabetes. PPH may be related to impaired autonomic nervous system function, reduced catecholamine secretion, and postprandial fluctuations in blood glucose levels. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-IPR-15006177. Copyright © 2017 American Federation for Medical Research.

  16. Effect of a walnut meal on postprandial oxidative stress and antioxidants in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Ella H; Gaban-Chong, Natasha; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-01-10

    In vitro studies rank walnuts (Juglans regia) among the plant foods high in antioxidant capacity, but whether the active constituents of walnuts are bioavailable to humans remains to be determined. The intention of this study was to examine the acute effects of consuming walnuts compared to refined fat on meal induced oxidative stress. At issue is whether the ellagitannins and tocopherols in walnuts are bioavailable and provide postprandial antioxidant protection. A randomized, crossover, and controlled-feeding study was conducted to evaluate a walnut test meal compared to one composed of refined ingredients on postprandial serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status in healthy adults (n = 16) with at least 1 week between testing sessions. Following consumption of a low phenolic diet for one day and an overnight fast, blood was sampled prior to the test meals and at intervals up to 24 hours post ingestion and analyzed for total phenols, malondiadehyde (MDA), oxidized LDL, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydrophilic and lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), uric acid, catechins and urinary excretion of phenylacetate metabolites and of urolithin A. Mixed linear models demonstrated a diet effect (P < 0.001) for plasma γ-tocopherol but not for α-tocopherol with the walnut meal. Following the walnut test meal, the incremental 5 hour area under the curve (AUC(0-5h)) was reduced 7.4% for MDA, increased 7.5% for hydrophilic and 8.5% for lipophilic ORAC and comparable for total phenols, FRAP and uric acid. Oxidized LDL was reduced at 2 hours after the walnut meal. Plasma concentrations of gallocatechin gallate (GCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epicallocatechin gallate (EGCG) increased significantly at 1 hour after the walnut test meal. Quantities of urolithin-A excreted in the urine were significantly higher following the walnut meal. Compared to the refined control meal, the walnut meal acutely increased postprandial

  17. Differential impact of the cheese matrix on the postprandial lipid response: a randomized, crossover, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, André J; Maltais-Giguère, Julie; Charest, Amélie; Guinot, Léa; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Labrie, Steve; Britten, Michel; Lamarche, Benoît; Turgeon, Sylvie L; Couture, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Background: In a simulated gastrointestinal environment, the cheese matrix modulates dairy fat digestion. However, to our knowledge, the impact of the cheese matrix on postprandial lipemia in humans has not yet been evaluated. Objective: In healthy subjects, we compared the impact of dairy fat provided from firm cheese, soft cream cheese, and butter on the postprandial response at 4 h and on the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma triglycerides. Design: Forty-three healthy subjects were recruited to this randomized, crossover, controlled trial. In random order at intervals of 14 d and after a 12-h fast, subjects ingested 33 g fat from a firm cheese (young cheddar), a soft cream cheese (cream cheese), or butter (control) incorporated into standardized meals that were matched for macronutrient content. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides were measured immediately before the meal and 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after the meal. Results: Cheddar cheese, cream cheese, and butter induced similar increases in triglyceride concentrations at 4 h (change from baseline: +59%, +59%, and +62%, respectively; P = 0.9). No difference in the triglyceride iAUC 0-8 h ( P -meal = 0.9) was observed between the 3 meals. However, at 2 h, the triglyceride response caused by the cream cheese (change from baseline: +44%) was significantly greater than that induced by butter (change from baseline: +24%; P = 0.002) and cheddar cheese (change from baseline: +16%; P = 0.0004). At 6 h, the triglyceride response induced by cream cheese was significantly attenuated compared with that induced by cheddar cheese (change from baseline: +14% compared with +42%; P = 0.0004). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the cheese matrix modulates the impact of dairy fat on postprandial lipemia in healthy subjects. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02623790. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Regional postprandial differences in pH within the stomach and gastroesophageal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonian, Hrair P; Vo, Lien; Doma, Siva; Fisher, Robert S; Parkman, Henry P

    2005-12-01

    Our objective was to determine regional differences in intragastric pH after different types of meals. Ten normal subjects underwent 27-hr esophagogastric pH monitoring using a four-probe pH catheter. Meals were a spicy lunch, a high-fat dinner, and a typical bland breakfast. The fatty dinner had the highest postprandial buffering effect, elevating proximal and mid/distal gastric pH to 4.9 +/- 0.4 and 4.0 +/- 0.4, respectively, significantly (P meal to pH > 4 was also longer (150 min) compared to that of the spicy lunch (45 min) and the bland breakfast, which did not increase gastric pH to > 4 at any time. Proximal gastric acid pockets were seen between 15 and 90 min postprandially. These were located 3.4 +/- 0.8 cm below the proximal LES border, extending for a length of 2.3 +/- 0.8 cm, with a drop in mean pH from 4.7 +/- 0.4 to 1.5 +/- 0.9. Acid pockets were seen equally after the spicy lunch and fatty dinner but less frequently after the bland breakfast. We conclude that a high-volume fatty meal has the highest buffering effect on gastric pH compared to a spicy lunch or a bland breakfast. Buffering effects of meals are significantly higher in the proximal than in the mid/distal stomach. Despite the intragastric buffering effect of meals, focal areas of acidity were observed in the region of the cardia-gastroesophageal junction during the postprandial period.

  19. Liquid and Solid Meal Replacement Products Differentially Affect Postprandial Appetite and Food Intake in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults. PMID:18589034

  20. Imaging Modalities to Identity Inflammation in an Atherosclerotic Plaque

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Sunny; Miller, Avraham; Agarwal, Chirag; Zakin, Elina; Acholonu, Michael; Gidwani, Umesh; Sharma, Abhishek; Kulbak, Guy; Shani, Jacob; Chen, On

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, multifocal arterial wall disease caused by local and systemic inflammation responsible for major cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. With the recent understanding that vulnerable plaque erosion and rupture, with subsequent thrombosis, rather than luminal stenosis, is the underlying cause of acute ischemic events, there has been a shift of focus to understand the mechanisms that make an atherosclerotic plaque unstabl...

  1. Hypercapnia adversely affects postprandial metabolism in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Methling, C.; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2013-01-01

    significantly increased the duration of the SDA response by 22% and 29%, respectively.Hypercapnia had no effect on standard metabolic rate,while constant or oscillating hypercapnia significantly lowered the maximum metabolic rate compared to controls, causing a significant reduction of the aerobic scope during...... ammonia excretion were observed at high pCO2 or low Ph/normocapnia. The results demonstrate that despite an exceptional tolerance towards elevated pCO2 and acidosis, postprandial metabolic processes of the European eel are adversely affected by hypercapnia and low pH...

  2. Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Savorani, F.; Christensen, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim: Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Methods and results.......01) and fullness (p Z 0.03) was seen following the HM meal compared to meal C. AUC for ghrelin, CCK and GLP-1 and ad libitum energy intake did not differ between meals, but ghrelin response exhibited a different response pattern after the mucilage-containing meals. Conclusion: These findings suggest that flaxseed...

  3. Energy replacement diminishes the effect of exercise on postprandial lipemia in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Alice E; Barrett, Laura A; Tolfrey, Keith

    2016-04-01

    Acute bouts of exercise reduce postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations ([TAG]) in healthy boys and girls; however, it is not known whether this effect is mediated by the energy deficit. This study examined whether the exercise-induced reduction in postprandial [TAG] persists after immediate dietary replacement of the exercise energy expenditure (EE). Eighteen healthy 11- to 13-year-old boys (mean (SD): body mass 41.3 (8.4)kg; peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2) 55 (5)mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed three, 2-day conditions in a within-measures, crossover design separated by 14days. On day 1, participants rested (CON), exercised at 60% peak V̇O2 inducing a net EE of 32kJ·kg(-1) body mass (EX-DEF) or completed the same exercise with the net EE replaced immediately (EX-REP). On day 2, capillary blood samples were taken in the fasted state and at pre-determined intervals throughout the 6.5h postprandial period. A standardised breakfast and lunch meal were consumed immediately and 4h, respectively, after the fasting sample. Based on ratios of the geometric means (95% confidence intervals (CI) for ratios), EX-DEF fasting [TAG] was 19% and 15% lower than CON (-32 to -4%, ES=1.15, P=0.02) and EX-REP (-29 to 0%, ES=0.91, P=0.05) respectively; CON and EX-REP were similar (-4%; P=0.59). The EX-DEF total area under the [TAG] versus time curve was 15% and 16% lower than CON (-27 to 0%, ES=0.55, P=0.05) and EX-REP (-29 to -2%, ES=0.62, P=0.03) respectively; CON and EX-REP were not different (2%; -13 to 20%, P=0.80). Immediate replacement of the exercise-induced energy deficit negates the reduction in postprandial [TAG] in boys; this highlights the importance of maintaining a negative energy balance immediately post-exercise to maximise the metabolic health benefits of exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of dietary fat quality and quantity on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Bladbjerg, E-M; Jespersen, J

    1997-01-01

    , palm oil, or butter (42% of energy from fat) or isoenergetic low-fat meals (6% of energy from fat). Fasting and series of nonfasting blood samples (the last at time 8 1/2 hours) were collected. Plasma triglycerides, FVIIc, FVIIa, and free fatty acids were analyzed. There were marked effects of the fat......, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fats differed regarding postprandial activation of FVII. Eighteen healthy young men participated in the study. On 6 separate days each participant consumed two meals (times, 0 and 1 3/4 hours) enriched with 70 g (15 and 55 g) of either rapeseed oil, olive oil, sunflower oil...

  5. Gastric antrectomy with selective gastric vagotomy does not influence gallbladder motility during interdigestive and postprandial periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Pedersen, S A

    1996-01-01

    Fasting gastrointestinal motility and gallbladder motility during the interdigestive state and in the postprandial period was studied in eight patients who were operated for ulcer disease with an antrectomy and selective gastric vagotomy. Nocturnal motility recording revealed all three phases.......77%/min (0.33-0.86%/min). The values in the control group were 0 min (-9 to 13.5 min) and 0.76%/min (0.54-2.25%/min), respectively. These differences between the patients and controls were not significant. In conclusion, antrectomy and selective gastric vagotomy do not influence fasting gastrointestinal...

  6. Intermittent Standing but not a Moderate Exercise Bout Reduces Postprandial Glycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatti, Fabiana B; Larsen, Sidsel A; Kofoed, Katja

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine whether minimum recommended moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; 30-min bout of continuous moderate-intensity walking) is sufficient to counteract the detrimental effects of prolonged sitting on postprandial metabolism and if there are any effects...... of breaking up sitting with intermittent standing when achieving minimum recommended MVPA. METHODS: Fourteen (n = 14) physically inactive healthy adult males underwent four intrahospital 27-h interventions: 9-h continuous sitting (SIT), 15-min standing bouts every 30 min during the 9-h sitting (STAND), 30-min...... of insulin levels, whereas a 30-min MVPA bout did not....

  7. Minor Contribution of Endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-2 to Postprandial Lipemia in Obese Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Matikainen

    Full Text Available Glucose and lipids stimulate the gut-hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP but the effect of these on human postprandial lipid metabolism is not fully clarified.To explore the responses of GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP after a fat-rich meal compared to the same responses after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and to investigate possible relationships between incretin response and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL response to a fat-rich meal.Glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP were measured after an OGTT and after a fat-rich meal in 65 healthy obese (BMI 26.5-40.2 kg/m(2 male subjects. Triglycerides (TG, apoB48 and apoB100 in TG-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL1 and VLDL2 were measured after the fat-rich meal.Postprandial responses (area under the curve, AUC for glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GLP-2, GIP in plasma, and TG, apoB48 and apoB100 in plasma and TG-rich lipoproteins.The GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP responses after the fat-rich meal and after the OGTT correlated strongly (r = 0.73, p<0.0001; r = 0.46, p<0.001 and r = 0.69, p<0.001, respectively. Glucose and insulin AUCs were lower, but the AUCs for GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP were significantly higher after the fat-rich meal than after the OGTT. The peak value for all hormones appeared at 120 minutes after the fat-rich meal, compared to 30 minutes after the OGTT. After the fat-rich meal, the AUCs for GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP correlated significantly with plasma TG- and apoB48 AUCs but the contribution was very modest.In obese males, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP responses to a fat-rich meal are greater than following an OGTT. However, the most important explanatory variable for postprandial TG excursion was fasting triglycerides. The contribution of endogenous GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP to explaining the variance in postprandial TG excursion was minor.

  8. Variations in Postprandial Blood Glucose Responses and Satiety after Intake of Three Types of Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Lunde, Marianne S. H.; Hjellset, Victoria T.; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Høstmark, Arne T.

    2011-01-01

    Background The burden of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardio-vascular diseases (CVD) is rapidly increasing worldwide. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), in which the blood glucose level is higher than normal but not as high as in diabetes, is also a major public health problem. People with IGT have a higher risk of developing T2D and CVD, and especially the magnitude and duration of the postprandial blood glucose concentration (PPG) seems of crucial importance. In Norway, immigrants from...

  9. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on total antioxidant capacity of fasting and postprandial plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, L. O.; Pedersen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are known to protect against cancer and heart disease. This is often ascribed to their high content of antioxidants. We have therefore tested whether a daily intake of fruits and vegetables corresponding to the recommended 600 g had any effect on the antioxidant activity...... of fasting and postprandial plasma samples. Antioxidant activity was determined by the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay and the Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) assay, which have been reported to be affected by the presence of dietary antioxidants....

  10. Association of postprandial serum triglyceride concentration and serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in overweight and obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkest, K R; Fleeman, L M; Morton, J M; Groen, S J; Suchodolski, J S; Steiner, J M; Rand, J S

    2012-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia has been proposed to contribute to the risk of developing pancreatitis in dogs. To determine associations between postprandial serum triglyceride concentrations and canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentrations or pancreatic disease. Thirty-five client-owned overweight (n = 25) or obese (n = 10) dogs weighing >10 kg. Healthy dogs were prospectively recruited for a cross-sectional study. Serum triglyceride concentrations were measured before and hourly for 12 hours after a meal. Fasting cPLI and canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) concentrations were assayed. Cut-off values for hypertriglyceridemia were set a priori for fasting (≥ 88, ≥ 177, ≥ 354, ≥ 885 mg/dL) and peak postprandial (≥ 133, ≥ 442, ≥ 885 mg/dL) triglyceride concentrations. The association between hypertriglyceridemia and high cPLI concentrations was assessed by exact logistic regression. Follow-up was performed 4 years later to determine the incidence of pancreatic disease. Eight dogs had peak postprandial triglycerides >442 mg/dL and 3 dogs had fasting serum cPLI concentrations ≥ 400 μg/L. Odds of high cPLI concentrations were 16.7 times higher in dogs with peak postprandial triglyceride concentrations ≥ 442 mg/dL relative to other dogs (P dogs with high triglyceride concentrations and one of the dogs with low fasting and peak postprandial triglyceride concentrations developed clinically important pancreatic disease. Overweight and obese dogs with peak serum postprandial triglyceride concentrations ≥ 442 mg/dL after a standard meal are more likely to have serum cPLI concentrations ≥ 400 μg/L, but did not develop clinically important pancreatic disease. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Impact of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene Polymorphism, S447X, on Postprandial Triacylglycerol and Glucose Response to Sequential Meal Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa M. Shatwan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (LPL is a key rate-limiting enzyme for the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG in chylomicrons and very low-density lipoprotein. Given that postprandial assessment of lipoprotein metabolism may provide a more physiological perspective of disturbances in lipoprotein homeostasis compared to assessment in the fasting state, we have investigated the influence of two commonly studied LPL polymorphisms (rs320, HindIII; rs328, S447X on postprandial lipaemia, in 261 participants using a standard sequential meal challenge. S447 homozygotes had lower fasting HDL-C (p = 0.015 and a trend for higher fasting TAG (p = 0.057 concentrations relative to the 447X allele carriers. In the postprandial state, there was an association of the S447X polymorphism with postprandial TAG and glucose, where S447 homozygotes had 12% higher TAG area under the curve (AUC (p = 0.037, 8.4% higher glucose-AUC (p = 0.006 and 22% higher glucose-incremental area under the curve (IAUC (p = 0.042. A significant gene–gender interaction was observed for fasting TAG (p = 0.004, TAG-AUC (Pinteraction = 0.004 and TAG-IAUC (Pinteraction = 0.016, where associations were only evident in men. In conclusion, our study provides novel findings of an effect of LPL S447X polymorphism on the postprandial glucose and gender-specific impact of the polymorphism on fasting and postprandial TAG concentrations in response to sequential meal challenge in healthy participants.

  12. The Effect of PCSK9 Loss-of-Function Variants on the Postprandial Lipid and ApoB-Lipoprotein Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Teik Chye; Krysa, Jacqueline A; Chaker, Seham; Abujrad, Hussein; Mayne, Janice; Henry, Kathy; Cousins, Marion; Raymond, Angela; Favreau, Colette; Taljaard, Monica; Chrétien, Michel; Mbikay, Majambu; Proctor, Spencer D; Vine, Donna F

    2017-09-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) mediates degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), thereby increasing plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Variations in the PCSK9 gene associated with loss of function (LOF) of PCSK9 result in greater expression of hepatic LDLR, lower concentrations of LDL-C, and protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Apolipoprotein-B (apoB) remnants also contribute to CVD risk and are similarly cleared by the LDLR. We hypothesized that PCSK9-LOF carriers would have lower fasting and postprandial remnant lipoproteins on top of lower LDL-C. To compare fasting and postprandial concentrations of triglycerides (TGs), total apoB, and apoB48 as indicators of remnant lipoprotein metabolism in PCSK9-LOF carriers with those with no PCSK9 variants. Case-control, metabolic study. Clinical Research Center of The Ottawa Hospital. Persons with one or more copies of the L10ins/A53V and/or I474V and/or R46L PCSK9 variant and persons with no PCSK9 variants. Oral fat tolerance test. Fasting and postprandial plasma TG, apoB48, total apoB, total cholesterol, and PCSK9 were measured at 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours after an oral fat load. Participants with PCSK9-LOF variants (n = 22) had reduced fasting LDL-C (-14%) as well as lower fasting TG (-21%) compared with noncarrier controls (n = 23). LOF variants also had reduced postprandial total apoB (-17%), apoB48 (-23%), and TG (-18%). Postprandial PCSK9 declined in both groups (-24% vs -16%, respectively). Participants carrying PCSK9-LOF variants had attenuated levels of fasting and postprandial TG, apoB48, and total apoB. This may confer protection from CVD and further validate the use of PCSK9 inhibitors to lower CVD risk. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  13. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Postprandial Carbohydrate and Lipoprotein Metabolism Following Cookie Ingestion in Healthy Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Sayuki; Mizutani, Erika; Suzuki, Maiko; Yoshida, Akihiro; Naito, Michitaka

    2015-01-01

    We examined the acute effects of postprandial aerobic exercise on glucose and lipid metabolism following cookie ingestion. Fifteen healthy young women with a sedentary lifestyle, normal weight and apolipoprotein E3/3 participated. After a 12-h overnight fast, each subject ingested a cookie (1.53 g/kg, Meal Test C) and then performed two trials, one with postprandial exercise (E trial) and one without exercise (C trial), in a randomized crossover design. A single 30-min bout of walking exercise was performed 20 min after the cookie intake. Venous blood samples were drawn before (0 h) and 20 min and 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after cookie ingestion. The Δglucose concentration was not significantly different between the two trials, but the Δinsulin concentration at 1 h and the incremental area under the curve (IAUC) (0-2 h)-insulin in the E trial were significantly lower than in the C trial. The ratio of glucose/insulin at 1 h was significantly higher in the E trial than in the C trial. The ΔTG, ΔRLP-TG, ΔapoB48 and ΔRemL-C concentrations at 1 h in the E trial were significantly higher than in the C trial. The IAUC (0-2 h)-apoB48 in the E trial was significantly larger than in the C trial. Postprandial exercise showed an insulin-sparing effect following the cookie ingestion by increasing insulin sensitivity. However, postprandial exercise transiently stimulated the secretion of exogenous apoB48-containing lipoprotein during the early period, and no further effects were observed. These results suggest that postprandial aerobic exercise is effective for the promotion of postprandial carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipidemia.

  14. Effects of a Plant Sterol or Stanol Enriched Mixed Meal on Postprandial Lipid Metabolism in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Sabine; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that plant sterols and stanols not only lower fasting serum low-density lipoprotein concentrations, but also those of triglycerides (TG). Insight into effects of these components on postprandial TG metabolism, an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is missing. Our objective was to examine the 8-hour postprandial response after consuming plant sterol or stanol enriched margarine as part of a mixed meal. This postprandial study was part of a randomized crossover study in which 42 subjects consumed plant sterol enriched (3 g/d plant sterols), plant stanol enriched (3 g/d plant stanols), and control margarines for 4 weeks. After each period, subjects consumed a shake enriched with 3g plant sterols (sterol period), 3g plant stanols (stanol period) or no addition (control period). Subjects received a second shake with no addition after 4 hours. TG and apoB48 incremental areas under the curves (iAUC) of the total (0-8h) and 1st meal response (0-4h) were comparable between the meals and in all age categories (I:18-35y, II:36-52y, III:53-69y). In subjects aged 53-69y, TG iAUC after the 2nd meal (4-8h) was higher in the stanol period as compared with the sterol (63.1±53.0 mmol/L/min; P postprandial responses may be due to reduced lipoprotein lipase activity, since postprandial apoCIII/II ratios were increased after stanol consumption compared with the control meal. Postprandial TG and apoB48 responses are age-dependently increased after plant stanol consumption, which might be related to a changed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01559428.

  15. Basal and postprandial change in serum fibroblast growth factor-21 concentration in type 1 diabetic mellitus and in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibar, Karin; Blaslov, Kristina; Bulum, Tomislav; Ćuća, Jadranka Knežević; Smirčić-Duvnjak, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) appears to have an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism. FGF-21 secretion is mainly determined by nutritional status. The aim of this study was to measure basal and postprandial FGF-21 and postprandial change of FGF-21 concentration in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients and in healthy controls, and to investigate the differences between the groups. The cross-sectional study included 30 C-peptide negative T1DM patients, median age 37 years (20-59), disease duration 22 years (3-45), and nine healthy controls, median age 30 years (27-47). Basal and postprandial FGF-21 concentrations were measured by ELISA. The associations of FGF-21 with glucose, lipids, and insulin were analyzed. Individuals with T1DM showed significantly lower basal FGF-21 concentration (P=0.046) when compared with healthy controls (median value 28.2 vs 104 pg/mL) and had significantly different postprandial change (∆ 30'-0') of FGF-21 (P=0.006) in comparison with healthy controls (median value -1.1 vs -20.5 pg/mL). The glucose and lipid status did not correlate with FGF-21. In healthy controls, postprandial insulin level correlated with basal FGF-21 (ρ=0.7, P=0.036). Multiple regression analysis showed that they are independently associated after adjustment for confounding factors (β=1.824, P=0.04). We describe the pathological pattern of basal and postprandial change of FGF-21 secretion not associated with glucose, lipid levels, or insulin therapy in patients with T1DM. Since FGF-21 has numerous protective metabolic effects in the experimental model, the lower basal FGF-21 concentration in T1DM patients opens the question about the potential role of recombinant FGF-21 therapy.

  16. Monosodium glutamate stimulates secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 and reduces postprandial glucose after a lipid-containing meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, H; Kusano, M; Zai, H; Kawada, A; Kuribayashi, S; Shimoyama, Y; Nagoshi, A; Maeda, M; Kawamura, O; Mori, M

    2012-11-01

    Monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) is known to influence the endocrine system and gastrointestinal (GI) motility. The mechanism of postprandial glycemic control by food in the GI tract is mostly unknown and of great interest. To investigate the effect of MSG on glucose homeostasis, incretin secretion and gastric emptying in humans after a lipid-containing meal. Thirteen healthy male volunteers (mean age, 25.5 years) and with no Helicobcter pylori infection were enrolled. A 400 mL (520 kcal) liquid meal with MSG (2 g, 0.5% wt:vol) or NaCl (control) was ingested in a single-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study. Blood glucose, serum insulin, plasma glucagon, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide were measured. Gastric emptying was monitored by a 13C acetate breath test. Postprandial symptoms were assessed on a visual analogue scale. The 30-min postprandial glucose concentration was significantly reduced by adding MSG to the test meal. The area under the glucose concentration vs. time curve (0-60 min) was also significantly reduced by adding MSG (40.6 ± 3.51 mg·1 hr/dL with MSG vs. 49.2 ± 3.86 mg·1 hr/dL with NaCl, P = 0.047), whereas, the 30-min postprandial plasma GLP-1 level was significantly increased (58.1 ± 15.8 pmol/L with MSG vs. 13.4 ± 15.8 pmol/L with NaCl, P = 0.035). MSG did not affect the half gastric emptying time or postprandial symptoms. Monosodium l-glutamate improved early postprandial glycaemia after a lipid-containing liquid meal. This effect was not associated with a change in gastric emptying, but was possibly related to stimulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion.

  17. Immunosuppression associated with chronic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingzhi; DuBois, Raymond N.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation contributes to cancer development via multiple mechanisms. One potential mechanism is that chronic inflammation can generate an immunosuppressive microenvironment that allows advantages for tumor formation and progression. The immunosuppressive environment in certain chronic inflammatory diseases and solid cancers is characterized by accumulation of proinflammatory mediators, infiltration of immune suppressor cells and activation of immune checkpoint pathways in effector T cells. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of how immunosuppression contributes to cancer and how proinflammatory mediators induce the immunosuppressive microenvironment via induction of immunosuppressive cells and activation of immune checkpoint pathways. PMID:26354776

  18. Biomimetic nanoparticles for inflammation targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been many recent exciting developments in biomimetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Inflammation, a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators directed against harmful stimuli, is closely associated with many human diseases. As a result, biomimetic nanoparticles mimicking immune cells can help achieve molecular imaging and precise drug delivery to these inflammatory sites. This review is focused on inflammation-targeting biomimetic nanoparticles and will provide an in-depth look at the design of these nanoparticles to maximize their benefits for disease diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Fast food increases postprandial cardiac workload in type 2 diabetes independent of pre-exercise: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Malmo, Vegard; Follestad, Turid; Wisl?ff, Ulrik; Ingul, Charlotte Bj?rk

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes aggravates the postprandial metabolic effects of food, which increase cardiovascular risk. We investigated the acute effects of fast food on postprandial left ventricular (LV) function and the potential effects of pre-exercise in type 2 diabetes individuals. Methods We used a cross-over study including 10 type 2 diabetes individuals (7 male?and 3 females; 53.4???8.1?years; 28.3???3.8?kg/m2; type 2 diabetes duration 3.1???1.8?years) and 10 controls (7 male and 3 fema...

  20. Suppressive effects of dietary fiber in yogurt on the postprandial serum lipid levels in healthy adult male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shizuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Takahashi, Noritoshi; Miyaji, Kazuhiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Kokubo, Sadayuki

    2004-05-01

    This study assessed the effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) in yogurt on the elevation of postprandial serum lipid levels. Eleven healthy adult male subjects were given yogurt with or without 6 g of PHGG in a fat tolerance test as a crossover study. Supplementation with 6 g of PHGG significantly suppressed the incremental peaks and areas under the incremental curve (AUIC) of postprandial serum remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and triglyceride (TG). The results suggest the potential of PHGG to reduce the risk of hyperlipemia.

  1. Glutamine reduces postprandial glycemia and augments the glucagon-like peptide-1 response in type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Wong, Olivia; Synnott, Emma-Leigh

    2011-01-01

    Impaired glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) secretion or response may contribute to ineffective insulin release in type 2 diabetes. The conditionally essential amino acid glutamine stimulates GLP-1 secretion in vitro and in vivo. In a randomized, crossover study, we evaluated the effect of oral...... glutamine, with or without sitagliptin (SIT), on postprandial glycemia and GLP-1 concentration in 15 type 2 diabetes patients (glycated hemoglobin 6.5 ± 0.6%). Participants ingested a low-fat meal (5% fat) after receiving either water (control), 30 g l-glutamine (Gln-30), 15 g L-glutamine (Gln-15), 100 mg...... concentration and limiting postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes....

  2. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Rino; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Murota, Kaeko; Yamada, Yuko; Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → PPARα activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. → PPARα activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO 2 production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. → Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO 2 production in small intestinal epithelial cells. → Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. → It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPARα activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPARα activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPARα activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPARα agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and production of CO 2 and acid soluble metabolites in enterocytes. Moreover

  3. Inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Sandra; Puentes, Fabiola; Baker, David; van der Valk, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Neurodegeneration, the slow and progressive dysfunction and loss of neurons and axons in the central nervous system, is the primary pathological feature of acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, neurotropic viral infections, stroke, paraneoplastic disorders, traumatic brain injury and multiple sclerosis. Despite different triggering events, a common feature is chronic immune activation, in particular of microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system. Apart from the pathogenic role of immune responses, emerging evidence indicates that immune responses are also critical for neuroregeneration. Here, we review the impact of innate and adaptive immune responses on the central nervous system in autoimmune, viral and other neurodegenerative disorders, and discuss their contribution to either damage or repair. We also discuss potential therapies aimed at the immune responses within the central nervous system. A better understanding of the interaction between the immune and nervous systems will be crucial to either target pathogenic responses, or augment the beneficial effects of immune responses as a strategy to intervene in chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20561356

  4. Smoke producing and inflammable materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms EB; van Xanten NHW; Meulenbelt J

    1990-01-01

    On behalf of the AMGB (Afdeling Militair Geneeskundig Beleid) toxicological reviews have been made about several smoke producing and inflammable materials. The reviews have been made after a literature search and are meant to complete or to replace the concerning chapters in the NATO handbook on

  5. Purinergic Receptors in Ocular Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Guzman-Aranguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex process that implies the interaction between cells and molecular mediators, which, when not properly “tuned,” can lead to disease. When inflammation affects the eye, it can produce severe disorders affecting the superficial and internal parts of the visual organ. The nucleoside adenosine and nucleotides including adenine mononucleotides like ADP and ATP and dinucleotides such as P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A, and P1,P5-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A are present in different ocular locations and therefore they may contribute/modulate inflammatory processes. Adenosine receptors, in particular A2A adenosine receptors, present anti-inflammatory action in acute and chronic retinal inflammation. Regarding the A3 receptor, selective agonists like N6-(3-iodobenzyl-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (CF101 have been used for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye and uveoretinitis. Sideways, diverse stimuli (sensory stimulation, large intraocular pressure increases can produce a release of ATP from ocular sensory innervation or after injury to ocular tissues. Then, ATP will activate purinergic P2 receptors present in sensory nerve endings, the iris, the ciliary body, or other tissues surrounding the anterior chamber of the eye to produce uveitis/endophthalmitis. In summary, adenosine and nucleotides can activate receptors in ocular structures susceptible to suffer from inflammatory processes. This involvement suggests the possible use of purinergic agonists and antagonists as therapeutic targets for ocular inflammation.

  6. Alleviating Effects of Baechu Kimchi Added Ecklonia cava on Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Ah; Song, Yeong-Ok; Jang, Mi-Soon; Han, Ji-Sook

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of Baechu kimchi added Ecklonia cava on the activities of α-glucosidase and α-amylase and its alleviating effect on the postprandial hyperglycemia in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Baechu kimchi added Ecklonia cava (BKE, 15%) was fermented at 5°C for 28 days. Optimum ripened BKE was used in this study as it showed the strongest inhibitory activities on α-glucosidase and α-amylase by fermentation time among the BKEs in our previous study. The BKE was extracted with 80% methanol and the extract solution was concentrated, and then used in this study. The BKE extract showed higher inhibitory activities than Baechu kimchi extract against α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The IC50 values of the BKE extract against α-glucosidase and α-amylase were 0.58 and 0.35 mg/mL, respectively; BKE exhibited a lower α-glucosidase inhibitory activity but a higher α-amylase inhibitory activity than those of acarbose. The BKE extract alleviated postprandial hyperglycemia caused by starch loading in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Furthermore, the BKE extract significantly lowered the incremental area under the curve in both normal and diabetic mice (P<0.05). These results indicated that the BKE extract may delay carbohydrate digestion and thus glucose absorption.

  7. Postprandial prolactin suppression appears absent in antipsychotic-treated male patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coello, Klara; Broberg, Brian V; Bak, Nikolaj

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hyperprolactinemia is a common side-effect of antipsychotic treatment. Antipsychotics and hyperprolactinemia are both considered risk factors of metabolic disturbances and diabetes. Investigations on prolactin response to meal ingestion in antipsychotic-treated patients are missing...... circumference (96.4, SD 13.0 vs. 96.7, SD 11.9 cm). Serum-prolactin was measured in the morning and 90 min after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (2268 kJ). RESULTS: Fasting prolactin levels varied considerably, and mean fasting prolactin levels did not significantly differ between patients and controls...... (12.33, SD 11.58 vs. 10.06, SD 8.67 ng/ml, p = 0.623). In the controls, postprandial serum prolactin was significantly reduced (Δ -2.53, SD 9.75 ng/ml, p = 0.016). In antipsychotic-treated patients postprandial serum prolactin tended to increase (Δ 2.62, SD 10.96 ng/ml, p = 0.081). Analyses...

  8. High-intensity exercise attenuates postprandial lipaemia and markers of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Brendan; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Gray, Patrick; Frenneaux, Michael P; Gray, Stuart R

    2012-09-01

    Regular exercise can reduce the risk of CVD (cardiovascular disease). Although moderate-intensity exercise can attenuate postprandial TAG (triacylglycerol), high-intensity intermittent exercise might be a more effective method to improve health. We compared the effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise and 30 min of brisk walking on postprandial TAG, soluble adhesion molecules and markers of oxidative stress. Nine men each completed three 2-day trials. On day 1, subjects rested (control), walked briskly for 30 min (walking) or performed 5×30 s maximal sprints (high-intensity). On day 2, subjects consumed a high-fat meal for breakfast and 3 h later for lunch. Blood samples were taken at various times and analysed for TAG, glucose, insulin, ICAM-1 (intracellular adhesion molecule-1), VCAM-1 (vascular adhesion molecule-1), TBARS (thiobarbituric acid- reactive substances), protein carbonyls and β-hydroxybutyrate. On day 2 of the high-intensity trial, there was a lower (Ppostprandial TAG and markers of oxidative stress after the consumption of a high-fat meal.

  9. Tracing the fate of dietary fatty acids: metabolic studies of postprandial lipaemia in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Barbara

    2011-08-01

    Most postprandial studies have investigated the response of a single meal, yet the ingestion of sequential meals is more typical in a Western society. The aim of this review is to explain how natural and stable isotope tracers of fatty acids have been used to investigate the metabolism of dietary fat after single and multiple meals, with a focus on in vivo measurements of adipose tissue metabolism. When stable isotope tracers are combined with arteriovenous difference measurements, very specific measurements of metabolic flux across tissues can be made. We have found that adipose tissue is a net importer of dietary fat for 5 h following a single test meal and for most of the day during a typical three-meal eating pattern. When dietary fat is cleared from plasma, some fatty acids 'spillover' into the plasma and contribute up to 50% of postprandial plasma NEFA concentrations. Therefore, plasma NEFA concentrations after a meal reflect the balance between intracellular and extracellular lipolysis in adipose tissue. This balance is altered after the acute ingestion of fructose. The enzyme lipoprotein lipase is a key modulator of fatty acid flux in adipose tissue and its rate of action is severely diminished in obese men. In conclusion, in vivo studies of human metabolism can quantify the way that adipose tissue fatty acid trafficking modulates plasma lipid concentrations. This has implications for the flux of fatty acids to tissues that are susceptible to ectopic fat deposition such as the liver and muscle.

  10. Effects of low- and high-volume resistance exercise on postprandial lipaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Goloi, Evagelia; Petridou, Anatoli; Dipla, Konstantina; Mougios, Vassilis; Kellis, Spiros

    2007-03-01

    Postprandial lipaemia (PL) is associated with the metabolic syndrome, CVD and endothelial dysfunction. Aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce PL. Although resistance exercise is recommended for the improvement of the quality of life, management of body weight and prevention of several disorders, its effect on PL has received little attention. The present study examined the effects of low-volume resistance exercise (LVRE) and high-volume resistance exercise (HVRE) on PL. Ten healthy young men performed three trials, each conducted over 2 d. On the afternoon of day 1, they either refrained from exercise (control), performed LVRE (two sets of eight exercises, twelve repetitions at twelve repetitions maximum (RM) in each set; energy expenditure 0 x 76 MJ), or performed HVRE (four sets of eight exercises, twelve repetitions at 12 RM in each set; energy expenditure 1 x 40 MJ). On the morning of day 2 they consumed a meal containing 67 kJ/kg body weight, of which 65 % energy was from fat. Blood samples were obtained in the fasted state and for 6 h postprandially. The total area under the TAG curve (AUC; mmol/l x h) was lower (Ppostprandial lipaemic response.

  11. Cr-enriched yeast: beyond fibers for the management of postprandial glycemic response to bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Amalia E; Stamataki, Nikoleta; Stoupaki, Maria; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Pateras, Irene; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despoina; T Karathanos, Vaios

    2017-06-01

    Efforts regarding the amelioration of postprandial glycemic response to bread are mainly focused in the addition of soluble dietary fibers. The current study presents another approach which is based on the supplementation of flour with Cr-enriched yeast. Cr is known for its beneficial effects on improvement of glucose tolerance and enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Twelve normoglycemic subjects were provided with white bread (WB, reference food) or whole wheat bread with Cr-enriched yeast (WWCrB, rich in insoluble fibers) or white wheat bread with Cr-enriched yeast (WCrB, poor in fibers) or whole wheat-rye-barley bread enriched with oat beta glucans (BGB, rich in soluble fibers) with 1-week intervals in amounts that yielded 50 g of available carbohydrates. Postprandial glucose, insulin and ghrelin responses as well as glycemic index (GI) were evaluated. Ingestion of WWCrB, WCrB and BGB elicited lower incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for 120-min glycemic response compared to WB (1033.02 ± 282.32, 701.69 ± 330.86 and 748.95 ± 185.42 vs 2070.87 ± 518.44 mg/dL min, respectively, P bread without the necessity of high fiber amounts, providing with another strategy for the management of glycemic control.

  12. Fate of oral neutralizing antacid and its effect on postprandial gastric secretion and emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, T B; Carlson, G L; Malagelada, J R; Duenes, J A; McCall, J T

    1979-11-01

    The fate and neutralizing efficiency of oral antacids (aluminum and magnesium hydroxides) as well as their effect on postprandial gastric function were quantified in 6 patients with duodenal ulcer disease. We employed a double-marker technique for measurement of gastric secretion and emptying and combined this with back-titration of the gastric samples and analysis of aluminum to trace the fate of antacid in the stomach and duodenum. These studies show that: (a) antacid therapy with aluminum and magnesium hydroxides significantly increases gastric secretion; (b) intragastric neutralization of gastric acid produces a significant and substantial decrease in net acid output (acid secreted minus acid neutralized), but the beneficial effects of neutralization are partially offset by incomplete intragastric formation of aluminum trichloride; (c) most but not all of the ingested antacid is utilized in acid neutralization in the stomach (average 78.6% in our 6 patients); and (d) antacid therapy does not modify the absolute rate of postprandial gastric emptying, but increases dilution of gastric contents, expanding the intragastric volume. Thus, the fractional gastric emptying rate declines, and this, in turn, should enhance antacid utilization by delaying its emptying.

  13. Effects of Postprandial Blood Pressure on Gait Parameters in Older People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Shailaja; Visvanathan, Renuka; Piscitelli, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH), a fall in systolic blood pressure (SBP) within 2 h of a meal, may detrimentally affect gait parameters and increase the falls risk in older people. We aimed to determine the effects of postprandial SBP on heart rate (HR), gait speed, and stride length, double-support time and swing time variability in older subjects with and without PPH. Twenty-nine subjects were studied on three days: glucose (“G”), water and walk (“WW”), glucose and walk (“GW”). Subjects consumed a glucose drink on “G” and “GW” and water on “WW”. The “G” day determined which subjects had PPH. On “WW” and “GW” gait was analyzed. Sixteen subjects demonstrated PPH. In this group, there were significant changes in gait speed (p = 0.040) on “WW” and double-support time variability (p = 0.027) on “GW”. The area under the curve for the change in gait parameters from baseline was not significant on any study day. Among subjects without PPH, SBP increased on “WW” (p gait parameters remained unchanged on all study days. These findings suggest that by changing gait parameters, PPH may contribute to an increased falls risk in the older person with PPH. PMID:27089361

  14. Postprandial ghrelin suppression is exaggerated following major surgery; implications for nutritional recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloom Stephen R

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Meeting patients' nutritional requirements and preventing malnutrition is a challenge following major surgical procedures. The role of ghrelin in nutritional recovery after non-gastrointestinal major surgery is unknown. We used coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG as an example of anticipated good recovery post major surgery. Seventeen patients undergoing CABG (mean ± SEM: 70.1 ± 2.2 yrs, BMI 29.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2, 15 male underwent fasting and postprandial (45 mins after standard test breakfast blood sampling pre-operatively (day 0, post-operatively (day 6 and at follow-up (day 40. Changes in food intake, biochemical and anthropometric markers of nutritional status were recorded. A comparison was made to 17 matched healthy controls (70.6 ± 2.3 yrs, BMI 28.4 ± 1.3 kg/m2. We observed significantly increased post-operative and follow-up fasting ghrelin concentrations compared with pre-operatively (pre-op. 402 ± 42 pmol/L vs post-op. 642 ± 97 pmol/L vs follow-up 603 ± 94 pmol/L (ANOVA p p Our data support the hypothesis that prolonged changes in fasting and postprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations are associated with impaired nutritional recovery after CABG. These findings reinforce the need to investigate ghrelin in other patients groups undergoing major surgery.

  15. Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, M; Savorani, F; Christensen, S; Engelsen, S B; Bügel, S; Toubro, S; Tetens, I; Astrup, A

    2013-02-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Four different iso-caloric meals were tested in 18 young men in a double-blind randomized crossover design. Test meals were served after an overnight fast. DF content and source were: control (C): 1.4 g/MJ; whole flaxseed (WF): 2.4 g/MJ from whole flaxseeds; low-mucilage dose (LM): 2.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF; high-mucilage dose (HM): 3.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF. During the 7 h test day, subjective appetite sensation was assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite-regulating hormones, and lipemia and glycemia were measured, after which ad libitum energy intake was recorded. There was a significant time × meal effect on triacylglycerols (TG) (p = 0.02) and an 18% smaller area under the curve (AUC) for TG after meal HM compared to meal C was observed (p mucilage-containing meals. These findings suggest that flaxseed DF may suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite although subsequent energy intake was not affected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in adipose tissue determines postprandial lipoprotein metabolism in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Antonio; Meneses, Maria E; Rangel-Zuñiga, Oriol A; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Marin, Carmen; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Paniagua, Juan A; Tinahones, Francisco J; Roche, Helen; Malagon, Maria M; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to ascertain whether the quality and quantity of fat in the diet may influence the ER stress at the postprandial state in adipose tissue by analyzing the gene expression of chaperones, folding enzymes, and activators of the UPR. A randomized, controlled trial conducted within the LIPGENE study assigned 39 MetS patients to one of four diets: high-SFA (HSFA; 38% energy (E) from fat, 16% E as SFA), high MUFA (HMUFA; 38% E from fat, 20% E as MUFA), and two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate (LFHCC; 28% E from fat) diets supplemented with 1.24 g/day of long-chain n-3 PUFA or placebo for 12 wk each. A fat challenge reflecting the same fatty acid composition as the original diets was conducted post intervention. sXBP-1 is induced in the postprandial state irrespective of the diet consumed (p mechanism to counteract diet-induced stress. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Delayed effects of coffee, tea and sucrose on postprandial glycemia in lean, young, healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Atkinson, Fiona; Petocz, Peter; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2008-01-01

    In observational studies, habitual coffee consumption has been linked to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We hy-pothesized that the mechanism may be related to delayed effects on postprandial glycemia. The aim of this study is to investigate the glycemic and insulinemic effects of consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, sweetened and unsweetened, tea and sucrose, 1 h prior to a high carbohydrate meal. On separate occasions in random order, lean young healthy subjects (n = 8) consumed a potato-based meal 1 hour after consumption of 250 mL of black coffee (COF), black coffee sweetened with 10 g of sucrose (COF+SUC), decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), black tea (TEA), 10 g sucrose (SUC) or hot water (CON). Fingerprick blood samples were taken at regular intervals over 2 h and the glucose and insulin responses quantified as area under the curve. Compared to CON, COF caused a 28% increase in postprandial glycemia (p = 0.022). In contrast, COF+SUC decreased glycemia compared with either COF (-38%, pdrinking to diabetes risk.

  18. Effect of Sitagliptin therapy on postprandial lipoprotein levels in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, AJ; Lamarche, B; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2011-01-01

    to reduce fasting and postprandial glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes presumably through incretin hormone-mediated improvements in islet function. The objective of the present study is to examine the effects of treatment with sitagliptin on postprandial lipid and incretin hormone levels as well...... as glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Thirty-six subjects with type 2 diabetes (30 men/6 postmenopausal women with a mean age of 58.1 ± 6.4 years and a body mass index of 30.7 ± 4.9 kg/m2) were recruited in this double-blind cross-over study using sitagliptin 100 mg/day or placebo...... for a 6-week period each, with a 4-week washout period between the two phases. At the end of each phase of treatment, patients underwent an oral lipid tolerance test providing 35 g of fat per m2 of body surface area and blood samples were taken over an 8-h period. Results: Sitagliptin therapy...

  19. Angiopoietin-Like Protein 4 and Postprandial Skeletal Muscle Lipid Metabolism in Overweight and Obese Prediabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kolk, Birgitta W; Goossens, Gijs H; Jocken, Johan W; Kersten, Sander; Blaak, Ellen E

    2016-06-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) decreases plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) clearance by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and may contribute to impairments in lipid metabolism under compromised metabolic conditions. To investigate the effects of a high-saturated fatty acid (SFA) mixed meal on plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations in relation to in vivo muscle LPL activity, to study the effects of dietary fat quality, and to examine skeletal muscle ANGPTL4 release. Design, Participants, Setting, and Interventions: We used a dual stable-isotope tracer technique in combination with measurements of arteriovenous concentration differences across forearm muscle to investigate muscle ANGPTL4 secretion and fatty acid handling under fasting conditions and after a high-SFA mixed meal in 73 overweight and obese humans at the Metabolic Research Unit of Maastricht University. The effect of dietary fat quality manipulation on plasma ANGPTL4 was investigated in 10 obese insulin-resistant participants. The high-SFA meal decreased circulating ANGPTL4 concentrations (fasting, 5.2 ng/mL; vs 4 hours postprandial, 4.0 ng/mL; P postprandial conditions after a high-SFA meal. Plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations were not associated with in vivo skeletal muscle LPL activity after a high-SFA meal. Dietary fat quality affects plasma ANGPTL4, but it remains to be elucidated whether this influences short-term skeletal muscle lipid handling.

  20. Hepatic carboxylesterase 1 is induced by glucose and regulates postprandial glucose levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiesi Xu

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome, characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension, increases the risks for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1 is an enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides and cholesterol esters, and is important for lipid metabolism. Our previous data show that over-expression of mouse hepatic CES1 lowers plasma glucose levels and improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic ob/ob mice. In the present study, we determined the physiological role of hepatic CES1 in glucose homeostasis. Hepatic CES1 expression was reduced by fasting but increased in diabetic mice. Treatment of mice with glucose induced hepatic CES1 expression. Consistent with the in vivo study, glucose stimulated CES1 promoter activity and increased acetylation of histone 3 and histone 4 in the CES1 chromatin. Knockdown of ATP-citrate lyase (ACL, an enzyme that regulates histone acetylation, abolished glucose-mediated histone acetylation in the CES1 chromatin and glucose-induced hepatic CES1 expression. Finally, knockdown of hepatic CES1 significantly increased postprandial blood glucose levels. In conclusion, the present study uncovers a novel glucose-CES1-glucose pathway which may play an important role in regulating postprandial blood glucose levels.

  1. Positional distribution of decanoic acid: Effect on chylomicron and VLDL TAG structures and postprandial lipemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yli-Jokipii, K.M.; Schwab, U.S.; Tarvonen, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Although medium-chain FA (MCFA) are mainly absorbed via the portal venous system, they are also incorporated into chylomicron TAG; therefore, the positional distribution of MCFA in TAG is likely to affect their metabolic fate. We studied chylomicron and VLDL TAG structures, as well as the magnitu...... or in FFA concentrations. Thus, the positional distribution of MCFA in TAG affects their metabolic fate, but the magnitude of postprandial lipemia does not seem to be dependent on the positional distribution of MCFA in the ingested fat.......Although medium-chain FA (MCFA) are mainly absorbed via the portal venous system, they are also incorporated into chylomicron TAG; therefore, the positional distribution of MCFA in TAG is likely to affect their metabolic fate. We studied chylomicron and VLDL TAG structures, as well as the magnitude...... of postprandial lipemia, after two oral fat loads containing decanoic acid (10:0) predominantly at the sn-1 (3),2 (MML) or at the sn-1,3 positions (MLM) of TAG in a randomized, double-blind,,crossover clinical trial with 10 healthy, normal-weight volunteers. An MS-MS method was used to analyze TAG regioisomers...

  2. Acute Post-Prandial Cognitive Effects of Brown Seaweed Extract in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal F. Haskell-Ramsay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available (Polyphenols and, specifically, phlorotannins present in brown seaweeds have previously been shown to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, key enzymes involved in the breakdown and intestinal absorption of carbohydrates. Related to this are observations of modulation of post-prandial glycemic response in mice and increased insulin sensitivity in humans when supplemented with seaweed extract. However, no studies to date have explored the effect of seaweed extract on cognition. The current randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups study examined the impact of a brown seaweed extract on cognitive function post-prandially in 60 healthy adults (N = 30 per group. Computerized measures of episodic memory, attention and subjective state were completed at baseline and 5 times at 40 min intervals over a 3 h period following lunch, with either seaweed or placebo consumed 30 min prior to lunch. Analysis was conducted with linear mixed models controlling for baseline. Seaweed led to significant improvements to accuracy on digit vigilance (p = 0.035 and choice reaction time (p = 0.043 tasks. These findings provide the first evidence for modulation of cognition with seaweed extract. In order to explore the mechanism underlying these effects, future research should examine effects on cognition in parallel with blood glucose and insulin responses.

  3. Variations in Postprandial Blood Glucose Responses and Satiety after Intake of Three Types of Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S. H. Lunde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The magnitude and duration of postprandial blood glucose (PPG elevations are important risk factors of diabetes and coronary heart diseases. Aim. To study PPG after ingestion of breads with and without pea fibre and rapeseed oil. Methods. After fasting overnight, 10 Pakistani immigrant women participated in three experiments having a crossover design and involving ingestion of various types of bread: regular coarse bread or fibre enriched-bread with two levels of rapeseed oil, all providing 25 g available carbohydrates (CHO. Blood glucose and satiety were determined before the meal and every 15 min over the next 2 hours. Results. Intake of an amount of pea fibre-enriched bread containing 25 g CHO attenuated, the postprandial peak glucose value, the incremental area under the glucose versus time curve during 15 to 75 min, and the glycemic profile, and increased duration of satiety (<.05, as compared with intake of regular bread with 25 g carbohydrate. Conclusion. Pea fibre-enriched breads can reduce PPG and prolong satiety.

  4. Postprandial hepatic protein expression in trout Oncorhynchus mykiss a proteomics examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Eleni; Pierce, Graham J; Antonopoulou, Efthimia; Stead, David; Martin, Samuel A M

    2017-03-01

    Following a meal, a series of physiological changes occurs in animals as they digest, absorb and assimilate ingested nutrients, the kinetics of these responses depends on metabolic rate and nutrient quality. Here we investigated the hepatic proteome in the ectothermic teleost, the rainbow trout, following a single meal to define the postprandial expression of hepatic proteins. The fish were fed a high marine fishmeal/fish oil single meal following a period of 24 h without feeding. Liver protein profiles were examined by 2D gel electrophoresis just before feeding (time 0 h) and at 6 and 12 h after feeding. Of a total of 588 protein spots analysed in a temporal fashion, 49 differed significantly in abundance between the three time groups (ANOVA, p<0.05), before and after feeding, 15 were increased and 34 were decreased in abundance after feeding. Amino acid metabolism-regulated proteins such as phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase and proliferating cell antigen were increased in abundance 12 and 6 h following the meal, suggesting by this time that the fish were increasing their protein turnover to utilize efficiently their dietary protein consumption. Overall, these results highlight some specificity of the trout metabolism and identify postprandial response of metabolism-related proteins 6-12 h after feeding a single meal.

  5. Postprandial hepatic protein expression in trout Oncorhynchus mykiss a proteomics examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Mente

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Following a meal, a series of physiological changes occurs in animals as they digest, absorb and assimilate ingested nutrients, the kinetics of these responses depends on metabolic rate and nutrient quality. Here we investigated the hepatic proteome in the ectothermic teleost, the rainbow trout, following a single meal to define the postprandial expression of hepatic proteins. The fish were fed a high marine fishmeal/fish oil single meal following a period of 24 h without feeding. Liver protein profiles were examined by 2D gel electrophoresis just before feeding (time 0 h and at 6 and 12 h after feeding. Of a total of 588 protein spots analysed in a temporal fashion, 49 differed significantly in abundance between the three time groups (ANOVA, p<0.05, before and after feeding, 15 were increased and 34 were decreased in abundance after feeding. Amino acid metabolism-regulated proteins such as phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase and proliferating cell antigen were increased in abundance 12 and 6 h following the meal, suggesting by this time that the fish were increasing their protein turnover to utilize efficiently their dietary protein consumption. Overall, these results highlight some specificity of the trout metabolism and identify postprandial response of metabolism-related proteins 6–12 h after feeding a single meal.

  6. Lapacho tea (Tabebuia impetiginosa) extract inhibits pancreatic lipase and delays postprandial triglyceride increase in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiage-Mokua, Beatrice Nyanchama; Roos, Nils; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    Earlier work in our laboratory indicated that ethanolic extracts of Tabebuia impetiginosa, Arctium lappa L., Calendula officinalis, Helianthus annuus, Linum usitatissimum and L. propolis, inhibit pancreatic lipase in vitro. In a follow-up study we assessed their effects on plasma triglycerides in rats fed on a fatty meal. Extracts, orlistat or only ethanol were given orally to the rats together with the test meal and the rate of increase of postprandial triglycerides was assessed over 4 h. Clearing of the triglycerides from the blood compartment was abolished by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase with Triton WR-1339. Our results showed that out of all the extracts, the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa led to a significant delay in the postprandial increase of plasma triglycerides. However, lapachol, which is contained in the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa and soluble in ethanol, had no lipase inhibitory effect in vitro and hence this substance did not seem to mediate the pertinent effect. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects

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    Ingemansson Sandra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C. longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI in healthy subjects. Methods Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively. Results The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03 and 60 min (P = 0.041 after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048, 30 (P = 0.035, 90 (P = 0.03, and 120 (P = 0.02 minutes after the OGTT. Conclusions The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion. Trial registration number NCT01029327

  8. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Ingemansson, Sandra Lindstedt; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2010-10-12

    Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C.) longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI) in healthy subjects. Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively. The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03) and 60 min (P = 0.041) after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048), 30 (P = 0.035), 90 (P = 0.03), and 120 (P = 0.02) minutes after the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion.

  9. Effect of a high-protein breakfast on the postprandial ghrelin response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Wendy A M; Lluch, Anne; Stafleu, Annette

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The most satiating macronutrient appears to be dietary protein. Few studies have investigated the effects of dietary protein on ghrelin secretion in humans. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate whether a high-protein (HP) breakfast is more satiating than a high-carbohydra......BACKGROUND: The most satiating macronutrient appears to be dietary protein. Few studies have investigated the effects of dietary protein on ghrelin secretion in humans. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate whether a high-protein (HP) breakfast is more satiating than a high......-carbohydrate breakfast (HC) through suppression of postprandial ghrelin concentrations or through other physiologic processes. DESIGN: Fifteen healthy men were studied in a single-blind, crossover design. Blood samples and subjective measures of satiety were assessed frequently for 3 h after the consumption of 2...... absorption test. RESULTS: The HP breakfast decreased postprandial ghrelin secretion more than did the HC breakfast (P Ghrelin concentrations were correlated with glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (r = -0.65; 95% CI: -0.85, -0.29) and glucagon concentrations (r = -0.47; 95% CI: -0.75, -0...

  10. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T.; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low-calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI = 20.0 – 24.9) and 12 obese (BMI = 30.0 – 39.9) individuals 18 to 50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290 kcal), aspartame (290 kcal), or sucrose (493 kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20 minutes after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290 vs. 493 kcals), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia = 301 kcal, p Stevia preloads significantly lowered postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload. PMID:20303371

  11. Components of postprandial thermogenesis in relation to meal frequency in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, J; Mercier, I; Nadeau, A

    1993-12-01

    Experiments on dogs have shown that the size of the meal has no effect on the early cephalic postprandial thermogenesis, and that four small meals are more thermogenic than a larger meal with the same total caloric content as the four meals. A study was repeated on human subjects who were fed during alternating weeks either one large meal (653 kcal (1 kcal = 4.1855 kJ)) or four small meals (163 kcal) at 40-min intervals. Oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio determinations indicated (i) larger overall increase in postprandial thermogenesis with the four meals than with one meal and (ii) an enhancement of glucose utilization with the large meal compared with greater lipid utilization with the four meals. On the basis of indirect evidence from previous investigations it is suggested that the enhanced thermogenesis observed in the four-meal experiment is due to lipid mobilization caused by repeated stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system with palatable food. Blood analysis indicated a reduced elevation of plasma glucose in the four-meal experiment. The variations of insulin and C-peptide exactly paralleled those observed for glucose. It is concluded that the increased frequency of feeding significantly reduces insulin secretion in subjects fed a relatively high carbohydrate meal. In addition to this beneficial effect, increasing the number of meals increased thermogenesis and fat utilization.

  12. The effect of meal frequency on postprandial thermogenesis in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, D

    1992-01-01

    The effect of meal frequency on the thermic effect of food (TEF) was studied in six obese boys and five obese girls (age: mean +/- SE, 12.7 +/- 0.6 yr). Post-absorptive and postprandial resting energy expenditure (REE) were monitored continuously by indirect calorimetry. The children consumed one large liquid meal (LM) or three consecutive small meals (SM) at 1.5 h intervals on subsequent days. The first mode of nutrient intake was determined random. The energy content of the LM and one SM was tailored to provide 30% and 10% of the 24 h postabsorptive REE, respectively. The postprandial changes in REE were monitored for 6 h. The postabsorptive REE (mean +/- SE) was 4.86 +/- 0.28 and 4.9 +/- 0.27 kJ/min before the LM and SM, respectively. REE, respiratory quotient, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations increased sooner, steeper and higher with the LM than with the SM. The magnitude of the TEF was greater (p frequency of food consumption influences the immediate thermogenic response as well as the changes in respiratory quotient, glycaemia and insulinaemia. However, the complex effect of different meal frequencies on the overall energy balance of obese patients cannot be answered on the basis of the present results.

  13. Improved cardiac filling facilitates the postprandial elevation of stroke volume in Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Leite, Gabriella S P C; Leite, Cléo A C; Gesser, Hans; Hedrick, Michael S; Wang, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    To accommodate the pronounced metabolic response to digestion, pythons increase heart rate and elevate stroke volume, where the latter has been ascribed to a massive and fast cardiac hypertrophy. However, numerous recent studies show that heart mass rarely increases, even upon ingestion of large meals, and we therefore explored the possibility that a rise in mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) serves to elevate venous pressure and cardiac filling during digestion. To this end, we measured blood flows and pressures in anaesthetized Python regius The anaesthetized snakes exhibited the archetypal tachycardia as well as a rise in both venous pressure and MCFP that fully account for the approximate doubling of stroke volume. There was no rise in blood volume and the elevated MCFP must therefore stem from increased vascular tone, possibly by means of increased sympathetic tone on the veins. Furthermore, although both venous pressure and MCFP increased during volume loading, there was no evidence that postprandial hearts were endowed with an additional capacity to elevate stroke volume. In vitro measurements of force development of paced ventricular strips also failed to reveal signs of increased contractility, but the postprandial hearts had higher activities of cytochrome oxidase and pyruvate kinase, which probably serves to sustain the rise in cardiac work during digestion. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. "TRP inflammation" relationship in cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Kiriko; Inoue, Ryuji

    2016-05-01

    Despite considerable advances in the research and treatment, the precise relationship between inflammation and cardiovascular (CV) disease remains incompletely understood. Therefore, understanding the immunoinflammatory processes underlying the initiation, progression, and exacerbation of many cardiovascular diseases is of prime importance. The innate immune system has an ancient origin and is well conserved across species. Its activation occurs in response to pathogens or tissue injury. Recent studies suggest that altered ionic balance, and production of noxious gaseous mediators link to immune and inflammatory responses with altered ion channel expression and function. Among plausible candidates for this are transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that function as polymodal sensors and scaffolding proteins involved in many physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we will first focus on the relevance of TRP channel to both exogenous and endogenous factors related to innate immune response and transcription factors related to sustained inflammatory status. The emerging role of inflammasome to regulate innate immunity and its possible connection to TRP channels will also be discussed. Secondly, we will discuss about the linkage of TRP channels to inflammatory CV diseases, from a viewpoint of inflammation in a general sense which is not restricted to the innate immunity. These knowledge may serve to provide new insights into the pathogenesis of various inflammatory CV diseases and their novel therapeutic strategies.

  15. Macrophages in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Calum C; Mowat, Allan McI

    2014-01-01

    The intestine contains the largest pool of macrophages in the body which are essential for maintaining mucosal homeostasis in the face of the microbiota and the constant need for epithelial renewal but are also important components of protective immunity and are involved in the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, defining the biological roles of intestinal macrophages has been impeded by problems in defining the phenotype and origins of different populations of myeloid cells in the mucosa. Here, we discuss how multiple parameters can be used in combination to discriminate between functionally distinct myeloid cells and discuss the roles of macrophages during homeostasis and how these may change when inflammation ensues. We also discuss the evidence that intestinal macrophages do not fit the current paradigm that tissue-resident macrophages are derived from embryonic precursors that self-renew in situ, but require constant replenishment by blood monocytes. We describe our recent work demonstrating that classical monocytes constantly enter the intestinal mucosa and how the environment dictates their subsequent fate. We believe that understanding the factors that drive intestinal macrophage development in the steady state and how these may change in response to pathogens or inflammation could provide important insights into the treatment of IBD. PMID:24942685

  16. Inflammation: good or bad for ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donev, Rossen; Thome, Johannes

    2010-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by the typical behavioural core symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. ADHD is a usually chronic health conditions, mostly diagnosed in childhood, creating a significant challenge for youth, their families and professionals who treat it. This disorder requires long-term treatments, including psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions, which in some cases may lead to adverse effects. Understanding the mechanism by which ADHD risk factors affect the biochemical processes in the human brain and consequentially the behaviour will help to identify novel targets for the development of therapeutics with less adverse results and better efficacy including higher responder rates. Although inflammatory responses in the brain have been recognised for years as critical in neurodegeneration and behaviour in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, their role for the development, treatment and prevention of ADHD has been so far largely overlooked, although historically, ADHD symptoms were initially observed in patients who survived an ONJ infection, i.e. inflammation. In this review, we discuss the interrelationship between different ADHD risk factors and inflammation with respect to the triggered molecular mechanisms and the contribution they are likely to have to this disorder. This paper provides a rationale for future studies on ADHD with an intent to inspiring the development of new agents for a more efficient management of this disorder.

  17. Imaging Modalities to Identity Inflammation in an Atherosclerotic Plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sunny; Miller, Avraham; Agarwal, Chirag; Zakin, Elina; Acholonu, Michael; Gidwani, Umesh; Sharma, Abhishek; Kulbak, Guy; Shani, Jacob; Chen, On

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, multifocal arterial wall disease caused by local and systemic inflammation responsible for major cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. With the recent understanding that vulnerable plaque erosion and rupture, with subsequent thrombosis, rather than luminal stenosis, is the underlying cause of acute ischemic events, there has been a shift of focus to understand the mechanisms that make an atherosclerotic plaque unstable or vulnerable to rupture. The presence of inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaque has been considered as one of the initial events which convert a stable plaque into an unstable and vulnerable plaque. This paper systemically reviews the noninvasive and invasive imaging modalities that are currently available to detect this inflammatory process, at least in the intermediate stages, and discusses the ongoing studies that will help us to better understand and identify it at the molecular level.

  18. Imaging Modalities to Identity Inflammation in an Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Goel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, multifocal arterial wall disease caused by local and systemic inflammation responsible for major cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. With the recent understanding that vulnerable plaque erosion and rupture, with subsequent thrombosis, rather than luminal stenosis, is the underlying cause of acute ischemic events, there has been a shift of focus to understand the mechanisms that make an atherosclerotic plaque unstable or vulnerable to rupture. The presence of inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaque has been considered as one of the initial events which convert a stable plaque into an unstable and vulnerable plaque. This paper systemically reviews the noninvasive and invasive imaging modalities that are currently available to detect this inflammatory process, at least in the intermediate stages, and discusses the ongoing studies that will help us to better understand and identify it at the molecular level.

  19. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Understanding Carbohydrates How much and what type of carbohydrate foods ... glucose levels in your target range. Explore: Understanding Carbohydrates Glycemic Index and Diabetes Learn about the glycemic ...

  20. Food intolerance and mucosal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Most infants are immunologically active and are able to develop a tolerance to oligoclonal antigens by producing IgA, along with activation of regulatory T cells, in early infancy. Cytokines and their signaling molecules are important mediators in the intestine, regulating both oral tolerance and mucosal inflammation. This system works efficiently in most individuals, but for an as yet undefined reason, some people react to food and other proteins as though they were pathogens, with induction of chronic inflammation in the mucosa. The adverse reaction caused by ingested foods is defined as food intolerance. The clinical features of food intolerance include vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stool, eczema, failure to thrive, and a protean range of other symptoms. Intolerance can be divided into two categories depending on whether or not they are immunologically mediated. Food intolerance and mucosal inflammation are deeply related because tolerance cannot be established when there is an inflammation in the intestinal mucosa. Mast cells, eosinophils, mucosal lymphocytes, and epithelial cells are deeply involved and related to each other in the development of mucosal inflammation. Meanwhile, rectal bleeding in infancy is related to lymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophil infiltration into the colonic mucosa facilitated by C-C motif ligand 11 (CCL11, known as eotaxin-1) and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13). Rectal bleeding in infancy may not be simply caused by allergic reactions against specific antigens, but may be due to migrated lymphocytes developing immunological tolerance; including IgA synthesizing, in the intestinal mucosa. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is anemia of inflammation and chronic disease (AI/ACD)? Anemia of inflammation and chronic disease is a ... after iron-deficiency anemia. 1 Who gets AI/ACD? While AI/ACD can affect people at any ...

  2. Aetiological factors behind adipose tissue inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt J; Andresen, Erik N; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research into the biological mechanisms behind obesity-related inflammation, knowledge of environmental and genetic factors triggering such mechanisms is limited. In the present narrative review we present potential determinants of adipose tissue inflammation and suggest ways...

  3. Adipose Tissue, Inflammation (Meta-inflammation and Obesity Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity-induced inflammation contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. CONTENT:The last decade has seen a sharp increase in our appreciation for the macrophage as a critical regulator of metabolic status in obesity. Activation of adipose tissue (AT macrophages within fat depots is coupled with the development of obesity-induced proinflammatory state and insulin resistance (IR. The activation of classically activated M1 macrophages at the expense of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages has been causally linked to the development of AT inflammation and metabolic syndrome, a pathophysiological state aptly termed as ‘metainflammation’. It is recognized that several proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL-1β, are implicated in disrupting insulin signaling. Our developing appreciation of links among obesity, inflammation and cardiovascular disease will require multiple complementary approaches to leverage new concepts into translatable outcomes. Careful characterization of human patients, particularly analysis of AT distribution, will be needed to stratify subjects that are most likely obese/metabolically healthy from those that are obese/metabolically unhealthy. SUMMARY: It has been suggested that individuals with the condition known as metabolically healthy obese (MHO may not have the same increased risk for the development of metabolic abnormalities as their non-metabolically healthy counterparts. A complications-centric model for the medical management of obesity emphasizes the identification and staging of complications, and treatment paradigm directed at patients who would gain the most benefit from weight loss. KEYWORDS: obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance, M1/M2 macrophage.

  4. Postprandial glucose and insulin levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients after consumption of ready-to-eat mixed meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Tsoutsoulopoulou, Konstantina; Kogkas, Stergios; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Efstathopoulou, Eirini

    2017-04-01

    To compare the effects of three ready-to-eat mixed meals, with a high fiber content and low glycemic index, on postprandial glycemic and insulinemic response in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The current study followed a prospective, three-way, cross-over design. Twenty-four patients with T2DM consumed three ready-to-eat mixed meals, i.e., "wild greens pie" (meal 1), "chicken burgers with boiled vegetables" (meal 2) and "vegetable moussaka" (meal 3) and an oral glucose load, all providing 50 g of carbohydrates. Venous blood was collected at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandial. Statistical analyses included repeated measures analysis of variance and calculations of the area under the glucose and insulin curves (AUC) for each one of the test meals and the oral glucose load. Patients consuming each one of the three mixed meals showed better postprandial glycemic responses compared to the oral glucose load (P meal 3 showed a better insulinemic response compared to the oral glucose load and meal 1, after 60 and 120 min postprandial, respectively (P meal 3, compared to the oral glucose load (P eat mixed meals examined in the present study were found to elicit significantly lower glycemic responses compared to the oral glucose load in diabetic patients. The mixed meals examined in the present study could be proposed as effective, palatable and practical solutions for diabetics for glucose control.

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids acutely affect triacylglycerol-derived skeletal muscle fatty acid uptake and increases postprandial insulin sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, Anneke; Konings, Ellen; Goossens, Gijs H.; Bouwman, Freek G.; Moors, Chantalle C.; Boekschoten, Mark; Afman, Lydia; Muller, Michael; Mariman, Edwin C.; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary fat quality may influence skeletal muscle lipid handling and fat accumulation, thereby modulating insulin sensitivity. Objective: To examine acute effects of meals with various fatty acid (FA) compositions on skeletal muscle FA handling and postprandial insulin sensitivity in obese insulin

  6. Hepatic insulin resistance both in prediabetic and diabetic patients determines postprandial lipoprotein metabolism: From the CORDIOPREV study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon-Acuña, A.; Alcala-Diaz, J.F.; Delgado-Lista, J.; Torres-Peña, J.D.; Lopez-Moreno, J.; Camargo, A.; Garcia-Rios, A.; Marin, C.; Gomez-Delgado, F.; Caballero, J.; Ommen, B. van; Malagon, M.M.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Lopez-Miranda, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims: Previous evidences have shown the presence of a prolonged and exaggerated postprandial response in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its relation with an increase of cardiovascular risk. However, the response in prediabetes population has not been established. The objective was to

  7. Digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing different oilseed by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential for using oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) as partial replacements of fishmeal in feeds for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nutrient digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion rates were examined. A f...

  8. Postprandial effects of test meals including concentrated arabinoxylan and whole grain rye in subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M L; Lærke, H N; Overgaard, A

    2014-01-01

    grain rye kernels on postprandial glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), gut hormones, SCFA and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifteen subjects with MetS participated in this acute, randomised, cross-over study. The test meals each providing 50 g...

  9. Impact of exogenous hyperglucagonemia on postprandial concentrations of gastric inhibitory polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Ritter, Peter R; Jacob, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been found diminished in some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and high glucagon concentrations. We examined the effects of exogenous glucagon on the release of incretin hormones....

  10. Relationship between the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio and the Improvement of Postprandial Metabolic Stress by a Functional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Peluso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, we investigated the relationship between postprandial dysmetabolism and the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio (PLIR, a test that measures the resistance of leukocytes to exogenous oxidative stress and their functional capacity of oxidative burst upon activation. Following a blind, placebo controlled, randomized, crossover design, ten healthy subjects ingested, in two different occasions, a high fat and high carbohydrates meal with Snello cookie (HFHCM-S or with control cookies (HFHCM-C. Snello cookie, a functional food covered by dark chocolate and containing glucomannan, inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and Bacillus coagulans strain GanedenBC30, significantly improved postprandial metabolic stress (insulin, glucose, and triglycerides and reduced the postprandial increase of uric acid. HFHCM-S improved PLIR of lymphocytes, but not of monocytes and granulocytes. Both meals increased granulocytes’ count and reduced the lipoperoxidation induced by both exogenous free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by oxidative burst. Our results suggest that the healthy status of the subjects could be a limitation of this pilot study for PLIR evaluation on cells that produce ROS by oxidative burst. In conclusion, the relationship between PLIR and postprandial dysmetabolism requires further investigations.

  11. Orange pomace improves postprandial glycemic responses: an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial in overweight men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange pomace (OP), a fiber-rich byproduct of juice production, has the potential for being formulated into a variety of food products. We hypothesized that OP would diminish postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and lunch. We conducted an acute, randomized, placebo-co...

  12. Effects of high-fat feeding on ectopic fat storage and postprandial lipid metabolism in mouse offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewijk, Van Petronella A.; Paglialunga, Sabina; Kooi, M.E.; Nunes, Patricia M.; Gemmink, Anne; Slenter, Jos; Kornips, Esther; Jörgensen, Johanna A.; Hoeks, Joris; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Hesselink, Matthijs K.C.; Glatz, Jan F.C.; Heerschap, Arend; Kersten, Sander; Schrauwen, Patrick; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Parental high-fat feeding was proposed to negatively impact metabolic health in offspring. Here, the ectopic fat storage in heart and liver in offspring was investigated, and the effects on mitochondrial function, de novo lipogenesis, and postprandial lipid metabolism were explored in

  13. Effect of exercise intensity on postprandial lipemia, markers of oxidative stress, and endothelial function after a high-fat meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Krüger, Renata; Costa Teixeira, Bruno; Boufleur Farinha, Juliano; Cauduro Oliveira Macedo, Rodrigo; Pinto Boeno, Francesco; Rech, Anderson; Lopez, Pedro; Silveira Pinto, Ronei; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 2 different exercise intensities on postprandial lipemia, oxidative stress markers, and endothelial function after a high-fat meal (HFM). Eleven young men completed 2-day trials in 3 conditions: rest, moderate-intensity exercise (MI-Exercise) and heavy-intensity exercise (HI-Exercise). Subjects performed an exercise bout or no exercise (Rest) on the evening of day 1. On the morning of day 2, an HFM was provided. Blood was sampled at fasting (0 h) and every hour from 1 to 5 h during the postprandial period for triacylglycerol (TAG), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) concentrations. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was also analyzed. TAG concentrations were reduced in exercise conditions compared with Rest during the postprandial period (P postprandial TAG enhancement. Conversely, MI-Exercise can be beneficial to attenuate the susceptibility of oxidative damage induced by an HFM and to increase endothelial function in the fasted state compared with Rest.

  14. Effects of high-fat feeding on ectopic fat storage and postprandial lipid metabolism in mouse offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewijk, P.A. van; Paglialunga, S.; Kooi, M.E.; Nunes, P.M.; Gemmink, A.; Slenter, J.; Kornips, E.; Jorgensen, J.A.; Hoeks, J.; Wildberger, J.E.; Hesselink, M.K.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Heerschap, A.; Kersten, S.; Schrauwen, P.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Parental high-fat feeding was proposed to negatively impact metabolic health in offspring. Here, the ectopic fat storage in heart and liver in offspring was investigated, and the effects on mitochondrial function, de novo lipogenesis, and postprandial lipid metabolism were explored in

  15. Postprandial oxidative losses of free and protein-bound amino acids in the diet: interactions and adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, J.A.; Verreijen, A.M.; Koopmanschap, R.E.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Postprandial oxidation of dietary free amino acids or egg white protein was studied using the [13CO2] breath test in rats, as well as in humans. Thirty-eight male rats were assigned to four dietary test groups. Two diets only differed in their protein fraction. Diet I contained 21% egg white

  16. Wheat-fibre-induced changes of postprandial peptide YY and ghrelin responses are not associated with acute alterations of satiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weickert, Martin O; Spranger, Joachim; Holst, Jens Juul

    2006-01-01

    Weight gain and risk of type 2 diabetes are inversely associated with a high intake of insoluble cereal fibres. Because nutrient-induced changes of 'satiety hormones' from the gut may play a role in this process, we evaluated the effects of purified insoluble fibres on postprandial responses of p...

  17. Relationship between the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio and the Improvement of Postprandial Metabolic Stress by a Functional Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Manafikhi, Husseen; Reggi, Raffaella; Longhitano, Yaroslava; Zanza, Christian; Palmery, Maura

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we investigated the relationship between postprandial dysmetabolism and the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio (PLIR), a test that measures the resistance of leukocytes to exogenous oxidative stress and their functional capacity of oxidative burst upon activation. Following a blind, placebo controlled, randomized, crossover design, ten healthy subjects ingested, in two different occasions, a high fat and high carbohydrates meal with Snello cookie (HFHCM-S) or with control cookies (HFHCM-C). Snello cookie, a functional food covered by dark chocolate and containing glucomannan, inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and Bacillus coagulans strain GanedenBC30, significantly improved postprandial metabolic stress (insulin, glucose, and triglycerides) and reduced the postprandial increase of uric acid. HFHCM-S improved PLIR of lymphocytes, but not of monocytes and granulocytes. Both meals increased granulocytes' count and reduced the lipoperoxidation induced by both exogenous free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by oxidative burst. Our results suggest that the healthy status of the subjects could be a limitation of this pilot study for PLIR evaluation on cells that produce ROS by oxidative burst. In conclusion, the relationship between PLIR and postprandial dysmetabolism requires further investigations.

  18. Postprandial hypotension in clinical geriatric patients and healthy elderly: prevalence related to patient selection and diagnostic criteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orshoven, N.P. Van; Jansen, P.A.M.; Oudejans, I.; Schoon, Y.; Oey, P.L.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to find out whether Postprandial hypotension (PPH) occurs more frequently in patients admitted to a geriatric ward than in healthy elderly individuals, what the optimal interval between blood pressure measurements is in order to diagnose PPH and how often it is associated

  19. Laboratory Exercise: Study of Digestive and Regulatory Processes through the Exploration of Fasted and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari K.; Maurer, Luke W.

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology laboratory exercises often explore the regulation of enzyme action rather than systems physiology. This laboratory exercise provides a systems approach to digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of postprandial blood glucose levels. In the present exercise, students enrolled in an undergraduate animal…

  20. Postprandial lipid responses to an alpha-linolenic acid-rich oil, olive oil and butter in women: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Julia; Rosenquist, Anna; Ohlsson, Lena

    2011-06-28

    Postprandial lipaemia varies with gender and the composition of dietary fat due to the partitioning of fatty acids between beta-oxidation and incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAGs). Increasing evidence highlights the importance of postprandial measurements to evaluate atherogenic risk. Postprandial effects of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in women are poorly characterized. We therefore studied the postprandial lipid response of women to an ALA-rich oil in comparison with olive oil and butter, and characterized the fatty acid composition of total lipids, TAGs, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) in plasma. A randomized crossover design (n = 19) was used to compare the postprandial effects of 3 meals containing 35 g fat. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals for 7 h. Statistical analysis was carried out with ANOVA (significant difference = P postprandial p-TAG and NEFA response in healthy pre-menopausal women was not significantly different after the intake of an ALA-rich oil, olive oil and butter. The ALA-rich oil significantly affected different plasma lipid fractions and improved the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids several hours postprandially.

  1. Gene Expression, Oxidative Stress, and Senescence of Primary Coronary Endothelial Cells Exposed to Postprandial Serum of Healthy Adult and Elderly Volunteers after Oven-Cooked Meat Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Costarelli; Robertina, Giacconi; Piacenza, Francesco; Basso, Andrea; Balzano, Michele; Gagliardi, Riccardo; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Provinciali, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked high consumption of meat with major age-related diseases including cardiovascular diseases. Abnormal postprandial increases in plasma lipids after a meat meal have been hypothesized among the pathogenetic mechanisms. However, it is still unknown if the postprandial serum derived after a normal meat meal is able to affect endothelial function, and if the type of meat and the age of the donors are critical factors. Here, we show the effects of postprandial sera derived from healthy adults and elderly volunteers who consumed meat meals on human coronary artery endothelial cell (HCAEC) oxidative stress, gene expression, DNA damage, and cellular senescence. We observed that a single exposure to postprandial serum induces a slight increase in ROS that is associated with modulation of gene expression pathways related to oxidative stress response and metabolism. The postprandial-induced increase in ROS is not associated with a measurable DNA oxidative damage. However, repeated exposure to postprandial serum induces an acceleration of cellular senescence. Taking into account the deleterious role of cellular senescence in age-related vascular diseases, the results suggest a new mechanism by which excessive meat consumption and time spent in postprandial state may affect health status during aging. PMID:29379227

  2. Hypertriglyceridemia Influences the Degree of Postprandial Lipemic Response in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Coronary Artery Disease: From the Cordioprev Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcala-Diaz, Juan F.; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia M.; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Camargo, Antonio; Almaden, Yolanda; Caballero, Javier; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Ordovas, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether metabolic syndrome traits influence the postprandial lipemia response of coronary patients, and whether this influence depends on the number of MetS criteria. Materials and Methods 1002 coronary artery disease patients from the CORDIOPREV study were submitted to an oral fat load test meal with 0.7 g fat/kg body weight (12% saturated fatty acids, 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids, 43% monounsaturated fatty acids), 10% protein and 25% carbohydrates. Serial blood test analyzing lipid fractions were drawn at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours during the postprandial state. Total and incremental area under the curves of the different postprandial parameters were calculated following the trapezoid rule to assess the magnitude of change during the postprandial state Results Postprandial lipemia response was directly related to the presence of metabolic syndrome. We found a positive association between the number of metabolic syndrome criteria and the response of postprandial plasma triglycerides (ppostprandial triglycerides remained statistically significant only in those patients without basal hypertriglyceridemia. Interestingly, in stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with the AUC of triglycerides as the dependent variable, only fasting triglycerides, fasting glucose and waist circumference appeared as significant independent (Ppostprandial triglycerides levels. MetS influences the postprandial response of lipids in patients with coronary heart disease, particularly in non-hypertriglyceridemic patients. PMID:24802225

  3. Availability of self-recorded axillary temperature for assessment of thermic effects of food: relationship between HDL-cholesterol level and postprandial thermoregulation in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S; Nishio, S-i; Ishii, H; Sato, A; Takeda, T; Komatsu, M

    2012-02-01

    The present study was performed to develop a simple procedure for assessment of body temperature and to determine whether postprandial thermoregulation is related to metabolic regulation in diabetic patients. We examined 101 male and female subjects with diabetes. Axillary temperature was measured prior to and after all meals (3 meals per day) and self-recorded for 1 week. The averages were calculated. Positive postprandial thermoregulation (PPT) was defined as a pattern in which each of 3 average postprandial temperatures was higher than the corresponding 3 preprandial temperatures. Negative postprandial thermoregulation (NPT) was defined as the pattern except for PPT. A significant increase in postprandial temperature was observed. With the exception of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels, there were no relationships between the categorized postprandial thermoregulation and other factors, including age, sex, body mass index, thyroid function, HbA1c, diabetic complications, lipid metabolism, and calorie intake. Logistic analysis indicated an independent positive relation between HDL-cholesterol and PPT. A simple method for measurement of body temperature indicated that HDL-cholesterol level was predominantly associated with thermic effects of food in diabetic patients, while other metabolic factors showed no such relations. HDL-cholesterol may affect the postprandial regulation of body temperature in diabetic patients. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Anti-inflammatory role of GLP-1 and the effect of gastric bypass on diabetes- and obesity-associated inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovbjerg, Kirsten Katrine Lindegaard

    , the RYGB procedure is associated with immediate improvement in glycemic control and insulin secretion. The exact mechanisms for the immediate and long-term positive effect of RYGB on glucose metabolism and obesity related co-morbidities remain unclear. Changes in inflammatory cellular and molecular...... with a set of metabolic abnormalities comprising the metabolic syndrome, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Although the exact causes for the onset of clinical disease remain largely unknown, emerging evidence seems to suggest that obesity-induced inflammation, especially...... body of literature reports antiinflammatory and other immunological effects of GLP-1 in animals and in humans suggesting that GLP-1 acts beyond purely glucoregulatory mechanisms. The exaggerated postprandial GLP-1 secretion following RYGB may thus be involved in the beneficial metabolic effects both...

  5. Relationship between Inflammation and Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Riddhi Patel; Henish Patel; Rachana Sarawade

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is a part of complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, damaged cells or irritants. Recent advance in basic science have established a fundamental role for inflammation immediating all stages of cardiovascular diseases from initiation, progression and complications. Inflammation is thread linking to cardiovascular diseases. Clinical studies have shown that this emerging biology of inflammation play important role in pathogenesis of acute ...

  6. SOCS and inflammation in chronic renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Rastmanesh, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in renal patients and a major health concern in western countries per se. Recent studies point to the important role of inflammation as an underlying cause of atherosclerosis. Importantly medicines that suppress inflammation lower the incidence of atherosclerosis as well. This indicates the importance of molecules that are able to control inflammation. Inflammation in renal patients is characterized by increased plasma levels of in...

  7. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan Shelly

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food compounds such as phenolic antioxidants. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of two specific grape pomace extracts by determining their antioxidant and anti-postprandial hyperglycemic activities in vitro and in vivo. Methods The extracts of red wine grape pomace (Cabernet Franc and white wine grape pomace (Chardonnay were prepared in 80% ethanol. An extract of red apple pomace was included as a comparison. The radical scavenging activities and phenolic profiles of the pomace extracts were determined through the measurement of oxygen radical absorbance capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and flavonoids. The inhibitory effects of the pomace extracts on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases were determined. Male 6-week old C57BLKS/6NCr mice were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were then treated with vehicle or the grape pomace extract to determine whether the oral intake of the extract can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia through the inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases. Results The red grape pomace extract contained significantly higher amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exerted stronger oxygen radical absorbance capacity than the red apple pomace extract. Both the grape pomace extracts but not the apple pomace extract exerted significant inhibition on intestinal α-glucosidases and the inhibition appears to be specific. In the animal study, the oral intake of the grape pomace extract (400 mg/kg body weight significantly suppressed the postprandial hyperglycemia by 35% in streptozocin

  8. Hypertriglyceridemia influences the degree of postprandial lipemic response in patients with metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease: from the CORDIOPREV study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Alcala-Diaz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metabolic syndrome traits influence the postprandial lipemia response of coronary patients, and whether this influence depends on the number of MetS criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1002 coronary artery disease patients from the CORDIOPREV study were submitted to an oral fat load test meal with 0.7 g fat/kg body weight (12% saturated fatty acids, 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids, 43% monounsaturated fatty acids, 10% protein and 25% carbohydrates. Serial blood test analyzing lipid fractions were drawn at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours during the postprandial state. Total and incremental area under the curves of the different postprandial parameters were calculated following the trapezoid rule to assess the magnitude of change during the postprandial state. RESULTS: Postprandial lipemia response was directly related to the presence of metabolic syndrome. We found a positive association between the number of metabolic syndrome criteria and the response of postprandial plasma triglycerides (p<0.001, area under the curve of triglycerides (p<0.001 and incremental area under the curve of triglycerides (p<0.001. However, the influence of them on postprandial triglycerides remained statistically significant only in those patients without basal hypertriglyceridemia. Interestingly, in stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with the AUC of triglycerides as the dependent variable, only fasting triglycerides, fasting glucose and waist circumference appeared as significant independent (P<0.05 contributors. The multiple lineal regression (R was 0.77, and fasting triglycerides showed the greatest effect on AUC of triglycerides with a standardized coefficient of 0.75. CONCLUSIONS: Fasting triglycerides are the major contributors to the postprandial triglycerides levels. MetS influences the postprandial response of lipids in patients with coronary heart disease, particularly in non-hypertriglyceridemic patients.

  9. An acute intake of theobromine does not change postprandial lipid metabolism, whereas a high-fat meal lowers chylomicron particle number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum

    2017-04-01

    Postprandial responses predict cardiovascular disease risk. However, only a few studies have compared acute postprandial effects of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LF) meal with a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HF) meal. Furthermore, theobromine has favorably affected fasting lipids, but postprandial effects are unknown. Because both fat and theobromine have been reported to increase fasting apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) concentrations, the main hypothesis of this randomized, double-blind crossover study was that acute consumption of an HF meal and a theobromine meal increased postprandial apoA-I concentrations, when compared with an LF meal. Theobromine was added to the LF meal. Nine healthy men completed the study. After meal intake, blood was sampled frequently for 4hours. Postprandial apoA-I concentrations were comparable after intake of the 3 meals. Apolipoprotein B48 curves, however, were significantly lower and those of triacylglycerol were significantly higher after HF as compared with LF consumption. Postprandial free fatty acid concentrations decreased less, and glucose and insulin concentrations increased less after HF meal consumption. Except for an increase in the incremental area under the curve for insulin, theobromine did not modify responses of the LF meal. These data show that acute HF and theobromine consumption does not change postprandial apoA-I concentrations. Furthermore, acute HF consumption had divergent effects on postprandial apolipoprotein B48 and triacylglycerol responses, suggesting the formation of less, but larger chylomicrons after HF intake. Finally, except for an increase in the incremental area under the curve for insulin, acute theobromine consumption did not modify the postprandial responses of the LF meal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Postprandial saturated fatty acids increase the risk of type 2 diabetes: a cohort study in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjiao; Meng, Xing; Deng, Xinrui; Okekunle, Akinkunmi Paul; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Qiao; Ding, Lingyu; Guo, Xinxin; Lv, Mengfan; Sun, Changhao; Li, Ying

    2018-02-01

    Experimental evidence suggests saturated fatty acids (SFA) are associated with insulin resistance (IR), but results from epidemiological studies on fasting SFA-diabetes risk are inconsistent. We investigated SFA (fasting and 2h postprandial) profiles and diabetes risk. A total of 8,940 subjects were recruited for the Harbin People's Health Study in 2008. Serum SFA (fasting and 2h postprandial) at baseline in Chinese men and women without diabetes were profiled while type 2 diabetes was ascertained using WHO criteria after 4-7 years of follow-up. Associations between 2h postprandial SFA (2h-SFA) and diabetes. At baseline, incident cases of diabetes were older with higher body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). After a mean follow-up of 6.7 years, 658 incident cases of diabetes occurred. After propensity score (PS) computation and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) estimation, fasting-SFA were unrelated to diabetes risk but IPTW-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest tertile of postprandial stearic acid (2h-SA), postprandial palmitic acid (2h-PA) and 2h-SFA for diabetes risk were 2.50 (2.08, 3.16), 1.56 (1.23, 2.02) and 1.70 (1.34, 2.17) respectively P-trendSFA/fasting-SFA ratios [IPTW-adjusted OR (95%CI): 2.94 (2.39, 3.58), 2.31 (1.80, 2.93), and 2.42 (1.91, 3.11), respectively P-trendSFA (but not fasting-SFA) independently predicted diabetes risk. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society

  11. Effects of Consuming Preloads with Different Energy Density and Taste Quality on Energy Intake and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Tey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of reduced energy dense foods and drink has the potential to reduce energy intake and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. In addition, the taste quality of a meal (e.g., sweet or savoury may play a role in satiation and food intake. The objective of this randomised crossover study was to examine whether energy density and taste quality has an impact on energy intake and postprandial blood glucose response. Using a preload design, participants were asked to consume a sweet (“Cheng Teng” or a savoury (broth preload soup in high energy density (HED; around 0.50 kcal/g; 250 kcal or low energy density (LED; around 0.12 kcal/g; 50 kcal in mid-morning and an ad libitum lunch was provided an hour after the preload. Participants recorded their food intake for the rest of the day after they left the study site. Energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response were measured in 32 healthy lean males (mean age = 28.9 years, mean BMI = 22.1 kg/m2. There was a significant difference in ad libitum lunch intake between treatments (p = 0.012, with higher intake in sweet LED and savoury LED compared to sweet HED and savoury HED. Energy intake at subsequent meals and total daily energy intake did not differ between the four treatments (both p ≥ 0.214. Consumption of HED preloads resulted in a larger spike in postprandial blood glucose response compared with LED preloads, irrespective of taste quality (p < 0.001. Energy density rather than taste quality plays an important role in energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response. This suggests that regular consumption of low energy-dense foods has the potential to reduce overall energy intake and to improve glycemic control.

  12. Postprandial Lipid Response to High-Saturated and High-Monounsaturated Fat Meals in Normal-Weight or Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lílian L; Rocha, Daniela Mayumi U P; Silva, Alessandra da; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G; Bressan, Josefina; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M

    2018-02-09

    We evaluated postprandial response of the lipid metabolism markers after the intake of a high-saturated fat (HSM) or high-monounsaturated fat meal (HMM). A randomized, controlled and acute intervention study included 63 women (age 26.9 ± 6.1 years): 35 normal weight (NW) and 28 overweight (OW) (total body fat [TBF] 24.7 ± 3.9% and 36.6 ± 3.9%, respectively). After 12 hours of fasting, each subject was given one of the two test meals standardized, including 2 muffins and water (HSM, 42.1% of saturated fat acid, or HMM, 34.5% of monounsaturated fat acid). Plasma fatty acid profile and concentrations of apolipoproteins A1 and B100, complement C3, and triacylglycerols were analyzed during fasting and at 2, 3, and 5 postprandial hours. Among the markers studied, the triacylglycerol (TAG) and complement C3 were significantly higher in the OW group, compared to NW. The increment in the C3 concentration was higher after HSM intake, compared with HMM (iAUC = 4365.5 ± 5477.4 vs. 1215.2 ± 882.4; p = 0.006), with no differences between groups. After 5 hours postprandial, plasma oleic acid values remained high compared with the fasting value in the NW group, but not in the OW group (26.0 ± 4.2 vs 23.7 ± 3.9%; p postprandial increment of C3 concentration, suggesting another mechanism for saturated fat metabolism. The postprandial response to HSM appears to be the mediated by baseline lipid profile of the individuals, while the response to HMM was correlated to the weight status.

  13. Effects of milk and milk constituents on postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meijl, Leonie E C; Mensink, Ronald P

    2013-08-28

    Studies have suggested that two major milk constituents, casein and Ca, favourably affect postprandial responses. However, effects of milk on postprandial metabolism are unknown. We therefore investigated effects of using milk with a fat-containing meal on lipid and glucose responses in overweight men. To identify the constituent responsible for possible effects, we also studied responses to Ca and protein. A total of sixteen men (BMI .27 kg/m2) participated in four postprandial tests. They consumed a breakfast (44 g of fat) plus a drink: a control drink, low-fat milk or a protein and Ca drink (500 ml). Blood samples were taken before the meals and at regular time points during 6 h thereafter. Compared with control, the incremental AUC (iAUC) for serum TAG was increased by 44% after the protein meal (P¼0·015). Although the iAUC were not different (P¼0·051), peak glucose concentrations were reduced by 24% after protein intake, as compared with control (P¼0·021). The decrease of 18% after milk intake did not reach statistical significance. Compared with the milk meal, the iAUC for insulin was 52% lower after the control meal (P¼0·035) and 51% after the protein meal (P¼0·005). The present results indicate that the intake of milk with a fat-containing meal enhances postprandial TAG and insulin responses and may blunt glucose increases. The protein fraction of milk seems to be the main determinant for the effects on TAG and glucose. Ca did not change any of the postprandial responses.

  14. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Markey, Oonagh

    2011-09-07

    Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p < 0.05). Strong relationships were evident (p < 0.05) between GE Thalf and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78), eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84) and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72). The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http:\\/\\/www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  15. Post-Prandial Plasma Glucose Less Than or Equal to 70 mg/dL Is Not Uncommon in Young Japanese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Ayaka; Takeuchi, Mika; Kitaoka, Kaori; Minato, Satomi; Kurata, Miki; Kazumi, Tsutomu; Fukuo, Keisuke

    2017-08-01

    Post-breakfast/post-challenge plasma glucose (PG) concentrations were studied less in young normal weight Japanese women. We addressed these issues. Two separate groups of female collegiate athletes and female untrained students underwent either a standardized meal test or a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, but not both. Frequency of women whose post-breakfast/post-load PG fell to 70 mg/dL or lower (termed as low glycemia) was compared between athletes and non-athletes, who also underwent measurements of serum adipokines, markers of insulin resistance and inflammation and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity/resistance and serum adipokines were compared between women with and without post-breakfast low glycemia. The same comparison was done between women whose post-breakfast PG returned to levels below the fasting PG and women whose post-breakfast PG never fell below the fasting PG. There was no difference between athletes and non-athletes in frequency of post-breakfast low glycemia (47% (8/17) and 44% (8/18)) and post-challenge low glycemia (24% (12/50) and 23% (27/118)). As compared to seven women whose post-breakfast PG never fell below the fasting PG, 28 women whose post-breakfast PG returned to levels below the fasting PG had higher meal-induced insulin responses (283 ± 366 vs. 89 ± 36 µU/mg, P = 0.014). However, two groups did not differ in body composition, markers of insulin resistance and serum adiponectin. No significant difference was also observed in any of these variables between women with and without post-breakfast low glycemia. Post-prandial PG ≤ 70 mg/dL is not uncommon in young normal weight Japanese women and may not be a pathological condition. The underlying mechanisms for this finding need further exploration.

  16. Helicobacter, Inflammation, and Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Antonia R

    2013-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection leads to long-lasting chronic inflammation and represents the most common risk factor underlying gastric cancer. Recently, new insights into the mechanisms through which H. pylori and mucosal inflammation lead to cancer development have emerged. H. pylori virulence factors, in particular specific CagA genotypes, represent main factors in gastric cancer, inducing altered intracellular signaling in epithelial cells. The chronic nature of H. pylori infection appears to relate to the VacA virulence factor and Th17/Treg mechanisms. A role of H. pylori infection in epigenetic and microRNA deregulation has been shown. Mutation of the epithelial cell genome, a hallmark of cancer, was demonstrated to accumulate in H. pylori infected stomach partly due to inadequate DNA repair. Gastric stem cells were shown to be targets of oxidative injury in the Helicobacter-inflammatory milieu. Recent advances emphasizing the contribution of bacterial factors, inflammatory mediators, and the host epithelial response in gastric carcinogenesis are reviewed.

  17. [Inflammation in high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastelín Hernández, Gustavo; Rosas Peralta, Martín

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory status is involved in the pathophysiology of several cardiovascular disorders and in the genesis of high blood pressure. In this disease inflammation results from the activity of several hematological cells as well as the presence of chemotactic factors, immunological reactivity and hyperactivity of vasoconstrictor systems as that of the renin-angiotensin. Clinical evaluation of hypertension recommends secreening of several proinflammatory substances in hypertensive patients in order to evaluate their level of cardiovascular risk. Interleukin-6 and C reactive protein have been considered the most usual risk biomarkers. Interleukin 6 is a potent proinflammatory compound which participates in the acute fase of the tissular reaction to lesions associated to immunological, ischemic or oxidative stress. C reactive protein participates during inflammation activating the first component of complement with disorganization of the phospholipidic array of the endothelial sarcolemmal membrane and the consequent endothelial dysfunction related to the genesis of high blood pressure.

  18. Kostens betydning for parodontal inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Nærværende artikel præsenterer en oversigt over den foreliggende viden om kostens betydning for parodontal inflammation. Der er i vekslende grad dokumentation for sammenhænge mellem kost og marginal parodontitis (MP). I forbindelse med behandlingen af MP lader indtaget af antioxidanter og...... flerumættede fedtsyrer til at bidrage gunstigt til helingen af MP. Med baggrund i forøget viden om kostens betydning for udviklingen af parodontal inflammation bør tandlæger også rådgive om kost, for derigennem at styrke behandlingen af patienter med MP og de systemiske sygdomme, som MP forårsager en øget...

  19. Acarbose, the α-glucosidase inhibitor, attenuates the blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow responses to meal in elderly patients with postprandial hypotension concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wei; Li, Jing; Li, Ying; Qian, Duan; Chen, Lei; Wei, Xiansen; Jin, Jiangli; Wang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is a unique clinical phenomenon in the elderly, but its underlying pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated, and drug treatment is still in clinical exploratory stage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the fall in postprandial blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow, and to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of PPH by taking acarbose. The study included 20 elderly inpatients diagnosed with PPH concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism at stable condition. They were treated with 50 mg acarbose with their meal to observe the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and blood glucose level, and to monitor the hemodynamics of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) before and after treatment. Without acarbose treatment, patients after a meal had significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, faster postprandial heart rate, higher postprandial glucose level at each period, and increased postprandial SMA blood flow compared with that at fasting state (P<0.05). Acarbose treatment significantly attenuated the decrease of postprandial systolic blood pressures from 35.50±12.66 to 22.25±6.90 mmHg (P=0.000), the increase of heart rate from 9.67±5.94 to 5.33±3.20 beats/min (P=0.016), the increase of postprandial blood glucose from 3.55±1.69 to 2.28±1.61 mmol/l (P=0.000), the increase of postprandial SMA blood flow from 496.80±147.15 to 374.55±97.89 ml/min (P=0.031), and the incidence of PPH, syncope, falls, dizziness, weakness, and angina pectoris (P<0.05). The maximal decrease of postprandial systolic blood pressure was positively associated with the maximal increase in postprandial SMA blood flow (r=0.351, P=0.026). Acarbose treatment showed no significant side effects. The increase in postprandial splanchnic perfusion is one of the reasons for PPH formation. Acarbose may exert its role in PPH treatment by reducing postprandial gastrointestinal blood perfusion. Giving

  20. Post-prandial responses to cereal products enriched with barley beta-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Garsetti, Marcella; Testolin, Giulio; Brighenti, Furio

    2006-08-01

    High amounts of soluble beta-glucan in barley products may exert beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and blood lipids. To investigate the acute postprandial response on plasma glucose, insulin and lipids after consumption of two experimental products made from barley flour enriched with beta-glucan in comparison with similar products made from whole-wheat flour. A group of 10 healthy volunteers (5 males, age 25.4 +/- 0.5 y, BMI 22.6 +/- 0.7 Kg/m(2)) received at breakfast, in random order and in different days, portions (40g of available carbohydrate) of different cereal products or white bread consumed together with a load of 90000 UI retinol. Products were crackers and cookies made either from barley or whole-wheat flour in a 2 x 2 design, where the two factors were the cereal source of dietary fiber (DF), and the food processing. Barley products supplied 12 g DF, 50% soluble, with 3.5 g of beta-glucan per portion. Whole-wheat products supplied about 14 g of dietary fiber, mainly in the insoluble form, with negligible amount of beta-glucan. Fasting and post-prandial glucose and insulin were evaluated for 180 min after the meals; retinyl-palmitate (RP) and triacylglycerol (TAG) were evaluated hourly over 8 hours. Glycemic (GI) and Insulinemic (II) indexes of products were also assessed, using white bread as reference. Glucose curves were significantly different between types of food processing (p whole-wheat crackers (WWCr), whole-wheat cookies (WWc), barley crackers (BCr) and barley cookies (Bc) respectively. Insulin curves were significantly different both between type of processing and fiber source (p flour enriched with beta-glucan exhibit favourable responses on glucose metabolism, and particularly on insulinemic responses. In general, cookies responded better to the addition of barley fiber than crackers. Our results highlight the complexity of the effect that barley fiber may exert when added to different food products in reducing postprandial metabolic