WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding physical processes

  1. Framework for understanding LENR processes, using conventional condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, Scott R.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C and C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that, implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without. the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C and C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent. processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nano-scale crystals. In the case of PdD x , these fluctuations begin to occur as x → 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdD x the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields. (authors)

  2. Framework for understanding LENR processes, using conventional condensed matter physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, Scott R. [Research Systems Inc., 9822 Pebble Weigh Ct., Burke VA 22015-3378 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C and C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that, implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without. the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C and C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent. processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nano-scale crystals. In the case of PdD{sub x}, these fluctuations begin to occur as x {yields} 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdD{sub x} the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields. (authors)

  3. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  4. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  5. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott

    2005-03-01

    As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.

  6. Model reduction and physical understanding of slowly oscillating processes : the circadian cycle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goussis, Dimitris A. (Ploutonos 7, Palaio Faliro, Greece); Najm, Habib N.

    2006-01-01

    A differential system that models the circadian rhythm in Drosophila is analyzed with the computational singular perturbation (CSP) algorithm. Reduced nonstiff models of prespecified accuracy are constructed, the form and size of which are time-dependent. When compared with conventional asymptotic analysis, CSP exhibits superior performance in constructing reduced models, since it can algorithmically identify and apply all the required order of magnitude estimates and algebraic manipulations. A similar performance is demonstrated by CSP in generating data that allow for the acquisition of physical understanding. It is shown that the processes driving the circadian cycle are (i) mRNA translation into monomer protein, and monomer protein destruction by phosphorylation and degradation (along the largest portion of the cycle); and (ii) mRNA synthesis (along a short portion of the cycle). These are slow processes. Their action in driving the cycle is allowed by the equilibration of the fastest processes; (1) the monomer dimerization with the dimer dissociation (along the largest portion of the cycle); and (2) the net production of monomer+dimmer proteins with that of mRNA (along the short portion of the cycle). Additional results (regarding the time scales of the established equilibria, their origin, the rate limiting steps, the couplings among the variables, etc.) highlight the utility of CSP for automated identification of the important underlying dynamical features, otherwise accessible only for simple systems whose various suitable simplifications can easily be recognized.

  7. Understanding system disturbance and ecosystem services in restored saltmarshes: Integrating physical and biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, K. L.; Harvey, G. L.

    2012-06-01

    Coastal saltmarsh ecosystems occupy only a small percentage of Earth's land surface, yet contribute a wide range of ecosystem services that have significant global economic and societal value. These environments currently face significant challenges associated with climate change, sea level rise, development and water quality deterioration and are consequently the focus of a range of management schemes. Increasingly, soft engineering techniques such as managed realignment (MR) are being employed to restore and recreate these environments, driven primarily by the need for habitat (re)creation and sustainable coastal flood defence. Such restoration schemes also have the potential to provide additional ecosystem services including climate regulation and waste processing. However, these sites have frequently been physically impacted by their previous land use and there is a lack of understanding of how this 'disturbance' impacts the delivery of ecosystem services or of the complex linkages between ecological, physical and biogeochemical processes in restored systems. Through the exploration of current data this paper determines that hydrological, geomorphological and hydrodynamic functioning of restored sites may be significantly impaired with respects to natural 'undisturbed' systems and that links between morphology, sediment structure, hydrology and solute transfer are poorly understood. This has consequences for the delivery of seeds, the provision of abiotic conditions suitable for plant growth, the development of microhabitats and the cycling of nutrients/contaminants and may impact the delivery of ecosystem services including biodiversity, climate regulation and waste processing. This calls for a change in our approach to research in these environments with a need for integrated, interdisciplinary studies over a range of spatial and temporal scales incorporating both intensive and extensive research design.

  8. Improved understanding of physics processes in pedestal structure, leading to improved predictive capability for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groebner, R.J.; Snyder, P.B.; Leonard, A.W.; Chang, C.S.; Maingi, R.; Boyle, D.P.; Diallo, A.; Hughes, J.W.; Davis, E.M.; Ernst, D.R.; Landreman, M.; Xu, X.Q.; Boedo, J.A.; Cziegler, I.; Diamond, P.H.; Eldon, D.P.; Callen, J.D.; Canik, J.M.; Elder, J.D.; Fulton, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    Joint experiment/theory/modelling research has led to increased confidence in predictions of the pedestal height in ITER. This work was performed as part of a US Department of Energy Joint Research Target in FY11 to identify physics processes that control the H-mode pedestal structure. The study included experiments on C-Mod, DIII-D and NSTX as well as interpretation of experimental data with theory-based modelling codes. This work provides increased confidence in the ability of models for peeling–ballooning stability, bootstrap current, pedestal width and pedestal height scaling to make correct predictions, with some areas needing further work also being identified. A model for pedestal pressure height has made good predictions in existing machines for a range in pressure of a factor of 20. This provides a solid basis for predicting the maximum pedestal pressure height in ITER, which is found to be an extrapolation of a factor of 3 beyond the existing data set. Models were studied for a number of processes that are proposed to play a role in the pedestal n e and T e profiles. These processes include neoclassical transport, paleoclassical transport, electron temperature gradient turbulence and neutral fuelling. All of these processes may be important, with the importance being dependent on the plasma regime. Studies with several electromagnetic gyrokinetic codes show that the gradients in and on top of the pedestal can drive a number of instabilities. (paper)

  9. An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Space Physics Course: Understanding the Process of Science Through One Field's Colorful History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ramon E.

    1996-01-01

    Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.

  10. Understanding road surface pollutant wash-off and underlying physical processes using simulated rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2008-01-01

    Pollutant wash-off is one of the key pollutant processes that detailed knowledge is required in order to develop successful treatment design strategies for urban stormwater. Unfortunately, current knowledge relating to pollutant wash-off is limited. This paper presents the outcomes of a detailed investigation into pollutant wash-off on residential road surfaces. The investigations consisted of research methodologies formulated to overcome the physical constraints due to the heterogeneity of urban paved surfaces and the dependency on naturally occurring rainfall. This entailed the use of small road surface plots and artificially simulated rainfall. Road surfaces were selected due to its critical importance as an urban stormwater pollutant source. The study results showed that the influence of initially available pollutants on the wash-off process was limited. Furthermore, pollutant wash-off from road surfaces can be replicated using an exponential equation. However, the typical version of the exponential wash-off equation needs to be modified by introducing a non dimensional factor referred to as 'capacity factor' CF. Three rainfall intensity ranges were identified where the variation of CF can be defined. Furthermore, it was found that particulate density rather than size is the critical parameter that influences the process of pollutant wash-off. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  11. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  12. Understanding quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spillner, Vera

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a bundle definition for 'scientific understanding' through which the empirically equivalent interpretations of quantum mechanics can be evaluated with respect to the understanding they generate. The definition of understanding is based on a sufficient and necessary criterion, as well as a bundle of conditions - where a theory can be called most understandable whenever it fulfills the highest number of bundle criteria. Thereby the definition of understanding is based on the one hand on the objective number of criteria a theory fulfills, as well as, on the other hand, on the individual's preference of bundle criteria. Applying the definition onto three interpretations of quantum mechanics, the interpretation of David Bohm appears as most understandable, followed by the interpretation of Tim Maudlin and the Kopenhagen interpretation. These three interpretations are discussed in length in my thesis. (orig.)

  13. An understanding about the process of communicative interactions in Joint Planning Groups among professors of the physics degree course based on Theory of Communicative Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Neves da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study that aims to understand the possibilities from the accession of professors who teach specific topics of physics and physics teaching in the teachers formation degree in a Joint Planning Group about the relations among their disciplines. The study was built from the establishment and monitoring of a group of professors who met regularly during a year to plan their courses in the degree in physics together. Based on the theoretical perspective of the Theory of Communicative Acts, by Jürgen Habermas, the analysis aimed to understand the planning process through the use of language as a means of inter-subjective interaction and intention of understanding through the use of valid claims. The possibilities presented enable conceptualize the elements of a Joint Planning Group from the perspective of joint construction of concepts and practices, actions coordinating and theming of the practice in a an environment that enables communicative acts.

  14. Understanding the Budget Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the operating budget, while long-term plans are reflected in the capital budget. Since the time when cash is available to an organization does not usually coincide with the time that disbursements must be made, it is also important to carefully plan for the inflow and outflow of funds by means of a cash budget.      During the budget process an organization selects its programs and activities by providing the necessary funding; the library, along with others in the organization, must justify its requests. Because of the cyclical nature of the budget process, it is possible continually to gather information and evaluate alternatives for the next budget period so that the library may achieve its maximum potential for service to its patrons.

  15. Understanding the consultation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the consultation processes between industry, government and First Nations communities regarding resource development. The expectations of the Crown are to facilitate capacity building within First Nations, to promote traditional use studies and to participate with industry proponents on certain consultation issues. The role of industry is to encourage partnerships between established contractors and First Nations contracting firms to allow First Nations firms to grow and experience success under the guidance of a mentor company. It is important to realize that solid First Nations relations are the key to shorter time lines and lower costs in developing projects. However, consultation and involvement must be 'real' with benefits and participation that fall within the First Nations Communities' definition of success

  16. What makes process models understandable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendling, J.; Reijers, H.A.; Cardoso, J.; Alonso, G.; Dadam, P.; Rosemann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Despite that formal and informal quality aspects are of significant importance to business process modeling, there is only little empirical work reported on process model quality and its impact factors. In this paper we investigate understandability as a proxy for quality of process models and focus

  17. Assessing Student Understanding of Physical Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A. J.; Marshall, J.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    Our objective is to characterize and assess upper division and graduate student thinking by developing and testing an assessment tool for a physical hydrology class. The class' learning goals are: (1) Quantitative process-based understanding of hydrologic processes, (2) Experience with different methods in hydrology, (3) Learning, problem solving, communication skills. These goals were translated into two measurable tasks asked of students in a questionnaire: (1) Describe the significant processes in the hydrological cycle and (2) Describe laws governing these processes. A third question below assessed the students' ability to apply their knowledge: You have been hired as a consultant by __ to (1) assess how urbanization and the current drought have affected a local spring and (2) predict what the effects will be in the future if the drought continues. What information would you need to gather? What measurements would you make? What analyses would you perform? Student and expert responses to the questions were then used to develop a rubric to score responses. Using the rubric, 3 researchers independently blind-coded the full set of pre and post artifacts, resulting in 89% inter-rater agreement on the pre-tests and 83% agreement on the post-tests. We present student scores to illustrate the use of the rubric and to characterize student thinking prior to and following a traditional course. Most students interpreted Q1 in terms of physical processes affecting the water cycle, the primary organizing framework for hydrology, as intended. On the pre-test, one student scored 0, indicating no response, on this question. Twenty students scored 1, indicating rudimentary understanding, 2 students scored a 2, indicating a basic understanding, and no student scored a 3. Student scores on this question improved on the post-test. On the 22 post-tests that were blind scored, 11 students demonstrated some recognition of concepts, 9 students showed a basic understanding, and 2

  18. Beyond Climate Scenarios: Advancing from Changes in the Mean to a Better Understanding of Physical Processes to Enhance Stakeholder Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, D. N.; Kaatz, L.; Ammann, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Great strides have been made within the climate sciences community to make Global Climate Model (GCM) output and their results as meaningful as possible to the broad community of stakeholders that might benefit from this information. Regardless of these good intentions, the fact remains that most data from GCMs are viewed as being highly uncertain and thus not actionable for water resources planning. The most common use of GCM data is informing projected future climate by use of a mean change, primarily for temperature, given the generally greater confidence in this variable. In contrast, precipitation is viewed as highly uncertain, primarily because it has not validated well against observed precipitation climatologies at local and regional levels. Simple perturbations to historical mean temperature and precipitation sequences are not as complex as using direct GCM outputs and have fewer analytical requirements. Mean climate change information can still give valuable information to water managers, providing meaningful insights and sign posts into future vulnerabilities and is an approach that is arguably deemed more actionable. These temperature and precipitation sign posts can be monitored and used as indicators when certain actions become necessary and/or until there are improvements in actionable climate science information. Recent advances in regional climate modeling (RCM), particularly those run at very high resolution and are cloud resolving, show promise in advancing our understanding of the interaction among climate variables at the regional level. Thus, in addition to exploring how changes in the mean climate (e.g. 2oC warming) might impact a water system, this bottom-up approach makes use of carefully constructed regional climate experiments that are conducted, for example, under conditions of a warmer atmosphere that can hold more moisture. One can then explore what happens to, for example, rain-snow partitioning at various elevations across a snow

  19. Understanding Female Students' Physics Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    While the gender gap in physics participation is a known problem, practical strategies that may improve the situation are not well understood. As physics education researchers, we draw on evidence to help inform us of what may or may not be working. To this end, physics identity has proven to be a useful framework for understanding and predicting participation in physics. Drawing on data from national surveys of college students, case studies in physics classes, and surveys of undergraduate women in physics, we identify strategies that are predictive of female students' physics identity development from their high school and undergraduate physics experiences. These findings will be discussed as well as future directions for using this research to increase the recruitment of women to physics-related careers. NSF Grant # 1431846.

  20. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  1. Exoplanet atmospheres physical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, astronomers have identified hundreds of extrasolar planets--planets orbiting stars other than the sun. Recent research in this burgeoning field has made it possible to observe and measure the atmospheres of these exoplanets. This is the first textbook to describe the basic physical processes--including radiative transfer, molecular absorption, and chemical processes--common to all planetary atmospheres, as well as the transit, eclipse, and thermal phase variation observations that are unique to exoplanets. In each chapter, Sara Seager offers a conceptual introduction, examples that combine the relevant physics equations with real data, and exercises. Topics range from foundational knowledge, such as the origin of atmospheric composition and planetary spectra, to more advanced concepts, such as solutions to the radiative transfer equation, polarization, and molecular and condensate opacities. Since planets vary widely in their atmospheric properties, Seager emphasizes the major p...

  2. Promoting Physical Understanding through Peer Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossal, S. M.; Huesmann, A.; Hooper, E.; Moore, C.; Watson, L.; Trestrail, A.; Weber, J.; Timbie, P.; Jacob, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Physics Learning Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provides a supportive learning community for students studying introductory physics, as well as teaching and leadership experience for undergraduate Peer Mentor Tutors who receive extensive training and supervision. Many of our Peer Tutors were former Physics Learning Center participants. A central goal of the Physics Learning Center is to address achievement/equity gaps (e.g. race, gender, socio-economic status, disability, age, transfer status, etc.) for undergraduate students pursuing majors and coursework in STEM fields. Students meet twice a week in small learning teams of 3-8 students, facilitated by a trained Peer Mentor Tutor or staff member. These active learning teams focus on discussing core physical concepts and practicing problem-solving. The weekly training of the tutors addresses both teaching and mentoring issues in science education such as helping students to build confidence, strategies for assessing student understanding, and fostering a growth mindset. A second weekly training meeting addresses common misconceptions and strategies for teaching specific physics topics. For non-science majors we have a small Peer Mentor Tutor program for Physics in the Arts. We will discuss the Physics Learning Center's approaches to promoting inclusion, understanding, and confidence for both our participants and Peer Mentor Tutors, as well as examples from the geosciences that can be used to illustrate introductory physics concepts.

  3. Physics as Information Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2011-01-01

    I review some recent advances in foundational research at Pavia QUIT group. The general idea is that there is only Quantum Theory without quantization rules, and the whole Physics - including space-time and relativity - is emergent from the quantum-information processing. And since Quantum Theory itself is axiomatized solely on informational principles, the whole Physics must be reformulated in information-theoretical terms: this is the It from bit of J. A. Wheeler.The review is divided into four parts: a) the informational axiomatization of Quantum Theory; b) how space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from quantum computation; c) what is the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and of (ℎ/2π), and how the quantum field emerges; d) an observational consequence of the new quantum field theory: a mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I will conclude with the research lines that will follow in the immediate future.

  4. Making Introductory Quantum Physics Understandable and Interesting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Making Introductory Quantum Physics Understandable and Interesting. Ranjana Y Abhang. Classroom Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 63-73. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Teaching physics and understanding infrared thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2017-08-01

    Infrared thermal imaging is a very rapidly evolving field. The latest trends are small smartphone IR camera accessories, making infrared imaging a widespread and well-known consumer product. Applications range from medical diagnosis methods via building inspections and industrial predictive maintenance etc. also to visualization in the natural sciences. Infrared cameras do allow qualitative imaging and visualization but also quantitative measurements of the surface temperatures of objects. On the one hand, they are a particularly suitable tool to teach optics and radiation physics and many selected topics in different fields of physics, on the other hand there is an increasing need of engineers and physicists who understand these complex state of the art photonics systems. Therefore students must also learn and understand the physics underlying these systems.

  6. Understanding the biological underpinnings of ecohydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxman, T. E.; Scott, R. L.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Hamerlynck, E. P.; Jenerette, D.; Tissue, D. T.; Breshears, D. D.; Saleska, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change presents a challenge for predicting ecosystem response, as multiple factors drive both the physical and life processes happening on the land surface and their interactions result in a complex, evolving coupled system. For example, changes in surface temperature and precipitation influence near-surface hydrology through impacts on system energy balance, affecting a range of physical processes. These changes in the salient features of the environment affect biological processes and elicit responses along the hierarchy of life (biochemistry to community composition). Many of these structural or process changes can alter patterns of soil water-use and influence land surface characteristics that affect local climate. Of the many features that affect our ability to predict the future dynamics of ecosystems, it is this hierarchical response of life that creates substantial complexity. Advances in the ability to predict or understand aspects of demography help describe thresholds in coupled ecohydrological system. Disentangling the physical and biological features that underlie land surface dynamics following disturbance are allowing a better understanding of the partitioning of water in the time-course of recovery. Better predicting the timing of phenology and key seasonal events allow for a more accurate description of the full functional response of the land surface to climate. In addition, explicitly considering the hierarchical structural features of life are helping to describe complex time-dependent behavior in ecosystems. However, despite this progress, we have yet to build an ability to fully account for the generalization of the main features of living systems into models that can describe ecohydrological processes, especially acclimation, assembly and adaptation. This is unfortunate, given that many key ecosystem services are functions of these coupled co-evolutionary processes. To date, both the lack of controlled measurements and experimentation

  7. Space plasma physics stationary processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Akira

    1989-01-01

    During the 30 years of space exploration, important discoveries in the near-earth environment such as the Van Allen belts, the plasmapause, the magnetotail and the bow shock, to name a few, have been made. Coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere and energy transfer processes between them are being identified. Space physics is clearly approaching a new era, where the emphasis is being shifted from discoveries to understanding. One way of identifying the new direction may be found in the recent contribution of atmospheric science and oceanography to the development of fluid dynamics. Hydrodynamics is a branch of classical physics in which important discoveries have been made in the era of Rayleigh, Taylor, Kelvin and Helmholtz. However, recent progress in global measurements using man-made satellites and in large scale computer simulations carried out by scientists in the fields of atmospheric science and oceanography have created new activities in hydrodynamics and produced important new discover...

  8. From Process Understanding to Process Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefland, M.

    2010-01-01

    A licensed pharmaceutical process is required to be executed within the validated ranges throughout the lifetime of product manufacturing. Changes to the process usually require the manufacturer to demonstrate that the safety and efficacy of the product remains unchanged. Recent changes in the

  9. Career management: understanding the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, J; Eckel, F M

    1985-02-01

    This article is the first of a three-part series on career management for hospital pharmacists. Work attitudes, life cycles, needs, and career trends are discussed. Three basic work attitudes exist. Some see work as punishment. Others believe work in itself is good, i.e., they have a strong work ethic. Some view work as a means to satisfy, at least partially, a range of needs. Attitudinal transition points are likely to occur at specific times in the adult life cycle. The stages of the life cycle can be labeled as leaving, reaching out, questioning, midlife crisis, settling down, and mellowing. A progression through each of these stages is required for normal adult psychological development. Every individual exhibits a blend of needs that changes throughout life. Jobs can fulfill existence, relatedness, and growth needs. Relatedness needs include the need for love, affiliation, social esteem, and power, and growth needs include the need for self-esteem, competence, achievement, and autonomy. Three important career trends are the changing opportunities for advancement, women in careers, and dual-career couples. The number of women pharmacists is increasing as is the number of two-career couples. Tips for managing two-career relationships are presented. Pharmacists can manage their careers more effectively by understanding their needs, identifying their basic attitude toward work, and being aware of the trends occurring in pharmacy.

  10. Differences in spatial understanding between physical and virtual models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the digital age, physical models are still used as major tools in architectural and urban design processes. The reason why designers still use physical models remains unclear. In addition, physical and 3D virtual models have yet to be differentiated. The answers to these questions are too complex to account for in all aspects. Thus, this study only focuses on the differences in spatial understanding between physical and virtual models. In particular, it emphasizes on the perception of scale. For our experiment, respondents were shown a physical model and a virtual model consecutively. A questionnaire was then used to ask the respondents to evaluate these models objectively and to establish which model was more accurate in conveying object size. Compared with the virtual model, the physical model tended to enable quicker and more accurate comparisons of building heights.

  11. Physical processes in comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newburn, R.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    When this program began in 1975 only limited photometry had been carried out on comets at any wavelength. Program goals were to observe many comets, including faint periodic comets, at a range of heliocentric distances in order to begin to understand the range of behavior among comets and in a given comet during its approach and departure from the sun. Then a study of the continuum of scattered light from dust was added. More recently the value of joint team observations in visible and infrared light has been recognized and utilized as often as possible. All 1978 to 1982 data was reanalyzed and 1983 to 1986 data analyzed in the framwork of the post-Halley paradigm, covering 25 comets in all. Four observing runs (June, July, Sept., and Jan.) with Hanner produced excellent results on Wilson, Bradfield, P/Klemola, and P/Borrelly and lesser data on other objects, including the last reported IR photometry of P/Halley. The Wilson and Halley data have been reduced

  12. Transport processes in space physics and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Zank, Gary P

    2014-01-01

    Transport Processes in Space Physics and Astrophysics' is aimed at graduate level students to provide the necessary mathematical and physics background to understand the transport of gases, charged particle gases, energetic charged particles, turbulence, and radiation in an astrophysical and space physics context. Subjects emphasized in the work include collisional and collisionless processes in gases (neutral or plasma), analogous processes in turbulence fields and radiation fields, and allows for a simplified treatment of the statistical description of the system. A systematic study that addresses the common tools at a graduate level allows students to progress to a point where they can begin their research in a variety of fields within space physics and astrophysics. This book is for graduate students who expect to complete their research in an area of plasma space physics or plasma astrophysics. By providing a broad synthesis in several areas of transport theory and modeling, the work also benefits resear...

  13. Multiphoton Processes and Attosecond Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Midorikawa, Katsumi; 12th International Conference on Multiphoton Processes; 3rd International Conference on Attosecond Physics

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in ultrashort pulsed laser technology have opened new frontiers in atomic, molecular and optical sciences. The 12th International Conference on Multiphoton Processes (ICOMP12) and the 3rd International Conference on Attosecond Physics (ATTO3), held jointly in Sapporo, Japan, during July 3-8, showcased studies at the forefront of research on multiphoton processes and attosecond physics. This book summarizes presentations and discussions from these two conferences.

  14. Understanding Patients? Process to Use Medical Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Crowell, Tara L

    2016-01-01

    Given the necessity to better understand the process patients need to go through in order to seek treatment via medical marijuana, this study investigates this process to better understand this phenomenon. Specifically, Compassion Care Foundation (CCF) and Stockton University worked together to identify a solution to this problem. Specifically, 240 new patients at CCF were asked to complete a 1-page survey regarding various aspects associated with their experience prior to their use of medici...

  15. Bridging scales in polymer physics and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hütter, M.; Kröger, M.; Öttinger, H.C.; Schweizer, T.

    2001-01-01

    Understanding both the flow behavior of polymers during processing and the end-use properties offinished plastic products from a molecular picture of the constituent polymers has been a long-standing dreamin polymer engineering and science. It is the goal of our work in the Polymer Physics Group to

  16. Understanding Hemophilia. Implications for the Physical Educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jeffrey D.

    1998-01-01

    Describes hemophilia and ways to provide appropriate physical education experiences to children with hemophilia. The article focuses on what hemophilia is, how to treat hemophilia, benefits of physical activity, how to teach children with hemophilia, choosing and modifying sports and activities, and safety and emergency situations. (SM)

  17. Understanding quantum physics; Verstehen in der Quantenphysik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spillner, Vera

    2011-07-01

    This thesis presents a bundle definition for 'scientific understanding' through which the empirically equivalent interpretations of quantum mechanics can be evaluated with respect to the understanding they generate. The definition of understanding is based on a sufficient and necessary criterion, as well as a bundle of conditions - where a theory can be called most understandable whenever it fulfills the highest number of bundle criteria. Thereby the definition of understanding is based on the one hand on the objective number of criteria a theory fulfills, as well as, on the other hand, on the individual's preference of bundle criteria. Applying the definition onto three interpretations of quantum mechanics, the interpretation of David Bohm appears as most understandable, followed by the interpretation of Tim Maudlin and the Kopenhagen interpretation. These three interpretations are discussed in length in my thesis. (orig.)

  18. Understanding search trees via statistical physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ary search tree model (where stands for the number of branches of the search tree), an important problem for data storage in computer science, using a variety of statistical physics techniques that allow us to obtain exact asymptotic results.

  19. Atomistic and holistic understanding in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, A.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding means always reduction to the simpler. In the atomistic understanding the reduction is to the simpler objects. One asks the question: what does it consist of? For instance, one asks: What does the molecule consist of? and the answer is: The molecule consists of electrons and nuclei. Or: what does the nucleus consist of? And the answer is: The nucleus consists of protons and neutrons. The parts in the atomistic understanding are the constituents. In the holistic understanding, the reduction is to the simpler functions, the simpler motions. One asks the question: What does it do? What does the molecule do? What does the nucleus do? And the answer is: The molecule rotates and oscillates. The nucleus rotates and oscillates

  20. Understanding the barriers to and reasons for physical exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... improving physical health, having confidence with their appearance and improving mental health. ... health benefits, it is important to understand the exercise behaviour of students.

  1. Understanding the physics of changing mass phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellermeijer, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    Changing mass phenomena, like a falling chain or a bungee jumper, might give surprising results, even for experienced physicists. They have resulted in hot discussions in journals, in which for instance Physics professors claim the impossibility of an acceleration larger then g in case of a bungee

  2. Characteristics of the polar cap at ionospheric levels and present understanding of the physical processes that give rise to these characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekke, A.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses the relationship between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and various polar cap current systems, such as the DP2-system and the S /SUB q/ P-system. The disagreements concerning these systems are examined. Topics considered include the polar cap (a result of an open magnetosphere); studies of the polar cap magnetic field variations; the DP2-current system and its relation to the IMF; the polar cap current system during a northward IMF; the azimuthal component of IMF and its influence on the polar cap magnetic field variations; the electric potential distribution on the polar cap; rocket observations of the polar cap electric field; the auroral arcs as a visible trace of the ionospheric convection; neutral wind measurements in the polar cap F-region; and further studies of polar cap dynamics. The focus is on the polar region inside the auroral oval. It is suggested that more research is needed of the polar cap current system in order to understand the magnetosphereionosphere coupling, with the polar cap ionospheric conductivity distribution being the most crucial parameter

  3. Understanding Patients’ Process to Use Medical Marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L Crowell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the necessity to better understand the process patients need to go through in order to seek treatment via medical marijuana, this study investigates this process to better understand this phenomenon. Specifically, Compassion Care Foundation (CCF and Stockton University worked together to identify a solution to this problem. Specifically, 240 new patients at CCF were asked to complete a 1-page survey regarding various aspects associated with their experience prior to their use of medicinal marijuana—diagnosis, what prompted them to seek treatment, level of satisfaction with specific stages in the process, total length of time the process took, and patient’s level of pain. Results reveal numerous patient diagnoses for which medical marijuana is being prescribed; the top 4 most common are intractable skeletal spasticity, chronic and severe pain, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Next, results indicate a little over half of the patients were first prompted to seek alternative treatment from their physicians, while the remaining patients indicated that other sources such as written information along with friends, relatives, media, and the Internet persuaded them to seek treatment. These data indicate that a variety of sources play a role in prompting patients to seek alternative treatment and is a critical first step in this process. Additional results posit that once patients began the process of qualifying to receive medical marijuana as treatment, the process seemed more positive even though it takes patients on average almost 6 months to obtain their first treatment after they started the process. Finally, results indicate that patients are reporting a moderately high level of pain prior to treatment. Implication of these results highlights several important elements in the patients’ initial steps toward seeking medical marijuana, along with the quality and quantity of the process patients must engage in prior to

  4. Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genio, Anthony Del

    2013-01-01

    As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

  5. A Dual Process Approach to Understand Tourists’ Destination Choice Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Florian; Josiassen, Alexander; Assaf, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Most studies that investigate tourists' choices of destinations apply the concept of mental destination representations, also referred to as destination image. The present study investigates tourists’ destination choice processes by conceptualizing how different components of destination image...... are mentally processed in tourists' minds. Specifically, the seminal dual processing approach is applied to the destination image literature. By doing this, we argue that some components of mental destination representations are processed systematically while others serve as inputs for heuristics...... that individuals apply to inform their decision making. Understanding how individuals make use of their mental destination representations and how they color their decision-making is essential in order to better explain tourist behavior....

  6. Understanding the Entrepreneurial Process: a Dynamic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Maria Jorge Nassif

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable predominance in the adoption of perspectives based on characteristics in research into entrepreneurship. However, most studies describe the entrepreneur from a static or snapshot approach; very few adopt a dynamic perspective. The aim of this study is to contribute to the enhancement of knowledge concerning entrepreneurial process dynamics through an understanding of the values, characteristics and actions of the entrepreneur over time. By focusing on personal attributes, we have developed a framework that shows the importance of affective and cognitive aspects of entrepreneurs and the way that they evolve during the development of their business.

  7. Understanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronney, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    A review of research on the effects of gravity on combustion processes is presented, with an emphasis on a discussion of the ways in which reduced-gravity experiments and modeling has led to new understanding. Comparison of time scales shows that the removal of buoyancy-induced convection leads to manifestations of other transport mechanisms, notably radiative heat transfer and diffusional processes such as Lewis number effects. Examples from premixed-gas combustion, non-premixed gas-jet flames, droplet combustion, flame spread over solid and liquid fuels, and other fields are presented. Promising directions for new research are outlined, the most important of which is suggested to be radiative reabsorption effects in weakly burning flames.

  8. Understanding the physical properties of hybrid perovskites for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinsong; Yuan, Yongbo; Shao, Yuchuan; Yan, Yanfa

    2017-07-01

    New photovoltaic materials have been searched for in the past decades for clean and renewable solar energy conversion with an objective of reducing the levelized cost of electricity (that is, the unit price of electricity over the course of the device lifetime). An emerging family of semiconductor materials — organic-inorganic halide perovskites (OIHPs) — are the focus of the photovoltaic research community owing to their use of low cost, nature-abundant raw materials, low-temperature and scalable solution fabrication processes, and, in particular, the very high power conversion efficiencies that have been achieved within the short time of their development. In this Review, we summarize and critically assess the most recent advances in understanding the physical properties of both 3D and low-dimensional OIHPs that favour a small open-circuit voltage deficit and high power conversion efficiency. Several prominent topics in this field on the unique properties of OIHPs are surveyed, including defect physics, ferroelectricity, exciton dissociation processes, carrier recombination lifetime and photon recycling. The impact of ion migration on solar cell efficiency and stability are also critically analysed. Finally, we discuss the remaining challenges in the commercialization of OIHP photovoltaics.

  9. Physical processes in hot cosmic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, A.G.; Giovannelli, F.

    1990-01-01

    The interpretation of many high energy astrophysical phenomena relies on a detailed knowledge of radiation and transport processes in hot plasmas. The understanding of these plasma properties is one of the aims of terrestrial plasma physics. While the microscopic properties of astrophysical plasmas can hardly be determined experimentally, laboratory plasmas are more easily accessible to experimental techniques, but transient phenomena and the interaction of the plasma with boundaries often make the interpretation of measurements cumbersome. This book contains the talks given at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on astro- and plasma-physics in Vulcano, Sicily, May 29-June 2, 1989. The book focuses on three main areas: radiation transport processes in hot (astrophysical and laboratory) plasmas; magnetic fields; their generation, reconnection and their effects on plasma transport properties; relativistic and ultra-high density plasmas

  10. “Using Statistical Comparisons between SPartICus Cirrus Microphysical Measurements, Detailed Cloud Models, and GCM Cloud Parameterizations to Understand Physical Processes Controlling Cirrus Properties and to Improve the Cloud Parameterizations”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Sarah [SPEC Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The dual objectives of this project were improving our basic understanding of processes that control cirrus microphysical properties and improvement of the representation of these processes in the parameterizations. A major effort in the proposed research was to integrate, calibrate, and better understand the uncertainties in all of these measurements.

  11. Understanding "Human" Waves: Exploiting the Physics in a Viral Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Roca, Chantal

    2018-01-01

    Waves are a relevant part of physics that students find difficult to grasp, even in those cases in which wave propagation kinematics can be visualized. This may hinder a proper understanding of sound, light or quantum physics phenomena that are explained using a wave model. So-called "human" waves, choreographed by people, have proved to…

  12. Promoting the Understanding of Mathematics in Physics at Secondary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alaric

    2016-01-01

    This article explores some of the common mathematical difficulties that 11- to 16-year-old students experience with respect to their learning of physics. The definition of "understanding" expressed in the article is in the sense of transferability of mathematical skills from topic to topic within physics as well as between the separate…

  13. Stochastic processes in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shuler, K E

    2009-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics.

  14. Physics education: Understanding the barriers for young women in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainhood, Lindsay Ann

    In nearly all countries of the world, at every level of education, physics as a field of science is failing to recruit and retain women. This phenomenon is believed to relate to girls' educational experiences from K-12, but the reasons for the gender gap in physics are not fully understood. The purpose of this phenomenological research is to explore and understand the barriers encountered by Ontario female high school students during their physics education and the meanings attributed to those barriers by these young women. This research is guided by social cognitive career theory (SCCT) and uses the concept of physics identity as a lens through which the influence of contextual barriers can be understood. Nine participants, selected via snowball sampling from an Eastern Ontario university, together participated in four semi-structured focus group meetings and individually participated in a single in-depth, one-on-one interview. Audio data was transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a general inductive approach. Emergent themes are descriptively presented as the findings of the research study: perceiving the high school physics experience, experiencing high school physics education, and identity and gender in the high school physics experience. Sub-themes presented include limited prior experiences, negative perceptions of physics, images of physics learners, decision-making, reactions to pedagogy, learning needs, physics identity, gender-dependent influences, and making meaning of the experiences in high school physics. The shared experience of high school physics education for young women is understood as both a richly challenging and rewarding experience. Based on the findings of this research, recommendations are made for practical and research settings, and for future work in this area. Drawing on literature on underrepresentation of women in physics, this research contributes to the physics education research community and beyond; it offers voices of Ontario

  15. Electrical Storm Simulation to Improve the Learning Physics Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Muñoz, Miriam; Jiménez Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Gutiérrez de Mesa, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This work is part of a research project whose main objective is to understand the impact that the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has on the teaching and learning process on the subject of Physics. We will show that, with the use of a storm simulator, physics students improve their learning process on one hand they understand…

  16. Spin physics through unpolarized processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhun

    2016-02-01

    This article presents a review of our present understanding of the spin structure of the unpolarized hadron. Particular attention is paid to the quark sector at leading twist, namely, the quark Boer-Mulders function, which describes the transverse polarization of the quark inside an unpolarized hadron. After introducing the operator definition of the Boer-Mulders function, a detailed treatment of different non-perturbative calculations of the Boer-Mulders functions is provided. The phenomenology in Drell-Yan processes and semi-inclusive leptoproduction, including the extraction of the quark and antiquark Boer-Mulders functions from experimental data, is presented comprehensively. Finally, prospects for future theoretical studies and experimental measurements are presented in brief.

  17. Understanding the process of fascial unwinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasny, Budiman

    2009-09-23

    Fascial or myofascial unwinding is a process in which a client undergoes a spontaneous reaction in response to the therapist's touch. It can be induced by using specific techniques that encourage a client's body to move into areas of ease. Unwinding is a popular technique in massage therapy, but its mechanism is not well understood. In the absence of a scientific explanation or hypothesis of the mechanism of action, it can be interpreted as "mystical." This paper proposes a model that builds on the neurobiologic, ideomotor action, and consciousness theories to explain the process and mechanism of fascial unwinding. HYPOTHETICAL MODEL: During fascial unwinding, the therapist stimulates mechanoreceptors in the fascia by applying gentle touch and stretching. Touch and stretching induce relaxation and activate the parasympathetic nervous system. They also activate the central nervous system, which is involved in the modulation of muscle tone as well as movement. As a result, the central nervous system is aroused and thereby responds by encouraging muscles to find an easier, or more relaxed, position and by introducing the ideomotor action. Although the ideomotor action is generated via normal voluntary motor control systems, it is altered and experienced as an involuntary response. Fascial unwinding occurs when a physically induced suggestion by a therapist prompts ideomotor action that the client experiences as involuntary. This action is guided by the central nervous system, which produces continuous action until a state of ease is reached. Consequently, fascial unwinding can be thought of as a neurobiologic process employing the self-regulation dynamic system theory.

  18. Physical processes in relativistic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, R.

    1984-01-01

    The continuum emission in many active galactic nuclei (AGNs) extend to 100 keV and beyond (e.g. Rothschild et al. 1983). In thermal models of the continuum emission this implies temperatures above 10 9 K or kT of order mc 2 . In such a plasma the electrons are at least mildly relativistic and furthermore the particles and the photons are energetic enough to produce electron-positron pairs. The physics of such hot plasmas has only recently been studied in any detail and here we review the results of those studies. Significant electron-positron pair production may also occur in non-thermal models of the continuum emission if the optical depth to photon-photon pair production is greater than unity. We review the few results obtained regarding this interesting but not very well studied possibility. First, however, we briefly discuss the processes taking place in relativistic plasmas and the standard models for the continuum emission from AGNs. We then summarize the effects pair production have on these models and the observational implications of the presence of electron-positron pairs. (orig./WL)

  19. A Social Identity Approach to Understanding and Promoting Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark; Rees, Tim; Coffee, Pete; Steffens, Niklas K; Haslam, S Alexander; Polman, Remco

    2017-10-01

    Against the backdrop of a global physical inactivity crisis, attempts to both understand and positively influence physical activity behaviours are characterized by a focus on individual-level factors (e.g. cognitions, attitudes, motivation). We outline a new perspective, drawn from an emerging body of work exploring the applicability of social identity and self-categorization theories to domains of sport and health, from which to understand and address this pervasive problem. This social identity approach suggests that the groups to which people belong can be, and often are, incorporated into their sense of self and, through this, are powerful determinants of physical activity-related behaviour. We start by reviewing the current state of physical activity research and highlighting the potential for the social identity approach to help understand how social factors influence these behaviours. Next, we outline the theoretical underpinnings of the social identity approach and provide three key examples that speak to the analytical and practical value of the social identity approach in physical activity settings. Specifically, we argue that social identity (1) can be harnessed to promote engagement in physical activity, (2) underpins exercise group behaviour, and (3) underpins effective leadership in exercise settings. We conclude by identifying prospects for a range of theory-informed research developments.

  20. Physics and the Art of Dance - Understanding Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swope, Kenneth Laws

    2005-03-01

    Written by a physicist with professional dance training, Physics and the Art of Dance explains how dancers can achieve better, safer performances through an understanding of physics in motion. Using simple, non-technical terms, Kenneth Laws combines his knowledge of both physics and dance to describe how the laws of gravity, momentum, and energy affect dancing bodies. The book explores the natural laws that govern the subtleties of balance, the techniques of leaps and pirouettes, and the impressive lifts and turns executed by ballet partners. Finally, Laws offers insight into two current discussions in the dance world--the effect of body size on ballet technique, and the relationship between science and the art of dance. Beautiful, original stop-action photographs by Martha Swope, along with clear diagrams, illustrate the concepts described in the text. Plus, an intriguing "puzzler" at the beginning of each chapter provides an engaging entree into the topics presented. For those who want a more advanced understanding of the physics, extensive appendices are provided. This new book combines the best features of Laws's widely acclaimed The Physics of Dance and Physics, Dance, and the Pas de Deux by Laws and Cynthia Harvey. Its expert application of the basic principles of physics to the art of dance will be an invaluable resource for dancers and dance instructors and will open a new level of appreciation for lovers of the form. It will also appeal to physicists who seek to include the arts in their scientific pursuits.

  1. Developmental Patterns in the Understanding of Social and Physical Transitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Dumas, Claude

    1999-01-01

    Two studies examined developmental patterns in understanding physical and social transitivity in 6- to 11-year olds. Findings revealed no significant correlations between social judgments and judgments concerning length. Results suggested that children possess two distinct strategies for making transitive judgments that correspond to the logical…

  2. Understanding physical activity promotion in physiotherapy practice: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Anna; Littlewood, Chris; McLean, Sionnadh

    2018-06-01

    Physical inactivity is a major public health issue and healthcare professionals are encouraged to promote physical activity during routine patient contacts in order to reduce non-communicable diseases and enhance individuals' quality of life. Little is known about physical activity promotion in physiotherapy practice in the UK. The aim of this study was to better understand physiotherapists' experience of physical activity promotion in clinical practice. A qualitative study was undertaken comprising 12 telephone interviews with participants using a quota sampling approach. The qualitative data was analysed using a thematic analysis approach and written up according to COREQ guidelines. Four themes were identified (1) Current physiotherapy practice (2) Barriers to, and facilitators of physical activity promotion, (3) Exercise or physical activity? and (4) Functional restoration versus general wellbeing. Physiotherapists use routine clinical contacts to discuss physical activity. However, brief interventions are not consistently used and no common framework to guide physical activity promotion was identified. Approaches appear to be inconsistent and informal and focus largely on short-term restoration of function rather than health promotion. There is scope to improve practice in line with current guidance to maximise potential impact on inactivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Teaching Physics for Conceptual Understanding Exemplified for Einstein's Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undreiu, Lucian M.

    2006-12-01

    In most liberal arts colleges the prerequisites for College Physics, Introductory or Calculus based, are strictly related to Mathematics. As a state of fact, the majorities of the students perceive Physics as a conglomerate of mathematical equations, a collection of facts to be memorized and they regard Physics as one of the most difficult subjects. A change of this attitude towards Physics, and Science in general, is intrinsically connected with the promotion of conceptual understanding and stimulation of critical thinking. In such an environment, the educators are facilitators, rather than the source of knowledge. One good way of doing this is to challenge the students to think about what they see around them and to connect physics with the real world. Motivation occurs when students realize that what was learned is interesting and relevant. Visual teaching aids such as educational videos or computer simulations, as well as computer-assisted experiments, can greatly enhance the effectiveness of a science lecture or laboratory. Difficult topics can be discussed through animated analogies. Special Relativity is recognized as a challenging topic and is probably one of the most misunderstood theories of Physics. While understanding Special Relativity requires a detachment from ordinary perception and every day life notions, animated analogies can prove to be very successful in making difficult topics accessible.

  4. Understanding flexible and distributed software development processes

    OpenAIRE

    Agerfalk, Par J.; Fitzgerald, Brian

    2006-01-01

    peer-reviewed The minitrack on Flexible and Distributed Software Development Processes addresses two important and partially intertwined current themes in software development: process flexibility and globally distributed software development

  5. Students' Energy Understanding Across Biology, Chemistry, and Physics Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, S. T.; Neumann, K.; Bernholt, S.; Harms, U.

    2017-07-01

    Energy is considered both as a disciplinary core idea and as a concept cutting across science disciplines. Most previous approaches studied progressing energy understanding in specific disciplinary contexts, while disregarding the relation of understanding across them. Hence, this study provides a systematic analysis of cross-disciplinary energy learning. On the basis of a cross-sectional study with n = 742 students from grades 6, 8, and 10, we analyze students' progression in understanding energy across biology, chemistry, and physics contexts. The study is guided by three hypothetical scenarios that describe how the connection between energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts changes across grade levels. These scenarios are compared using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results suggest that, from grade 6 to grade 10, energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts is highly interrelated, thus indicating a parallel progression of energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts. In our study, students from grade 6 onwards appeared to have few problems to apply one energy understanding across the three disciplinary contexts. These findings were unexpected, as previous research concluded that students likely face difficulties in connecting energy learning across disciplinary boundaries. Potential reasons for these results and the characteristics of the observed cross-disciplinary energy understanding are discussed in the light of earlier findings and implications for future research, and the teaching of energy as a core idea and a crosscutting concept are addressed.

  6. Understanding the Learning Process in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James; Gannon-Leary, Pat

    2007-01-01

    A major obstacle to the diffusion of management development learning technologies from Higher Education Institutions to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is a lack of understanding about how SME learners learn. This article examines the nature of learning in SMEs and considers the incidence of informal support for informal learning.…

  7. Understanding power plant investment decision processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.; Richstein, J.C.; De Vries, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand how companies make investment decisions under conditions of deep uncertainty, we interviewed a number of actors in the Dutch electricity sector. Most of the economic literature that is devoted to this question is prescriptive in nature, describing rational methods to the

  8. The role of mathematics for physics teaching and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospiech, Gesche; Eylon, BatSheva; Bagno, Esther; Lehavi, Yaron; Geyer, Marie-Annette

    2016-05-01

    -1That mathematics is the "language of physics" implies that both areas are deeply interconnected, such that often no separation between "pure" mathematics and "pure" physics is possible. To clarify their interplay a technical and a structural role of mathematics can be distinguished. A thorough understanding of this twofold role in physics is also important for shaping physics education especially with respect to teaching the nature of physics. Herewith the teachers and their pedagogical content knowledge play an important role. Therefore we develop a model of PCK concerning the interplay of mathematics and physics in order to provide a theoretical framework for the views and teaching strategies of teachers. In an exploratory study four teachers from Germany and four teachers from Israel have been interviewed concerning their views and its transfer to teaching physics. Here we describe the results from Germany. Besides general views and knowledge held by all or nearly all teachers we also observe specific individual focus depending on the teachers' background and experiences. The results fit well into the derived model of PCK.

  9. Composing Models of Geographic Physical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Barbara; Frank, Andrew U.

    Processes are central for geographic information science; yet geographic information systems (GIS) lack capabilities to represent process related information. A prerequisite to including processes in GIS software is a general method to describe geographic processes independently of application disciplines. This paper presents such a method, namely a process description language. The vocabulary of the process description language is derived formally from mathematical models. Physical processes in geography can be described in two equivalent languages: partial differential equations or partial difference equations, where the latter can be shown graphically and used as a method for application specialists to enter their process models. The vocabulary of the process description language comprises components for describing the general behavior of prototypical geographic physical processes. These process components can be composed by basic models of geographic physical processes, which is shown by means of an example.

  10. Physical processes in collapse driven supernova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayle, R.W.

    1985-11-01

    A model of the supernova explosion is discussed. The method of neutrino transport is discussed, since the explosive mechanism depends on neutrino heating of the material behind the accretion shock. The core region of these exploding stars becomes unstable to convective motions during the supernova evolution. Convective mixing allows more neutrinos to escape from under the neutrinosphere, and thus increases the amount of heating by neutrinos. An approximate method of incorporating convection is described, and some results of including convection in a computer model is presented. Another phenomena is seen in computer simulations of supernova, oscillations in the neutrino luminosity and mass accretion rate onto the protoneutron star. The last topic discussed in this thesis describes the attempt to understand this oscillation by perturbation of the steady state solution to equations approximating the complex physical processes occurring in the late time supernova. 42 refs., 31 figs.

  11. Thermodynamics principles characterizing physical and chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Honig, Jurgen M

    1999-01-01

    This book provides a concise overview of thermodynamics, and is written in a manner which makes the difficult subject matter understandable. Thermodynamics is systematic in its presentation and covers many subjects that are generally not dealt with in competing books such as: Carathéodory''s approach to the Second Law, the general theory of phase transitions, the origin of phase diagrams, the treatment of matter subjected to a variety of external fields, and the subject of irreversible thermodynamics.The book provides a first-principles, postulational, self-contained description of physical and chemical processes. Designed both as a textbook and as a monograph, the book stresses the fundamental principles, the logical development of the subject matter, and the applications in a variety of disciplines. This revised edition is based on teaching experience in the classroom, and incorporates many exercises in varying degrees of sophistication. The stress laid on a didactic, logical presentation, and on the relat...

  12. Physical processes in collapse driven supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayle, R.W.

    1985-11-01

    A model of the supernova explosion is discussed. The method of neutrino transport is discussed, since the explosive mechanism depends on neutrino heating of the material behind the accretion shock. The core region of these exploding stars becomes unstable to convective motions during the supernova evolution. Convective mixing allows more neutrinos to escape from under the neutrinosphere, and thus increases the amount of heating by neutrinos. An approximate method of incorporating convection is described, and some results of including convection in a computer model is presented. Another phenomena is seen in computer simulations of supernova, oscillations in the neutrino luminosity and mass accretion rate onto the protoneutron star. The last topic discussed in this thesis describes the attempt to understand this oscillation by perturbation of the steady state solution to equations approximating the complex physical processes occurring in the late time supernova. 42 refs., 31 figs

  13. Processing multidimensional nuclear physics data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Modern Ge detector arrays for gamma-ray spectroscopy are producing data sets unprecedented in size and event multiplicity. Gammasphere, the DOE sponsored array, has the following characteristics: (1) High granularity (110 detectors); (2) High efficiency (10%); and (3) Precision energy measurements (Delta EE = 0.2%). Characteristics of detector line shape, the data set, and the standard practice in the nuclear physics community to the nuclear gamma-ray cascades from the 4096 times 4096 times 4096 data cube will be discussed.

  14. Physical characteristics of welding arc ignition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Linan; Song, Yonglun; Xiao, Tianjiao; Ran, Guowei

    2012-07-01

    The existing research of welding arc mainly focuses on the stable combustion state and the research on the mechanism of welding arc ignition process is quite lack. The tungsten inert gas(TIG) touch arc ignition process is observed via a high speed camera and the high time resolution spectral diagnosis system. The changing phenomenon of main ionized element provided the electrons in the arc ignition is found. The metallic element is the main contributor to provide the electrons at the beginning of the discharging, and then the excitated shielding gas element replaces the function of the metallic element. The electron density during the period of the arc ignition is calculated by the Stark-broadened lines of Hα. Through the discussion with the repeatability in relaxation phenomenon, the statistical regularity in the arc ignition process is analyzed. The similar rules as above are observed through the comparison with the laser-assisted arc ignition experiments and the metal inert gas(MIG) arc ignition experiments. This research is helpful to further understanding on the generation mechanism of welding arc ignition and also has a certain academic and practical significance on enriching the welding physical theoretical foundation and improving the precise monitoring on automatic arc welding process.

  15. The role of mathematics for physics teaching and understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospiech, G; Geyer, M.A.; Eylon, B.; Bagno, E.; Lehavi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    That mathematics is the “language of physics” implies that both areas are deeply interconnected, such that often no separation between “pure” mathematics and “pure” physics is possible. To clarify their interplay a technical and a structural role of mathematics can be distinguished. A thorough understanding of this twofold role in physics is also important for shaping physics education especially with respect to teaching the nature of physics. Herewith the teachers and their pedagogical content knowledge play an important role. Therefore we develop a model of PCK concerning the interplay of mathematics and physics in order to provide a theoretical framework for the views and teaching strategies of teachers. In an exploratory study four teachers from Germany and four teachers from Israel have been interviewed concerning their views and its transfer to teaching physics. Here we describe the results from Germany. Besides general views and knowledge held by all or nearly all teachers we also observe specific individual focus depending on the teachers’ background and experiences. The results fit well into the derived model of PCK.

  16. Understanding student use of differentials in physics integration problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehui Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on students’ use of the mathematical concept of differentials in physics problem solving. For instance, in electrostatics, students need to set up an integral to find the electric field due to a charged bar, an activity that involves the application of mathematical differentials (e.g., dr, dq. In this paper we aim to explore students’ reasoning about the differential concept in physics problems. We conducted group teaching or learning interviews with 13 engineering students enrolled in a second-semester calculus-based physics course. We amalgamated two frameworks—the resources framework and the conceptual metaphor framework—to analyze students’ reasoning about differential concept. Categorizing the mathematical resources involved in students’ mathematical thinking in physics provides us deeper insights into how students use mathematics in physics. Identifying the conceptual metaphors in students’ discourse illustrates the role of concrete experiential notions in students’ construction of mathematical reasoning. These two frameworks serve different purposes, and we illustrate how they can be pieced together to provide a better understanding of students’ mathematical thinking in physics.

  17. Physical Education Teacher Educator's Perceptions toward and Understanding of K-12 Online Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, David N.; Woods, Amelia M.

    2015-01-01

    K-12 online physical education (OLPE) is as an educational opportunity in at least 30 states in the US (NASPE, 2006; 2010; 2012). The purpose of this study was to examine physical education teacher educators' perceptions toward and understanding of K-12 OLPE. Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (1986) served as the theoretical framework for this…

  18. Learning about a Level Physics Students' Understandings of Particle Physics Using Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale piece of research using concept mapping to elicit A level students' understandings of particle physics. Fifty-nine year 12 (16- and 17 year-old) students from two London schools participated. The exercise took place during school physics lessons. Students were instructed how to make a concept map and were…

  19. Physics of Laser Materials Processing Theory and Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gladush, Gennady G

    2011-01-01

    This book describes the basic mechanisms, theory, simulations and technological aspects of Laser processing techniques. It covers the principles of laser quenching, welding, cutting, alloying, selective sintering, ablation, etc. The main attention is paid to the quantitative description. The diversity and complexity of technological and physical processes is discussed using a unitary approach. The book aims on understanding the cause-and-effect relations in physical processes in Laser technologies. It will help researchers and engineers to improve the existing and develop new Laser machining techniques. The book addresses readers with a certain background in general physics and mathematical analysis: graduate students, researchers and engineers practicing laser applications.

  20. Understanding Modeling Requirements of Unstructured Business Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allah Bukhsh, Zaharah; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Quartel, Dick

    2017-01-01

    Management of structured business processes is of interest to both academia and industry, where academia focuses on the development of methods and techniques while industry focuses on the development of supporting tools. With the shift from routine to knowledge work, the relevance of management of

  1. Understanding the Sales Process by Selling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Experiential projects bring students closer to real-world situations. This is valuable in sales education because the complexities of the sales process are difficult to learn from a textbook. A student project was developed that involved the selling of advertising space in a one-time newspaper insert. The project included a substantial minimum…

  2. Obsolescence – understanding the underlying processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.F.

    2017-01-01

    Obsolescence, defined as the process of declining performance of buildings, is a serious threat for the value, the usefulness and the life span of built properties. Thomsen and van der Flier (2011) developed a model in which obsolescence is categorised on the basis of two distinctions, i.e. between

  3. Understanding the Federal Proposal Review Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Janis I.

    Information on the peer review process for the evaluation of federal grant proposals is presented to help college grants administrators and faculty develop good proposals. This guidebook provides an overview of the policies and conventions that govern the review and selection of proposals for funding, and details the review procedures of the…

  4. Digital Signal Processing applied to Physical Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Alberto, Diego; Musa, L

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that many of the scientific and technological discoveries of the XXI century will depend on the capability of processing and understanding a huge quantity of data. With the advent of the digital era, a fully digital and automated treatment can be designed and performed. From data mining to data compression, from signal elaboration to noise reduction, a processing is essential to manage and enhance features of interest after every data acquisition (DAQ) session. In the near future, science will go towards interdisciplinary research. In this work there will be given an example of the application of signal processing to different fields of Physics from nuclear particle detectors to biomedical examinations. In Chapter 1 a brief description of the collaborations that allowed this thesis is given, together with a list of the publications co-produced by the author in these three years. The most important notations, definitions and acronyms used in the work are also provided. In Chapter 2, the last r...

  5. A Framework for Understanding Physics Students' Computational Modeling Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunk, Brandon Robert

    With the growing push to include computational modeling in the physics classroom, we are faced with the need to better understand students' computational modeling practices. While existing research on programming comprehension explores how novices and experts generate programming algorithms, little of this discusses how domain content knowledge, and physics knowledge in particular, can influence students' programming practices. In an effort to better understand this issue, I have developed a framework for modeling these practices based on a resource stance towards student knowledge. A resource framework models knowledge as the activation of vast networks of elements called "resources." Much like neurons in the brain, resources that become active can trigger cascading events of activation throughout the broader network. This model emphasizes the connectivity between knowledge elements and provides a description of students' knowledge base. Together with resources resources, the concepts of "epistemic games" and "frames" provide a means for addressing the interaction between content knowledge and practices. Although this framework has generally been limited to describing conceptual and mathematical understanding, it also provides a means for addressing students' programming practices. In this dissertation, I will demonstrate this facet of a resource framework as well as fill in an important missing piece: a set of epistemic games that can describe students' computational modeling strategies. The development of this theoretical framework emerged from the analysis of video data of students generating computational models during the laboratory component of a Matter & Interactions: Modern Mechanics course. Student participants across two semesters were recorded as they worked in groups to fix pre-written computational models that were initially missing key lines of code. Analysis of this video data showed that the students' programming practices were highly influenced by

  6. Bringing life to soil physical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    When Oklahoma's native prairie grass roots were replaced by corn, the greatest environmental (and social) disaster ever to hit America ensued. The soils lost structure, physical binding by roots was annihilated and when drought came the Great Dust Bowl commenced. This form of environmental disaster has repeated over history and although not always apparent, similar processes drive the degradation of seemingly productive farmland and forests. But just as negative impacts on biology are deleterious to soil physical properties, positive impacts could reverse these trends. In finding solutions to soil sustainability and food security, we should be able to exploit biological processes to improve soil physical properties. This talk will focus on a quantitative understanding of how biology changes soil physical behaviour. Like the Great Dust Bowl, it starts with reinforcement mechanisms by plant roots. We found that binding of soil by cereal (barley) roots within 5 weeks of planting can more than double soil shear strength, with greater plant density causing greater reinforcement. With time, however, the relative impact of root reinforcement diminishes due to root turnover and aging of the seedbed. From mechanical tests of individual roots, reasonable predictions of reinforcement by tree roots are possible with fibre bundle models. With herbaceous plants like cereals, however, the same parameters (root strength, stiffness, size and distribution) result in a poor prediction. We found that root type, root age and abiotic factors such as compaction and waterlogging affect mechanical behaviour, further complicating the understanding and prediction of root reinforcement. For soil physical stability, the interface between root and soil is an extremely important zone in terms of resistance of roots to pull-out and rhizosphere formation. Compounds analogous to root exudates have been found with rheological tests to initially decrease the shear stress where wet soils flow, but

  7. Dynamical processes in atomic and molecular physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ogurtsov, Gennadi

    2012-01-01

    Atomic and molecular physics underlie a basis for our knowledge of fundamental processes in nature and technology and in such applications as solid state physics, chemistry and biology. In recent years, atomic and molecular physics has undergone a revolutionary change due to great achievements in computing and experimental techniques. As a result, it has become possible to obtain information both on atomic and molecular characteristics and on dynamics of atomic and molecular processes. This e-book highlights the present state of investigations in the field of atomic and molecular physics. Rece

  8. Physical description of decay processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henin, F.; Mayne, F.

    1981-01-01

    A dynamical formulation of quasi-particles corresponding to complex poles of Green's functions has been provided in the frame of 'Liapounov' transformations in a superoperator formalism. In this formalism, two different superorperators are associated with the hamiltonian, on the one hand an energy superoperator H, and on the other hand, an evolution superoperator L. In the case of systems with continuous spectrum it is possible to diagonalize the transform of H, the diagonal elements being the energies found by the Green's functions methods. This can be achieved without diagonalizing at the same time, the transform of L: the inverse lifetimes and the collision processes are obtained in this way. We show here on the Friedrichs model, that we can specify uniquely such a transformation in agreement with our previous 'new quantum rules for dissipative systems'. This method can be generalized to more complex systems. (orig.)

  9. Soil physical land degradation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    According to the European Soil Framework Directive (2006) soil compaction is besides water and wind erosion one of the main physical reasons and threats of soil degradation. It is estimated, that 32% of the subsoils in Europe are highly degraded and 18% moderately vulnerable to compaction. The problem is not limited to crop land or forest areas (especially because of non-site adjusted harvesting machines) but is also prevalent in rangelands and grassland, and even in so called natural non-disturbed systems. The main reasons for an intense increase in compacted agricultural or forested regions are the still increasing masses of the machines as well the increased frequency of wheeling under non favorable site conditions. Shear and vibration induced soil deformation enhances the deterioration of soil properties especially if the soil water content is very high and the internal soil strength very low. The same is true for animal trampling in combination with overgrazing of moist to wet pastures which subsequently causes a denser (i.e. reduced proportion of coarse pores with smaller continuity) but still structured soil horizons and will finally end in a compacted platy structure. In combination with high water content and shearing due to trampling therefore results in a complete muddy homogeneous soil with no structure at all. (Krümmelbein et al. 2013) Site managements of arable, forestry or horticulture soils requires a sufficiently rigid pore system which guarantees water, gas and heat exchange, nutrient transport and adsorption as well as an optimal rootability in order to avoid subsoil compaction. Such pore system also guarantees a sufficient microbial activity and composition in order to also decompose the plant etc. debris. It is therefore essential that well structured horizons dominate in soils with at best subangular blocky structure or in the top A- horizons a crumbly structure due to biological activity. In contrast defines the formation of a platy

  10. Thinking in physics the pleasure of reasoning and understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Viennot, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Read this book if you care about students really understanding physics and getting genuine intellectual satisfaction from doing so. Read it too if you fear that this goal is out of reach ? you may be surprised! Laurence Viennot here shows ways to deal with the awkward fact that common sense thinking is often not the same as scientific thinking. She analyses examples of frequent and widespread errors and confusions, which provide a real eye-opener for the teacher. More than that, she shows ways to avoid and overcome them. The book argues against over-emphasis on "fun" applications, demonstratin

  11. Probing new physics in rare charm processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    The possibility of using the charm system to search for new physics is addressed. Phenomena such as D 0 - bar D 0 mixing and rare decays of charmed mesons are first examined in the Standard Model to test the present understanding and to serve as benchmarks for signals from new sources. The effects of new physics from various classes of non-standard dynamical models on D 0 - bar D 0 mixing are investigated

  12. Understanding space weather with new physical, mathematical and philosophical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateev, Lachezar; Velinov, Peter; Tassev, Yordan

    2016-07-01

    The actual problems of solar-terrestrial physics, in particular of space weather are related to the prediction of the space environment state and are solved by means of different analyses and models. The development of these investigations can be considered also from another side. This is the philosophical and mathematical approach towards this physical reality. What does it constitute? We have a set of physical processes which occur in the Sun and interplanetary space. All these processes interact with each other and simultaneously participate in the general process which forms the space weather. Let us now consider the Leibniz's monads (G.W. von Leibniz, 1714, Monadologie, Wien; Id., 1710, Théodicée, Amsterdam) and use some of their properties. There are total 90 theses for monads in the Leibniz's work (1714), f.e. "(1) The Monad, of which we shall here speak, is nothing but a simple substance, which enters into compounds. By 'simple' is meant 'without parts'. (Theod. 10.); … (56) Now this connexion or adaptation of all created things to each and of each to all, means that each simple substance has relations which express all the others, and, consequently, that it is a perpetual living mirror of the universe. (Theod. 130, 360.); (59) … this universal harmony, according to which every substance exactly expresses all others through the relations it has with them. (63) … every Monad is, in its own way, a mirror of the universe, and the universe is ruled according to a perfect order. (Theod. 403.)", etc. Let us introduce in the properties of monads instead of the word "monad" the word "process". We obtain the following statement: Each process reflects all other processes and all other processes reflect this process. This analogy is not formal at all, it reflects accurately the relation between the physical processes and their unity. The category monad which in the Leibniz's Monadology reflects generally the philosophical sense is fully identical with the

  13. Evolution in students' understanding of thermal physics with increasing complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbeheim, Elon; Safran, Samuel A.; Livne, Shelly; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the development in students’ understanding of fundamental principles in the context of learning a current interdisciplinary research topic—soft matter—that was adapted to the level of high school students. The topic was introduced in a program for interested 11th grade high school students majoring in chemistry and/or physics, in an off-school setting. Soft matter was presented in a gradual increase in the degree of complexity of the phenomena as well as in the level of the quantitative analysis. We describe the evolution in students’ use of fundamental thermodynamics principles to reason about phase separation—a phenomenon that is ubiquitous in soft matter. In particular, we examine the impact of the use of free energy analysis, a common approach in soft matter, on the understanding of the fundamental principles of thermodynamics. The study used diagnostic questions and classroom observations to gauge the student’s learning. In order to gain insight on the aspects that shape the understanding of the basic principles, we focus on the responses and explanations of two case-study students who represent two trends of evolution in conceptual understanding in the group. We analyze changes in the two case studies’ management of conceptual resources used in their analysis of phase separation, and suggest how their prior knowledge and epistemological framing (a combination of their personal tendencies and their prior exposure to different learning styles) affect their conceptual evolution. Finally, we propose strategies to improve the instruction of these concepts.

  14. Physical processes in the Indian seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Das, V.K.; Antony, M.K.

    The proceedings volume comprise 38 papers covering air-sea boundary problems, open-ocean dynamics, nearshore processes, observational and analysis techniques, etc. This volume helps in taking stock of physical oceanographic activities in India...

  15. UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS AMY MCGOVERN, TIMOTHY SUPINIE, DAVID JOHN GAGNE II, NATHANIEL TROUTMAN,...

  16. Effect of Linked Rules on Business Process Model Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Indulska, Marta; Sadiq, Shazia

    2017-01-01

    Business process models are widely used in organizations by information systems analysts to represent complex business requirements and by business users to understand business operations and constraints. This understanding is extracted from graphical process models as well as business rules. Prior...

  17. A machine learning approach to understand business processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruster, L.

    2003-01-01

    Business processes (industries, administration, hospitals, etc.) become nowadays more and more complex and it is difficult to have a complete understanding of them. The goal of the thesis is to show that machine learning techniques can be used successfully for understanding a process on the basis of

  18. Evolution in students’ understanding of thermal physics with increasing complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elon Langbeheim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the development in students’ understanding of fundamental principles in the context of learning a current interdisciplinary research topic—soft matter—that was adapted to the level of high school students. The topic was introduced in a program for interested 11th grade high school students majoring in chemistry and/or physics, in an off-school setting. Soft matter was presented in a gradual increase in the degree of complexity of the phenomena as well as in the level of the quantitative analysis. We describe the evolution in students’ use of fundamental thermodynamics principles to reason about phase separation—a phenomenon that is ubiquitous in soft matter. In particular, we examine the impact of the use of free energy analysis, a common approach in soft matter, on the understanding of the fundamental principles of thermodynamics. The study used diagnostic questions and classroom observations to gauge the student’s learning. In order to gain insight on the aspects that shape the understanding of the basic principles, we focus on the responses and explanations of two case-study students who represent two trends of evolution in conceptual understanding in the group. We analyze changes in the two case studies’ management of conceptual resources used in their analysis of phase separation, and suggest how their prior knowledge and epistemological framing (a combination of their personal tendencies and their prior exposure to different learning styles affect their conceptual evolution. Finally, we propose strategies to improve the instruction of these concepts.

  19. Physical and mathematical modelling of extrusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Gronostajski, Z.; Niechajowics, A.

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of the work is to study the extrusion process using physical modelling and to compare the findings of the study with finite element predictions. The possibilities and advantages of the simultaneous application of both of these methods for the analysis of metal forming processes...

  20. BOOK REVIEW: New Understanding Physics for Advanced Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Jim

    2000-09-01

    Breithaupt's new book is big: at 727 pages, it will be a hefty addition to any student's bag. According to the preface, the book is designed to help students achieve the transition from GCSE to A-level and to succeed well at this level. It also aims to cover the requirements of the compulsory parts of all new syllabuses and to cover most of the optional material, too. The book is organized into seven themes along traditional lines: mechanics, materials, fields, waves, electricity, inside the atom, and physics in medicine. Each theme begins with a colourful title page that outlines what the theme is about, lists the applications that students will meet in their reading, identifies prior learning from GCSE and gives a checklist of what students should be able to do once they have finished their reading of the theme. This is all very useful. The text of the book is illustrated with many colourful photographs, pictures and cartoons, but despite this it looks very dense. There are a lot of words on every page in a small font that makes them seem very unfriendly, and although the book claims to be readable I rather doubt that the layout will encourage voluntary reading of the text. Each chapter ends with a useful summary and a selection of short questions that allow students to test their understanding. Each theme has a set of multiple choice and long questions. Some of the questions have an icon referring the student to the accompanying CD (more of this later). There is much up-to-date material in the book. For example, the section on cosmology gives a brief description of the inflationary scenario within the Big Bang model of the origin of the universe, although no mechanism for the inflation is given, which might prove unsatisfying to some students. I do have some reservations about the presentation of some topics within the book: the discussion of relativistic mass, for example, states that `Einstein showed that the mass ... is given by the formula ...' and quotes

  1. An exploration of university physics students’ epistemological mindsets towards the understanding of physics equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Domert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Students’ attitudes and beliefs about learning have been shown to affect learning outcomes. This study explores how university physics students think about what it means to understand physics equations. The data comes from semi-structured interviews with students from three Swedish universities. The analysis follows a data-based, inductive approach to characterise students’ descriptions of what it means to understand equations in terms of epistemological mindsets (perceived critical attributes of a learning, application, or problem-solving situation that are grounded in epistemology. The results are given in terms of different components of students’ epistemological mindsets. Relations between individuals and sets of components as well as differences across various stages of students’ academic career are then explored. Pedagogical implications of the findings are discussed and tentative suggestions for university physics teaching are made.

  2. Tales of the quantum understanding physics' most fundamental theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hobson, Art

    2017-01-01

    Everybody has heard that we live in a world made of atoms. But far more fundamentally, we live in a universe made of quanta. Many things are not made of atoms: light, radio waves, electric current, magnetic fields, Earth's gravitational field, not to mention exotica such a neutron stars, black holes, dark energy, and dark matter. But everything, including atoms, is made of highly unified or "coherent" bundles of energy called "quanta" that (like everything else) obey certain rules. In the case of the quantum, these rules are called "quantum physics." This is a book about quanta and their unexpected, some would say peculiar, behavior--tales, if you will, of the quantum. The quantum has developed the reputation of being capricious, bewildering, even impossible to understand. The peculiar habits of quanta are certainly not what we would have expected to find at the foundation of physical reality, but these habits are not necessarily bewildering and not at all impossible or paradoxical. This book explains those h...

  3. Physical understanding of the tropical cyclone wind-pressure relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavas, Daniel R; Reed, Kevin A; Knaff, John A

    2017-11-08

    The relationship between the two common measures of tropical cyclone intensity, the central pressure deficit and the peak near-surface wind speed, is a long-standing problem in tropical meteorology that has been approximated empirically yet lacks physical understanding. Here we provide theoretical grounding for this relationship. We first demonstrate that the central pressure deficit is highly predictable from the low-level wind field via gradient wind balance. We then show that this relationship reduces to a dependence on two velocity scales: the maximum azimuthal-mean azimuthal wind speed and half the product of the Coriolis parameter and outer storm size. This simple theory is found to hold across a hierarchy of models spanning reduced-complexity and Earth-like global simulations and observations. Thus, the central pressure deficit is an intensity measure that combines maximum wind speed, storm size, and background rotation rate. This work has significant implications for both fundamental understanding and risk analysis, including why the central pressure better explains historical economic damages than does maximum wind speed.

  4. Physical processes in the interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Spitzer, Lyman

    2008-01-01

    Physical Processes in the Interstellar Medium discusses the nature of interstellar matter, with a strong emphasis on basic physical principles, and summarizes the present state of knowledge about the interstellar medium by providing the latest observational data. Physics and chemistry of the interstellar medium are treated, with frequent references to observational results. The overall equilibrium and dynamical state of the interstellar gas are described, with discussions of explosions produced by star birth and star death and the initial phases of cloud collapse leading to star formation.

  5. Physical activity (PA) and the disablement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Holst, Claus

    2012-01-01

    . Among older women, the association between RPA and incidence of disability was attenuated in analyses that controlled for baseline mobility function. Thus, the association between physical activity and mortality reflected processes different from those underlying a simple relation between physical...... activity, disability and mortality. Physical activity was an ubiquitous predictor of longevity, but only for women....... community-living persons, aged 75-83 years, we evaluated the 1021 who reported no disability in basic activities of daily living. Participants were followed for a median of 8.34 years in public registers to determine onset of disability and mortality. RPA predicted mortality in older women (HR=1.77, 95%CI=1...

  6. Task-specific visual cues for improving process model understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusel, Razvan; Mendling, Jan; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2016-01-01

    Context Business process models support various stakeholders in managing business processes and designing process-aware information systems. In order to make effective use of these models, they have to be readily understandable. Objective Prior research has emphasized the potential of visual cues to

  7. Physical and chemical characterization of bioaerosols - Implications for nucleation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariya, P. A.; Sun, J.; Eltouny, N. A.; Hudson, E. D.; Hayes, C. T.; Kos, G.

    The importance of organic compounds in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, and as cloud condensation and ice-forming nuclei, has been recognized for several decades. Organic compounds comprise a significant fraction of the suspended matter mass, leading to local (e.g. toxicity, health hazards) and global (e.g. climate change) impacts. The state of knowledge of the physical chemistry of organic aerosols has increased during the last few decades. However, due to their complex chemistry and the multifaceted processes in which they are involved, the importance of organic aerosols, particularly bioaerosols, in driving physical and chemical atmospheric processes is still very uncertain and poorly understood. Factors such as solubility, surface tension, chemical impurities, volatility, morphology, contact angle, deliquescence, wettability, and the oxidation process are pivotal in the understanding of the activation processes of cloud droplets, and their chemical structures, solubilities and even the molecular configuration of the microbial outer membrane, all impact ice and cloud nucleation processes in the atmosphere. The aim of this review paper is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols with a focus on those properties important in nucleation processes. We herein discuss the potential importance (or lack thereof) of physical and chemical properties of bioaerosols and illustrate how the knowledge of these properties can be employed to study nucleation processes using a modeling exercise. We also outline a list of major uncertainties due to a lack of understanding of the processes involved or lack of available data. We will also discuss key issues of atmospheric significance deserving future physical chemistry research in the fields of bioaerosol characterization and microphysics, as well as bioaerosol modeling. These fundamental questions are to be addressed prior to any definite conclusions on the

  8. Understanding Stoichiometric Controls in Nutrient Processing Along the River Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayburu-Caruso, V. A.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.; Van Horn, D. J.; Covino, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    Eutrophication is the second most common cause of water impairment across the U.S. Nutrient retention in streams is controlled by physical and biochemical processes, including biomass availability and stoichiometric limitations. Decoupling the interactions between hydrology, nutrient supply and biogeochemical processes remains challenging for the scientific community due to lack of mechanistic understanding. Consequently, more knowledge regarding optimal controls for nutrient retention is needed to implement better management and restoration practices. We conducted column experiments to investigate how stoichiometric limitations influence nutrient spiraling in shallow sediment-water interactions along representative sites of the Jemez River-Rio Grande continuum (which spans eight stream orders), in New Mexico, USA. In each stream order we incubated six columns packed with different sediments (i.e., Silica Cone Density Sand ASTM D 1556 (0.075-2.00 mm), gravel (>2mm) and native sediments) from each site for three months. We performed two laboratory tracer experiments using columns of each substrate under identical flow conditions. In the first experiment we added a short-term pulse of reactive and conservative tracers (i.e. NaNO3 and NaBr). In the second experiment we added a short-term pulse of NaBr and nutrients following Redfield's ratio (106C:16N:1P). We estimated uptake kinetics using the Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC) method and evaluated how ideal stoichiometric conditions controlled efficient nutrient retention along fluvial networks. Our results suggest that biological uptake of nitrate is limited by nitrogen in headwater streams and by phosphorus and carbon in larger stream orders.

  9. Understanding Aquatic Rhizosphere Processes Through Metabolomics and Metagenomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jian; Mynampati, Kalyan; Drautz, Daniela; Arumugam, Krithika; Williams, Rohan; Schuster, Stephan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    The aquatic rhizosphere is a region around the roots of aquatic plants. Many studies focusing on terrestrial rhizosphere have led to a good understanding of the interactions between the roots, its exudates and its associated rhizobacteria. The rhizosphere of free-floating roots, however, is a different habitat that poses several additional challenges, including rapid diffusion rates of signals and nutrient molecules, which are further influenced by the hydrodynamic forces. These can lead to rapid diffusion and complicates the studying of diffusible factors from both plant and/or rhizobacterial origins. These plant systems are being increasingly used for self purification of water bodies to provide sustainable solution. A better understanding of these processes will help in improving their performance for ecological engineering of freshwater systems. The same principles can also be used to improve the yield of hydroponic cultures. Novel toolsets and approaches are needed to investigate the processes occurring in the aquatic rhizosphere. We are interested in understanding the interaction between root exudates and the complex microbial communities that are associated with the roots, using a systems biology approach involving metabolomics and metagenomics. With this aim, we have developed a RhizoFlowCell (RFC) system that provides a controlled study of aquatic plants, observed the root biofilms, collect root exudates and subject the rhizosphere system to changes in various chemical or physical perturbations. As proof of concept, we have used RFC to test the response of root exudation patterns of Pandanus amaryllifolius after exposure to the pollutant naphthalene. Complexity of root exudates in the aquatic rhizosphere was captured using this device and analysed using LC-qTOF-MS. The highly complex metabolomic profile allowed us to study the dynamics of the response of roots to varying levels of naphthalene. The metabolic profile changed within 5mins after spiking with

  10. Mediating Relationship of Differential Products in Understanding Integration in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Nathaniel; Heckler, Andrew F.

    2018-01-01

    In the context of introductory physics, we study student conceptual understanding of differentials, differential products, and integrals and possible pathways to understanding these quantities. We developed a multiple choice conceptual assessment employing a variety of physical contexts probing physical understanding of these three quantities and…

  11. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Understanding of the Relational Structure of Physics Concepts: Organising Subject Contents for Purposes of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo; Nousiainen, Maija

    2013-01-01

    Good conceptual understanding of physics is based on understanding what the key concepts are and how they are related. This kind of understanding is especially important for physics teachers in planning how and in what order to introduce concepts in teaching; connections which tie concepts to each other give direction of progress--there is "flux…

  12. The Contribution of GGOS to Understanding Dynamic Earth Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Richard

    2017-04-01

    of continental and basin-scale water masses; loading and unloading of the land surface due to seasonal changes of groundwater; measurement of water level of major lakes and rivers by satellite altimetry; and improved digital terrain models as basis for flux modeling of surface water and flood modeling. Geodesy is crucial for cryospheric studies because of its ability to measure the motions of ice masses and changes in their volumes. Ice sheets, glaciers, and sea ice are intricately linked to the Earth's climate system. They store a record of past climate; they strongly affect surface energy budget, global water cycle, and sea-level change; and they are sensitive indicators of climate change. Geodesy is at the heart of all present-day ocean studies. Geodetic observations uniquely produce accurate, quantitative, and integrated observations of gravity, ocean circulation, sea surface height, ocean bottom pressure, and mass exchanges among the ocean, cryosphere, and land. Geodetic observations have made fundamental contributions to monitoring and understanding physical ocean processes. In particular, geodesy is the basic technique used to determine an accurate geoid model, allowing for the determination of absolute surface geostrophic currents, which are necessary to quantify heat transport of the ocean. Geodesy also provides the absolute reference for tide gauge measurements, allowing those measurements to be merged with satellite altimetric measurements to provide a coherent worldwide monitoring system for sea level change. In this presentation, selected examples of the contribution of geodetic observations to understanding the dynamic Earth system will be presented.

  13. Effectiveness of Ninth-Grade Physics in Maine: Conceptual Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Michael; Thompson, John

    2009-01-01

    The Physics First movement - teaching a true physics course to ninth grade students - is gaining popularity in high schools. There are several different rhetorical arguments for and against this movement, and it is quite controversial in physics education. However, there is no actual evidence to assess the success, or failure, of this substantial shift in the science teaching sequence. We have undertaken a comparison study of physics classes taught in ninth- and 12th grade classes in Maine. C...

  14. Increasing process understanding by analyzing complex interactions in experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naelapaa, Kaisa; Allesø, Morten; Kristensen, Henning Gjelstrup

    2009-01-01

    understanding of a coating process. It was possible to model the response, that is, the amount of drug released, using both mentioned techniques. However, the ANOVAmodel was difficult to interpret as several interactions between process parameters existed. In contrast to ANOVA, GEMANOVA is especially suited...... for modeling complex interactions and making easily understandable models of these. GEMANOVA modeling allowed a simple visualization of the entire experimental space. Furthermore, information was obtained on how relative changes in the settings of process parameters influence the film quality and thereby drug......There is a recognized need for new approaches to understand unit operations with pharmaceutical relevance. A method for analyzing complex interactions in experimental data is introduced. Higher-order interactions do exist between process parameters, which complicate the interpretation...

  15. Understanding Quality in Process Modelling: Towards a Holistic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Recker

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality is one of the main topics in current conceptual modelling research, as is the field of business process modelling. Yet, widely acknowledged academic contributions towards an understanding or measurement of business process model quality are limited at best. In this paper I argue that the development of methodical theories concerning the measurement or establishment of process model quality must be preceded by methodological elaborations on business process modelling. I further argue that existing epistemological foundations of process modelling are insufficient for describing all extrinsic and intrinsic traits of model quality. This in turn has led to a lack of holistic understanding of process modelling. Taking into account the inherent social and purpose-oriented character of process modelling in contemporary organizations I present a socio-pragmatic constructionist methodology of business process modelling and sketch out implications of this perspective towards an understanding of process model quality. I anticipate that, based on this research, theories can be developed that facilitate the evaluation of the ’goodness’ of a business process model.

  16. Understanding Solar Coronal Heating through Atomic and Plasma Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Daniel Wolf; Arthanayaka, Thusitha; Bose, Sayak; Hahn, Michael; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory V.; Gekelman, Walter; Vincena, Steve

    2017-08-01

    Recent solar observations suggest that the Sun's corona is heated by Alfven waves that dissipate at unexpectedly low heights in the corona. These observations raise a number of questions. Among them are the problems of accurately quantifying the energy flux of the waves and that of describing the physical mechanism that leads to the wave damping. We are performing laboratory experiments to address both of these issues.The energy flux depends on the electron density, which can be measured spectroscopically. However, spectroscopic density diagnostics have large uncertainties, because they depend sensitively on atomic collisional excitation, de-excitation, and radiative transition rates for multiple atomic levels. Essentially all of these data come from theory and have not been experimentally validated. We are conducting laboratory experiments using the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that will provide accurate empirical calibrations for spectroscopic density diagnostics and which will also help to guide theoretical calculations.The observed rapid wave dissipation is likely due to inhomogeneities in the plasma that drive flows and currents at small length scales where energy can be more efficiently dissipated. This may take place through gradients in the Alfvén speed along the magnetic field, which causes wave reflection and generates turbulence. Alternatively, gradients in the Alfvén speed across the field can lead to dissipation through phase-mixing. Using the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at the University of California Los Angeles, we are studying both of these dissipation mechanisms in the laboratory in order to understand their potential roles in coronal heating.

  17. Understanding and Managing Process Interaction in IS Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, information systems must be developed and implemented as a part of business change. This is a challenge for the IS project manager, since business change and information systems development usually are performed as separate processes. Thus, there is a need to understand and manage......-technical innovation in a situation where the organisational change process and the IS development process are parallel but incongruent. We also argue that iterative software engineering frameworks are well structured to support process interaction. Finally, we advocate that the IS project manager needs to manage...... the relationship between these two kinds of processes. To understand the interaction between information systems development and planned organisational change we introduce the concept of process interaction. We draw on a longitudinal case study of an IS development project that used an iterative and incremental...

  18. A Science-Based Understanding of Cermet Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarano, III, Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roach, Robert Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kilgo, Alice C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Susan, Donald Francis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van Ornum, David J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stuecker, John N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shollenberger, Kimberly A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This report is a summary of the work completed in FY01 for science-based characterization of the processes used to fabricate 1) cermet vias in source feedthrus using slurry and paste-filling techniques and 2) cermet powder for dry pressing. Common defects found in cermet vias were characterized based on the ability of subsequent processing techniques (isopressing and firing) to remove the defects. Non-aqueous spray drying and mist granulation techniques were explored as alternative methods of creating CND50, the powder commonly used for dry pressed parts. Compaction and flow characteristics of these techniques were analyzed and compared to standard dry-ball-milled CND50. Due to processing changes, changes in microstructure can occur. A microstructure characterization technique was developed to numerically describe cermet microstructure. Machining and electrical properties of dry pressed parts were also analyzed and related to microstructure using this analytical technique.3 Executive SummaryThis report outlines accomplishments in the science-based understanding of cermet processing up to fiscal year 2002 for Sandia National Laboratories. The three main areas of work are centered on 1) increasing production yields of slurry-filled cermets, 2) evaluating the viability of high-solids-loading pastes for the same cermet components, and 3) optimizing cermet powder used in pressing processes (CND50). An additional development that was created as a result of the effort to fully understand the impacts of alternative processing techniques is the use of analytical methods to relate microstructure to physical properties. Recommendations are suggested at the end of this report. Summaries of these four efforts are as follows:1.Increase Production Yields of Slurry-Filled Cermet Vias Finalized slurry filling criteria were determined based on three designs of experiments where the following factors were analyzed: vacuum time, solids loading, pressure drop across the filter paper

  19. The Effects on Students' Conceptual Understanding of Electric Circuits of Introducing Virtual Manipulatives within a Physical Manipulatives-Oriented Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; de Jong, Ton

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether Virtual Manipulatives (VM) within a Physical Manipulatives (PM)-oriented curriculum affect conceptual understanding of electric circuits and related experimentation processes. A pre-post comparison study randomly assigned 194 undergraduates in an introductory physics course to one of five conditions: three…

  20. Physical processes in spin polarized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Valeo, E.J.; Cowley, S.

    1984-05-01

    If the plasma in a nuclear fusion reactor is polarized, the nuclear reactions are modified in such a way as to enhance the reactor performance. We calculate in detail the modification of these nuclear reactions by different modes of polarization of the nuclear fuel. We also consider in detail the various physical processes that can lead to depolarization and show that they are by and large slow enough that a high degree of polarization can be maintained

  1. The importance of understanding during the teaching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubljanin Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning in the teaching process often goes on without proper understanding which is one of important problems that modern didactics tries to solve. In order to direct the totality of teaching towards understanding it is necessary to answer the question what understanding is, which is why we analysed different philosophical views on the concept of understanding and stressed their semblance to pedagogic explanations. Different kinds of understanding were analyzed as well as their role and contribution in different teaching situations, especially in the context of problem solving. As an alternative to the teaching based on accumulation of knowledge the characteristics and some principles of teaching focused on understanding are described, and the need for stimulating and developing understanding as an important goal of education. The results of our research unequivocally show that learning with understanding enables students to memorize the teaching material better, as well as to understand the whole teaching subject and efficiently apply the acquired knowledge out of school, and leads to more flexible behaviour and better coping in everyday life.

  2. Investigation of the supercritical CO2 cycle: mapping of the thermodynamic potential for different applications; further understanding of the physical processes, in particular through simulations and analysis of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Hong-Son

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical CO 2 (sc-CO 2 ) cycle has been gaining an increasing attention in the engineering world as an alternative to the Rankine steam cycle. Indeed, it provides high efficiency and allows for compact footprint and simple system layout. This study aims to contribute to the research and development on this cycle; the thermodynamic potential and the physical processes, in particular those related to the real gas behavior of the working fluid near its critical point, are considered. The first part of the thesis reports the mapping of the thermodynamic performance of the sc-CO 2 cycle in a 250 - 850 C TIT (Turbine Inlet Temperature) range, for different configurations. These data provide a preliminary guideline to the maximum performance and inter-linked constraints when coupling the cycle to a specific application. Following this generic study, the cycle has been investigated at TITs of 275 and 515 C for SMR (Small Modular Reactor) and SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) applications, respectively, to encompass their specific requirements. The recompression cycle in condensing mode has been identified as the most interesting option in both cases. For the SFR, it achieves an attractive thermal efficiency of 45.7% while keeping the IHX (Intermediate Heat exchanger) inlet temperature below 330 C, as currently considered for this application. The study subsequently addresses the performance and operation of the sc-CO 2 compressor by means of CFD simulations. First, numerical results on a small scale compressor - implemented in a sc-CO 2 compression test loop - have been confronted with the experimental data, highlighting the implications of the measurement uncertainty on the reliability of the compressor performance. Nonetheless, a very good agreement has been achieved regarding the compressor inlet and outlet temperatures and pressures, supporting a first qualification of the CFD technique. Simulations on a real scale compressor - designed for the SMR application

  3. Problematizing a general physics class: Understanding student engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaid, Mark Randall

    This research paper describes the problems in democratizing a high school physics course and the disparate engagement students during class activities that promote scientific inquiry. Results from the Learning Orientation Questionnaire (Martinez, 2000) guide the participant observations and semi-formal interviews. Approximately 60% of the participants self-report a "resistant" or "conforming" approach to learning science; they expect to receive science knowledge from the teacher, and their engagement is influenced by affective and conative factors. These surface learners exhibit second order thinking (Kegan, 1994), do not understand abstract science concepts, and learn best from structured inquiry. To sustain engagement, conforming learners require motivational and instructional discourse from their teacher and peers. Resisting learners do not value learning and do not engage in most science class activities. The "performing" learners are able to deal with abstractions and can see relationships between lessons and activities, but they do not usually self-reflect or think critically (they are between Kegan's second order and third order thinking). They may select a deeper learning strategy if they value the knowledge for a future goal; however, they are oriented toward assessment and rely on the science teacher as an authority. They are influenced by affective and conative factors during structured and guided inquiry-based teaching, and benefit from motivational discourse and sustain engagement if they are interested in the topic. The transforming learners are more independent, self-assessing and self-directed. These students are third order thinkers (Kegan, 1994) who hold a sophisticated epistemology that includes critical thinking and reflection. These students select deep learning strategies without regard to affective and conative factors. They value instructional discourse from the teacher, but prefer less structured inquiry activities. Although specific

  4. PHYSICAL RESOURCES OF INFORMATION PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail O. Kolbanev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study. The paper describes basic information technologies for automating of information processes of data storage, distribution and processing in terms of required physical resources. It is shown that the study of these processes with such traditional objectives of modern computer science, as the ability to transfer knowledge, degree of automation, information security, coding, reliability, and others, is not enough. The reasons are: on the one hand, the increase in the volume and intensity of information exchange in the subject of human activity and, on the other hand, drawing near to the limit of information systems efficiency based on semiconductor technologies. Creation of such technologies, which not only provide support for information interaction, but also consume a rational amount of physical resources, has become an actual problem of modern engineering development. Thus, basic information technologies for storage, distribution and processing of information to support the interaction between people are the object of study, and physical temporal, spatial and energy resources required for implementation of these technologies are the subject of study. Approaches. An attempt is made to enlarge the possibilities of traditional cybernetics methodology, which replaces the consideration of material information component by states search for information objects. It is done by taking explicitly into account the amount of physical resources required for changes in the states of information media. Purpose of study. The paper deals with working out of a common approach to the comparison and subsequent selection of basic information technologies for storage, distribution and processing of data, taking into account not only the requirements for the quality of information exchange in particular subject area and the degree of technology application, but also the amounts of consumed physical resources. Main findings. Classification of resources

  5. Understanding the Importance, Dimensions and Settings for Developing Children’s Physical Activity Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hyndman, Brendon

    2015-01-01

    Promotion of regular physical activity during childhood within schools, home and community settings is important as childhood forms the foundation for physical activity habits that can track into adulthood. Despite childhood being a crucial period for developing physical activity behaviour, there is a limited understanding of the physical activity behaviours of school-aged children. The aim of this research report is to facilitate understanding of children’s physical activity behaviours by ou...

  6. Understanding r-process nucleosynthesis with dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Alexander P.

    2018-06-01

    The Milky Way's faintest dwarf galaxy satellites each sample short, independent bursts of star formation from the first 1-2 Gyr of the universe. Their simple formation history makes them ideal systems to understand how rare events like neutron star mergers contribute to early enrichment of r-process elements. I will focus on the ultra-faint galaxy Reticulum II, which experienced a single prolific r-process event that left ~80% of its stars extremely enriched in r-process elements. I will present abundances of ~40 elements derived from the highest signal-to-noise high-resolution spectrum ever taken for an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy star. Precise measurements of elements from all three r-process peaks reaffirm the universal nature of the r-process abundance pattern from Ba to Ir. The first r-process peak is significantly lower than solar but matches other r-process enhanced stars. This constrains the neutron-richness of r-process ejecta in neutron star mergers. The radioactive element thorium is detected with a somewhat low abundance. Naive application of currently predicted initial production ratios could imply an age >20 Gyr, but more likely indicates that the initial production ratios require revision. The abundance of lighter elements up to Zn are consistent with extremely metal-poor Milky Way halo stars. These elements may eventually provide a way to test for other hypothesized r-process sites, but only after a more detailed understanding of the chemical evolution in this galaxy. Reticulum II provides a clean view of early r-process enrichment that can be used to understand the increasing number of r-process measurements in other dwarf galaxies.

  7. Videogame Construction by Engineering Students for Understanding Modelling Processes: The Case of Simulating Water Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretelín-Ricárdez, Angel; Sacristán, Ana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    We present some results of an ongoing research project where university engineering students were asked to construct videogames involving the use of physical systems models. The objective is to help them identify and understand the elements and concepts involved in the modelling process. That is, we use game design as a constructionist approach…

  8. Physics understanding the properties of matter and energy

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Without physics, modern life would not exist. Instead of electric light, we would read by the light of candles. We couldn''t build skyscrapers. We could not possibly bridge rivers, much less build a jet or interplanetary craft. Computers and smartphones would be unimaginable. Physics is concerned with the most fundamental aspects of matter and energy and how they interact to make the physical universe work. In accessible language and with explanatory graphics and visual aids, this book introduces readers to the science that is at the very center of all other sciences and essential to our very

  9. Understanding the Process by Which New Employees Enter Work Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Donald B.

    1977-01-01

    The Group Integration Process, described in this article, serves as a broad and guiding set of steps (invitation, induction, orientation, training, relationship, and integration) that helps the supervisor better understand what is to be done in managing a new employee's entrance into a work group. (TA)

  10. Understanding the Advising Learning Process Using Learning Taxonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleck, Jeanette K.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Allen, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the learning that transpires in advising, we used Anderson et al.'s (2001) revision of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's (1964) affective taxonomy to analyze eight student-reported advising outcomes from Smith and Allen (2014). Using the cognitive processes and knowledge domains of Anderson et al.'s…

  11. Nuclear Data Processing for Reactor Physics Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Zuhair; Pandiangan, Tumpal

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear data processing for reactor physics calculation has been done. Raw nuclear data cross-sections on file ENDF should be prepared and processed before it used in neutronic calculation. The processing code system such as NJOY-PC code has been used from linearization of nuclear cross-sections data and background contribution of resonance parameter (MF2) using RECONR module (0K) with energy range from 10 -5 to 10 7 eV. Afterward, the neutron cross-sections data should be processed and broadened to desire temperature (i.e. 293K) by using BROADR module. The Grouper and Therma modules will be applied for multi-groups calculation which suitable for WIMS/D4 (69 groups) and thermalization of nuclear constants. The final stage of processing nuclear cross-sections is updating WIMS/D4 library. The WIMSR module in NJOY-PC and WILLIE code will be applied in this stage. The evaluated nuclear data file, especially for 1 H 1 isotope, was taken from JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI for preliminary study. The results of nuclear data processing 1 H 1 shows that the old-WIMS (WIMS-lama) library have much discrepancies comparing with JENDL-3.2 or ENDF/B-VI files, especially in energy around 5 keV

  12. Contextualization processes and the initial education of physics teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cândida de Macedo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Contextualization of school contents has been seen as a possibility of facilitating students’ learning, since it makes the educative process more significant to them. However, there is no agreement as to the meaning and the forms of applying such processes. Particularly in the area of Science teaching, the creation of thematic projects has been seen as a way of contextualizing school contents. It is noteworthy that the experience with the education of Physics teachers shows that the creation and execution of such projects brings many difficulties to teachers, the main obstacle being the understanding of what contextualized educative processes are. Having this in mind, a project has been elaborated with the objective of analyzing the comprehension Physics teachers that are going through teacher education courses have of the processes of contextualization. The data for this investigation has been obtained from students who attended a course of the Physics Teacher Education module at the Federal University of Itajubá. It is significant to mention that in this course students are asked to create three versions of a thematic project. In order to analyze the data, the procedure of Thematic Content and Category Analysis was adopted. This research shows that Physics teachers to be incorporate the discourses of the educative ideas throughout the course. However, there is a series of obstacles they face as they attempt to understand and carry out contextualized educative processes. Those difficulties are connected to their experience with this kind of educative process throughout the years they spend at school and in the teacher education course. We conclude thus that it is essential that contextualized educative activities be part of the reality of teacher education programs.

  13. The plasma physics of plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohet, L.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma processing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. It has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both high-technology and the more traditional industries. Plasma processing takes on a wide variety of apparently different forms in industry, but the techniques share many common characteristics and problems. Control of the generation and flux of ions, electrons and free radicals in the plasma and their incidence on a surface is vital. Diagnostics, sensors, modeling techniques, and associated statistical methods are needed. However, without an in-depth understanding of the variety of phenomena taking place and their application to the industrial environment, advances in this technology, and its efficient use, will occur at a diminishing rate

  14. Understanding the IT/business partnership - a business process perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur

    2014-01-01

    From a business process perspective, the business value of information technologies (IT) stems from how they improve or enable business processes. At the same time, in the field of strategic IT/business alignment, the locus of discussion has been how IT/business partnerships enhance the value of IT....... Despite this apparent relationship, the business process perspective has been absent from the IT/business alignment discussion. In this paper, we use the case of an industrial company to develop a model for understanding IT/business partnerships in business process terms. Based on our findings, we define...... these partnerships by allocating responsibilities between central IT and the local business during two stages of a process lifecycle: formation and standardization. The significance of the findings lies in how the model’s configuration leads to different types of IT units’ process centricity. This in turn affects...

  15. Determining which introductory physics topics pre-service physics teachers have difficulty understanding and what accounts for these difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şahin, Esin; Yağbasan, Rahmi

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at diagnosing which subjects pre-service physics teachers have difficulty understanding in introductory physics courses and what accounts for these difficulties. A questionnaire consisting of two qualitative questions was used to collect data for this study. The questionnaire was administered to 101 pre-service physics teachers who have completed the courses Physics 1 (Mechanics 1), Physics 2 (Mechanics 2), Physics 3 (Electricity) and Physics 4 (Magnetism). Of the pre-service physics teachers 28 were second year, 26 were third year, 27 were fourth year and 20 were fifth year students. The results of the data analysis indicated that the percentage of students who think that Magnetism has the most difficult subjects is the highest compared to the others. The reasons why the pre-service physics teachers experience difficulty in understanding the subjects have been grouped into four categories. (paper)

  16. Girdler-sulfide process physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuburg, H.J.; Atherley, J.F.; Walker, L.G.

    1977-05-01

    Physical properties of pure hydrogen sulfide and of gaseous and liquid solutions of the H 2 S-H 2 O system have been formulated. Tables for forty-nine different properties in the pressure and temperature range of interest to the Girdler-Sulfide (GS) process for heavy water production are given. All properties are presented in SI units. A computer program capable of calculating properties of the pure components as well as gaseous mixtures and liquid solutions at saturated and non-saturated conditions is included. (author)

  17. Understanding immunology: fun at an intersection of the physical, life, and clinical sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how the immune system works is a grand challenge in science with myriad direct implications for improving human health. The immune system protects us from infectious pathogens and cancer, and maintains a harmonious steady state with essential microbiota in our gut. Vaccination, the medical procedure that has saved more lives than any other, involves manipulating the immune system. Unfortunately, the immune system can also go awry to cause autoimmune diseases. Immune responses are the product of stochastic collective dynamic processes involving many interacting components. These processes span multiple scales of length and time. Thus, statistical mechanics has much to contribute to immunology, and the oeuvre of biological physics will be further enriched if the number of physical scientists interested in immunology continues to increase. I describe how I got interested in immunology and provide a glimpse of my experiences working on immunology using approaches from statistical mechanics and collaborating closely with immunologists.

  18. Evaluating College Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Modern Physics: Test of Understanding on Concepts of Modern Physics (TUCO-MP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2011-01-01

    In present paper, we propose a new diagnostic test to measure students' conceptual knowledge of principles of modern physics topics. Over few decades since born of physics education research (PER), many diagnostic instruments that measure students' conceptual understanding of various topics in physics, the earliest tests developed in PER are Force…

  19. Determining Which Introductory Physics Topics Pre-Service Physics Teachers Have Difficulty Understanding and What Accounts for These Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Esin; Yagbasan, Rahmi

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at diagnosing which subjects pre-service physics teachers have difficulty understanding in introductory physics courses and what accounts for these difficulties. A questionnaire consisting of two qualitative questions was used to collect data for this study. The questionnaire was administered to 101 pre-service physics teachers who…

  20. Stochastic processes from physics to finance

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces the theory of stochastic processes with applications taken from physics and finance. Fundamental concepts like the random walk or Brownian motion but also Levy-stable distributions are discussed. Applications are selected to show the interdisciplinary character of the concepts and methods. In the second edition of the book a discussion of extreme events ranging from their mathematical definition to their importance for financial crashes was included. The exposition of basic notions of probability theory and the Brownian motion problem as well as the relation between conservative diffusion processes and quantum mechanics is expanded. The second edition also enlarges the treatment of financial markets. Beyond a presentation of geometric Brownian motion and the Black-Scholes approach to option pricing as well as the econophysics analysis of the stylized facts of financial markets, an introduction to agent based modeling approaches is given.

  1. Students’ understanding and application of the area under the curve concept in physics problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hai Nguyen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how students understand and apply the area under the curve concept and the integral-area relation in solving introductory physics problems. We interviewed 20 students in the first semester and 15 students from the same cohort in the second semester of a calculus-based physics course sequence on several problems involving the area under the curve concept. We found that only a few students could recognize that the concept of area under the curve was applicable in physics problems. Even when students could invoke the area under the curve concept, they did not necessarily understand the relationship between the process of accumulation and the area under a curve, so they failed to apply it to novel situations. We also found that when presented with several graphs, students had difficulty in selecting the graph such that the area under the graph corresponded to a given integral, although all of them could state that “the integral equaled the area under the curve.” The findings in this study are consistent with those in previous mathematics education research and research in physics education on students’ use of the area under the curve.

  2. Relaxation processes and physical aging in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, B.; Pineda, E.; Evenson, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Since their discovery in the 1960s, metallic glasses have continuously attracted much interest across the physics and materials science communities. In the forefront are their unique properties, which hold the alluring promise of broad application in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental science and engineering. However, a major obstacle to their wide-spread commercial use is their inherent temporal instability arising from underlying relaxation processes that can dramatically alter their physical properties. The result is a physical aging process which can bring about degradation of mechanical properties, namely through embrittlement and catastrophic mechanical failure. Understanding and controlling the effects of aging will play a decisive role in our on-going endeavor to advance the use of metallic glasses as structural materials, as well as in the more general comprehension of out-of-equilibrium dynamics in complex systems. This review presents an overview of the current state of the art in the experimental advances probing physical aging and relaxation processes in metallic glasses. Similarities and differences between other hard and soft matter glasses are highlighted. The topic is discussed in a multiscale approach, first presenting the key features obtained in macroscopic studies, then connecting them to recent novel microscopic investigations. Particular emphasis is put on the occurrence of distinct relaxation processes beyond the main structural process in viscous metallic melts and their fate upon entering the glassy state, trying to disentangle results and formalisms employed by the different groups of the glass-science community. A microscopic viewpoint is presented, in which physical aging manifests itself in irreversible atomic-scale processes such as avalanches and intermittent dynamics, ascribed to the existence of a plethora of metastable glassy states across a complex energy landscape. Future experimental challenges and the comparison with

  3. Residence time and physical processes in lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta SALA

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The residence time of a lake is highly dependent on internal physical processes in the water mass conditioning its hydrodynamics; early attempts to evaluate this physical parameter emphasize the complexity of the problem, which depends on very different natural phenomena with widespread synergies. The aim of this study is to analyse the agents involved in these processes and arrive at a more realistic definition of water residence time which takes account of these agents, and how they influence internal hydrodynamics. With particular reference to temperate lakes, the following characteristics are analysed: 1 the set of the lake's caloric components which, along with summer heating, determine the stabilizing effect of the surface layers, and the consequent thermal stratification, as well as the winter destabilizing effect; 2 the wind force, which transfers part of its momentum to the water mass, generating a complex of movements (turbulence, waves, currents with the production of active kinetic energy; 3 the water flowing into the lake from the tributaries, and flowing out through the outflow, from the standpoint of hydrology and of the kinetic effect generated by the introduction of these water masses into the lake. These factors were studied in the context of the general geographical properties of the lake basin and the watershed (latitude, longitude, morphology, also taking account of the local and regional climatic situation. Also analysed is the impact of ongoing climatic change on the renewal of the lake water, which is currently changing the equilibrium between lake and atmosphere, river and lake, and relationships

  4. The Role of Nuclear Physics in Understanding the Cosmos and the Origin of Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    This popular lecture, given in the conference celebrating contributions of Akito Arima to physics on the occasion of his 80th anniversary, outlines the role of nuclear physics in understanding the origin of elements.

  5. Teaching and Understanding of Quantum Interpretations in Modern Physics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2010-01-01

    Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics…

  6. Kinetic physics in ICF: present understanding and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; Collins, G.

    2018-06-01

    Kinetic physics has the potential to impact the performance of indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. Systematic anomalies in the National Ignition Facility implosion dataset have been identified in which kinetic physics may play a role, including inferred missing energy in the hohlraum, drive asymmetry in near-vacuum hohlraums, low areal density and high burn-averaged ion temperatures (〈Ti 〉) compared with mainline simulations, and low ratios of the DD-neutron and DT-neutron yields and inferred 〈Ti 〉. Several components of ICF implosions are likely to be influenced or dominated by kinetic physics: laser-plasma interactions in the LEH and hohlraum interior; the hohlraum wall blowoff, blowoff/gas and blowoff/ablator interfaces; the ablator and ablator/ice interface; and the DT fuel all present conditions in which kinetic physics can significantly affect the dynamics. This review presents the assembled experimental data and simulation results to date, which indicate that the effects of long mean-free-path plasma phenomena and self-generated electromagnetic fields may have a significant impact in ICF targets. Simulation and experimental efforts are proposed to definitively quantify the importance of these effects at ignition-relevant conditions, including priorities for ongoing study.

  7. Designing for Enhanced Conceptual Understanding in an Online Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Joanna C.; Furtak, Thomas E.; Tucker, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    The calculus-based, introductory physics course is the port of entry for any student interested in pursuing a college degree in the sciences, mathematics, or engineering. There is increasing demand for online delivery options that make the course more widely available, especially those that use best practices in student engagement. However,…

  8. Science Understanding through Playground Physics: Organized Recess Teaching (SUPPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Russell

    2010-03-01

    From 1995-2007, U.S. science students in grade four scored higher than the scaled TIMSS average, but their scores did not improve over this time. Moreover, in the area of physical science, the U.S. scored significantly lower than several Asian countries, as well as Russia, England, and Latvia (TIMSS). Methods to enhance student achievement in science are still being sought. An approach to utilizing playground equipment as a teaching tool for a variety of physics concepts was developed as a physical science teaching method. This program established an appropriate set of experiments, coordinated the effort with local school districts, and implemented a brief pilot study to test the teaching methodology. The program assigned undergraduate middle school science education majors to teach small groups of fourth grade students. The experimental group used the newly developed ``Playground Physics'' methodology while the control group used traditional approaches. Follow up activities will include an expansion of the duration and the scope of the program.

  9. Discontinuities in Early Development of the Understanding of Physical Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschersleben, Gisa; Henning, Anne; Daum, Moritz M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on early physical reasoning has shown surprising discontinuities in developmental trajectories. Infants possess some skills that seem to disappear and then re-emerge in childhood. It has been suggested that prediction skills required in search tasks might cause these discontinuities (Keen, 2003). We tested 3.5- to 5-year-olds'…

  10. Zirconium cladding - the long way towards a mechanistic understanding of processing and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are the material of choice to encapsulate nuclear fuel in light and heavy water-cooled reactors due to their low neutron absorption, excellent corrosion resistance and sufficient mechanical properties. Despite these advantageous physical and mechanical properties a more physically based understanding of microstructure and texture evolution during processing is highly desirable in order to improve our understanding of formability during thermomechanical processing and performance variability of cladding material. In addition, the purely empirical understanding of aqueous zirconium corrosion, hydrogen pick up, hydride precipitation as well as irradiation growth and creep limits the accuracy of life predictions and therefore the level of burnup that is obtained from current fuel assemblies. The presentation aims at giving examples of new research strategies that will enable the development of a new physical understanding of processing and performance aspects in zirconium cladding material, which is required to develop new predictive models. Particular emphasis will be placed on using novel research tools and large-scale research facilities such as neutron spallation and synchrotron radiation sources to undertake very detailed and often in-situ studies of deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution as well as determining stress states in grain families, oxides and hydrides. The results will be presented in the view of how they might help us to improve our understanding and enable the development of better predictive models

  11. Understanding and Managing Process Interaction in IS Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2012-01-01

    Software-based information systems must be developed and implemented as a part of business change. This is a major challenge, since business change and the development of software-based information systems usually are performed in separate processes. Thus, there is a need to understand and manage...... critical events in the case, what led to the events, and what the consequences are. We discuss the implications for information systems research and in particular we discuss the contribution to project management of iterative and incremental software development.......Software-based information systems must be developed and implemented as a part of business change. This is a major challenge, since business change and the development of software-based information systems usually are performed in separate processes. Thus, there is a need to understand and manage...

  12. Evaluating nurse understanding and participation in the informed consent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axson, Sydney A; Giordano, Nicholas A; Hermann, Robin M; Ulrich, Connie M

    2017-01-01

    Informed consent is fundamental to the autonomous decision-making of patients, yet much is still unknown about the process in the clinical setting. In an evolving healthcare landscape, nurses must be prepared to address patient understanding and participate in the informed consent process to better fulfill their well-established role as patient advocates. This study examines hospital-based nurses' experiences and understandings of the informed consent process. This qualitative descriptive study utilized a semi-structured interview approach identifying thematic concerns, experiences, and knowledge of informed consent across a selected population of clinically practicing nurses. Participants and research context: In all, 20 baccalaureate prepared registered nurses practicing in various clinical settings (i.e. critical care, oncology, medical/surgical) at a large northeastern academic medical center in the United States completed semi-structured interviews and a demographic survey. The mean age of participants was 36.6 years old, with a mean of 12.2 years of clinical experience. Ethical considerations: Participation in this study involved minimal risk and no invasive measures. This study received Institutional Review Board approval from the University of Pennsylvania. All participants voluntarily consented. The majority of participants (N = 19) believe patient safety is directly linked to patient comprehension of the informed consent process. However, when asked if nurses have a defined role in the informed consent process, nearly half did not agree (N = 9). Through this qualitative approach, three major nursing roles emerged: the nurse as a communicator, the nurse as an advocate, and the clerical role of the nurse. This investigation contributes to the foundation of ethical research that will better prepare nurses for patient engagement, advance current understanding of informed consent, and allow for future development of solutions. Nurses are at the forefront of

  13. Toward understanding dynamic annealing processes in irradiated ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Michael Thomas [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2013-05-01

    High energy particle irradiation inevitably generates defects in solids. The ballistic formation and thermalization of the defect creation process occur rapidly, and are believed to be reasonably well understood. However, knowledge of the evolution of defects after damage cascade thermalization, referred to as dynamic annealing, is quite limited. Unraveling the mechanisms associated with dynamic annealing is crucial since such processes play an important role in the formation of stable postirradiation disorder in ion-beam-processing of semiconductors, and determines the “radiation tolerance” of many nuclear materials. The purpose of this dissertation is to further our understanding of the processes involved in dynamic annealing. In order to achieve this, two main tasks are undertaken.

  14. Mission Concept to Connect Magnetospheric Physical Processes to Ionospheric Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dors, E. E.; MacDonald, E.; Kepko, L.; Borovsky, J.; Reeves, G. D.; Delzanno, G. L.; Thomsen, M. F.; Sanchez, E. R.; Henderson, M. G.; Nguyen, D. C.; Vaith, H.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Spanswick, E.; Marshall, R. A.; Donovan, E.; Neilson, J.; Carlsten, B. E.

    2017-12-01

    On the Earth's nightside the magnetic connections between the ionosphere and the dynamic magnetosphere have a great deal of uncertainty: this uncertainty prevents us from scientifically understanding what physical processes in the magnetosphere are driving the various phenomena in the ionosphere. Since the 1990s, the space plasma physics group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working on a concept to connect magnetospheric physical processes to auroral phenomena in the ionosphere by firing an electron beam from a magnetospheric spacecraft and optically imaging the beam spot in the ionosphere. The magnetospheric spacecraft will carry a steerable electron accelerator, a power-storage system, a plasma contactor, and instruments to measure magnetic and electric fields, plasma, and energetic particles. The spacecraft orbit will be coordinated with a ground-based network of cameras to (a) locate the electron beam spot in the upper atmosphere and (b) monitor the aurora. An overview of the mission concept will be presented, including recent enabling advancements based on (1) a new understanding of the dynamic spacecraft charging of the accelerator and plasma-contactor system in the tenuous magnetosphere based on ion emission rather than electron collection, (2) a new understanding of the propagation properties of pulsed MeV-class beams in the magnetosphere, and (3) the design of a compact high-power 1-MeV electron accelerator and power-storage system. This strategy to (a) determine the magnetosphere-to-ionosphere connections and (b) reduce accelerator- platform charging responds to one of the six emerging-technology needs called out in the most-recent National Academies Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics. [LA-UR-17-23614

  15. Developing improved MD codes for understanding processive cellulases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, M F; Nimlos, M R; Himmel, M E; Uberbacher, E C; Iii, C L Brooks; Walker, R C

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of action of cellulose-degrading enzymes is illuminated through a multidisciplinary collaboration that uses molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and expands the capabilities of MD codes to allow simulations of enzymes and substrates on petascale computational facilities. There is a class of glycoside hydrolase enzymes called cellulases that are thought to decrystallize and processively depolymerize cellulose using biochemical processes that are largely not understood. Understanding the mechanisms involved and improving the efficiency of this hydrolysis process through computational models and protein engineering presents a compelling grand challenge. A detailed understanding of cellulose structure, dynamics and enzyme function at the molecular level is required to direct protein engineers to the right modifications or to understand if natural thermodynamic or kinetic limits are in play. Much can be learned about processivity by conducting carefully designed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the binding and catalytic domains of cellulases with various substrate configurations, solvation models and thermodynamic protocols. Most of these numerical experiments, however, will require significant modification of existing code and algorithms in order to efficiently use current (terascale) and future (petascale) hardware to the degree of parallelism necessary to simulate a system of the size proposed here. This work will develop MD codes that can efficiently use terascale and petascale systems, not just for simple classical MD simulations, but also for more advanced methods, including umbrella sampling with complex restraints and reaction coordinates, transition path sampling, steered molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations of systems the size of cellulose degrading enzymes acting on cellulose

  16. Draw Your Physics Homework? Art as a Path to Understanding in Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Jatila

    2012-01-01

    The persistent fear of physics by learners motivated the author to take action to increase all students' interest in the subject via a new curriculum for introductory college physics that applies Greene's model of Aesthetic Education to the study of contemporary physics, utilizing symmetry as the mathematical foundation of physics as well as the…

  17. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Opinions about the Difficulties in Understanding Introductory Quantum Physics Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilcik, Hasan Sahin; Yavas, Pervin Ünlü

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the opinions of pre-service physics teachers about the difficulties in introductory quantum physics topics. In this study conducted with twenty-five pre-service physics teachers, the case study method was used. The participants were interviewed about introductory quantum physics topics. The interviews were…

  18. How online learning modules can improve the representational fluency and conceptual understanding of university physics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M.; Sharma, M. D.; Johnston, H.

    2015-07-01

    The use of online learning resources as core components of university science courses is increasing. Learning resources range from summaries, videos, and simulations, to question banks. Our study set out to develop, implement, and evaluate research-based online learning resources in the form of pre-lecture online learning modules (OLMs). The aim of this paper is to share our experiences with those using, or considering implementing, online learning resources. Our first task was to identify student learning issues in physics to base the learning resources on. One issue with substantial research is conceptual understanding, the other with comparatively less research is scientific representations (graphs, words, equations, and diagrams). We developed learning resources on both these issues and measured their impact. We created weekly OLMs which were delivered to first year physics students at The University of Sydney prior to their first lecture of the week. Students were randomly allocated to either a concepts stream or a representations stream of online modules. The programme was first implemented in 2013 to trial module content, gain experience and process logistical matters and repeated in 2014 with approximately 400 students. Two validated surveys, the Force and Motion Concept Evaluation (FMCE) and the Representational Fluency Survey (RFS) were used as pre-tests and post-tests to measure learning gains while surveys and interviews provided further insights. While both streams of OLMs produced similar positive learning gains on the FMCE, the representations-focussed OLMs produced higher gains on the RFS. Conclusions were triangulated with student responses which indicated that they have recognized the benefit of the OLMs for their learning of physics. Our study shows that carefully designed online resources used as pre-instruction can make a difference in students’ conceptual understanding and representational fluency in physics, as well as make them more aware

  19. Simulation-Based Performance Assessment: An Innovative Approach to Exploring Understanding of Physical Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Jessica; Wind, Stefanie; Koval, Jayma; Dagosta, Joseph; Ryan, Mike; Usselman, Marion

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of simulation-based performance assessment (PA) methodology in a recent study of eighth-grade students' understanding of physical science concepts. A set of four simulation-based PA tasks were iteratively developed to assess student understanding of an array of physical science concepts, including net force,…

  20. Towards the understanding of network information processing in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay

    Living organisms perform incredibly well in detecting a signal present in the environment. This information processing is achieved near optimally and quite reliably, even though the sources of signals are highly variable and complex. The work in the last few decades has given us a fair understanding of how individual signal processing units like neurons and cell receptors process signals, but the principles of collective information processing on biological networks are far from clear. Information processing in biological networks, like the brain, metabolic circuits, cellular-signaling circuits, etc., involves complex interactions among a large number of units (neurons, receptors). The combinatorially large number of states such a system can exist in makes it impossible to study these systems from the first principles, starting from the interactions between the basic units. The principles of collective information processing on such complex networks can be identified using coarse graining approaches. This could provide insights into the organization and function of complex biological networks. Here I study models of biological networks using continuum dynamics, renormalization, maximum likelihood estimation and information theory. Such coarse graining approaches identify features that are essential for certain processes performed by underlying biological networks. We find that long-range connections in the brain allow for global scale feature detection in a signal. These also suppress the noise and remove any gaps present in the signal. Hierarchical organization with long-range connections leads to large-scale connectivity at low synapse numbers. Time delays can be utilized to separate a mixture of signals with temporal scales. Our observations indicate that the rules in multivariate signal processing are quite different from traditional single unit signal processing.

  1. Introduction of a pyramid guiding process for general musculoskeletal physical rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark Timothy W

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Successful instruction of a complicated subject as Physical Rehabilitation demands organization. To understand principles and processes of such a field demands a hierarchy of steps to achieve the intended outcome. This paper is intended to be an introduction to a proposed pyramid scheme of general physical rehabilitation principles. The purpose of the pyramid scheme is to allow for a greater understanding for the student and patient. As the respected Food Guide Pyramid accomplishes, the student will further appreciate and apply supported physical rehabilitation principles and the patient will understand that there is a progressive method to their functional healing process.

  2. Importance of isotopes for understanding the sedimentation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    Isotopes of either radioactive or stable depending upon radiation emitted or not respectively which have wide applications in understanding not only the history of sedimentation, but also provide information about paleoclimate. Stable isotope mass difference occurs due to changes in physicochemical conditions of the ambient environment, for instance temperature, evaporation, precipitation, redox processes, and changes in the mobility of elements during weathering processes, biological uptake, metabolism, re-mineralization of biogenic material, etc. In contrast, radionuclides emit radiation because of excess of neutrons present in the nucleus when compared to protons of an atom. The decay of radioactive isotopes is unaffected despite changes in physicochemical variations; hence, they are useful for determining ages of different types of materials on earth. The radioisotopes can be classified based on origin and half life into primordial or long-lived, cosmogenic and artificial radionuclides or fission products. In this study, the importance of 137 Cs artificial radionuclides will be highlighted to understand short-term sedimentation processes, particularly in estuaries, deltas/continental shelf of west coast of India. The distribution of 137 Cs in sediments of south-western continental margin of India indicates that coastal marginal environments are filters or sinks for fall-out radionuclides. The sparse of 137 Cs in the open continental shelf environment indicates that most of sediments are either older or sediments being diluted by components generated in the marine environment

  3. Physical processes in EUV sources for microlithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banine, V Y; Swinkels, G H P M; Koshelev, K N

    2011-01-01

    The source is an integral part of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tool. Such a source, as well as the EUVL tool, has to fulfil very high demands both technical and cost oriented. The EUVL tool operates at a wavelength of 13.5 nm, which requires the following new developments. - The light production mechanism changes from conventional lamps and lasers to relatively high-temperature emitting plasmas. - The light transport, mainly refractive for deep ultraviolet (DUV), should be reflective for EUV. - The source specifications as derived from the customer requirements on wafer throughput mean that the output EUV source power has to be hundreds of watts. This in its turn means that tens to hundreds of kilowatts of dissipated power has to be managed in a relatively small volume. - In order to keep lithography costs as low as possible, the lifetime of the components should be as long as possible and at least of the order of thousands of hours. This poses a challenge for the sources, namely how to design and manufacture components robust enough to withstand the intense environment of high heat dissipation, flows of several keV ions as well as the atomic and particular debris within the source vessel. - As with all lithography tools, the imaging requirements demand a narrow illumination bandwidth. Absorption of materials at EUV wavelengths is extreme with extinguishing lengths of the order of tens of nanometres, so the balance between high transmission and spectral purity requires careful engineering. All together, EUV lithography sources present technological challenges in various fields of physics such as plasma, optics and material science. These challenges are being tackled by the source manufacturers and investigated extensively in the research facilities around the world. An overview of the published results on the topic as well as the analyses of the physical processes behind the proposed solutions will be presented in this paper. (topical review)

  4. Energy and economic growth: Grounding our understanding in physical reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ockwell, David G.

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the complex, wide ranging and unresolved debate within the economics literature on the possibility of decoupling economic growth from energy use. It explores the difference between neo-classical and ecological economic worldviews and highlights how the ecological economic approach attempts to ground its analysis within the physical limits implied by the laws of thermodynamics. Once these laws are accounted for, the possibility of decoupling economic growth from energy use seems more limited than neo-classical economics implies. Analysis of empirical evidence also demonstrates that observed improvements in GDP/energy use ratios in the USA are better explained by shifts towards higher quality fuels than by improvements in the energy efficiency of technologies. This implies a need to focus on decarbonising energy supply. Furthermore, where energy-efficiency improvements are attempted, they must be considered within the context of a possible rebound effect, which implies that net economy-wide energy savings from energy-efficiency improvements may not be as large as the energy saved directly from the efficiency improvement itself. Both decarbonising energy supply and improving energy efficiency require the rapid development and deployment of new and existing low-carbon technologies. This review therefore concludes by briefly outlining areas of economic thought that have emerged as a result of engagement between economists and experts from other disciplines. They include ecological, evolutionary and institutional economics, all of which can make policy-relevant contributions to achieving a transition to a low-carbon economy

  5. Understanding the Physical Nature of Coronal "EIT Waves".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D M; Bloomfield, D S; Chen, P F; Downs, C; Gallagher, P T; Kwon, R-Y; Vanninathan, K; Veronig, A M; Vourlidas, A; Vršnak, B; Warmuth, A; Žic, T

    2017-01-01

    For almost 20 years the physical nature of globally propagating waves in the solar corona (commonly called "EIT waves") has been controversial and subject to debate. Additional theories have been proposed over the years to explain observations that did not agree with the originally proposed fast-mode wave interpretation. However, the incompatibility of observations made using the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory with the fast-mode wave interpretation was challenged by differing viewpoints from the twin Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft and data with higher spatial and temporal resolution from the Solar Dynamics Observatory . In this article, we reexamine the theories proposed to explain EIT waves to identify measurable properties and behaviours that can be compared to current and future observations. Most of us conclude that the so-called EIT waves are best described as fast-mode large-amplitude waves or shocks that are initially driven by the impulsive expansion of an erupting coronal mass ejection in the low corona.

  6. Process depending morphology and resulting physical properties of TPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frick, Achim, E-mail: achim.frick@hs-aalen.de; Spadaro, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.spadaro@hs-aalen.de [Institute of Polymer Science and Processing (iPSP), Aalen University (Germany)

    2015-12-17

    Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a rubber like material with outstanding properties, e.g. for seal applications. TPU basically provides high strength, low frictional behavior and excellent wear resistance. Though, due to segmented structure of TPU, which is composed of hard segments (HSs) and soft segments (SSs), physical properties depend strongly on the morphological arrangement of the phase separated HSs at a certain ratio of HSs to SSs. It is obvious that the TPU deforms differently depending on its bulk morphology. Basically, the morphology can either consist of HSs segregated into small domains, which are well dispersed in the SS matrix or of few strongly phase separated large size HS domains embedded in the SS matrix. The morphology development is hardly ruled by the melt processing conditions of the TPU. Depending on the morphology, TPU provides quite different physical properties with respect to strength, deformation behavior, thermal stability, creep resistance and tribological performance. The paper deals with the influence of important melt processing parameters, such as temperature, pressure and shear conditions, on the resulting physical properties tested by tensile and relaxation experiments. Furthermore the morphology is studied employing differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), transmission light microscopy (TLM), scanning electron beam microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron beam microscopy (TEM) investigations. Correlations between processing conditions and resulting TPU material properties are elaborated. Flow and shear simulations contribute to the understanding of thermal and flow induced morphology development.

  7. Understanding of how older adults with low vision obtain, process, and understand health information and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Nam

    2017-10-16

    Twenty-five years after the Americans with Disabilities Act, there has still been a lack of advancement of accessibility in healthcare for people with visual impairments, particularly older adults with low vision. This study aims to advance understanding of how older adults with low vision obtain, process, and use health information and services, and to seek opportunities of information technology to support them. A convenience sample of 10 older adults with low vision participated in semi-structured phone interviews, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis. Participants shared various concerns in accessing, understanding, and using health information, care services, and multimedia technologies. Two main themes and nine subthemes emerged from the analysis. Due to the concerns, older adults with low vision tended to fail to obtain the full range of all health information and services to meet their specific needs. Those with low vision still rely on residual vision such that multimedia-based information which can be useful, but it should still be designed to ensure its accessibility, usability, and understandability.

  8. Spin physics and inclusive processes at short distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.

    1982-10-01

    The following aspects of spin physics at short distances are studied: 1. the factorization theorem in perturbative QCD and helicity asymmetries in inclusive processes, 2. the effect of higher order radiative corrections on helicity asymmetries, 3. the higher order power mechanism and spin asymmetries, 4. difficulties in understanding transverse spin in perturbative QCD, 5. helicity asymmetries of short distances as a means of recognizing supersymmetric interactions. Experiments are suggested for the verification of theoretical conclusions. Although spin-physics at short distances is difficult to demonstrate experimentally it may provide a valuable tool to show how perturbative QCD operates in the presence of the non-perturbative hadronic structure. It may also prove valuable to show new interactions which might occur at very short distances

  9. "That part of the body is just gone": understanding and responding to dissociation and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haven, Terri J

    2009-01-01

    The past 2 decades have brought a significant surge in interest and research regarding the ways in which psychological trauma relates to the physical body. Researchers now understand a great deal about how the brain and the body process traumatic experiences, as well as the increased likelihood of an array of physical health consequences associated with both childhood and adult trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. Experts are increasingly challenging mind-body dualism through solid theoretical and clinical bases for the central importance of listening to and communicating with trauma clients' bodies as part of reducing the suffering and long-lasting consequences of trauma. This article integrates this growing body of knowledge through a particular focus on trauma-induced dissociation and the implications of the physical and neurological processes and consequences of dissociation on clients' ability to participate in caring for their own bodies. The author utilizes an in-depth clinical example of expanding relational trauma psychotherapy to include a focus on working directly with trauma-related sensorimotor and physiological sensations and patterns.

  10. Mathematical understanding of nature essays on amazing physical phenomena and their understanding by mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, V I

    2014-01-01

    This collection of 39 short stories gives the reader a unique opportunity to take a look at the scientific philosophy of Vladimir Arnold, one of the most original contemporary researchers. Topics of the stories included range from astronomy, to mirages, to motion of glaciers, to geometry of mirrors and beyond. In each case Arnold's explanation is both deep and simple, which makes the book interesting and accessible to an extremely broad readership. Original illustrations hand drawn by the author help the reader to further understand and appreciate Arnold's view on the relationship between math

  11. Statistical physics of media processes: Mediaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Dmitri V.; Mandel, Igor

    2007-04-01

    The processes of mass communications in complicated social or sociobiological systems such as marketing, economics, politics, animal populations, etc. as a subject for the special scientific subbranch-“mediaphysics”-are considered in its relation with sociophysics. A new statistical physics approach to analyze these phenomena is proposed. A keystone of the approach is an analysis of population distribution between two or many alternatives: brands, political affiliations, or opinions. Relative distances between a state of a “person's mind” and the alternatives are measures of propensity to buy (to affiliate, or to have a certain opinion). The distribution of population by those relative distances is time dependent and affected by external (economic, social, marketing, natural) and internal (influential propagation of opinions, “word of mouth”, etc.) factors, considered as fields. Specifically, the interaction and opinion-influence field can be generalized to incorporate important elements of Ising-spin-based sociophysical models and kinetic-equation ones. The distributions were described by a Schrödinger-type equation in terms of Green's functions. The developed approach has been applied to a real mass-media efficiency problem for a large company and generally demonstrated very good results despite low initial correlations of factors and the target variable.

  12. Understanding and Predicting the Process of Software Maintenance Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor; Briand, Lionel; Condon, Steven; Kim, Yong-Mi; Melo, Walcelio L.; Valett, Jon D.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major concerns of any maintenance organization is to understand and estimate the cost of maintenance releases of software systems. Planning the next release so as to maximize the increase in functionality and the improvement in quality are vital to successful maintenance management. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a case study in which an incremental approach was used to better understand the effort distribution of releases and build a predictive effort model for software maintenance releases. This study was conducted in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center(GSFC). This paper presents three main results: 1) a predictive effort model developed for the FDD's software maintenance release process; 2) measurement-based lessons learned about the maintenance process in the FDD; and 3) a set of lessons learned about the establishment of a measurement-based software maintenance improvement program. In addition, this study provides insights and guidelines for obtaining similar results in other maintenance organizations.

  13. Process understanding and cooperative design. Keys to high quality automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommila, T.; Heinonen, R.

    1995-01-01

    A systematic approach to the specification of process control systems, and four practical methods supporting user participation and interdisciplinary co-operation are described. The main steps of the design approach are: (1) hierarchical decomposition of the plant to process items of different types; (2) analysis and definition of requirements and control strategies associated with each process item; (3) definition of automation degree; and (4) functional specification of the control system and its user interface. The specification language used for this step is a combination of principles found in object oriented design, structured analysis as well as new language standards for programmable controllers and open information systems. The design review methods presented include structured control strategy meetings, safety analysis of sequential controls, review of graphic displays, and a usability questionnaire for existing plants. These methods can be used to elicit users' needs and operational experience, to gain a common understanding of the process functionality, or to detect errors in design specifications or in existing systems. (8 refs., 9 figs.)

  14. Mediating relationship of differential products in understanding integration in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Nathaniel; Heckler, Andrew F.

    2018-01-01

    In the context of introductory physics, we study student conceptual understanding of differentials, differential products, and integrals and possible pathways to understanding these quantities. We developed a multiple choice conceptual assessment employing a variety of physical contexts probing physical understanding of these three quantities and administered the instrument to over 1000 students in first and second semester introductory physics courses. Using a regression-based mediation analysis with conceptual understanding of integration as the dependent variable, we found evidence consistent with a simple mediation model: the relationship between differentials scores and integral scores may be mediated by the understanding of differential products. The indirect effect (a quantifiable metric of mediation) was estimated as a b =0.29 , 95% CI [0.25, 0.33] for N =1102 Physics 1 students, and a b =0.27 , 95% CI [0.14, 0.48] for N =65 Physics 2 students. We also find evidence that the physical context of the questions can be an important factor. These results imply that for introductory physics courses, instructional emphasis first on differentials then on differential products in a variety of contexts may in turn promote better integral understanding.

  15. Graphene growth process modeling: a physical-statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Huang, Qiang

    2014-09-01

    As a zero-band semiconductor, graphene is an attractive material for a wide variety of applications such as optoelectronics. Among various techniques developed for graphene synthesis, chemical vapor deposition on copper foils shows high potential for producing few-layer and large-area graphene. Since fabrication of high-quality graphene sheets requires the understanding of growth mechanisms, and methods of characterization and control of grain size of graphene flakes, analytical modeling of graphene growth process is therefore essential for controlled fabrication. The graphene growth process starts with randomly nucleated islands that gradually develop into complex shapes, grow in size, and eventually connect together to cover the copper foil. To model this complex process, we develop a physical-statistical approach under the assumption of self-similarity during graphene growth. The growth kinetics is uncovered by separating island shapes from area growth rate. We propose to characterize the area growth velocity using a confined exponential model, which not only has clear physical explanation, but also fits the real data well. For the shape modeling, we develop a parametric shape model which can be well explained by the angular-dependent growth rate. This work can provide useful information for the control and optimization of graphene growth process on Cu foil.

  16. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions.

  17. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Herrera

    Full Text Available There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions.

  18. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  19. Understanding Nutrient Processing Under Similar Hydrologic Conditions Along a River Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayburu-Caruso, V. A.; Mortensen, J.; Van Horn, D. J.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.

    2015-12-01

    Eutrophication is one of the main causes of water impairment across the US. The fate of nutrients in streams is typically described by the dynamic coupling of physical processes and biochemical processes. However, isolating each of these processes and determining its contribution to the whole system is challenging due to the complexity of the physical, chemical and biological domains. We conducted column experiments seeking to understand nutrient processing in shallow sediment-water interactions along representative sites of the Jemez River-Rio Grande continuum (eight stream orders), in New Mexico (USA). For each stream order, we used a set of 6 columns packed with 3 different sediments, i.e., Silica Cone Density Sand ASTM D 1556 (0.075-2.00 mm), gravel (> 2mm) and native sediments from each site. We incubated the sediments for three months and performed tracer experiments in the laboratory under identical flow conditions, seeking to normalize the physical processes along the river continuum. We added a short-term pulse injection of NO3, resazurin and NaCl to each column and determined metabolism and NO3 processing using the Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization method (TASCC). Our methods allowed us to study how changes in bacterial communities and sediment composition along the river continuum define nutrient processing.

  20. Theory Building- Towards an understanding of business model innovation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taran, Yariv; Boer, Harry; Lindgren, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Companies today, in some industries more than others, invest more capital and resources just to stay competitive, develop more diverse solutions, and increasingly start to think more radically, when considering to innovate their business model. However, the development and innovation of business...... models is a complex venture and has not been widely researched yet. The objective of this paper is therefore 1) to build a [descriptive] theoretical understanding, based on Christensen's (2005) three-step procedure, to business models and their innovation and, as a result of that, 2) to strengthen...... researchers' and practitioners' perspectives as to how the process of business model innovation can be realized. By using various researchers' perspectives and assumptions, we identify relevant inconsistencies, which consequently lead us to propose possible supplementary solutions. We conclude our paper...

  1. Using infrared thermography for understanding and quantifying soil surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, João L. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    At present, our understanding of the soil hydrologic response is restricted by measurement limitations. In the literature, there have been repeatedly calls for interdisciplinary approaches to expand our knowledge in this field and eventually overcome the limitations that are inherent to conventional measuring techniques used, for example, for tracing water at the basin, hillslope and even field or plot scales. Infrared thermography is a versatile, accurate and fast technique of monitoring surface temperature and has been used in a variety of fields, such as military surveillance, medical diagnosis, industrial processes optimisation, building inspections and agriculture. However, many applications are still to be fully explored. In surface hydrology, it has been successfully employed as a high spatial and temporal resolution non-invasive and non-destructive imaging tool to e.g. access groundwater discharges into waterbodies or quantify thermal heterogeneities of streams. It is believed that thermal infrared imagery can grasp the spatial and temporal variability of many processes at the soil surface. Thermography interprets the heat signals and can provide an attractive view for identifying both areas where water is flowing or has infiltrated more, or accumulated temporarily in depressions or macropores. Therefore, we hope to demonstrate the potential for thermal infrared imagery to indirectly make a quantitative estimation of several hydrologic processes. Applications include: e.g. mapping infiltration, microrelief and macropores; estimating flow velocities; defining sampling strategies; identifying water sources, accumulation of waters or even connectivity. Protocols for the assessment of several hydrologic processes with the help of IR thermography will be briefly explained, presenting some examples from laboratory soil flumes and field.

  2. Experimental Simulations to Understand the Lunar and Martian Surficial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. Y. S.; Li, X.; Tang, H.; Li, Y.; Zeng, X.; Chang, R.; Li, S.; Zhang, S.; Jin, H.; Mo, B.; Li, R.; Yu, W.; Wang, S.

    2016-12-01

    In support with China's Lunar and Mars exploration programs and beyond, our center is dedicated to understand the surficial processes and environments of planetary bodies. Over the latest several years, we design, build and optimize experimental simulation facilities and utilize them to test hypotheses and evaluate affecting mechanisms under controlled conditions particularly relevant to the Moon and Mars. Among the fundamental questions to address, we emphasize on five major areas: (1) Micrometeorites bombardment simulation to evaluate the formation mechanisms of np-Fe0 which was found in lunar samples and the possible sources of Fe. (2) Solar wind implantation simulation to evaluate the alteration/amorphization/OH or H2O formation on the surface of target minerals or rocks. (3) Dusts mobility characteristics on the Moon and other planetary bodies by excitation different types of dust particles and measuring their movements. (4) Mars basaltic soil simulant development (e.g., Jining Martian Soil Simulant (JMSS-1)) and applications for scientific/engineering experiments. (5) Halogens (Cl and Br) and life essential elements (C, H, O, N, P, and S) distribution and speciation on Mars during surficial processes such as sedimentary- and photochemical- related processes. Depending on the variables of interest, the simulation systems provide flexibility to vary source of energy, temperature, pressure, and ambient gas composition in the reaction chambers. Also, simulation products can be observed or analyzed in-situ by various analyzer components inside the chamber, without interrupting the experimental conditions. In addition, behavior of elements and isotopes during certain surficial processes (e.g., evaporation, dissolution, etc.) can be theoretically predicted by our theoretical geochemistry group with thermodynamics-kinetics calculation and modeling, which supports experiment design and result interpretation.

  3. Using a novel environmental quality measure to understand population-level physical inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Understanding the role of the overall ambient environment in population inactivi...

  4. Laser isotope separation: the physics of the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapierre, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The physics of the AVLIS process is analysed. The intricacy of physics considerations, technology and economic forecast is developed. The scaling of a production unit is a complicated optimization which takes into account the limitations imposed by physics laws (spectroscopy, plasma physics,...), technology (vapor production, laser industry,...), and economy. But the only philosophy which prevails for such R and D programs is to be cheaper than competitive processes and to reach the goal first to get the market

  5. Understanding the physical dynamics and ecological interactions in tidal stream energy environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Shaun; Williamson, Benjamin J.; Nikora, Vladimir; Scott, Beth E.

    2017-04-01

    Tidal stream energy devices are intended to operate in energetic physical environments characterised by high flows and extreme turbulence. These environments are often of ecological importance to a range of marine species. Understanding the physical dynamics and ecological interactions at fine scales in such sites is essential for device/array design and to understand environmental impacts. However, investigating fine scale characteristics requires high resolution field measurements which are difficult to attain and interpret, with data often confounded by interference related to turbulence. Consequently, field observations in tidal stream energy environments are limited and require the development of specialised analysis methods and so significant knowledge gaps are still present. The seabed mounted FLOWBEC platform is addressing these knowledge gaps using upward facing instruments to collect information from around marine energy infrastructure. Multifrequency and multibeam echosounder data provide detailed information on the distribution and interactions of biological targets, such as fish and diving seabirds, while simultaneously recording the scales and intensity of turbulence. Novel processing methodologies and instrument integration techniques have been developed which combine different data types and successfully separates signal from noise to reveal new evidence about the behaviour of mobile species and the structure of turbulence at all speeds of the tide and throughout the water column. Multiple platform deployments in the presence and absence of marine energy infrastructure reveal the natural characteristics of high energy sites, and enable the interpretation of the physical and biological impacts of tidal stream devices. These methods and results are relevant to the design and consenting of marine renewable energy technologies, and provide novel information on the use of turbulence for foraging opportunities in high energy sites by mobile species.

  6. The Role of Computer Modeling in Enhancing Students' Conceptual Understanding of Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ornek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how the use of the computer simulations program VPython facilitated students’ conceptual understanding of fundamental physical principles and in constructing new knowledge of physics. We focused on students in a calculus-based introductory physics course, based on the Matter and Interactions curriculum of Chabay & Sherwood (2002 at a large state engineering and science university in the USA. A major emphasis of this course was on computer modeling by using VPython to write pro¬grams simulating physical systems. We conducted multiple student interviews, as well as an open-ended exit survey, to find out student views on how creating their own simulations to enhanced-conceptual understanding of physics and in constructing new knowledge of phys¬ics. The results varied in relation to the phases when the interviews were conducted. At the beginning of the course, students viewed the simulation program as a burden. However, dur¬ing the course, students stated that it promoted their knowledge and better conceptual understanding of physical phenomena. We deduce that VPython computer simulations can improve students’ conceptual understanding of fundamental physical concepts and promote construction of new knowledge in physics, once they overcome the initial learning curve associated with the VPython software package.

  7. Prospective Physics Teachers' Level of Understanding Energy, Power and Force Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul; Kurnaz, Mehmet Altan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective physics teachers' level of understanding of the concepts of energy and the related concepts of force and power. The study was carried out with the participation of 56 physics education department students at a university in Karadeniz region. All participants had previously taken an introductory…

  8. The Effect of Modeling and Visualization Resources on Student Understanding of Physical Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jilll A.; Castillo, Adam J.; Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of modeling and visualization resources on upper-division, undergraduate and graduate students' performance on an open-ended assessment of their understanding of physical hydrology. The students were enrolled in one of five sections of a physical hydrology course. In two of the sections, students completed homework…

  9. The r-process nucleosynthesis: Nuclear physics challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-10-20

    About half of the nuclei heavier than iron observed in nature are produced by the socalled rapid neutron capture process, or r-process, of nucleosynthesis. The identification of the astrophysics site and the specific conditions in which the r-process takes place remains, however, one of the still-unsolved mysteries of modern astrophysics. Another underlying difficulty associated with our understanding of the r-process concerns the uncertainties in the predictions of nuclear properties for the few thousands exotic neutron-rich nuclei involved and for which essentially no experimental data exist. The present contribution emphasizes some important future challenges faced by nuclear physics in this problem, particularly in the determination of the nuclear structure properties of exotic neutron-rich nuclei as well as their radiative neutron capture rates and their fission probabilities. These quantities are particularly relevant to determine the composition of the matter resulting from the r-process. Their impact on the r-abundance distribution resulting from the decompression of neutron star matter is discussed.

  10. No Space for Girliness in Physics: Understanding and Overcoming the Masculinity of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götschel, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Allison Gonsalves' article on "women doctoral students' positioning around discourses of gender and competence in physics" explores narratives of Canadian women physicists concerning their strategies to gain recognition as physicists. In my response to her rewarding and inspiring analysis I will reflect on her findings and arguments and…

  11. Using participatory approaches with children to better understand their physical activity behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayball, Felicity Z.L.; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau

    2018-01-01

    Aims and objectives: The importance of childhood physical activity is widely recognised. Helping children to articulate their opinions is a crucial factor in improving their health and well-being, yet the field is predominantly focused on adult-led quantitative methods and lacks deeper understand......Aims and objectives: The importance of childhood physical activity is widely recognised. Helping children to articulate their opinions is a crucial factor in improving their health and well-being, yet the field is predominantly focused on adult-led quantitative methods and lacks deeper...... physical activity in these places (n = 25). Results: The benefits and challenges associated with using participatory methods to understand how children perceive the environment in relation to their physical activity behaviour are described. Conclusion: Findings contribute to the literature by suggesting...... that participatory approaches are valuable in capturing children’s perceptions of physical activity behaviour in outdoor environments....

  12. Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Dannenmann, Michael; Kiese, Ralf; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well established that soils are the dominating source for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), we are still struggling to fully understand the complexity of the underlying microbial production and consumption processes and the links to biotic (e.g. inter- and intraspecies competition, food webs, plant–microbe interaction) and abiotic (e.g. soil climate, physics and chemistry) factors. Recent work shows that a better understanding of the composition and diversity of the microbial community across a variety of soils in different climates and under different land use, as well as plant–microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, may provide a key to better understand the variability of N2O fluxes at the soil–atmosphere interface. Moreover, recent insights into the regulation of the reduction of N2O to dinitrogen (N2) have increased our understanding of N2O exchange. This improved process understanding, building on the increased use of isotope tracing techniques and metagenomics, needs to go along with improvements in measurement techniques for N2O (and N2) emission in order to obtain robust field and laboratory datasets for different ecosystem types. Advances in both fields are currently used to improve process descriptions in biogeochemical models, which may eventually be used not only to test our current process understanding from the microsite to the field level, but also used as tools for up-scaling emissions to landscapes and regions and to explore feedbacks of soil N2O emissions to changes in environmental conditions, land management and land use. PMID:23713120

  13. Process evaluation of a worksite social and physical environmental intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffeng, J.K.; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Boot, C.R.L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the process of implementation of a social and physical environmental intervention and to explore differences regarding this process between both interventions. METHODS:: Context, recruitment, dose delivered, fidelity, reach, dose received, satisfaction, and implementation

  14. Driven by Beliefs: Understanding Challenges Physical Science Teachers Face When Integrating Engineering and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily A.; Ellis, Joshua A.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to ignore the increased use of technological innovations in today's world, which has led to various calls for the integration of engineering into K-12 science standards. The need to understand how engineering is currently being brought to science classrooms is apparent and necessary in order to address these calls for integration.…

  15. Physics of Financial Markets: Can we Understand the Unpredictable Phenomenon of Flash Crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-03-01

    Dangerous vulnerability is hiding in complex systems. Indeed, disasters ranging from abrupt financial ``flash crashes'' and large-scale power outages to sudden death among the elderly dramatically exemplify this fact. While we can understand the cause of most events in complex systems, sudden unexpected ``black swans'' whether in economics or in the ``physicists world'' cry out for insight. To design more resilient systems we will describe recent results seeking understanding of these black swans. In many real-world phenomena, such as brain seizures in neuroscience or sudden market crashes in finance, after an inactive period of time a significant part of the damaged network is capable of spontaneously becoming active again. The process often occurs repeatedly. To model this marked network recovery, we examine the effect of local node recoveries and stochastic contiguous spreading, and find that they can lead to the spontaneous emergence of macroscopic ``phase-flipping'' phenomena. The fraction of active nodes switches back and forth between the two network collective modes characterized by high network activity and low network activity. Furthermore, the system exhibits a strong hysteresis behavior analogous to phase transitions near a critical point [A. Majdandzic, B. Podobnik, S. V. Buldyrev, D. Y. Kenett, S. Havlin, and H. E. Stanley, ``Spontaneous Recovery in Dynamic Networks,'' Nature Physics 10, 34 (2014)]. This work was carried out in collaboration with a number of colleagues, chief among whom are A. Majdanzic, B. Podobnik, S. V. Buldyrev, D. Y. Kenett, and S. Havlin.

  16. [The Process of Healing Child Physical Abuse: Sprouting and Twining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Feng, Jui-Ying; Tseng, Ren-Mei

    2018-06-01

    Child physical abuse impacts the physical and psychological health of survivors. Healing child abuse is an essential process that helps survivors reorganize the meaning of the trauma and pursue a normal life. Considering the trauma of child physical abuse within the social context allows the experiences of individual survivors to be reflected in their process of healing. To explore the social interaction and construction process of healing experienced by survivors of child physical abuse. A qualitative research design using grounded theory was applied. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to recruit survivors of childhood physical abuse who had experienced healing. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were used and data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. The process of healing child physical abuse in this study was a process of sprouting and twining. Three core categories emerged: thriving, relationships, and ethics. The healing process was analogous to a seed growing in poor soil, sprouting out from the ground, and striving to live by seeking support. The survivors constantly established interactive relationships with their selves and with others and struggled to keep family bonds grounded and growing within the frame of ethics. The healing process of sprouting and twining for child physical abuse survivors in Taiwan integrates thriving, relationships, and ethics. Professionals working with child-physical-abuse survivors must recognize conflicts in ethics. Strategies should be developed to assist survivors to cope with the impact of childhood trauma in order to facilitate the healing process.

  17. Markov processes an introduction for physical scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Gillespie, Daniel T

    1991-01-01

    Markov process theory is basically an extension of ordinary calculus to accommodate functions whos time evolutions are not entirely deterministic. It is a subject that is becoming increasingly important for many fields of science. This book develops the single-variable theory of both continuous and jump Markov processes in a way that should appeal especially to physicists and chemists at the senior and graduate level.Key Features* A self-contained, prgamatic exposition of the needed elements of random variable theory* Logically integrated derviations of the Chapman-Kolmogorov e

  18. Automatically processing physical data from LHD experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, M., E-mail: emoto.masahiko@nifs.ac.jp; Ida, K.; Suzuki, C.; Yoshida, M.; Akiyama, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshinuma, M.

    2014-05-15

    Physical data produced by large helical device (LHD) experiments is supplied by the Kaiseki server, and registers more than 200 types of diagnostic data. Dependencies exist amongst the data; i.e., in many cases, the calculation of one data requires other data. Therefore, to obtain unregistered data, one needs to calculate not only the diagnostic data itself but also the dependent data; however, because the data is registered by different scientists, each scientist must separately calculate and register their respective data. To simplify this complicated procedure, we have developed an automatic calculation system called AutoAna. The calculation programs of AutoAna are distributed on a network, and the number of such programs can be easily increased dynamically. Our system is therefore scalable and ready for substantial increases in the size of the target data.

  19. Physical and biochemical processes in composting material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van J.T.

    1996-01-01


    In the composting process temperature and oxygen concentrations are essential parameters. A main objective of this thesis is to formulate a mathematical model which can predict these parameters. In this model a number of important material properties must be used: composition in terms of

  20. Integrated biological, chemical and physical processes kinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for C and N removal, only gas and liquid phase processes were considered for this integrated model. ... kLA value for the aeration system, which affects the pH in the anoxic and aerobic reactors through CO2 gas exchange. ... Water SA Vol.

  1. A cognitive framework for analyzing and describing introductory students' use and understanding of mathematics in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuminaro, Jonathan

    Many introductory, algebra-based physics students perform poorly on mathematical problem solving tasks in physics. There are at least two possible, distinct reasons for this poor performance: (1) students simply lack the mathematical skills needed to solve problems in physics, or (2) students do not know how to apply the mathematical skills they have to particular problem situations in physics. While many students do lack the requisite mathematical skills, a major finding from this work is that the majority of students possess the requisite mathematical skills, yet fail to use or interpret them in the context of physics. In this thesis I propose a theoretical framework to analyze and describe students' mathematical thinking in physics. In particular, I attempt to answer two questions. What are the cognitive tools involved in formal mathematical thinking in physics? And, why do students make the kinds of mistakes they do when using mathematics in physics? According to the proposed theoretical framework there are three major theoretical constructs: mathematical resources, which are the knowledge elements that are activated in mathematical thinking and problem solving; epistemic games, which are patterns of activities that use particular kinds of knowledge to create new knowledge or solve a problem; and frames, which are structures of expectations that determine how individuals interpret situations or events. The empirical basis for this study comes from videotaped sessions of college students solving homework problems. The students are enrolled in an algebra-based introductory physics course. The videotapes were transcribed and analyzed using the aforementioned theoretical framework. Two important results from this work are: (1) the construction of a theoretical framework that offers researchers a vocabulary (ontological classification of cognitive structures) and grammar (relationship between the cognitive structures) for understanding the nature and origin of

  2. Understanding the medical markers of elder abuse and neglect: physical examination findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    A specific foundation of knowledge is important for evaluating potential abuse from physical findings in the older adult. The standard physical examination is a foundation for detecting many types of abuse. An understanding of traumatic injuries, including patterns of injury, is important for health care providers, and inclusion of elder abuse in the differential diagnosis of patient care is essential. One must possess the skills needed to piece the history, including functional capabilities, and physical findings together. Armed with this skill set, health care providers will develop the confidence needed to identify and intervene in cases of elder abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Flipped Classroom and College Physics Students' Motivation and Understanding of Kinematics Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagande, Jeffrey Lloyd L.; Jugar, Richard R.

    2018-01-01

    Reversing the traditional classroom activities, in the flipped classroom model students view lectures at home and perform activities during class period inside the classroom. This study investigated the effect of a flipped classroom implementation on college physics students' motivation and understanding of kinematics graphs. A Solomon four-group…

  4. Understanding Challenges Physics Teachers Come Across as They Implement Learner-Centred Approaches in Lesotho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qhobela, Makomosela; Moru, Eunice Kolitsoe

    2014-01-01

    Teacher-centred strategies have dominated most physics lessons in Lesotho. This study attempted to understand the contributing factors for the choice of teacher-centred teaching instead of learner-centred teaching with the goal of informing a professional development programme designed to address this problem. The paper responds to the research…

  5. Correlation of understanding of physics and psychological symptoms among high-school students in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggeliki, Anagnostopoulou; Miltiades, Kyprianou; Antigoni-Elisavet, Rota; Evangelia, Pavlatou; Loizos, Zaphiris

    2017-09-01

    Depression may essentially influence cognitive function contributing to poor school performance. The present study undertakes to determine the existence and strength of correlation between depressive symptomatology and other mental conditions with the acquired level of understanding of Newtonian physics taught in schools. The current study recruited 490 students (262 girls, 228 boys) attending the first semester of the Greek Second Grade of General Lyceum School. Force Concept Inventory (FCI) tested the depth of the students’ understanding of Newtonian Physics. Symptom Checklist-90-R assessed general mental status. The tests took place in the classroom during a 1 h session. Low FCI scores significantly correlated with mental conditions, with depression ranking first. Girls had higher scores in all nine symptoms scales of SCL-90 and lower FCI scores. Stepwise regression models proved that the gender effect on FCI could be effectively explained through the significant effect of depression. An understanding of Newtonian physics among high school students may be restricted by common problematic mental conditions, with depression being the greatest among all. Further research, using a more systematic approach to measure depression among adolescents with poor understanding of physics, would help to elucidate the nature of the effect.

  6. ERP differences between processing of physical characteristics and personality attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited data from behavioral and brain-imaging studies indicate that personality traits and physical characteristics are processed differently by the brain. Additionally, electrophysiological results of studies comparing the processing of positive and negative words have produced mixed results. It is therefore not clear how physical and personality attributes with emotional valence (i.e., positive and negative valence) are processed. Thus, this study aimed to examine the neural activity associated with words describing personality traits and physical characteristics with positive or negative emotional valence using Event Related Potentials (ERPs). Methods A sample of 15 healthy adults (7 men, 8 women) participated in a computerized word categorization task. Participants were asked to categorize visual word stimuli as physical characteristics or personality traits, while ERPs were recorded synchronously. Results Behavioral reaction times to negative physical stimuli were shorter compared to negative personality words, however reaction times did not significantly differ for positive stimuli. Electrophysiological results showed that personality stimuli elicited larger P2 and LPC (Late Positive Component) amplitudes compared to physical stimuli, regardless of negative or positive valence. Moreover, negative as compared with positive stimuli elicited larger P2 and LPC amplitudes. Conclusion Personality and physical stimuli were processed differently regardless of positive or negative valence. These findings suggest that personality traits and physical characteristics are differentially classified and are associated with different motivational significance. PMID:22967478

  7. Understanding human visual processing with Deep Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Thorat, Sushrut

    2016-01-01

    This presentation has 2 parts:1. An introduction to the vision processing - neuroscience, and machine vision.2. Discussion of one of the first papers relating Deep Networks to the visual ventral stream. (Khaligh-Razavi, 2014)

  8. Self-determination theory and understanding of student motivation in physical education instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđić Višnja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical education is considered to be a favorable context for accomplishment of important educational outcomes and promotion of physical activity in children and youth. The real scope of physical education instruction largely depends on student motivation. Self-determination theory, as a specific macrotheory of motivation, offers a rewarding framework for understanding student motivation in physical education instruction. The paper presents the basic tenets of self-determination theory, the most important studies in the domain of physical education and didactic and methodical implications. Two mini-theories within the self-determination theory are analyzed in more detail, the cognitive evaluation theory and the organismic integration theory. Empirical verification of the theoretical tenets indicates the existence of typical motivational profiles of students in physical education instruction, the basic psychological needs as mediators of influence of social and interpersonal factors on student motivation, followed by the importance of motivational climate, students' goal orientations and teaching style for self-determination of students' behavior in physical education instruction. Didactic and methodical implications refer to the need for developing a more flexible curriculum of physical education, encouraging a motivational climate, task-focused goal orientations, and, especially, encouraging the perceived moving competence of the student.

  9. A high throughput platform for understanding the influence of excipients on physical and chemical stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raijada, Dhara; Cornett, Claus; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    The present study puts forward a miniaturized high-throughput platform to understand influence of excipient selection and processing on the stability of a given drug compound. Four model drugs (sodium naproxen, theophylline, amlodipine besylate and nitrofurantoin) and ten different excipients were...... for chemical degradation. The proposed high-throughput platform can be used during early drug development to simulate typical processing induced stress in a small scale and to understand possible phase transformation behaviour and influence of excipients on this....

  10. Using Ancient DNA to Understand Evolutionary and Ecological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Cooper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA provides a unique means to record genetic change through time and directly observe evolutionary and ecological processes. Although mostly based on mitochondrial DNA, the increasing availability of genomic sequences is leading to unprecedented levels of resolution. Temporal studies of ...

  11. Understanding the Process of Radicalization: Review of the Empirical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    war, and for violent solutions to conflict. However, the authors contend that TMT does not predict such antagonistic reactions as certain. Instead...advocates that individuals “ ruminate about social exclusion, and this preoccupation with their inner thoughts, distracts them from processing incoming

  12. Towards understanding and managing the learning process in mail sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, M; Karltun, A

    2012-01-01

    This paper was based on case study research at the Swedish Mail Service Division and it addresses learning time to sort mail at new districts and means to support the learning process on an individual as well as organizational level. The study population consisted of 46 postmen and one team leader in the Swedish Mail Service Division. Data were collected through measurements of time for mail sorting, interviews and a focus group. The study showed that learning to sort mail was a much more complex process and took more time than expected by management. Means to support the learning process included clarification of the relationship between sorting and the topology of the district, a good work environment, increased support from colleagues and management, and a thorough introduction for new postmen. The identified means to support the learning process require an integration of human, technological and organizational aspects. The study further showed that increased operations flexibility cannot be reinforced without a systems perspective and thorough knowledge about real work activities and that ergonomists can aid businesses to acquire this knowledge.

  13. Understanding the selection processes of public research projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Materia, V.C.; Pascucci, S.; Kolympiris, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses factors that affect the funding of agricultural research projects by regional governments and other regional public authorities. We study the selection process of agricultural research projects funded by the emilia Romagna regional government in Italy, which follows funding

  14. Satisfaction Formation Processes in Library Users: Understanding Multisource Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xi; Holahan, Patricia J.; Jurkat, M. Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study explores whether disconfirmation theory can explain satisfaction formation processes in library users. Both library users' needs and expectations are investigated as disconfirmation standards. Overall library user satisfaction is predicted to be a function of two independent sources--satisfaction with the information product received…

  15. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in writing to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathleen M; Umanath, Sharda; Thio, Kara; Reilly, Walter B; McDaniel, Mark A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2017-06-01

    Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes. The current experiment examines learning from 3 writing tasks (and 1 nonwriting control), with an emphasis on whether or not the tasks engaged retrieval. Tasks that engaged retrieval (essay writing and free recall) led to better final test performance than those that did not (note taking and highlighting). Individual differences in structure building (the ability to construct mental representations of narratives; Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990) modified this effect; skilled structure builders benefited more from essay writing and free recall than did less skilled structure builders. Further, more essay-like responses led to better performance, implicating the importance of additional cognitive processes such as reorganization and elaboration. The results highlight how both task instructions and individual differences affect the cognitive processes involved when writing-to-learn, with consequences for the effectiveness of the learning strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Understanding the Process of Fibrosis in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Kharraz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosis is the aberrant deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM components during tissue healing leading to loss of its architecture and function. Fibrotic diseases are often associated with chronic pathologies and occur in a large variety of vital organs and tissues, including skeletal muscle. In human muscle, fibrosis is most readily associated with the severe muscle wasting disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, caused by loss of dystrophin gene function. In DMD, skeletal muscle degenerates and is infiltrated by inflammatory cells and the functions of the muscle stem cells (satellite cells become impeded and fibrogenic cells hyperproliferate and are overactivated, leading to the substitution of skeletal muscle with nonfunctional fibrotic tissue. Here, we review new developments in our understanding of the mechanisms leading to fibrosis in DMD and several recent advances towards reverting it, as potential treatments to attenuate disease progression.

  17. An image-based approach to understanding the physics of MR artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, John N; Runge, Val M; Ai, Fei; Attenberger, Ulrike; Vu, Lan; Schmeets, Stuart H; Nitz, Wolfgang R; Kirsch, John E

    2011-01-01

    As clinical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging becomes more versatile and more complex, it is increasingly difficult to develop and maintain a thorough understanding of the physical principles that govern the changing technology. This is particularly true for practicing radiologists, whose primary obligation is to interpret clinical images and not necessarily to understand complex equations describing the underlying physics. Nevertheless, the physics of MR imaging plays an important role in clinical practice because it determines image quality, and suboptimal image quality may hinder accurate diagnosis. This article provides an image-based explanation of the physics underlying common MR imaging artifacts, offering simple solutions for remedying each type of artifact. Solutions that have emerged from recent technologic advances with which radiologists may not yet be familiar are described in detail. Types of artifacts discussed include those resulting from voluntary and involuntary patient motion, magnetic susceptibility, magnetic field inhomogeneities, gradient nonlinearity, standing waves, aliasing, chemical shift, and signal truncation. With an improved awareness and understanding of these artifacts, radiologists will be better able to modify MR imaging protocols so as to optimize clinical image quality, allowing greater confidence in diagnosis. Copyright © RSNA, 2011.

  18. How does crowdfunding work? Understanding the process through its activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stiver, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Crowdfunding is a process featuring incremental financial donations from a ‘crowd’ of backers to help fund a project initiated by a creator. In recent years, crowdfunding has generated significant revenue as well as great interest from industry, government, and creative entrepreneurs. However, rate of successful funding for crowdfunding projects remains around 35% for global crowdfunding leader Kickstarter1, and lower yet for other platforms.\\ud \\ud The identified gap between crowdfunding gro...

  19. Modeling Dynamic Food Choice Processes to Understand Dietary Intervention Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Christopher Steven; Goldring, Megan R; McBride, Colleen M; Persky, Susan

    2018-02-17

    Meal construction is largely governed by nonconscious and habit-based processes that can be represented as a collection of in dividual, micro-level food choices that eventually give rise to a final plate. Despite this, dietary behavior intervention research rarely captures these micro-level food choice processes, instead measuring outcomes at aggregated levels. This is due in part to a dearth of analytic techniques to model these dynamic time-series events. The current article addresses this limitation by applying a generalization of the relational event framework to model micro-level food choice behavior following an educational intervention. Relational event modeling was used to model the food choices that 221 mothers made for their child following receipt of an information-based intervention. Participants were randomized to receive either (a) control information; (b) childhood obesity risk information; (c) childhood obesity risk information plus a personalized family history-based risk estimate for their child. Participants then made food choices for their child in a virtual reality-based food buffet simulation. Micro-level aspects of the built environment, such as the ordering of each food in the buffet, were influential. Other dynamic processes such as choice inertia also influenced food selection. Among participants receiving the strongest intervention condition, choice inertia decreased and the overall rate of food selection increased. Modeling food selection processes can elucidate the points at which interventions exert their influence. Researchers can leverage these findings to gain insight into nonconscious and uncontrollable aspects of food selection that influence dietary outcomes, which can ultimately improve the design of dietary interventions.

  20. Understanding national and international safeguards: an evolutionary process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Domestic and international safeguards have been evolving and will continue to evolve. in the case of the United States, the concern was to protect the classified materials, at first. Then attention focussed on material accounting, then on measures to promptly detect theft by individuals with access, and later on physical protection to ward-off armed terrorists. The objective of the IAEA has always been to provide assurance that nuclear materials are not being diverted from the peaceful facilities that are under safeguards. The evolution has taken place in deciding how to provide this assurance, and in the definition of specific safeguards goals. In both cases the technology needed to meet the goals has improved due to R and D and to experience. A plea is made for more cooperation betwen those who develop and manage the policies, those who develop safeguards techniques, and those who are subject to national and IAEA safeguards. Some illustrations of the evolution of policies, inadequate coordination and general progress are given

  1. Understanding movement data and movement processes: current and emerging directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S

    2008-12-01

    Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability.

  2. Developing and validating a conceptual survey to assess introductory physics students’ understanding of magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-03-01

    Development of validated physics surveys on various topics is important for investigating the extent to which students master those concepts after traditional instruction and for assessing innovative curricula and pedagogies that can improve student understanding significantly. Here, we discuss the development and validation of a conceptual multiple-choice survey related to magnetism suitable for introductory physics courses. The survey was developed taking into account common students’ difficulties with magnetism concepts covered in introductory physics courses found in our investigation and the incorrect choices to the multiple-choice questions were designed based upon those common student difficulties. After the development and validation of the survey, it was administered to introductory physics students in various classes in paper-pencil format before and after traditional lecture-based instruction in relevant concepts. We compared the performance of students on the survey in the algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses before and after traditional lecture-based instruction in relevant magnetism concepts. We discuss the common difficulties of introductory physics students with magnetism concepts we found via the survey. We also administered the survey to upper-level undergraduates majoring in physics and PhD students to benchmark the survey and compared their performance with those of traditionally taught introductory physics students for whom the survey is intended. A comparison with the base line data on the validated magnetism survey from traditionally taught introductory physics courses and upper-level undergraduate and PhD students discussed in this paper can help instructors assess the effectiveness of curricula and pedagogies which is especially designed to help students integrate conceptual and quantitative understanding and develop a good grasp of the concepts. In particular, if introductory physics students’ average

  3. Developing and validating a conceptual survey to assess introductory physics students’ understanding of magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    Development of validated physics surveys on various topics is important for investigating the extent to which students master those concepts after traditional instruction and for assessing innovative curricula and pedagogies that can improve student understanding significantly. Here, we discuss the development and validation of a conceptual multiple-choice survey related to magnetism suitable for introductory physics courses. The survey was developed taking into account common students’ difficulties with magnetism concepts covered in introductory physics courses found in our investigation and the incorrect choices to the multiple-choice questions were designed based upon those common student difficulties. After the development and validation of the survey, it was administered to introductory physics students in various classes in paper–pencil format before and after traditional lecture-based instruction in relevant concepts. We compared the performance of students on the survey in the algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses before and after traditional lecture-based instruction in relevant magnetism concepts. We discuss the common difficulties of introductory physics students with magnetism concepts we found via the survey. We also administered the survey to upper-level undergraduates majoring in physics and PhD students to benchmark the survey and compared their performance with those of traditionally taught introductory physics students for whom the survey is intended. A comparison with the base line data on the validated magnetism survey from traditionally taught introductory physics courses and upper-level undergraduate and PhD students discussed in this paper can help instructors assess the effectiveness of curricula and pedagogies which is especially designed to help students integrate conceptual and quantitative understanding and develop a good grasp of the concepts. In particular, if introductory physics students’ average

  4. Toward a Neurobiological Basis for Understanding Learning in University Modeling Instruction Physics Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Brewe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Modeling Instruction (MI for University Physics is a curricular and pedagogical approach to active learning in introductory physics. A basic tenet of science is that it is a model-driven endeavor that involves building models, then validating, deploying, and ultimately revising them in an iterative fashion. MI was developed to provide students a facsimile in the university classroom of this foundational scientific practice. As a curriculum, MI employs conceptual scientific models as the basis for the course content, and thus learning in a MI classroom involves students appropriating scientific models for their own use. Over the last 10 years, substantial evidence has accumulated supporting MI's efficacy, including gains in conceptual understanding, odds of success, attitudes toward learning, self-efficacy, and social networks centered around physics learning. However, we still do not fully understand the mechanisms of how students learn physics and develop mental models of physical phenomena. Herein, we explore the hypothesis that the MI curriculum and pedagogy promotes student engagement via conceptual model building. This emphasis on conceptual model building, in turn, leads to improved knowledge organization and problem solving abilities that manifest as quantifiable functional brain changes that can be assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We conducted a neuroeducation study wherein students completed a physics reasoning task while undergoing fMRI scanning before (pre and after (post completing a MI introductory physics course. Preliminary results indicated that performance of the physics reasoning task was linked with increased brain activity notably in lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices that previously have been associated with attention, working memory, and problem solving, and are collectively referred to as the central executive network. Critically, assessment of changes in brain activity during the physics

  5. Dispersal from deep ocean sources: physical and related scientific processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.R.; Kupferman, S.L.

    1985-02-01

    This report presents the results of the workshop ''Dispersal from Deep Ocean Sources: Physical and Related Scientific Processes,'' together with subsequent developments and syntheses of the material discussed there. The project was undertaken to develop usable predictive descriptions of dispersal from deep oceanic sources. Relatively simple theoretical models embodying modern ocean physics were applied, and observational and experimental data bases were exploited. All known physical processes relevant to the dispersal of passive, conservative tracers were discussed, and contact points for inclusion of nonconservative processes (biological and chemical) were identified. Numerical estimates of the amplitude, space, and time scales of dispersion were made for various mechanisms that control the evolution of the dispersal as the material spreads from a bottom point source to small-, meso-, and world-ocean scales. Recommendations for additional work are given. The volume is presented as a handbook of dispersion processes. It is intended to be updated as new results become available

  6. Understanding the physical activity promotion behaviours of podiatrists: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisford, Paul; Winzenberg, Tania; Venn, Alison; Cleland, Verity

    2013-09-09

    Health professionals are encouraged to play a part in reducing the health risks of physical inactivity. Little is known of the physical activity promotion practice behaviours of podiatrists. We performed 20 semi-structured interviews with purposefully selected podiatrists to explore their physical activity promotion attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and practice. Transcribed interviews were coded using an iterative thematic approach to identify major themes and salient beliefs. Overall, the participants had a positive attitude to physical activity promotion, considering it a normal part of their role. They saw their role as giving information, encouraging activity and making recommendations, however in practice they were less inclined to follow up on recommendations, monitor activity levels or document the process. Their approach was generally opportunistic, informal and unstructured and the content of assessment and promotion dependent upon the presenting patient's condition. Advice tended to be tailored to the patient's capabilities and interests. They considered there are opportunities to promote physical activity during regular consultations, however, were more likely to do so in patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes. Main barriers to physical activity promotion included unreceptive and unmotivated patients as well as a lack of time, skills and resources. Physical activity promotion appears feasible in podiatry practice in terms of opportunity and acceptability to practitioners, but there is scope for improvement. Strategies to improve promotion need to consider the major issues, barriers and opportunities as well as provide a more structured approach to physical activity promotion by podiatrists.

  7. Understanding the process of greening of Brazilian business schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.; De Sousa Jabbour, A.B.L.

    2013-01-01

    activities; (d) paradoxically, the analyzed business schools can be considered academic leaders in the field, but have had difficulties in adopting environmental management practices internally; (e) there is a "path dependence" effect in this process; (f) there are barriers to organizational change towards...... conducted at Brazilian business schools. The results were analyzed using the conceptual background of barriers to organizational change, transition to a more sustainable society, and path dependence. The main findings indicate that: (a) the incorporation of environmental management issues tends to begin......This study analyses business schools' incorporating environmental management issues into their core activities, defined through teaching, research, outreach and management. Taking into account the relative lack of literature on this theme, case study fieldwork is utilized. Two case studies were...

  8. Understanding the process by which female entrepreneurs create INVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Gitte Ohrt; Hannibal, Martin

    around the world and their increasing contribution to economic growth and employment (Baughn et al., 2006). As it is generally acknowledged that female entrepreneurs exhibit many differences from their male counterparts (Anna et al., 2000; Buttner & Moore, 1997), this omission in the INV literature...... and behave in such crucial entrepreneurial processes as new venture creation. In this regard, and only recently, female entrepreneurship scholars have begun to recognize that there may be differences between male and female nascent entrepreneurs in terms of, for example, psychological attributes, education...... opportunities on (foreign) markets. As such, the specific focus of this paper will be on how answers to the series of “Who am I?, What do I know? Whom do I know?” questions in the founding stage helped the focal female entrepreneurs to recognize and create opportunities in foreign markets. In doing...

  9. Race to improve student understanding of uncertainty: Using LEGO race cars in the physics lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parappilly, Maria; Hassam, Christopher; Woodman, Richard J.

    2018-01-01

    Laboratories using LEGO race cars were developed for students in an introductory physics topic with a high early drop-out rate. In a 2014 pilot study, the labs were offered to improve students' confidence with experiments and laboratory skills, especially uncertainty propagation. This intervention was extended into the intro level physics topic the next year, for comparison and evaluation. Considering the pilot study, we subsequently adapted the delivery of the LEGO labs for a large Engineering Mechanics cohort. A qualitative survey of the students was taken to gain insight into their perception of the incorporation of LEGO race cars into physics labs. For Engineering, the findings show that LEGO physics was instrumental in teaching students the measurement and uncertainty, improving their lab reporting skills, and was a key factor in reducing the early attrition rate. This paper briefly recalls the results of the pilot study, and how variations in the delivery yielded better learning outcomes. A novel method is proposed for how LEGO race cars in a physics lab can help students increase their understanding of uncertainty and motivate them towards physics practicals.

  10. Foundations of high-energy-density physics physical processes of matter at extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, thi...

  11. Programs for low-energy nuclear physics data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antuf'ev, Yu.P.; Dejneko, A.S.; Ekhichev, O.I.; Kuz'menko, V.A.; Mashkarov, Yu.G.; Nemashkalo, B.A.; Skakun, E.A.; Storizhko, V.E.; Shlyakhov, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose of six computer programs developed in KhPTI of AN USSR for the processing of the experimental data on low energy nuclear physics ia friendly described. The programs are written in Algol-60 language. They are applied to some types of nuclear reactions and permit to process differential cross sections and γ spectra, to compute statistical tensors and excitation functions as well as to analyze some processes by means of theoretical models

  12. Gold processing residue from Jacobina Basin: chemical and physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Luiz Rogério Pinho de Andrade; Bernardez, Letícia Alonso; Barbosa, Luís Alberto Dantas

    2007-01-01

    p. 848-852 Gold processing residues or tailings are found in several areas in the Itapicuru River region (Bahia, Brazil), and previous studies indicated significant heavy metals content in the river sediments. The present work focused on an artisanal gold processing residue found in a site from this region. Samples were taken from the processing residue heaps and used to perform a physical and chemical characterization study using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, neutron...

  13. Towards an Understanding of Enabling Process Knowing in Global Software Development: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Shared understanding of Software Engineering (SE) processes, that we call process knowing, is required for effective communication and coordination and communication within a team in order to improve team performance. SE Process knowledge can include roles, responsibilities and flow of informatio...... challenges of lack of process knowing and how an organization can enable process knowing for achieving the desired results that also help in increasing social interactions and positive behavioral changes......Shared understanding of Software Engineering (SE) processes, that we call process knowing, is required for effective communication and coordination and communication within a team in order to improve team performance. SE Process knowledge can include roles, responsibilities and flow of information...... over a project lifecycle. Developing and sustaining process knowledge can be more challenging in Global Software Development (GSD). GSD distances can limit the ability of a team to develop a common understanding of processes. Anecdotes of the problems caused by lack of common understanding of processes...

  14. Greenhouse climate : from physical processes to a dynamic model

    OpenAIRE

    Bot, G.P.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis greenhouse climate has been studied as the set of environmental conditions in a greenhouse in so far as they affect crop growth and development. In chapter 2 this set has been defined in terms of temperatures and vapour pressures. Moreover we have indicated which physical processes co-operate in the greenhouse. So the dependency of the greenhouse climate on the outside weather, the physical properties of the greenhouse construction and the way ventilation and heating is perform...

  15. Physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V; Clague, David S; Lee, Christopher L; Rudd, Robert E; Burnham, Alan K; Tringe, Joseph W

    2013-11-19

    A method of using physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays. The methods utilize deflection of a micromachined cantilever that represents the chemical, biological, or physical element being detected. One embodiment of the method comprises the steps of modeling the deflection of the micromachined cantilever producing a deflection model, sensing the deflection of the micromachined cantilever and producing a signal representing the deflection, and comparing the signal representing the deflection with the deflection model.

  16. “If I had to do it, then I would”: Understanding early middle school students’ perceptions of physics and physics-related careers by gender

    OpenAIRE

    Emily A. Dare; Gillian H. Roehrig

    2016-01-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls’ and boys’ perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and representation in this particular field of science. A theoretical framework based...

  17. A modeling process to understand complex system architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Santiago Balestrini

    2009-12-01

    In recent decades, several tools have been developed by the armed forces, and their contractors, to test the capability of a force. These campaign level analysis tools, often times characterized as constructive simulations are generally expensive to create and execute, and at best they are extremely difficult to verify and validate. This central observation, that the analysts are relying more and more on constructive simulations to predict the performance of future networks of systems, leads to the two central objectives of this thesis: (1) to enable the quantitative comparison of architectures in terms of their ability to satisfy a capability without resorting to constructive simulations, and (2) when constructive simulations must be created, to quantitatively determine how to spend the modeling effort amongst the different system classes. The first objective led to Hypothesis A, the first main hypotheses, which states that by studying the relationships between the entities that compose an architecture, one can infer how well it will perform a given capability. The method used to test the hypothesis is based on two assumptions: (1) the capability can be defined as a cycle of functions, and that it (2) must be possible to estimate the probability that a function-based relationship occurs between any two types of entities. If these two requirements are met, then by creating random functional networks, different architectures can be compared in terms of their ability to satisfy a capability. In order to test this hypothesis, a novel process for creating representative functional networks of large-scale system architectures was developed. The process, named the Digraph Modeling for Architectures (DiMA), was tested by comparing its results to those of complex constructive simulations. Results indicate that if the inputs assigned to DiMA are correct (in the tests they were based on time-averaged data obtained from the ABM), DiMA is able to identify which of any two

  18. Building shared understandings in introductory physics tutorials through risk, repair, conflict & comedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Luke D.

    Collaborative inquiry learning environments, such as The Tutorials in Physics Sensemaking, are designed to provide students with opportunities to partake in the authentic disciplinary practices of argumentation and sensemaking. Through these practices, groups of students in tutorial can build shared conceptual understandings of the mechanisms behind physical phenomena. In order to do so, they must also build a shared epistemological understanding of what they are doing together, such that their activity includes collaboratively making sense of mechanisms. Previous work (Conlin, Gupta, Scherr, & Hammer, 2007; Scherr & Hammer, 2009) has demonstrated that tutorial students do not settle upon only one way of understanding their activity together, but instead build multiple shared ways of understanding, or framing (Scherr & Hammer, 2009; Tannen, 1993a), their activity. I build upon this work by substantiating a preliminary finding that one of these shared ways of framing corresponds with increased evidence of the students' collaboratively making sense of physical mechanisms. What previous research has not yet addressed is how the students come to understand their activity as including collaborative sensemaking discussions in the first place, and how that understanding develops over the course of the semester. In this dissertation, I address both of these questions through an in-depth video analysis of three groups' discussions throughout the semester. To build shared understandings through scientific argumentation and collaborative sensemaking, the students need to continually make repairs of each other's understanding, but this comes with the risk of affective damage that can shut down further sensemaking discussions. By analyzing the discourse of the three groups' discussions throughout the semester, I show how each group is able to manage this essential tension as they each build and maintain a safe space to sensemake together. I find that the three groups differ in

  19. Reflector antenna analysis using physical optics on Graphics Processing Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Sørensen, Hans Henrik Brandenborg; Dammann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The Physical Optics approximation is a widely used asymptotic method for calculating the scattering from electrically large bodies. It requires significant computational work and little memory, and is thus well suited for application on a Graphics Processing Unit. Here, we investigate the perform......The Physical Optics approximation is a widely used asymptotic method for calculating the scattering from electrically large bodies. It requires significant computational work and little memory, and is thus well suited for application on a Graphics Processing Unit. Here, we investigate...

  20. Roles of medical image processing in medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka

    2011-01-01

    Image processing techniques including pattern recognition techniques play important roles in high precision diagnosis and radiation therapy. The author reviews a symposium on medical image information, which was held in the 100th Memorial Annual Meeting of the Japan Society of Medical Physics from September 23rd to 25th. In this symposium, we had three invited speakers, Dr. Akinobu Shimizu, Dr. Hideaki Haneishi, and Dr. Hirohito Mekata, who are active engineering researchers of segmentation, image registration, and pattern recognition, respectively. In this paper, the author reviews the roles of the medical imaging processing in medical physics field, and the talks of the three invited speakers. (author)

  1. Understanding many-body physics in one dimension from the Lieb–Liniger model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yu-Zhu; Chen Yang-Yang; Guan Xi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an elementary introduction on various aspects of the prototypical integrable model the Lieb–Liniger Bose gas ranging from the cooperative to the collective features of many-body phenomena. In 1963, Lieb and Liniger first solved this quantum field theory many-body problem using Bethe’s hypothesis, i.e., a particular form of wavefunction introduced by Bethe in solving the one-dimensional Heisenberg model in 1931. Despite the Lieb–Liniger model is arguably the simplest exactly solvable model, it exhibits rich quantum many-body physics in terms of the aspects of mathematical integrability and physical universality. Moreover, the Yang–Yang grand canonical ensemble description for the model provides us with a deep understanding of quantum statistics, thermodynamics, and quantum critical phenomena at the many-body physical level. Recently, such fundamental physics of this exactly solved model has been attracting growing interest in experiments. Since 2004, there have been more than 20 experimental papers that reported novel observations of different physical aspects of the Lieb–Liniger model in the laboratory. So far the observed results are in excellent agreement with results obtained using the analysis of this simplest exactly solved model. Those experimental observations reveal the unique beauty of integrability. (topical review)

  2. Understanding physical activity participation in spinal cord injured populations: Three narrative types for consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathomas, Anthony; Williams, Toni L.; Smith, Brett

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identity the types of physical activity narratives drawn upon by active spinal injured people. More than 50 h of semi-structured life-story interview data, collected as part of larger interdisciplinary program of disability lifestyle research, was analysed for 30 physically active male and female spinal cord injury (SCI) participants. A structural narrative analysis of data identified three narrative types which people with SCI draw on: (1) exercise is restitution, (2) exercise is medicine, and (3) exercise is progressive redemption. These insights contribute new knowledge by adding a unique narrative perspective to existing cognitive understanding of physical activity behaviour in the spinal cord injured population. The implications of this narrative typology for developing effective positive behavioural change interventions are critically discussed. It is concluded that the identified narratives types may be constitutive, as well as reflective, of physical activity experiences and therefore may be a useful tool on which to base physical activity promotion initiatives. PMID:26282868

  3. Understanding physical activity participation in spinal cord injured populations: Three narrative types for consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Papathomas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identity the types of physical activity narratives drawn upon by active spinal injured people. More than 50 h of semi-structured life-story interview data, collected as part of larger interdisciplinary program of disability lifestyle research, was analysed for 30 physically active male and female spinal cord injury (SCI participants. A structural narrative analysis of data identified three narrative types which people with SCI draw on: (1 exercise is restitution, (2 exercise is medicine, and (3 exercise is progressive redemption. These insights contribute new knowledge by adding a unique narrative perspective to existing cognitive understanding of physical activity behaviour in the spinal cord injured population. The implications of this narrative typology for developing effective positive behavioural change interventions are critically discussed. It is concluded that the identified narratives types may be constitutive, as well as reflective, of physical activity experiences and therefore may be a useful tool on which to base physical activity promotion initiatives.

  4. From Process Understanding Via Soil Functions to Sustainable Soil Management - A Systemic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschlaeger, U.; Bartke, S.; Bartkowski, B.; Daedlow, K.; Helming, K.; Kogel-Knabner, I.; Lang, B.; Rabot, E.; Russell, D.; Stößel, B.; Weller, U.; Wiesmeier, M.; Rabot, E.; Vogel, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Fertile soils are central resources for the production of biomass and the provision of food and energy. A growing world population and latest climate targets lead to an increasing demand for both, food and bio-energy, which requires preserving and improving the long-term productivity of soils as a bio-economic resource. At the same time, other soil functions and ecosystem services need to be maintained: filter for clean water, carbon sequestration, provision and recycling of nutrients, and habitat for biological activity. All these soil functions result from the interaction of a multitude of physical, chemical and biological processes that are not yet sufficiently understood. In addition, we lack understanding about the interplay between the socio-economic system and the soil system and how soil functions benefit human wellbeing. Hence, a solid and integrated assessment of soil quality requires the consideration of the ensemble of soil functions and its relation to soil management to finally be able to develop site-specific options for sustainable soil management. We present an integrated modeling approach that investigates the influence of soil management on the ensemble of soil functions. It is based on the mechanistic relationships between soil functional attributes, each explained by a network of interacting processes as derived from scientific evidence. As the evidence base required for feeding the model is for the most part stored in the existing scientific literature, another central component of our work is to set up a public "knowledge-portal" providing the infrastructure for a community effort towards a comprehensive knowledge base on soil processes as a basis for model developments. The connection to the socio-economic system is established using the Drivers-Pressures-Impacts-States-Responses (DPSIR) framework where our improved understanding about soil ecosystem processes is linked to ecosystem services and resource efficiency via the soil functions.

  5. Physical processes that control droplet transport in rock fracture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Katrina Moran

    Aquifer recharge is generally driven by fluids that move from the Earths surface to groundwater through the unsaturated zone, also known as the vadose zone. When the vadose zone is fractured, fluids, which may include contaminants, can move through the fracture network as well as the porous matrix. Such a network of fractures can provide a more rapid path, thereby reducing contact time between the fluid and the matrix. Contact time allows for exchange of solutes between the fluid and the porous matrix, thus being able to quantify contact time is important. In addition, the behavior of fluids within a fracture network has been found to be very complex; large-scale models are yet not able to predict transport paths or flux rates. Because, small-scale flow phenomena can strongly influence the large-scale behavior of fluid movement through systems of fractures, it is important that small-scale dynamics be properly understood in order to improve our predictive capabilities in these complex systems. Relevant flow dynamics includes the impact of boundary conditions, fluid modes that evolve in time and space and transitions between modes. This thesis presents three investigations aimed at understanding the physical processes governing fluid movement in unsaturated fractures, with the ultimate goal of improving predictive relationships for fluid transport in rock fracture systems. These investigations include a theoretical analysis of the wetting of a rough surface, an experimental study of the dynamics of fluid droplets (or liquid bridges) moving in a single fracture and a theoretical analysis of the movement of a fluid droplet encountering a fracture intersection. Each investigation is motivated by environmental applications. Development of an analytical equation for the wetting of a rough surface is based on a balance between capillary forces and frictional resistive forces. The resulting equation predicts movement of the liquid invasion front driven solely by the

  6. Understanding ‘human’ waves: exploiting the physics in a viral video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Roca, Chantal

    2018-01-01

    Waves are a relevant part of physics that students find difficult to grasp, even in those cases in which wave propagation kinematics can be visualized. This may hinder a proper understanding of sound, light or quantum physics phenomena that are explained using a wave model. So-called ‘human’ waves, choreographed by people, have proved to be an advisable way to understand basic wave concepts. Videos are widely used as a teaching resource and can be of considerable help in order to watch and discuss ‘human’ waves provided their quality is reasonably good. In this paper we propose and analyse a video that went viral online and has been revealed to be a useful teaching resource for introductory physics students. It shows a unique and very complete series of wave propagations, including pulses with different polarizations and periodic waves that can hardly be found elsewhere. After a proposal on how to discuss the video qualitatively, a quantitative analysis is carried out (no video-tracker needed), including a determination of the main wave magnitudes such as period, wavelength and propagation speed.

  7. Why Social Relationships Are Important for Physical Health: A Systems Approach to Understanding and Modifying Risk and Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt-Lunstad, Julianne

    2018-01-04

    Social relationships are adaptive and crucial for survival. This review presents existing evidence indicating that our social connections to others have powerful influences on health and longevity and that lacking social connection qualifies as a risk factor for premature mortality. A systems perspective is presented as a framework by which to move social connection into the realm of public health. Individuals, and health-relevant biological processes, exist within larger social contexts including the family, neighborhood and community, and society and culture. Applying the social ecological model, this review highlights the interrelationships of individuals within groups in terms of understanding both the causal mechanisms by which social connection influences physical health and the ways in which this influence can inform potential intervention strategies. A systems approach also helps identify gaps in our current understanding that may guide future research.

  8. WE-E-304-01: SBRT Credentialing: Understanding the Process From Inquiry to Approval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Followill, D.

    2015-01-01

    SBRT is having a dramatic impact on radiation therapy of early-stage, locally advanced cancers. A number of national protocols have been and are being developed to assess the clinical efficacy of SBRT for various anatomical sites, such as lung and spine. Physics credentialing for participating and implementation of trial protocols involve a broad spectrum of requirements from image guidance, motion management, to planning technology and dosimetric constrains. For radiation facilities that do not have extensive experiences in SBRT treatment and protocol credentialing, these complex processes of credentialing and implementation could be very challenging and, sometimes, may lead to ineffective even unsuccessful execution of these processes. In this proposal, we will provide comprehensive review of some current SBRT protocols, explain the requirements and their underline rationales, illustrate representative failed and successful experiences, related to SBRT credentialing, and discuss strategies for effective SBRT credentialing and implementation. Learning Objectives: Understand requirements and challenges of SBRT credentailing and implentation Discuss processes and strategies of effective SBRT credentailing Discuss practical considerations, potential pitfalls and solutions of SBRT implentation

  9. New understanding of rhizosphere processes enabled by advances in molecular and spatially resolved techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Nancy J.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the role played by microorganisms within soil systems is challenged by the unique intersection of physics, chemistry, mineralogy and biology in fostering habitat for soil microbial communities. To address these challenges will require observations across multiple spatial and temporal scales to capture the dynamics and emergent behavior from complex and interdependent processes. The heterogeneity and complexity of the rhizosphere require advanced techniques that press the simultaneous frontiers of spatial resolution, analyte sensitivity and specificity, reproducibility, large dynamic range, and high throughput. Fortunately many exciting technical advancements are now available to inform and guide the development of new hypotheses. The aim of this Special issue is to provide a holistic view of the rhizosphere in the perspective of modern molecular biology methodologies that enabled a highly-focused, detailed view on the processes in the rhizosphere, including numerous, strong and complex interactions between plant roots, soil constituents and microorganisms. We discuss the current rhizosphere research challenges and knowledge gaps, as well as perspectives and approaches using newly available state-of-the-art toolboxes. These new approaches and methodologies allow the study of rhizosphere processes and properties, and rhizosphere as a central component of ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles.

  10. WE-E-304-01: SBRT Credentialing: Understanding the Process From Inquiry to Approval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Followill, D. [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    SBRT is having a dramatic impact on radiation therapy of early-stage, locally advanced cancers. A number of national protocols have been and are being developed to assess the clinical efficacy of SBRT for various anatomical sites, such as lung and spine. Physics credentialing for participating and implementation of trial protocols involve a broad spectrum of requirements from image guidance, motion management, to planning technology and dosimetric constrains. For radiation facilities that do not have extensive experiences in SBRT treatment and protocol credentialing, these complex processes of credentialing and implementation could be very challenging and, sometimes, may lead to ineffective even unsuccessful execution of these processes. In this proposal, we will provide comprehensive review of some current SBRT protocols, explain the requirements and their underline rationales, illustrate representative failed and successful experiences, related to SBRT credentialing, and discuss strategies for effective SBRT credentialing and implementation. Learning Objectives: Understand requirements and challenges of SBRT credentailing and implentation Discuss processes and strategies of effective SBRT credentailing Discuss practical considerations, potential pitfalls and solutions of SBRT implentation.

  11. Brownian Motion as a Limit to Physical Measuring Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the history of the idea that noise presents a fundamental limit to physical measuring processes. This idea had its origins in research aimed at improving the accuracy of instruments for electrical measurements. Out of these endeavors, the Swedish physicist Gustaf A. Ising...

  12. Greenhouse climate : from physical processes to a dynamic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, G.P.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis greenhouse climate has been studied as the set of environmental conditions in a greenhouse in so far as they affect crop growth and development. In chapter 2 this set has been defined in terms of temperatures and vapour pressures. Moreover we have indicated which physical processes

  13. Multiscale physical processes of fine sediment in an estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study presented in this book investigates micro- and macro- scale physical processes of a large-scale fine sediment estuarine system with a moderate tidal range as well as a highly seasonal-varying freshwater inflow. Based on a series measured, experimented and modeled results, the research

  14. Physical processes in the Gulf of Kachchh: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.

    A brief review of various physical processes acting in the Gulf of Kachchh (GoK), which have prominent roles in Gulf dynamics, is presented in this article. The eddies present in the GoK confirm that they are permanent features of the Go...

  15. Upper ocean physical processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.; Ram, P.S.

    This monograph is the outcome of an attempt by the authors to present a synthesis of the studies on physical processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) in relation to air-sea interaction, monsoon/climate variability and biological productivity...

  16. Using the self-determination theory to understand Chinese adolescent leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan

    2017-05-01

    This study applies the self-determination theory (SDT) to test the hypothesized relationships among perceived autonomy support from parents, physical education (PE) teachers, and peers, the fulfilment of psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness), autonomous motivation, and leisure-time physical activity of Chinese adolescents. There are 255 grade six to eight student participants from four middle schools around Shanghai, China included in this study. An accelerometer was used to measure the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The participants completed the questionnaires regarding SDT variables. The structural equation modelling was applied to examine the hypothesized relationships among the study variables. The model of hypothesized relationships demonstrated a good fit with the data [X 2  = 20.84, df = 9, P = .01; CFI = 0.98; IFI = 0.98; SRMR = 0.04; RMSEA = 0.05]. The findings revealed that autonomy support from parents, PE teachers, and peers foster social conditions in which the three basic psychological needs can be met. In turn, autonomy, competence, and relatedness are positively associated with autonomous motivation for MVPA. The autonomous motivation positively relates to the MVPA time of adolescents. The three psychological needs partially mediate the influence of autonomy support from parents (β = 0.18, P motivation. In conclusion, these findings support the applicability of SDT in understanding and promoting physical activity of Chinese adolescents.

  17. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Engineering Students' Beliefs about Physics and Conceptual Understanding of Energy and Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on freshmen engineering students' beliefs about physics and physics learning (referred to as epistemological beliefs) and conceptual understanding of physics. The multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts and the Colorado learning attitudes about…

  18. Understanding low levels of physical activity in people with intellectual disabilities : A systematic review to identify barriers and facilitators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Leontien; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities (ID) undertake extremely low levels of physical activity. Aims: To enhance understanding concerning low levels of physical activity in people with ID, this study has three aims: (1) to identify barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in

  19. Understanding rapid theoretical change in particle physics: a month-by-month co-citation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, D.; Koester, D.; White, D.H.; Kern, R.

    1979-01-01

    While co-citation analysis has proved a powerful tool in the study of changes in intellectual foci in science, no one has ever used the technique to study very rapid changes in the theoretical structure of a scientific field. This paper presents month-by-month co-citation analyses of key phases in the weak-electromagnetic unification research program within particle physics, and shows that these analyses capture and illuminate very rapid intellectual changes. These data provide yet another illustration of the utility of co-citation analysis for understanding the history of science. 8 figures

  20. Soil Heat Flow. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, James R.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Soil heat flow and the resulting soil temperature distributions have ecological consequences…

  1. Basic physics of the fission process. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaudon, A.

    1981-01-01

    A general description of the fission process is given with special emphasis on those aspects which are necessary for the understanding of the measurements and calculations of neutron-induced fission cross-sections. Having considered the various phases of the process, some typical properties of the low-energy fission of actinide nuclei are presented and the more specific features of neutron induced fission are examined. (U.K.)

  2. On Process Modelling Using Physical Oriented And Phenomena Based Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Culea

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a modelling framework based on phenomena description of the process. The approach is taken to easy understand and construct process model in heterogeneous possible distributed modelling and simulation environments. A simplified case study of a heat exchanger is considered and Modelica modelling language to check the proposed concept. The partial results are promising and the research effort will be extended in a computer aided modelling environment based on phenomena.

  3. The Processes of Inclusion and Exclusion in Physical Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Munk; Agergaard, Sine

    2015-01-01

    Existing research on inclusion and exclusion processes in physical education (PE) has particularly focused on exclusion from PE as something being done to students and attributed to specific social categories such as (female) gender, (low) physical skills or (minority) ethnic background....... This article aims to develop a social-relational perspective on inclusion and exclusion processes defined as students’ participation or non-participation in PE interpreted as a community of practice. In so doing, the article examines how students’ experiences of participation and non-participation in PE...... or non-participation is important not only in terms of how we talk about students as passive victims or active agents, but also in terms of future intervention aimed at promoting inclusion processes in PE....

  4. Children's conceptions of physical events: explicit and tacit understanding of horizontal motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Christine; Taylor Tavares, Joana; Devine, Amy

    2014-06-01

    The conceptual understanding that children display when predicting physical events has been shown to be inferior to the understanding they display when recognizing whether events proceed naturally. This has often been attributed to differences between the explicit engagement with conceptual knowledge required for prediction and the tacit engagement that suffices for recognition, and contrasting theories have been formulated to characterize the differences. Focusing on a theory that emphasizes omission at the explicit level of conceptual elements that are tacitly understood, the paper reports two studies that attempt clarification. The studies are concerned with 6- to 10-year-old children's understanding of, respectively, the direction (141 children) and speed (132 children) of motion in a horizontal direction. Using computer-presented billiards scenarios, the children predicted how balls would move (prediction task) and judged whether or not simulated motion was correct (recognition task). Results indicate that the conceptions underpinning prediction are sometimes interpretable as partial versions of the conceptions underpinning recognition, as the omission hypothesis would imply. However, there are also qualitative differences, which suggest partial dissociation between explicit and tacit understanding. It is suggested that a theoretical perspective that acknowledges this dissociation would provide the optimal framework for future research. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Understanding the creative processes of phenomenological research: The life philosophy of Løgstrup

    OpenAIRE

    Annelise Norlyk; Pia Dreyer; Anita Haahr; Bente Martinsen

    2011-01-01

    The creative processes of understanding patients’ experiences in phenomenological research are difficult to articulate. Drawing on life philosophy as represented by the Danish philosopher K.E. Løgstrup (1905-1981), this article aims to illustrate Løgstrup’s thinking as a way to elaborate the creation of cognition and understanding of patients’ experiences. We suggest that Løgstrup’s thoughts on sensation can add new dimensions to an increased understanding of the creative process of phenomeno...

  6. Advanced statistics to improve the physical interpretation of atomization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panão, Miguel R.O.; Radu, Lucian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Finite pdf mixtures improves physical interpretation of sprays. ► Bayesian approach using MCMC algorithm is used to find the best finite mixture. ► Statistical method identifies multiple droplet clusters in a spray. ► Multiple drop clusters eventually associated with multiple atomization mechanisms. ► Spray described by drop size distribution and not only its moments. -- Abstract: This paper reports an analysis of the physics of atomization processes using advanced statistical tools. Namely, finite mixtures of probability density functions, which best fitting is found using a Bayesian approach based on a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. This approach takes into account eventual multimodality and heterogeneities in drop size distributions. Therefore, it provides information about the complete probability density function of multimodal drop size distributions and allows the identification of subgroups in the heterogeneous data. This allows improving the physical interpretation of atomization processes. Moreover, it also overcomes the limitations induced by analyzing the spray droplets characteristics through moments alone, particularly, the hindering of different natures of droplet formation. Finally, the method is applied to physically interpret a case-study based on multijet atomization processes

  7. Designing quantum information processing via structural physical approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Joonwoo

    2017-10-01

    In quantum information processing it may be possible to have efficient computation and secure communication beyond the limitations of classical systems. In a fundamental point of view, however, evolution of quantum systems by the laws of quantum mechanics is more restrictive than classical systems, identified to a specific form of dynamics, that is, unitary transformations and, consequently, positive and completely positive maps to subsystems. This also characterizes classes of disallowed transformations on quantum systems, among which positive but not completely maps are of particular interest as they characterize entangled states, a general resource in quantum information processing. Structural physical approximation offers a systematic way of approximating those non-physical maps, positive but not completely positive maps, with quantum channels. Since it has been proposed as a method of detecting entangled states, it has stimulated fundamental problems on classifications of positive maps and the structure of Hermitian operators and quantum states, as well as on quantum measurement such as quantum design in quantum information theory. It has developed efficient and feasible methods of directly detecting entangled states in practice, for which proof-of-principle experimental demonstrations have also been performed with photonic qubit states. Here, we present a comprehensive review on quantum information processing with structural physical approximations and the related progress. The review mainly focuses on properties of structural physical approximations and their applications toward practical information applications.

  8. Towards developing understanding of the drivers, constraints from the consumption values underpinning participation in physical activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Kearns, PJ; Williams-Burnett, N; Skinner, H

    2012-01-01

    Overall participation rates in physical activity across the UK have remained relatively static since the mid 1980s, with attendant causes for concern about the inequality of participation rates amongst various target groups that may be worthy of specific investigation. Behaviour change models from the fields of leisure studies, consumer behaviour and social psychology offer conceptualisation of a notion of exchange underpinning the expectancy-value process, noting that, in order to facilitate...

  9. University Students' Understanding of Chemistry Processes and the Quality of Evidence in Their Written Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung, Eulsun; Choi, Aeran; Pestel, Beverly

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a process-oriented chemistry laboratory curriculum for non-science majors. The purpose of this study is both to explore university students' understanding of chemistry processes and to evaluate the quality of evidence students use to support their claims regarding chemistry processes in a process-oriented chemistry laboratory…

  10. Executable business process modeling as a tool for increasing the understanding of business processes in an organization

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Ersin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of business processes is becoming an important key factor for successful businesses and today many organizations are facing the lack of knowledge about the business processes that they are working on. Since the interaction between different business processes and different actors are becoming more common it is not only enough for employees to have knowledge about the business processes that they involve directly, but also they need to know about the other business processes in t...

  11. Understanding the Physical Optics Phenomena by Using a Digital Application for Light Propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra-Sosa, Daniel-Esteban; Angel-Toro, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the light propagation on the basis of the Huygens-Fresnel principle stands for a fundamental factor for deeper comprehension of different physical optics related phenomena like diffraction, self-imaging, image formation, Fourier analysis and spatial filtering. This constitutes the physical approach of the Fourier optics whose principles and applications have been developed since the 1950's. Both for analytical and digital applications purposes, light propagation can be formulated in terms of the Fresnel Integral Transform. In this work, a digital optics application based on the implementation of the Discrete Fresnel Transform (DFT), and addressed to serve as a tool for applications in didactics of optics is presented. This tool allows, at a basic and intermediate learning level, exercising with the identification of basic phenomena, and observing changes associated with modifications of physical parameters. This is achieved by using a friendly graphic user interface (GUI). It also assists the user in the development of his capacity for abstracting and predicting the characteristics of more complicated phenomena. At an upper level of learning, the application could be used to favor a deeper comprehension of involved physics and models, and experimenting with new models and configurations. To achieve this, two characteristics of the didactic tool were taken into account when designing it. First, all physical operations, ranging from simple diffraction experiments to digital holography and interferometry, were developed on the basis of the more fundamental concept of light propagation. Second, the algorithm was conceived to be easily upgradable due its modular architecture based in MATLAB (registered) software environment. Typical results are presented and briefly discussed in connection with didactics of optics.

  12. Understanding the Physical Optics Phenomena by Using a Digital Application for Light Propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Sosa, Daniel-Esteban; Angel-Toro, Luciano, E-mail: dsierras@eafit.edu.co, E-mail: langel@eafit.edu.co [Grupo de Optica Aplicada, Universidad EAFIT, 1 Medellin (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the light propagation on the basis of the Huygens-Fresnel principle stands for a fundamental factor for deeper comprehension of different physical optics related phenomena like diffraction, self-imaging, image formation, Fourier analysis and spatial filtering. This constitutes the physical approach of the Fourier optics whose principles and applications have been developed since the 1950's. Both for analytical and digital applications purposes, light propagation can be formulated in terms of the Fresnel Integral Transform. In this work, a digital optics application based on the implementation of the Discrete Fresnel Transform (DFT), and addressed to serve as a tool for applications in didactics of optics is presented. This tool allows, at a basic and intermediate learning level, exercising with the identification of basic phenomena, and observing changes associated with modifications of physical parameters. This is achieved by using a friendly graphic user interface (GUI). It also assists the user in the development of his capacity for abstracting and predicting the characteristics of more complicated phenomena. At an upper level of learning, the application could be used to favor a deeper comprehension of involved physics and models, and experimenting with new models and configurations. To achieve this, two characteristics of the didactic tool were taken into account when designing it. First, all physical operations, ranging from simple diffraction experiments to digital holography and interferometry, were developed on the basis of the more fundamental concept of light propagation. Second, the algorithm was conceived to be easily upgradable due its modular architecture based in MATLAB (registered) software environment. Typical results are presented and briefly discussed in connection with didactics of optics.

  13. Understanding the Physical Optics Phenomena by Using a Digital Application for Light Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Sosa, Daniel-Esteban; Ángel-Toro, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the light propagation on the basis of the Huygens-Fresnel principle stands for a fundamental factor for deeper comprehension of different physical optics related phenomena like diffraction, self-imaging, image formation, Fourier analysis and spatial filtering. This constitutes the physical approach of the Fourier optics whose principles and applications have been developed since the 1950's. Both for analytical and digital applications purposes, light propagation can be formulated in terms of the Fresnel Integral Transform. In this work, a digital optics application based on the implementation of the Discrete Fresnel Transform (DFT), and addressed to serve as a tool for applications in didactics of optics is presented. This tool allows, at a basic and intermediate learning level, exercising with the identification of basic phenomena, and observing changes associated with modifications of physical parameters. This is achieved by using a friendly graphic user interface (GUI). It also assists the user in the development of his capacity for abstracting and predicting the characteristics of more complicated phenomena. At an upper level of learning, the application could be used to favor a deeper comprehension of involved physics and models, and experimenting with new models and configurations. To achieve this, two characteristics of the didactic tool were taken into account when designing it. First, all physical operations, ranging from simple diffraction experiments to digital holography and interferometry, were developed on the basis of the more fundamental concept of light propagation. Second, the algorithm was conceived to be easily upgradable due its modular architecture based in MATLAB® software environment. Typical results are presented and briefly discussed in connection with didactics of optics.

  14. Contribution of Satellite Gravimetry to Understanding Seismic Source Processes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Riva, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 great Tohoku-Oki earthquake, apart from shaking the ground, perturbed the motions of satellites orbiting some hundreds km away above the ground, such as GRACE, due to coseismic change in the gravity field. Significant changes in inter-satellite distance were observed after the earthquake. These unconventional satellite measurements were inverted to examine the earthquake source processes from a radically different perspective that complements the analyses of seismic and geodetic ground recordings. We found the average slip located up-dip of the hypocenter but within the lower crust, as characterized by a limited range of bulk and shear moduli. The GRACE data constrained a group of earthquake source parameters that yield increasing dip (7-16 degrees plus or minus 2 degrees) and, simultaneously, decreasing moment magnitude (9.17-9.02 plus or minus 0.04) with increasing source depth (15-24 kilometers). The GRACE solution includes the cumulative moment released over a month and demonstrates a unique view of the long-wavelength gravimetric response to all mass redistribution processes associated with the dynamic rupture and short-term postseismic mechanisms to improve our understanding of the physics of megathrusts.

  15. Understanding physical activity in individuals with prediabetes: an application of social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lorian M; Raine, Kim D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vallance, Jeff K; Sharma, Arya M; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-documented evidence implicating physical activity (PA) in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, the overwhelming majority of individuals with prediabetes are not physically active enough. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of the social cognitive theory (SCT) in understanding PA behaviour in individuals with prediabetes. Individuals with prediabetes (N = 232) completed a mailed questionnaire assessing demographics, self-reported PA (MET.min/wk) and SCT constructs for PA MET.min/wk. For PA MET.min/wk, scheduling and task efficacy both had significant effects on PA (β = .30 and .22, respectively). Goal formation also had a direct effect on PA for scheduling, coping and task efficacy (β = .20, .34 and .30, respectively). Task, coping and scheduling efficacy explained a significant portion of the variance in PA behaviour. Overall, SCT appears to have merit as a model for understanding PA in individuals with prediabetes. Further evaluative inquiry is needed to establish support for the use of the SCT as a framework for developing, implementing and evaluating PA behaviour change interventions in this population.

  16. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of

  17. Being qua becoming: Aristotle's "Metaphysics", quantum physics, and Process Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David Kelley

    In Aristotle's First Philosophy, science and philosophy were partners, but with the rise of empiricism, went their separate ways. Metaphysics combined the rational and irrational (i.e. final cause/unmoved mover) elements of existence to equate being with substance, postulating prime matter as pure potential that was actuated by form to create everything. Modern science reveres pure reason and postulates its theory of being by a rigorous scientific methodology. The Standard Model defines matter as energy formed into fundamental particles via forces contained in fields. Science has proved Aristotle's universe wrong in many ways, but as physics delves deeper into the quantum world, empiricism is reaching its limits concerning fundamental questions of existence. To achieve its avowed mission of explaining existence completely, physics must reunite with philosophy in a metascience modeled on the First Philosophy of Aristotle. One theory of being that integrates quantum physics and metaphysics is Process Philosophy.

  18. A Trip Through the Virtual Ocean: Understanding Basic Oceanic Process Using Real Data and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    How can we effectively teach undergraduates the fundamentals of physical, chemical and biological processes in the ocean? Understanding physical circulation and biogeochemical processes is essential, yet it can be difficult for an undergraduate to easily grasp important concepts such as using temperature and salinity as conservative tracers, nutrient distribution, ageing of water masses, and thermocline variability. Like many other topics, it is best learned not in a lecture setting, but working with real data: plotting values, making predictions, and making mistakes. Part I: Using temperature and salinity values from any location in the world ocean (World Ocean Atlas), combined with an excellent user interface (http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov), students are asked to answer a series of specific questions related to ocean circulation. Using established temperature and salinity values to characterize different water masses, students are able to identify various water masses and gain insight to physical circulation processes. Questions related to ocean circulation include: How far south and at what depth does NADW extend into the S. Atlantic? Is deep water formed in the North Pacific? How and why does the depth of the thermocline vary with latitude in the Atlantic Ocean? How deep does the Mediterranean Water descend as it leaves the Straits of Gibraltar? How far into the Atlantic can you see the influence of the Amazon River? Is there any Antarctic Bottom Water in the North Pacific? Collaborating with another student typically leads to increased engagement. Especially in large lecture settings, where one teacher is not able to address student questions or concerns, working in pairs or in groups of three is best. Part II: Using the same web-based viewer and data set students are subsequently assigned one oceanic property (phosphate, nitrate, silicate, O2, or AOU) and asked to construct three different plots: 1) vertical depth profile at one location; 2) latitude vs. depth

  19. Comparative Approaches to Understanding the Relation Between Aging and Physical Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Jamie N; Cesari, Matteo; Seals, Douglas R; Shively, Carol A; Carter, Christy S

    2016-10-01

    Despite dedicated efforts to identify interventions to delay aging, most promising interventions yielding dramatic life-span extension in animal models of aging are often ineffective when translated to clinical trials. This may be due to differences in primary outcomes between species and difficulties in determining the optimal clinical trial paradigms for translation. Measures of physical function, including brief standardized testing batteries, are currently being proposed as biomarkers of aging in humans, are predictive of adverse health events, disability, and mortality, and are commonly used as functional outcomes for clinical trials. Motor outcomes are now being incorporated into preclinical testing, a positive step toward enhancing our ability to translate aging interventions to clinical trials. To further these efforts, we begin a discussion of physical function and disability assessment across species, with special emphasis on mice, rats, monkeys, and man. By understanding how physical function is assessed in humans, we can tailor measurements in animals to better model those outcomes to establish effective, standardized translational functional assessments with aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. What is This Thing Called Sensemaking?: A Theoretical Framework for How Physics Students Resolve Inconsistencies in Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Tor Ole B.

    Students often emerge from introductory physics courses with a feeling that the concepts they have learned do not make sense. In recent years, science education researchers have begun to attend to this type of problem by studying the ways in which students make sense of science concepts. However, although many researchers agree intuitively on what sensemaking looks like, the literature on sensemaking is both theoretically fragmented and provides few guidelines for how to encourage and support the process. In this dissertation, I address this challenge by proposing a theoretical framework to describe students' sensemaking processes. I base this framework both on the science education research literature on sensemaking and on a series of video-recorded cognitive, clinical interviews conducted with introductory physics students enrolled in a course on electricity and magnetism. Using the science education research literature on sensemaking as well as a cognitivist, dynamic network model of mind as a theoretical lens, I first propose a coherent definition of sensemaking. Then, using this definition I analyze the sensemaking processes of these introductory physics students during episodes when they work to articulate and resolve gaps or inconsistencies in their understanding. Based on the students' framing, gestures, and dialogue I argue that the process of sensemaking unfolds in a distinct way, which we can describe as an epistemic game in which students first build a framework of knowledge, then identify a gap or inconsistency in that framework, iteratively build an explanation to resolve the gap or inconsistency, and (sometimes) successfully resolve it. I further argue that their entry into the sensemaking frame is facilitated by a specific question, which is in turn motivated by a gap or inconsistency in knowledge that I call the vexation point. I also investigate the results of sensemaking, arguing that students may use the technique of conceptual blending to both

  1. Acute physical exercise affected processing efficiency in an auditory attention task more than processing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutke, Stephan; Jaitner, Thomas; Berse, Timo; Barenberg, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    Research on effects of acute physical exercise on performance in a concurrent cognitive task has generated equivocal evidence. Processing efficiency theory predicts that concurrent physical exercise can increase resource requirements for sustaining cognitive performance even when the level of performance is unaffected. This hypothesis was tested in a dual-task experiment. Sixty young adults worked on a primary auditory attention task and a secondary interval production task while cycling on a bicycle ergometer. Physical load (cycling) and cognitive load of the primary task were manipulated. Neither physical nor cognitive load affected primary task performance, but both factors interacted on secondary task performance. Sustaining primary task performance under increased physical and/or cognitive load increased resource consumption as indicated by decreased secondary task performance. Results demonstrated that physical exercise effects on cognition might be underestimated when only single task performance is the focus.

  2. Levels of processing and picture memory: the physical superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intraub, H; Nicklos, S

    1985-04-01

    Six experiments studied the effect of physical orienting questions (e.g., "Is this angular?") and semantic orienting questions (e.g., "Is this edible?") on memory for unrelated pictures at stimulus durations ranging from 125-2,000 ms. Results ran contrary to the semantic superiority "rule of thumb," which is based primarily on verbal memory experiments. Physical questions were associated with better free recall and cued recall of a diverse set of visual scenes (Experiments 1, 2, and 4). This occurred both when general and highly specific semantic questions were used (Experiments 1 and 2). Similar results were obtained when more simplistic visual stimuli--photographs of single objects--were used (Experiments 5 and 6). As in the case of the semantic superiority effect with words, the physical superiority effect for pictures was eliminated or reversed when the same physical questions were repeated throughout the session (Experiments 4 and 6). Conflicts with results of previous levels of processing experiments with words and nonverbal stimuli (e.g., faces) are explained in terms of the sensory-semantic model (Nelson, Reed, & McEvoy, 1977). Implications for picture memory research and the levels of processing viewpoint are discussed.

  3. Physical activity across the curriculum: year one process evaluation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Debra K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC is a 3-year elementary school-based intervention to determine if increased amounts of moderate intensity physical activity performed in the classroom will diminish gains in body mass index (BMI. It is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial, involving 4905 children (2505 intervention, 2400 control. Methods We collected both qualitative and quantitative process evaluation data from 24 schools (14 intervention and 10 control, which included tracking teacher training issues, challenges and barriers to effective implementation of PAAC lessons, initial and continual use of program specified activities, and potential competing factors, which might contaminate or lessen program effects. Results Overall teacher attendance at training sessions showed exceptional reach. Teachers incorporated active lessons on most days, resulting in significantly greater student physical activity levels compared to controls (p Conclusion In the first year of the PAAC intervention, process evaluation results were instrumental in identifying successes and challenges faced by teachers when trying to modify existing academic lessons to incorporate physical activity.

  4. Geneva University: Experiments in Physics: Hands-on Creative Processes

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2011-01-01

    Geneva University Physics Department 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Tel: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92   Lundi 3 octobre 2011, 17h00 Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg «Experiments in Physics : Hands-on Creative Processes» Prof. Manfred Euler Leibniz-Institute for Mathematics and Science Education (IPN) University of Kiel, Deutschland Experiments play a variety of different roles in knowledge generation. The lecture will focus on the function of experiments as engines of intuition that foster insights into complex processes. The experimental presentations consider self-organization phenomena in various domains that range from the nanomechanics of biomolecules to perception and cognition. The inherent universality contributes to elucidating the enigmatic phenomenon of creativity. Une verrée en compagnie du conférencier sera offerte après le colloque.       &...

  5. Influence of different natural physical fields on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinsky, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    In space flight conditions gravity, magnetic, and electrical fields as well as ionizing radiation change both in size, and in direction. This causes disruptions in the conduct of some physical processes, chemical reactions, and metabolism in living organisms. In these conditions organisms of different phylogenetic level change their metabolic reactions undergo changes such as disturbances in ionic exchange both in lower and in higher plants, changes in cell morphology for example, gyrosity in Proteus ( Proteus vulgaris), spatial disorientation in coleoptiles of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and Pea ( Pisum sativum) seedlings, mutational changes in Crepis ( Crepis capillaris) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling. It has been found that even in the absence of gravity, gravireceptors determining spatial orientation in higher plants under terrestrial conditions are formed in the course of ontogenesis. Under weightlessness this system does not function and spatial orientation is determined by the light flux gradient or by the action of some other factors. Peculiarities of the formation of the gravireceptor apparatus in higher plants, amphibians, fish, and birds under space flight conditions have been observed. It has been found that the system in which responses were accompanied by phase transition have proven to be gravity-sensitive under microgravity conditions. Such reactions include also the process of photosynthesis which is the main energy production process in plants. In view of the established effects of microgravity and different natural physical fields on biological processes, it has been shown that these processes change due to the absence of initially rigid determination. The established biological effect of physical fields influence on biological processes in organisms is the starting point for elucidating the role of gravity and evolutionary development of various organisms on Earth.

  6. Physical exercise, inflammatory process and adaptive condition: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fernando Oliveira Catanho da; Macedo, Denise Vaz

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise induces inflammation, a physiological response that is part of immune system activity and promotes tissue remodeling after exercise overload. The activation of the inflammatory process is local and systemic and is mediated by different cells and secreted compounds. The objective is to reestablish organ homeostasis after a single bout of exercise or after several exercise sessions. The acute-phase response involves the combined actions of activated leukocytes, cytokines, acut...

  7. Quantum Processes and Dynamic Networks in Physical and Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudziak, Martin Joseph

    Quantum theory since its earliest formulations in the Copenhagen Interpretation has been difficult to integrate with general relativity and with classical Newtonian physics. There has been traditionally a regard for quantum phenomena as being a limiting case for a natural order that is fundamentally classical except for microscopic extrema where quantum mechanics must be applied, more as a mathematical reconciliation rather than as a description and explanation. Macroscopic sciences including the study of biological neural networks, cellular energy transports and the broad field of non-linear and chaotic systems point to a quantum dimension extending across all scales of measurement and encompassing all of Nature as a fundamentally quantum universe. Theory and observation lead to a number of hypotheses all of which point to dynamic, evolving networks of fundamental or elementary processes as the underlying logico-physical structure (manifestation) in Nature and a strongly quantized dimension to macroscalar processes such as are found in biological, ecological and social systems. The fundamental thesis advanced and presented herein is that quantum phenomena may be the direct consequence of a universe built not from objects and substance but from interacting, interdependent processes collectively operating as sets and networks, giving rise to systems that on microcosmic or macroscopic scales function wholistically and organically, exhibiting non-locality and other non -classical phenomena. The argument is made that such effects as non-locality are not aberrations or departures from the norm but ordinary consequences of the process-network dynamics of Nature. Quantum processes are taken to be the fundamental action-events within Nature; rather than being the exception quantum theory is the rule. The argument is also presented that the study of quantum physics could benefit from the study of selective higher-scale complex systems, such as neural processes in the brain

  8. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging of the physical processes in human glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Gerstner, Elizabeth R; Emblem, Kyrre E; Andronesi, Ovidiu; Rosen, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    The most common malignant primary brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating disease with a grim prognosis. Patient survival is typically less than two years and fewer than 10% of patients survive more than five years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can have great utility in the diagnosis, grading, and management of patients with GBM as many of the physical manifestations of the pathologic processes in GBM can be visualized and quantified using MRI. Newer MRI techniques such as dynamic contrast enhanced and dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI provide functional information about the tumor hemodynamic status. Diffusion MRI can shed light on tumor cellularity and the disruption of white matter tracts in the proximity of tumors. MR spectroscopy can be used to study new tumor tissue markers such as IDH mutations. MRI is helping to noninvasively explore the link between the molecular basis of gliomas and the imaging characteristics of their physical processes. We, here, review several approaches to MR-based imaging and discuss the potential for these techniques to quantify the physical processes in glioblastoma, including tumor cellularity and vascularity, metabolite expression, and patterns of tumor growth and recurrence. We conclude with challenges and opportunities for further research in applying physical principles to better understand the biologic process in this deadly disease. See all articles in this Cancer Research section, "Physics in Cancer Research." ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Understanding process behaviours in a large insurance company in Australia : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suriadi, S.; Wynn, M.T.; Ouyang, C.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; van Dijk, N.J.; Salinesi, C.; Norrie, M.C.; Pastor, O.

    2013-01-01

    Having a reliable understanding about the behaviours, problems, and performance of existing processes is important in enabling a targeted process improvement initiative. Recently, there has been an increase in the application of innovative process mining techniques to facilitate evidence-based

  10. Understanding controls on redox processes in floodplain sediments of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noël, Vincent; Boye, Kristin; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Bone, Sharon; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Cardarelli, Emily; Janot, Noémie; Fendorf, Scott; Williams, Kenneth H.; Bargar, John R.

    2017-12-15

    River floodplains, heavily used for water supplies, housing, agriculture, mining, and industry, may have water quality jeopardized by native or exogenous metals. Redox processes mediate the accumulation and release of these species in groundwater. Understanding the physicochemical, hydrological, and biogeochemical controls on the distribution and variability and variability of redox conditions is therefore critical to developing conceptual and numerical models of contaminants transport within floodplains. The distribution and intensity of redox activity at the Rifle, CO, site within the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), are believed to be controlled by textural and compositional heterogeneities. Regionally, the UCRB is impacted by former uranium and vanadium ore processing, resulting in contaminations by U, Mo, V, As, Se, and Mn. Floodplains throughout the UCRB share sediment and groundwater characteristics, making redox activity regionally important to metal and radionuclide mobility. In this study, Fe and S speciation were used to track the distribution and stability of redox processes in sediment cores from three floodplain sites covering a 250 km range in the central portion of the UCRB. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that Fe(III) and sulfate reducing sediments are regionally important in the UCRB. The presence of organic carbon together with pore saturation were the key requirements for reducing conditions, dominated by sulfate-reduction. Sediment texture moderated the response of the system to external forcing, such as oxidant infusion, making fine-grain sediments resistant to change in comparison to coarser-grained sediments. Exposure to O2 and NO3- mediates the reactivity and longevity of freshly precipitated sulfides creating the potential for release of sequestered radionuclides and metals. The physical and chemical parameters of reducing zones evidenced in this study are thus thought to be key parameters on the dynamic exchange

  11. The Comparative Effectiveness of Physical, Virtual, and Virtual-Physical Manipulatives on Third-Grade Students' Science Achievement and Conceptual Understanding of Evaporation and Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Ling; Tseng, Yi-Kuan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of experimenting with physical manipulatives alone, virtual manipulatives alone, and virtual preceding physical manipulatives (combination environment) on third-grade students' science achievement and conceptual understanding in the domain of state changes of water, focusing…

  12. Physical processes for the onset of magnetospheric substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.R.; Akasofu, S-I.; Lee, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    There are at least three important advances in observational as well as theoretical understanding of substorm processes during the last several years; they are: (i) the 'V-shaped' potential structure for auroral acceleration, (ii) deflation as the cause of thinning of the distant plasma sheet, and (iii) interruption and subsequent diversion of the cross-tail current during the expansive phase of magnetospheric substorms. A possible chain of processes is suggested, including (i), (ii) and (iii) as vital parts, which leads to substorm onset. (Auth.)

  13. Understanding a High School Physics Teacher's Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlan; Buck, Gayle A.

    2016-08-01

    Scientific argumentation is an important learning objective in science education. It is also an effective instructional approach to constructivist science learning. The implementation of argumentation in school settings requires science teachers, who are pivotal agents of transforming classroom practices, to develop sophisticated knowledge of argumentation. However, there is a lack of understanding about science teachers' knowledge of argumentation, especially the dialogic meaning of argumentation. In this case study, we closely examine a high school physics teacher's argumentation-related pedagogic content knowledge (PCK) in the context of dialogic argumentation. We synthesize the teacher's performed PCK from his argumentation practices and narrated PCK from his reflection on the argumentation practices, from which we summarize his PCK of argumentation from the perspectives of orientation, instructional strategies, students, curriculum, and assessment. Finally, we describe the teacher's perception and adaption of argumentation in his class. We also identity the barriers to argumentation implementation in this particular case and suggest solutions to overcome these barriers.

  14. Understanding the physics of magnetic nanoparticles and their applications in the biomedical field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laha, Suvra Santa

    The study of magnetic nanoparticles is of great interest because of their potential uses in magnetic-recording, medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Additionally, they also offer an opportunity to understand the physics underlying the complex behavior exhibited by these materials. Two of the most important relaxation phenomena occurring in magnetic nanoparticles are superparamagnetic blocking and spin-glass-like freezing. In addition to features attributed to superparamagnetism, these nanoparticles can also exhibit magnetic relaxation effects at very low temperatures (≤ 50 K). Our studies suggest that all structural defects, and not just surface spins, are responsible for the low-temperature glass-like relaxation observed in many magnetic nanoparticles. The characteristic dipolar interaction energy existing in an ensemble of magnetic nanoparticles does not apparently depend on the average spacing between the nanoparticles but is likely to be strongly influenced by the fluctuations in the nanoparticle distribution. Our findings revealed that incorporating a small percentage of boron can stabilize the spinel structure in Mn 3O4 nanoparticles. We have also demonstrated that the dipolar interactions between the magnetic cores can be tuned by introducing non-magnetic nanoparticles. In particular, we studied the magnetic properties of Gd-doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles, a potential applicant for T1--T2 dual-modal MRI contrast agent. We have explored the interactions of BiFeO3 nanoparticles on live cells and the binding of FITC-conjugated Fe3O 4 nanoparticles with artificial lipid membranes to investigate these materials as candidates in medical imaging. Taken together, these studies have advanced our understanding of the fundamental physical principles that governs magnetism in magnetic materials with a focus on developing these nanoparticles for advanced biomedical applications. The materials developed and studied expand the repertoire of tools available for

  15. Markov Processes: Exploring the Use of Dynamic Visualizations to Enhance Student Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuch, Maxine; Budgett, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Finding ways to enhance introductory students' understanding of probability ideas and theory is a goal of many first-year probability courses. In this article, we explore the potential of a prototype tool for Markov processes using dynamic visualizations to develop in students a deeper understanding of the equilibrium and hitting times…

  16. Once upon a time : Understanding team processes as relational event networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, R.T.A.J.; Contractor, N.; DeChurch, L.

    2016-01-01

    For as long as groups and teams have been the subject of scientific inquiry, researchers have been interested in understanding the relationships that form within them, and the pace at which these relationships develop and change. Despite this interest in understanding the process underlying the

  17. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2011-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  18. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    OpenAIRE

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2011-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Paper presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  19. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2012-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Paper presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  20. About forming of personality physical culture of students in the process of physical education (in aspect of presence of abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Belykh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that practice of teaching of discipline «Physical education» does not provide forming of volume of abilities, sufficient for the origin of athletic activity. Prevail ability to pick up a place, sporting form, inventory depending on the type of physical exercises and ability on the observance of rules of the personal hygiene. In the questionnaire questioning 650 students (324 youths and 326 girls of the first and fourth courses took part. All of students visited employments on physical education at school and institute of higher. It is marked that the important task of amateurish athletic education is forming for the students of the personal experience of independent athletic, health and рекреационных employments. It is underlined that sense of amateurish athletic education of students consists in achievement by a man unity of mental and activity processes. Such processes are needed for an estimation and understanding of the state of the health, programming and residence of healthy way of life.

  1. The effect of Phet Simulation media for physics teacher candidate understanding on photoelectric effect concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supurwoko Supurwoko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian new Curriculum for senior high school students required student-centered learning. One of the curriculum implementation constraint was the difficulty of providing learning media. PhET simulations media is one of the options that can help implementation of new curriculum on learning. However, the use of this media in Indonesia still needs to be studied comprehensively. The learning was conducted on students of physics education Study Program in sebelas maret university in 2013. The sample consisted of 62 students that was taking quantum physics course. The method that was used in the research was descriptive qualitative.  The method that was used in learning was demonstration’s method that used PhET media and accompanied by a question and answer and groups discussion. The data was collected using multiple choice test and interview through email. We found that any students still did not understand about photoelectric effect concept. They were confused when asked about the thick material and cross section of the targets as related with the regardless of electrons in the photoelectric effect event. Other than that, the concept of the waves as a particle and its relation with the kinetic energy of the electrons was not understood by most students.

  2. Image processing applications: From particle physics to society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiropoulou, C.-L.; Citraro, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Luciano, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Giannetti, P.

    2017-01-01

    We present an embedded system for extremely efficient real-time pattern recognition execution, enabling technological advancements with both scientific and social impact. It is a compact, fast, low consumption processing unit (PU) based on a combination of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and the full custom associative memory chip. The PU has been developed for real time tracking in particle physics experiments, but delivers flexible features for potential application in a wide range of fields. It has been proposed to be used in accelerated pattern matching execution for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (biomedical applications), in real time detection of space debris trails in astronomical images (space applications) and in brain emulation for image processing (cognitive image processing). We illustrate the potentiality of the PU for the new applications.

  3. Health physics aspects of processing EBR-I coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, L.L.; Thalgott, J.O.; Poston, J.W. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium-potassium reactor coolant removed from the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One after a partial reactor core meltdown had been stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for 40 years. The State of Idaho considered this waste the most hazardous waste stored in the state and required its processing. The reactor coolant was processed in three phases. The first phase converted the alkali metal into a liquid sodium-potassium hydroxide. The second phase converted this caustic to a liquid sodium-potassium carbonate. The third phase solidified the sodium-potassium carbonate into a form acceptable for land disposal. Health physics aspects and dose received during each phase of the processing are discussed

  4. Detectors and signal processing for high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.

    1981-01-01

    Basic principles of the particle detection and signal processing for high-energy physics experiments are presented. It is shown that the optimum performance of a properly designed detector system is not limited by incidental imperfections, but solely by more fundamental limitations imposed by the quantum nature and statistical behavior of matter. The noise sources connected with the detection and signal processing are studied. The concepts of optimal filtering and optimal detector/amplifying device matching are introduced. Signal processing for a liquid argon calorimeter is analyzed in some detail. The position detection in gas counters is studied. Resolution in drift chambers for the drift coordinate measurement as well as the second coordinate measurement is discussed

  5. Physics Colloquium: The optical route to quantum information processing

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2011-01-01

    Geneva University Physics Department 24, Quai Ernest Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Monday 11 April 2011 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stückelberg The optical route to quantum information processing Prof. Terry Rudolph/Imperial College, London Photons are attractive as carriers of quantum information both because they travel, and can thus transmit information, but also because of their good coherence properties and ease in undergoing single-qubit manipulations. The main obstacle to their use in information processing is inducing an effective interaction between them in order to produce entanglement. The most promising approach in photon-based information processing architectures is so-called measurement-based quantum computing. This relies on creating upfront a multi-qubit highly entangled state (the cluster state) which has the remarkable property that, once prepared, it can be used to perform quantum computation by making only single qubit measurements. In this talk I will discuss generically the...

  6. Holistic simulation of geotechnical installation processes numerical and physical modelling

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book provides suitable methods for the simulations of boundary value problems of geotechnical installation processes with reliable prediction for the deformation behavior of structures in static or dynamic interaction with the soil. It summarizes the basic research of a research group from scientists dealing with constitutive relations of soils and their implementations as well as contact element formulations in FE-codes. Numerical and physical experiments are presented providing benchmarks for future developments in this field. Boundary value problems have been formulated and solved with the developed tools in order to show the effectivity of the methods. Parametric studies of geotechnical installation processes in order to identify the governing parameters for the optimization of the process are given in such a way that the findings can be recommended to practice for further use. For many design engineers in practice the assessment of the serviceability of nearby structures due to geotechnical installat...

  7. Physical Properties for Lipids Based Process and Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ana Perederic, Olivia; Kalakul, Sawitree; Sarup, Bent

    Lipid processing covers several oil and fats technologies such as: edible oil production, biodieselproduction, oleochemicals (e.g.: food additives, detergents) and pharmaceutical product manufacturing. New demands regarding design and development of better products and more sustainable processes...... related to lipids technology, emerge according to consumers demanding improved product manufacturing from sustainable resources and new legislation regarding environmental safety [1]. Physical and thermodynamic property data and models for prediction of pure compound properties and mixtures properties...... involving lipids represent the basic and most important requirements for process product design, simulation and optimization. Experimentally measured values of involved compounds are desirable, but in most of the cases these are not available for all the compounds and properties needed. The lack...

  8. An analysis for understanding the process of textual deconstruction as a motivator for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Delia Barrera Jiménez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to analyze the potential of the process of textual understanding and construction, for the development of motivation towards learning in teacher trainees for Preuniversities. In this direction it advocates in the first place, to understand the dynamic relationship established between the process of textual attribution and production and the motivational one, which provides the indispensable condition for promoting the work with the text from all the subjects in the curriculum.

  9. Determining the thermal and physicals properties of oil processing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria I. Kryvda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades both technological process’ improvement and primary energy resources saving are the main tasks of oil refineries. Using various oil products does impose an accurate knowledge of their properties. The dispersion analysis applied makes possible to construct a model simulating the primary oil refining products’ and raw materials’ thermal physical properties. As a result of data approximation there were obtained polynomials with coefficients differing from attributable to the studied oil products fractions. The research represents graphic dependences of thermal physical properties on temperature values for diesel oil fraction. The linear character of density and calorific capacity dependencies from temperature is represented with a proportional error in calculations. The relative minimum error is below 2% that confirms the implemented calculations’ adequacy. The resulting model can be used in calculations for further technological process improvements.

  10. Understanding acoustic physics in oil and gas wellbores with the presence of ubiquitous geometric eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; D'Angelo, Ralph M.; Choi, Gloria; Zhu, Lingchen; Bose, Sandip; Zeroug, Smaine

    2018-04-01

    Once an oil and gas wellbore has been drilled, steel casings and cement slurry are placed to ensure structural support, protection from fluid invasion, and most importantly to provide zonal isolation. The actual wellbore and string structure is rarely concentric but rather is often an eccentric one, especially in deviated boreholes. The term "eccentricity" is used to describe how off-center a casing string is within another pipe or the open-hole. In a typical double-string configuration, the inner casing is eccentered with respect to the outer string which itself is also eccentered within the cylindrical hole. The annuli may or may not be filled with solid cement, and the cement may have liquid-filled channels or be disbonded over localized azimuthal ranges. The complexity of wave propagation along axial intervals is significant in that multiple modes can be excited and detected with characteristics that are affected by the various parameters, including eccentering, in a non-linear fashion. A successful diagnosis of cement flaws largely relies on a thorough understanding of the complex acoustic modal information. The present study employs both modeling and experiments to fully understand the acoustic wave propagation in the complex, fluid-solid nested, cylindrically layered structures, with geometric eccentricities. The experimental results show excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions from newly developed, borehole acoustic modeling approaches. As such, it provides the basis for better understanding the operative wave physics and providing the means for effective inspection methodologies to assess well integrity and zonal isolation of oil wells.

  11. The Effectiveness of the Brain Based Teaching Approach in Enhancing Scientific Understanding of Newtonian Physics among Form Four Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Salmiza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Brain Based Teaching Approach in enhancing students' scientific understanding of Newtonian Physics in the context of Form Four Physics instruction. The technique was implemented based on the Brain Based Learning Principles developed by Caine & Caine (1991, 2003). This brain compatible…

  12. System for measurements and data processing in neutron physics researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadashevich, V.I.; Kondurov, I.A.; Nikolaev, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.F.

    1976-01-01

    A system of measuring and computing means created for automation of studies in the field of the neutron physics is discussed. Within the framework of this system each experiment is provided with its individual measuring station which consists of a set of analog and digital modules implemented in accordance with the CAMAC standard. On the higher level of this system there are measuring-computing centres (MCC) which simultaneously serve a number of physical installations. These MCCs are based on ''Minsk-22'' computers whose computational facilities are used for the preliminary processing and for creation of temporary data archives. In its turn, all the MCCs are users of the time-sharing system on the basis of the ''Minsk-32'' computers. This system extends possibilities for user's fast data processing, archive creation and provides transfer of required information to the main computing system based on the BESM-6 computer. Transfer of information and preliminary processing are performed by remote terminals with the help of a special directive language

  13. A model for understanding and learning of the game process of computer games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    This abstract focuses on the computer game design process in the education of engineers at the university level. We present a model for understanding the different layers in the game design process, and an articulation of their intricate interconnectedness. Our motivation is propelled by our daily...... teaching practice of game design. We have observed a need for a design model that quickly can create an easily understandable overview over something as complex as the design processes of computer games. This posed a problem: how do we present a broad overview of the game design process and at the same...... time make sure that the students learn to act and reflect like game designers? We fell our game design model managed to just that end. Our model entails a guideline for the computer game design process in its entirety, and at same time distributes clear and easy understandable insight to a particular...

  14. Understanding physical (in-) activity, overweight, and obesity in childhood: Effects of congruence between physical self-concept and motor competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utesch, T; Dreiskämper, D; Naul, R; Geukes, K

    2018-04-12

    Both the physical self-concept and actual motor competence are important for healthy future physical activity levels and consequently decrease overweight and obesity in childhood. However, children scoring high on motor competence do not necessarily report high levels of physical self-concept and vice versa, resulting in respective (in-) accuracy also referred to as (non-) veridicality. This study examines whether children's accuracy of physical self-concept is a meaningful predictive factor for their future physical activity. Motor competence, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 3 rd grade and one year later in 4 th grade. Children's weight status was categorized based on WHO recommendations. Polynomial regression with Response surface analyses were conducted with a quasi-DIF approach examining moderating weight status effects. Analyses revealed that children with higher motor competence levels and higher self-perceptions show greater physical activity. Importantly, children who perceive their motor competence more accurately (compared to less) show more future physical activity. This effect is strong for underweight and overweight/obese children, but weak for normal weight children. This study indicates that an accurate self-perception of motor competence fosters future physical activity beyond single main effects, respectively. Hence, the promotion of actual motor competence should be linked with the respective development of accurate self-knowledge.

  15. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: biological, physical and chemical characterization of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Georgakopoulos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest in bioaerosols has traditionally been linked to health hazards for humans, animals and plants. However, several components of bioaerosols exhibit physical properties of great significance for cloud processes, such as ice nucleation and cloud condensation. To gain a better understanding of their influence on climate, it is therefore important to determine the composition, concentration, seasonal fluctuation, regional diversity and evolution of bioaerosols. In this paper, we will review briefly the existing techniques for detection, quantification, physical and chemical analysis of biological particles, attempting to bridge physical, chemical and biological methods for analysis of biological particles and integrate them with aerosol sampling techniques. We will also explore some emerging spectroscopy techniques for bulk and single-particle analysis that have potential for in-situ physical and chemical analysis. Lastly, we will outline open questions and further desired capabilities (e.g., in-situ, sensitive, both broad and selective, on-line, time-resolved, rapid, versatile, cost-effective techniques required prior to comprehensive understanding of chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols.

  16. Everyday discrimination and physical health: Exploring mental health processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Rosenthal, Lisa; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Santilli, Alycia; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-10-01

    Goals of this study were to examine the mental health processes whereby everyday discrimination is associated with physical health outcomes. Data are drawn from a community health survey conducted with 1299 US adults in a low-resource urban area. Frequency of everyday discrimination was associated with overall self-rated health, use of the emergency department, and one or more chronic diseases via stress and depressive symptoms operating in serial mediation. Associations were consistent across members of different racial/ethnic groups and were observed even after controlling for indicators of stressors associated with structural discrimination, including perceived neighborhood unsafety, food insecurity, and financial stress. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. The effect of modularity representation and presentation medium on the understandability of business process models in BPMN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turetken, Oktay; Rompen, Tessa; Vanderfeesten, Irene; Dikici, Ahmet; van Moll, Jan; La Rosa, M.; Loos, P.; Pastor, O.

    2016-01-01

    Many factors influence the creation of understandable business process models for an appropriate audience. Understandability of process models becomes critical particularly when a process is complex and its model is large in structure. Using modularization to represent such models hierarchically

  18. Relativity Based on Physical Processes Rather Than Space-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Albrecht

    2013-09-01

    Physicists' understanding of relativity and the way it is handled is at present dominated by the interpretation of Albert Einstein, who related relativity to specific properties of space and time. The principal alternative to Einstein's interpretation is based on a concept proposed by Hendrik A. Lorentz, which uses knowledge of classical physics to explain relativistic phenomena. In this paper, we will show that on the one hand the Lorentz-based interpretation provides a simpler mathematical way of arriving at the known results for both Special and General Relativity. On the other hand, it is able to solve problems which have remained open to this day. Furthermore, a particle model will be presented, based on Lorentzian relativity, which explains the origin of mass without the use of the Higgs mechanism, based on the finiteness of the speed of light, and which provides the classical results for particle properties that are currently only accessible through quantum mechanics.

  19. Understanding the creative processes of phenomenological research: The life philosophy of Løgstrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Pia; Haahr, Anita; Martinsen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    The creative processes of understanding patients’ experiences in phenomenological research are difficult to articulate. Drawing on life philosophy as represented by the Danish philosopher K.E. Løgstrup (1905–1981), this article aims to illustrate Løgstrup's thinking as a way to elaborate the creation of cognition and understanding of patients’ experiences. We suggest that Løgstrup's thoughts on sensation can add new dimensions to an increased understanding of the creative process of phenomenological research, and that his thinking can be seen as an epistemological ground for these processes. We argue with Løgstrup that sense-based impressions can facilitate an flash of insight, i.e., the spontaneous, intuitive flash of an idea. Løgstrup stresses that an “flash of insight” is an important source in the creation of cognition and understanding. Relating to three empirical phenomenological studies of patients’ experiences, we illustrate how the notions of impression and flash of insight can add new dimensions to increased understanding of the creative processes in phenomenological research that have previously not been discussed. We illustrate that sense-based impressions can facilitate creative flash of insights that open for understanding of patients’ experiences in the research process as well as in the communication of the findings. The nature of impression and flash of insight and their relevance in the creation of cognition and understanding contributes to the sparse descriptions in the methodological phenomenological research literature of the creative processes of this research. An elaboration of the creative processes in phenomenological research can help researchers to articulate these processes. Thus, Løgstrup's life philosophy has proven to be valuable in adding new dimensions to phenomenological empirical research as well as embracing lived experience. PMID:22076123

  20. Understanding the creative processes of phenomenological research: The life philosophy of Løgstrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise Norlyk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The creative processes of understanding patients’ experiences in phenomenological research are difficult to articulate. Drawing on life philosophy as represented by the Danish philosopher K.E. Løgstrup (1905–1981, this article aims to illustrate Løgstrup's thinking as a way to elaborate the creation of cognition and understanding of patients’ experiences. We suggest that Løgstrup's thoughts on sensation can add new dimensions to an increased understanding of the creative process of phenomenological research, and that his thinking can be seen as an epistemological ground for these processes. We argue with Løgstrup that sense-based impressions can facilitate an flash of insight, i.e., the spontaneous, intuitive flash of an idea. Løgstrup stresses that an “flash of insight” is an important source in the creation of cognition and understanding. Relating to three empirical phenomenological studies of patients’ experiences, we illustrate how the notions of impression and flash of insight can add new dimensions to increased understanding of the creative processes in phenomenological research that have previously not been discussed. We illustrate that sense-based impressions can facilitate creative flash of insights that open for understanding of patients’ experiences in the research process as well as in the communication of the findings. The nature of impression and flash of insight and their relevance in the creation of cognition and understanding contributes to the sparse descriptions in the methodological phenomenological research literature of the creative processes of this research. An elaboration of the creative processes in phenomenological research can help researchers to articulate these processes. Thus, Løgstrup's life philosophy has proven to be valuable in adding new dimensions to phenomenological empirical research as well as embracing lived experience.

  1. Understanding the creative processes of phenomenological research: The life philosophy of Løgstrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Dreyer, Pia; Haahr, Anita; Martinsen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    The creative processes of understanding patients' experiences in phenomenological research are difficult to articulate. Drawing on life philosophy as represented by the Danish philosopher K.E. Løgstrup (1905-1981), this article aims to illustrate Løgstrup's thinking as a way to elaborate the creation of cognition and understanding of patients' experiences. We suggest that Løgstrup's thoughts on sensation can add new dimensions to an increased understanding of the creative process of phenomenological research, and that his thinking can be seen as an epistemological ground for these processes. We argue with Løgstrup that sense-based impressions can facilitate an flash of insight, i.e., the spontaneous, intuitive flash of an idea. Løgstrup stresses that an "flash of insight" is an important source in the creation of cognition and understanding. Relating to three empirical phenomenological studies of patients' experiences, we illustrate how the notions of impression and flash of insight can add new dimensions to increased understanding of the creative processes in phenomenological research that have previously not been discussed. We illustrate that sense-based impressions can facilitate creative flash of insights that open for understanding of patients' experiences in the research process as well as in the communication of the findings. The nature of impression and flash of insight and their relevance in the creation of cognition and understanding contributes to the sparse descriptions in the methodological phenomenological research literature of the creative processes of this research. An elaboration of the creative processes in phenomenological research can help researchers to articulate these processes. Thus, Løgstrup's life philosophy has proven to be valuable in adding new dimensions to phenomenological empirical research as well as embracing lived experience.

  2. The Parkinson's experience of group physical activity: Understanding social support, social comparison, physical self-perceptions, and posttraumatic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehy, Tammy L

    2014-01-01

    Group physical activity programs for clinical populations can provide opportunities for adaptive social interactions, improving perceptions of competence, and may facilitate posttraumatic growth (positive psychological changes resulting from traumatic life experiences). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how people with Parkinson's experience social interactions and physical challenges in a group physical activity program, and to investigate what role they think those experie...

  3. A STUDY OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS PROCESSES AT MIDDLE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola I. Sadovyi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the problem of new technology usage for the physics’ experiment in the quantum physics modeling. Currency of investigation consists in the need of physics experiment organization and realization in high energy physics with the consistent usage of activity method in middle education institutions. This kind of method considerably stirs up the process of model usage and modeling, abstracting, idealization and analogy. Idealized objects’ creation, elementary part transmutation, in particular, that does not exist in the objective reality, but possesses definite prototypes in the real world that help in their first approximation to the truth. The program Macromedia Flesh has been used in the article. This program has a range of advantages comparing to other possible software according to their possibilities and usage simplicity. The program uses all kinds of computer graph (raster, vectorial, which gives great opportunities for graphic objects’ creation, and prepared files take minimum of the constant memory. A part of developed experiments of the modeling character is given in the article. Demonstrations are done in dynamic rate.

  4. Influence of wheat kernel physical properties on the pulverizing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Dariusz; Cacak-Pietrzak, Grażyna; Miś, Antoni; Jończyk, Krzysztof; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-10-01

    The physical properties of wheat kernel were determined and related to pulverizing performance by correlation analysis. Nineteen samples of wheat cultivars about similar level of protein content (11.2-12.8 % w.b.) and obtained from organic farming system were used for analysis. The kernel (moisture content 10 % w.b.) was pulverized by using the laboratory hammer mill equipped with round holes 1.0 mm screen. The specific grinding energy ranged from 120 kJkg(-1) to 159 kJkg(-1). On the basis of data obtained many of significant correlations (p kernel physical properties and pulverizing process of wheat kernel, especially wheat kernel hardness index (obtained on the basis of Single Kernel Characterization System) and vitreousness significantly and positively correlated with the grinding energy indices and the mass fraction of coarse particles (> 0.5 mm). Among the kernel mechanical properties determined on the basis of uniaxial compression test only the rapture force was correlated with the impact grinding results. The results showed also positive and significant relationships between kernel ash content and grinding energy requirements. On the basis of wheat physical properties the multiple linear regression was proposed for predicting the average particle size of pulverized kernel.

  5. Physical Model-Based Investigation of Reservoir Sedimentation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is a serious problem in the operations of reservoirs. In Taiwan, the situation became worse after the Chi-Chi Earthquake recorded on 21 September 1999. The sediment trap efficiency in several regional reservoirs has been sharply increased, adversely affecting the operations on water supplies. According to the field record, the average annual sediment deposition observed in several regional reservoirs in Taiwan has been increased. For instance, the typhoon event recorded in 2008 at the Wushe Reservoir, Taiwan, produced a 3 m sediment deposit upstream of the dam. The remaining storage capacity in the Wushe Reservoir was reduced to 35.9% or a volume of 53.79 million m3 for flood water detention in 2010. It is urgent that research should be conducted to understand the sediment movement in the Wushe Reservoir. In this study, a scale physical model was built to reproduce the flood flow through the reservoir, investigate the long-term depositional pattern, and evaluate sediment trap efficiency. This allows us to estimate the residual life of the reservoir by proposing a modification of Brune’s method. It can be presented to predict the lifespan of Taiwan reservoirs due to higher applicability in both the physical model and the observed data.

  6. Process understanding on high shear granulated lactose agglomerates during and after drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwmeyer, F.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    In 2001 the FDA launched the Process Analytical Technology initiative as a response to the growing public and industrial awareness that there is a lack of process understanding required to have an optimal control of pharmaceutical manufacturing. The current research project was initiated based upon

  7. Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers' performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological…

  8. Chemistry teachers’ understanding of science process skills in relation of science process skills assessment in chemistry learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikmah, N.; Yamtinah, S.; Ashadi; Indriyanti, N. Y.

    2018-05-01

    A Science process skill (SPS) is a fundamental scientific method to achieve good knowledge. SPS can be categorized into two levels: basic and integrated. Learning SPS helps children to grow as individuals who can access knowledge and know how to acquire it. The primary outcomes of the scientific process in learning are the application of scientific processes, scientific reasoning, accurate knowledge, problem-solving, and understanding of the relationship between science, technology, society, and everyday life’s events. Teachers’ understanding of SPS is central to the application of SPS in a learning process. Following this point, this study aims to investigate the high school chemistry teachers’ understanding of SPS pertains to their assessment of SPS in chemistry learning. The understanding of SPS is measured from the conceptual and operational aspects of SPS. This research uses qualitative analysis method, and the sample consists of eight chemistry teachers selected by random sampling. A semi-structured interview procedure is used to collect the data. The result of the analysis shows that teachers’ conceptual and operational understanding of SPS is weak. It affects the accuracy and appropriateness of the teacher’s selection of SPS assessment in chemistry learning.

  9. Simulating biological processes: stochastic physics from whole cells to colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Tyler M.; Cole, John A.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2018-05-01

    The last few decades have revealed the living cell to be a crowded spatially heterogeneous space teeming with biomolecules whose concentrations and activities are governed by intrinsically random forces. It is from this randomness, however, that a vast array of precisely timed and intricately coordinated biological functions emerge that give rise to the complex forms and behaviors we see in the biosphere around us. This seemingly paradoxical nature of life has drawn the interest of an increasing number of physicists, and recent years have seen stochastic modeling grow into a major subdiscipline within biological physics. Here we review some of the major advances that have shaped our understanding of stochasticity in biology. We begin with some historical context, outlining a string of important experimental results that motivated the development of stochastic modeling. We then embark upon a fairly rigorous treatment of the simulation methods that are currently available for the treatment of stochastic biological models, with an eye toward comparing and contrasting their realms of applicability, and the care that must be taken when parameterizing them. Following that, we describe how stochasticity impacts several key biological functions, including transcription, translation, ribosome biogenesis, chromosome replication, and metabolism, before considering how the functions may be coupled into a comprehensive model of a ‘minimal cell’. Finally, we close with our expectation for the future of the field, focusing on how mesoscopic stochastic methods may be augmented with atomic-scale molecular modeling approaches in order to understand life across a range of length and time scales.

  10. [Anthropology, ethnography, and narrative: intersecting paths in understanding the processes of health and sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gabriela M C; Gualda, Dulce M R

    2010-12-01

    The article discusses anthropology, ethnographic method, and narrative as possible ways of coming to know subjects' experiences and the feelings they attribute to them. From an anthropological perspective, the sociocultural universe is taken as a point of reference in understanding the meaning of the processes of health and sickness, using a dense ethnographic description from an interpretivist analytical approach. In this context, narratives afford possible paths to understanding how subjective human experiences are shared and how behavior is organized, with a special focus on meaning, the process by which stories are produced, relations between narrator and other subjects, processes of knowledge, and the manifold ways in which experience can be captured.

  11. The treatment process of understanding scientific texts: A necessity in the current Cuban university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet María Guerra Santana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work has as main purpose to emphasize the need for treatment of the process of understanding scientific texts in the university today, for the development of science and technology has placed at the forefront in every race the problem of processing scientific information. The ability to produce scientific texts has been somewhat spontaneity in the curriculum of professional training in Cuban university, which has resulted in some professionals do not yet have linguistic, discursive and strategic " tools " best to communicate the style of science, hence the study of the process of understanding of scientific texts in undergraduate currently constitute a need in our universities.

  12. Evolving Understanding of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Physics and Ambiguity in Probabilistic Sea-Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Robert E.; DeConto, Robert M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Hay, Carling C.; Horton, Radley M.; Kulp, Scott; Oppenheimer, Michael; Pollard, David; Strauss, Benjamin H.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanisms such as ice-shelf hydrofracturing and ice-cliff collapse may rapidly increase discharge from marine-based ice sheets. Here, we link a probabilistic framework for sea-level projections to a small ensemble of Antarctic ice-sheet (AIS) simulations incorporating these physical processes to explore their influence on global-mean sea-level (GMSL) and relative sea-level (RSL). We compare the new projections to past results using expert assessment and structured expert elicitation about AIS changes. Under high greenhouse gas emissions (Representative Concentration Pathway [RCP] 8.5), median projected 21st century GMSL rise increases from 79 to 146 cm. Without protective measures, revised median RSL projections would by 2100 submerge land currently home to 153 million people, an increase of 44 million. The use of a physical model, rather than simple parameterizations assuming constant acceleration of ice loss, increases forcing sensitivity: overlap between the central 90% of simulations for 2100 for RCP 8.5 (93-243 cm) and RCP 2.6 (26-98 cm) is minimal. By 2300, the gap between median GMSL estimates for RCP 8.5 and RCP 2.6 reaches >10 m, with median RSL projections for RCP 8.5 jeopardizing land now occupied by 950 million people (versus 167 million for RCP 2.6). The minimal correlation between the contribution of AIS to GMSL by 2050 and that in 2100 and beyond implies current sea-level observations cannot exclude future extreme outcomes. The sensitivity of post-2050 projections to deeply uncertain physics highlights the need for robust decision and adaptive management frameworks.

  13. Evolving Understanding of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Physics and Ambiguity in Probabilistic Sea-Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Robert E.; DeConto, Robert M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Hay, Carling C.; Horton, Radley M.; Kulp, Scott; Oppenheimer, Michael; Pollard, David; Strauss, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms such as ice-shelf hydrofracturing and ice-cliff collapse may rapidly increase discharge from marine-based ice sheets. Here, we link a probabilistic framework for sea-level projections to a small ensemble of Antarctic ice-sheet (AIS) simulations incorporating these physical processes to explore their influence on global-mean sea-level (GMSL) and relative sea-level (RSL). We compare the new projections to past results using expert assessment and structured expert elicitation about AIS changes. Under high greenhouse gas emissions (Representative Concentration Pathway [RCP] 8.5), median projected 21st century GMSL rise increases from 79 to 146 cm. Without protective measures, revised median RSL projections would by 2100 submerge land currently home to 153 million people, an increase of 44 million. The use of a physical model, rather than simple parameterizations assuming constant acceleration of ice loss, increases forcing sensitivity: overlap between the central 90% of simulations for 2100 for RCP 8.5 (93-243 cm) and RCP 2.6 (26-98 cm) is minimal. By 2300, the gap between median GMSL estimates for RCP 8.5 and RCP 2.6 reaches >10 m, with median RSL projections for RCP 8.5 jeopardizing land now occupied by 950 million people (versus 167 million for RCP 2.6). The minimal correlation between the contribution of AIS to GMSL by 2050 and that in 2100 and beyond implies current sea-level observations cannot exclude future extreme outcomes. The sensitivity of post-2050 projections to deeply uncertain physics highlights the need for robust decision and adaptive management frameworks.

  14. Consistency check of photon beam physical data after recommissioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadman, B; Chawapun, N; Ua-apisitwong, S; Asakit, T; Chumpu, N; Rueansri, J

    2016-01-01

    In radiotherapy, medical linear accelerator (Linac) is the key system used for radiation treatments delivery. Although, recommissioning was recommended after major modification of the machine by AAPM TG53, but it might not be practical in radiotherapy center with heavy workloads. The main purpose of this study was to compare photon beam physical data between initial commissioning and recommissioning of 6 MV Elekta Precise linac. The parameters for comparing were the percentage depth dose (PDD) and beam profiles. The clinical commissioning test cases followed IAEA-TECDOC-1583 were planned on REF 91230 IMRT Dose Verification Phantom by Philips’ Pinnacle treatment planning system. The Delta 4PT was used for dose distribution verification with 90% passing criteria of the gamma index (3%/3mm). Our results revealed that the PDDs and beam profiles agreed within a tolerance limit recommended by TRS430. Most of the point doses and dose distribution verification passed the acceptance criteria. This study showed the consistency of photon beam physical data after recommissioning process. There was a good agreement between initial commissioning and recommissioning within a tolerance limit, demonstrated that the full recommissioning process might not be required. However, in the complex treatment planning geometry, the initial data should be applied with great caution. (paper)

  15. 3D physical modeling for patterning process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Chandra; Abdo, Amr; Bailey, Todd; Conley, Will; Dunn, Derren; Marokkey, Sajan; Talbi, Mohamed

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we will demonstrate how a 3D physical patterning model can act as a forensic tool for OPC and ground-rule development. We discuss examples where the 2D modeling shows no issues in printing gate lines but 3D modeling shows severe resist loss in the middle. In absence of corrective measure, there is a high likelihood of line discontinuity post etch. Such early insight into process limitations of prospective ground rules can be invaluable for early technology development. We will also demonstrate how the root cause of broken poly-line after etch could be traced to resist necking in the region of STI step with the help of 3D models. We discuss different cases of metal and contact layouts where 3D modeling gives an early insight in to technology limitations. In addition such a 3D physical model could be used for early resist evaluation and selection for required ground-rule challenges, which can substantially reduce the cycle time for process development.

  16. Workshop on Processing Physic-Chemistry Advanced – WPPCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In the present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the “2nd Workshop on Processing Physic-Chemistry advanced (WPPCA)”, that was held from, April 4-8, 2016, at the Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), Bucaramanga, Colombia. The proceedings consist of 17 contributions that were presented as plenary talks at the event. The abstracts of all participants contributions were published in the Abstract Book with ISSN 2500-8420. The scientific program of the 2nd WPPCA consisted of 12 Magisterial Conferences, 28 Poster Presentations and 2 Courses with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Spain, Unite States of America, Mexico and Chile. Moreover, the 2nd WPPCA allowed to establish a shared culture of the research and innovation that enriches the area of the processing physical-chemistry of the materials and the industrial applications. All papers in these Proceedings refer to one from the following topics: Semiconductors, Superconductivity, Nanostructure Materials and Modelling, Simulation and Diagnostics. The editor hopes that those interested in the area of the science of materials can to enjoy this reading, that reflects a wide variety of current issues. On behalf of the organizing committee of the 2nd WPPCA, we are extremely thankful to all authors for providing their valuable contributions for these Proceedings as well as the reviewers for their constructive recommendations and criticism aiding to improve the presented articles. Besides, especially we appreciate the great support provided by the Sponsors and Partners. (paper)

  17. "If I had to do it, then I would": Understanding early middle school students' perceptions of physics and physics-related careers by gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily A.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls' and boys' perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and representation in this particular field of science. A theoretical framework based on the literature of girl-friendly and integrated STEM instructional strategies guided this work to understand how instructional strategies may influence and relate to students' perceptions. This convergent parallel mixed-methods study used a survey and focus group interviews to understand similarities and differences between girls' and boys' perceptions. Our findings indicate very few differences between girls and boys, but show that boys are more interested in the physics-related career of engineering. While girls are just as interested in science class as their male counterparts, they highly value the social aspect that often accompanies hands-on group activities. These findings shed light on how K-12 science reform efforts might help to increase the number of women pursuing careers related to physics.

  18. “If I had to do it, then I would”: Understanding early middle school students’ perceptions of physics and physics-related careers by gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Dare

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls’ and boys’ perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and representation in this particular field of science. A theoretical framework based on the literature of girl-friendly and integrated STEM instructional strategies guided this work to understand how instructional strategies may influence and relate to students’ perceptions. This convergent parallel mixed-methods study used a survey and focus group interviews to understand similarities and differences between girls’ and boys’ perceptions. Our findings indicate very few differences between girls and boys, but show that boys are more interested in the physics-related career of engineering. While girls are just as interested in science class as their male counterparts, they highly value the social aspect that often accompanies hands-on group activities. These findings shed light on how K-12 science reform efforts might help to increase the number of women pursuing careers related to physics.

  19. Physics students' approaches to learning and cognitive processes in solving physics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Josee

    This study examined traditional instruction and problem-based learning (PBL) approaches to teaching and the extent to which they foster the development of desirable cognitive processes, including metacognition, critical thinking, physical intuition, and problem solving among undergraduate physics students. The study also examined students' approaches to learning and their perceived role as physics students. The research took place in the context of advanced courses of electromagnetism at a Canadian research university. The cognitive science, expertise, physics and science education, instructional psychology, and discourse processes literature provided the framework and background to conceptualize and structure this study. A within-stage mixed-model design was used and a number of instruments, including a survey, observation grids, and problem sets were developed specifically for this study. A special one-week long problem-based learning (PBL) intervention was also designed. Interviews with the instructors participating in the study provided complementary data. Findings include evidence that students in general engage in metacognitive processes in the organization of their personal study time. However, this potential, including the development of other cognitive processes, might not be stimulated as much as it could in the traditional lecture instructional context. The PBL approach was deemed as more empowering for the students. An unexpected finding came from the realisation that a simple exposure to a structured exercise of problem-solving (pre-test) was sufficient to produce superior planning and solving strategies on a second exposure (post-test) even for the students who had not been exposed to any special treatment. Maturation was ruled out as a potential threat to the validity of this finding. Another promising finding appears to be that the problem-based learning (PBL) intervention tends to foster the development of cognitive competencies, particularly

  20. CLARA: A Contemporary Approach to Physics Data Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V Gyurjyan, D Abbott, J Carbonneau, G Gilfoyle, D Heddle, G Heyes, S Paul, C Timmer, D Weygand, E Wolin

    2011-12-01

    In traditional physics data processing (PDP) systems, data location is static and is accessed by analysis applications. In comparison, CLARA (CLAS12 Reconstruction and Analysis framework) is an environment where data processing algorithms filter continuously flowing data. In CLARA's domain of loosely coupled services, data is not stored, but rather flows from one service to another, mutating constantly along the way. Agents, performing event processing, can then subscribe to particular data/events at any stage of the data transformation, and make intricate decisions (e.g. particle ID) by correlating events from multiple, parallel data streams and/or services. This paper presents a PDP application development framework based on service oriented and event driven architectures. This system allows users to design (Java, C++, and Python languages are supported) and deploy data processing services, as well as dynamically compose PDP applications using available services. The PDP service bus provides a layer on top of a distributed pub-sub middleware implementation, which allows complex service composition and integration without writing code. Examples of service creation and deployment, along with the CLAS12 track reconstruction application design will be presented.

  1. Understanding the Role of Physical Properties of Cellulose on Its Hydrolyzability by Cellulases

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Patrick Jonathan

    Cellulose has long been explored as a potential feedstock for biofuel, however the recalcitrance of cellulose makes its conversion into biofuel much more challenging and economically unfavorable compared to well-established processes for converting starch or sugar feedstocks into biofuel. Enzymes capable of hydrolyzing cellulose into soluble sugars, glucose and cellobiose, have been found to work processively along cellulose microfibrils starting from reducing end groups. For this study, cellulose was produced and purified in-house from Gluconacetobacter xylinum cultures, and characterized by quantifying functional groups (aldehyde, ketone, and carboxyl groups) to determine the extent of oxidation of cellulose due to the processing steps. The main goal of this study was to look at the impacts of ultrasonication on cellulose's structure and the enzymatic hydrolyzability of cellulose. A completely randomized experimental design was used to test the effect of ultrasonication time and amplitude (intensity) on changes in cellulose fibril length, degree of polymerization, and rates and extents of hydrolysis. Results indicated that sonication time does significantly impact both the fibril length and average degree of polymerization of cellulose. The impact of ultrasonication on the hydrolyzability of cellulose by commercial cellulase and beta-glucosidase preparations could not be effectively resolved due to high variability in the experimental results. These studies serve as a basis for future studies understanding the role of cellulose microstructure in the mechanism of cellulase hydrolysis of cellulose.

  2. Teaching Games for Understanding: A Comprehensive Approach to Promote Student's Motivation in Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortigüela Alcalá, David; Hernando Garijo, Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    It seems important to consider students' attitudes towards physical education (PE), and the way they learn sports. The present study examines students' perceptions of motivation and achievement in PE after experiencing three consecutive sport units. Two hundred and thirty seven students from the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade in a high school in Burgos (Spain) and two teachers agreed to participate. They were divided into two groups in order to compare two instructional approaches. The experimental group (A), 128 students, experienced Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), while the control group (B), 109 students, experienced a technical-traditional approach. Each group was taught by a different teacher. The study followed a mixed-method research design with quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interview) data. Results revealed that group A showed greater motivation and achievement in PE than group B. Significant differences were found in achievement. Participants with better academic results in group A were more positive in sport participation. Meanwhile, students who practiced more extracurricular sports in group B were more actively involved in sport. Teachers disagreed greatly on the way sport should be taught in PE.

  3. Understanding the psychosocial and physical work environment in a Singapore medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, G C T; Koh, D

    2007-02-01

    This study aims to understand the physical and psychosocial work environment, expectations and the perceived levels of stress encountered of medical students in Singapore. A cross-sectional study employing a self-administered work environment questionnaire was applied over a one-week period to the entire 2003/2004 medical school cohort (1,069 students, response rate 85 percent) from the first to fifth (final) years at the National University of Singapore. 3.3 percent had at least one needlestick injury within the academic year. The majority (especially the clinical students) also had musculoskeletal complaints (neck and back mainly) within the last three months. Using the General Health Questionnaire, it was found that 49.6 percent encountered significant stress and 64.6 percent reported that more than 60 percent of their total life stress was due to medical school. The most important psychosocial stressors were: too much work and difficulty in coping. The clinical students were particularly concerned about being good medical students and doctors. The reasons for choosing Medicine as a career and social health (health, study and sleep habits) were also studied. The health risks of a medical student are primarily psychosocial in nature. The biggest challenges are work demands, maintaining a work-life balance and managing the psychosocial work environment.

  4. Data-driven multi-scale multi-physics models to derive process-structure-property relationships for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Kafka, Orion L.; Lian, Yanping; Yu, Cheng; Liu, Zeliang; Yan, Jinhui; Wolff, Sarah; Wu, Hao; Ndip-Agbor, Ebot; Mozaffar, Mojtaba; Ehmann, Kornel; Cao, Jian; Wagner, Gregory J.; Liu, Wing Kam

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) possesses appealing potential for manipulating material compositions, structures and properties in end-use products with arbitrary shapes without the need for specialized tooling. Since the physical process is difficult to experimentally measure, numerical modeling is a powerful tool to understand the underlying physical mechanisms. This paper presents our latest work in this regard based on comprehensive material modeling of process-structure-property relationships for AM materials. The numerous influencing factors that emerge from the AM process motivate the need for novel rapid design and optimization approaches. For this, we propose data-mining as an effective solution. Such methods—used in the process-structure, structure-properties and the design phase that connects them—would allow for a design loop for AM processing and materials. We hope this article will provide a road map to enable AM fundamental understanding for the monitoring and advanced diagnostics of AM processing.

  5. Data-driven multi-scale multi-physics models to derive process-structure-property relationships for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Kafka, Orion L.; Lian, Yanping; Yu, Cheng; Liu, Zeliang; Yan, Jinhui; Wolff, Sarah; Wu, Hao; Ndip-Agbor, Ebot; Mozaffar, Mojtaba; Ehmann, Kornel; Cao, Jian; Wagner, Gregory J.; Liu, Wing Kam

    2018-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) possesses appealing potential for manipulating material compositions, structures and properties in end-use products with arbitrary shapes without the need for specialized tooling. Since the physical process is difficult to experimentally measure, numerical modeling is a powerful tool to understand the underlying physical mechanisms. This paper presents our latest work in this regard based on comprehensive material modeling of process-structure-property relationships for AM materials. The numerous influencing factors that emerge from the AM process motivate the need for novel rapid design and optimization approaches. For this, we propose data-mining as an effective solution. Such methods—used in the process-structure, structure-properties and the design phase that connects them—would allow for a design loop for AM processing and materials. We hope this article will provide a road map to enable AM fundamental understanding for the monitoring and advanced diagnostics of AM processing.

  6. Nuclear planetology: understanding planetary mantle and crust formation in the light of nuclear and particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Goetz

    2017-04-01

    The Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram is one of the most important diagrams in astronomy. In a HR diagram, the luminosity of stars and/or stellar remnants (white dwarf stars, WD's), relative to the luminosity of the sun, is plotted versus their surface temperatures (Teff). The Earth shows a striking similarity in size (radius ≈ 6.371 km) and Teff of its outer core surface (Teff ≈ 3800 K at the core-mantle-boundary) with old WD's (radius ≈ 6.300 km) like WD0346+246 (Teff ≈ 3820 K after ≈ 12.7 Ga [1]), which plot in the HR diagram close to the low-mass extension of the stellar population or main sequence. In the light of nuclear planetology [2], Earth-like planets are regarded as old, down-cooled and differentiated black dwarfs (Fe-C BLD's) after massive decompression, the most important nuclear reactions involved being 56Fe(γ,α)52Cr (etc.), possibly responsible for extreme terrestrial glaciations events ("snowball" Earth), together with (γ,n), (γ,p) and fusion reactions like 12C(α,γ)16O. The latter reaction might have caused oxidation of the planet from inside out. Nuclear planetology is a new research field, tightly constrained by a coupled 187Re-232Th-238U systematics [3-5]. By means of nuclear/quantum physics and taking the theory of relativity into account, it aims at understanding the thermal and chemical evolution of Fe-C BLD's after gravitational contraction (e.g. Mercury) or Fermi-pressure controlled collapse (e.g. Earth) events after massive decompression, leading possibly to an r-process event, towards the end of their cooling period [2]. So far and based upon 187Re-232Th-238U nuclear geochronometry, the Fe-C BLD hypothesis can successfully explain the global terrestrial MORB 232Th/238U signature [5]. Thus, it may help to elucidate the DM (depleted mantle), EMI (enriched mantle 1), EMII (enriched mantle 2) or HIMU (high U/Pb) reservoirs [6], and the 187Os/188Os isotopic dichotomy in Archean magmatic rocks and sediments [7]. Here I present a

  7. A Process-Philosophical Understanding of Organizational Learning as "Wayfinding": Process, Practices and Sensitivity to Environmental Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to articulate a practice-based, non-cognitivist approach to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: This paper explores the potential contribution of a process-based "practice turn" in social theory for understanding organizational learning. Findings: In complex, turbulent environments, robust…

  8. Six sigma: process of understanding the control and capability of ranitidine hydrochloride tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabukswar, Ar; Jagdale, Sc; Kuchekar, Bs; Joshi, Vd; Deshmukh, Gr; Kothawade, Hs; Kuckekar, Ab; Lokhande, Pd

    2011-01-01

    The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product.

  9. Physical Processes Involved In Yellow Sea Solitary Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warn-Varnas, A.; Chin-Bing, S.; King, D.; Lamb, K.; Hawkins, J.; Teixeira, M.

    The study area is located south of the Shandong peninsula. In this area, soliton gener- ation and propagation studies are per formed with the Lamb(1994) model. The model is nonhydrostatic and is formulated in 2 1/2 dimensions for terrain following c oordi- nates. In the area, 20 to 30 m topographic variations over distances of 10 to 20 km are found to occur in the digit al atlas of Choi (1999). The area is shallow with maximum depths ranging from 40 m to 70 m. Along the southern boundary of the region the semi-diurnal tidal strength magnitude varies from .6 m/sec to 1.2 m/sec, Fang(1994). We show that, for sum mer conditions, the existing physical processes associated with the semi-diurnal tidal flow over the topographic variations , in the shelfbreak region, lead to the formation of internal bores in the model simulations. Through acting phys- ical proce sses, the internal bores propagate on and off the shelf. A disintegration process of internal bores into solitary waves occ urs through frequency and ampli- tude dispersion. SAR observations of the area show images containing six events con- sisting of internal bores and solitary waves that travel in a well-defined direction for two and a half days. The origin of the trains appeared to be at a point along a steep topo graphic drop. The SAR observations are used for guiding and tuning the model simulations, by comparing spectra of observed and modeled wavelengths. The tuned model yields wavelengths that are within a factor of 2 of the SAR data. The modeled amp litudes are within a factor of 2 of amplitudes obtained with a two-layer model and the SAR data The signature on the acoustical field of ongoing physical processes through the interaction of the resultant oceanic struct ure with the acoustical field is pursued. Internal bore and solitary wave structures interact with the acoustic field. A re distribution of acoustical energy to higher acoustical modes occurs at some fre- quencies. Mode decomposition of the

  10. Impact of physical permafrost processes on hydrological change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Stefan; Blome, Tanja; Beer, Christian; Ekici, Altug

    2015-04-01

    Permafrost or perennially frozen ground is an important part of the terrestrial cryosphere; roughly one quarter of Earth's land surface is underlain by permafrost. As it is a thermal phenomenon, its characteristics are highly dependent on climatic factors. The impact of the currently observed warming, which is projected to persist during the coming decades due to anthropogenic CO2 input, certainly has effects for the vast permafrost areas of the high northern latitudes. The quantification of these effects, however, is scientifically still an open question. This is partly due to the complexity of the system, where several feedbacks are interacting between land and atmosphere, sometimes counterbalancing each other. Moreover, until recently, many global circulation models (GCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs) lacked the sufficient representation of permafrost physics in their land surface schemes. Within the European Union FP7 project PAGE21, the land surface scheme JSBACH of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology ESM (MPI-ESM) has been equipped with the representation of relevant physical processes for permafrost studies. These processes include the effects of freezing and thawing of soil water for both energy and water cycles, thermal properties depending on soil water and ice contents, and soil moisture movement being influenced by the presence of soil ice. In the present study, it will be analysed how these permafrost relevant processes impact projected hydrological changes over northern hemisphere high latitude land areas. For this analysis, the atmosphere-land part of MPI-ESM, ECHAM6-JSBACH, is driven by prescribed SST and sea ice in an AMIP2-type setup with and without the newly implemented permafrost processes. Observed SST and sea ice for 1979-1999 are used to consider induced changes in the simulated hydrological cycle. In addition, simulated SST and sea ice are taken from a MPI-ESM simulation conducted for CMIP5 following the RCP8.5 scenario. The

  11. The Influence of Toy Design Activities on Middle School Students' Understanding of the Engineering Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ninger; Pereira, Nielsen L.; George, Tarun Thomas; Alperovich, Jeffrey; Booth, Joran; Chandrasegaran, Senthil; Tew, Jeffrey David; Kulkarni, Devadatta M.; Ramani, Karthik

    2017-10-01

    The societal demand for inspiring and engaging science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students and preparing our workforce for the emerging creative economy has necessitated developing students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes from as early as elementary school levels. Hands-on engineering design activities have shown the potential to promote middle school students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes. However, traditional classrooms often lack hands-on engineering design experiences, leaving students unprepared to solve real-world design problems. In this study, we introduce the framework of a toy design workshop and investigate the influence of the workshop activities on students' understanding of and self-efficacy beliefs in engineering design. Using a mixed method approach, we conducted quantitative analyses to show changes in students' engineering design self-efficacy and qualitative analyses to identify students' understanding of the engineering design processes. Findings show that among the 24 participants, there is a significant increase in students' self-efficacy beliefs after attending the workshop. We also identified major themes such as design goals and prototyping in students' understanding of engineering design processes. This research provides insights into the key elements of middle school students' engineering design learning and the benefits of engaging middle school students in hands-on toy design workshops.

  12. Using process elicitation and validation to understand and improve chemotherapy ordering and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Wilson C; Christov, Stefan C; Avrunin, George S; Clarke, Lori A; Osterweil, Leon J; Cassells, Lucinda J; Marquard, Jenna L

    2012-11-01

    Chemotherapy ordering and administration, in which errors have potentially severe consequences, was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated by employing process formalism (or formal process definition), a technique derived from software engineering, to elicit and rigorously describe the process, after which validation techniques were applied to confirm the accuracy of the described process. The chemotherapy ordering and administration process, including exceptional situations and individuals' recognition of and responses to those situations, was elicited through informal, unstructured interviews with members of an interdisciplinary team. The process description (or process definition), written in a notation developed for software quality assessment purposes, guided process validation (which consisted of direct observations and semistructured interviews to confirm the elicited details for the treatment plan portion of the process). The overall process definition yielded 467 steps; 207 steps (44%) were dedicated to handling 59 exceptional situations. Validation yielded 82 unique process events (35 new expected but not yet described steps, 16 new exceptional situations, and 31 new steps in response to exceptional situations). Process participants actively altered the process as ambiguities and conflicts were discovered by the elicitation and validation components of the study. Chemotherapy error rates declined significantly during and after the project, which was conducted from October 2007 through August 2008. Each elicitation method and the subsequent validation discussions contributed uniquely to understanding the chemotherapy treatment plan review process, supporting rapid adoption of changes, improved communication regarding the process, and ensuing error reduction.

  13. Oxygen diffusion in soils: Understanding the factors and processes needed for modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Neira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen is an important element for plant growth. Reducing its concentration in the soil affects plant physiological processes such as nutrient and water uptake as well as respiration, the redox potential of soil elements and the activity of microorganisms. The main mechanism of oxygen transport in the soil is by diffusion, a dynamic process greatly influenced by soil physical properties such as texture and structure, conditioning, pore size distribution, tortuosity and connectivity. Organic matter is a modifying agent of the soil's chemical and physical properties, affecting its structure and the porous matrix, which are determinants of oxygen transport. This study reviews the theory of soil gas diffusion and the effect of soil organic matter on the soil's physical properties and transport of gases. It also reviews gas diffusion models, particularly those including the effect of soil organic matter.

  14. Corrosion processes of physical vapor deposition-coated metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Renato Altobelli; de Oliveira, Mara Cristina Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Protecting metallic implants from the harsh environment of physiological fluids is essential to guaranteeing successful long-term use in a patient's body. Chemical degradation may lead to the failure of an implant device in two different ways. First, metal ions may cause inflammatory reactions in the tissues surrounding the implant and, in extreme cases, these reactions may inflict acute pain on the patient and lead to loosening of the device. Therefore, increasing wear strength is beneficial to the performance of the metallic implant. Second, localized corrosion processes contribute to the nucleation of fatigue cracks, and corrosion fatigue is the main reason for the mechanical failure of metallic implants. Common biomedical alloys such as stainless steel, cobalt-chrome alloys, and titanium alloys are prone to at least one of these problems. Vapor-deposited hard coatings act directly to improve corrosion, wear, and fatigue resistances of metallic materials. The effectiveness of the corrosion protection is strongly related to the structure of the physical vapor deposition layer. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of the correlation between the structure of physical vapor deposition layers and the corrosion properties of metallic implants.

  15. A physical process of the radial acceleration of disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Klaus; Dwivedi, Bhola N.

    2018-03-01

    An impact model of gravity designed to emulate Newton's law of gravitation is applied to the radial acceleration of disc galaxies. Based on this model (Wilhelm et al. 2013), the rotation velocity curves can be understood without the need to postulate any dark matter contribution. The increased acceleration in the plane of the disc is a consequence of multiple interactions of gravitons (called `quadrupoles' in the original paper) and the subsequent propagation in this plane and not in three-dimensional space. The concept provides a physical process that relates the fit parameter of the acceleration scale defined by McGaugh et al. (2016) to the mean free path length of gravitons in the discs of galaxies. It may also explain the gravitational interaction at low acceleration levels in MOdification of the Newtonian Dynamics (MOND, Milgrom 1983, 1994, 2015, 2016). Three examples are discussed in some detail: the spiral galaxies NGC 7814, NGC 6503 and M 33.

  16. Kinetics of Thermally Activated Physical Processes in Disordered Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Poumellec

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a framework for modeling the writing and erasure of thermally-distributed activated processes that we can specifically apply to UV-induced refractive index change, particularly in fibers. From experimental measurements (isochrons and/or isotherms, this framework allows to find the distribution function of the activation energy by providing only a constant, which can be determined by a simple variable change when a few assumptions are fulfilled. From this modeling, it is possible to know the complete evolution in time of the system. It is also possible to determine the annealing conditions for extending a lifetime. This approach can also be used for other physical quantities, such as photodarkening, stress relaxation, and luminescence decay, provided that it can be described by a distribution function.

  17. Application of physical separation techniques in uranium resources processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, N.P.H.; Sreenivas, T.

    2008-01-01

    The planned economic growth of our country and energy security considerations call for increasing the overall electricity generating capabilities with substantial increase in the zero-carbon and clean nuclear power component. Although India is endowed with vast resources of thorium, its utilization can commence only after the successful completion of the first two stages of nuclear power programme, which use natural uranium in the first stage and natural uranium plus plutonium in the second stage. For the successful operation of first stage, exploration and exploitation activities for uranium should be vigorously followed. This paper reviews the current status of physical beneficiation in processing of uranium ores and discusses its applicability to recover uranium from low grade and below-cut-off grade ores in Indian context. (author)

  18. "Quod Erat Demonstrandum": Understanding and Explaining Equations in Physics Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Krey, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    In physics education, equations are commonly seen as calculation tools to solve problems or as concise descriptions of experimental regularities. In physical science, however, equations often play a much more important role associated with the formulation of theories to provide explanations for physical phenomena. In order to overcome this…

  19. Applying Self-Determination Theory to Understand the Motivation for Becoming a Physical Education Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Michael; Jackson, Kevin; Casey, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the reasons people choose physical education teaching as a profession and investigated the relationship of these choices with motivation. Physical education pre-service teachers (n = 324) completed the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) and a measure of reasons for choosing physical education teaching. Confident interpersonal…

  20. Understanding Factors Associated with Children's Motivation to Engage in Recess-Time Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrat, Merav W.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is linked with health and academic benefits. While recess provides the greatest opportunity for children to accumulate physical activity, most children are not motivated to engage in sufficient amounts of physical activity during recess. Research demonstrates a strong relationship between self-efficacy and children's motivation…

  1. Hands-On Experiments in the Interactive Physics Laboratory: Students' Intrinsic Motivation and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snetinová, Marie; Kácovský, Petr; Machalická, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Experiments in different forms can certainly be suitable tools for increasing student interest in physics. However, educators continuously discuss which forms of experimenting (if any) are the most beneficial for these purposes. At the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague, two different forms of physics experiments are…

  2. Transforming the Learning Environment of Undergraduate Physics Laboratories to Enhance Physics Inquiry Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns persist regarding the lack of promotion of students’ scientific inquiry processes in undergraduate physics laboratories. The consensus in the literature is that, especially in the early years of undergraduate physics programs, students’ laboratory work is characterized by recipe type, step-by-step instructions for activities where the aim is often confirmation of an already well-established physics principle or concept. In response to evidence reflecting these concerns at their university, the authors successfully secured funding for this study. A mixed-method design was employed. In the 2011/2012 academic year baseline data were collected. A quantitative survey, the Undergraduate Physics Laboratory Learning Environment Scale (UPLLES was developed, validated, and used to explore students’ perceptions of their physics laboratory environments. Analysis of data from the UPLLES and from interviews confirmed the concerns evident in the literature and in a previous evaluation of laboratories undertaken in 2002. To address these concerns the activities that students were to perform in the laboratory section of the course/s were re/designed to engage students in more inquiry oriented thinking and activity. In Fall 2012, the newly developed laboratory activities and tutorials, were implemented for the first time in PHYS124; a first year course. These changes were accompanied by structured training of teaching assistants and changes to the structure of the evaluation of students’ laboratory performance. At the end of that term the UPLLES was administered (n = 266 and interviews with students conducted (n = 16 to explore their perceptions of their laboratory environments. Statistically significant differences (p<.001 between the students in the PHYS 124 classes of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 across all dimensions were found. Effect sizes of 0.82 to 1.3, between the views of students in the first semester physics classes of 2011/2012 and 2012

  3. Physical processes in high field insulating liquid conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarakis, Michael; Kiefer, Mark; Leckbee, Joshua; Anderson, Delmar; Wilkins, Frank; Obregon, Robert

    2017-10-01

    In the power grid transmission where a large amount of energy is transmitted to long distances, High Voltage DC (HVDC) transmission of up to 1MV becomes more attractive since is more efficient than the counterpart AC. However, two of the most difficult problems to solve are the cable connections to the high voltage power sources and their insulation from the ground. The insulating systems are usually composed of transformer oil and solid insulators. The oil behavior under HVDC is similar to that of a weak electrolyte. Its behavior under HVDC is dominated more by conductivity than dielectric constant. Space charge effects in the oil bulk near high voltage electrodes and impeded plastic insulators affect the voltage oil hold-off. We have constructed an experimental facility where we study the oil and plastic insulator behavior in an actual HVDC System. Experimental results will be presented and compared with the present understanding of the physics governing the oil behavior under very high electrical stresses. Sandia National Laboratories managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. D.O.E., NNSA under contract DE-NA-0003525.

  4. Understanding the Perception of Very Small Software Companies towards the Adoption of Process Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Shuib; O'Connor, Rory V.

    This paper is concerned with understanding the issues that affect the adoption of software process standards by Very Small Entities (VSEs), their needs from process standards and their willingness to engage with the new ISO/IEC 29110 standard in particular. In order to achieve this goal, a series of industry data collection studies were undertaken with a collection of VSEs. A twin track approach of a qualitative data collection (interviews and focus groups) and quantitative data collection (questionnaire) were undertaken. Data analysis was being completed separately and the final results were merged, using the coding mechanisms of grounded theory. This paper serves as a roadmap for both researchers wishing to understand the issues of process standards adoption by very small companies and also for the software process standards community.

  5. Macrosystems ecology: novel methods and new understanding of multi-scale patterns and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Qinfeng Guo; Kevin Potter

    2016-01-01

    As the global biomes are increasingly threatened by human activities, understanding of macroscale patterns and processes is pressingly needed for effective management and policy making. Macrosystems ecology, which studies multiscale ecologicalpatterns and processes, has gained growing interest in the research community. However, as a relatively new field in...

  6. An investigation of meaningful understanding and effectiveness of the implementation of Piagetian and Ausubelian theories in physics instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen Ann

    One section of college students (N = 25) enrolled in an algebra-based physics course was selected for a Piagetian-based learning cycle (LC) treatment while a second section (N = 25) studied in an Ausubelian-based meaningful verbal reception learning treatment (MVRL). This study examined the students' overall (concept + problem solving + mental model) meaningful understanding of force, density/Archimedes Principle, and heat. Also examined were students' meaningful understanding as measured by conceptual questions, problems, and mental models. In addition, students' learning orientations were examined. There were no significant posttest differences between the LC and MVRL groups for students' meaningful understanding or learning orientation. Piagetian and Ausubelian theories explain meaningful understanding for each treatment. Students from each treatment increased their meaningful understanding. However, neither group altered their learning orientation. The results of meaningful understanding as measured by conceptual questions, problem solving, and mental models were mixed. Differences were attributed to the weaknesses and strengths of each treatment. This research also examined four variables (treatment, reasoning ability, learning orientation, and prior knowledge) to find which best predicted students' overall meaningful understanding of physics concepts. None of these variables were significant predictors at the.05 level. However, when the same variables were used to predict students' specific understanding (i.e. concept, problem solving, or mental model understanding), the results were mixed. For forces and density/Archimedes Principle, prior knowledge and reasoning ability significantly predicted students' conceptual understanding. For heat, however, reasoning ability was the only significant predictor of concept understanding. Reasoning ability and treatment were significant predictors of students' problem solving for heat and forces. For density

  7. Understanding the Flow Physics of Shock Boundary-Layer Interactions Using CFD and Numerical Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses of the University of Michigan (UM) Shock/Boundary-Layer Interaction (SBLI) experiments were performed as an extension of the CFD SBLI Workshop held at the 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting in 2010. In particular, the UM Mach 2.75 Glass Tunnel with a semi-spanning 7.75deg wedge was analyzed in attempts to explore key physics pertinent to SBLI's, including thermodynamic and viscous boundary conditions as well as turbulence modeling. Most of the analyses were 3D CFD simulations using the OVERFLOW flow solver, with additional quasi-1D simulations performed with an in house MATLAB code interfacing with the NIST REFPROP code to explore perfect verses non-ideal air. A fundamental exploration pertaining to the effects of particle image velocimetry (PIV) on post-processing data is also shown. Results from the CFD simulations showed an improvement in agreement with experimental data with key contributions including adding a laminar zone upstream of the wedge and the necessity of mimicking PIV particle lag for comparisons. Results from the quasi-1D simulation showed that there was little difference between perfect and non-ideal air for the configuration presented.

  8. How Pre-Service Teachers' Understand and Perform Science Process Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    This study explored pre-service teachers' conceptual understanding and performance on science process skills. A sample comprised 91 elementary pre-service teachers at a university in the Midwest of the USA. Participants were enrolled in two science education courses; introductory science teaching methods course and advanced science methods course.…

  9. A soil-landscape framework for understanding spatial and temporal variability in biogeochemical processes in catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, K. J.; Bailey, S. W.; Ross, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    Heterogeneity in biophysical properties within catchments challenges how we quantify and characterize biogeochemical processes and interpret catchment outputs. Interactions between the spatiotemporal variability of hydrological states and fluxes and soil development can spatially structure catchments, leading to a framework for understanding patterns in biogeochemical processes. In an upland, glaciated landscape at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in New Hampshire, USA, we are embracing the structure and organization of soils to understand the spatial relations between runoff production zones, distinct soil-biogeochemical environments, and solute retention and release. This presentation will use observations from the HBEF to demonstrate that a soil-landscape framework is essential in understanding the spatial and temporal variability of biogeochemical processes in this catchment. Specific examples will include how laterally developed soils reveal the location of active runoff production zones and lead to gradients in primary mineral dissolution and the distribution of weathering products along hillslopes. Soil development patterns also highlight potential carbon and nitrogen cycling hotspots, differentiate acidic conditions, and affect the regulation of surface water quality. Overall, this work demonstrates the importance of understanding the landscape-level structural organization of soils in characterizing the variation and extent of biogeochemical processes that occur in catchments.

  10. Understanding Craftsman’s Creativity in a Framework of Person, Process, Product and Press (4Ps)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Chunfang; Tanggaard, Lene

    2016-01-01

    , Process, Product, and Press (4Ps) This research question drives to develop a theoretical study bridging two areas of creativity and craftsman’s work. This will further indicate craftsman’s working practice is full of complexity that stimulates creative behavior and that also requires a systematic view...... to understand craftsman’s creativity as involving interaction between 4Ps....

  11. Understanding a Basic Biological Process: Expert and Novice Models of Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    The results of a study of the meiosis models utilized by individuals at varying levels of expertise while reasoning about the process of meiosis are presented. Based on these results, the issues of sources of misconceptions/difficulties and the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis are discussed. Five individuals from each of three…

  12. Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of…

  13. Understanding Customer Product Choices: A Case Study Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Robert J. Bush; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1996-01-01

    The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to characterize the bridge material selection decisions of highway officials across the United States. Understanding product choices by utilizing the AHP allowed us to develop strategies for increasing the use of timber in bridge construction. State Department of Transportation engineers, private consulting engineers, and...

  14. Understanding Reactions to Workplace Injustice through Process Theories of Motivation: A Teaching Module and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Mary D.; Rosse, Joseph G.

    2007-01-01

    Management and organizational behavior students are often overwhelmed by the plethora of motivation theories they must master at the undergraduate level. This article offers a teaching module geared toward helping students understand how two major process theories of motivation, equity and expectancy theories and theories of organizational…

  15. Utilizing the Theoretical Framework of Collective Identity to Understand Processes in Youth Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futch, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores collective identity as a useful theoretical framework for understanding social and developmental processes that occur in youth programs. Through narrative analysis of past participant interviews (n = 21) from an after-school theater program, known as "The SOURCE", it was found that participants very clearly describe…

  16. Elementary Education Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Biotechnology and Its Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study examined preservice teachers' understanding of biotechnology and its related processes. A sample comprised 88 elementary education preservice teachers at a large university in the Midwest of the USA. A total of 60 and 28 of the participants were enrolled in introductory and advanced science methods courses, respectively. Most…

  17. The Effect of Biotechnology Education on Australian High School Students' Understandings and Attitudes about Biotechnology Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents' understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from…

  18. Higher-level processes in the formation and application of associations during action understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heil, L.; Pelt, S. van; Kwisthout, J.H.P.; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van; Bekkering, H.

    2014-01-01

    The associative account described in the target article provides a viable explanation for the origin of mirror neurons. We argue here that if mirror neurons develop purely by associative learning, then they cannot by themselves explain intentional action understanding. Higher-level processes seem to

  19. Understanding Patients' Process to Use Medical Marijuana: A Southern New Jersey Community Engagement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Tara L

    2016-09-01

    Given the necessity to better understand the process patients need to go through in order to seek treatment via medical marijuana, this study investigates this process to better understand this phenomenon. Specifically, Compassion Care Foundation (CCF) and Stockton University worked together to identify a solution to this problem. Specifically, 240 new patients at CCF were asked to complete a 1-page survey regarding various aspects associated with their experience prior to their use of medicinal marijuana-diagnosis, what prompted them to seek treatment, level of satisfaction with specific stages in the process, total length of time the process took, and patient's level of pain. Results reveal numerous patient diagnoses for which medical marijuana is being prescribed; the top 4 most common are intractable skeletal spasticity, chronic and severe pain, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Next, results indicate a little over half of the patients were first prompted to seek alternative treatment from their physicians, while the remaining patients indicated that other sources such as written information along with friends, relatives, media, and the Internet persuaded them to seek treatment. These data indicate that a variety of sources play a role in prompting patients to seek alternative treatment and is a critical first step in this process. Additional results posit that once patients began the process of qualifying to receive medical marijuana as treatment, the process seemed more positive even though it takes patients on average almost 6 months to obtain their first treatment after they started the process. Finally, results indicate that patients are reporting a moderately high level of pain prior to treatment. Implication of these results highlights several important elements in the patients' initial steps toward seeking medical marijuana, along with the quality and quantity of the process patients must engage in prior to obtaining treatment. In

  20. Laboratory simulations of planetary surfaces: Understanding regolith physical properties from remote photopolarimetric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert M.; Boryta, Mark D.; Hapke, Bruce W.; Manatt, Kenneth S.; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Psarev, V.; Vandervoort, Kurt; Kroner, Desire; Nebedum, Adaze; Vides, Christina L.; Quiñones, John

    2018-03-01

    We present reflectance and polarization phase curve measurements of highly reflective planetary regolith analogues having physical characteristics expected on atmosphereless solar system bodies (ASSBs) such as a eucritic asteroids or icy satellites. We used a goniometric photopolarimeter (GPP) of novel design to study thirteen well-sorted particle size fractions of aluminum oxide (Al2O3). The sample suite included particle sizes larger than, approximately equal to, and smaller than the wavelength of the incident monochromatic radiation (λ = 635 nm). The observed phase angle, α, was 0.056 o ∼95%). The incident radiation has a very high probability of being multiply scattered before being backscattered toward the incident direction or ultimately absorbed. The five smallest particle sizes exhibited extremely high void space (> ∼95%). The reflectance phase curves for all particle size fractions show a pronounced non-linear reflectance increase with decreasing phase angle at α∼ ∼1 we detect no polarization. This polarization behavior is distinct from that observed in low albedo solar system objects such as the Moon and asteroids and for absorbing materials in the laboratory. We suggest this behavior arises because photons that are backscattered have a high probability of having interacted with two or more particles, thus giving rise to the CB process. These results may explain the unusual negative polarization behavior observed near small phase angles reported for several decades on highly reflective ASSBs such as the asteroids 44 Nysa, 64 Angelina and the Galilean satellites Io, Europa and Ganymede. Our results suggest these ASSB regoliths scatter electromagnetic radiation as if they were extremely fine grained with void space > ∼95%, and grain sizes of the order geo-engineering, particularly to suggestions that earth's radiation balance can be modified by injecting Al2O3 particulates into the stratosphere thereby offsetting the effect of anthropogenic

  1. Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of influence, probing the conditions under which influence is amplified/attenuated (moderators), testing theoretically based models of peer influence processes (mechanisms), and preliminary exploration of behavioral neuroscience perspectives on peer influence. This review highlights advances in each of these areas, underscores gaps in current knowledge of peer influence processes, and outlines important challenges for future research. PMID:23730122

  2. Understanding the Role of Water on Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Bruce C [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colson, Steven D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dixon, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Laufer, Allan H [US Department of Energy Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences; Ray, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2003-06-10

    On September 26–28, 2002, a workshop entitled “Understanding the Role of Water on Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry” was held to assess new research opportunities in electron-driven processes and radical chemistry in aqueous systems. Of particular interest was the unique and complex role that the structure of water plays in influencing these processes. Novel experimental and theoretical approaches to solving long-standing problems in the field were explored. A broad selection of participants from universities and the national laboratories contributed to the workshop, which included scientific and technical presentations and parallel sessions for discussions and report writing.

  3. Understanding the Nature of Measurement Error When Estimating Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity via Physical Activity Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, David R; McGrath, Ryan; Vella, Chantal A; Kramer, Matthew; Baer, David J; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2018-03-26

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) is used to estimate activity energy expenditure (AEE) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Bias and variance in estimates of AEE and MVPA from the PAQ have not been described, nor the impact of measurement error when utilizing the PAQ to predict biomarkers and categorize individuals. The PAQ was administered to 385 adults to estimate AEE (AEE:PAQ) and MVPA (MVPA:PAQ), while simultaneously measuring AEE with doubly labeled water (DLW; AEE:DLW) and MVPA with an accelerometer (MVPA:A). Although AEE:PAQ [3.4 (2.2) MJ·d -1 ] was not significantly different from AEE:DLW [3.6 (1.6) MJ·d -1 ; P > .14], MVPA:PAQ [36.2 (24.4) min·d -1 ] was significantly higher than MVPA:A [8.0 (10.4) min·d -1 ; P PAQ regressed on AEE:DLW and MVPA:PAQ regressed on MVPA:A yielded not only significant positive relationships but also large residual variances. The relationships between AEE and MVPA, and 10 of the 12 biomarkers were underestimated by the PAQ. When compared with accelerometers, the PAQ overestimated the number of participants who met the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Group-level bias in AEE:PAQ was small, but large for MVPA:PAQ. Poor within-participant estimates of AEE:PAQ and MVPA:PAQ lead to attenuated relationships with biomarkers and misclassifications of participants who met or who did not meet the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.

  4. Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: Examining information processing among young women with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E.; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. Objective The purpose of this paper is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Methods Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semi-structured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by five dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. Results In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Conclusion Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women’s information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care. PMID:24552086

  5. Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: examining information processing among young women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. The purpose of this article is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semistructured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by 5 dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women's information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care.

  6. Enhanced process understanding and multivariate prediction of the relationship between cell culture process and monoclonal antibody quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Michael; Ritscher, Jonathan; MacKinnon, Nicola; Souquet, Jonathan; Broly, Hervé; Morbidelli, Massimo; Butté, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    This work investigates the insights and understanding which can be deduced from predictive process models for the product quality of a monoclonal antibody based on designed high-throughput cell culture experiments performed at milliliter (ambr-15 ® ) scale. The investigated process conditions include various media supplements as well as pH and temperature shifts applied during the process. First, principal component analysis (PCA) is used to show the strong correlation characteristics among the product quality attributes including aggregates, fragments, charge variants, and glycans. Then, partial least square regression (PLS1 and PLS2) is applied to predict the product quality variables based on process information (one by one or simultaneously). The comparison of those two modeling techniques shows that a single (PLS2) model is capable of revealing the interrelationship of the process characteristics to the large set product quality variables. In order to show the dynamic evolution of the process predictability separate models are defined at different time points showing that several product quality attributes are mainly driven by the media composition and, hence, can be decently predicted from early on in the process, while others are strongly affected by process parameter changes during the process. Finally, by coupling the PLS2 models with a genetic algorithm first the model performance can be further improved and, most importantly, the interpretation of the large-dimensioned process-product-interrelationship can be significantly simplified. The generally applicable toolset presented in this case study provides a solid basis for decision making and process optimization throughout process development. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1368-1380, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. The Effect of Using Virtual Laboratory on Grade 10 Students' Conceptual Understanding and Their Attitudes towards Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faour, Malak Abou; Ayoubi, Zalpha

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using (VL) on grade 10 students' conceptual understanding of the direct current electric circuit and their attitudes towards physics. The research used a quantitative experimental approach. The sample of the study was formed of 50 students of the tenth grade, aged 14 to 16 years old, of an official secondary…

  8. Virtual Physics Laboratory Application Based on the Android Smartphone to Improve Learning Independence and Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arista, Fitra Suci; Kuswanto, Heru

    2018-01-01

    The research study concerned here was to: (1) produce a virtual physics laboratory application to be called ViPhyLab by using the Android smartphone as basis; (2) determine the appropriateness and quality of the virtual physics laboratory application that had been developed; and (3) describe the improvement in learning independence and conceptual…

  9. One-to-One Mobile Technology in High School Physics Classrooms: Understanding Its Use and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaoming; Zhang, Meilan; Li, Min

    2018-01-01

    This study examined ways in which high school students used mobile devices in physics classrooms and after school, and the impact of in-class and after-school mobile technology use on their physics learning performance and interest. We collected data from 803 high school freshmen in China after they had used mobile devices for over five months. A…

  10. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Difficulties in Understanding Special Relativity Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü Yavas, Pervin; Kizilcik, Hasan Sahin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the reasons why pre-service physics teachers have difficulties related to special relativity topics. In this study conducted with 25 pre-service physics teachers, the case study method, which is a qualitative research method, was used. Interviews were held with the participants about their reasons for…

  11. Understanding the formation process of exceptionally long fullerene-based nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Geng, Junfeng; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2009-01-01

    solution of C$_60$. We have performed a thorough theoretical analysis, aiming at gaining an in-depth understanding of the exceptionally large aspect ratio of C$_60$-based nanowires. By accounting for different interactions in the system we have calculated the structures of the unit cell and determined...... the role of the fullerene and of the solvent molecules in the crystallization process of the nanowires. We have calculated the adhesion energy of C$_60$ molecules to the nanowire surface, and on the basis of this explained the growth anisotropy of the crystal. To get a more profound understanding...

  12. Understanding Middle School Students' Perceptions of Physics Using Girl-Friendly and Integrated STEM Strategies: A Gender Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily Anna

    According to the American Physical Society, women accounted for only 20% of bachelor's degrees in the fields of physics and engineering in 2010. This low percentage is likely related to young girls' K-12 education experiences, particularly their experiences prior to high school, during which time young women's perceptions of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) and STEM careers are formed (Catsambis, 1995; Maltese & Tai, 2011; National Research Council, 2012; Sadler, Sonnert, Hazari, & Tai, 2012; Tai, Liu, Maltese, & Fan, 2006; Scantlebury, 2014; Sikora & Pokropek, 2012). There are no significant gender differences in academic achievement in middle school, yet young women have less positive attitudes towards careers in science than their male peers (Catsambis, 1995; Scantlebury, 2014). This suggests that the low female representation in certain STEM fields is a result of not their abilities, but their perceptions; for fields like physics where negative perceptions persist (Haussler & Hoffman, 2002; Labudde, Herzog, Neuenschander, Violi, & Gerber, 2000), it is clear that middle school is a critical time to intervene. This study examines the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. A theoretical framework based on the literature of girl-friendly and integrated STEM strategies (Baker & Leary, 1995; Halpern et al., 2007; Haussler & Hoffman, 2000, 2002; Labudde et al., 2000; Moore et al., 2014b; Newbill & Cennamo, 2008; Rosser, 2000; Yanowitz, 2004) guided this work to understand how these instructional strategies may influence student's perceptions of physics for both girls and boys. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls' and boys' perceptions about physics and physics-related careers. This convergent parallel mixed-methods study uses a series of student surveys and focus group interviews to identify and understand these similarities and

  13. Links between galaxy evolution, morphology and internal physical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljic, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims at making the link between galaxy evolution, morphology and internal physical processes, namely star formation as the outcome of the turbulent multiphase interstellar medium, using the cosmological zoom-in simulations, simulations of isolated and merging galaxies, and the analytic model of star formation. In Chapter 1, I explain the motivation for this thesis and briefly review the necessary background related to galaxy formation and modeling with the use of numerical simulations. I first explore the evolution of the morphology of Milky-Way-mass galaxies in a suite of zoom-in cosmological simulations through the analysis of bars. I analyze the evolution of the fraction of bars with redshift, its dependence on the stellar mass and accretion history of individual galaxies. I show in particular, that the fraction of bars declines with increasing redshift, in agreement with the observations. This work also shows that the obtained results suggest that the bar formation epoch corresponds to the transition between an early 'violent' phase of spiral galaxies formation at z > 1, during which they are often disturbed by major mergers or multiple minor mergers as well as violent disk instabilities, and a late 'secular' phase at z [fr

  14. On a Multiprocessor Computer Farm for Online Physics Data Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Sinanis, N J

    1999-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the design-phase performance evaluation of a large multiprocessor (MP) computer farm intended for the on-line data processing of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. CMS is a high energy Physics experiment, planned to operate at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) during the year 2005. The CMS computer farm is consisting of 1,000 MP computer systems and a 1,000 X 1,000 communications switch. The followed approach to the farm performance evaluation is through simulation studies and evaluation of small prototype systems building blocks of the farm. For the purposes of the simulation studies, we have developed a discrete-event, event-driven simulator that is capable to describe the high-level architecture of the farm and give estimates of the farm's performance. The simulator is designed in a modular way to facilitate the development of various modules that model the behavior of the farm building blocks in the desired level of detail. With the aid of this simulator, we make a particular...

  15. UNDERSTANDING THAI CULTURE AND ITS IMPACT ON REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING PROCESS MANAGEMENT DURING INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerasak Thanasankit

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of Thai culture on managing the decision making process in requirements engineering and contribution a better understand of its influence on the management of requirements engineering process. The paper illustrates the interaction of technology and culture and shows that rather than technology changing culture, culture can change the way technology is used. Thai culture is naturally inherent in Thai daily life and Thais bring that into their work practices. The concepts of power and uncertainty in Thai culture contribute toward hierarchical forms of communication and decision making process in Thailand, especially during requirements engineering, where information systems requirements need to be established for further development. The research shows that the decision making process in Thailand tends to take a much longer time, as every stage during requirements engineering needs to be reported to management for final decisions. The tall structure of Thai organisations also contributes to a bureaucratic, elongated decision-making process during information systems development. Understanding the influence of Thai culture on requirements engineering and information systems development will assist multinational information systems consulting organisations to select, adapt, better manage, or change requirements engineering process and information systems developments methodologies to work best with Thai organisations.

  16. Applying traditional signal processing techniques to social media exploitation for situational understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelzaher, Tarek; Roy, Heather; Wang, Shiguang; Giridhar, Prasanna; Al Amin, Md. Tanvir; Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Kolodny, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Signal processing techniques such as filtering, detection, estimation and frequency domain analysis have long been applied to extract information from noisy sensor data. This paper describes the exploitation of these signal processing techniques to extract information from social networks, such as Twitter and Instagram. Specifically, we view social networks as noisy sensors that report events in the physical world. We then present a data processing stack for detection, localization, tracking, and veracity analysis of reported events using social network data. We show using a controlled experiment that the behavior of social sources as information relays varies dramatically depending on context. In benign contexts, there is general agreement on events, whereas in conflict scenarios, a significant amount of collective filtering is introduced by conflicted groups, creating a large data distortion. We describe signal processing techniques that mitigate such distortion, resulting in meaningful approximations of actual ground truth, given noisy reported observations. Finally, we briefly present an implementation of the aforementioned social network data processing stack in a sensor network analysis toolkit, called Apollo. Experiences with Apollo show that our techniques are successful at identifying and tracking credible events in the physical world.

  17. Societal rationality; towards an understanding of decision making processes in society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, Bjoern

    2001-01-01

    In a search for new ways to structure decision making on complex and controversial issues it is necessary to build an understanding of why traditional decision making processes break down. One reason is connected to the issues themselves. They represent steps into the unknown and decisions should therefore be made with prudence. A second reason is connected to a track record according to which new technologies are seen as generating more problems than solutions. A third and more fundamental reason is connected to the decision making processes themselves and a need to find better ways to approach difficult questions in the society. One way to approach societal decision making processes is to investigate their hidden rationality in an attempt to understand causes of observed difficulties. The paper is based mainly on observations from the nuclear industry, but it builds also on controversies experienced in attempts to agree on global efforts towards sustainable approaches to development. It builds on an earlier paper, which discussed the basis of rationality both on an individual and a societal level. Research in societal decision making has to rely on a true multi-disciplinary approach. It is nor enough to understand the technical and scientific models by which outcomes are predicted, but it is also necessary to understand how people make sense of their environment and how they co-operate. Rationality is in this connection one of the key concepts, with an understanding that people always are rational in their own frame of action. The challenge in this connection is to understand how this subjective rationality is formed. Societal rationality has to do with the allocation of resources. There are decisions in which several conflicting views have to be considered. Spending time and resources ex ante may support a consensus ex post, but unfortunately there is no panacea for approaching difficult decisions. Decisions with an uncertain future have to be more robust than

  18. Societal rationality; towards an understanding of decision making processes in society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstroem, Bjoern [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    In a search for new ways to structure decision making on complex and controversial issues it is necessary to build an understanding of why traditional decision making processes break down. One reason is connected to the issues themselves. They represent steps into the unknown and decisions should therefore be made with prudence. A second reason is connected to a track record according to which new technologies are seen as generating more problems than solutions. A third and more fundamental reason is connected to the decision making processes themselves and a need to find better ways to approach difficult questions in the society. One way to approach societal decision making processes is to investigate their hidden rationality in an attempt to understand causes of observed difficulties. The paper is based mainly on observations from the nuclear industry, but it builds also on controversies experienced in attempts to agree on global efforts towards sustainable approaches to development. It builds on an earlier paper, which discussed the basis of rationality both on an individual and a societal level. Research in societal decision making has to rely on a true multi-disciplinary approach. It is nor enough to understand the technical and scientific models by which outcomes are predicted, but it is also necessary to understand how people make sense of their environment and how they co-operate. Rationality is in this connection one of the key concepts, with an understanding that people always are rational in their own frame of action. The challenge in this connection is to understand how this subjective rationality is formed. Societal rationality has to do with the allocation of resources. There are decisions in which several conflicting views have to be considered. Spending time and resources ex ante may support a consensus ex post, but unfortunately there is no panacea for approaching difficult decisions. Decisions with an uncertain future have to be more robust than

  19. Applying GPS to enhance understanding of transport-related physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Badland, Hannah M; Mummery, W Kerry

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the paper is to review the utility of the global positioning system (GPS) in the study of health-related physical activity. The paper draws from existing literature to outline the current work performed using GPS to examine transport-related physical activity, with a focus on the relative utility of the approach when combined with geographic information system (GIS) and other data sources including accelerometers. The paper argues that GPS, especially when used in combination with GIS and accelerometery, offers great promise in objectively measuring and studying the relationship of numerous environmental attributes to human behaviour in terms of physical activity and transport-related activity. Limitations to the use of GPS for the purpose of monitoring health-related physical activity are presented, and recommendations for future avenues of research are discussed.

  20. Modeling the effects of multicontextual physics instruction on learner expectations and understanding of force and motion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deese Becht, Sara-Maria Francis

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold involving both practical and theoretical modeling components. The practical component, an experiential-learning phase, investigated a study population for effects that increasing levels of multicontextual physics activities have on student understanding of Newtonian systems of motion. This contextual-learning model measured learner convictions and non-response gaps and analyzed learner response trends on context, technology, challenge, growth, and success. The theoretical component, a model-building phase, designed a dynamic-knowing model for learning along a range of experiential tasks, from low to high context, monitored for indicators of learning in science and mathematics: learner academic performance and ability, learner control and academic attitude, and a learner non- response gap. This knowing model characterized a learner's process-of-knowing on a less to more expert- like learner-response continuum using performance and perspective indices associated with level of contextual- imagery referent system. Data for the contextual-learning model were collected on 180 secondary subjects: 72 middle and 108 high, with 36 physics subjects as local experts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups differing only on context level of force and motion activities. Three levels of information were presented through context-based tasks: momentum constancy as inertia, momentum change as impulse, and momentum rate of change as force. The statistical analysis used a multi-level factorial design with repeated measures and discriminate analysis of response-conviction items. Subject grouping criteria included school level, ability level in science and mathematics, gender and race. Assessment criteria used pre/post performance scores, confidence level in physics concepts held, and attitude towards science, mathematics, and technology. Learner indices were computed from logit- transforms applied to learner outcomes

  1. Using a Design Science Perspective to Understand a Complex Design-Based Research Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how a design science perspective can be used to describe and understand a set of related design-based research processes. We describe and analyze a case study in a manner that is inspired by design science. The case study involves the design of modeling......-based research processes. And we argue that a design science perspective may be useful for both researchers and practitioners....... tools and the redesign of an information service in a library. We use a set of guidelines from a design science perspective to organize the description and analysis of the case study. By doing this we demonstrate the usefulness of design science as an analytical tool for understanding related design...

  2. Understanding physical activity in spinal cord injury rehabilitation: translating and communicating research through stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brett; Papathomas, Anthony; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop an evidence-based resource for knowing and communicating the complexities involved for both males and females in implementing and sustaining a physically active lifestyle shortly after spinal cord injury (SCI). Synthesizing a set of qualitative and quantitative studies with over 500 spinal cord injured people, the article represents research utilizing the genre of ethnographic creative non-fiction. This genre of representation holds enormous potential for researchers in terms of disseminating their findings to diverse audiences beyond the academy, and having real impact. The ethnographic creative non-fictions show together for the first time the barriers, determinants, benefits, trajectories, emotions, fears, preferred methods and messengers for delivering important physical activity information to men and women with a SCI. The article contributes to knowledge by showing the embodied complexities involved when in rehabilitation for both males and females in implementing and sustaining a physically active lifestyle shortly after SCI. It also makes a contribution to practice by providing researchers, health care professionals and disability user-groups with a theory and evidence based resource to assist in informing, teaching and enabling people living with SCI to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle. Stories may be a highly effective tool to communicate with and to influence spinal cord injured people's activity. The findings of this research showed the many benefits and barriers to developing and sustaining a physically active lifestyle shortly after spinal cord injury. The preferred methods and messengers for delivering physical activity information as well as the activity types, intensities and durations of physical activity for men and women were also shown. Within rehabilitation, spinal cord injured people need to be offered accessible knowledge about how to implement and sustain a physically active

  3. Integrated Numerical Experiments (INEX) and the Free-Electron Laser Physical Process Code (FELPPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.; Chan, K.C.D.; Schmitt, M.J.; McKee, J.; Ostic, J.; Elliott, C.J.; McVey, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    The strong coupling of subsystem elements, such as the accelerator, wiggler, and optics, greatly complicates the understanding and design of a free electron laser (FEL), even at the conceptual level. To address the strong coupling character of the FEL the concept of an Integrated Numerical Experiment (INEX) was proposed. Unique features of the INEX approach are consistency and numerical equivalence of experimental diagnostics. The equivalent numerical diagnostics mitigates the major problem of misinterpretation that often occurs when theoretical and experimental data are compared. The INEX approach has been applied to a large number of accelerator and FEL experiments. Overall, the agreement between INEX and the experiments is very good. Despite the success of INEX, the approach is difficult to apply to trade-off and initial design studies because of the significant manpower and computational requirements. On the other hand, INEX provides a base from which realistic accelerator, wiggler, and optics models can be developed. The Free Electron Laser Physical Process Code (FELPPC) includes models developed from INEX, provides coupling between the subsystem models, and incorporates application models relevant to a specific trade-off or design study. In other words, FELPPC solves the complete physical process model using realistic physics and technology constraints. Because FELPPC provides a detailed design, a good estimate for the FEL mass, cost, and size can be made from a piece-part count of the FEL. FELPPC requires significant accelerator and FEL expertise to operate. The code can calculate complex FEL configurations including multiple accelerator and wiggler combinations

  4. Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of influence, probing the conditions under which influence is amplified/attenuated (moderators), testing theoretically based models of peer influence pr...

  5. Neural information processing in cognition: we start to understand the orchestra, but where is the conductor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenther ePalm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in neural information processing has been successful in the past, providing useful approaches both to practical problems in computer science and to computational models in neuroscience. Recent developments in the area of cognitive neuroscience present new challenges for a computational or theoretical understanding asking for neural information processing models that fulfill criteria or constraints from cognitive psychology, neuroscience and computational efficiency. The most important of these criteria for the evaluation of present and future contributions to this new emerging field are listed at the end of this article.

  6. Two examples of the use of Habitus to understand processes of marginalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arp Fallov, Mia; Armstrong, Jo E.

    and weaknesses in applying habitus to understand processes of continuity and change in institutions and individuals’ lives. The concept provides a temporal and spatial framework that is valuable in explaining the embodiment and reproduction of inequality. Using habitus points to the importance of social...... domains; the tension between aspirations to change and resistance to transformation; and the importance of considering values in combating marginalization. However, in showing the complexity of processes of inequality it becomes difficult to derive lessons that are easily translatable into policy actions....... Nevertheless, applying at least some minimal insights from using the concept may offer substantial gains in terms of developing effective policies....

  7. Neural Information Processing in Cognition: We Start to Understand the Orchestra, but Where is the Conductor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Research in neural information processing has been successful in the past, providing useful approaches both to practical problems in computer science and to computational models in neuroscience. Recent developments in the area of cognitive neuroscience present new challenges for a computational or theoretical understanding asking for neural information processing models that fulfill criteria or constraints from cognitive psychology, neuroscience and computational efficiency. The most important of these criteria for the evaluation of present and future contributions to this new emerging field are listed at the end of this article. PMID:26858632

  8. CONTROL PARAMETERS FOR UNDERSTANDING AND PREVENTING PROCESS IMBALANCES IN BIOGAS PLANTS. EMPHAS IS ON VFA DYNAMICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    environmental changes differ widely between the different groups. As a consequence of this, an unrestrained reactor operation can lead to disturbances in the balance between the different microbial groups, which might lead to reactor failure. Therefore, reliable parameters and tools for efficient process...... control and understanding are necessary. The work of present study was directed towards this challenge. Initially, the response of the anaerobic digestion process to various types of process imbalances was investigated with special focus on volatile fatty acid dynamics (VFA), methane production and pH...... of process imbalances in biogas plants. At Danish full-scale biogas plants the biogas production is normally the only continuously measured parameter. In order to examine the usability of propionate as control parameter a reactor experiment was constructed in which the reactor operation either was carried...

  9. Understanding decimal proportions: discrete representations, parallel access, and privileged processing of zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sashank; Karl, Stacy R

    2013-05-01

    Much of the research on mathematical cognition has focused on the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with considerably less attention paid to more abstract number classes. The current research investigated how people understand decimal proportions--rational numbers between 0 and 1 expressed in the place-value symbol system. The results demonstrate that proportions are represented as discrete structures and processed in parallel. There was a semantic interference effect: When understanding a proportion expression (e.g., "0.29"), both the correct proportion referent (e.g., 0.29) and the incorrect natural number referent (e.g., 29) corresponding to the visually similar natural number expression (e.g., "29") are accessed in parallel, and when these referents lead to conflicting judgments, performance slows. There was also a syntactic interference effect, generalizing the unit-decade compatibility effect for natural numbers: When comparing two proportions, their tenths and hundredths components are processed in parallel, and when the different components lead to conflicting judgments, performance slows. The results also reveal that zero decimals--proportions ending in zero--serve multiple cognitive functions, including eliminating semantic interference and speeding processing. The current research also extends the distance, semantic congruence, and SNARC effects from natural numbers to decimal proportions. These findings inform how people understand the place-value symbol system, and the mental implementation of mathematical symbol systems more generally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of ozone gas processing on physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of ozone treatment on chemical and physical properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) gluten, glutenin and gliadin. Methods: Wheat proteins isolated from wheat flour were treated with ozone gas. The physical and chemical properties of gluten proteins were investigated after treatment ...

  11. A New Physical Protection System Design and Evaluation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Heoksoon; Kim, Myungsu; Bae, Yeongkyoung; Na, Janghwan [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) had established security-related department and has been strengthening security measures against possible sabotage. IAEA enforces the recommendations for the physical protection of NPPs in the INFCIRC/ 225/Rev.5 to the member states and U.S. NRC also enforces the similar requirements in 10 CFR 73.55. Thus, in order to let Korean NPPs meet the new requirements in INFCIRC/225/Rev.5 or U.S. NRC requirements, Korea nuclear licensee should develop or establish appropriate physical protection system (PPS) design methods for the physical protection of the operating NPPs and new NPPs. KHNP is doing the project of 'Development of APR1400 Physical Protection System Design (2012- 2015, KHNP/KAERI /KEPCO E-C)'. This paper describes overview of a physical protection system (PPS) design and evaluation for an advanced nuclear power plant. It found that a new physical protection system (PPS)design and evaluation. KHNP is doing the project of Physical Protection System design according to U.S. NRC requirements and IAEA requirements in INFCIRC /225 /Rev.5 and will complete by 7.31, 2015 for development of APR1400 Physical Protection System. After completing this project, the results of project are expected to apply new NPPs.

  12. Physical Abuse, Cognitive and Emotional Processes, and Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…

  13. Physical processes and sedimentation on a broad, shallow bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. P.; Hsu, S. A.; Roberts, H. H.; Owens, E. H.; Crout, R. L.

    1982-02-01

    An integrated study of the meteorology, physical oceanography, sedimentationand coastal morphology on the broad, shallow Miskito Bank off the eastern coast of Nicaragua has uncovered systematic interrelationships between driving forces. Bank geometry and sedimentologic environments on the Bank. Extremely high rainfall results from an interaction between meteorological processes over the Bank and topographic effects along the coast. Both acoustic and radio sounding of the lower atmosphere have documented the feedback between convective plumes, inversion layers and the incessant rainfall, which brings three times more freshwater and 15 times more sediment down to a unit length of coast than on the U.S. Atlantic shore. The resultant brackish, turbid coastal water moves as a highly organized band of water parallel to the coast. Seaward of this coastal boundary layer, offshore water from the Caribbean Current rides up on the Bank and provides an environment ideal for carbonate production. A zone of fine-grained terrigenous sediment underlying the coastal boundary current merges abruptly into a smooth carbonate plain covering most of the surface of the Bank. These central Bank carbonates are composed primarily of the disintegration products of prolific calcareous green algae. A trend of high relief, luxuriant coral reef growth is aligned along the steep dropoff at the Bank edge, a zone of observed upwelling of cooler and saltier basin water. A threefold southerly increase in wave energy at the shoreline due to the decreasing width of the shallow shelf results in wave-dominated coastal morphologies in the south compared to fluvial domination in the north and a systematic change from straight, linear bars and beaches in the north to rhythmic topography in the south.

  14. Differences in the Processes of Solving Physics Problems between Good Physics Problem Solvers and Poor Physics Problem Solvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegold, M.; Mass, R.

    1985-01-01

    Good problem solvers and poor problem solvers in advanced physics (N=8) were significantly different in their ability in translating, planning, and physical reasoning, as well as in problem solving time; no differences in reliance on algebraic solutions and checking problems were noted. Implications for physics teaching are discussed. (DH)

  15. ANALYSIS LEARNING MODEL OF DISCOVERY AND UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT PRELIMINARY TO PHYSICS LEARNING OUTCOMES SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rosepda Sebayang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims: 1 to determine whether the student learning outcomes using discovery learning is better than conventional learning 2 To determine whether the learning outcomes of students who have a high initial concept understanding better then of low initial concept understanding, and 3 to determine the effect of interaction discovery learning and understanding of the initial concept of the learning outcomes of students. The samples in this study was taken by cluster random sampling two classes where class X PIA 3 as a class experiment with applying discovery learning and class X PIA 2 as a control class by applying conventional learning. The instrument used in this study is a test of learning outcomes in the form of multiple-choice comprehension test initial concept description form. The results of research are: 1 learning outcomes of students who were taught with discovery learning is better than the learning outcomes of students who are taught by conventional learning, 2 student learning outcomes with high initial conceptual understanding better than the learning outcomes of students with low initial conceptual understanding, and 3 there was no interaction between discovery learning and understanding of initial concepts for the student learning outcomes.

  16. Understanding and scaffolding Danish schoolteachers' motivation for using classroom-based physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Louise Stjerne; Skovgaard, Thomas; Bredahl, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The benefits of physical activity for children's health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited......: The study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Schools from across Denmark are included in the sample. The design comprises two separated phases-a quantitative and qualitative phase. The quantitative phase is guided by the self-determination theory where teachers' motivation will be measured...... have been acquired. All participants in this study will provide written informed consent prior to data collection. All data emerging from the quantitative and qualitative phase will be anonymised for analysis. Ethics approval was requested from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics...

  17. Understanding how replication processes can maintain systems away from equilibrium using Algorithmic Information Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Sean D

    2016-02-01

    Replication can be envisaged as a computational process that is able to generate and maintain order far-from-equilibrium. Replication processes, can self-regulate, as the drive to replicate can counter degradation processes that impact on a system. The capability of replicated structures to access high quality energy and eject disorder allows Landauer's principle, in conjunction with Algorithmic Information Theory, to quantify the entropy requirements to maintain a system far-from-equilibrium. Using Landauer's principle, where destabilising processes, operating under the second law of thermodynamics, change the information content or the algorithmic entropy of a system by ΔH bits, replication processes can access order, eject disorder, and counter the change without outside interventions. Both diversity in replicated structures, and the coupling of different replicated systems, increase the ability of the system (or systems) to self-regulate in a changing environment as adaptation processes select those structures that use resources more efficiently. At the level of the structure, as selection processes minimise the information loss, the irreversibility is minimised. While each structure that emerges can be said to be more entropically efficient, as such replicating structures proliferate, the dissipation of the system as a whole is higher than would be the case for inert or simpler structures. While a detailed application to most real systems would be difficult, the approach may well be useful in understanding incremental changes to real systems and provide broad descriptions of system behaviour. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Using process monitor wafers to understand directed self-assembly defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Her, YoungJun; Delgadillo, Paulina R.; Vandenbroeck, Nadia; Gronheid, Roel; Chan, Boon Teik; Hashimoto, Yukio; Romo, Ainhoa; Somervell, Mark; Nafus, Kathleen; Nealey, Paul F.

    2013-03-01

    As directed self-assembly (DSA) has gained momentum over the past few years, questions about its application to high volume manufacturing have arisen. One of the major concerns is about the fundamental limits of defectivity that can be attained with the technology. If DSA applications demonstrate defectivity that rivals of traditional lithographic technologies, the pathway to the cost benefits of the technology creates a very compelling case for its large scale implementation. To address this critical question, our team at IMEC has established a process monitor flow to track the defectivity behaviors of an exemplary chemo-epitaxy application for printing line/space patterns. Through establishing this baseline, we have been able to understand both traditional lithographic defect sources in new materials as well as new classes of assembly defects associated with DSA technology. Moreover, we have explored new materials and processing to lower the level of the defectivity baseline. The robustness of the material sets and process is investigated as well. In this paper, we will report the understandings learned from the IMEC DSA process monitor flow.

  19. On improved understanding of plasma-chemical processes in complex low-temperature plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpcke, Jürgen; Loffhagen, Detlef; von Wahl, Eric; Nave, Andy S. C.; Hamann, Stephan; van Helden, Jean-Piere H.; Lang, Norbert; Kersten, Holger

    2018-05-01

    Over the last years, chemical sensing using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in the visible spectral range has been combined with methods of mid infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (MIR-LAS) in the molecular fingerprint region from 3 to 20 μm, which contains strong rotational-vibrational absorption bands of a large variety of gaseous species. This optical approach established powerful in situ diagnostic tools to study plasma-chemical processes of complex low-temperature plasmas. The methods of MIR-LAS enable to detect stable and transient molecular species in ground and excited states and to measure the concentrations and temperatures of reactive species in plasmas. Since kinetic processes are inherent to discharges ignited in molecular gases, high time resolution on sub-second timescales is frequently desired for fundamental studies as well as for process monitoring in applied research and industry. In addition to high sensitivity and good temporal resolution, the capacity for broad spectral coverage enabling multicomponent detection is further expanding the use of OES and MIR-LAS techniques. Based on selected examples, this paper reports on recent achievements in the understanding of complex low-temperature plasmas. Recently, a link with chemical modeling of the plasma has been provided, which is the ultimate objective for a better understanding of the chemical and reaction kinetic processes occurring in the plasma. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Fundamentals of Complex Plasmas", edited by Jürgen Meichsner, Michael Bonitz, Holger Fehske, Alexander Piel.

  20. A longitudinal investigation of older adults' physical activity: Testing an integrated dual-process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnautovska, Urska; Fleig, Lena; O'Callaghan, Frances; Hamilton, Kyra

    2017-02-01

    To assess the effects of conscious and non-conscious processes for prediction of older adults' physical activity (PA), we tested a dual-process model that integrated motivational (behavioural intention) and volitional (action planning and coping planning) processes with non-conscious, automatic processes (habit). Participants (N = 215) comprised community-dwelling older adults (M = 73.8 years). A longitudinal design was adopted to investigate direct and indirect effects of intentions, habit strength (Time 1), and action planning and coping planning (Time 2) on PA behaviour (Time 3). Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the model. The model provided a good fit to the data, accounting for 44% of the variance in PA behaviour at Time 3. PA was predicted by intentions, action planning, and habit strength, with action planning mediating the intention-behaviour relationship. An effect of sex was also found where males used fewer planning strategies and engaged in more PA than females. By investigating an integration of conscious and non-conscious processes, this study provides a novel understanding of older adults' PA. Interventions aiming to promote PA behaviour of older adults should target the combination of psychological processes.

  1. Evaluation of physical facilities and processing operations of major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of these abattoirs were evaluated based on their presence and functional status. ... of safe and wholesome meat and meat products for human consumption. Keywords: Abattoir, Butcher, Meat, Physical facilities, Public health, Standard ...

  2. Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Basic Physical Interactions in Analogous Atomic and Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Keith S.

    2013-01-01

    Comparing the atom to a "tiny solar system" is a common teaching analogy, and the extent to which learners saw the systems as analogous was investigated. English upper secondary students were asked parallel questions about the physical interactions between the components of a simple atomic system and a simple solar system to investigate…

  3. Understanding the physical attractiveness literature: Qualitative reviews versus meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Alan

    2017-01-01

    The target article is a qualitative review of selected findings in the physical attractiveness literature. This commentary explains why the meta-analytic approach, frequently used by other attractiveness reviewers, is preferable for drawing unbiased conclusions about the effects of attractiveness. The article's main contribution is affording a foundation for subsequent meta-analysis of the studies discussed in a subjective fashion.

  4. Understanding the Picture Exchange Communication System and Its Application in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amanda; Sandt, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and its applications in physical education. The PECS is an appropriate communication intervention for students with autism who lack functional communication skills. It is often confused with other visual support strategies, so the authors delineate the six phases of PECS and…

  5. Investigating and improving student understanding of the probability distributions for measuring physical observables in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    A solid grasp of the probability distributions for measuring physical observables is central to connecting the quantum formalism to measurements. However, students often struggle with the probability distributions of measurement outcomes for an observable and have difficulty expressing this concept in different representations. Here we first describe the difficulties that upper-level undergraduate and PhD students have with the probability distributions for measuring physical observables in quantum mechanics. We then discuss how student difficulties found in written surveys and individual interviews were used as a guide in the development of a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) to help students develop a good grasp of the probability distributions of measurement outcomes for physical observables. The QuILT strives to help students become proficient in expressing the probability distributions for the measurement of physical observables in Dirac notation and in the position representation and be able to convert from Dirac notation to position representation and vice versa. We describe the development and evaluation of the QuILT and findings about the effectiveness of the QuILT from in-class evaluations. (paper)

  6. Understanding healing environments : effects of physical environmental stimuli on patients' health and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, K.

    2009-01-01

    The research in this dissertation contributes to the growing body of evidence that the physical healthcare environment can make a difference in how quickly patients recover or adapt to specific acute and chronic conditions. The concepts of healing environments and evidence-based design are widely

  7. Understanding behavioral mechanisms for physical activity in head and neck cancer patients: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sealy, Martine; Stuiver, M.M.; Midtgard, Julie; van der Schans, Cees; Roodenburg, Jan L N; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients often have adverse changes in body composition. Loss of muscle mass and strength frequently occur, even when dietary intake is adequate. Nascent evidence suggests that a healthy lifestyle, including adequate physical activity (PA) and diet, may prevent

  8. Science Learning Cycle Method to Enhance the Conceptual Understanding and the Learning Independence on Physics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulisworo, Dwi; Sutadi, Novitasari

    2017-01-01

    There have been many studies related to the implementation of cooperative learning. However, there are still many problems in school related to the learning outcomes on science lesson, especially in physics. The aim of this study is to observe the application of science learning cycle (SLC) model on improving scientific literacy for secondary…

  9. Suicidal ideation in prostate cancer survivors: understanding the role of physical and psychological health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recklitis, Christopher J; Zhou, Eric S; Zwemer, Eric K; Hu, Jim C; Kantoff, Philip W

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown prostate cancer (PC) survivors are at an increased risk of suicide compared with the general population, but to the authors' knowledge very little is known regarding what factors are associated with this increased risk. The current study examined the prevalence of suicidal ideation (SI) and its association with cancer treatment and posttreatment physical and emotional health in a cohort of long-term PC survivors. A total of 693 PC survivors (3-8 years after diagnosis) completed a mailed survey on physical and psychological functioning, including cancer treatments, the Short Form-12 (SF-12), the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite Instrument (EPIC-26), a depression rating scale, and 8 items regarding recent suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A total of 86 PC survivors (12.4%) endorsed SI, with 10 individuals (1.4%) reporting serious SI. Serious SI was more common in this sample compared with age-adjusted and sex-adjusted normative data. SI was not associated with most demographic variables, or with PC stage or treatments. However, SI was found to be significantly associated with employment status, poor physical and emotional functioning, greater symptom burden on the EPIC-26, higher frequency of significant pain, and clinically significant depression (P physical and emotional function, including disability status and pain, were found to be associated with SI (P depression. A significant percentage of PC survivors report recent SI, which is associated with both physical and psychological dysfunction, but not PC treatments. The results of the current study help to explain the increased risk of suicide previously reported in PC survivors and have important implications for identifying and treating those survivors at greatest risk of suicidality. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  10. A cross-cultural, multilevel study of inquiry-based instruction effects on conceptual understanding and motivation in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Meiko

    Student achievement and motivation to learn physics is highly valued in many industrialized countries including the United States and Japan. Science education curricula in these countries emphasize the importance and encourage classroom teachers to use an inquiry approach. This dissertation investigated high school students' motivational orientations and their understanding of physics concepts in a context of inquiry-based instruction. The goals were to explore the patterns of instructional effects on motivation and learning in each country and to examine cultural differences and similarities. Participants consisted of 108 students (55 females, 53 males) and 9 physics teachers in the United States and 616 students (203 females and 413 males) and 11 physics teachers in Japan. Students were administered (a) Force Concept Inventory measuring physics conceptual understanding and (b) Attitudes about Science Questionnaire measuring student motivational orientations. Teachers were given a survey regarding their use of inquiry teaching practices and background information. Additionally, three teachers in each country were interviewed and observed in their classrooms. For the data analysis, two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methods were used to examine individual student differences (i.e., learning, motivation, and gender) within each classroom (i.e., inquiry-based teaching, teaching experience, and class size) in the U.S. and Japan, separately. Descriptive statistical analyses were also conducted. The results indicated that there was a cultural similarity in that current teaching practices had minimal influence on conceptual understanding as well as motivation of high school students between the U.S. and Japan. In contrast, cultural differences were observed in classroom structures and instructional approaches. Furthermore, this study revealed gender inequity in Japanese students' conceptual understanding and self-efficacy. Limitations of the study, as well as

  11. Understanding the implementation of complex interventions in health care: the normalization process model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Anne

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Normalization Process Model is a theoretical model that assists in explaining the processes by which complex interventions become routinely embedded in health care practice. It offers a framework for process evaluation and also for comparative studies of complex interventions. It focuses on the factors that promote or inhibit the routine embedding of complex interventions in health care practice. Methods A formal theory structure is used to define the model, and its internal causal relations and mechanisms. The model is broken down to show that it is consistent and adequate in generating accurate description, systematic explanation, and the production of rational knowledge claims about the workability and integration of complex interventions. Results The model explains the normalization of complex interventions by reference to four factors demonstrated to promote or inhibit the operationalization and embedding of complex interventions (interactional workability, relational integration, skill-set workability, and contextual integration. Conclusion The model is consistent and adequate. Repeated calls for theoretically sound process evaluations in randomized controlled trials of complex interventions, and policy-makers who call for a proper understanding of implementation processes, emphasize the value of conceptual tools like the Normalization Process Model.

  12. MO-E-18C-04: Advanced Computer Simulation and Visualization Tools for Enhanced Understanding of Core Medical Physics Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Most medical physics programs emphasize proficiency in routine clinical calculations and QA. The formulaic aspect of these calculations and prescriptive nature of measurement protocols obviate the need to frequently apply basic physical principles, which, therefore, gradually decay away from memory. E.g. few students appreciate the role of electron transport in photon dose, making it difficult to understand key concepts such as dose buildup, electronic disequilibrium effects and Bragg-Gray theory. These conceptual deficiencies manifest when the physicist encounters a new system, requiring knowledge beyond routine activities. Methods: Two interactive computer simulation tools are developed to facilitate deeper learning of physical principles. One is a Monte Carlo code written with a strong educational aspect. The code can “label” regions and interactions to highlight specific aspects of the physics, e.g., certain regions can be designated as “starters” or “crossers,” and any interaction type can be turned on and off. Full 3D tracks with specific portions highlighted further enhance the visualization of radiation transport problems. The second code calculates and displays trajectories of a collection electrons under arbitrary space/time dependent Lorentz force using relativistic kinematics. Results: Using the Monte Carlo code, the student can interactively study photon and electron transport through visualization of dose components, particle tracks, and interaction types. The code can, for instance, be used to study kerma-dose relationship, explore electronic disequilibrium near interfaces, or visualize kernels by using interaction forcing. The electromagnetic simulator enables the student to explore accelerating mechanisms and particle optics in devices such as cyclotrons and linacs. Conclusion: The proposed tools are designed to enhance understanding of abstract concepts by highlighting various aspects of the physics. The simulations serve as

  13. MO-E-18C-04: Advanced Computer Simulation and Visualization Tools for Enhanced Understanding of Core Medical Physics Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, S [Saint Agnes Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Most medical physics programs emphasize proficiency in routine clinical calculations and QA. The formulaic aspect of these calculations and prescriptive nature of measurement protocols obviate the need to frequently apply basic physical principles, which, therefore, gradually decay away from memory. E.g. few students appreciate the role of electron transport in photon dose, making it difficult to understand key concepts such as dose buildup, electronic disequilibrium effects and Bragg-Gray theory. These conceptual deficiencies manifest when the physicist encounters a new system, requiring knowledge beyond routine activities. Methods: Two interactive computer simulation tools are developed to facilitate deeper learning of physical principles. One is a Monte Carlo code written with a strong educational aspect. The code can “label” regions and interactions to highlight specific aspects of the physics, e.g., certain regions can be designated as “starters” or “crossers,” and any interaction type can be turned on and off. Full 3D tracks with specific portions highlighted further enhance the visualization of radiation transport problems. The second code calculates and displays trajectories of a collection electrons under arbitrary space/time dependent Lorentz force using relativistic kinematics. Results: Using the Monte Carlo code, the student can interactively study photon and electron transport through visualization of dose components, particle tracks, and interaction types. The code can, for instance, be used to study kerma-dose relationship, explore electronic disequilibrium near interfaces, or visualize kernels by using interaction forcing. The electromagnetic simulator enables the student to explore accelerating mechanisms and particle optics in devices such as cyclotrons and linacs. Conclusion: The proposed tools are designed to enhance understanding of abstract concepts by highlighting various aspects of the physics. The simulations serve as

  14. Development of a Mantle Convection Physical Model to Assist with Teaching about Earth's Interior Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesener, G. B.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory (MEDL) at UCLA is developing a mantle convection physical model to assist educators with the pedagogy of Earth’s interior processes. Our design goal consists of two components to help the learner gain conceptual understanding by means of visual interactions without the burden of distracters, which may promote alternative conceptions. Distracters may be any feature of the conceptual model that causes the learner to use inadequate mental artifact to help him or her understand what the conceptual model is intended to convey. The first component, and most important, is a psychological component that links properties of “everyday things” (Norman, 1988) to the natural phenomenon, mantle convection. Some examples of everyday things may be heat rising out from a freshly popped bag of popcorn, or cold humid air falling from an open freezer. The second component is the scientific accuracy of the conceptual model. We would like to simplify the concepts for the learner without sacrificing key information that is linked to other natural phenomena the learner will come across in future science lessons. By taking into account the learner’s mental artifacts in combination with a simplified, but accurate, representation of what scientists know of the Earth’s interior, we expect the learner to have the ability to create an adequate qualitative mental simulation of mantle convection. We will be presenting some of our prototypes of this mantle convection physical model at this year’s poster session and invite constructive input from our colleagues.

  15. The effect of biotechnology education on Australian high school students' understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

    2006-11-01

    Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents’ understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from teacher and student interviews and surveys in the context of innovative Year 10 biotechnology courses conducted in three Western Australian high schools. The results indicate that after completing a biotechnology course students’ understanding increased but their attitudes remained constant with the exception of their views about human uses of gene technology. The findings of this study have ramifications for the design and implementation of biotechnology education courses in high schools.

  16. The problem of “culture” in the process of intercultural understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreana Marchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n1p251 The problem of “culture” in the process of intercultural understanding is one of the most discussed issues among scholars today. Anthropologists, linguists, literary critics, and philosophers, just to name a few, study this issue in a problem-based and research format. Culture and cultural understanding are hereby presented by demonstrating studies and observations of two cultural anthropologists, R. H. Robbins and Clifford Geertz, a literary critic, Lionel Trilling, and C. S. Lewis, a famous writer of both fiction and non-fiction. My intention here is to answer the question: how to describe and analyze a culture that is so different from the perspective of our own? In this sense, language and discourse are also analyzed in this paper as part of culture and can indicate some of our own moral perspectives and judgments on others’ cultures.

  17. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

    1997-01-01

    Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

  18. Enhancing Laos Students' Understanding of Nature of Science in Physics Learning about Atom for Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengdala, Phoxay; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to study of Grade 12 students' understanding of nature of science in learning about atom for peace through science technology and society (STS) approach. Participants were 51 Grade 12 who study in Thongphong high school Vientiane Capital City Lao PDR, 1st semester of 2012 academic year. This research regarded interpretive…

  19. Teaching for Understanding and/or Teaching for the Examination in High School Physics. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelan, David; Wildy, Helen; Louden, William; Wallace, John

    2004-01-01

    Literature on the related notions of 'teaching for understanding' and 'exemplary teaching' tends to be interpreted as prescribing certain classroom approaches. These are usually the strategies often identified with constructivist teaching, which involve a redefinition of the teacher's role: rather than being seen as a source of knowledge and…

  20. Recent Advances in Understanding Pelvic-Floor Tissue of Women With and Without Pelvic Organ Prolapse: Considerations for Physical Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Kimberly

    2017-04-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a fairly common condition that imposes significant symptoms, diminished quality of life, social burden, financial expense, and surgical risk on women. As evidence supporting the benefit of pelvic-floor muscle training in nonsurgical management of pelvic organ prolapse grows, physical therapists are becoming a provider of choice interacting with women affected by pelvic organ prolapse. This perspective article will review recent research on tissue characteristics of 3 key components of pelvic organ support: skeletal muscle, ligament, and vaginal wall. This information will be summarized as implications for physical therapists. An improved understanding of pelvic-floor tissue in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse will provide a more comprehensive appreciation of the interaction of multiple systems in the disorder. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association.

  1. Understanding the process of social network evolution: Online-offline integrated analysis of social tie formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Doyeon; Kim, Wonjoon

    2017-01-01

    It is important to consider the interweaving nature of online and offline social networks when we examine social network evolution. However, it is difficult to find any research that examines the process of social tie formation from an integrated perspective. In our study, we quantitatively measure offline interactions and examine the corresponding evolution of online social network in order to understand the significance of interrelationship between online and offline social factors in generating social ties. We analyze the radio signal strength indicator sensor data from a series of social events to understand offline interactions among the participants and measure the structural attributes of their existing online Facebook social networks. By monitoring the changes in their online social networks before and after offline interactions in a series of social events, we verify that the ability to develop an offline interaction into an online friendship is tied to the number of social connections that participants previously had, while the presence of shared mutual friends between a pair of participants disrupts potential new connections within the pre-designed offline social events. Thus, while our integrative approach enables us to confirm the theory of preferential attachment in the process of network formation, the common neighbor theory is not supported. Our dual-dimensional network analysis allows us to observe the actual process of social network evolution rather than to make predictions based on the assumption of self-organizing networks.

  2. Understanding the process of social network evolution: Online-offline integrated analysis of social tie formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyeon Kwak

    Full Text Available It is important to consider the interweaving nature of online and offline social networks when we examine social network evolution. However, it is difficult to find any research that examines the process of social tie formation from an integrated perspective. In our study, we quantitatively measure offline interactions and examine the corresponding evolution of online social network in order to understand the significance of interrelationship between online and offline social factors in generating social ties. We analyze the radio signal strength indicator sensor data from a series of social events to understand offline interactions among the participants and measure the structural attributes of their existing online Facebook social networks. By monitoring the changes in their online social networks before and after offline interactions in a series of social events, we verify that the ability to develop an offline interaction into an online friendship is tied to the number of social connections that participants previously had, while the presence of shared mutual friends between a pair of participants disrupts potential new connections within the pre-designed offline social events. Thus, while our integrative approach enables us to confirm the theory of preferential attachment in the process of network formation, the common neighbor theory is not supported. Our dual-dimensional network analysis allows us to observe the actual process of social network evolution rather than to make predictions based on the assumption of self-organizing networks.

  3. 3 minutes to understand the 50 greatest theories of quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, Brian; Ball, Philip; Clifford, Leon; Close, Frank; Hebden, Sophie; Hellemans, Alexander; Holgate, Sharon Ann; May, Andrew; Martinez, Rachel; Dubois, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This book aims at using 2 pages, 300 words and 1 image to explain each of the 50 most important theories of quantum physics. After a first part addressing the origins of the theory (Planck quanta, the photoelectric effect according to Einstein, the predictable Balmer series, the Bohr's atom, the wave/particle duality, the matter waves of De Broglie, the double quantum slit), the chapters address basic notions (quantum spin, matrix mechanics, Schroedinger's equation and cat, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the wave function reduction, the decoherence), light and matter physics, quantum effects and their interpretation, quantum entanglement, quantum applications, and quantum extremes. Each chapter proposes a glossary, a presentation of specific issues according to the adopted format, and a portrait of a scientist involved in the addressed topics (Niels Bohr, Erwin Schroedinger, Paul Dirac, David Bohm, John Bell, Brian Josephson, and Satyendra Nath Bose)

  4. A Multi-physics Approach to Understanding Low Porosity Soils and Reservoir Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M.; Mapeli, C.; Livo, K.; Hasanov, A.; Schindler, M.; Ou, L.

    2017-12-01

    We present recent results on our multiphysics approach to rock physics. Thus, we evaluate geophysical measurements by simultaneously measuring petrophysical properties or imaging strains. In this paper, we present simultaneously measured acoustic and electrical anisotropy data as functions of pressure. Similarly, we present strains and strain localization images simultaneously acquired with acoustic measurements as well as NMR T2 relaxations on pressurized fluids as well as rocks saturated with these pressurized fluids. Such multiphysics experiments allow us to constrain and assign appropriate causative mechanisms to development rock physics models. They also allow us to decouple various effects, for example, fluid versus pressure, on geophysical measurements. We show applications towards reservoir characterization as well as CO2 sequestration applications.

  5. Physical health of the student as the main value of pedagogical process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deminskaya L.A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The features of physical health of students are considered. Factors which influence on the physical health of children of school age are rotined. Methodical experience of teachers of physical education is presented. It is determined maintenance of concept «Physical health». The methods of estimation of the functional state of organism of schoolboys are selected. It is set that the axiological going near the health of students requires knowledge of methods of control after the functional state of organism and methods of development of physical health. It is marked that the modern teacher of physical education can not execute the educational, educate and health tasks of pedagogical process without knowledge of level of development of physical health and physical preparedness of students. It is marked that the modern teacher of physical education must know and able to estimate the indexes of physical health and physical preparedness of organism of children level.

  6. Understanding and scaffolding Danish schoolteachers’ motivation for using classroom-based physical activity: study protocol for a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Thomas; Bredahl, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of physical activity for children’s health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited amount of knowledge about teachers’ views when it comes to integrating physical activity as part of teaching. The aim of this study is to understand teachers’ motivation for integrating physical activity as part of teaching and to assess their need for guidance and support. Methods and analysis The study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Schools from across Denmark are included in the sample. The design comprises two separated phases—a quantitative and qualitative phase. The quantitative phase is guided by the self-determination theory where teachers’ motivation will be measured using the Work Task Motivation Scale for Teachers. The theory of scaffolding guides the qualitative phase, which consists of in-depth interviews with participants selected from the quantitative phase based on levels of motivation and on demographic information. In accordance with the study aims, the analysis of data will identify teachers’ internal and external levels of motivation. The purpose of the qualitative phase is to enhance understanding of teachers’ motivation and of their need for support in the use of physical activity in teaching. Ethics and dissemination All relevant ethics approvals have been acquired. All participants in this study will provide written informed consent prior to data collection. All data emerging from the quantitative and qualitative phase will be anonymised for analysis. Ethics approval was requested from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics for Southern Denmark approval ID S-20162000–40 and the Danish Data Protection Agency approval ID 16/15491). The study was deemed not notifiable by both authorities. Trial

  7. Understanding and scaffolding Danish schoolteachers' motivation for using classroom-based physical activity: study protocol for a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Louise Stjerne; Skovgaard, Thomas; Bredahl, Thomas

    2018-03-14

    The benefits of physical activity for children's health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited amount of knowledge about teachers' views when it comes to integrating physical activity as part of teaching. The aim of this study is to understand teachers' motivation for integrating physical activity as part of teaching and to assess their need for guidance and support. The study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Schools from across Denmark are included in the sample. The design comprises two separated phases-a quantitative and qualitative phase. The quantitative phase is guided by the self-determination theory where teachers' motivation will be measured using the Work Task Motivation Scale for Teachers. The theory of scaffolding guides the qualitative phase, which consists of in-depth interviews with participants selected from the quantitative phase based on levels of motivation and on demographic information. In accordance with the study aims, the analysis of data will identify teachers' internal and external levels of motivation. The purpose of the qualitative phase is to enhance understanding of teachers' motivation and of their need for support in the use of physical activity in teaching. All relevant ethics approvals have been acquired. All participants in this study will provide written informed consent prior to data collection. All data emerging from the quantitative and qualitative phase will be anonymised for analysis. Ethics approval was requested from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics for Southern Denmark approval ID S-20162000-40 and the Danish Data Protection Agency approval ID 16/15491). The study was deemed not notifiable by both authorities. NCT02894346; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated

  8. Paediatric nurses' understanding of the process and procedure of double-checking medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Annette; McCall, Elaine; Twomey, Bernadette; James, Natalie

    2010-03-01

    To understand paediatric nurses' understanding and practice regarding double-checking medication and identify facilitators and barriers to the process of independent double-checking (IDC). A system of double-checking medications has been proposed as a way of minimising medication error particularly in situations involving high-risk medications, complex processes such as calculating doses, or high-risk patient populations such as infants and children. While recommendations have been made in support of IDC in paediatric settings little is known about nursing practice and the facilitators and barriers to this process. A descriptive qualitative design was used. Data were collected via three focus group interviews. Six to seven paediatric nurses participated in homogenous groups based on level of practice. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. This study demonstrates that, while IDC is accepted and promoted as best practice in a paediatric setting, there is a lack of clarity as to what this means. This study supports other studies in relation to the influence of workload, distraction and environmental factors on the administration process but highlights the need for more research in relation to the impact of the power dynamic between junior and senior nurses. The issue of automaticity has been unexplored in relation to nursing practice but this study indicates that this may have an important influence on how care is delivered to patients. While the focus of this study was in the paediatric setting, the findings have relevance to other settings and population groups. The adoption of IDC in health care settings must have in place: policy and guidelines that clearly define the process of checking, educational support, an environment that supports peer critique and review, well-designed medication areas and accessible resources to support drug administration.

  9. Global change and modern coral reefs: New opportunities to understand shallow-water carbonate depositional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Pamela

    2005-04-01

    Human activities are impacting coral reefs physically, biologically, and chemically. Nutrification, sedimentation, chemical pollution, and overfishing are significant local threats that are occurring worldwide. Ozone depletion and global warming are triggering mass coral-bleaching events; corals under temperature stress lose the ability to synthesize protective sunscreens and become more sensitive to sunlight. Photo-oxidative stress also reduces fitness, rendering reef-building organisms more susceptible to emerging diseases. Increasing concentration of atmospheric CO 2 has already reduced CaCO 3 saturation in surface waters by more than 10%. Doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration over pre-industrial concentration in the 21st century may reduce carbonate production in tropical shallow marine environments by as much as 80%. As shallow-water reefs decline worldwide, opportunities abound for researchers to expand understanding of carbonate depositional systems. Coordinated studies of carbonate geochemistry with photozoan physiology and calcification, particularly in cool subtropical-transition zones between photozoan-reef and heterotrophic carbonate-ramp communities, will contribute to understanding of carbonate sedimentation under environmental change, both in the future and in the geologic record. Cyanobacteria are becoming increasingly prominent on declining reefs, as these microbes can tolerate strong solar radiation, higher temperatures, and abundant nutrients. The responses of reef-dwelling cyanobacteria to environmental parameters associated with global change are prime topics for further research, with both ecological and geological implications.

  10. Investigating and improving introductory physics students’ understanding of symmetry and Gauss’s law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Singh, Chandralekha

    2018-01-01

    We discuss an investigation of student difficulties with symmetry and Gauss’s law and how the research on students’ difficulties was used as a guide to develop a tutorial related to these topics to help students in the calculus-based introductory physics courses learn these concepts. During the development of the tutorial, we interviewed students individually at various stages of development and administered written tests in the free-response and multiple-choice formats on these concepts to learn about common student difficulties. We also obtained feedback from physics instructors who teach introductory physics courses regularly in which these concepts were covered. The students in several ‘equivalent’ sections worked on the tutorial after traditional lecture-based instruction. We discuss the performance of students on the written pre-test (administered after lecture-based instruction in relevant concepts) and post-test given after students worked on the tutorial. We find that on the pre-test, all sections of the course performed comparably regardless of the instructor. Also, on average, student performance on the post-test after working on the tutorial is significantly better than on the pre-test after lecture-based instruction. We also compare the post-test performance of introductory students in sections of the course in which the tutorial was used versus not used and find that sections in which students engaged with the tutorial outperformed those in which students did not engage with it.

  11. Exploring potentials of sense-making theory for understanding social processes in public hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    authorities and the public in such planning often characterised by conflict. A sense-making framework is developed based on Karl Weick's theory to investigate how participants at the meeting change their understanding aspects like other actors' opinions and the infrastructure project. Through interviews...... and observations it is shown that participants' senses do not change except from a few aspects. The participants at the meeting thus seem stuck in their positions without interest in being open for other interpretations or arguments. The investigation leads to considerations about the benefit and role...... of such a public meeting and the importance of trust and openness in the social processes in a public hearing....

  12. Pharmaceutical quality by design: product and process development, understanding, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lawrence X

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pharmaceutical Quality by Design (QbD) and describe how it can be used to ensure pharmaceutical quality. The QbD was described and some of its elements identified. Process parameters and quality attributes were identified for each unit operation during manufacture of solid oral dosage forms. The use of QbD was contrasted with the evaluation of product quality by testing alone. The QbD is a systemic approach to pharmaceutical development. It means designing and developing formulations and manufacturing processes to ensure predefined product quality. Some of the QbD elements include: Defining target product quality profile; Designing product and manufacturing processes; Identifying critical quality attributes, process parameters, and sources of variability; Controlling manufacturing processes to produce consistent quality over time. Using QbD, pharmaceutical quality is assured by understanding and controlling formulation and manufacturing variables. Product testing confirms the product quality. Implementation of QbD will enable transformation of the chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) review of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) into a science-based pharmaceutical quality assessment.

  13. Modelling accumulation of marine plastics in the coastal zone; what are the dominant physical processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchell, Kay; Lambrechts, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic marine debris, mainly of plastic origin, is accumulating in estuarine and coastal environments around the world causing damage to fauna, flora and habitats. Plastics also have the potential to accumulate in the food web, as well as causing economic losses to tourism and sea-going industries. If we are to manage this increasing threat, we must first understand where debris is accumulating and why these locations are different to others that do not accumulate large amounts of marine debris. This paper demonstrates an advection-diffusion model that includes beaching, settling, resuspension/re-floating, degradation and topographic effects on the wind in nearshore waters to quantify the relative importance of these physical processes governing plastic debris accumulation. The aim of this paper is to prioritise research that will improve modelling outputs in the future. We have found that the physical characteristic of the source location has by far the largest effect on the fate of the debris. The diffusivity, used to parameterise the sub-grid scale movements, and the relationship between debris resuspension/re-floating from beaches and the wind shadow created by high islands also has a dramatic impact on the modelling results. The rate of degradation of macroplastics into microplastics also have a large influence in the result of the modelling. The other processes presented (settling, wind drift velocity) also help determine the fate of debris, but to a lesser degree. These findings may help prioritise research on physical processes that affect plastic accumulation, leading to more accurate modelling, and subsequently management in the future.

  14. Understanding cognitive processes behind acceptance or refusal of phase I trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Mazzocco, Ketti; Gorini, Alessandra; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Participation in phase I trials gives patients the chance to obtain control over their disease by trying an experimental therapy. The patients' vulnerability, the informed consent process aiming at understanding the purpose and potential benefits of the phase I trial, and the complexity of the studies may impact the patient's final decision. Emotionally difficult health conditions may induce patients to succumb to cognitive biases, allocating attention only on a part of the provided information. Filling the gap in patients' information process can foster the implementation of strategies to help physicians tailor clinical trials' communication providing personalized support and tailored medical information around patients' need, so avoiding cognitive biases in patients and improving informed shared decision quality. The aim of the present review article focuses on the analysis of cognitive and psychological factors that affect patients' decision to participate or not to early phase clinical trials. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Powder stickiness in milk drying: uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for process understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Adrián; Gutiérrez, Soledad; Sin, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    A powder stickiness model based in the glass transition temperature (Gordon – Taylor equations) was built for a production scale milk drying process (including a spray chamber, and internal/external fluid beds). To help process understanding, the model was subjected to sensitivity analysis (SA...... for nonlinear error propagation was selected as the main UA approach. SA results show an important local sensitivity on the spray dryer, but at the end of the internal fluid bed (critical point for stickiness) minor local sensitivities were observed. Feed concentrate moisture was found as the input with major...... global sensitivity on the glass transition temperature at the critical point, so it could represent a key variable for helping on stickiness control. UA results show the major model predictions uncertainty on the spray dryer, but it does not represent a stickiness issue since the product...

  16. Reflection processing of the large-N seismic data from the Source Physics Experiment (SPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschall, Olivia C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-18

    The purpose of the SPE is to develop a more physics-based model for nuclear explosion identification to understand the development of S-waves from explosion sources in order to enhance nuclear test ban treaty monitoring.

  17. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion crack

  18. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian

    2014-01-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion – crack

  19. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalupski, Peter R.; Martin, Leigh R.; Nash, Ken; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N(double p rime),N(double p rime)-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  20. Can dual processing theory explain physics students’ performance on the Force Concept Inventory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Wood

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available According to dual processing theory there are two types, or modes, of thinking: system 1, which involves intuitive and nonreflective thinking, and system 2, which is more deliberate and requires conscious effort and thought. The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT is a widely used and robust three item instrument that measures the tendency to override system 1 thinking and to engage in reflective, system 2 thinking. Each item on the CRT has an intuitive (but wrong answer that must be rejected in order to answer the item correctly. We therefore hypothesized that performance on the CRT may give useful insights into the cognitive processes involved in learning physics, where success involves rejecting the common, intuitive ideas about the world (often called misconceptions and instead carefully applying physical concepts. This paper presents initial results from an ongoing study examining the relationship between students’ CRT scores and their performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI, which tests students’ understanding of Newtonian mechanics. We find that a higher CRT score predicts a higher FCI score for both precourse and postcourse tests. However, we also find that the FCI normalized gain is independent of CRT score. The implications of these results are discussed.

  1. Geomorphic and vegetation processes of the Willamette River floodplain, Oregon: current understanding and unanswered science questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Hulse, David; Gregory, Stanley V.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the current understanding of floodplain processes and landforms for the Willamette River and its major tributaries. The area of focus encompasses the main stem Willamette River above Newberg and the portions of the Coast Fork Willamette, Middle Fork Willamette, McKenzie, and North, South and main stem Santiam Rivers downstream of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dams. These reaches constitute a large portion of the alluvial, salmon-bearing rivers in the Willamette Basin. The geomorphic, or historical, floodplain of these rivers has two zones - the active channel where coarse sediment is mobilized and transported during annual flooding and overbank areas where fine sediment is deposited during higher magnitude floods. Historically, characteristics of the rivers and geomorphic floodplain (including longitudinal patterns in channel complexity and the abundance of side channels, islands and gravel bars) were controlled by the interactions between floods and the transport of coarse sediment and large wood. Local channel responses to these interactions were then shaped by geologic features like bedrock outcrops and variations in channel slope. Over the last 150 years, floods and the transport of coarse sediment and large wood have been substantially reduced in the basin. With dam regulation, nearly all peak flows are now confined to the main channels. Large floods (greater than 10-year recurrence interval prior to basinwide flow regulation) have been largely eliminated. Also, the magnitude and frequency of small floods (events that formerly recurred every 2–10 years) have decreased substantially. The large dams trap an estimated 50–60 percent of bed-material sediment—the building block of active channel habitats—that historically entered the Willamette River. They also trap more than 80 percent of the estimated bed material in the lower South Santiam River and Middle and Coast Forks of the Willamette River. Downstream, revetments further

  2. Seafloor Eruptions Offer a Teachable Moment to Help SEAS Students Understand Important Geological and Ecological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, L.; Williams, C. S.

    2006-12-01

    In education parlance, a teachable moment is an opportunity that arises when students are engaged and primed to learn, typically in response to some memorable event. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, even natural disasters, if meaningful to the student, often serve to catalyze intense learning. Recent eruptions at the East Pacific Rise offer a potential teachable moment for students and teachers involved with SEAS, a Ridge 2000 education outreach program. SEAS uses a combination of web-facilitated and teacher-directed activities to make the remote deep-sea environment and the process of science relevant and meaningful. SEAS is a web-based, inquiry-oriented education program for middle and high school students. It features the science associated with Ridge 2000 research. Since 2003, SEAS has focused on the integrated study site at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) to help students understand geological and ecological processes at mid-ocean ridges and hydrothermal vents. SEAS students study EPR bathymetry maps, images of lava formations, photomosaics of diffuse flow communities, succession in the Bio-Geo Transect, as well as current research conducted during spring cruises. In the Classroom to Sea Lab, students make direct comparisons between shallow-water mussels and vent mussels (from the EPR) to understand differences in feeding strategies. The recent eruptions and loss of seafloor fauna at this site offer the Ridge 2000 program the opportunity to help students better understand the ephemeral and episodic nature of ridge environments, as well as the realities and processes of science (particularly field science). In January 2007, the SEAS program will again sail with a Ridge 2000 research team, and will work with scientists to report findings through the SEAS website. The eruptions at the EPR covered much of the study site, and scientists' instruments and experiments, in fresh lava. We intend to highlight the recency and effect of the eruptions, using the students

  3. UNDERSTANDING AND PERCEPTION OF THE CHARACTER IMAGE BY PRIMARY SCHOOLCHILDREN IN THE PROCESS OF TEXT INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Hnatenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern literature research works practically assert that literature is a way of thinking in imagery, and the interpretation of art works is almost always the interpretation of imagery, in other words perfect reality. Psychologists confirm that educational process in primary school should be formed on the account of both present and potential abilities of the children. Literature is an important means of pupils’ development. Reading in grades 1 − 4 promotes the development of children’s positive moral and will-power qualitie. With its help children perceive the world, learn to understand and love beautiful things. The writer’s ideological content of a piece of literature can be revealed in images. The main objective of text interpretation in grades 1 − 4 is to promote pupils’ perception and comprehension. Nowadays the changes in educational sphere require more attention to the issue of literary perception. In 2011, primary school changed the training course of "Reading" into "Literary reading," which aims at the development of the following reader’s qualities: to be capable to independent reading,to perform different communicative and creative activities. However, the educational process observation showed the existence of problems in young learners’ perception and understanding of literary art, and especially the role of character and its images. Today, the methodology pays attention to the quality of the perception, its depth and awareness. The efficiency level of children’s literary work perception is set on the analysis of readers’ activity results. Difficulties in the determination of the literary work perception level lie in various interpretations, complexity of the perception process, necessity to reflect different sides and emotions of imagination and thinking. Many scientific works are devoted to the analysis of literary texts understanding, to the role of visual images and imagination in literary text understanding

  4. Making and Unmaking the Endangered in India (1880-Present: Understanding Animal-Criminal Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concerns of the present paper emerge from the single basic question of whether the available histories of the tiger are comprehensive enough to enable an understanding of how this nodular species comprises/contests the power dynamics of the present. Starting with this basic premise, this paper retells a series of events which go to clarify that a nuanced understanding of the manner in which a species serves certain political purposes is not possible by tracking the animal alone. A discourse on endangerment has beginnings in the body and being of species that are remarkably cut off from the tiger-the elephant, birds, and the rhino (and man if we might add-and develops with serious implications for power, resource appropriation, and criminality, over a period of time, before more directly recruiting the tiger itself. If we can refer to this as the intermittent making and unmaking of the endangered, it is by turning to the enunciations of Michel Foucault that we try to canvas a series of events that can be described as animal-criminal processes. The role of such processes in the construction of endangerment, the structuring of space, and shared ideas of man-animal relations is further discussed in this paper.

  5. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Katemari Diogo da

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the research is geographically localized, the base-line question is clear and mirrors in the researcher's own intellectual development: "How do Black women physicists describe their experiences towards the construction of a scientific identity and the pursuit of a career in physics?" Grounded on a critical race theory perspective, the study uses storytelling to analyze how these women build their identities as scientists and how they have negotiate their multiple identities within different communities in society. Findings show that social integration is a key element for Black women physicists to enter study groups, which enables access to important resources for academic success in STEM. The study has implications for physics education and policymakers. The study reveals the role of the different communities that these women are part of, and the importance of public policies targeted to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science, especially through after-school programs and financial support through higher education.

  6. Understanding the physical and social contexts of children's nonschool sedentary behavior: an ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Intille, Stephen; Wolch, Jennifer; Pentz, Mary Ann; Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund

    2014-03-01

    Research on children's sedentary behavior has relied on recall-based self-report or accelerometer methods, which do not assess the context of such behavior. This study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to determine where and with whom children's sedentary behavior occurs during their nonschool time. Children (N = 120) ages 9-13 years (51% male, 33% Hispanic) wore mobile phones that prompted surveys (20 total) for 4 days. Surveys measured current activity (eg, exercise, watching TV), physical location (eg, home, outdoors), and social company (eg, family, friends). Children engaged in a greater percentage of leisure-oriented (eg, watching TV) than productive (eg, reading, doing homework) sedentary behavior (70% vs 30%, respectively). Most of children's sedentary activity occurred at home (85%). Children's sedentary activity took place most often with family members (58%). Differences in physical context of sedentary behavior were found for older vs. younger children (P Research demonstrates the potential for using EMA to capture real-time information about children's sedentary behavior during their nonschool time.

  7. Hydrologic Connectivity for Understanding Watershed Processes: Brand-new Puzzle or Emerging Panacea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, G. A.; Roy, A. G.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    As a way to develop a more holistic approach to watershed assessment and management, the concept of hydrologic connectivity (HC) is often put at the forefront. HC can be seen as the strength of the water-mediated linkages between discrete units of the landscape and as such, it facilitates our intuitive understanding of the mechanisms driving runoff initiation and cessation. Much of the excitement surrounding HC is attributable to its potential to enhance our ability to gain insights into multiple areas including process dynamics, numerical model building, the effects of human elements in our landscape conceptualization, and the development of simplified watershed management tools. However, before such potential can be fully demonstrated, many issues must be resolved with regards to the measure of HC. Here we provide examples highlighting how connectivity can be useful towards understanding water routing in river basins, ecohydrological systems coupling, and intermittent rainfall-runoff dynamics. First, the use of connectivity metrics to examine the relative influence of surface/subsurface topography and soil characteristics on runoff generation will be discussed. Second, the effectiveness of using geochemical tracers will be examined with respect to identifying non-point runoff sources and linking hillslope-to-channel connectivity with surface water-groundwater exchanges in the biologically sensitive hyporheic zone. Third, the identification of different hydrologic thresholds will be presented as a way to discriminate the establishment of connectivity across a range of contrasted catchments located in Canada, Scotland, the USA, and Sweden. These examples will show that current challenges with regards to HC revolve around the choice of an accurate methodological framework for an appropriate translation of experimental findings into effective watershed management approaches. Addressing these questions simultaneously will lead to the emergence of HC as a powerful tool

  8. Planetary nebulae: understanding the physical and chemical evolution of dying stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, R; Kerber, F

    1997-05-30

    Planetary nebulae are one of the few classes of celestial objects that are active in every part of the electromagnetic spectrum. These fluorescing and often dusty expanding gaseous envelopes were recently found to be quite complex in their dynamics and morphology, but refined theoretical models can account for these discoveries. Great progress was also made in understanding the mechanisms that shape the nebulae and the spectra of their central stars. In addition, applications for planetary nebulae have been worked out; for example, they have been used as standard candles for long-range distances and as tracers of the enigmatic dark matter.

  9. Revisiting the Holy Grail: using plant functional traits to understand ecological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Larson, Julie E; Ames, Gregory M; Butterfield, Bradley J; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Firn, Jennifer; Laughlin, Daniel C; Sutton-Grier, Ariana E; Williams, Laura; Wright, Justin

    2017-05-01

    One of ecology's grand challenges is developing general rules to explain and predict highly complex systems. Understanding and predicting ecological processes from species' traits has been considered a 'Holy Grail' in ecology. Plant functional traits are increasingly being used to develop mechanistic models that can predict how ecological communities will respond to abiotic and biotic perturbations and how species will affect ecosystem function and services in a rapidly changing world; however, significant challenges remain. In this review, we highlight recent work and outstanding questions in three areas: (i) selecting relevant traits; (ii) describing intraspecific trait variation and incorporating this variation into models; and (iii) scaling trait data to community- and ecosystem-level processes. Over the past decade, there have been significant advances in the characterization of plant strategies based on traits and trait relationships, and the integration of traits into multivariate indices and models of community and ecosystem function. However, the utility of trait-based approaches in ecology will benefit from efforts that demonstrate how these traits and indices influence organismal, community, and ecosystem processes across vegetation types, which may be achieved through meta-analysis and enhancement of trait databases. Additionally, intraspecific trait variation and species interactions need to be incorporated into predictive models using tools such as Bayesian hierarchical modelling. Finally, existing models linking traits to community and ecosystem processes need to be empirically tested for their applicability to be realized. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  10. The Effect of Conceptual Change Model in the Senior High School Students’ Understanding and Character in Learning Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santyasa I Wayan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning physics for senior high school (SMA students is often coloured by misconceptions that hinder students in achieving deep understanding. So a relevant learning model is needed. This study aims to examine the effect of conceptual change model (CCM compared with direct instruction model (DIM on the students’ conceptual understanding and character in the subject area of motion and force. This quasi-experimental research using a non-equivalence pre-test post-test control groups design. The population is 20 classes (738 students of grade X consisted of 8 classes (272 students of SMA 1 Amlapura, 8 classes (256 students of SMA 2 Amlapura, and 6 classes (210 students of SMA 1 Manggis in Karangasem regency in Bali. The random assignment technique is used to assign 6 classes (202 students, or 26.5% of the population. In each school there are set 2 classes each as a CCM group and DIM groups. The data of students’ conceptual understanding is collected by tests, while the characters by questionnaires. To analyse the data a one way MANCOVA statistics was used. The result of the analysis showed that there was a significant difference of effect between CCM group and DIM group on the students’ conceptual understanding and character. The effect of the CCM group is higher than the DIM group on the students’ conceptual understanding and character in learning subject area of motion and force.

  11. The Process of Physics Teaching Assistants' Pedagogical Content Knowledge Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung, Eulsun

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the process of physics teaching assistants' (TAs) PCK development in the context of teaching a new undergraduate introductory physics course. "Matter and Interactions" (M&I) has recently adopted a new introductory physics course that focuses on the application of a small number of fundamental physical…

  12. Modeling Physical Processes at Galactic Scales and Above

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-12-16

    What should these lectures be? The subject is so broad that many books can be written about it. I decided to prepare these lectures as if I were teaching my own graduate student. Given my research interests, I selected what the student would need to know to be able to discuss science with me and to work on joint research projects. So, the story presented below is both personal and incomplete, but it does cover several subjects that are poorly represented in the existing textbooks (if at all). Some of topics I focus on below are closely connected, others are disjoint, some are just side detours on specific technical questions. There is an overlapping theme, however. Our goal is to follow the cosmic gas from large scales, low densities, (relatively) simple physics to progressively smaller scales, higher densities, closer relation to galaxies, and more complex and uncertain physics. We follow a "yellow brick road" from the gas well beyond any galaxy confines to the actual sites of star formation and stellar feedback. On the way we will stop at some places for a tour and run without looking back through some others. So, the road will be uneven. The organization of the material is as follows: physics of the intergalactic medium, from intergalactic medium to circumgalactic medium, interstellar medium: gas in galaxies, star formation, and stellar feedback.

  13. Individualized Physical 3-dimensional Kidney Tumor Models Constructed From 3-dimensional Printers Result in Improved Trainee Anatomic Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoedler, Margaret; Feibus, Allison H; Lange, Andrew; Maddox, Michael M; Ledet, Elisa; Thomas, Raju; Silberstein, Jonathan L

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of 3-dimensionally (3D) printed physical renal models with enhancing masses on medical trainee characterization, localization, and understanding of renal malignancy. Proprietary software was used to import standard computed tomography (CT) cross-sectional imaging into 3D printers to create physical models of renal units with enhancing renal lesions in situ. Six different models were printed from a transparent plastic resin; the normal parenchyma was printed in a clear, translucent plastic, with a red hue delineating the suspicious renal lesion. Medical students, who had completed their first year of training, were given an overview and tasked with completion of RENAL nephrometry scores, separately using CT imaging and 3D models. Trainees were also asked to complete a questionnaire about their experience. Variability between trainees was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and kappa statistics were used to compare the trainee to experts. Overall trainee nephrometry score accuracy was significantly improved with the 3D model vs CT scan (P renal mass. Physical 3D models using readily available printing techniques improve trainees' understanding and characterization of individual patients' enhancing renal lesions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Outreach activity by using three-dimensional nuclear chart. Understanding nuclear physics and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional nuclear chart is constructed with toy blocks for usage of outreach activity related on nuclear physics and atomic energy. The height of each block represents quantities like atomic mass per nucleon, the total half-life, etc. The bulk properties of the nuclei can be easily understood by using these charts. Explanations for the energy generation of nuclear fusion and fission are visually given. In addition, we newly set another chart with blocks of fission fragment mass distribution from U-235 + a thermal neutron. As an example, the origin of abundances of rather radioactive isotopes like Sr-90 and Cs-137 is explained which created in nuclear reactor and also distributed in the eastern side of Fukushima prefecture due to the accident of Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Using our charts, lectures entitled 'Alchemy of the Universe' were delivered to high schools and public places. (author)

  15. Understanding exercise self-efficacy and barriers to leisure-time physical activity among postnatal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Anita G; Bray, Steven R

    2011-07-01

    Studies have demonstrated that postnatal women are at high risk for physical inactivity and generally show lower levels of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) compared to prepregnancy. The overall purpose of the current study was to investigate social cognitive correlates of LTPA among postnatal women during a 6-month period following childbirth. A total of 230 women (mean age = 30.9) provided descriptive data regarding barriers to LTPA and completed measures of LTPA and self-efficacy (exercise and barrier) for at least one of the study data collection periods. A total of 1,520 barriers were content analyzed. Both exercise and barrier self-efficacy were positively associated with subsequent LTPA. Exercise self-efficacy at postnatal week 12 predicted LTPA from postnatal weeks 12 to 18 (β = .40, R (2) = .18) and exercise self-efficacy at postnatal week 24 predicted LTPA during weeks 24-30 (β = .49, R (2) = .30). Barrier self-efficacy at week 18 predicted LTPA from weeks 18 to 24 (β = .33, R (2) = .13). The results of the study identify a number of barriers to LTPA at multiple time points closely following childbirth which may hinder initiation, resumption or maintenance of LTPA. The results also suggest that higher levels of exercise and barrier self-efficacy are prospectively associated with higher levels of LTPA in the early postnatal period. Future interventions should be designed to investigate causal effects of developing participants' exercise and barrier self-efficacy for promoting and maintaining LTPA during the postnatal period.

  16. Tsallis entropy and complexity theory in the understanding of physics of precursory accelerating seismicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallianatos, Filippos; Chatzopoulos, George

    2014-05-01

    Strong observational indications support the hypothesis that many large earthquakes are preceded by accelerating seismic release rates which described by a power law time to failure relation. In the present work, a unified theoretical framework is discussed based on the ideas of non-extensive statistical physics along with fundamental principles of physics such as the energy conservation in a faulted crustal volume undergoing stress loading. We derive the time-to-failure power-law of: a) cumulative number of earthquakes, b) cumulative Benioff strain and c) cumulative energy released in a fault system that obeys a hierarchical distribution law extracted from Tsallis entropy. Considering the analytic conditions near the time of failure, we derive from first principles the time-to-failure power-law and show that a common critical exponent m(q) exists, which is a function of the non-extensive entropic parameter q. We conclude that the cumulative precursory parameters are function of the energy supplied to the system and the size of the precursory volume. In addition the q-exponential distribution which describes the fault system is a crucial factor on the appearance of power-law acceleration in the seismicity. Our results based on Tsallis entropy and the energy conservation gives a new view on the empirical laws derived by other researchers. Examples and applications of this technique to observations of accelerating seismicity will also be presented and discussed. This work was implemented through the project IMPACT-ARC in the framework of action "ARCHIMEDES III-Support of Research Teams at TEI of Crete" (MIS380353) of the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds

  17. Understanding industrial energy use: Physical energy intensity changes in Indian manufacturing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakara Reddy, B.; Kumar Ray, Binay

    2011-01-01

    This study develops and examines physical energy intensity indicators in five industrial sub-sectors-iron and steel, aluminum, textiles, paper, and cement-and investigates mitigation options for energy related CO 2 emissions (during 1991-2005). Decomposition analysis has been employed to separate the structural effect (share of different products in the sector) from pure intensity effect (efficiency increase through technical improvement) for each industry. The results show that the combined effect (considering both structural and intensity effects together) on both iron and steel and paper and pulp industries is negative while it is positive for aluminum and textiles. The intensity effect for all the industries, barring textiles, is negative showing improvement in energy efficiency; iron and steel in particular, has seen a decrease of 134 PJ in energy consumption owing to improvements in efficiency. However, energy intensity in textiles has risen by 47 PJ due to increased mechanization. Structural effect is positive in aluminum and iron and steel industries indicating a movement towards higher energy-intensive products. In the case of aluminum, positive structural effect dominates over negative intensive effect whereas negative intensive effect dominates iron and steel industry. The paper helps in designing policies for improving productivity and reduce energy consumption in India's manufacturing sector. - Highlights: → The study develops physical energy intensity indicators in industrial sub-sectors of India. → It identifies technological and other options for reduction in energy consumption. → The study quantifies savings in energy as well as CO 2 emissions. → The indicators are useful in examining structural changes.

  18. Understanding snow-transport processes shaping the mountain snow-cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mott

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountain snow-cover is normally heterogeneously distributed due to wind and precipitation interacting with the snow cover on various scales. The aim of this study was to investigate snow deposition and wind-induced snow-transport processes on different scales and to analyze some major drift events caused by north-west storms during two consecutive accumulation periods. In particular, we distinguish between the individual processes that cause specific drifts using a physically based model approach. Very high resolution wind fields (5 m were computed with the atmospheric model Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS and used as input for a model of snow-surface processes (Alpine3D to calculate saltation, suspension and preferential deposition of precipitation. Several flow features during north-west storms were identified with input from a high-density network of permanent and mobile weather stations and indirect estimations of wind directions from snow-surface structures, such as snow dunes and sastrugis. We also used Terrestrial and Airborne Laser Scanning measurements to investigate snow-deposition patterns and to validate the model. The model results suggest that the in-slope deposition patterns, particularly two huge cross-slope cornice-like drifts, developed only when the prevailing wind direction was northwesterly and were formed mainly due to snow redistribution processes (saltation-driven. In contrast, more homogeneous deposition patterns on a ridge scale were formed during the same periods mainly due to preferential deposition of precipitation. The numerical analysis showed that snow-transport processes were sensitive to the changing topography due to the smoothing effect of the snow cover.

  19. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF E-LAB TO IMPROVE GENERIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT OF PHYSICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Siswanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of this sudy are: (1 investigate the effectiveness of E-Lab to improve generic science skills and understanding the concepts oh physics; and (2 investigate the effect of generic science skills towards understanding the concept of students after learning by using the E-Lab. The method used in this study is a pre-experimental design with one group pretest-posttest. Subjects were students of Physics Education in University PGRI Semarang with methode random sampling. The results showed that: (1 learning to use E-Lab effective to increase generic science skills of students; and (2 Generic science skills give positive effect on student conceptual understanding on the material of the photoelectric effect, compton effect, and electron diffraction. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu: (1 menyelidiki efektifitas E-Lab untuk meningkatkan keterampilan generik sains dan pemahaman konsep mahasiswa; dan (2  menyelidiki pengaruh keterampilan generik sains terhadap pemahaman konsep mahasiswa setelah dilakukan pembelajaran dengan menggunakan E-Lab. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pre-experimental dengan desain one group pretest-posttest. Subjek penelitian adalah mahasiswa Program Studi Pendidikan  Fisika  Universitas PGRI Semarang, dengan metode pengambilan sampel penelitian secara random. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bahwa: (1 pembelajaran menggunakan E-Lab efektif untuk meningkatkan keterampilan generik sains mahasiswa; dan  (2 Keterampilan generik sains berpengaruh positif terhadap pemahaman konsep mahasiswa pada materi efek fotolistrik, efek compton, dan difraksi elektron. 

  20. Theoretical and methodological foundation of the process of students’ physical training of higher educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilipej L. P.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the existent system of physical education is considered in the higher institutes of Ukraine. Information of unsatisfactory level of physical preparedness of university entrants and graduating students of higher institutes is resulted. The lacks of construction of process of physical education are shown on the basis of normatively-command approach. Absence of the programs, which take into account motivation and terms of activity of higher institutes, disparity the requirements of integration in the river-bed of the Bologna Process, is shown. The analysis of publications is resulted in accordance with the modern scientific paradigm of construction of the system of physical education of students on the basis of methodology of synergetics. Information of the questionnaire questioning is utillized in research. Cross-correlation connections are presented between elements of physical education systems, which influence on efficiency of process. The basic requirements of construction of process of physical education of students of institutes of higher are set.

  1. A Trusted Autonomic Architecture to Safeguard Cyber-Physical Control Leaf Nodes and Protect Process Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Chiluvuri, Nayana Teja

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems are networked through IT infrastructure and susceptible to malware. Threats targeting process control are much more safety-critical than traditional computing systems since they jeopardize the integrity of physical infrastructure. Existing defence mechanisms address security at the network nodes but do not protect the physical infrastructure if network integrity is compromised. An interface guardian architecture is implemented on cyber-physical control leaf nodes to mai...

  2. Understanding adolescent mental health: the influence of social processes, doing gender and gendered power relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Asplund, Kenneth; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2009-11-01

    Despite a well-documented gender pattern in adolescent mental health, research investigating possible explanatory factors from a gender-theoretical approach is scarce. This paper reports a grounded theory study based on 29 focus groups. The aim was to explore 16- to 19-year-old students' perceptions of what is significant for mental health, and to apply a gender analysis to the findings in order to advance understanding of the gender pattern in adolescent mental health. Significant factors were identified in three social processes categories, including both positive and negative aspects: (1) social interactions, (2) performance and (3) responsibility. Girls more often experienced negative aspects of these processes, placing them at greater risk for mental health problems. Boys' more positive mental health appeared to be associated with their low degree of responsibility-taking and beneficial positions relative to girls. Negotiating cultural norms of femininity and masculinity seemed to be more strenuous for girls, which could place them at a disadvantage with regard to mental health. Social factors and processes (particularly responsibility), gendered power relations and constructions of masculinities and femininities should be acknowledged as important for adolescent mental health.

  3. Toward a better understanding of the complex geochemical processes governing subsurface contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puls, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Identification and understanding of the geochemical processes, including ion exchange, precipitation, organic partitioning, chemisorption, aqueous complexation, and colloidal stability and transport, controlling subsurface contamination is essential for making accurate predictions of the fate and transport of these constituents. Current approaches to quantify the effect of these processes primarily involve laboratory techniques, including the use of closed static systems (batch experiments) where small amounts of aquifer solids or minerals are contacted with an aqueous phase containing the components of interest for relatively short durations; and dynamic systems (column experiments) where a larger segment of the aquifer is investigated by analyzing the breakthrough profiles of reactive and non-reactive species. Both approaches are constrained by differences in scale, alteration of media during sample collection and use, and spatial variability. More field reactivity studies are needed to complement established laboratory approaches for the determination of retardation factors and scaling factors, corroboration of batch and column results, and validation of sampling techniques. These studies also serve to accentuate areas of geochemical process research where data deficiencies exist, such as the kinetics of adsorption-desorption, metal-organic-mineral interactions, and colloidal mobility. The advantages and disadvantages of the above approaches are discussed in the context of achieving a more completely integrated approach to geochemical transport experiments, with supportive data presented from selected studies. (Author) (16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.)

  4. Modelling dewatering behaviour through an understanding of solids formation processes. Part II--solids separation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustan, A C; Cohen, B; Petrie, J G

    2005-05-30

    An understanding of the mechanisms which control solids formation can provide information on the characteristics of the solids which are formed. The nature of the solids formed in turn impacts on dewatering behaviour. The 'upstream' solids formation determines a set of suspension characteristics: solids concentration, particle size distribution, solution ionic strength and electrostatic surface potential. These characteristics together define the suspension's rheological properties. However, the complicated interdependence of these has precluded the prediction of suspension rheology from such a fundamental description of suspension characteristics. Recent shear yield stress models, applied in this study to compressive yield, significantly reduce the empiricism required for the description of compressive rheology. Suspension compressibility and permeability uniquely define the dewatering behaviour, described in terms of settling, filtration and mechanical expression. These modes of dewatering may be described in terms of the same fundamental suspension mechanics model. In this way, it is possible to link dynamically the processes of solids formation and dewatering of the resultant suspension. This, ultimately, opens the door to improved operability of these processes. In part I of this paper we introduced an integrated system model for solids formation and dewatering. This model was demonstrated for the upstream processes using experimental data. In this current paper models of colloidal interactions and dewatering are presented and compared to experimental results from batch filtration tests. A novel approach to predicting suspension compressibility and permeability using a single test configuration is presented and tested.

  5. Using Qualitative Methods to Understand Physical Activity and Weight Management Among Bangladeshis in New York City, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Lindsey; Mili, Saima; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia

    2016-07-07

    South Asians experience high rates of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, coupled with low rates of reported physical activity. We report findings from a qualitative sub-study that was conducted in 2013 among Bangladeshi immigrants in New York City to understand factors that affect physical activity practices and weight management in this community. Qualitative study participants were recruited from community-based settings. Sex-specific focus groups were conducted by trained community health workers. Proceedings were audio-recorded for translation and transcription and coded using a constant comparative approach. Data were coded using Atlas.ti software. Six focus groups were completed with a final sample of 67 participants (63% male, 37% female). Mean participant age was 42 years; mean years of residence in the United States was 12. Key themes that emerged were beliefs about modesty and sex-separated facilities that may prevent women from engaging in physical activity. Distinctions were made between men and women about what constitutes exercise versus physical activity; religious prayer was considered to be health-promoting because of the movement involved. Other important themes that emerged were cultural dietary practices and evolving conceptions of healthy weight. Tailored interventions that take into account the cultural context of this growing community are needed. Findings may also provide insight into barriers to health promotion experienced by other US Muslim communities, which are growing rapidly.

  6. Understanding Laser-Imprint Effects on Plastic-Target Implosions on OMEGA with New Physics Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S. X.; Michel, D. T.; Davis, A. K.; Betti, R.; Radha, P. B.; Campbell, E. M.; Froula, D. H.; Stoeckl, C.

    2016-10-01

    Using the state-of-the-art physics models (nonlocal thermal transport, cross-beam energy transfer, and first-principles equation of state) recently implemented in our two-dimensional hydrocode DRACO, we have performed a systematic study of laser-imprint effects on plastic-target implosions on OMEGA by both simulations and experiments. Through varying the laser picket intensity, the imploding shells were set at different adiabats ranging from α = 2 to α = 6 . As the shell adiabat α decreases, we observed: (1) the measured shell thickness at the hot spot emission becomes larger than the uniform prediction; (2) the hot-spot core emits and neutron burn starts earlier than the corresponding 1-D prediction; and (3) the measured neutron yields are significantly reduced from their 1-D designs. Most of these experimental observations are well reproduced by our DRACO simulations with laser imprints. These studies clearly identify that laser imprint is the major cause for target performance degradation of OMEGA implosions of α ignition attempts. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  7. Millimeter-wave imaging of magnetic fusion plasmas: technology innovations advancing physics understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Tobias, B.; Chang, Y.-T.; Yu, J.-H.; Li, M.; Hu, F.; Chen, M.; Mamidanna, M.; Phan, T.; Pham, A.-V.; Gu, J.; Liu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Domier, C. W.; Shi, L.; Valeo, E.; Kramer, G. J.; Kuwahara, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Mase, A.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.

    2017-07-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging is a passive radiometric technique that measures electron temperature fluctuations; and microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) is an active radar imaging technique that measures electron density fluctuations. Microwave imaging diagnostic instruments employing these techniques have made important contributions to fusion science and have been adopted at major fusion facilities worldwide including DIII-D, EAST, ASDEX Upgrade, HL-2A, KSTAR, LHD, and J-TEXT. In this paper, we describe the development status of three major technological advancements: custom mm-wave integrated circuits (ICs), digital beamforming (DBF), and synthetic diagnostic modeling (SDM). These have the potential to greatly advance microwave fusion plasma imaging, enabling compact and low-noise transceiver systems with real-time, fast tracking ability to address critical fusion physics issues, including ELM suppression and disruptions in the ITER baseline scenario, naturally ELM-free states such as QH-mode, and energetic particle confinement (i.e. Alfvén eigenmode stability) in high-performance regimes that include steady-state and advanced tokamak scenarios. Furthermore, these systems are fully compatible with today’s most challenging non-inductive heating and current drive systems and capable of operating in harsh environments, making them the ideal approach for diagnosing long-pulse and steady-state tokamaks.

  8. Humanoid infers Archimedes' principle: understanding physical relations and object affordances through cumulative learning experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve ‘The Crow and the Pitcher’ task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause–effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended ‘learning–prediction–abstraction’ loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations. Driven by the proposed architecture, the ensuing robot behaviours illustrated causal learning and anticipation similar to natural agents. Results further demonstrate that by cumulatively interacting with few objects, the predictions of the robot in case of novel objects converge close to the physical law, i.e. the Archimedes principle: this being independent of both the objects explored during learning and the order of their cumulative exploration. PMID:27466440

  9. Humanoid infers Archimedes' principle: understanding physical relations and object affordances through cumulative learning experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ajaz Ahmad; Mohan, Vishwanathan; Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve 'The Crow and the Pitcher' task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause-effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended 'learning-prediction-abstraction' loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations. Driven by the proposed architecture, the ensuing robot behaviours illustrated causal learning and anticipation similar to natural agents. Results further demonstrate that by cumulatively interacting with few objects, the predictions of the robot in case of novel objects converge close to the physical law, i.e. the Archimedes principle: this being independent of both the objects explored during learning and the order of their cumulative exploration. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Carbon-water Cycling in the Critical Zone: Understanding Ecosystem Process Variability Across Complex Terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, Holly [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Brooks, Paul [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2016-06-16

    One of the largest knowledge gaps in environmental science is the ability to understand and predict how ecosystems will respond to future climate variability. The links between vegetation, hydrology, and climate that control carbon sequestration in plant biomass and soils remain poorly understood. Soil respiration is the second largest carbon flux of terrestrial ecosystems, yet there is no consensus on how respiration will change as water availability and temperature co-vary. To address this knowledge gap, we use the variation in soil development and topography across an elevation and climate gradient on the Front Range of Colorado to conduct a natural experiment that enables us to examine the co-evolution of soil carbon, vegetation, hydrology, and climate in an accessible field laboratory. The goal of this project is to further our ability to combine plant water availability, carbon flux and storage, and topographically driven hydrometrics into a watershed scale predictive model of carbon balance. We hypothesize: (i) landscape structure and hydrology are important controls on soil respiration as a result of spatial variability in both physical and biological drivers: (ii) variation in rates of soil respiration during the growing season is due to corresponding shifts in belowground carbon inputs from vegetation; and (iii) aboveground carbon storage (biomass) and species composition are directly correlated with soil moisture and therefore, can be directly related to subsurface drainage patterns.

  11. Open Water Processes of the San Francisco Estuary: From Physical Forcing to Biological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Kimmerer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of the open waters of the San Francisco Estuary. This estuary is well known for the extent to which it has been altered through loss of wetlands, changes in hydrography, and the introduction of chemical and biological contaminants. It is also one of the most studied estuaries in the world, with much of the recent research effort aimed at supporting restoration efforts. In this review I emphasize the conceptual foundations for our current understanding of estuarine dynamics, particularly those aspects relevant to restoration. Several themes run throughout this paper. First is the critical role physical dynamics play in setting the stage for chemical and biological responses. Physical forcing by the tides and by variation in freshwater input combine to control the movement of the salinity field, and to establish stratification, mixing, and dilution patterns throughout the estuary. Many aspects of estuarine dynamics respond to interannual variation in freshwater flow; in particular, abundance of several estuarine-dependent species of fish and shrimp varies positively with flow, although the mechanisms behind these relationships are largely unknown. The second theme is the importance of time scales in determining the degree of interaction between dynamic processes. Physical effects tend to dominate when they operate at shorter time scales than biological processes; when the two time scales are similar, important interactions can arise between physical and biological variability. These interactions can be seen, for example, in the response of phytoplankton blooms, with characteristic time scales of days, to stratification events occurring during neap tides. The third theme is the key role of introduced species in all estuarine habitats; particularly noteworthy are introduced waterweeds and fishes in the tidal freshwater reaches of the estuary, and introduced clams there and in brackish water. The

  12. A self-determination theory approach to understanding the antecedents of teachers' motivational strategies in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ian M; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Standage, Martyn

    2008-02-01

    Physical education teachers can influence students' self-determination through the motivational strategies that they use. The current study examined how teachers' reported use of three motivational strategies (providing a meaningful rationale, providing instrumental help and support, and gaining an understanding of the students) were predicted by perceived job pressure, perceptions of student self-determination, the teachers' autonomous orientation, psychological need satisfaction, and self-determination to teach. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which perceived job pressure, perceptions of student self-determination, and teacher autonomous orientation predicted teacher psychological need satisfaction, which, in turn positively influenced teacher self-determination. The last positively predicted the use of all three strategies. Direct positive effects of teachers' psychological need satisfaction on the strategies of gaining an understanding of students and instrumental help and support were also found. In summary, factors that influence teacher motivation may also indirectly affect their motivational strategies toward students.

  13. Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

  14. Preparation and Support of Patients through the Transplant Process: Understanding the Recipients' Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Mauthner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation for heart transplant commonly includes booklets, instructional videos, personalized teaching sessions, and mentorship. This paper explores heart transplant recipients’ thoughts on their preparation and support through the transplant process. Twenty-five interviews were audio-/videotaped capturing voice and body language and transcribed verbatim. Coding addressed language, bodily gesture, volume, and tone in keeping with our visual methodology. Recipients reported that only someone who had a transplant truly understands the experience. As participants face illness and life-altering experiences, maintaining a positive attitude and hope is essential to coping well. Healthcare professionals provide ongoing care and reassurance about recipients’ medical status. Mentors, family members, and close friends play vital roles in supporting recipients. Participants reported that only heart transplant recipients understood the experience, the hope, and ultimately the suffering associated with living with another persons’ heart. Attention needs to be focused not solely on the use of teaching modalities, but also on the development of innovative support networks. This will promote patient and caregiver engagement in self-management. Enhancing clinicians’ knowledge of the existential aspects of transplantation will provide them with a nuanced understanding of the patients’ experience, which will ultimately enhance their ability to better prepare and support patients and their caregivers.

  15. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R. [Univ. of New Nexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Minnick, K. [Minnick & Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Our overall goal for this multi-year project is to develop and validate an alternative assessment format that effectively measures middle school students understanding of the relationships among selected science concepts and processes. In this project, we collaborate with the staff of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s TOPS Program and the Programs participating teachers and their students. We also work with selected middle school science teachers from the TOPS program at Sandia National Laboratories. Our goal for this past year was to develop and field test informally a variety of potential measurement formats. This work has allowed us to identify formats to test during the validation phase of the project which will occur during the second year.

  16. Understanding, representing and communicating earth system processes in weather and climate within CNRCWP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushama, Laxmi; Arora, Vivek; de Elia, Ramon; Déry, Stephen; Duguay, Claude; Gachon, Philippe; Gyakum, John; Laprise, René; Marshall, Shawn; Monahan, Adam; Scinocca, John; Thériault, Julie; Verseghy, Diana; Zwiers, Francis

    2017-04-01

    The Canadian Network for Regional Climate and Weather Processes (CNRCWP) provides significant advances and innovative research towards the ultimate goal of reducing uncertainty in numerical weather prediction and climate projections for Canada's Northern and Arctic regions. This talk will provide an overview of the Network and selected results related to the assessment of the added value of high-resolution modelling that has helped fill critical knowledge gaps in understanding the dynamics of extreme temperature and precipitation events and the complex land-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks in Canada's northern and Arctic regions. In addition, targeted developments in the Canadian regional climate model, that facilitate direct application of model outputs in impact and adaptation studies, particularly those related to the water, energy and infrastructure sectors will also be discussed. The close collaboration between the Network and its partners and end users contributed significantly to this effort.

  17. Piloting a logic-based framework for understanding organisational change process for a health IT implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diment, Kieren; Garrety, Karin; Yu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how a method for evaluating organisational change based on the theory of logical types can be used for classifying organisational change processes to understand change after the implementation of an electronic documentation system in a residential aged care facility. In this instance we assess the organisational change reflected by care staff's perceptions of the benefits of the new documentation system at one site, at pre-implementation, and at 12 months post-implementation. The results show how a coherent view from the staff as a whole of the personal benefits, the benefits for others and the benefits for the organization create a situation of positive feedback leading to embeddedness of the documentation system into the site, and a broader appreciation of the potential capabilities of the electronic documentation system.

  18. Adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, and peer liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-01-01

    A three-wave longitudinal study among ethnically diverse preadolescents (N = 597 at Time 1, ages 9-11) was conducted to examine adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, victimization, and peer liking indexed by peer acceptance and friendships. A series of nested structural equation models tested the hypothesized links among these peer-domain factors. It was hypothesized that (1) relational aggression trails both adaptive and maladaptive processes, linking to more peer victimization and more peer liking, whereas physical aggression is maladaptive, resulting in more peer victimization and less peer liking; (2) physical and relational victimization is maladaptive, relating to more aggression and less peer liking; (3) peer liking may be the social context that promotes relational aggression (not physical aggression), whereas peer liking may protect against peer victimization, regardless of its type; and (4) peer liking mediates the link between forms of aggression and forms of peer victimization. Results showed that higher levels of peer liking predicted relative increases in relational aggression (not physical aggression), which in turn led to more peer liking. On the other hand, more peer liking was predictive of relative decreases in relational aggression and relational victimization in transition to the next grade (i.e., fifth grade). In addition, relational victimization predicted relative increases in relational aggression and relative decreases in peer liking. Similarly, physical aggression was consistently and concurrently associated more physical victimization and was marginally predictive of relative increases in physical victimization in transition to the next grade. More peer liking predicted relative decreases in physical victimization, which resulted in lower levels of peer liking. The directionality and magnitude of these paths did not differ between boys and girls. © 2013 Wiley

  19. Understanding the creation of & reducing surface microroughness during polishing & post-processing of glass optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratwala, Tayyab [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-22

    In the follow study, we have developed a detailed understanding of the chemical and mechanical microscopic interactions that occur during polishing affecting the resulting surface microroughness of the workpiece. Through targeted experiments and modeling, the quantitative relationships of many important polishing parameters & characteristics affecting surface microroughness have been determined. These behaviors and phenomena have been described by a number of models including: (a) the Ensemble Hertzian Multi Gap (EHMG) model used to predict the removal rate and roughness at atomic force microscope (AFM) scale lengths as a function of various polishing parameters, (b) the Island Distribution Gap (IDG) model used to predict the roughness at larger scale lengths, (c) the Deraguin-Verwey-Landau-Overbeek (DLVO) 3-body electrostatic colloidal model used to predict the interaction of slurry particles at the interface and roughness behavior as a function of pH, and (d) a diffusion/chemical reaction rate model of the incorporation of impurities species into the polishing surface layer (called the Bielby layer). Based on this improved understanding, novel strategies to polish the workpiece have been developed simultaneously leading to both ultrasmooth surfaces and high material removal rates. Some of these strategies include: (a) use of narrow PSD slurries, (b) a novel diamond conditioning recipe of the lap to increase the active contact area between the workpiece and lap without destroying its surface figure, (c) proper control of pH for a given glass type to allow for a uniform distribution of slurry particles at the interface, and (d) increase in applied load just up to the transition between molecular to plastic removal regime for a single slurry particle. These techniques have been incorporated into a previously developed finishing process called Convergent Polishing leading to not just economical finishing process with improved surface figure control, but also

  20. Omics Approaches for Understanding Grapevine Berry Development: Regulatory Networks Associated with Endogenous Processes and Environmental Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Serrano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine fruit development is a dynamic process that can be divided into three stages: formation (I, lag (II, and ripening (III, in which physiological and biochemical changes occur, leading to cell differentiation and accumulation of different solutes. These stages can be positively or negatively affected by multiple environmental factors. During the last decade, efforts have been made to understand berry development from a global perspective. Special attention has been paid to transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with the control of grape berry development, and how external factors affect the ripening process. In this review, we focus on the integration of global approaches, including proteomics, metabolomics, and especially transcriptomics, to understand grape berry development. Several aspects will be considered, including seed development and the production of seedless fruits; veraison, at which anthocyanin accumulation begins in the berry skin of colored varieties; and hormonal regulation of berry development and signaling throughout ripening, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of hormone receptors, protein kinases, and genes related to secondary messenger sensing. Finally, berry responses to different environmental factors, including abiotic (temperature, water-related stress and UV-B radiation and biotic (fungi and viruses stresses, and how they can significantly modify both, development and composition of vine fruit, will be discussed. Until now, advances have been made due to the application of Omics tools at different molecular levels. However, the potential of these technologies should not be limited to the study of single-level questions; instead, data obtained by these platforms should be integrated to unravel the molecular aspects of grapevine development. Therefore, the current challenge is the generation of new tools that integrate large-scale data to assess new questions in this field, and to support