WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding oceanic processes

  1. Understanding Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This curriculum module is designed for students who are taking high school chemistry. Students should already have some experience with the following: (1) Understanding and reading the pH scale; (2) Knowledge of the carbon cycle; (3) Using scientific notation to express large and small values; and (4) Reading chemical equations. This curriculum…

  2. Introduction to Indian Ocean biogeochemical processes and ecological variability: Current understanding and emerging perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wiggert, J.D.; Hood, R.R.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Brink, K.H.; Smith, S.L.

    and underlying motivations are discussed in the monograph’s preface, while current and emerging fundamental scientific questions, as well as near- future potential for leveraging ongoing observing system in- frastructure expansion, are discussed in the closing... materialize with greater frequency. The global coverage afforded by remote sens- ing platforms, in particular the ongoing extension of ocean color-based capabilities, should also motivate more active programs of sampling in heretofore poorly characterized...

  3. From the ocean to a salt marsh: towards understanding iron reduction processes with FORC-PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraszko, J. R.; Lascu, I.; Collins, S. M.; Harrison, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Biogenic magnetic minerals are a high fidelity recorder of climate change. Their sensitivity to sedimentary redox conditions and bottom water ventilation have the potential to provide useful insights into past diagenetic conditions. However, the mechanisms controlling preservation and dissolution of magnetosomes are not fully understood, thus undermining the reliability of the paleomagnetic records in marine environments. Recovering information about the diagenetic past of the sediment is a crucial challenge; specifically, the biogenic components need to be identified and unmixed from the bulk magnetic signal. We address the issue in this study by applying Principal Component Analysis on First Order Reversal Curve diagrams (FORC-PCA) in case studies of cores obtained from the Iberian Margin and the sedimentologically active coastal salt marshes of Norfolk. We demonstrate the applicability of FORC-PCA as a new environmental proxy, yielding a high resolution temporal marine record of environmental changes reflected in magnetic composition over the last 194 kyr. The strongest variations are observed in the microbially derived components, the bulk properties of the sediment being controlled by a low coercivity SP-SD component which is generally anticorrelated with the magnetosome signal. Supported by TEM studies, we suggest the prevalence of clusters of nano-particles of magnetite associated with iron reduction. To further investigate the mechanisms controlling these processes, the active sedimentary environment of Norfolk was chosen as a case study of early diagenesis controlled by strong vertical geochemical gradients.

  4. Fritz Schott's Contributions to the Understanding of the Ocean Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbeck, M.

    2009-04-01

    driving force behind the Collaborative Research Project "Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation" which was funded from 1996-2006 by the German Research Foundation (DFG). Within this project, he and his colleagues made major contributions to our understanding of the sinking of cold, dense waters in the northern North Atlantic, a process critical for the deep ocean circulation as well as the role played by the Gulf Stream and Deep Western Boundary current system for climate. The starting point of this project was again the observation of the ocean. Vertical velocity and hydrographic measurements during active convection carried out in the Greenland Sea, the Labrador Sea and the Gulf of Lions represents the observational basis of the fundamental work regarding the open-ocean convection.

  5. The Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems program: Understanding and managing our coastal ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eden, H.F.; Mooers, C.N.K.

    1990-06-01

    The goal of COPS is to couple a program of regular observations to numerical models, through techniques of data assimilation, in order to provide a predictive capability for the US coastal ocean including the Great Lakes, estuaries, and the entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The objectives of the program include: determining the predictability of the coastal ocean and the processes that govern the predictability; developing efficient prediction systems for the coastal ocean based on the assimilation of real-time observations into numerical models; and coupling the predictive systems for the physical behavior of the coastal ocean to predictive systems for biological, chemical, and geological processes to achieve an interdisciplinary capability. COPS will provide the basis for effective monitoring and prediction of coastal ocean conditions by optimizing the use of increased scientific understanding, improved observations, advanced computer models, and computer graphics to make the best possible estimates of sea level, currents, temperatures, salinities, and other properties of entire coastal regions

  6. Ocean processes at the Antarctic continental slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Karen J; Schmidtko, Sunke; Heuzé, Céline; Kaiser, Jan; Jickells, Timothy D; Queste, Bastien Y; Stevens, David P; Wadley, Martin; Thompson, Andrew F; Fielding, Sophie; Guihen, Damien; Creed, Elizabeth; Ridley, Jeff K; Smith, Walker

    2014-07-13

    The Antarctic continental shelves and slopes occupy relatively small areas, but, nevertheless, are important for global climate, biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem functioning. Processes of water mass transformation through sea ice formation/melting and ocean-atmosphere interaction are key to the formation of deep and bottom waters as well as determining the heat flux beneath ice shelves. Climate models, however, struggle to capture these physical processes and are unable to reproduce water mass properties of the region. Dynamics at the continental slope are key for correctly modelling climate, yet their small spatial scale presents challenges both for ocean modelling and for observational studies. Cross-slope exchange processes are also vital for the flux of nutrients such as iron from the continental shelf into the mixed layer of the Southern Ocean. An iron-cycling model embedded in an eddy-permitting ocean model reveals the importance of sedimentary iron in fertilizing parts of the Southern Ocean. Ocean gliders play a key role in improving our ability to observe and understand these small-scale processes at the continental shelf break. The Gliders: Excellent New Tools for Observing the Ocean (GENTOO) project deployed three Seagliders for up to two months in early 2012 to sample the water to the east of the Antarctic Peninsula in unprecedented temporal and spatial detail. The glider data resolve small-scale exchange processes across the shelf-break front (the Antarctic Slope Front) and the front's biogeochemical signature. GENTOO demonstrated the capability of ocean gliders to play a key role in a future multi-disciplinary Southern Ocean observing system.

  7. Towards better process understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matero, Sanni Elina; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J; Poutiainen, Sami

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing of tablets involves many unit operations that possess multivariate and complex characteristics. The interactions between the material characteristics and process related variation are presently not comprehensively analyzed due to univariate detection methods. As a consequence......, current best practice to control a typical process is to not allow process-related factors to vary i.e. lock the production parameters. The problem related to the lack of sufficient process understanding is still there: the variation within process and material properties is an intrinsic feature...... and cannot be compensated for with constant process parameters. Instead, a more comprehensive approach based on the use of multivariate tools for investigating processes should be applied. In the pharmaceutical field these methods are referred to as Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools that aim...

  8. Surficial Expressions of Deeper Processes- Ridge 2000 Spurs Understanding of Mantle-Hydrothermal Connections and the Role of Crustal Processes at Oceanic Spreading Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, D. K.

    2011-12-01

    A decade ago the Ridge 2000 (R2K) program began implementing the Integrated Studies Site (ISS) strategy as a means to advance understanding of the linked magmatic/tectonic/hydrothermal systems that dictate the structure and ecosystems observed in young crust along the spreading axis. Through comparison amongst ISSs and other well-studied sites, where controlling factors such as spreading rate or tectonic/thermal setting differ, a number of new insights have been gained. I will review progress on 3 aspects, emphasizing R2K contributions but also noting a few other recent results: the pattern of magma supply, along and across axis; ridge segmentation and crust/mantle interplay; threshold behavior and limiting processes that are manifested in crustal properties. The results are derived from petrological/geochemical, seismic (imaging, seismicity, compliance), electromagnetic, modeling, and mapping investigations, so I will touch on each of these types of constraint. The breadth of the melt supply zone is an example where R2K results document that influx to at least the lower crust can extend out several km beyond the axial graben. Such knowledge addresses a fundamental problem in Earth Sciences- how magmatism and faulting interact and the potential for hydrothermal circulation to both influence, and be influenced by, their distributions. In addition to briefly summarizing work already completed, I will highlight efforts on the mantle portions of the Juan de Fuca and Lau ISS that are currently underway, using data/modeling from the final phase of R2K, to tease out further connections between mantle processes and crustal structure, within which the now-known-to-be-ubiquitous hydrothermal systems develop.

  9. Understanding oceanic migrations with intrinsic biogeochemical markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raül Ramos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Migratory marine vertebrates move annually across remote oceanic water masses crossing international borders. Many anthropogenic threats such as overfishing, bycatch, pollution or global warming put millions of marine migrants at risk especially during their long-distance movements. Therefore, precise knowledge about these migratory movements to understand where and when these animals are more exposed to human impacts is vital for addressing marine conservation issues. Because electronic tracking devices suffer from several constraints, mainly logistical and financial, there is emerging interest in finding appropriate intrinsic markers, such as the chemical composition of inert tissues, to study long-distance migrations and identify wintering sites. Here, using tracked pelagic seabirds and some of their own feathers which were known to be grown at different places and times within the annual cycle, we proved the value of biogeochemical analyses of inert tissue as tracers of marine movements and habitat use. Analyses of feathers grown in summer showed that both stable isotope signatures and element concentrations can signal the origin of breeding birds feeding in distinct water masses. However, only stable isotopes signalled water masses used during winter because elements mainly accumulated during the long breeding period are incorporated into feathers grown in both summer and winter. Our findings shed new light on the simple and effective assignment of marine organisms to distinct oceanic areas, providing new opportunities to study unknown migration patterns of secretive species, including in relation to human-induced mortality on specific populations in the marine environment.

  10. Measuring Ocean Literacy: What teens understand about the ocean using the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greely, T. M.; Lodge, A.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean issues with conceptual ties to science and global society have captured the attention, imagination, and concern of an international audience. Climate change, over fishing, marine pollution, freshwater shortages and alternative energy sources are a few ocean issues highlighted in our media and casual conversations. The ocean plays a role in our life in some way everyday, however, disconnect exists between what scientists know and the public understands about the ocean as revealed by numerous ocean and coastal literacy surveys. While the public exhibits emotive responses through care, concern and connection with the ocean, there remains a critical need for a baseline of ocean knowledge. However, knowledge about the ocean must be balanced with understanding about how to apply ocean information to daily decisions and actions. The present study analyzed underlying factors and patterns contributing to ocean literacy and reasoning within the context of an ocean education program, the Oceanography Camp for Girls. The OCG is designed to advance ocean conceptual understanding and decision making by engagement in a series of experiential learning and stewardship activities from authentic research settings in the field and lab. The present study measured a) what understanding teens currently hold about the ocean (content), b) how teens feel toward the ocean environment (environmental attitudes and morality), and c) how understanding and feelings are organized when reasoning about ocean socioscientific issues (e.g. climate change, over fishing, energy). The Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE), was used to measure teens understanding about the ocean. SOLE is a 57-item survey instrument aligned with the Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts of Ocean Literacy (NGS, 2007). Rasch analysis was used to refine and validate SOLE as a reasonable measure of ocean content knowledge (reliability, 0.91). Results revealed that content knowledge and environmental

  11. Understanding and Improving Ocean Mixing Parameterizations for modeling Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. M.; Fells, J.; Clarke, J.; Cheng, Y.; Canuto, V.; Dubovikov, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate is vital. Earth is only habitable due to the atmosphere&oceans' distribution of energy. Our Greenhouse Gas emissions shift overall the balance between absorbed and emitted radiation causing Global Warming. How much of these emissions are stored in the ocean vs. entering the atmosphere to cause warming and how the extra heat is distributed depends on atmosphere&ocean dynamics, which we must understand to know risks of both progressive Climate Change and Climate Variability which affect us all in many ways including extreme weather, floods, droughts, sea-level rise and ecosystem disruption. Citizens must be informed to make decisions such as "business as usual" vs. mitigating emissions to avert catastrophe. Simulations of Climate Change provide needed knowledge but in turn need reliable parameterizations of key physical processes, including ocean mixing, which greatly impacts transport&storage of heat and dissolved CO2. The turbulence group at NASA-GISS seeks to use physical theory to improve parameterizations of ocean mixing, including smallscale convective, shear driven, double diffusive, internal wave and tidal driven vertical mixing, as well as mixing by submesoscale eddies, and lateral mixing along isopycnals by mesoscale eddies. Medgar Evers undergraduates aid NASA research while learning climate science and developing computer&math skills. We write our own programs in MATLAB and FORTRAN to visualize and process output of ocean simulations including producing statistics to help judge impacts of different parameterizations on fidelity in reproducing realistic temperatures&salinities, diffusivities and turbulent power. The results can help upgrade the parameterizations. Students are introduced to complex system modeling and gain deeper appreciation of climate science and programming skills, while furthering climate science. We are incorporating climate projects into the Medgar Evers college curriculum. The PI is both a member of the turbulence group at

  12. Understanding the Budget Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the operating budget, while long-term plans are reflected in the capital budget. Since the time when cash is available to an organization does not usually coincide with the time that disbursements must be made, it is also important to carefully plan for the inflow and outflow of funds by means of a cash budget.      During the budget process an organization selects its programs and activities by providing the necessary funding; the library, along with others in the organization, must justify its requests. Because of the cyclical nature of the budget process, it is possible continually to gather information and evaluate alternatives for the next budget period so that the library may achieve its maximum potential for service to its patrons.

  13. Understanding the consultation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the consultation processes between industry, government and First Nations communities regarding resource development. The expectations of the Crown are to facilitate capacity building within First Nations, to promote traditional use studies and to participate with industry proponents on certain consultation issues. The role of industry is to encourage partnerships between established contractors and First Nations contracting firms to allow First Nations firms to grow and experience success under the guidance of a mentor company. It is important to realize that solid First Nations relations are the key to shorter time lines and lower costs in developing projects. However, consultation and involvement must be 'real' with benefits and participation that fall within the First Nations Communities' definition of success

  14. On-land Exposures of Ocean-Continent Transitions: A Window for Understanding Rifting and Slow Sea-Floor Spreading Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müntener, O.; Manatschal, G.

    2003-12-01

    Direct observations and nearly unlimited sampling in ancient margins and ocean-continent transitions exposed in the Alps combined with drill-hole and geophysical data from the present-day Iberia margin result in new concepts of how magma-poor passive continental margins evolve towards (ultra?-) slow seafloor spreading systems. We review data from both the shallow and deep structure of magma-poor passive margins and propose that three temporal and spacially different fault systems are sufficient to explain the overall evolution from continental extension to early seafloor spreading. (1) During an initial stage of rifting the architecture and rift structures are controlled by inherited heterogeneities in the intermediate and lower crust which lead to a different response of the future distal and proximal margins. Future proximal margins are characterized by frequent normal faulting soling out at approximately 10km, while future distal margins show little evidence for early rift-related normal faults. However, the deep structure underneath the future distal margin is controlled by crustal-scale faults which thinned the crust to about 10km by excising up to 20 km of intermediate to lower crust. Thus we prefer the hypothesis of a 'within crust decoupling' of deformation and suggesting that boudinage of the lower crust is an important process during early rifting. A second important aspect is that after the initial stage of rifting mantle rocks are accessible for serpentinization. (2) Late-stage rifting is controlled by detachment faults. The most compelling evidence are extensional allochthons of upper continental crust emplaced on exhumed mantle rocks and tectono-sedimentary breccias covering detachment faults. Strain is extremely localized and leads to the formation of characteristic black fault gouges which are documented in ocean-continent transitions. Low angle detachment faults cut accross the entire, previously thinned continental crust and provide a mechanism

  15. Physicochemical processes and wastes in the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    This is volume two of the Oceanic Processes in Marine Pollution series. This volume emphasizes physical and chemical processes associated with wastes disposed of into the ocean. Physical processes include dilution, dispersion, and mixing wastes. Chemical processes include adsorption kinetics, binding of metals, and bioavailability of radioactive materials. This book also examines vertical transport of wastes and the role of marine organisms in the transport of waste materials

  16. Upper ocean physical processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.; Ram, P.S.

    through a review of the published work so far and analysis of the latest available data sets. Various oceanic features and processes in the upper 1000 m of the TIO are described and discussed. An Oceanographic Atlas prepared for this purpose is appended...

  17. The Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems program: Understanding and managing our coastal ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is a compilation of summaries of papers presented at the Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems workshop. Topics include; marine forecasting, regulatory agencies and regulations, research and application models, research and operational observing, oceanic and atmospheric data assimilation, and coastal physical processes

  18. Preface "Nonlinear processes in oceanic and atmospheric flows"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancho, A. M.; Wiggins, S.; Turiel, A.; Hernández-García, E.; López, C.; García-Ladona, E.

    2010-05-01

    Nonlinear phenomena are essential ingredients in many oceanic and atmospheric processes, and successful understanding of them benefits from multidisciplinary collaboration between oceanographers, meteorologists, physicists and mathematicians. The present Special Issue on "Nonlinear Processes in Oceanic and Atmospheric Flows" contains selected contributions from attendants to the workshop which, in the above spirit, was held in Castro Urdiales, Spain, in July 2008. Here we summarize the Special Issue contributions, which include papers on the characterization of ocean transport in the Lagrangian and in the Eulerian frameworks, generation and variability of jets and waves, interactions of fluid flow with plankton dynamics or heavy drops, scaling in meteorological fields, and statistical properties of El Niño Southern Oscillation.

  19. Preface "Nonlinear processes in oceanic and atmospheric flows"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. García-Ladona

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear phenomena are essential ingredients in many oceanic and atmospheric processes, and successful understanding of them benefits from multidisciplinary collaboration between oceanographers, meteorologists, physicists and mathematicians. The present Special Issue on "Nonlinear Processes in Oceanic and Atmospheric Flows" contains selected contributions from attendants to the workshop which, in the above spirit, was held in Castro Urdiales, Spain, in July 2008. Here we summarize the Special Issue contributions, which include papers on the characterization of ocean transport in the Lagrangian and in the Eulerian frameworks, generation and variability of jets and waves, interactions of fluid flow with plankton dynamics or heavy drops, scaling in meteorological fields, and statistical properties of El Niño Southern Oscillation.

  20. The Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems program: Understanding and managing our coastal ocean. Volume 1: Strategic summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-15

    The proposed COPS (Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems) program is concerned with combining numerical models with observations (through data assimilation) to improve our predictive knowledge of the coastal ocean. It is oriented toward applied research and development and depends upon the continued pursuit of basic research in programs like COOP (Coastal Ocean Processes); i.e., to a significant degree it is involved with ``technology transfer`` from basic knowledge to operational and management applications. This predictive knowledge is intended to address a variety of societal problems: (1) ship routing, (2) trajectories for search and rescue operations, (3) oil spill trajectory simulations, (4) pollution assessments, (5) fisheries management guidance, (6) simulation of the coastal ocean`s response to climate variability, (7) calculation of sediment transport, (8) calculation of forces on structures, and so forth. The initial concern is with physical models and observations in order to provide a capability for the estimation of physical forces and transports in the coastal ocean. For all these applications, there are common needs for physical field estimates: waves, tides, currents, temperature, and salinity, including mixed layers, thermoclines, fronts, jets, etc. However, the intent is to work with biologists, chemists, and geologists in developing integrated multidisciplinary prediction systems as it becomes feasible to do so. From another perspective, by combining observations with models through data assimilation, a modern approach to monitoring is provided through whole-field estimation.

  1. Understanding Southern Ocean SST Trends in Historical Simulations and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, Yavor; Ferreira, David; Marshall, John; Armour, Kyle

    2017-04-01

    Historical simulations with CMIP5 global climate models do not reproduce the observed 1979-2014 Southern Ocean (SO) cooling, and most ensemble members predict gradual warming around Antarctica. In order to understand this discrepancy and the mechanisms behind the SO cooling, we analyze output from 19 CMIP5 models. For each ensemble member we estimate the characteristic responses of SO SST to step changes in greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing and in the seasonal indices of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Using these step-response functions and linear convolution theory, we reconstruct the original CMIP5 simulations of 1979-2014 SO SST trends. We recover the CMIP5 ensemble mean trend, capture the intermodel spread, and reproduce very well the behavior of individual models. We thus suggest that GHG forcing and the SAM are major drivers of the simulated 1979-2014 SO SST trends. In consistence with the seasonal signature of the Antarctic ozone hole, our results imply that the summer (DJF) and fall (MAM) SAM exert a particularly important effect on the SO SST. In some CMIP5 models the SO SST response to SAM partially counteracts the warming due to GHG forcing, while in other ensemble members the SAM-induced SO SST trends complement the warming effect of GHG forcing. The compensation between GHG and SAM-induced SO SST anomalies is model-dependent and is determined by multiple factors. Firstly, CMIP5 models have different characteristic SST step response functions to SAM. Kostov et al. (2016) relate these differences to biases in the models' climatological SO temperature gradients. Secondly, many CMIP5 historical simulations underestimate the observed positive trends in the DJF and MAM seasonal SAM indices. We show that this affects the models' ability to reproduce the observed SO cooling. Last but not least, CMIP5 models differ in their SO SST step response functions to GHG forcing. Understanding the diverse behavior of CMIP5 models helps shed light on the physical processes

  2. The Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems program: Understanding and managing our coastal ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The proposed COPS (Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems) program is concerned with combining numerical models with observations (through data assimilation) to improve our predictive knowledge of the coastal ocean. It is oriented toward applied research and development and depends upon the continued pursuit of basic research in programs like COOP (Coastal Ocean Processes); i.e., to a significant degree it is involved with ''technology transfer'' from basic knowledge to operational and management applications. This predictive knowledge is intended to address a variety of societal problems: (1) ship routing, (2) trajectories for search and rescue operations, (3) oil spill trajectory simulations, (4) pollution assessments, (5) fisheries management guidance, (6) simulation of the coastal ocean's response to climate variability, (7) calculation of sediment transport, (8) calculation of forces on structures, and so forth. The initial concern is with physical models and observations in order to provide a capability for the estimation of physical forces and transports in the coastal ocean. For all these applications, there are common needs for physical field estimates: waves, tides, currents, temperature, and salinity, including mixed layers, thermoclines, fronts, jets, etc. However, the intent is to work with biologists, chemists, and geologists in developing integrated multidisciplinary prediction systems as it becomes feasible to do so. From another perspective, by combining observations with models through data assimilation, a modern approach to monitoring is provided through whole-field estimation

  3. The Ocean's Vital Skin: Toward an Integrated Understanding of the Sea Surface Microlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, Anja; Bange, Hermann W.; Cunliffe, Michael; Burrows, Susannah M.; Friedrichs, Gernot; Galgani, Luisa; Herrmann, Hartmut; Hertkorn, Norbert; Johnson, Martin; Liss, Peter S.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Schartau, Markus; Soloviev, Alexander; Stolle, Christian; Upstill-Goddard, Robert C.; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Zäncker, Birthe

    2017-05-30

    Despite the huge extent of the ocean’s surface, until now relatively little attention has been paid to the sea surface microlayer (SML) as the ultimate interface where heat, momentum and mass exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere takes place. Via the SML, large-scale environmental changes in the ocean such as warming, acidification, deoxygenation, and eutrophication potentially influence cloud formation, precipitation, and the global radiation balance. Due to the deep connectivity between biological, chemical, and physical processes, studies of the SML may reveal multiple sensitivities to global and regional changes. Understanding the processes at the ocean’s surface, in particular involving the SML as an important and determinant interface, could therefore provide an essential contribution to the reduction of uncertainties regarding ocean-climate feedbacks. This review identifies gaps in our current knowledge of the SML and highlights a need to develop a holistic and mechanistic understanding of the diverse biological, chemical, and physical processes occurring at the ocean-atmosphere interface. We advocate the development of strong interdisciplinary expertise and collaboration in order to bridge between ocean and atmospheric sciences. Although this will pose significant methodological challenges, such an initiative would represent a new role model for interdisciplinary research in Earth System sciences.

  4. Understanding ocean acidification impacts on organismal to ecological scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Andreas J; Kline, David I; Edmunds, Peter J; Archer, Stephen D; Bednaršek, Nina; Carpenter, Robert C; Chadsey, Meg; Goldstein, Philip; Grottoli, Andrea G.; Hurst, Thomas P; King, Andrew L; Kübler, Janet E.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Mackey, Katherine R M; Menge, Bruce A.; Paytan, Adina; Riebesell, Ulf; Schnetzer, Astrid; Warner, Mark E; Zimmerman, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) research seeks to understand how marine ecosystems and global elemental cycles will respond to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry in combination with other environmental perturbations such as warming, eutrophication, and deoxygenation. Here, we discuss the effectiveness and limitations of current research approaches used to address this goal. A diverse combination of approaches is essential to decipher the consequences of OA to marine organisms, communities, and ecosystems. Consequently, the benefits and limitations of each approach must be considered carefully. Major research challenges involve experimentally addressing the effects of OA in the context of large natural variability in seawater carbonate system parameters and other interactive variables, integrating the results from different research approaches, and scaling results across different temporal and spatial scales.

  5. Biological processes of the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Parulekar, A.H.

    , increases in the abundances of microzooplankton may lead to higher standing stocks of mesozooplankton. Blooms of phytoplankton and swarms of zooplankton are common in the northern Indian Ocean and influence rates of particle fluxes into the ocean interiors...

  6. The Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems program: Understanding and managing our coastal ocean. Volume 2: Overview and invited papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-15

    This document is a compilation of summaries of papers presented at the Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems workshop. Topics include; marine forecasting, regulatory agencies and regulations, research and application models, research and operational observing, oceanic and atmospheric data assimilation, and coastal physical processes.

  7. Changing currents: a strategy for understanding and predicting the changing ocean circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, Harry L; Robinson, Carol; Griffiths, Gwyn

    2012-12-13

    Within the context of UK marine science, we project a strategy for ocean circulation research over the next 20 years. We recommend a focus on three types of research: (i) sustained observations of the varying and evolving ocean circulation, (ii) careful analysis and interpretation of the observed climate changes for comparison with climate model projections, and (iii) the design and execution of focused field experiments to understand ocean processes that are not resolved in coupled climate models so as to be able to embed these processes realistically in the models. Within UK-sustained observations, we emphasize smart, cost-effective design of the observational network to extract maximum information from limited field resources. We encourage the incorporation of new sensors and new energy sources within the operational environment of UK-sustained observational programmes to bridge the gap that normally separates laboratory prototype from operational instrument. For interpreting the climate-change records obtained through a variety of national and international sustained observational programmes, creative and dedicated UK scientists should lead efforts to extract the meaningful signals and patterns of climate change and to interpret them so as to project future changes. For the process studies, individual scientists will need to work together in team environments to combine observational and process modelling results into effective improvements in the coupled climate models that will lead to more accurate climate predictions.

  8. Understanding Rossby wave trains forced by the Indian Ocean Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Peter C.; Hendon, Harry H.

    2018-04-01

    Convective variations over the tropical Indian Ocean associated with ENSO and the Indian Ocean Dipole force a Rossby wave train that appears to emanate poleward and eastward to the south of Australia and which causes climate variations across southern Australia and more generally throughout the Southern Hemisphere extratropics. However, during austral winter, the subtropical jet that extends from the eastern Indian Ocean into the western Pacific at Australian latitudes should effectively prohibit continuous propagation of a stationary Rossby wave from the tropics into the extratropics because the meridional gradient of mean absolute vorticity goes to zero on its poleward flank. The observed wave train indeed exhibits strong convergence of wave activity flux upon encountering this region of vanishing vorticity gradient and with some indication of reflection back into the tropics, indicating the continuous propagation of the stationary Rossby wave train from low to high latitudes is inhibited across the south of Australia. However, another Rossby wave train appears to emanate upstream of Australia on the poleward side of the subtropical jet and propagates eastward along the waveguide of the eddy-driven (sub-polar) jet into the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. This combination of evanescent wave train from the tropics and eastward propagating wave train emanating from higher latitudes upstream of Australia gives the appearance of a continuous Rossby wave train propagating from the tropical Indian Ocean into higher southern latitudes. The extratropical Rossby wave source on the poleward side of the subtropical jet stems from induced changes in transient eddy activity in the main storm track of the Southern Hemisphere. During austral spring, when the subtropical jet weakens, the Rossby wave train emanating from Indian Ocean convection is explained more traditionally by direct dispersion from divergence forcing at low latitudes.

  9. Understanding Rossby wave trains forced by the Indian Ocean Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Peter C.; Hendon, Harry H.

    2017-06-01

    Convective variations over the tropical Indian Ocean associated with ENSO and the Indian Ocean Dipole force a Rossby wave train that appears to emanate poleward and eastward to the south of Australia and which causes climate variations across southern Australia and more generally throughout the Southern Hemisphere extratropics. However, during austral winter, the subtropical jet that extends from the eastern Indian Ocean into the western Pacific at Australian latitudes should effectively prohibit continuous propagation of a stationary Rossby wave from the tropics into the extratropics because the meridional gradient of mean absolute vorticity goes to zero on its poleward flank. The observed wave train indeed exhibits strong convergence of wave activity flux upon encountering this region of vanishing vorticity gradient and with some indication of reflection back into the tropics, indicating the continuous propagation of the stationary Rossby wave train from low to high latitudes is inhibited across the south of Australia. However, another Rossby wave train appears to emanate upstream of Australia on the poleward side of the subtropical jet and propagates eastward along the waveguide of the eddy-driven (sub-polar) jet into the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. This combination of evanescent wave train from the tropics and eastward propagating wave train emanating from higher latitudes upstream of Australia gives the appearance of a continuous Rossby wave train propagating from the tropical Indian Ocean into higher southern latitudes. The extratropical Rossby wave source on the poleward side of the subtropical jet stems from induced changes in transient eddy activity in the main storm track of the Southern Hemisphere. During austral spring, when the subtropical jet weakens, the Rossby wave train emanating from Indian Ocean convection is explained more traditionally by direct dispersion from divergence forcing at low latitudes.

  10. Ocean acidification: Towards a better understanding of calcite dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmus, Monica M.; Adkins, Jess; Menemenlis, Dimitris

    2016-11-01

    The drastic increase of anthropogenic CO2 emissions over the past two centuries has altered the chemical structure of the ocean, acidifying upper ocean waters. The net impact of this pH decrease on marine ecosystems is still unclear, given the unprecedented rate at which CO2 is being released into the atmosphere. As part of the carbon cycle, calcium carbonate dissolution in sediments neutralizes CO2: phytoplankton at the surface produce carbonate minerals, which sink and reach the seafloor after the organisms die. On time scales of thousands of years, the calcium carbonate in these shells ultimately reacts with CO2 in seawater. Research in this field has been extensive; nevertheless, the dissolution rate law, the impact of boundary layer transport, and the feedback with the global ocean carbon cycle remain controversial. Here, we (i) develop a comprehensive numerical framework via 1D modeling of carbonate dissolution in sediments, (ii) approximate its impact on water column properties by implementing a polynomial approximation to the system's response into a global ocean biogeochemistry general circulation model (OBGCM), and (iii) examine the OBGCM sensitivity response to different formulations of sediment boundary layer properties. We find that, even though the burial equilibration time scales of calcium carbonate are in the order of thousands of years, the formulation of a bottom sediment model along with an improved description of the dissolution rate law can have consequences on multi-year to decadal time scales.

  11. Understanding the Importance of Oceanic Forcing on Sea Ice Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    regions form part of the global thermohaline circulation and are transported around the world via the ‘Great Ocean Conveyor ’ (Broecker 1992). Two...Level 2 data) and six hourly profile data (Level 3 data) was obtained for ITP1 and interpolated onto a uniform two-hourly grid. A band pass filter was...wavelet filter to separate clockwise and anticlockwise motion in the semi-diurnal band (6 to 18 hour periods; Figures 81 and 82). This method

  12. Biophysical processes in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    McCreary, J.P.; Murtugudde, R.; Vialard, J.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Wiggert, J.D.; Hood, R.R.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    , University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA. 3 IRD, LOCEAN, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France. 4 Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. 5 Department of Marine Sciences, University.... consequence of the unique forcing by monsoon winds (Fig- ure 1). There are seasonally reversing monsoon winds in the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and extending to 10°S, with a stronger clockwise (weaker counterclockwise) circulation during the summer...

  13. Processes analysis of ocean-atmosphere interaction in Colombian marine areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Jeimmy; Pabon Caicedo, Jose Daniel

    2002-01-01

    This document shows the importance to understanding the processes of interaction ocean-atmosphere by means of the knowledge of the behavior of the physical and biological processes in the Colombian marine areas. For such aim, it was studied the production of the pigment concentration (chlorophyll-a) by means the state of the sea surface temperature and the atmospheric dynamics for year 2001

  14. Processes of multibathyal aragonite undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, J.G.; Robbins, L.L.; Anderson, L.G.

    2016-01-01

    During 3 years of study (2010–2012), the western Arctic Ocean was found to have unique aragonite saturation profiles with up to three distinct aragonite undersaturation zones. This complexity is produced as inflow of Atlantic-derived and Pacific-derived water masses mix with Arctic-derived waters, which are further modified by physiochemical and biological processes. The shallowest aragonite undersaturation zone, from the surface to ∼30 m depth is characterized by relatively low alkalinity and other dissolved ions. Besides local influence of biological processes on aragonite undersaturation of shallow coastal waters, the nature of this zone is consistent with dilution by sea-ice melt and invasion of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. A second undersaturated zone at ∼90–220 m depth (salinity ∼31.8–35.4) occurs within the Arctic Halocline and is characterized by elevated pCO2 and nutrients. The nature of this horizon is consistent with remineralization of organic matter on shallow continental shelves bordering the Canada Basin and the input of the nutrients and CO2 entrained by currents from the Pacific Inlet. Finally, the deepest aragonite undersaturation zone is at greater than 2000 m depth and is controlled by similar processes as deep aragonite saturation horizons in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The comparatively shallow depth of this deepest aragonite saturation horizon in the Arctic is maintained by relatively low temperatures, and stable chemical composition. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of these aragonite undersaturation zones, and the time scales over which they operate will be crucial to refine predictive models.

  15. Processes of multibathyal aragonite undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, J. G.; Robbins, L. L.; Anderson, L. G.

    2016-11-01

    During 3 years of study (2010-2012), the western Arctic Ocean was found to have unique aragonite saturation profiles with up to three distinct aragonite undersaturation zones. This complexity is produced as inflow of Atlantic-derived and Pacific-derived water masses mix with Arctic-derived waters, which are further modified by physiochemical and biological processes. The shallowest aragonite undersaturation zone, from the surface to ˜30 m depth is characterized by relatively low alkalinity and other dissolved ions. Besides local influence of biological processes on aragonite undersaturation of shallow coastal waters, the nature of this zone is consistent with dilution by sea-ice melt and invasion of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. A second undersaturated zone at ˜90-220 m depth (salinity ˜31.8-35.4) occurs within the Arctic Halocline and is characterized by elevated pCO2 and nutrients. The nature of this horizon is consistent with remineralization of organic matter on shallow continental shelves bordering the Canada Basin and the input of the nutrients and CO2 entrained by currents from the Pacific Inlet. Finally, the deepest aragonite undersaturation zone is at greater than 2000 m depth and is controlled by similar processes as deep aragonite saturation horizons in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The comparatively shallow depth of this deepest aragonite saturation horizon in the Arctic is maintained by relatively low temperatures, and stable chemical composition. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of these aragonite undersaturation zones, and the time scales over which they operate will be crucial to refine predictive models.

  16. Global Observations and Understanding of the General Circulation of the Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The workshop was organized to: (1) assess the ability to obtain ocean data on a global scale that could profoundly change our understanding of the circulation; (2) identify the primary and secondary elements needed to conduct a World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE); (3) if the ability is achievable, to determine what the U.S. role in such an experiment should be; and (4) outline the steps necessary to assure that an appropriate program is conducted. The consensus of the workshop was that a World Ocean Circulation Experiment appears feasible, worthwhile, and timely. Participants did agree that such a program should have the overall goal of understanding the general circulation of the global ocean well enough to be able to predict ocean response and feedback to long-term changes in the atmosphere. The overall goal, specific objectives, and recommendations for next steps in planning such an experiment are included.

  17. Understanding the Equatorial Ocean: Theoretical and Observational Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabitti, A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of internal waves in fully enclosed domains constitutesone of the big challenges in fluid dynamics, especially because of thenumerous possible applications both in astrophysical and geophysical fluid dynamics.Since analytical solutions for internal waves in arbitrarily

  18. Understanding Patients’ Process to Use Medical Marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L Crowell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the necessity to better understand the process patients need to go through in order to seek treatment via medical marijuana, this study investigates this process to better understand this phenomenon. Specifically, Compassion Care Foundation (CCF and Stockton University worked together to identify a solution to this problem. Specifically, 240 new patients at CCF were asked to complete a 1-page survey regarding various aspects associated with their experience prior to their use of medicinal marijuana—diagnosis, what prompted them to seek treatment, level of satisfaction with specific stages in the process, total length of time the process took, and patient’s level of pain. Results reveal numerous patient diagnoses for which medical marijuana is being prescribed; the top 4 most common are intractable skeletal spasticity, chronic and severe pain, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Next, results indicate a little over half of the patients were first prompted to seek alternative treatment from their physicians, while the remaining patients indicated that other sources such as written information along with friends, relatives, media, and the Internet persuaded them to seek treatment. These data indicate that a variety of sources play a role in prompting patients to seek alternative treatment and is a critical first step in this process. Additional results posit that once patients began the process of qualifying to receive medical marijuana as treatment, the process seemed more positive even though it takes patients on average almost 6 months to obtain their first treatment after they started the process. Finally, results indicate that patients are reporting a moderately high level of pain prior to treatment. Implication of these results highlights several important elements in the patients’ initial steps toward seeking medical marijuana, along with the quality and quantity of the process patients must engage in prior to

  19. Experiments for understanding soil erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion processes are usually quantified by observation and measurement of their related forms. Rill, and gullies, moulds or sediment sinks are often used to estimate the soil loss. These forms are generally related directly to different types of processes, thus are also used to identify the dominant processes on a certain type of land-use. Nevertheless, the direct observation of erosion processes is constrained by their temporal and spatial erratic occurrence. As a consequence, the process understanding is generally deduced by analogies. Another possibility is to reproduce processes in experiments in both, the lab and in the field. Laboratory experiments are implemented when we want to have full control over all parameters we think are relevant for the process in our focus. So are very useful for identification of parameters influencing processes and their intensities, but also as physical models of the processes and process interactions in our focus. Therefore, we can use them to verify our concepts, and to define relevant parameters. Field experiments generally only simulate with controlled driving forces, this is the rain or the runoff, but dealing with the uncertainty of our study object, the soil. This enables two things: 1) similar as with lab experiments, we are able to identify processes and process interactions and so, to get a deeper understanding of soil erosion; 2) experiments are suitable for providing data about singular processes in the field and thus, to provide data suitable for model parametrisation and calibration. These may be quantitative data about erodibility or soil resistance, sediment detachment or transport. The Physical Geography Group at Trier University has a long lasting experience in the application of experiments in soil erosion research in the field, and has become lead in the further development conception and of devices and procedures to investigate splash detachment and initial transport of soil particles by wind and water

  20. The Contribution of GGOS to Understanding Dynamic Earth Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Richard

    2017-04-01

    of continental and basin-scale water masses; loading and unloading of the land surface due to seasonal changes of groundwater; measurement of water level of major lakes and rivers by satellite altimetry; and improved digital terrain models as basis for flux modeling of surface water and flood modeling. Geodesy is crucial for cryospheric studies because of its ability to measure the motions of ice masses and changes in their volumes. Ice sheets, glaciers, and sea ice are intricately linked to the Earth's climate system. They store a record of past climate; they strongly affect surface energy budget, global water cycle, and sea-level change; and they are sensitive indicators of climate change. Geodesy is at the heart of all present-day ocean studies. Geodetic observations uniquely produce accurate, quantitative, and integrated observations of gravity, ocean circulation, sea surface height, ocean bottom pressure, and mass exchanges among the ocean, cryosphere, and land. Geodetic observations have made fundamental contributions to monitoring and understanding physical ocean processes. In particular, geodesy is the basic technique used to determine an accurate geoid model, allowing for the determination of absolute surface geostrophic currents, which are necessary to quantify heat transport of the ocean. Geodesy also provides the absolute reference for tide gauge measurements, allowing those measurements to be merged with satellite altimetric measurements to provide a coherent worldwide monitoring system for sea level change. In this presentation, selected examples of the contribution of geodetic observations to understanding the dynamic Earth system will be presented.

  1. Impacts of ocean acidification on sediment processes in shallow waters of the Arctic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazeau, F.; van Rijswijk, P.; Pozzato, L.; Middelburg, J.J.

    Despite the important roles of shallow-water sediments in global biogeochemical cycling, the effects of ocean acidification on sedimentary processes have received relatively little attention. As high-latitude cold waters can absorb more CO2 and usually have a lower buffering capacity than warmer

  2. Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Sediment Processes in Shallow Waters of the Arctic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazeau, F.; van Rijswijk, P.; Pozzato, L.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important roles of shallow-water sediments in global biogeochemical cycling, the effects of ocean acidification on sedimentary processes have received relatively little attention. As high-latitude cold waters can absorb more CO2 and usually have a lower buffering capacity than warmer

  3. Biogeochemical processes in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaye-Haake, B.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Murty, V.S.N.; Ittekkot, V.

    in the northern Indian Ocean’’, and from national research programs of India and Germany con- ducted as a contribution to the international JGOFS Process Study in the Arabian Sea. Addi- tional contributions cover research carried out within India’s Polymetallic... of coccolithophorids in addition to organic carbon and carbonate con- centrations and accumulation rates for a 200ka record Prabhu and Shankar show that glacial stages 2,4 and 6 have had higher productivities in the eastern Arabian Sea at about 151N. They, moreover...

  4. A Dual Process Approach to Understand Tourists’ Destination Choice Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Florian; Josiassen, Alexander; Assaf, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Most studies that investigate tourists' choices of destinations apply the concept of mental destination representations, also referred to as destination image. The present study investigates tourists’ destination choice processes by conceptualizing how different components of destination image...... are mentally processed in tourists' minds. Specifically, the seminal dual processing approach is applied to the destination image literature. By doing this, we argue that some components of mental destination representations are processed systematically while others serve as inputs for heuristics...... that individuals apply to inform their decision making. Understanding how individuals make use of their mental destination representations and how they color their decision-making is essential in order to better explain tourist behavior....

  5. Understanding the Entrepreneurial Process: a Dynamic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Maria Jorge Nassif

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable predominance in the adoption of perspectives based on characteristics in research into entrepreneurship. However, most studies describe the entrepreneur from a static or snapshot approach; very few adopt a dynamic perspective. The aim of this study is to contribute to the enhancement of knowledge concerning entrepreneurial process dynamics through an understanding of the values, characteristics and actions of the entrepreneur over time. By focusing on personal attributes, we have developed a framework that shows the importance of affective and cognitive aspects of entrepreneurs and the way that they evolve during the development of their business.

  6. Taking Poseidon's Measure from Space: Advances in our Understanding of the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    In many ways the ocean defines our planet and makes it livable. It provides marine resources and ecosystem services that are critical to a sustainable society. Today we understand that there is a growing need to predict, manage, and adapt to changes on our planet - changes that occur not only in the atmosphere but also in the ocean. Over the last 40 years remarkable advances in measuring key ocean quantities have been made - through the development of new satellite technologies and successful missions as well as through in-situ observing systems enabled by advances in robotics, communications, navigation, and sensors. Ocean science (and atmospheric science) is a science of numbers, imaging, and numerical models. Predictability of the ocean is tied to the scale of variability in space and time. Satellite observations have spectacularly showed us the incredible structure and variability of the ocean. It has been the combination of satellites and in-situ sensors that have allowed us to advance understanding and prediction. This presentation will highlight some of the key scientific advances that have been enabled by satellites.

  7. Understanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronney, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    A review of research on the effects of gravity on combustion processes is presented, with an emphasis on a discussion of the ways in which reduced-gravity experiments and modeling has led to new understanding. Comparison of time scales shows that the removal of buoyancy-induced convection leads to manifestations of other transport mechanisms, notably radiative heat transfer and diffusional processes such as Lewis number effects. Examples from premixed-gas combustion, non-premixed gas-jet flames, droplet combustion, flame spread over solid and liquid fuels, and other fields are presented. Promising directions for new research are outlined, the most important of which is suggested to be radiative reabsorption effects in weakly burning flames.

  8. Investigation of oceanic spreading center hydrothermal processes using ocean bottom seismometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Charles Edward

    Hydrothermal circulation at oceanic spreading centers can penetrate up to several kilometers of oceanic crust, depending on the permeability structure of the host rock and the depth of the heat source provided by seafloor spreading. A wide range of geophysical techniques have been developed to study hydrothermal systems at the seafloor, but direct observations of deep hydrothermal processes are limited. The research described in this dissertation uses ocean bottom seismometers to record and locate small-magnitude microearthquakes generated by thermal strain as hydrothermal circulation cools the oceanic crust. Microearthquakes triggered near the base of hydrothermal convection cells provide a unique opportunity to investigate the nature and extent of deep hydrothermal circulation in an oceanic spreading center environment. Seismic data from two ocean bottom seismometer deployments were recorded at Dead Dog vent field, an active hydrothermal field on the northern Juan de Fuca Ridge. The first instrument deployment was part of a 1993 seismic refraction survey designed to constrain seismic velocity structure and facilitate microearthquake hypocenter localization. The seismic velocity model developed from this dataset is consistent with results from the Ocean Drilling Program: the igneous rock surrounding Dead Dog vent field is buried under several hundred meters of turbidite sediment, and the shallow underlying crust is a sequence of inter-bedded sediment and basaltic sills. The second seismometer network was uniquely designed with a compact inter-element spacing of 500 m to record small-magnitude microearthquakes triggered by hydrothermal processes near the Dead Dog vents. The seismometers recorded 1,220 microearthquakes beneath the vent field from August 1996 to January 1997. The seismicity is comprised of 13 spatially and temporally distinct swarms located at 1--3 km depth beneath a region of elevated heat flow associated with the Dead Dog hydrothermal system. The

  9. The Polar Ocean in a Warming Planet: Understanding for managing a unique resource of the Humankind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzolini, R.; Campus, P.; Weber, J.

    2012-04-01

    There is no doubt that changes in the Polar Regions are of great significance at the global level, such as having far-reaching effects on atmospheric and ocean circulation. Changes in ocean currents, temperature conditions, ice cover and reduction of permafrost regions are having impacts on marine and terrestrial ecosystems in the Arctic Regions of Europe and Northern Hemisphere. Human activity is putting pressure on the environment in these regions; maritime transport between Europe and Asia through the northern sea route and accessibility conditions to hidden Arctic resources as well as new technologies of exploitation will have a significant impact on the marine environment, on the living resources and on the regional social organization and needs. There are still unresolved issues related to national claims on continental shelf and sea areas that involve international law; in these respects science can provide crucial elements for supporting political agreements. Such scenarios will present new opportunities for economic activities, but also risks which will result in new demands for marine management, monitoring systems, emergency response systems, search and rescue services as well as closer international cooperation. It will also require the development of an international regime based on the improvement of the present regulations on exploration, accessibility, exploitation and liability. Dialogue and international agreements based on scientific evidences and foresight are key elements for finding solutions. On the opposite hemisphere, the ocean surrounding Antarctica plays a primary role in all global climatic processes, through the annual sea ice evolution, the circum-Antarctic circulation driving the exchange of heat between low and high latitudes and the atmospheric circulation, through the density bottom currents that affect the global Thermohaline circulation (THC), and the biogeochemical cycles that have peculiar characteristics in the icy Antarctic

  10. Predictive Understanding of the Oceans' Wind-Driven Circulation on Interdecadal Time Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghil, Michael [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and IGPP; Temam, Roger [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Feliks, Y. [IIBR (France); Simonnet, E. [INLN (France); Tachim-Medjo, T. [Florida International Univ. (FIU), Miami, FL (United States)

    2008-09-30

    The goal of this project was to obtain a predictive understanding of a major component of the climate system's interdecadal variability: the oceans' wind-driven circulation. To do so, we developed and applied advanced computational and statistical methods to the problem of climate variability and climate change. The methodology was developed first for models of intermediate complexity, such as the quasi-geostrophic and the primitive equations, which describe the wind-driven, near-surface flow in mid-latitude ocean basins. Our computational work consisted in developing efficient multi-level methods to simulate this flow and study its dependence on physically relevant parameters. Our oceanographic and climate work consisted in applying these methods to study the bifurcations in the wind-driven circulation and their relevance to the flows observed at present and those that might occur in a warmer climate. Both aspects of the work are crucial for the efficient treatment of large-scale, eddy-resolving numerical simulations of the oceans and an increased understanding and better prediction of climate change. Considerable progress has been achieved in understanding ocean-atmosphere interaction in the mid-latitudes. An important by-product of this research is a novel approach to explaining the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  11. The utility of SAR to monitor ocean processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuchman, R. A.; Kasischke, E. S.; Meadows, G. A.; Lyden, J. D.; Lyzenga, D. R.; Jackson, P. L.; Maffett, A. L.; Klooster, A., Jr.

    1981-11-01

    This report investigates the utility of using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to monitor the Earth's oceans. The report consists of three parts which include: (1) a review on the present capability of SARs to monitor ocean processes, (2) a status report on the processing and preliminary analysis of UPD-4 and UPD-6 data collected during the MARSEN'79 Experiment, and (3) a collection of journal articles and symposia papers which resulted from this ONR-funded ERIM research. The review of the present status of SAR's utility to monitor the oceans includes the detection and measurement of gravity waves, currents, long-period waves, internal waves, frontal boundaries, bottom topographic features, surface winds, surf zone conditions, oil slicks, and sea ice. Results of this analysis indicate the UPD-4 X-band SAR imagery is not significantly improved, with regard to visibility of waves on the imagery when motion compensation adjustments are incorporated into the processing of the SAR signal histories. Selected passes of UPD-4 and UPD-6 X-band imagery have been digitized and comparisons between SAR generated wave spectra and surface measured spectra were made.

  12. Wally's quest to understand the ocean's CaCO3 cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broecker, W S

    2009-01-01

    Aspects of the production and dissolution of CaCO3 hard parts dominate the literature regarding contemporary marine chemistry and paleoceanography. During my long career I have contributed more than 200 papers related to this subject. In this prefatory article in the first volume of the Annual Review of Marine Science, I recount what I consider to be the highlights of my attempts to understand the cycle of CaCO3 in today's ocean and in oceans of the past. These studies began in the Bahamas in the early 1960s and then quickly graduated to the world ocean. Although much of my research has involved stable and radioisotopes contained in shells and coral directed toward reconstruction of the late Quaternary operation of the earth system, in this review I concentrate on carbonate chemistry and, in particular, the compensation in the deep sea for the overproduction of CaCO3 by marine organisms.

  13. Transdisciplinary science: a path to understanding the interactions among ocean acidification, ecosystems, and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Turley, Carol; Hopkinson, Brian M.; Todgham, Anne E.; Cross, Jessica N.; Greening, Holly; Williamson, Phillip; Van Hooidonk, Ruben; Deheyn, Dimitri D.; Johnson, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    The global nature of ocean acidification (OA) transcends habitats, ecosystems, regions, and science disciplines. The scientific community recognizes that the biggest challenge in improving understanding of how changing OA conditions affect ecosystems, and associated consequences for human society, requires integration of experimental, observational, and modeling approaches from many disciplines over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Such transdisciplinary science is the next step in providing relevant, meaningful results and optimal guidance to policymakers and coastal managers. We discuss the challenges associated with integrating ocean acidification science across funding agencies, institutions, disciplines, topical areas, and regions, and the value of unifying science objectives and activities to deliver insights into local, regional, and global scale impacts. We identify guiding principles and strategies for developing transdisciplinary research in the ocean acidification science community.

  14. Study on a Cosmic-ray-produced Silicon-32 as a Tracer for Ocean Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The isotope silicon-32, with a half-life of approximately 150 years, is a cosmic-ray-produced radioactive nuclide in the atmosphere. Due to its single source and the relatively constant production rate, silicon-32 with its chemical and biological characteristics like the other stable silicon isotopes always has been seen as an ideal clock and tracer which has the potential to fill the dating time-gap and to understand marine from 50 to 1 000 years geochemical-geophysical processes, e.g. the seawater mixing process in offshore and ocean, the geochemistry and cycle of silica in estuary and ocean, the particles mixing process in the deep sea bed, as well as the estimation of the sediment deposition rate and the establishment of the time-sequence to reflect the past marine environmental changes.

  15. Preface for Discussion on Mid-Ocean Ridges: dynamics of processes associated with creation of new ocean crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, J. R.; Elderfield, H.; Laughton, A.

    Preface for Discussion on Mid-Ocean Ridges: dynamics of processes associated with creation of new ocean crust. A Discussion held at the Royal Society on 6th and 7th March 1996. Organized and edited by J. R. Cann, H. Elderfield and A. Laughton.

  16. Processing Ocean Images to Detect Large Drift Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Tim

    2009-01-01

    A computer program processes the digitized outputs of a set of downward-looking video cameras aboard an aircraft flying over the ocean. The purpose served by this software is to facilitate the detection of large drift nets that have been lost, abandoned, or jettisoned. The development of this software and of the associated imaging hardware is part of a larger effort to develop means of detecting and removing large drift nets before they cause further environmental damage to the ocean and to shores on which they sometimes impinge. The software is capable of near-realtime processing of as many as three video feeds at a rate of 30 frames per second. After a user sets the parameters of an adjustable algorithm, the software analyzes each video stream, detects any anomaly, issues a command to point a high-resolution camera toward the location of the anomaly, and, once the camera has been so aimed, issues a command to trigger the camera shutter. The resulting high-resolution image is digitized, and the resulting data are automatically uploaded to the operator s computer for analysis.

  17. Atmospheric Compensation of Variations in Tropical Ocean Heat Transport: Understanding Mechanisms and Implications on Tectonic Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rencurrel, M. C.; Rose, B. E. J.

    2015-12-01

    The poleward transport of energy is a key aspect of the climate system, with surface ocean currents presently dominating the transport out of deep tropics. A classic study by Stone (1978) proposed that the total heat transport is determined by astronomical parameters and is highly insensitive to the detailed atmosphere-ocean dynamics. On the other hand, previous modeling work has shown that past continental configurations could have produced substantially different tropical ocean heat transport (OHT). How thoroughly does the atmosphere compensate for changes in ocean transport in terms of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative budget, what are the relevant mechanisms, and what are the consequences for surface temperature and climate on tectonic timescales? We examine these issues in a suite of aquaplanet GCM simulations subject to large prescribed variations in OHT. We find substantial but incomplete compensation, in which adjustment of the atmospheric Hadley circulation plays a key role. We then separate out the dynamical and thermodynamical components of the adjustment mechanism. Increased OHT tends to warm the mid- to high latitudes without cooling the tropics due asymmetries in radiative feedback processes. The warming is accompanied by hydrological cycle changes that are completely different from those driven by greenhouse gases, suggesting that drivers of past global change might be detectable from combinations of hydroclimate and temperature proxies.

  18. Understanding the Sales Process by Selling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Experiential projects bring students closer to real-world situations. This is valuable in sales education because the complexities of the sales process are difficult to learn from a textbook. A student project was developed that involved the selling of advertising space in a one-time newspaper insert. The project included a substantial minimum…

  19. Obsolescence – understanding the underlying processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.F.

    2017-01-01

    Obsolescence, defined as the process of declining performance of buildings, is a serious threat for the value, the usefulness and the life span of built properties. Thomsen and van der Flier (2011) developed a model in which obsolescence is categorised on the basis of two distinctions, i.e. between

  20. Understanding Modeling Requirements of Unstructured Business Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allah Bukhsh, Zaharah; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Quartel, Dick

    2017-01-01

    Management of structured business processes is of interest to both academia and industry, where academia focuses on the development of methods and techniques while industry focuses on the development of supporting tools. With the shift from routine to knowledge work, the relevance of management of

  1. Numerical Simulations of Melting-Crystallisation Processes at the Boundaries Between Magma Oceans and Solid Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolrão, D. P.; Rozel, A.; Morison, A.; Labrosse, S.; Tackley, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The idea that the Earth had a global magma ocean, mostly created by impacts, core formation, radiogenic and tidal heating, is well accepted nowadays. When this ocean starts to crystallise, if the melt is denser than the solid, a basal magma ocean is created below the solid part. These two magma oceans influence the dynamics and evolution of solid mantle. Near the boundaries, the vertical flow in the solid part creates a topography. If this topography is destroyed by melting/crystallisation processes in a time scale much shorter than the time needed to adjust the topography by viscous relaxation, then matter can cross the boundary. In this case, the boundary is said to be permeable. On the other hand, if this time is longer, matter cannot cross and the boundary is said impermeable. This permeability is defined by a non-dimensional phase change number, φ, introduced by Deguen, 2013. This φ is the ratio of the two timescales mentioned, and defines a permeable boundary when φ « 1, and an impermeable one when φ » 1. To understand the impact of magma oceans on the dynamics of the solid mantle, we use the convection code StagYY, with a 2D spherical annulus geometry, to compute the convection of the solid part. Our results show different convection behaviours depending on the type of boundary chosen. For the permeable case, we investigate the thermo-compositional evolution of the solid domain, explicitly taking into account the compositional evolution of the magma oceans. Reference: Deguen, R. Thermal convection in a spherical shell with melting/freezing at either or both of its boundaries. Journal of Earth Science, Vol. 24, No. 5, p. 669-682, 2013. doi: 10.1007/s12583-013-0364-8

  2. Understanding Science and Technology Interactions Through Ocean Science Exploration: A Summer Course for Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, J.; Denton, J.

    2003-12-01

    In order to replenish the national supply of science and mathematics educators, the National Science Foundation has supported the formation of the Center for Applications of Information Technology in the Teaching and Learning of Science (ITS) at Texas A&M University. The center staff and affiliated faculty work to change in fundamental ways the culture and relationships among scientists, educational researchers, and teachers. ITS is a partnership among the colleges of education, science, geosciences, agriculture and life science at Texas A&M University. Participants (teachers and graduate students) investigate how science is done and how science is taught and learned; how that learning is assessed, and how scholarly networks among all engaged in this work can be encouraged. While the center can offer graduate degrees most students apply as non-degree seekers. ITS participants are schooled on classroom technology applications, experience working on project teams, and access very current research work being conducted by scientists. ITS offers a certificate program consisting of two summer sessions over two years that results in 12 hours of graduate credit that can be applied to a degree. Interdisciplinary project teams spend three intense weeks connecting current research to classroom practices. During the past summer with the beginning of the two-year sequence, a course was implemented that introduced secondary teachers to Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) contributions to major earth science themes, using core and logging data, engineering (technology) tools and processes. Information Technology classroom applications were enhanced through hands-on laboratory exercises, web resources and online databases. The course was structured around the following objectives. 1. Distinguish the purpose and goals of the Ocean Drilling Program from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program and describe the comparable science themes (ocean circulation, marine sedimentation, climate history

  3. Using annually-resolved bivalve records and biogeochemical models to understand and predict climate impacts in coastal oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    It is more important than ever to study the oceans and especially the shelf seas, which are disproportionately productive, sustaining over 90% of global fisheries . The economic and societal significance of these shallow oceans, as the interface through which society interacts with the marine environment, makes them highly relevant to the decisions of policy-makers and stakeholders. These decision-makers rely upon empirical data informed by consistent and extensive monitoring and assessment from experts in the field, yet long-term, spatially-extensive datasets of the marine environment do not exist or are of poor quality. Modelling the shelf seas with biogeochemical models can provide valuable data, allowing scientists to look at both past and future scenarios to estimate ecosystem response to change. In particular, the European Regional Sea Ecosystem Model or ERSEM combines not only the complex hydrographical aspects of the North West European shelf, but also vast numbers of biological and chemical parameters. Though huge efforts across the modelling community are invested into developing and ultimately increasing the reliability of models such as the ERSEM, this is typically achieved by looking at relationships with aforementioned observed datasets, restricting model accuracy and our understanding of ecosystem processes. It is for this reason that proxy data of the marine environment is so valuable. Of all marine proxies available, sclerochronology, the study of the growth bands on long-lived marine molluscs, is the only proven to provide novel, high resolution, multi-centennial, annually-resolved, absolutely-dated archives of past ocean environment, analogous to dendrochronology. For the first time, this PhD project will combine the proxy data of sclerochronology with model hindcast data from the ERSEM with the aim to better understand the North West European shelf sea environment and potentially improve predictions of future climate change in this region and

  4. Process studies of the carbonate system in coastal and ocean environments of the Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salt, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in anthropogenic, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been largely mitigated by ocean uptake since the start of the Industrial Revolution, with the Atlantic Ocean providing the largest store of anthropogenic carbon. The thesis of Lesley Salt examines how the uptake of CO2 varies in

  5. UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS AMY MCGOVERN, TIMOTHY SUPINIE, DAVID JOHN GAGNE II, NATHANIEL TROUTMAN,...

  6. Molecular processes of transgenerational acclimation to a warming ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Veilleux, Heather D.

    2015-07-20

    Some animals have the remarkable capacity to acclimate across generations to projected future climate change1, 2, 3, 4; however, the underlying molecular processes are unknown. We sequenced and assembled de novo transcriptomes of adult tropical reef fish exposed developmentally or transgenerationally to projected future ocean temperatures and correlated the resulting expression profiles with acclimated metabolic traits from the same fish. We identified 69 contigs representing 53 key genes involved in thermal acclimation of aerobic capacity. Metabolic genes were among the most upregulated transgenerationally, suggesting shifts in energy production for maintaining performance at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, immune- and stress-responsive genes were upregulated transgenerationally, indicating a new complement of genes allowing the second generation of fish to better cope with elevated temperatures. Other differentially expressed genes were involved with tissue development and transcriptional regulation. Overall, we found a similar suite of differentially expressed genes among developmental and transgenerational treatments. Heat-shock protein genes were surprisingly unresponsive, indicating that short-term heat-stress responses may not be a good indicator of long-term acclimation capacity. Our results are the first to reveal the molecular processes that may enable marine fishes to adjust to a future warmer environment over multiple generations.

  7. Effect of Linked Rules on Business Process Model Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Indulska, Marta; Sadiq, Shazia

    2017-01-01

    of business processes has not been empirically evaluated. In this paper, we report on an experiment that investigates the effect of linked rules, a specific rule integration approach, on business process model understanding. Our results indicate that linked rules are associated with better time efficiency......Business process models are widely used in organizations by information systems analysts to represent complex business requirements and by business users to understand business operations and constraints. This understanding is extracted from graphical process models as well as business rules. Prior...... research advocated integrating business rules into business process models to improve the effectiveness of important organizational activities, such as developing shared understanding, effective communication, and process improvement. However, whether such integrated modeling can improve the understanding...

  8. SPURS: Salinity Processes in the Upper-Ocean Regional Study: THE NORTH ATLANTIC EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Eric; Bryan, Frank; Schmitt, Ray

    2015-01-01

    In this special issue of Oceanography, we explore the results of SPURS-1, the first part of the ocean process study Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS). The experiment was conducted between August 2012 and October 2013 in the subtropical North Atlantic and was the first of two experiments (SPURS come in pairs!). SPURS-2 is planned for 20162017 in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean.

  9. International Workshop on Biogeochemical Processes in the Northern Indian Ocean: Notes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.

    , several International Conferences were conducted, among them ICSU (International Council of Scientific Unions) - SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment) Workshops on "Particle flux in the Oceans" in 1991 (Goa) and 1993 (Hamburg...-1 NOTES INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN THE NORTHERN INDIAN OCEAN An International Workshop on Biogeochemical Processes in the Northern Indian Ocean was jointly . organized by the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO, CSIR), India...

  10. Submesoscale processes promote seasonal restratification in the Subantarctic Ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, M

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the mechanism driving the seasonal restratification of the Southern Ocean mixed layer (ML) is thought to be the onset of springtime warming. Recent developments in numerical modeling and North Atlantic observations have shown...

  11. Preface to: Indian Ocean biogeochemical processes and ecological variability

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hood, R.R.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Wiggert, J.D.

    , several nations are deploying coastal observing systems. These, in combination with newly avail able research capabilities and technologies, provide a unique opportunity for staging international, interdisciplinary re search in the Indian Ocean...

  12. Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

  13. Task-specific visual cues for improving process model understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusel, Razvan; Mendling, Jan; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2016-01-01

    Context Business process models support various stakeholders in managing business processes and designing process-aware information systems. In order to make effective use of these models, they have to be readily understandable. Objective Prior research has emphasized the potential of visual cues to

  14. Data Requirements for Oceanic Processes in the Open Ocean, Coastal Zone, and Cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, R. G.; Mccandless, S. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The type of information system that is needed to meet the requirements of ocean, coastal, and polar region users was examined. The requisite qualities of the system are: (1) availability, (2) accessibility, (3) responsiveness, (4) utility, (5) continuity, and (6) NASA participation. The system would not displace existing capabilities, but would have to integrate and expand the capabilities of existing systems and resolve the deficiencies that currently exist in producer-to-user information delivery options.

  15. Understanding the El Niño-like Oceanic Response in the Tropical Pacific to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Lu, J.; Liu, F.

    2015-12-01

    The enhanced central and eastern Pacific SST warming and the associated ocean processes under global warming are investigated using the ocean component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2). The tropical SST warming pattern in the coupled CESM can be faithfully reproduced by the POP2 forced with surface fluxes computed using the aerodynamic bulk formula. By prescribing the wind stress and/or wind speed through the bulk formula, the effects of wind stress change and/or the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback are isolated and their linearity is evaluated in this ocean-alone setting. Result shows that, although the weakening of the equatorial easterlies contributes positively to the El Niño-like SST warming, 80% of which can be simulated by the POP2 without considering the effects of wind change in both mechanical and thermodynamic fluxes. This result points to the importance of the air-sea thermal interaction and the relative feebleness of the ocean dynamical process in the El Niño-like equatorial Pacific SST response to global warming. On the other hand, the wind stress change is found to play a dominant role in the oceanic response in the tropical Pacific, accounting for most of the changes in the equatorial ocean current system and thermal structures, including the weakening of the surface westward currents, the enhancement of the near-surface stratification and the shoaling of the equatorial thermocline. Interestingly, greenhouse gas warming in the absence of wind stress change and WES feedback also contributes substantially to the changes at the subsurface equatorial Pacific. Further, this warming impact can be largely replicated by an idealized ocean experiment forced by a uniform surface heat flux, whereby, arguably, a purest form of oceanic dynamical thermostat is revealed.

  16. Understanding the El Niño-like Oceanic Response in the Tropical Pacific to Global Warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Liu, Fukai; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-10

    The enhanced central and eastern Pacific SST warming and the associated ocean processes under global warming are investigated using the ocean component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2). The tropical SST warming pattern in the coupled CESM can be faithfully reproduced by the POP2 forced with surface fluxes computed using the aerodynamic bulk formula. By prescribing the wind stress and/or wind speed through the bulk formula, the effects of wind stress change and/or the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback are isolated and their linearity is evaluated in this ocean-alone setting. Result shows that, although the weakening of the equatorial easterlies contributes positively to the El Niño-like SST warming, 80% of which can be simulated by the POP2 without considering the effects of wind change in both mechanical and thermodynamic fluxes. This result points to the importance of the air-sea thermal interaction and the relative feebleness of the ocean dynamical process in the El Niño-like equatorial Pacific SST response to global warming. On the other hand, the wind stress change is found to play a dominant role in the oceanic response in the tropical Pacific, accounting for most of the changes in the equatorial ocean current system and thermal structures, including the weakening of the surface westward currents, the enhancement of the near-surface stratification and the shoaling of the equatorial thermocline. Interestingly, greenhouse gas warming in the absence of wind stress change and WES feedback also contributes substantially to the changes at the subsurface equatorial Pacific. Further, this warming impact can be largely replicated by an idealized ocean experiment forced by a uniform surface heat flux, whereby, arguably, a purest form of oceanic dynamical thermostat is revealed.

  17. Increasing process understanding by analyzing complex interactions in experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naelapaa, Kaisa; Allesø, Morten; Kristensen, Henning Gjelstrup

    2009-01-01

    There is a recognized need for new approaches to understand unit operations with pharmaceutical relevance. A method for analyzing complex interactions in experimental data is introduced. Higher-order interactions do exist between process parameters, which complicate the interpretation...... understanding of a coating process. It was possible to model the response, that is, the amount of drug released, using both mentioned techniques. However, the ANOVAmodel was difficult to interpret as several interactions between process parameters existed. In contrast to ANOVA, GEMANOVA is especially suited...... for modeling complex interactions and making easily understandable models of these. GEMANOVA modeling allowed a simple visualization of the entire experimental space. Furthermore, information was obtained on how relative changes in the settings of process parameters influence the film quality and thereby drug...

  18. Ocean processes. In: Charting progress 2: the state of UK seas, Chapter 2, 14-26

    OpenAIRE

    Huthnance, John

    2010-01-01

    The main changes in ocean processes over the past few decades are largely due to the effects of rising sea surface temperature, rising sea levels and ocean acidity. The changes are already affecting some sensitive ecosystems and could have significant long-term impacts

  19. Understanding and Managing Process Interaction in IS Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, information systems must be developed and implemented as a part of business change. This is a challenge for the IS project manager, since business change and information systems development usually are performed as separate processes. Thus, there is a need to understand and manage......-technical innovation in a situation where the organisational change process and the IS development process are parallel but incongruent. We also argue that iterative software engineering frameworks are well structured to support process interaction. Finally, we advocate that the IS project manager needs to manage...... the relationship between these two kinds of processes. To understand the interaction between information systems development and planned organisational change we introduce the concept of process interaction. We draw on a longitudinal case study of an IS development project that used an iterative and incremental...

  20. Demonstrating the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Organisms to Support Climate Change Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Amanda L.; Hanson, Paul R.; Kelley, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification, a product of CO[subscript 2] absorption by the world's oceans, is largely driven by the anthropogenic combustion of fossil fuels and has already lowered the pH of marine ecosystems. Organisms with calcium carbonate shells and skeletons are especially susceptible to increasing environmental acidity due to reduction in the…

  1. Transport process of Pu isotope in marginal seas of the western North Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masatoshi [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, 036-8564, Aomori (Japan); Zheng, Jian [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, 263-8555, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Significant quantities of Pu isotopes have been released into the marine environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Most radionuclides globally dispersed in atmospheric nuclear weapons testing were released into the environment during the 1950's and 1960's. In the western North Pacific Ocean, the principal source can be further distinguished as two distinct sources of Pu: close-in tropospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in the Marshall Islands and global stratospheric fallout. Since the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is characteristic for the Pu emission source, information on Pu isotopic signature is very useful to better understand the transport process in the oceans and to identify the sources of Pu. The mean atom ratio of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu from the global stratospheric fallout is 0.180 ±0.014 based on soil sample data, whereas that from close-in tropospheric fallout from the PPG is 0.33 - 0.36. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in seawater samples collected in marginal seas of the western North Pacific Ocean will provide important and useful data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing future Pu sources. The objectives of this study were to measure the {sup 239+240}Pu concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in seawater from the Sea of Okhotsk, Japan Sea, South China Sea and Sulu Sea and to discuss the transport process of Pu. Large-volume seawater samples (250 L each) were collected from the surface to the bottom in marginal seas of the western North Pacific Ocean with acoustically triggered quadruple PVC sampling bottles during the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise. The {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios were measured with a double-focusing SF-ICP-MS, which was equipped with a guard electrode to eliminate secondary discharge in the plasma and to enhance overall sensitivity. In

  2. Understanding the process of greening of Brazilian business schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.; De Sousa Jabbour, A.B.L.

    2013-01-01

    activities; (d) paradoxically, the analyzed business schools can be considered academic leaders in the field, but have had difficulties in adopting environmental management practices internally; (e) there is a "path dependence" effect in this process; (f) there are barriers to organizational change towards...... green business schools; (g) institutional entrepreneurs are important to the process of greening. This research represents the first research shedding light to understanding the process of greening of Brazilian business schools while considering the multidimensional aspects (teaching, research, outreach...

  3. Understanding Control Function and Failure From a Process Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Lind, Morten

    2012-01-01

    In control design, fault-identification and fault tolerant control, the controlled process is usually perceived as a dynamical process, captured in a mathematical model. The design of a control system for a complex process, however, begins typically long before these mathematical models become...... relevant and available. To consider the role of control functions in process design, a good qualitative understanding of the process as well as of control functions is required. As the purpose of a control function is closely tied to the process functions, its failure has a direct effects on the process...... behaviour and its function. This paper presents a formal methodology for the qualitative representation of control functions in relation to their process context. Different types of relevant process and control abstractions are introduced and their application to formal analysis of control failure modes...

  4. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., ocean acoustic reverberation tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography.

  5. Using silicon isotopes to understand the role of the Southern Ocean in modern and ancient biogeochemistry and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Katharine R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    2014-04-01

    The growth of siliceous phytoplankton, mainly diatoms, in the Southern Ocean influences the preformed nutrient inventory in the ocean on a global scale. Silicic acid use by diatoms and deep circulation combine to trap dissolved Si in the Southern Ocean resulting in high levels of silica production and expansive diatom oozes in Southern Ocean sediments. The analysis of the silicon isotope composition of biogenic silica, or opal, and dissolved silicic acid provide insight into the operation of the global marine silicon cycle and the role played by the Southern Ocean in nutrient supply and carbon drawdown, both in the modern and in the past. Silicon isotope studies of diatoms have provided insight into the history of silica production in surface waters, while the analysis of spicules from deep sea sponges has defined both the spatial and the temporal variability of silicic acid concentrations in the water column; together these - and other - proxies reveal variations in the northward flow of Southern Ocean intermediate and mode waters and how changes in Southern Ocean productivity altered their preformed nutrient content. We present a new hypothesis - the "Silicic Acid Ventilation Hypothesis" (SAVH) - to explain the geographical variation of opal-based proxy records, in particular the contrasting patterns of opal burial change found in the low and high latitudes. By understanding the silicon isotope systematics of opal and silicic acid in the modern, we will be able to use opal-based proxies to reconstruct past changes in the Southern Ocean and so investigate its role in global carbon cycling and climate.

  6. Coastal processes study at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA: summary of data collection 2004-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Eshleman, Jodi; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, contains a persistent erosional section in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta and south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. Coastal managers have been discussing potential mediation measures for over a decade, with little scientific research available to aid in decision making. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study in April 2004 to provide the scientific knowledge necessary for coastal managers to make informed management decisions. This study integrates a wide range of field data collection and numerical modeling techniques to document nearshore sediment transport processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, with emphasis on how these processes relate to erosion at Ocean Beach. The Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study is the first comprehensive study of coastal processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay.

  7. Detecting the influence of ocean process on the moisture supply for India summer monsoon from Satellite Sea Surface Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W.; Yueh, S. H.; Liu, W. T.; Fore, A.; Hayashi, A.

    2016-02-01

    A strong contrast in the onset of Indian summer monsoon was observed by independent satellites: average rain rate over India subcontinent (IS) in June was more than doubled in 2013 than 2012 (TRMM); also observed are larger area of wet soil (Aquarius) and high water storage (GRACE). The difference in IS rainfall was contributed to the moisture inputs through west coast of India, estimated from ocean wind (OSCAT2) and water vapor (TMI). This is an interesting testbed for studying the role of ocean on terrestrial water cycle, in particular the Indian monsoon, which has tremendous social-economical impact. What is the source of extra moisture in 2013 or deficit in 2012 for the monsoon onset? Is it possible to quantify the contribution of ocean process that maybe responsible for redistributing the freshwater in favor of the summer monsoon moisture supply? This study aims to identify the influence of ocean processes on the freshwater exchange between air-sea interfaces, using Aquarius sea surface salinity (SSS). We found two areas in Indian Ocean with high correlation between IS rain rate and Aquarius SSS: one area is in the Arabian Sea adjacent to IS, another area is a horizontal patch from 60°E to 100°E centered around 10°S. On the other hand, E-P (OAflux, TRMM) shows no similar correlation patterns with IS rain. Based on the governing equation of the salt budget in the upper ocean, we define the freshwater flux, F, from the oceanic branch of the water cycle, including contributions from salinity tendency, advection, and subsurface process. The tendency and advection terms are estimated using Aquarius SSS and OSCAR ocean current. We will present results of analyzing the spatial and temporal variability of F and evidence of and hypothesis on how the oceanic processes may enhance the moisture supply for summer Indian monsoon onset in 2013 comparing with 2012. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) has been producing the global soil moisture (SM) every 2-3 days

  8. Understanding the folding process of synthetic polymers by small ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    *For correspondence. Understanding the folding process of synthetic polymers by ... Conformational control in biological macromole- cules depends largely ... context of sensors. 11–13 and more recently with regard to foldamers. 14–17. In these systems, the com- plexation of the OE segment by a metal-ion leads to either a ...

  9. Understanding the folding process of synthetic polymers by small ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Understanding the folding process of synthetic polymers by small-molecule folding agents. S G RAMKUMAR and S RAMAKRISHNAN*. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 e-mail: raman@ipc.iisc.ernet.in. Abstract. Two acceptor containing polyimides PDI and NDI ...

  10. Understanding the Advising Learning Process Using Learning Taxonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleck, Jeanette K.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Allen, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the learning that transpires in advising, we used Anderson et al.'s (2001) revision of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's (1964) affective taxonomy to analyze eight student-reported advising outcomes from Smith and Allen (2014). Using the cognitive processes and knowledge domains of Anderson et al.'s…

  11. Understanding the Process by Which New Employees Enter Work Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Donald B.

    1977-01-01

    The Group Integration Process, described in this article, serves as a broad and guiding set of steps (invitation, induction, orientation, training, relationship, and integration) that helps the supervisor better understand what is to be done in managing a new employee's entrance into a work group. (TA)

  12. Understanding the IT/business partnership - a business process perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur

    2014-01-01

    From a business process perspective, the business value of information technologies (IT) stems from how they improve or enable business processes. At the same time, in the field of strategic IT/business alignment, the locus of discussion has been how IT/business partnerships enhance the value of IT....... Despite this apparent relationship, the business process perspective has been absent from the IT/business alignment discussion. In this paper, we use the case of an industrial company to develop a model for understanding IT/business partnerships in business process terms. Based on our findings, we define...... these partnerships by allocating responsibilities between central IT and the local business during two stages of a process lifecycle: formation and standardization. The significance of the findings lies in how the model’s configuration leads to different types of IT units’ process centricity. This in turn affects...

  13. Understanding variability of the Southern Ocean overturning circulation in CORE-II models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, S. M.; Spence, P.; Hogg, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    The current generation of climate models exhibit a large spread in the steady-state and projected Southern Ocean upper and lower overturning circulation, with mechanisms for deep ocean variability remaining less well understood. Here, common Southern Ocean metrics in twelve models from the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiment Phase II (CORE-II) are assessed over a 60 year period. Specifically, stratification, surface buoyancy fluxes, and eddies are linked to the magnitude of the strengthening trend in the upper overturning circulation, and a decreasing trend in the lower overturning circulation across the CORE-II models. The models evolve similarly in the upper 1 km and the deep ocean, with an almost equivalent poleward intensification trend in the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds. However, the models differ substantially in their eddy parameterisation and surface buoyancy fluxes. In general, models with a larger heat-driven water mass transformation where deep waters upwell at the surface ( ∼ 55°S) transport warmer waters into intermediate depths, thus weakening the stratification in the upper 2 km. Models with a weak eddy induced overturning and a warm bias in the intermediate waters are more likely to exhibit larger increases in the upper overturning circulation, and more significant weakening of the lower overturning circulation. We find the opposite holds for a cool model bias in intermediate depths, combined with a more complex 3D eddy parameterisation that acts to reduce isopycnal slope. In summary, the Southern Ocean overturning circulation decadal trends in the coarse resolution CORE-II models are governed by biases in surface buoyancy fluxes and the ocean density field, and the configuration of the eddy parameterisation.

  14. Simulations of the Ocean Response to a Hurricane: Nonlinear Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zedler, Sarah E.

    2009-10-01

    Superinertial internal waves generated by a tropical cyclone can propagate vertically and laterally away from their local generation site and break, contributing to turbulent vertical mixing in the deep ocean and maintenance of the stratification of the main thermocline. In this paper, the results of a modeling study are reported to investigate the mechanism by which superinertial fluctuations are generated in the deep ocean. The general properties of the superinertial wave wake were also characterized as a function of storm speed and central latitude. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) was used to simulate the open ocean response to realistic westward-tracking hurricane-type surface wind stress and heat and net freshwater buoyancy forcing for regions representative of midlatitudes in the Atlantic, the Caribbean, and low latitudes in the eastern Pacific. The model had high horizontal [Δ(x, y) = 1/6°] and vertical (Δz = 5 m in top 100 m) resolution and employed a parameterization for vertical mixing induced by shear instability. In the horizontal momentum equation, the relative size of the nonlinear advection terms, which had a dominant frequency near twice the inertial, was large only in the upper 200 m of water. Below 200 m, the linear momentum equations obeyed a linear balance to 2%. Fluctuations at nearly twice the inertial frequency (2f) were prevalent throughout the depth of the water column, indicating that these nonlinear advection terms in the upper 200 m forced a linear mode below at nearly twice the inertial frequency via vorticity conservation. Maximum variance at 2f in horizontal velocity occurred on the south side of the track. This was in response to vertical advection of northward momentum, which in the north momentum equation is an oscillatory positive definite term that constituted a net force to the south at a frequency near 2f. The ratio of this term to the Coriolis force was larger on the

  15. Understanding metallic bonding: Structure, process and interaction by Rasch analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Maurice M. W.; Oon, Pey-Tee

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of 3006 Year 10-12 students on their understandings of metallic bonding. The instrument was developed based on Chi's ontological categories of scientific concepts and students' understanding of metallic bonding as reported in the literature. The instrument has two parts. Part one probed into students' understanding of metallic bonding as (a) a submicro structure of metals, (b) a process in which individual metal atoms lose their outermost shell electrons to form a 'sea of electrons' and octet metal cations or (c) an all-directional electrostatic force between delocalized electrons and metal cations, that is, an interaction. Part two assessed students' explanation of malleability of metals, for example (a) as a submicro structural rearrangement of metal atoms/cations or (b) based on all-directional electrostatic force. The instrument was validated by the Rasch Model. Psychometric assessment showed that the instrument possessed reasonably good properties of measurement. Results revealed that it was reliable and valid for measuring students' understanding of metallic bonding. Analysis revealed that the structure, process and interaction understandings were unidimensional and in an increasing order of difficulty. Implications for the teaching of metallic bonding, particular through the use of diagrams, critiques and model-based learning, are discussed.

  16. The CARIACO Ocean Time-Series: two decades of oceanographic observations to understand linkages between biogeochemistry, ecology, and long-term environmental variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, L.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Rueda-Roa, D. T.; Thunell, R.; Scranton, M. I.; Taylor, G. T.; benitez-Nelson, C. R.; Montes, E.; Astor, Y. M.; Rojas, J.

    2016-02-01

    The CARIACO Ocean Time-Series project, located in the Cariaco Basin off the coast of Venezuela, seeks to understand relationships between hydrography, primary production, community composition, microbial activity, particle fluxes, and element cycling in the water column, and how variations in these processes are preserved in sediments accumulating in this anoxic basin. CARIACO uses autonomous and shipboard measurements to understand ecological and biogeochemical changes and how these relate to regional and global climatic/ocean variability. CARIACO is a model for national ocean observing programs in Central/South America, and has been developed as a community facility platform with open access to all data (http://imars.marine.usf.edu/cariaco). Research resulting from this program has contributed to knowledge about the decomposition and cycling of particles, the biological pump, and to our understanding of the ecology and oceanography of oxygen minimum zones. Despite this basin being anoxic below 250m, remineralization rates of organic matter are comparable to those in well oxygenated waters. A dynamic microbial community significantly influences carbon and nutrient biogeochemical cycling throughout the water column. Since 1995, declining particulate organic carbon fluxes have been measured throughout the water column using sediment traps, likely in response to declining Chl-a concentrations and smaller phytoplankton which have replaced the larger taxa over the past decade. This community shift appears to be caused by regional changes in the physical regime. CARIACO also recorded marked long-term changes in surface and deep DIC in response to a combination of factors including surface water warming. The observations of CARIACO highlight the importance of a sustained, holistic approach to studying biodiversity, ecology and the marine carbon cycle to predict potential impacts of climate change on the ocean's ecosystem services and carbon sequestration efficiency.

  17. Ocean Robotic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Oscar [Rutgers University

    2012-05-23

    We live on an ocean planet which is central to regulating the Earth’s climate and human society. Despite the importance of understanding the processes operating in the ocean, it remains chronically undersampled due to the harsh operating conditions. This is problematic given the limited long term information available about how the ocean is changing. The changes include rising sea level, declining sea ice, ocean acidification, and the decline of mega fauna. While the changes are daunting, oceanography is in the midst of a technical revolution with the expansion of numerical modeling techniques, combined with ocean robotics. Operating together, these systems represent a new generation of ocean observatories. I will review the evolution of these ocean observatories and provide a few case examples of the science that they enable, spanning from the waters offshore New Jersey to the remote waters of the Southern Ocean.

  18. Ocean bio-geophysical modeling using mixed layer-isopycnal general circulation model coupled with photosynthesis process

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; Saito, H.; Muneyama, K.; Sato, T.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Kumar, A.; Frouin, R.

    into deep ocean and are converted into carbon dioxide, emitting heat that was originally stored in the body of phytoplanktons as a product of photosynthesis. The notion of these biological-chemical-physical processes in the ocean from the viewpoint...

  19. Understanding uncertainty in process-based hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. P.; Kavetski, D.; Slater, A. G.; Newman, A. J.; Marks, D. G.; Landry, C.; Lundquist, J. D.; Rupp, D. E.; Nijssen, B.

    2013-12-01

    Building an environmental model requires making a series of decisions regarding the appropriate representation of natural processes. While some of these decisions can already be based on well-established physical understanding, gaps in our current understanding of environmental dynamics, combined with incomplete knowledge of properties and boundary conditions of most environmental systems, make many important modeling decisions far more ambiguous. There is consequently little agreement regarding what a 'correct' model structure is, especially at relatively larger spatial scales such as catchments and beyond. In current practice, faced with such a range of decisions, different modelers will generally make different modeling decisions, often on an ad hoc basis, based on their balancing of process understanding, the data available to evaluate the model, the purpose of the modeling exercise, and their familiarity with or investment in an existing model infrastructure. This presentation describes development and application of multiple-hypothesis models to evaluate process-based hydrologic models. Our numerical model uses robust solutions of the hydrology and thermodynamic governing equations as the structural core, and incorporates multiple options to represent the impact of different modeling decisions, including multiple options for model parameterizations (e.g., below-canopy wind speed, thermal conductivity, storage and transmission of liquid water through soil, etc.), as well as multiple options for model architecture, that is, the coupling and organization of different model components (e.g., representations of sub-grid variability and hydrologic connectivity, coupling with groundwater, etc.). Application of this modeling framework across a collection of different research basins demonstrates that differences among model parameterizations are often overwhelmed by differences among equally-plausible model parameter sets, while differences in model architecture lead

  20. Understanding and Managing Process Interaction in IS Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2012-01-01

    Software-based information systems must be developed and implemented as a part of business change. This is a major challenge, since business change and the development of software-based information systems usually are performed in separate processes. Thus, there is a need to understand and manage...... critical events in the case, what led to the events, and what the consequences are. We discuss the implications for information systems research and in particular we discuss the contribution to project management of iterative and incremental software development.......Software-based information systems must be developed and implemented as a part of business change. This is a major challenge, since business change and the development of software-based information systems usually are performed in separate processes. Thus, there is a need to understand and manage...

  1. Toward understanding dynamic annealing processes in irradiated ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Michael Thomas [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2013-05-01

    High energy particle irradiation inevitably generates defects in solids. The ballistic formation and thermalization of the defect creation process occur rapidly, and are believed to be reasonably well understood. However, knowledge of the evolution of defects after damage cascade thermalization, referred to as dynamic annealing, is quite limited. Unraveling the mechanisms associated with dynamic annealing is crucial since such processes play an important role in the formation of stable postirradiation disorder in ion-beam-processing of semiconductors, and determines the “radiation tolerance” of many nuclear materials. The purpose of this dissertation is to further our understanding of the processes involved in dynamic annealing. In order to achieve this, two main tasks are undertaken.

  2. Experiments to understand the corrosion process of fuel rod claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeschel, F.; Hermann, A.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel rods in light water reactors have to respond to the trends in increased burn-up and extended dwelling time in reactor. Waterside corrosion of the cladding affecting wall thickness, mechanical stability due to hydriding and the heat transfer due to the low thermal conductivity of the oxide scale may become the limiting factors. The corrosion process is complex and involves a large variety of mechanisms. Understanding of the process is important for safe operation and a prerequisite for development of improved materials. A variety of analytical techniques and mechanical tests, including examination of irradiated pathfinder rods, are used to tackle the different aspects. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs

  3. Hadal Science and Technology Program (HADSTEP): First Step to Understand the Deepest Ocean in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, G.; Peng, X.

    2014-12-01

    The hadal zone (depths greater than 6000 m), comprising mostly deep trenches on Earth, represents the largest poorly understood and the most mysterious habitat on Earth. Hadal Science and Technology Program (HADSTEP), the first Chinese deep-sea program focusing primarily on the hadal zones, was financially supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences in April, 2014. The objective of this program is to explore and understand of the deepest environments and their ecosystems on Earth, in combination with the development of hadal technology. The main research interests of this program are to determine (i) the community structure, ecological function, and evolution of the hadal communities, (ii) the environmental features and biogeochemical processes of hadal zones, (iii) the impact of deep-sea current and tectonic activity on hadal fauna, and (iv) the geological evolution of hadal zones. Meanwhile, a great effort will be made for technological developments to access the extreme depths. Several hadal equipments (e.g. free-fall imaging lander, glider, deep mooring, animal trap, sediment trap, chemical sensor, and seismometer) will be developed to improve the capability of hadal exploration. Renewed interest in the deep trenches combined with technological advances will create new opportunities to explore and understand the deepest environment on earth.

  4. The Oceans 2015 Initiative, Part II - An updated understanding of the observed and projected impacts of ocean warming and acidification on marine and coastal socioeconomic activities/sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherdon, Lauren; Sumaila, Rashid; Cheung, William W.L.; Rogers, Alex; Magnan, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Between 1971 and 2010, the oceans have absorbed approximately 93% of the excess heat caused by global warming, leading to several major changes such as the increase in stratification, limitation in the circulation of nutrients from deep waters to the surface, and sea level rise. In addition, the oceans absorbed 26% of anthropogenic CO 2 emitted since the start of the Industrial Revolution, which resulted in ocean acidification. Together, these processes strongly affect marine and coastal species' geographic distribution, abundance, migration patterns and phenology. As a consequence of these complex environmental changes, marine and coastal human sectors (i.e., fisheries, aquaculture, coastal tourism and health) are in turn at risk. This report provides an updated synthesis of what the science tells us about such a risk, based upon IPCC AR5 (2013- 2014) and published scientific articles and grey literature that have been published between July 2013 and April 2015. Although uncertainty remains strong, there is growing scientific evidence that ocean warming and acidification will affect key resources for societies through ecosystems services. For example, while AR5 indicated that coral reefs had little scope for adaptation, recent research has suggested that there may be some capacity for some coral species to recover from climatic hocks and bleaching events, and to acquire heat resistance through acclimatization. This will have huge implications on many coastal economies in the developing and developed countries. More generally, key sectors will be affected. For example, while the fish catch potential is expected to decrease at the global scale, it will show diversified trends at the regional scale as fish stocks have started shifting in latitudes or by depth. This will impact regional to local fisheries systems. Also, climate and acidification-related impacts to existing aquaculture are expected to be generally negative, with impacts varying by location

  5. Commentary: how can technology help us understand the communication process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyton, Joann

    2012-08-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on the articles chosen for the special section on communications analysis. These articles problematize communication and raise an interesting set of questions for both human factors and communication scholars to ponder. In the end, both sets of scholars seek the same goal: How do we better examine communication to improve it? Problematizing communication requires scholars to challenge their fundamental assumptions about the phenomenon as well as to tease out the distinctions of methodological approaches typically used by both human factors and communication scholars. Human factors scholars tend to favor forms of communication in which technology or task roles control who can communicate and how. Communication scholars tend to favor contexts in which information flows more freely with fewer explicit restrictions. Creating opportunities to collaborate in research on the communication process may create the best understanding of technology that can better serve our understanding of communication.

  6. Importance of isotopes for understanding the sedimentation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    Isotopes of either radioactive or stable depending upon radiation emitted or not respectively which have wide applications in understanding not only the history of sedimentation, but also provide information about paleoclimate. Stable isotope mass difference occurs due to changes in physicochemical conditions of the ambient environment, for instance temperature, evaporation, precipitation, redox processes, and changes in the mobility of elements during weathering processes, biological uptake, metabolism, re-mineralization of biogenic material, etc. In contrast, radionuclides emit radiation because of excess of neutrons present in the nucleus when compared to protons of an atom. The decay of radioactive isotopes is unaffected despite changes in physicochemical variations; hence, they are useful for determining ages of different types of materials on earth. The radioisotopes can be classified based on origin and half life into primordial or long-lived, cosmogenic and artificial radionuclides or fission products. In this study, the importance of 137 Cs artificial radionuclides will be highlighted to understand short-term sedimentation processes, particularly in estuaries, deltas/continental shelf of west coast of India. The distribution of 137 Cs in sediments of south-western continental margin of India indicates that coastal marginal environments are filters or sinks for fall-out radionuclides. The sparse of 137 Cs in the open continental shelf environment indicates that most of sediments are either older or sediments being diluted by components generated in the marine environment

  7. Ocean feedback to tropical cyclones: Climatology and processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jullien, S.; Marchesiello, P.; Menkes, C.E.; Lefevre, J.; Jourdain, N.C.; Samson, G.; Lengaigne, M.

    on the intensification process but the sensitivity of TCs to SST cooling is nonlinear and generally lower than predicted by thermodynamic theories: about 15 rather than over 30 hPa C-1 and only for strong cooling. The reason is that the cooling effect...

  8. Understanding the Relationship Between Soil Processes and Atmospheric Methane Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laybolt, W. D.; O'Connell, E.; Risk, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    As vehicle-based atmospheric surveying becomes more commonplace, its natural evolution will see an increased movement towards detection of multiple gases and geochemical approaches for discriminating leaks of different origin. While multi-gas surveys are already feasible, the factor limiting our ability to interpret them is the understanding of gas source-sink dynamics, particularly at the soil level. This study aims to understand the relationship between soil processes and atmospheric methane concentrations. Using source regions of approximately 100 km2, extensive soil gas surveys were completed, measuring CH4, δ13CH4 and CO2. We compared this to daytime and nighttime vehicle-based surveys where we acquired data for the same gases to see which of these individual gases, or ratios thereof, could be detected in the lower atmosphere. These surveys were done in two contrasting regions, which were also expected to have different source/sink processes. Results showed that atmospheric CH4 concentration, its isotopic signature, and the CO2/CH4 ratio of above-background concentrations showed the highest level of correspondence with the soil CH4 values. Anomalies in CH4 concentrations in the first study area appeared to be from predominantly biological sources (δ13CH4 values near -60‰) rather than from a fossil source (underlying coal beds). However, the study area also showed anomalous values of δ13CH4, which may have been due to a soil CH4 sink. In both regions, nighttime atmospheric studies generally yield stronger signals and correlations because decreased night winds contributed to pooling of gases and higher atmospheric concentrations. This study helps advance our understanding of the relationship between soil processes and atmospheric methane, which is essential for improving vehicle-based surveys for use in detecting environmental side-effects of energy and geosequestration projects in regions of complex surface gas dynamics.

  9. Ocean General Circulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun

    2012-09-30

    1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

  10. Understanding the process by which female entrepreneurs create INVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Gitte Ohrt; Hannibal, Martin

    than remaining in one´s domestic market (e.g. in terms of risk propensity, ability to acquire foreign market knowledge, growth ambitions, network connections and such like), answers to the questions of “Who am I?, What do I know? Whom do I know?” in the founding stage for INVs are likely to be very...... different than for purely domestic new ventures. However, despite this apparent logic, INV scholars have only recently begun to explore how the founding characteristics and processes of INVs may vary from those of purely domestic ventures (e.g. Bell et al., 2003; Coviello, 2006; Coviello & Cox, 2006; Di...... Gregorio et al., 2008). Unfortunately, while the above studies have contributed to our understanding, they are all gender-neutral i.e. they fail to consider the process of INV creation from a female entrepreneurial perspective. This is problematic given the rapidly rising numbers of women-owned ventures...

  11. Towards an understanding of parietal mnemonic processes: some conceptual guideposts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    The posterior parietal lobes have been implicated in a range of episodic memory retrieval tasks, but the nature of parietal contributions to remembering remains unclear. In an attempt to identify fruitful avenues of further research, several heuristic questions about parietal mnemonic activations are considered in light of recent empirical findings: Do such parietal activations reflect memory processes, or their contents? Do they precede, follow, or co-occur with retrieval? What can we learn from their pattern of lateralization? Do they index access to episodic representations, or the feeling of remembering? Are parietal activations graded by memory strength, quantity of retrieved information, or the type of retrieval? How do memory-related activations map onto functional parcellation of parietal lobes suggested by other cognitive phenomena? Consideration of these questions can promote understanding of the relationship between parietal mnemonic effects and perceptual, attentional, and action-oriented cognitive processes. PMID:22783175

  12. Towards an understanding of parietal mnemonic processes: Some conceptual guideposts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Levy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The posterior parietal lobes have been implicated in a range of episodic memory retrieval tasks, but the nature of parietal contributions to remembering remains unclear. In an attempt to identify fruitful avenues of further research, several heuristic questions about parietal-mnemonic activations are considered in light of recent empirical findings: Do such parietal activations reflect memory processes or their contents? Do they precede, follow, or co-occur with retrieval? What can we learn from their pattern of lateralization? Do they index access to episodic representations or the feeling of remembering? Are parietal activations graded by memory strength, quantity of retrieved information, or the type of retrieval? How do memory-related activations map onto functional parcellation of parietal lobes suggested by other cognitive phenomena? Consideration of these questions can promote understanding of the relationship between parietal-mnemonic effects and perceptual, attentional, and action-oriented cognitive processes.

  13. Societal need for improved understanding of climate change, anthropogenic impacts, and geo-hazard warning drive development of ocean observatories in European Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhl, H.A.; Andre, M.; Beranzoli, L.; Çagatay, M.N.; Colaço, A.; Cannat, M.; Dañobeitia, J.J.; Favali, P.; Géli, L.; Gillooly, M.; Greinert, J.; Hall, P.O.J.; Huber, R.; Karstensen, J.; Lampitt, R.S.; Larkin, K.E.; Lykousis, V.; Mienert, J.; Miranda, J.M.; Person, R.; Priede, I.G.; Puillat, I.; Thomsen, L.; Waldmann, C.

    2011-01-01

    Society's needs for a network of in situ ocean observing systems cross many areas of earth and marine science. Here we review the science themes that benefit from data supplied from ocean observatories. Understanding from existing studies is fragmented to the extent that it lacks the coherent

  14. Understanding and Predicting the Process of Software Maintenance Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor; Briand, Lionel; Condon, Steven; Kim, Yong-Mi; Melo, Walcelio L.; Valett, Jon D.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major concerns of any maintenance organization is to understand and estimate the cost of maintenance releases of software systems. Planning the next release so as to maximize the increase in functionality and the improvement in quality are vital to successful maintenance management. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a case study in which an incremental approach was used to better understand the effort distribution of releases and build a predictive effort model for software maintenance releases. This study was conducted in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center(GSFC). This paper presents three main results: 1) a predictive effort model developed for the FDD's software maintenance release process; 2) measurement-based lessons learned about the maintenance process in the FDD; and 3) a set of lessons learned about the establishment of a measurement-based software maintenance improvement program. In addition, this study provides insights and guidelines for obtaining similar results in other maintenance organizations.

  15. Understanding the mechanism of nanoparticle formation in wire explosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, B.; Wong, C.S.; Bhuyan, H.; Lee, Y.S.; Yap, S.L.; Favre, M.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of nanoparticle formation by wire explosion process has been investigated by optical emission spectroscopy in Antony et al. 2010 [2] [J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 2010; 111:2509]. It was reported that the size of the nanoparticles formed in Ar ambience increases with increasing pressure, while an opposite trend was observed for the nanoparticles produced in N 2 and He ambiences. However, the physics behind this opposite trend seems unclear. In this work, we have investigated the probable mechanism behind the opposite trend in particle size with pressure of different gases and understand the mechanism of nanoparticle formation in wire explosion process. The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of ambient gas species (Ar and N 2 ) and pressure on arc plasma formation and its corresponding effects on the characteristics of the produced nanoparticles in wire explosion process. Our results show that the arc plasma formation is probably the mechanism that may account for the opposite trend of particle size with pressure of different gases. -- Highlights: ► Cu nanoparticles have been synthesized by wire explosion technique. ► Investigate the effect of the ambient gas species and pressure. ► Arc plasma formation in wire explosion process is investigated. ► Arc plasma formation plays a crucial role in characteristic of the nanoparticles

  16. Processes controlling the Si-isotopic composition in the Southern Ocean and application for paleoceanography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fripiat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Southern Ocean biogeochemical processes have an impact on global marine primary production and global elemental cycling, e.g. by likely controlling glacial-interglacial pCO2 variation. In this context, the natural silicon isotopic composition (δ30Si of sedimentary biogenic silica has been used to reconstruct past Si-consumption:supply ratios in the surface waters. We present a new dataset in the Southern Ocean from a IPY-GEOTRACES transect (Bonus-GoodHope which includes for the first time summer δ30Si signatures of suspended biogenic silica (i for the whole water column at three stations and (ii in the mixed layer at seven stations from the subtropical zone up to the Weddell Gyre. In general, the isotopic composition of biogenic opal exported to depth was comparable to the opal leaving the mixed layer and did not seem to be affected by any diagenetic processes during settling, even if an effect of biogenic silica dissolution cannot be ruled out in the northern part of the Weddell Gyre. We develop a mechanistic understanding of the processes involved in the modern Si-isotopic balance, by implementing a mixed layer model. We observe that the accumulated biogenic silica (sensu Rayleigh distillation should satisfactorily describe the δ30Si composition of biogenic silica exported out of the mixed layer, within the limit of the current analytical precision on the δ30Si. The failures of previous models (Rayleigh and steady state become apparent especially at the end of the productive period in the mixed layer, when biogenic silica production and export are low. This results from (1 a higher biogenic silica dissolution:production ratio imposing a lower net fractionation factor and (2 a higher Si-supply:Si-uptake ratio supplying light Si-isotopes into the mixed layer. The latter effect is especially expressed when the summer mixed layer becomes strongly Si-depleted, together with a large

  17. Broader Impact Guidance for Florida Ocean Scientists: Process, Products and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S.

    2016-02-01

    In response to the 2011 National Science Board report National Science Foundation's Merit Review Criteria: Review and Revision, in 2012 significant changes were made to the portions of the National Science Foundation's (NSF's) Grant Proposal Guide that describe the Foundation's expectations with respect to the Broader Impacts (BI) criterion and what reviewers should look for in assessing the quality of the required BI components of proposals. Over the past 5 years, COSEE Florida (the Florida Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence) has provided individualized content and editorial `coaching' on Broader Impacts for Florida scientists and educators submitting proposals to NSF. As of September 2015, 32% of the plans prepared with our guidance have been associated with projects that have received support. This presentation will review 1) the current BI guidance provided by NSF in the 2012 and subsequent editions of the Grant Proposal Guide, 2) the administrative process used by COSEE Florida to identify and assist scientists in understanding these changes and preparing fundable BI plans, 3) the characteristics of submitted plans in terms of type of plan, PI career stage and demographics 4) `lessons learned' about plan strengths and weaknesses and 5) the products developed (or currently under development) as COSEE Florida legacy documents to guide current and future scientists in addressing the Broader Impacts criterion. Resources developed by other Centers in the national COSEE network and the new National Alliance for Broader Impacts (NABI) will also be described.

  18. An updated synthesis of the observed and projected impacts of climate change on the chemical, physical and biological processes in the oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Louise Howes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 5th Assessment Report (AR5 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC states with very high certainty that anthropogenic emissions have caused measurable changes in the physical ocean environment. These changes are summarized with special focus on those that are predicted to have the strongest, most direct effects on ocean biological processes; namely, ocean warming and associated phenomena (including stratification and sea level rise as well as deoxygenation and ocean acidification. The biological effects of these changes are then discussed for microbes (including phytoplankton, plants, animals, warm and cold-water corals, and ecosystems. The IPCC AR5 highlighted several areas related to both the physical and biological processes that required further research. As a rapidly developing field, there have been many pertinent studies published since the cut off dates for the AR5, which have increased our understanding of the processes at work. This study undertook an extensive review of recently published literature to update the findings of the AR5 and provide a synthesized review on the main issues facing future oceans. The level of detail provided in the AR5 and subsequent work provided a basis for constructing projections of the state of ocean ecosystems in 2100 under two the Representative Concentration Pathways RCP4.5 and 8.5. Finally the review highlights notable additions, clarifications and points of departure from AR5 provided by subsequent studies.

  19. Understanding sustainable seafood consumption behavior: an examination of the Ocean Wise (OW initiative in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Dolmage

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable seafood labeling programs have been developed as one of several efforts to address the current dire trends in fish stocks. The Ocean Wise (OW program, started at the Vancouver Aquarium (Canada, works with restaurateurs and suppliers to simplify sustainable purchasing decisions. By aiding restaurateurs with responsible purchasing, OW hopes to shift demand to sustainable seafood products. OW has grown in numbers and spread across Canada quickly; we examine the factors associated with individual and organizational decisions to participate in the program, including personal, business, and program-related factors. These factors were examined in relation to OW membership by Vancouver restaurateurs. Results show that restaurateurs with greater knowledge of seafood issues and restaurants with greater commitment to a range of green initiatives are more likely to participate in the OW program. By focusing efforts on education and incorporating a range of green values into marketing, OW can maximize their limited resources to grow membership.

  20. Radiative transfer modeling through terrestrial atmosphere and ocean accounting for inelastic processes: Software package SCIATRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, V. V.; Dinter, T.; Rozanov, A. V.; Wolanin, A.; Bracher, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2017-06-01

    SCIATRAN is a comprehensive software package which is designed to model radiative transfer processes in the terrestrial atmosphere and ocean in the spectral range from the ultraviolet to the thermal infrared (0.18-40 μm). It accounts for multiple scattering processes, polarization, thermal emission and ocean-atmosphere coupling. The main goal of this paper is to present a recently developed version of SCIATRAN which takes into account accurately inelastic radiative processes in both the atmosphere and the ocean. In the scalar version of the coupled ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer solver presented by Rozanov et al. [61] we have implemented the simulation of the rotational Raman scattering, vibrational Raman scattering, chlorophyll and colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence. In this paper we discuss and explain the numerical methods used in SCIATRAN to solve the scalar radiative transfer equation including trans-spectral processes, and demonstrate how some selected radiative transfer problems are solved using the SCIATRAN package. In addition we present selected comparisons of SCIATRAN simulations with those published benchmark results, independent radiative transfer models, and various measurements from satellite, ground-based, and ship-borne instruments. The extended SCIATRAN software package along with a detailed User's Guide is made available for scientists and students, who are undertaking their own research typically at universities, via the web page of the Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen: http://www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de.

  1. Towards an understanding of business model innovation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taran, Yariv; Boer, Harry; Lindgren, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Companies today, in some industries more than others, invest more capital and resources just to stay competitive, develop more diverse solutions, and increasingly start to think more radically, when considering to innovate their business model. However, the development and innovation of business...... models is a complex venture and has not been widely researched yet. The objective of this paper is therefore 1) to build a [descriptive] theoretical understanding, based on Christensen’s (2005) three-step procedure, to business models and their innovation and, as a result of that, 2) to strengthen...... researchers’ and practitioners’ perspectives as to how the process of business model innovation can be realized. By using various researchers’ perspectives and assumptions, we identify relevant inconsistencies, which consequently lead us to propose possible supplementary solutions. We conclude our paper...

  2. Theory Building- Towards an understanding of business model innovation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taran, Yariv; Boer, Harry; Lindgren, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Companies today, in some industries more than others, invest more capital and resources just to stay competitive, develop more diverse solutions, and increasingly start to think more radically, when considering to innovate their business model. However, the development and innovation of business...... models is a complex venture and has not been widely researched yet. The objective of this paper is therefore 1) to build a [descriptive] theoretical understanding, based on Christensen's (2005) three-step procedure, to business models and their innovation and, as a result of that, 2) to strengthen...... researchers' and practitioners' perspectives as to how the process of business model innovation can be realized. By using various researchers' perspectives and assumptions, we identify relevant inconsistencies, which consequently lead us to propose possible supplementary solutions. We conclude our paper...

  3. Using infrared thermography for understanding and quantifying soil surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, João L. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    At present, our understanding of the soil hydrologic response is restricted by measurement limitations. In the literature, there have been repeatedly calls for interdisciplinary approaches to expand our knowledge in this field and eventually overcome the limitations that are inherent to conventional measuring techniques used, for example, for tracing water at the basin, hillslope and even field or plot scales. Infrared thermography is a versatile, accurate and fast technique of monitoring surface temperature and has been used in a variety of fields, such as military surveillance, medical diagnosis, industrial processes optimisation, building inspections and agriculture. However, many applications are still to be fully explored. In surface hydrology, it has been successfully employed as a high spatial and temporal resolution non-invasive and non-destructive imaging tool to e.g. access groundwater discharges into waterbodies or quantify thermal heterogeneities of streams. It is believed that thermal infrared imagery can grasp the spatial and temporal variability of many processes at the soil surface. Thermography interprets the heat signals and can provide an attractive view for identifying both areas where water is flowing or has infiltrated more, or accumulated temporarily in depressions or macropores. Therefore, we hope to demonstrate the potential for thermal infrared imagery to indirectly make a quantitative estimation of several hydrologic processes. Applications include: e.g. mapping infiltration, microrelief and macropores; estimating flow velocities; defining sampling strategies; identifying water sources, accumulation of waters or even connectivity. Protocols for the assessment of several hydrologic processes with the help of IR thermography will be briefly explained, presenting some examples from laboratory soil flumes and field.

  4. A Science-Based Understanding of Cermet Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarano, III, Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roach, Robert Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kilgo, Alice C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Susan, Donald Francis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van Ornum, David J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stuecker, John N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shollenberger, Kimberly A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This report is a summary of the work completed in FY01 for science-based characterization of the processes used to fabricate 1) cermet vias in source feedthrus using slurry and paste-filling techniques and 2) cermet powder for dry pressing. Common defects found in cermet vias were characterized based on the ability of subsequent processing techniques (isopressing and firing) to remove the defects. Non-aqueous spray drying and mist granulation techniques were explored as alternative methods of creating CND50, the powder commonly used for dry pressed parts. Compaction and flow characteristics of these techniques were analyzed and compared to standard dry-ball-milled CND50. Due to processing changes, changes in microstructure can occur. A microstructure characterization technique was developed to numerically describe cermet microstructure. Machining and electrical properties of dry pressed parts were also analyzed and related to microstructure using this analytical technique.3 Executive SummaryThis report outlines accomplishments in the science-based understanding of cermet processing up to fiscal year 2002 for Sandia National Laboratories. The three main areas of work are centered on 1) increasing production yields of slurry-filled cermets, 2) evaluating the viability of high-solids-loading pastes for the same cermet components, and 3) optimizing cermet powder used in pressing processes (CND50). An additional development that was created as a result of the effort to fully understand the impacts of alternative processing techniques is the use of analytical methods to relate microstructure to physical properties. Recommendations are suggested at the end of this report. Summaries of these four efforts are as follows:1.Increase Production Yields of Slurry-Filled Cermet Vias Finalized slurry filling criteria were determined based on three designs of experiments where the following factors were analyzed: vacuum time, solids loading, pressure drop across the filter paper

  5. LOTUS— Preparing Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Processing for Ocean and Land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Karina

    2016-01-01

    The Sentinel-3 satellite mission with its SRAL instrumentation contains new features compared to the conventional radar altimeter mission that form the basis for new innovative scientific analyses of both ocean and inland water levels. To utilize the full potential of the new data source, new...... methods and processing chains need to be developed. Subsequently, new potential Copernicus products should be developed that utilize the improved alongtrack resolution over both the oceans and over land. The main objective of the LOTUS project is to prepare the scientific and operational use of data from...

  6. Understanding Aquatic Rhizosphere Processes Through Metabolomics and Metagenomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jian; Mynampati, Kalyan; Drautz, Daniela; Arumugam, Krithika; Williams, Rohan; Schuster, Stephan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    The aquatic rhizosphere is a region around the roots of aquatic plants. Many studies focusing on terrestrial rhizosphere have led to a good understanding of the interactions between the roots, its exudates and its associated rhizobacteria. The rhizosphere of free-floating roots, however, is a different habitat that poses several additional challenges, including rapid diffusion rates of signals and nutrient molecules, which are further influenced by the hydrodynamic forces. These can lead to rapid diffusion and complicates the studying of diffusible factors from both plant and/or rhizobacterial origins. These plant systems are being increasingly used for self purification of water bodies to provide sustainable solution. A better understanding of these processes will help in improving their performance for ecological engineering of freshwater systems. The same principles can also be used to improve the yield of hydroponic cultures. Novel toolsets and approaches are needed to investigate the processes occurring in the aquatic rhizosphere. We are interested in understanding the interaction between root exudates and the complex microbial communities that are associated with the roots, using a systems biology approach involving metabolomics and metagenomics. With this aim, we have developed a RhizoFlowCell (RFC) system that provides a controlled study of aquatic plants, observed the root biofilms, collect root exudates and subject the rhizosphere system to changes in various chemical or physical perturbations. As proof of concept, we have used RFC to test the response of root exudation patterns of Pandanus amaryllifolius after exposure to the pollutant naphthalene. Complexity of root exudates in the aquatic rhizosphere was captured using this device and analysed using LC-qTOF-MS. The highly complex metabolomic profile allowed us to study the dynamics of the response of roots to varying levels of naphthalene. The metabolic profile changed within 5mins after spiking with

  7. What processes at mid-ocean ridges tell us about volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathles, Lawrence M.

    2011-07-01

    Episodic seafloor spreading, ridge topography, and fault movement at ridges find (more extreme) analogs in the arc and back-arc setting where the volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits that we mine today were formed. The factors affecting sulfide accumulation efficiency and the extent to which sulfides are concentrated spatially are the same in both settings, however. The processes occurring at mid-ocean ridges therefore provide a useful insight into those producing VMS deposits in arcs and back-arcs. The critical observation investigated here is that all the heat introduced by seafloor spreading at mid-ocean ridges is carried out of the crust within a few hundred meters of the ridge axis by ˜350°C hydrothermal fluids. The high-temperature ridge hydrothermal systems are tied to the presence of magma at the ridge axis and greatly reduce the size and control the shape of axial magma intrusions. The amount of heat introduced to each square kilometer of ocean crust during its formation can be calculated, and its removal by high-temperature convection allows calculation of the total base metal endowment of the ocean basins. Using reasonable metal deposition efficiencies, we conclude that the ocean floor is a giant VMS district with metal resources >600 times the total known VMS reserves on land and a copper resource which would last >6,000 years at current production rates.

  8. Magnetic Signatures of Fine-scale Processes in the Ocean Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, A.; Dean, C.; Avera, W. E.

    2015-12-01

    Fine-scale processes in the upper ocean turbulent boundary layer may have a measurable electromagnetic signature. In order to study magnetic signatures of these fine-scale processes, we have applied a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model combining a 3D computational fluid dynamics model and electromagnetic block, based on ANSYS Fluent software. In addition, the hydrodynamic component of the MHD model is coupled with a radar imaging algorithm, which potentially provides a link to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite imagery. Capabilities of this model have been demonstrated using a simulation and observation of an internal wave soliton in the Straits of Florida, observed with in situ instrumentation (ADCP mooring) and COSMO Sky Med (SAR) satellite image. We have applied this model to study magnetic signatures of surface waves, freshwater lenses, spatially coherent organized motions in the near-surface layer of the ocean (Langmuir circulation and ramp-like structures), and bio-turbulence induced by diel vertical migrations of zooplankton in some areas of the ocean. Investigation of electromagnetic signatures in upper ocean processes offers a valuable new prospect in air-sea interaction.

  9. Understanding Stoichiometric Controls in Nutrient Processing Along the River Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayburu-Caruso, V. A.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.; Van Horn, D. J.; Covino, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    Eutrophication is the second most common cause of water impairment across the U.S. Nutrient retention in streams is controlled by physical and biochemical processes, including biomass availability and stoichiometric limitations. Decoupling the interactions between hydrology, nutrient supply and biogeochemical processes remains challenging for the scientific community due to lack of mechanistic understanding. Consequently, more knowledge regarding optimal controls for nutrient retention is needed to implement better management and restoration practices. We conducted column experiments to investigate how stoichiometric limitations influence nutrient spiraling in shallow sediment-water interactions along representative sites of the Jemez River-Rio Grande continuum (which spans eight stream orders), in New Mexico, USA. In each stream order we incubated six columns packed with different sediments (i.e., Silica Cone Density Sand ASTM D 1556 (0.075-2.00 mm), gravel (>2mm) and native sediments) from each site for three months. We performed two laboratory tracer experiments using columns of each substrate under identical flow conditions. In the first experiment we added a short-term pulse of reactive and conservative tracers (i.e. NaNO3 and NaBr). In the second experiment we added a short-term pulse of NaBr and nutrients following Redfield's ratio (106C:16N:1P). We estimated uptake kinetics using the Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC) method and evaluated how ideal stoichiometric conditions controlled efficient nutrient retention along fluvial networks. Our results suggest that biological uptake of nitrate is limited by nitrogen in headwater streams and by phosphorus and carbon in larger stream orders.

  10. Importance of Ocean Processes and Feedbacks with Sea Ice in Arctic Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowski, Wieslaw; DiMaggio, Dominic; Lee, Younjoo; Osinski, Robert; Roberts, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic is undergoing some of the most coordinated and rapid climatic changes currently occurring anywhere on Earth. While historical reconstructions from Earth System Models (ESMs) are in broad agreement with these changes, the rate of change in ESMs remains outpaced by observations. This is due to a combination of coarse resolution, inadequate parameterizations, under-represented processes and a limited knowledge of physical interactions. We hypothesize that these limitations are in part the result of an inadequate representation of critical high-latitude processes controlling the accumulation and distribution of sub-surface oceanic heat content and its interaction with the sea ice cover, especially in the western Arctic. Several CMIP5 models are evaluated using a skill metric that combines both variance and correlation between modeled and observed quantities. Models inadequately represent the upper ocean hydrology in the central Canada Basin, and the potentially important heat sources of the near-surface temperature maximum and Pacific Summer Water are missing. This is evidenced by the fact that the CMIP5 multi-model mean exhibits a cold temperature bias near the surface and a warm bias at intermediate depths. To identify the sensitivity of upper Arctic Ocean hydrography to physical processes and model configurations, a series of experiments are performed using the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM), a high-resolution, fully-coupled regional climate model. Analysis of RASM output suggests that surface momentum coupling (air-ice, ice-ocean, and air-ocean), brine-rejection parameterization, and model resolution, both horizontal and vertical, influence thermohaline structure down to 700 m. We argue that such improvements are needed in future CMIP-type models to advance their simulation and prediction of Arctic climate change.

  11. 77 FR 40860 - Strategic Plan for Federal Research and Monitoring of Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... understanding of the process of ocean acidification, its effects on marine ecosystems, and the steps that could... Federal agencies toward a better understanding of the process of ocean acidification, its effects on... understanding of the global biogeochemical processes of ocean acidification and its impact on marine ecosystems...

  12. Extracting Hydrologic Understanding from the Unique Space-time Sampling of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, C.; Zhao, Y.; Beighley, E.; Durand, M. T.; David, C. H.; Lee, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is jointly developed by NASA, the French space agency (CNES), with participation from the Canadian and UK space agencies to serve both the hydrology and oceanography communities. The SWOT mission will sample global surface water extents and elevations (lakes/reservoirs, rivers, estuaries, oceans, sea and land ice) at a finer spatial resolution than is currently possible enabling hydrologic discovery, model advancements and new applications that are not currently possible or likely even conceivable. Although the mission will provide global cover, analysis and interpolation of the data generated from the irregular space/time sampling represents a significant challenge. In this study, we explore the applicability of the unique space/time sampling for understanding river discharge dynamics throughout the Ohio River Basin. River network topology, SWOT sampling (i.e., orbit and identified SWOT river reaches) and spatial interpolation concepts are used to quantify the fraction of effective sampling of river reaches each day of the three-year mission. Streamflow statistics for SWOT generated river discharge time series are compared to continuous daily river discharge series. Relationships are presented to transform SWOT generated streamflow statistics to equivalent continuous daily discharge time series statistics intended to support hydrologic applications using low-flow and annual flow duration statistics.

  13. Numerical simulation of small-scale mixing processes in the upper ocean and atmospheric boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druzhinin, O; Troitskaya, Yu; Zilitinkevich, S

    2016-01-01

    The processes of turbulent mixing and momentum and heat exchange occur in the upper ocean at depths up to several dozens of meters and in the atmospheric boundary layer within interval of millimeters to dozens of meters and can not be resolved by known large- scale climate models. Thus small-scale processes need to be parameterized with respect to large scale fields. This parameterization involves the so-called bulk coefficients which relate turbulent fluxes with large-scale fields gradients. The bulk coefficients are dependent on the properties of the small-scale mixing processes which are affected by the upper-ocean stratification and characteristics of surface and internal waves. These dependencies are not well understood at present and need to be clarified. We employ Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) as a research tool which resolves all relevant flow scales and does not require closure assumptions typical of Large-Eddy and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations (LES and RANS). Thus DNS provides a solid ground for correct parameterization of small-scale mixing processes and also can be used for improving LES and RANS closure models. In particular, we discuss the problems of the interaction between small-scale turbulence and internal gravity waves propagating in the pycnocline in the upper ocean as well as the impact of surface waves on the properties of atmospheric boundary layer over wavy water surface. (paper)

  14. A Multi-Process Test Case to Perform Comparative Analysis of Coastal Oceanic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarié, F.; Burchard, H.; Knut, K.; Debreu, L.

    2016-12-01

    Due to the wide variety of choices that need to be made during the development of dynamical kernels of oceanic models, there is a strong need for an effective and objective assessment of the various methods and approaches that predominate in the community. We present here an idealized multi-scale scenario for coastal ocean models combining estuarine, coastal and shelf sea scales at midlatitude. The bathymetry, initial conditions and external forcings are defined analytically so that any model developer or user could reproduce the test case with its own numerical code. Thermally stratified conditions are prescribed and a tidal forcing is imposed as a propagating coastal Kelvin wave. The following physical processes can be assessed from the model results: estuarine process driven by tides and buoyancy gradients, the river plume dynamics, tidal fronts, and the interaction between tides and inertial oscillations. We show results obtained using the GETM (General Estuarine Transport Model) and the CROCO (Coastal and Regional Ocean Community model) models. Those two models are representative of the diversity of numerical methods in use in coastal models: GETM is based on a quasi-lagrangian vertical coordinate, a coupled space-time approach for advective terms, a TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) tracer advection scheme while CROCO is discretized with a quasi-eulerian vertical coordinate, a method of lines is used for advective terms, and tracer advection satisfies the TVB (Total Variation Bounded) property. The multiple scales are properly resolved thanks to nesting strategies, 1-way nesting for GETM and 2-way nesting for CROCO. Such test case can be an interesting experiment to continue research in numerical approaches as well as an efficient tool to allow intercomparison between structured-grid and unstructured-grid approaches. Reference : Burchard, H., Debreu, L., Klingbeil, K., Lemarié, F. : The numerics of hydrostatic structured-grid coastal ocean models: state of

  15. Icepod Plus Potential Field: An Integrated Approach For Understanding Ice Shelf Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frearson, N.

    2015-12-01

    Warm water flowing beneath the large floating ice shelves in Antarctica will play an important role in how fast sea level rises. The lack of detailed bathymetry beneath the large ice shelves and lack of understanding of their internal structure inherently limits our knowledge of how ice shelves will thin and collapse. Understanding the bathymetry beneath the remaining ice shelves is critical to understanding how ice shelves will thin in the future and how that will impact the flux of ice into the global ocean. The Ross Ice Shelf, the largest ice shelf remaining on our planet, buttresses the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The bathymetry beneath the Ross Ice Shelf is the least explored piece of ocean floor on our planet. The IcePod is a compact integrated ice imaging system developed for use on any C-130 aircraft developed with NSF support. The initial development program was targeted towards investigating glacial and ice-sheet processes. In this program, deep and shallow ice radars were developed. Optical instruments, including a scanning laser, Infra-red camera and visible wave camera were integrated into the pod. We have expanded the IcePod instrument suite to include the potential field measurements of magnetic and gravity anomalies with support from the Moore Foundation. During the development, a total field cesium sensor magnetometer and 3-axis fluxgate from previously funded work were also incorporated into the pod. Their behavioral response to being located close to high-frequency electronics, power supplies and metallic objects were studied. We describe in part some of that development process and the positive findings that resulted. The Icepod group is also actively pursuing the development, modification and incorporation of a new gravimeter into the suite of instruments available to the program and is investigating reduction in size of this that may eventually lead to incorporating the gravimeter into the pod itself. As part of this program we are also

  16. Understanding Metallic Bonding: Structure, Process and Interaction by Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Maurice M. W.; Oon, Pey-Tee

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of 3006 Year 10-12 students on their understandings of metallic bonding. The instrument was developed based on Chi's ontological categories of scientific concepts and students' understanding of metallic bonding as reported in the literature. The instrument has two parts. Part one probed into students'…

  17. Relating tropical ocean clouds to moist processes using water vapor isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the co-variations of tropospheric water vapor, its isotopic composition and cloud types and relate these distributions to tropospheric mixing and distillation models using satellite observations from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES over the summertime tropical ocean. Interpretation of these process distributions must take into account the sensitivity of the TES isotope and water vapor measurements to variations in cloud, water, and temperature amount. Consequently, comparisons are made between cloud-types based on the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISSCP classification; these are clear sky, non-precipitating (e.g., cumulus, boundary layer (e.g., stratocumulus, and precipitating clouds (e.g. regions of deep convection. In general, we find that the free tropospheric vapor over tropical oceans does not strictly follow a Rayleigh model in which air parcels become dry and isotopically depleted through condensation. Instead, mixing processes related to convection as well as subsidence, and re-evaporation of rainfall associated with organized deep convection all play significant roles in controlling the water vapor distribution. The relative role of these moisture processes are examined for different tropical oceanic regions.

  18. Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

  19. Massive Cloud-Based Big Data Processing for Ocean Sensor Networks and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwehr, K. D.

    2017-12-01

    Until recently, the work required to integrate and analyze data for global-scale environmental issues was prohibitive both in cost and availability. Traditional desktop processing systems are not able to effectively store and process all the data, and super computer solutions are financially out of the reach of most people. The availability of large-scale cloud computing has created tools that are usable by small groups and individuals regardless of financial resources or locally available computational resources. These systems give scientists and policymakers the ability to see how critical resources are being used across the globe with little or no barrier to entry. Google Earth Engine has the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra, MODIS Aqua, and Global Land Data Assimilation Systems (GLDAS) data catalogs available live online. Here we demonstrate these data to calculate the correlation between lagged chlorophyll and rainfall to identify areas of eutrophication, matching these events to ocean currents from datasets like HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) to check if there are constraints from oceanographic configurations. The system can provide addition ground truth with observations from sensor networks like the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set / Voluntary Observing Ship (ICOADS/VOS) and Argo floats. This presentation is intended to introduce users to the datasets, programming idioms, and functionality of Earth Engine for large-scale, data-driven oceanography.

  20. LOTUS— Preparing Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Processing for Ocean and Land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Karina

    2016-01-01

    methods and processing chains need to be developed. Subsequently, new potential Copernicus products should be developed that utilize the improved along-track resolution over both the oceans and over land. The main objective of the LOTUS project is to prepare the scientific and operational use of data from...... Sentinels 3. Then new operational processing, validation and delivery mechanisms need to be developed and implemented for generating the new dynamic products. Finally, the take-up of the new Copernicus products by the value-adding sectors needs to be stimulated and demonstrated to ensure...

  1. Understanding the Process of Acculturation for Primary Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J. W.

    This paper reviews the concepts of acculturation and adaptation to provide a framework for understanding the highly variable relationship between acculturation and mental health in refugee populations. It begins with an extended definition and discussion of the concepts of acculturation and adaptation. The characteristics of acculturating groups…

  2. Genetic Aspects of Deafness: Understanding the Counseling Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughman, Joann A.; Shaver, Kathleen A.

    1982-01-01

    An understanding of the genetic concepts applicable to individual cases of deafness, as well as an appreciation of the complex nature of determinaton of recurrence risks in families, will facilitate the referral of individuals and families for genetic evaluation and counseling. (Author)

  3. Understanding pre-registration nursing fitness to practise processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Jessica; Haycock-Stuart, Elaine; McLachlan, Alison; James, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Protection of the public is a key aspect of pre-registration nursing education and UK Nursing and Midwifery Council monitoring processes. Universities must ensure that nursing students are "fit to practise" both during their programme and at the point of registration. However, current evidence suggests that institutional fitness to practise policies and processes can be inconsistent, lacking in clarity, and open to legal challenge. To examine fitness to practise processes in pre-registration nursing programmes in Scotland. Academic personnel (n=11) with key roles in fitness to practise processes in nine of the eleven Scottish universities providing pre-registration nursing programmes. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with eleven academics with responsibility for fitness to practise processes in pre-registration programmes. The qualitative data and documentary evidence including institutional policies and processes were thematically analysed. In this paper, we focus on illuminating the key theme of Stages and Thresholds in Fitness to Practise processes i.e. Pre-fitness to practise, Stage 1, Stage 2, and Appeal, along with two thresholds (between Pre-fitness to practise and Stage 1; between Stage 1 and Stage 2. Diverse fitness to practise processes are currently in place for Scottish pre-registration nursing students. These processes draw on a shared set of principles but are couched in different terminology and vary according to their location within different university structures. Nevertheless, universities appear to be confronting broadly similar issues around ensuring fitness to practise and are building a body of expertise in this area. Examples of good practice are identified and include the use of staged processes and graduated outcomes, the incorporation of teaching about fitness to practise into nursing programmes, positive attitudes around health and disability, and collaborative decision making. Areas of challenge include systems for

  4. Learning from Game Design : Understanding Participatory processes through Game Mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ampatzidou, Christina; Gugerell, Katharina; Diephuis, Jeremiah

    With the increasing interest of local governments in civic participation, it becomes important to explore the available methods for orchestrating participatory processes and evaluate how different tools address some of the common issues associated with participatory processes. Game design is an

  5. Upper-Ocean Heat Balance Processes and the Walker Circulation in CMIP5 Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, F. R.; Roberts, J. B.; Funk, C.; Lyon, B.; Ricciardulli, L.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable uncertainty remains as to the importance of mechanisms governing decadal and longer variability of the Walker Circulation, its connection to the tropical climate system, and prospects for tropical climate change in the face of anthropogenic forcing. Most contemporary climate models suggest that in response to elevated CO2 and a warmer but more stratified atmosphere, the required upward mass flux in tropical convection will diminish along with the Walker component of the tropical mean circulation as well. Alternatively, there is also evidence to suggest that the shoaling and increased vertical stratification of the thermocline in the eastern Pacific will enable a muted SST increase there-- preserving or even enhancing some of the dynamical forcing for the Walker cell flow. Over the past decade there have been observational indications of an acceleration in near-surface easterlies, a strengthened Pacific zonal SST gradient, and globally-teleconnected dislocations in precipitation. But is this evidence in support of an ocean dynamical thermostat process posited to accompany anthropogenic forcing, or just residual decadal fluctuations associated with variations in warm and cold ENSO events and other stochastic forcing? From a modeling perspective we try to make headway on this question by examining zonal variations in surface energy fluxes and dynamics governing tropical upper ocean heat content evolution in the WCRP CMIP5 model projections. There is some diversity among model simulations; for example, the CCSM4 indicates net ocean warming over the IndoPacific region while the CSIRO model concentrates separate warming responses over the central Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. The models, as with observations, demonstrate strong local coupling between variations in column water vapor, downward surface longwave radiation and SST; but the spatial patterns of changes in the sign of this relationship differ among models and, for models as a whole, with

  6. Suffering transaction: a process of reflecting and understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Shyh-Heng

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the transaction of the lived experience of ‘suffering’ in the process of psychotherapy. ‘Suffering’ is conceptualised as having its weight and value transacted between a psychotherapist and his or her client. As a psychotherapist from a family with a disabled member, my fieldwork in a hospital with the parents of disabled children was conducted in Taiwan. The development of our therapeutic relationship was discovered as the process of ‘suffering transaction’...

  7. Mass-dependent Mo isotope variations in oceanic basalts - a new tracer for mantle recycling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willbold, M.; Freymuth, H.; Hibbert, K.; Lai, Y. J.; Elliott, T.

    2016-12-01

    How and to what extent crustal material is recycled into the deeper mantle as a result of plate tectonic processes is a long-standing but still not fully understood question in Earth Sciences. Indirect evidence from chemical as well as radiogenic isotope data in oceanic basalts suggest that such a process may indeed have operated over much of Earth's history. Yet, uncertainties in characterising the age of the presumed recycled crustal components as well as the wide range in their chemical composition do not allow us to verify the mantle recycling hypothesis. Technological advances now enable us to explore new isotopic tracers that could shed light on this question. One of these new tools are mass-dependent isotope variation of molybdenum (Mo). Mass-dependent Mo isotope data in clastic and chemical sediments are a well-established geochemical tool to study redox conditions in the Earth's water masses over the geological past [1, 2, 3]. Being an intrinsic property of rocks exposed to the hydrosphere (see Anbar [4] for an overview), mass-dependent Mo isotope variation in mantle-derived rocks from oceanic settings could therefore be used a tracer of recycled crustal material in the Earth's mantle. In this contribution we provide a current overview over how different geological and magmatic processes - such as seawater alteration of oceanic crust, slab dehydration during plate subduction as well as magmatic emplacement - could affect the Mo isotopic composition of crustal components being transferred into the deeper mantle, as well as that of mantle melts that may contain such a recycled component. With this in mind, we explore the use of mass-dependent Mo isotope variations in mantle-derived rocks as a tracer of recycled crust in the mantle. [1] Archer & Vance (2008) Nature Geoscience 1, 597-600. [2] Barling et al. (2001) EPSL 193, 447-457. [3] Siebert et al. (2003) EPSL 211, 159-171. [4] Anbar (2004) Rev. Min. Geochem. 55, 429-454.

  8. Understanding mid-level representations in visual processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that early visual processing provides an image-based representation of the visual scene: Neurons in Striate cortex (V1) encode nothing about the meaning of a scene, but they do provide a great deal of information about the image features within it. The mechanisms of these “low-level” visual processes are relatively well understood. We can construct plausible models for how neurons, up to and including those in V1, build their representations from preceding inputs down to the level of photoreceptors. It is also clear that at some point we have a semantic, “high-level” representation of the visual scene because we can describe verbally the objects that we are viewing and their meaning to us. A huge number of studies are examining these “high-level” visual processes each year. Less well studied are the processes of “mid-level” vision, which presumably provide the bridge between these “low-level” representations of edges, colors, and lights and the “high-level” semantic representations of objects, faces, and scenes. This article and the special issue of papers in which it is published consider the nature of “mid-level” visual processing and some of the reasons why we might not have made as much progress in this domain as we would like. PMID:26053241

  9. Understanding the process by which female entrepreneurs create INVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Gitte Ohrt; Hannibal, Martin

    , or vice-versa (Sarasvathy, 2005)? The present paper provides a comparative case study of the founding processes of nine Danish female-owned ventures (in the fashion design industry in Denmark). All have entered foreign markets within the first year of establishment. The retrospective case study draws...... close family members. As regards the latter, the effectual process of opportunity creation was very different across the case firms with some being more the result of collaboration with social network partners, whereas others appeared to be totally random or coincidental. The paper discusses the above...

  10. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in writing to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathleen M; Umanath, Sharda; Thio, Kara; Reilly, Walter B; McDaniel, Mark A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2017-06-01

    Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes. The current experiment examines learning from 3 writing tasks (and 1 nonwriting control), with an emphasis on whether or not the tasks engaged retrieval. Tasks that engaged retrieval (essay writing and free recall) led to better final test performance than those that did not (note taking and highlighting). Individual differences in structure building (the ability to construct mental representations of narratives; Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990) modified this effect; skilled structure builders benefited more from essay writing and free recall than did less skilled structure builders. Further, more essay-like responses led to better performance, implicating the importance of additional cognitive processes such as reorganization and elaboration. The results highlight how both task instructions and individual differences affect the cognitive processes involved when writing-to-learn, with consequences for the effectiveness of the learning strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Using Ancient DNA to Understand Evolutionary and Ecological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Cooper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA provides a unique means to record genetic change through time and directly observe evolutionary and ecological processes. Although mostly based on mitochondrial DNA, the increasing availability of genomic sequences is leading to unprecedented levels of resolution. Temporal studies of ...

  12. Understanding Social Learning Processes in a Citrus Farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on what would traditionally be termed 'non-formal' learning processes in the context of a case study examining how citrus farming communities in the Patensie Valley in the Eastern Cape in South Africa were learning conservation practices. Communities of Practice theory was used to provide a ...

  13. Interviewing International Students to Understand the Process of Expatriate Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is the most influential trend of the early twenty-first century. However, many students have had limited direct contact with cultures other than their own. The following teaching innovation targets such students to give them an experiential learning opportunity about the process of acculturation for expatriates. This is accomplished…

  14. LOTUS— Preparing Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land SAR Altimetry Processing for Copernicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Jain, Maulik

    2014-01-01

    processing scheme for extracting high-resolution river and lake heights, soil moisture, and snow water equivalents. This presentation show some preliminary results based on analyses using CRYOSAT data. Furthermore, new DEMO data sets are presented. These data sets facilitate the development of marine...... potential of the new data source, new methods and processing chains need to be developed. Also, new potential Copernicus products should be developed that utilize the improved along-track resolution over both the oceans and over land. Then new operational processing, validation and delivery mechanisms need...... to be developed and implemented for generating the new dynamic products. A smooth transition from old to new products is important to ensure existing services. Finally, the take-up of the new Copernicus products by the value-adding sectors needs to be stimulated and demonstrated to ensure that they will be used...

  15. Understanding the process of fibrosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharraz, Yacine; Guerra, Joana; Pessina, Patrizia; Serrano, Antonio L; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is the aberrant deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components during tissue healing leading to loss of its architecture and function. Fibrotic diseases are often associated with chronic pathologies and occur in a large variety of vital organs and tissues, including skeletal muscle. In human muscle, fibrosis is most readily associated with the severe muscle wasting disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), caused by loss of dystrophin gene function. In DMD, skeletal muscle degenerates and is infiltrated by inflammatory cells and the functions of the muscle stem cells (satellite cells) become impeded and fibrogenic cells hyperproliferate and are overactivated, leading to the substitution of skeletal muscle with nonfunctional fibrotic tissue. Here, we review new developments in our understanding of the mechanisms leading to fibrosis in DMD and several recent advances towards reverting it, as potential treatments to attenuate disease progression.

  16. Understanding the Process of Fibrosis in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Kharraz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosis is the aberrant deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM components during tissue healing leading to loss of its architecture and function. Fibrotic diseases are often associated with chronic pathologies and occur in a large variety of vital organs and tissues, including skeletal muscle. In human muscle, fibrosis is most readily associated with the severe muscle wasting disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, caused by loss of dystrophin gene function. In DMD, skeletal muscle degenerates and is infiltrated by inflammatory cells and the functions of the muscle stem cells (satellite cells become impeded and fibrogenic cells hyperproliferate and are overactivated, leading to the substitution of skeletal muscle with nonfunctional fibrotic tissue. Here, we review new developments in our understanding of the mechanisms leading to fibrosis in DMD and several recent advances towards reverting it, as potential treatments to attenuate disease progression.

  17. Ultrathin (Understanding the processing, structure, and physical and electrical limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M. L.; Gusev, E. P.; Degraeve, R.; Garfunkel, E. L.

    2001-09-01

    The outstanding properties of SiO2, which include high resistivity, excellent dielectric strength, a large band gap, a high melting point, and a native, low defect density interface with Si, are in large part responsible for enabling the microelectronics revolution. The Si/SiO2 interface, which forms the heart of the modern metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor, the building block of the integrated circuit, is arguably the worlds most economically and technologically important materials interface. This article summarizes recent progress and current scientific understanding of ultrathin (understanding of the limits of these gate dielectrics, i.e., how their continuously shrinking thickness, dictated by integrated circuit device scaling, results in physical and electrical property changes that impose limits on their usefulness. We observe, in conclusion, that although Si microelectronic devices will be manufactured with SiO2 and Si-O-N for the foreseeable future, continued scaling of integrated circuit devices, essentially the continued adherence to Moore's law, will necessitate the introduction of an alternate gate dielectric once the SiO2 gate dielectric thickness approaches ˜1.2 nm. It is hoped that this article will prove useful to members of the silicon microelectronics community, newcomers to the gate dielectrics field, practitioners in allied fields, and graduate students. Parts of this article have been adapted from earlier articles by the authors [L. Feldman, E. P. Gusev, and E. Garfunkel, in Fundamental Aspects of Ultrathin Dielectrics on Si-based Devices, edited by E. Garfunkel, E. P. Gusev, and A. Y. Vul' (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1998), p. 1 [Ref. 1]; E. P. Gusev, H. C. Lu, E. Garfunkel, T. Gustafsson, and M. Green, IBM J. Res. Dev. 43, 265 (1999) [Ref. 2]; R. Degraeve, B. Kaczer, and G. Groeseneken, Microelectron. Reliab. 39, 1445 (1999) [Ref. 3].

  18. High-resolution residual geoid and gravity anomaly data of the northern Indian Ocean - An input to geological understanding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, K.M.; Rajesh, S.; Majumdar, T.J.; Rao, G.S.; Radhakrishna, M.; Krishna, K.S.; Rajawat, A

    ') geoid anomaly map of the northern Indian Ocean generated from the altimeter data obtained from Geodetic Missions of GEOSAT and ERS-1 along with ERS-2, TOPEX/POSIDEON and JASON satellites is presented. The geoid map of the Indian Ocean is dominated by a...

  19. Modeling Dynamic Food Choice Processes to Understand Dietary Intervention Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Christopher Steven; Goldring, Megan R; McBride, Colleen M; Persky, Susan

    2018-02-17

    Meal construction is largely governed by nonconscious and habit-based processes that can be represented as a collection of in dividual, micro-level food choices that eventually give rise to a final plate. Despite this, dietary behavior intervention research rarely captures these micro-level food choice processes, instead measuring outcomes at aggregated levels. This is due in part to a dearth of analytic techniques to model these dynamic time-series events. The current article addresses this limitation by applying a generalization of the relational event framework to model micro-level food choice behavior following an educational intervention. Relational event modeling was used to model the food choices that 221 mothers made for their child following receipt of an information-based intervention. Participants were randomized to receive either (a) control information; (b) childhood obesity risk information; (c) childhood obesity risk information plus a personalized family history-based risk estimate for their child. Participants then made food choices for their child in a virtual reality-based food buffet simulation. Micro-level aspects of the built environment, such as the ordering of each food in the buffet, were influential. Other dynamic processes such as choice inertia also influenced food selection. Among participants receiving the strongest intervention condition, choice inertia decreased and the overall rate of food selection increased. Modeling food selection processes can elucidate the points at which interventions exert their influence. Researchers can leverage these findings to gain insight into nonconscious and uncontrollable aspects of food selection that influence dietary outcomes, which can ultimately improve the design of dietary interventions.

  20. Understanding the work of telehealth implementation using Normalization Process Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Janet Gwyneth

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation uses the theoretical constructs of Normalization Process Theory (NPT) to examine the successful implementation of an innovative telehealth service that delivers occupational health nursing services to a large healthcare employee population over a wide geographic area. Telehealth services have come to be regarded as a possible means to improve access to health care services, clinical efficiency, and cost effectiveness in an era where there are shrinking resources and growing ...

  1. How does crowdfunding work? Understanding the process through its activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stiver, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Crowdfunding is a process featuring incremental financial donations from a ‘crowd’ of backers to help fund a project initiated by a creator. In recent years, crowdfunding has generated significant revenue as well as great interest from industry, government, and creative entrepreneurs. However, rate of successful funding for crowdfunding projects remains around 35% for global crowdfunding leader Kickstarter1, and lower yet for other platforms.\\ud \\ud The identified gap between crowdfunding gro...

  2. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions.

  3. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Herrera

    Full Text Available There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions.

  4. Summertime calcium carbonate undersaturation in shelf waters of the western Arctic Ocean – how biological processes exacerbate the impact of ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Bates

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean accounts for only 4% of the global ocean area, but it contributes significantly to the global carbon cycle. Recent observations of seawater CO2-carbonate chemistry in shelf waters of the western Arctic Ocean, primarily in the Chukchi Sea, from 2009 to 2011 indicate that bottom waters are seasonally undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate (CaCO3 minerals, particularly aragonite. Nearly 40% of sampled bottom waters on the shelf have saturation states less than one for aragonite (i.e., Ωaragonite 3-secreting organisms, while 80% of bottom waters present had Ωaragonite values less than 1.5. Our observations indicate seasonal reduction of saturation states (Ω for calcite (Ωcalcite and aragonite (Ωaragonite in the subsurface in the western Arctic by as much as 0.8 and 0.5, respectively. Such data indicate that bottom waters of the western Arctic shelves were already potentially corrosive for biogenic and sedimentary CaCO3 for several months each year. Seasonal changes in Ω are imparted by a variety of factors such as phytoplankton photosynthesis, respiration/remineralization of organic matter and air–sea gas exchange of CO2. Combined, these processes either increase or enhance in surface and subsurface waters, respectively. These seasonal physical and biological processes also act to mitigate or enhance the impact of Anthropocene ocean acidification (OA on Ω in surface and subsurface waters, respectively. Future monitoring of the western Arctic shelves is warranted to assess the present and future impact of ocean acidification and seasonal physico-biogeochemical processes on Ω values and Arctic marine ecosystems.

  5. Understanding movement data and movement processes: current and emerging directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S

    2008-12-01

    Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability.

  6. Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Dyke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

  7. Radiative transfer modeling through terrestrial atmosphere and ocean accounting for inelastic processes: Software package SCIATRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanov, V.V.; Dinter, T.; Rozanov, A.V.; Wolanin, A.; Bracher, A.; Burrows, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    SCIATRAN is a comprehensive software package which is designed to model radiative transfer processes in the terrestrial atmosphere and ocean in the spectral range from the ultraviolet to the thermal infrared (0.18–40 μm). It accounts for multiple scattering processes, polarization, thermal emission and ocean–atmosphere coupling. The main goal of this paper is to present a recently developed version of SCIATRAN which takes into account accurately inelastic radiative processes in both the atmosphere and the ocean. In the scalar version of the coupled ocean–atmosphere radiative transfer solver presented by Rozanov et al. we have implemented the simulation of the rotational Raman scattering, vibrational Raman scattering, chlorophyll and colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence. In this paper we discuss and explain the numerical methods used in SCIATRAN to solve the scalar radiative transfer equation including trans-spectral processes, and demonstrate how some selected radiative transfer problems are solved using the SCIATRAN package. In addition we present selected comparisons of SCIATRAN simulations with those published benchmark results, independent radiative transfer models, and various measurements from satellite, ground-based, and ship-borne instruments. The extended SCIATRAN software package along with a detailed User's Guide is made available for scientists and students, who are undertaking their own research typically at universities, via the web page of the Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen: (http://www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de). - Highlights: • A new version of the software package SCIATRAN is presented. • Inelastic scattering in water and atmosphere is implemented in SCIATRAN. • Raman scattering and fluorescence can be included in radiative transfer calculations. • Comparisons to other radiative transfer models show excellent agreement. • Comparisons to observations show consistent results.

  8. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott

    2005-03-01

    As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.

  9. Ultraslow spreading processes along the Arctic mid-ocean ridge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlindwein, Vera

    2013-04-01

    Generation of new seafloor in the Arctic Ocean occurs along the more than 2800 km long Arctic Ridge System from the Knipovich Ridge in the south to Gakkel ridge in the northeast. The plates separate at velocities of only 6-15 mm/y making the Arctic Ridge System the most prominent representative of an ultraslow spreading mid-ocean ridge. The engine of crustal production splutters at very low spreading rates such that ultraslow spreading ridges show a unique morphology: Isolated volcanoes, capable of vigorous eruptions, pierce the seafloor at distances of several hundred kilometres; in between there are long stretches without volcanism. My work group studies at global, regional and local scale the spreading processes of the Arctic ridge system, using earthquake records of ocean bottom seismometers, seismometers on drifting ice floes and of the global seismic network. We discovered that, contrary to faster spreading ridges, amagmatic portions of the Arctic ridge system are characterised by decreased seismicity rates with few and relatively weak earthquakes, whereas magmatically robust segments display more frequent seismic events. The maximum depth of earthquake hypocentres varies markedly along axis reaching maxima of 22 km depth below sea floor. Volcanic centres are characterized by vigorous earthquake swarm activity including large earthquake swarms that are recorded teleseismically. These earthquake swarms appear to be connected to episodes of active spreading as demonstrated at the 85°E volcanic complex at eastern Gakkel ridge which experienced an unusual spreading event between 1999 and 2001. The varying patterns of seismicity along the ridge axis correlate well with the pronounced differences in ridge morphology and petrology and its magnetic and gravimetric signatures. Our results support current theories of magma production at ultraslow spreading ridges which postulate a lateral melt flow towards isolated volcanic centres.

  10. Deep-sea mud volcanoes - a window to alteration processes in old oceanic crust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensen, Christian; Scholz, Florian; Nuzzo, Marianne; Valadares, Vasco; Terrinha, Pedro; Liebetrau, Volker; Kaul, Norbert; Manzoni, Sonia; Schmidt, Mark; Gràcia, Eulàlia

    2013-04-01

    A number of deep sea mud volcanoes (>4700 m water depth) were discovered during a recent expedition with the German research vessel Meteor along a prominent WSW-ENE trending strike-slip fault (SWIM 1; Zitellini et al., 2009) in the western extension of the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic). Mud volcanism was unambiguously related to tectonic activity along the fault and fluids expelled at these sites show a very distinct geochemical composition that has not been reported from any other mud volcano to date. In previous studies on deep-water mud volcanoes in the Western Gulf of Cadiz accretionary wedge it was hypothesized that the discharge fluids were affected by alteration processes occurring in the old (>140 Ma) and deeply buried (>4 km) oceanic crust (Scholz et al., 2009; Sallarès et al, 2011). This hypothesis is supported by recent findings at the mud volcanoes located to the west of the realm of tectonic deformation driven by the accretionary wedge of the Gulf of Cadiz. Pore water geochemical analyses revealed fluid sources from oceanic crust and oldest sedimentary strata. Regardless of the ultimate source, these findings suggest that large strike-slip faults may play a significant, yet unrecognized role in terms of fluid circulation and element redistribution. To date, hot vents and cold seeps occurring at active spreading centers and forearcs of subduction zones have been pinpointed as hotspots of fluid activity. However, bearing in mind that transform-type plate boundaries are equal in length compared to other types of plate boundaries, fluid exchange at this type of plate boundary may provide a similarly important pathway for water and element exchange between the lithosphere and ocean. Sallarès V., Gailler A., Gutscher M.-A., Graindorge D., Bartolomé R., Gràcia E., Díaz J., Dañobeitia J.J. and Zitellini N. (2011) Seismic evidence for the presence of Jurassic oceanic crust in the central Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian margin), Earth and Planetary Science Letters

  11. Towards an Understanding of Enabling Process Knowing in Global Software Development: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Shared understanding of Software Engineering (SE) processes, that we call process knowing, is required for effective communication and coordination and communication within a team in order to improve team performance. SE Process knowledge can include roles, responsibilities and flow of information...... over a project lifecycle. Developing and sustaining process knowledge can be more challenging in Global Software Development (GSD). GSD distances can limit the ability of a team to develop a common understanding of processes. Anecdotes of the problems caused by lack of common understanding of processes...

  12. Active spreading processes at ultraslow mid-ocean ridges: Unusual seismicity at the amagmatic Lena Trough, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läderach, Christine; Schlindwein, Vera; Riedel, Carsten

    2010-05-01

    Lena Trough is the southern continuation of the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel Ridge and with its position in the Fram Strait between Greenland and Spitsbergen it is the only deep-sea gateway to the Arctic Ocean. DFG funded Emmy Noether group 'Mid-Ocean Volcanoes and Earthquakes' located at Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research is focusing on the seismicity of ultraslow spreading ridges and is especially interested in Lena Trough as an ultraslow spreading ridge in a developing stage. The southern Lena Trough shows similarities to the northern Red Sea spreading centre which is in the early stage of development from continental to oceanic rift. Cochran postulated in 2003 that the continental crust within the water-covered Red Sea is less than 10 km thick and that the northern part of the Red Sea rift spreads ultraslow as well. At Lena Trough an actively spreading mid-ocean ridge with a narrow rift valley has already developed but continental crust lies within a short distance. Lena Trough is extending from 83°N/5°W to 80.3°N/2°W where it passes into the transform fault of the Spitsbergen Fracture Zone. The geometry of Lena Trough and certain asymmetric structures in the rift valley indicate oblique spreading and mostly tectonic and amagmatic rifting. There are several topographic highs west of the ridge axis which could be bounded by deep faults with normal faulting or detachment character exposing mantle material at the surface. Seismicity at the Lena Trough shows apparently the same asymmetric character with epicenters of teleseismically recorded earthquakes concentrating predominantly west of the ridge axis. The most frequent focal mechanism of the earthquakes within the rift valley is normal faulting, whereas strike-slip faults occur in the Spitsbergen Fracture Zone. We relocalized teleseismic earthquakes recorded from May 1973 to April 2009 in the region using a refined localization algorithm and could confirm systematic asymmetry in the

  13. Laboratory modelling of the transfer processes between the ocean and atmosphere in the boundary layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeev Daniil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of momentum and heat transfer between ocean and atmosphere in the boundary layer were investigated within laboratory modeling for a wide range of wind speed and surface wave including hurricane conditions. Experiments were carried out on the Wind-Wave Flume of the Large Thermostratified Tank of IAP RAS. A special net located under the surface at different depths allows to vary parameters of surface waves independently on wind parameters. Theory of self-similarity of air flow parameters in the flume was used to calculate values aerodynamic and heat transfer coefficients from the measured velocity and temperature profiles by Pito and hotfilm gauges respectively. Simultaneous measurements of surface elevation with system wire allow to obtain spectra and integral parameters of waves. It was demonstrated that in contrast to the drag coefficient, heat transfer coefficient is virtually independent of wind speed and wave parameters to the moment of the beginning of spray generation and then increases rapidly.

  14. Numerical and experimental study of the phase change process for underwater glider propelled by ocean thermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Qiaoling; Ma, Jie; Xia, Dongying [State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Ocean thermal energy is a type of renewable energy. The phase change process of the thermal glider propelled by ocean thermal energy was numerically and experimentally investigated in this paper. The gliding process was analyzed and optimized while the glider was operating in the ocean thermocline near the equator. The results showed that the time of a cycle decreases by 30% and the gliding depth decreases by 40% after optimization. The gliding process was also analyzed when the PCMs were partly melted with the volumetric expansion rate at 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the total value. With the decreasing of the volumetric expansion rate, the depth and the duration of a cycle decrease significantly, but the output work does not decrease obviously. It is helpful to reduce the manufacturing cost and prolong the duration of the glider. In addition, it can improve the energy harvest efficiency from the ocean thermocline. The vehicle's gliding process can be further investigated in different ocean thermoclines based on the numerical model presented in this paper, which can provide helpful information for optimal design of the thermal glider. (author)

  15. Piloting a Geoscience Literacy Exam for Assessing Students' Understanding of Earth, Climate, Atmospheric and Ocean Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, D. N.; Iverson, E. A.; Manduca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    This research seeks to develop valid and reliable questions that faculty can use to assess geoscience literacy across the curriculum. We are particularly interested on effects of curricula developed to teach Earth, Climate, Atmospheric, and Ocean Science concepts in the context of societal issues across the disciplines. This effort is part of the InTeGrate project designed to create a population of college graduates who are poised to use geoscience knowledge in developing solutions to current and future environmental and resource challenges. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) under development presently includes 90 questions. Each big idea from each literacy document can be probed using one or more of three independent questions: 1) a single answer, multiple choice question aimed at basic understanding or application of key concepts, 2) a multiple correct answer, multiple choice question targeting the analyzing to analysis levels and 3) a short essay question that tests analysis or evaluation cognitive levels. We anticipate multiple-choice scores and the detail and sophistication of essay responses will increase as students engage with the curriculum. As part of the field testing of InTeGrate curricula, faculty collected student responses from classes that involved over 700 students. These responses included eight pre- and post-test multiple-choice questions that covered various concepts across the four literacies. Discrimination indices calculated from the data suggest that the eight tested questions provide a valid measure of literacy within the scope of the concepts covered. Student normalized gains across an academic term with limited InTeGrate exposure (typically two or fewer weeks of InTeGrate curriculum out of 14 weeks) were found to average 16% gain. A small set of control data (250 students in classes from one institution where no InTeGrate curricula were used) was

  16. High-resolution Bio-Argo and Argo Measurements to Reveal Specific Oceanic Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteau, A.; Claustre, H.; Briggs, N.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Schmechtig, C.; Prieur, L. M.; Boss, E.

    2016-02-01

    Together with temperature and salinity measurements, Bio-Argo profiling floats now measure a significant range of biogeochemical (e.g. O2, NO3) and bio-optical variables (Chla, backscattering coefficient and radiometry). To transmit the very large amount of data acquired by this new generation of floats, it was required to substitute the Argos telemetry (Argo program) with iridium telemetry. The obvious consequence is not only a much greater flexibly on data transmission but also on data acquisition thanks to the two-way communication allowed by iridium. Our group has now deployed and managed over 100 Bio-Argo floats of this type. In particular we have set up high-resolution mode of acquisition for certain periods of time or for dedicated portions of the water column. Here we illustrate with three examples the potential of conducting high-resolution measurement to identify and explore certain oceanic processes. (1) High resolution measurements of pressure, temperature and salinity (every 2 s) when the float is finishing its ascent (without any pump action) in the upper 10 m layer are analyzed with respect to sea state. We particularly focus on the study of the speed anomaly as compared to a nominal speed expected for a calm sea state. By comparison between speed anomaly of a float in the Mediterranean Sea and concurrent sea state measurements by a weather buoy in the same area, we suggest that float behaviour can be an indicator of sea state. (2) Each year, in response to springtime phytoplankton blooms, the resolution of bio-optical variables (backscattering and Chla) in the top 1000 m was increased to at least 1 m (every 10 s) for all floats in the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean. This resolution allowed accurate estimation of the concentration of large phytoplankton aggregates and revealed systematic differences in bulk aggregate sinking rate between ocean basins. (3) Finally we continuously record all the variables at a 10 min resolution during the float

  17. University Students' Understanding of Chemistry Processes and the Quality of Evidence in Their Written Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung, Eulsun; Choi, Aeran; Pestel, Beverly

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a process-oriented chemistry laboratory curriculum for non-science majors. The purpose of this study is both to explore university students' understanding of chemistry processes and to evaluate the quality of evidence students use to support their claims regarding chemistry processes in a process-oriented chemistry laboratory…

  18. Effects of flow scarcity on leaf-litter processing under oceanic climate conditions in calcareous streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Aingeru; Pérez, Javier; Molinero, Jon; Sagarduy, Mikel; Pozo, Jesús

    2015-01-15

    Although temporary streams represent a high proportion of the total number and length of running waters, historically the study of intermittent streams has received less attention than that of perennial ones. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of flow cessation on litter decomposition in calcareous streams under oceanic climate conditions. For this, leaf litter of alder was incubated in four streams (S1, S2, S3 and S4) with different flow regimes (S3 and S4 with zero-flow periods) from northern Spain. To distinguish the relative importance and contribution of decomposers and detritivores, fine- and coarse-mesh litter bags were used. We determined processing rates, leaf-C, -N and -P concentrations, invertebrate colonization in coarse bags and benthic invertebrates. Decomposition rates in fine bags were similar among streams. In coarse bags, only one of the intermittent streams, S4, showed a lower rate than that in the other ones as a consequence of lower invertebrate colonization. The material incubated in fine bags presented higher leaf-N and -P concentrations than those in the coarse ones, except in S4, pointing out that the decomposition in this stream was driven mainly by microorganisms. Benthic macroinvertebrate and shredder density and biomass were lower in intermittent streams than those in perennial ones. However, the bags in S3 presented a greater amount of total macroinvertebrates and shredders comparing with the benthos. The most suitable explanation is that the fauna find a food substrate in bags less affected by calcite precipitation, which is common in the streambed at this site. Decomposition rate in coarse bags was positively related to associated shredder biomass. Thus, droughts in streams under oceanic climate conditions affect mainly the macroinvertebrate detritivore activity, although macroinvertebrates may show distinct behavior imposed by the physicochemical properties of water, mainly travertine precipitation, which can

  19. Understanding the Transport of Patagonian Dust and Its Influence on Marine Biological Activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Kiliyanpilakkil, Praju; Gasso, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and remote sensing techniques were applied to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of soluble-iron- laden mineral dust deposition on marine primary productivity in the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) surface waters. The global chemistry transport model GEOS-Chem, implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, was applied to evaluate the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron during two dust outbreaks originating in the source regions of Patagonia. In addition to this "rapidly released" iron, offline calculations were also carried out to estimate the amount of bioavailable iron leached during the residence time of dust in the ocean mixed layer. Model simulations showed that the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes were largely influenced by the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems. Model-predicted horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust over the SAO were in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Comparison between remotely-sensed and offline calculated ocean surface chlorophyll-a concentrations indicated that, for the two dust outbreaks examined in this study, the deposition of bioavailable iron in the SAO through atmospheric pathways was insignificant. As the two dust transport episodes examined here represent typical outflows of mineral dust from South American sources, our study suggests that the atmospheric deposition of mineral dust is unlikely to induce large scale marine primary productivity and carbon sequestration in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean.

  20. Ocean iron fertilization in the context of the Kyoto protocol and the post-Kyoto process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Ocean iron fertilization is currently discussed as a potential measure to mitigate climate change by enhancing oceanic CO 2 uptake. Its mitigation potential is not yet well explored, and carbon offsets generated through iron fertilization activities could currently not be traded on regulated carbon markets. Still, commercial interests in ocean iron fertilization already exist, which underlines the need to investigate a possible regulatory framework for it. To this end, I first discuss important basic aspects of ocean iron fertilization, namely its scientific background, quantitative potential, side effects, and costs. In a second step, I review regulatory aspects connected to ocean iron fertilization, like its legal status and open access issues. Moreover, I analyze how the regulations for afforestation and reforestation activities within the framework of the Kyoto Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could be applied to ocean iron fertilization. Main findings are that the quantitative potential of ocean iron fertilization is limited, that costs are higher than initially hoped, and that potential adverse side effects are severe. Moreover, the legal status of ocean iron fertilization is currently not well defined, open access might cause inefficiencies, and the CDM regulations could not be easily applied to ocean iron fertilization.

  1. Global trophic ecology of yellowfin, bigeye, and albacore tunas: Understanding predation on micronekton communities at ocean-basin scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Leanne M.; Kuhnert, Petra M.; Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Young, Jock W.; Olson, Robert J.; Logan, John M.; Goñi, Nicolas; Romanov, Evgeny; Allain, Valerie; Staudinger, Michelle D.; Abecassis, Melanie; Choy, C. Anela; Hobday, Alistair J.; Simier, Monique; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Potier, Michel; Ménard, Frederic

    2017-06-01

    Predator-prey interactions for three commercially valuable tuna species: yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), bigeye (T. obesus), and albacore (T. alalunga), collected over a 40-year period from the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans, were used to quantitatively assess broad, macro-scale trophic patterns in pelagic ecosystems. Analysis of over 14,000 tuna stomachs, using a modified classification tree approach, revealed for the first time the global expanse of pelagic predatory fish diet and global patterns of micronekton diversity. Ommastrephid squids were consistently one of the top prey groups by weight across all tuna species and in most ocean bodies. Interspecific differences in prey were apparent, with epipelagic scombrid and mesopelagic paralepidid fishes globally important for yellowfin and bigeye tunas, respectively, while vertically-migrating euphausiid crustaceans were important for albacore tuna in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Diet diversity showed global and regional patterns among tuna species. In the central and western Pacific Ocean, characterized by low productivity, a high diversity of micronekton prey was detected while low prey diversity was evident in highly productive coastal waters where upwelling occurs. Spatial patterns of diet diversity were most variable in yellowfin and bigeye tunas while a latitudinal diversity gradient was observed with lower diversity in temperate regions for albacore tuna. Sea-surface temperature was a reasonable predictor of the diets of yellowfin and bigeye tunas, whereas chlorophyll-a was the best environmental predictor of albacore diet. These results suggest that the ongoing expansion of warmer, less productive waters in the world's oceans may alter foraging opportunities for tunas due to regional changes in prey abundances and compositions.

  2. Getting ocean acidification on decision makers' to-do lists: dissecting the process through case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sarah R.; Jewett, Elizabeth B.; Reichert, Julie; Robbins, Lisa L.; Shrestha, Gyami; Wieczorek, Dan; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the detailed, incremental knowledge being generated by current scientific research on ocean acidification (OA) does not directly address the needs of decision makers, who are asking broad questions such as: Where will OA harm marine resources next? When will this happen? Who will be affected? And how much will it cost? In this review, we use a series of mainly US-based case studies to explore the needs of local to international-scale groups that are making decisions to address OA concerns. Decisions concerning OA have been made most naturally and easily when information needs were clearly defined and closely aligned with science outputs and initiatives. For decisions requiring more complex information, the process slows dramatically. Decision making about OA is greatly aided (1) when a mixture of specialists participates, including scientists, resource users and managers, and policy and law makers; (2) when goals can be clearly agreed upon at the beginning of the process; (3) when mixed groups of specialists plan and create translational documents explaining the likely outcomes of policy decisions on ecosystems and natural resources; (4) when regional work on OA fits into an existing set of priorities concerning climate or water quality; and (5) when decision making can be reviewed and enhanced.

  3. Effects of process conditions on chlorine generation and storage stability of electrolyzed deep ocean water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Guoo-Shyng Wang; Hsia, Chih-Wei; Hsu, Shun-Yao

    2015-12-01

    Electrolyzed water is a sustainable disinfectant, which can comply with food safety regulations and is environmentally friendly. We investigated the effects of platinum plating of electrode, electrode size, cell potential, and additional stirring on electrolysis properties of deep ocean water (DOW) and DOW concentration products. We also studied the relationships between quality properties of electrolyzed DOW and their storage stability. Results indicated that concentrating DOW to 1.7 times increased chlorine level in the electrolyzed DOW without affecting electric and current efficiencies of the electrolysis process. Increasing magnesium and potassium levels in DOW decreased chlorine level in the electrolyzed DOW as well as electric and current efficiencies of the electrolysis process. Additional stirring could not increase electrolysis efficiency of small electrolyzer. Large electrode, high electric potential and/or small electrolyzing cell increased chlorine production rate but decreased electric and current efficiencies. High electrolysis intensity decreased storage stability of the electrolyzed seawater and the effects of electrolysis on DOW gradually subsided in storage. DOW has similar electrolysis properties to surface seawater, but its purity and stability are better. Therefore, electrolyzed DOW should have better potential for applications on postharvest cleaning and disinfection of ready-to-eat fresh produce. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Structural styles and zircon ages of the South Tianshan accretionary complex, Atbashi Ridge, Kyrgyzstan: Insights for the anatomy of ocean plate stratigraphy and accretionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Miao; Xiao, Wenjiao; Orozbaev, Rustam; Bakirov, Apas; Sakiev, Kadyrbek; Pak, Nikolay; Ivleva, Elena; Zhou, Kefa; Ao, Songjian; Qiao, Qingqing; Zhang, Zhixin

    2018-03-01

    The anatomy of an ancient accretionary complex has a significance for a better understanding of the tectonic processes of accretionary orogens and complex because of its complicated compositions and strong deformation. With a thorough structural and geochronological study of a fossil accretionary complex in the Atbashi Ridge, South Tianshan (Kyrgyzstan), we analyze the structure and architecture of ocean plate stratigraphy in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The architecture of the Atbashi accretionary complex is subdivisible into four lithotectonic assemblages, some of which are mélanges with "block-in-matrix" structure: (1) North Ophiolitic Mélange; (2) High-pressure (HP)/Ultra-high-pressure (UHP) Metamorphic Assemblage; (3) Coherent & Mélange Assemblage; and (4) South Ophiolitic Mélange. Relationships between main units are tectonic contacts presented by faults. The major structures and lithostratigraphy of these units are thrust-fold nappes, thrusted duplexes, and imbricated ocean plate stratigraphy. All these rock units are complicatedly stacked in 3-D with the HP/UHP rocks being obliquely southwestward extruded. Detrital zircon ages of meta-sediments provide robust constraints on their provenance from the Ili-Central Tianshan Arc. The isotopic ages of the youngest components of the four units are Late Permian, Early-Middle Triassic, Early Carboniferous, and Early Triassic, respectively. We present a new tectonic model of the South Tianshan; a general northward subduction polarity led to final closure of the South Tianshan Ocean in the End-Permian to Late Triassic. These results help to resolve the long-standing controversy regarding the subduction polarity and the timing of the final closure of the South Tianshan Ocean. Finally, our work sheds lights on the use of ocean plate stratigraphy in the analysis of the tectonic evolution of accretionary orogens.

  5. Microbial Life in the Subseafloor at Mid-Ocean Ridges: A Key to Understanding Ancient Ecosystems on Earth and Elsewhere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baross, J. A.; Delaney, J. R.

    2001-12-01

    Some planets and moons in our solar system were similar to Earth in their geological properties during the first few hundred million years after accretion. This is the period when life arose and became established on Earth. It follows that understanding the geophysical and geochemical characteristics of early Earth could provide insight into life-supporting environments on other solar bodies that have not evolved "Garden of Eden" conditions. Hydrothermal systems are primordial and their emergence coincided with the accumulation of liquid water on Earth. The interactions of water and rock associated with hydrothermal systems result in predictable suites of dissolved elements and volatiles. While the concentrations of these chemicals vary at different vent locations and were certainly different during the early Archaean, the overall chemical composition of aqueous hydrothermal fluid is likely to be the same because of the basaltic nature of oceanic crust. In present-day hydrothermal systems, those environments not contaminated by electron acceptors produced from pelagic photosynthesis would most closely mimic the earliest conditions on Earth. These conditions include the subseafloor and high temperature, anaerobic environments associated with hydrothermal systems. The microorganisms associated with these environments derive energy from sulfur, iron, hydrogen and organic compounds. New seafloor eruptions and diffuse flow vents provide unprecedented access to deep subseafloor microbial communities. For example, 12 new eruptions have occurred in the past 15 years including five in the Northeast Pacific. Hyperthermophiles were isolated from 5-30oC diffuse vent fluids from new eruption sites at CoAxial within months of the June, 1993 eruption and from the 1998 eruption at Axial Volcano, and from plume fluids within days of the February, 1996 eruption at the N. Gorda Ridge. The presence of such organisms in fluids that are 20 to 50°C below their minimum growth temperature

  6. AFSC/ABL: Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) fish and oceanography data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Understanding the processes that regulate early marine survival of salmon is a major goal of the Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) Northeast Pacific (NEP)...

  7. Using Remote Sensing and Field Observations of Colored Dissolved Organic Material (CDOM) to Improve Understanding of Carbon Dynamics at the Land-Ocean Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, L.; Tzortziou, M.; Gilerson, A.; Foster, R.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) and its colored component, (CDOM) are sensitive indicators of environmental pollution, nutrient enrichment, water quality and plays a key role in a broad range of processes and climate-related biogeochemical cycles in estuarine and coastal ecosystems. Because of its strong influence on how ocean color is viewed, CDOM can provide an invaluable optical tool for coastal zone environmental assessment and from space. There is a continuous cycle of sources and sinks of CDOM from terrestrial sources to the wetlands to the estuaries and to the ocean waters. Terrestrial inputs from natural processes, anthropogenic activities, exchanges with the atmosphere, rich biodiversity and high primary productivity, physical, photochemical and microbial processes affect not only the amount but also the quality and optical signature of CDOM in near-shore waters. In this study, new measurements are presented of the optical characteristics of CDOM collected from the Chesapeake Bay estuarine environment. Measured parameters include absorption spectra, estimated spectral slopes, slope ratios, DOC-specific CDOM absorption as well as 3D CDOM fluorescence emission-excitation matrices. Such results will provide insight of the measured CDOM in this complex environment and the complex process that affect CDOM quality and amount during transport to the estuary and coastal ocean. New field campaigns will be conducted in August and September in the Chesapeake Bay estuary and the coast of the Gulf of Mexico to collect more samples for analysis of CDOM dynamics and link field observations and measurements to satellite ocean color retrievals of estuarine biogeochemical processes. In addition, advanced satellite CDOM data distribution and usage is discussed as it has considerable operational value and practical application beyond the scientific community and research. Keywords: CDOM, carbon dynamics, estuaries, coastal ecosystems, optical properties, satellite applications

  8. A new perspective on proxy report: Investigating implicit processes of understanding through patient-proxy congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Ayandeh, Armon; Rodgers, Jonathan D; Duberstein, Paul; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H B

    2015-11-01

    Utilizing proxy report is a common solution to gathering quality-of-life information from people who are not capable of reliably answering questionnaires, such as people with dementia. Proxy report could, however, also provide information about patients' implicit processes of understanding, which we define as automatic, schema-driven cognitive processes that allow one to have a better understanding of oneself and of one's body, make oneself known and knowable to members of the social network, and allow one to react proactively in response to cues. We investigated whether implicit processes of understanding explain some of the association between reserve and healthy lifestyle behaviors. We operationalized three implicit processes of understanding: (a) psychosocial understanding; (b) insight into physical disability; and (c) somatic awareness. This secondary analysis involved a cohort of multiple sclerosis patients and their caregiver informants (n = 118 pairs). Measures included a neurologist-administered Expanded Disability Status Scale, patient- and informant-completed survey measures, and a heartbeat perception test (interoception). Patient-other congruence assessed implicit processes of understanding: psychosocial understanding (neurocognitive and personality); physical-disability insight; and somatic awareness (interoception). Effect sizes (ES) for the inter-correlations between the three implicit processes were small. Psychosocial understanding was associated with higher past reserve-building activities (small ES). Psychosocial understanding explained variance in healthy lifestyle behaviors over and above the variance explained by current reserve-building activities (∆R (2) = 0.04; model R Adjusted (2) = 0.18). Proxy versus patient report can provide information about underlying interpretational processes related to insight. These processes are distinct from reserve, predict health outcomes, and can inform lifestyle-changing interventions.

  9. Simulating multi-scale oceanic processes around Taiwan on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao-Cheng; Zhang, Yinglong J.; Yu, Jason C. S.; Terng, C.; Sun, Weiling; Ye, Fei; Wang, Harry V.; Wang, Zhengui; Huang, Hai

    2017-11-01

    We validate a 3D unstructured-grid (UG) model for simulating multi-scale processes as occurred in Northwestern Pacific around Taiwan using recently developed new techniques (Zhang et al., Ocean Modeling, 102, 64-81, 2016) that require no bathymetry smoothing even for this region with prevalent steep bottom slopes and many islands. The focus is on short-term forecast for several months instead of long-term variability. Compared with satellite products, the errors for the simulated Sea-surface Height (SSH) and Sea-surface Temperature (SST) are similar to a reference data-assimilated global model. In the nearshore region, comparison with 34 tide gauges located around Taiwan indicates an average RMSE of 13 cm for the tidal elevation. The average RMSE for SST at 6 coastal buoys is 1.2 °C. The mean transport and eddy kinetic energy compare reasonably with previously published values and the reference model used to provide boundary and initial conditions. The model suggests ∼2-day interruption of Kuroshio east of Taiwan during a typhoon period. The effect of tidal mixing is shown to be significant nearshore. The multi-scale model is easily extendable to target regions of interest due to its UG framework and a flexible vertical gridding system, which is shown to be superior to terrain-following coordinates.

  10. Consequences of a simulated rapid ocean acidification event for benthic ecosystem processes and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Fiona; Widdicombe, Stephen; McNeill, C Louise; Solan, Martin

    2013-08-30

    Whilst the biological consequences of long-term, gradual changes in acidity associated with the oceanic uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are increasingly studied, the potential effects of rapid acidification associated with a failure of sub-seabed carbon storage infrastructure have received less attention. This study investigates the effects of severe short-term (8days) exposure to acidified seawater on infaunal mediation of ecosystem processes (bioirrigation and sediment particle redistribution) and functioning (nutrient concentrations). Following acidification, individuals of Amphiura filiformis exhibited emergent behaviour typical of a stress response, which resulted in altered bioturbation, but limited changes in nutrient cycling. Under acidified conditions, A. filiformis moved to shallower depths within the sediment and the variability in occupancy depth reduced considerably. This study indicated that rapid acidification events may not be lethal to benthic invertebrates, but may result in behavioural changes that could have longer-term implications for species survival, ecosystem structure and functioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Atmospheric noble gases in Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts: Identification of atmospheric contamination processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubinet, Claire; Moreira, Manuel A.

    2018-02-01

    Noble gases in oceanic basalts always show the presence in variable proportions of a component having elemental and isotopic compositions that are similar to those of the atmosphere and distinct from the mantle composition. Although this component could be mantle-derived (e.g. subduction of air or seawater-derived noble gases trapped in altered oceanic crust and sediments), it is most often suggested that this air component is added after sample collection and probably during storage at ambient air, although the mechanism remains unknown. In an attempt to reduce this atmospheric component observed in MORBs, four experimental protocols have been followed in this study. These protocols are based on the hypothesis that air can be removed from the samples, as it appears to be sheltered in distinct vesicles compared to those filled with mantle gases. All of the protocols involve a glove box filled with nitrogen, and in certain cases, the samples are stored under primary vacuum (lower than 10-2 mbar) to pump air out or, alternatively, under high pressure of N2 to expel atmospheric noble gases. In all protocols, three components are observed: atmospheric, fractionated atmospheric and magmatic. The fractionated air component seems to be derived from the non-vitreous part of the pillow-lava, which has cooled more slowly. This component is enriched in Ne relative to Ar, reflecting a diffusive process. This contaminant has already been observed in other studies and thus seems to be relatively common. Although it is less visible, unfractionated air has also been detected in some crushing steps, which tends to indicate that despite the experiments, air is still present in the vesicles. This result is surprising, since studies have demonstrated that atmospheric contamination could be limited if samples were stored under nitrogen quickly after their recovery from the seafloor. Thus, the failure of the protocols could be explained by the insufficient duration of these protocols or

  12. On anisotropy and internal pressure errors in numerical ocean models and processes near the shelf edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiem, Oeyvind A.

    2004-12-01

    In this thesis the focus has been on anisotropy, internal pressure errors and shelf edge/slope processes. Anisotropy is a common problem in ocean models. Especially where a rectangular grid is used to discretize the horizontal. Selecting a horizontal grid, which reduces the anisotropy, will therefore probably be important when new ocean models are being developed. Hexagonal grid discretization in the horizontal has the desired property of reducing anisotropy, and therefore this grid should be considered as a reasonable choice for new ocean models. In sigma coordinate models internal pressure errors occur in areas with steep topography. In the second paper in this thesis, it is shown that the internal pressure errors depend on the grid orientation. It is further shown that the erroneous velocities in the sea mount test case of Beckmann and Haidvogel (1993) can be reduced significantly by first computing the internal pressure gradients in both the original and a coordinate system where the axis are rotated 45 degrees to the original. Then a normalized weighted linear combination of the two estimates is used as the internal pressure gradients in the simulation. A following up paper where this method is used on a real ocean should be performed to investigate how well this method performs in domains with irregular topography. In such an experiment the boundary should be closed and the initial velocities set to zero. The occurring currents should then be compared with a corresponding experiment, where the initial pressure gradients are computed in the original grid only. In the third and fourth paper the focus is on the use of BOM in along shelf barotropic flow. First the generation of eddies is investigated. This is done in the third paper and two simulations are performed. The first simulation is a barotropic simulation, and the second is a two layer simulation. The results from both simulations show development of eddies, but the strength of the eddies depend on the

  13. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2011-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  14. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    OpenAIRE

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2011-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Paper presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  15. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2012-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Paper presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  16. A model for understanding and learning of the game process of computer games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    time make sure that the students learn to act and reflect like game designers? We fell our game design model managed to just that end. Our model entails a guideline for the computer game design process in its entirety, and at same time distributes clear and easy understandable insight to a particular......This abstract focuses on the computer game design process in the education of engineers at the university level. We present a model for understanding the different layers in the game design process, and an articulation of their intricate interconnectedness. Our motivation is propelled by our daily...... teaching practice of game design. We have observed a need for a design model that quickly can create an easily understandable overview over something as complex as the design processes of computer games. This posed a problem: how do we present a broad overview of the game design process and at the same...

  17. Customizing Process to Align with Purpose and Program: The 2003 MS PHD'S in Ocean Sciences Program Evaluative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, V. A.; Pyrtle, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    How did the 2003 Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) in Ocean Sciences Program customize evaluative methodology and instruments to align with program goals and processes? How is data captured to document cognitive and affective impact? How are words and numbers utilized to accurately illustrate programmatic outcomes? How is compliance with implicit and explicit funding regulations demonstrated? The 2003 MS PHD'S in Ocean Sciences Program case study provides insightful responses to each of these questions. MS PHD'S was developed by and for underrepresented minorities to facilitate increased and sustained participation in Earth system science. Key components of this initiative include development of a community of scholars sustained by face-to-face and virtual mentoring partnerships; establishment of networking activities between and among undergraduate, graduate, postgraduate students, scientists, faculty, professional organization representatives, and federal program officers; and provision of forums to address real world issues as identified by each constituent group. The evaluative case study of the 2003 MS PHD'S in Ocean Sciences Program consists of an analysis of four data sets. Each data set was aligned to document progress in the achievement of the following program goals: Goal 1: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will successfully market, recruit, select, and engage underrepresented student and non-student participants with interest/ involvement in Ocean Sciences; Goal 2: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will provide meaningful engagement for participants as determined by quantitative analysis of user-feedback; Goal 3: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will provide meaningful engagement for participants as determined by qualitative analysis of user-feedback, and; Goal 4: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will develop a constituent base adequate to demonstrate evidence of interest, value, need and sustainability in

  18. Understanding erosion process using rare earth element tracers in a preformed interrill-rill system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracking sediment source and movement is essential to fully understanding soil erosion processes. The objectives of this study were to identify dominant erosion process and to characterize the effects of upslope interrill erosion on downslope interrill and rill erosion in a preformed interrill-rill ...

  19. Process understanding on high shear granulated lactose agglomerates during and after drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwmeyer, F.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    In 2001 the FDA launched the Process Analytical Technology initiative as a response to the growing public and industrial awareness that there is a lack of process understanding required to have an optimal control of pharmaceutical manufacturing. The current research project was initiated based upon

  20. Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers' performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological…

  1. Gestalt Processing in Autism: Failure to Process Perceptual Relationships and the Implications for Contextual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark J.; Scott, Fiona J.; Fox, Simone; Pye, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in autism have been characterised as a bias towards local over global processing. This paper examines whether there is a deficit in gestalt grouping in autism. Method: Twenty-five low-functioning children with autism and 25 controls who were matched for chronological age and verbal mental age took part in the study. Results:…

  2. Observing the oceanic mesoscale processes with satellite altimetry: the state of the art and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite altimetry has enabled the study of global oceanic mesoscale variability with increasing accuracy and resolution for the past three decades. The combination of the series of precision missions beginning with TOPEX/Poseidon and the series of missions beginning with ERS-1 has created a data record of sea surface height measurement from at least two simultaneously operating altimeters. This 19-year record has fundamentally expanded our knowledge about the dynamics of ocean circulation, in particular at the mesoscale. The progress made to date from the data record will be briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the remaining open questions. Spectral analysis of the existing altimeter data suggests that the spatial resolution is about 150 km in wavelength in space-time gridded data, and about 70-100 km in along-track data. The unresolved short scales, however, have important roles in the energy balance of ocean dynamics as well as the transport and dissipation of many properties of the ocean such as heat and dissolved chemicals. The prospect of the technique of radar interferometry for making high-resolution wide-swath measurement of sea surface height will be discussed with an update on the development of the SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) Mission, which is being jointly developed by NASA and CNES with contributions from the Canadian Space Agency. SWOT is being designed for applications in both oceanography and land surface hydrology and setting a standard for the next-generation altimetry missions.

  3. A Holistic Understanding of Conflicts during the Enterprise Resource Planning Change Process: A Dialectic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    MUSLEH ALSULAMI

    2017-01-01

    This doctoral study investigates conflicts during ERP change process from a dialectic perspective. A major motivation of this study thus arises from the recognition that a high level of risk is generally associated with the ERP change process. This is due to three reasons: a) limited understanding and experience in supporting the ERP change process, b) highly complex and risky involvement of multiple ERP stakeholders who have contrasting expectations, and c) inherent ERP conflicts in the ERP ...

  4. Masirah – the other Oman ophiolite: A better analogue for mid-ocean ridge processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Rollinson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oman has two ophiolites – the better known late Cretaceous northern Oman (or Semail ophiolite and the lesser known and smaller, Jurassic Masirah ophiolite located on the eastern coast of the country adjacent to the Indian Ocean. A number of geological, geochronological and geochemical lines of evidence strongly suggest that the northern Oman ophiolite did not form at a mid-ocean ridge but rather in a supra-subduction zone setting by fast spreading during subduction initiation. In contrast the Masirah ophiolite is structurally part of a series of ophiolite nappes which are rooted in the Indian Ocean floor. There are significant geochemical differences between the Masirah and northern Oman ophiolites and none of the supra-subduction features typical of the northern Oman ophiolite are found at Masirah. Geochemically Masirah is MORB, although in detail it contains both enriched and depleted MORB reflecting a complex source for the lavas and dykes. The enrichment of this source predates the formation of the ophiolite. The condensed crustal section on Masirah (ca. 2 km contains a very thin gabbro sequence and is thought to reflect its genesis from a cool mantle source associated with the early stages of sea-floor spreading during the early separation of eastern and western Gondwana. These data suggest that the Masirah ophiolite is a suitable analogue for an ophiolite created at a mid-ocean ridge, whereas the northern Oman ophiolite is not. The stratigraphic history of the Masirah ophiolite shows that it remained a part of the oceanic crust for ca. 80 Ma. The chemical variability and enrichment of the Masirah lavas is similar to that found elsewhere in Indian Ocean basalts and may simply reflect a similar provenance rather than a feature fundamental to the formation of the ophiolite.

  5. 76 FR 42122 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice Concluding Pre-Filing Process and Approving Process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    .... e. Name of Project: Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project. f. Location: In Cobscook Bay, in Washington... a two-phased development approach for the Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project. The project would... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12711-003] Ocean Renewable...

  6. A Process-Philosophical Understanding of Organizational Learning as "Wayfinding": Process, Practices and Sensitivity to Environmental Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to articulate a practice-based, non-cognitivist approach to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: This paper explores the potential contribution of a process-based "practice turn" in social theory for understanding organizational learning. Findings: In complex, turbulent environments, robust…

  7. Gravitational, erosional and depositional processes on volcanic ocean islands: Insights from the submarine morphology of Madeira Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartau, Rui; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Madeira, José; Santos, Rúben; Rodrigues, Aurora; Roque, Cristina; Carrara, Gabriela; Brum da Silveira, António

    2018-01-01

    The submarine flanks of volcanic ocean islands are shaped by a variety of physical processes. Whilst volcanic constructional processes are relatively well understood, the gravitational, erosional and depositional processes that lead to the establishment of large submarine tributary systems are still poorly comprehended. Until recently, few studies have offered a comprehensive source-to-sink approach, linking subaerial morphology with near-shore shelf, slope and far-field abyssal features. In particular, few studies have addressed how different aspects of the subaerial part of the system (island height, climate, volcanic activity, wave regime, etc.) may influence submarine flank morphologies. We use multibeam bathymetric and backscatter mosaics of an entire archipelago - Madeira - to investigate the development of their submarine flanks. Crucially, this dataset extends from the nearshore to the deep sea, allowing a solid correlation between submarine morphologies with the physical and geological setting of the islands. In this study we also established a comparison with other island settings, which allowed us to further explore the wider implications of the observations. The submarine flanks of the Madeira Archipelago are deeply dissected by large landslides, most of which also affected the subaerial edifices. Below the shelf break, landslide chutes extend downslope forming poorly defined depositional lobes. Around the islands, a large tributary system composed of gullies and channels has formed where no significant rocky/ridge outcrops are present. In Madeira Island these were likely generated by turbidity currents that originated as hyperpycnal flows, whilst on Porto Santo and Desertas their origin is attributed to storm-induced offshore sediment transport. At the lower part of the flanks (-3000 to -4300 m), where seafloor gradients decrease to 0.5°-3°, several scour and sediment wave fields are present, with the former normally occurring upslope of the latter

  8. Process analytical tools for monitoring, understanding, and control of pharmaceutical fluidized bed granulation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraeve, Anneleen; Monteyne, Tinne; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; De Beer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Fluidized bed granulation is a widely applied wet granulation technique in the pharmaceutical industry to produce solid dosage forms. The process involves the spraying of a binder liquid onto fluidizing powder particles. As a result, the (wetted) particles collide with each other and form larger permanent aggregates (granules). After spraying the required amount of granulation liquid, the wet granules are rapidly dried in the fluid bed granulator. Since the FDA launched its Process Analytical Technology initiative (and even before), a wide range of analytical process sensors has been used for real-time monitoring and control of fluid bed granulation processes. By applying various data analysis techniques to the multitude of data collected from the process analyzers implemented in fluid bed granulators, a deeper understanding of the process has been achieved. This review gives an overview of the process analytical technologies used during fluid bed granulation to monitor and control the process. The fundamentals of the mechanisms contributing to wet granule growth and the characteristics of fluid bed granulation processing are briefly discussed. This is followed by a detailed overview of the in-line applied process analyzers, contributing to improved fluid bed granulation understanding, modeling, control, and endpoint detection. Analysis and modeling tools enabling the extraction of the relevant information from the complex data collected during granulation and the control of the process are highlighted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Six sigma: process of understanding the control and capability of ranitidine hydrochloride tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabukswar, Ar; Jagdale, Sc; Kuchekar, Bs; Joshi, Vd; Deshmukh, Gr; Kothawade, Hs; Kuckekar, Ab; Lokhande, Pd

    2011-01-01

    The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product.

  10. Mantle properties and the MOR process: a new and versatile model for mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, Miles

    2014-05-01

    Introduction. First I summarize the reasons why a radical departure from the current MOR model is now essential. I then outline the new model and its apparent versatility, not only in providing the observed contrasting spreading-rate-dependent characteristics but also some of the other common features of the MOR system which warrant clearer explanation. Ophiolites have been thought to provide on-land guidance but turn out to be a non-mid-ocean variant, outside the scope of this presentation. Seismic anisotropy and mantle mobility. Ever since the 1969 discovery [1] of seismic anisotropy in the uppermost oceanic mantle, this has been attributed to the shearing of olivine in a convectively driven MOR-divergent flow beneath the flanks. This would imply a high degree of rheological mobility of this mantle, but new constraints on its rheological properties and dynamical behaviour have come from two directions and need to be taken into account in forming a model. 1. Contrary to the seismologists' rule-book, the oceanic seismological Low Velocity Zone (LVZ) is no longer to be thought of as mobile, because the presence of interstitial melt strips out the water-weakening of the mineral structure [2, 3]. So we require a substitute for the divergent-flow model for MORs which, we find, also has other, apparently unrecognized, dynamical inconsistencies. One of these [4] is that there are in the record many rapid changes of spreading rate and direction, and ridge jumps. This cannot happen with a process driven by slow-to-change body forces, such as thermal convection. 2. My work on the global dynamic pattern for the past 150Ma (I will show examples) has shown [4 - 7] that the tectospheres of cratons must extend to very close to the bottom of the upper mantle (660km). The metasomatism of kimberlite xenoliths from >180km depth suggests that the reason for this downwards extent of 'keels' is the same as [3]. Phase changes. Another geodynamically important property apparently

  11. Using process elicitation and validation to understand and improve chemotherapy ordering and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Wilson C; Christov, Stefan C; Avrunin, George S; Clarke, Lori A; Osterweil, Leon J; Cassells, Lucinda J; Marquard, Jenna L

    2012-11-01

    Chemotherapy ordering and administration, in which errors have potentially severe consequences, was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated by employing process formalism (or formal process definition), a technique derived from software engineering, to elicit and rigorously describe the process, after which validation techniques were applied to confirm the accuracy of the described process. The chemotherapy ordering and administration process, including exceptional situations and individuals' recognition of and responses to those situations, was elicited through informal, unstructured interviews with members of an interdisciplinary team. The process description (or process definition), written in a notation developed for software quality assessment purposes, guided process validation (which consisted of direct observations and semistructured interviews to confirm the elicited details for the treatment plan portion of the process). The overall process definition yielded 467 steps; 207 steps (44%) were dedicated to handling 59 exceptional situations. Validation yielded 82 unique process events (35 new expected but not yet described steps, 16 new exceptional situations, and 31 new steps in response to exceptional situations). Process participants actively altered the process as ambiguities and conflicts were discovered by the elicitation and validation components of the study. Chemotherapy error rates declined significantly during and after the project, which was conducted from October 2007 through August 2008. Each elicitation method and the subsequent validation discussions contributed uniquely to understanding the chemotherapy treatment plan review process, supporting rapid adoption of changes, improved communication regarding the process, and ensuing error reduction.

  12. Early diagenetic processes affecting nutrients in the pore waters of Central Indian Ocean cores

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    Pore-water nutrients, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, pH and solid-phase organic carbon were analysed for one core from the Arabian Sea and three cores from the manganese nodule area in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Possible denitrification...

  13. Processes of interannual mixed layer temperature variability in the thermocline ridge of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PraveenKumar, B.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Murty, V.S.N.; Foltz, G.R.; McPhaden, M.J.; Pous, S.; Montegut , C.deB.

    , as previously noted for heat content anomalies. Positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events and the remote influence of El Niño induce comparable warming over the TRIO region, though IOD signals peak earlier (November–December) than those associated with El Niño...

  14. Guest editor - Material exchanges at marine boundaries and surface ocean processes: Forcings and feedbacks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    the equatorial Indian Ocean. I thank all the authors for contributing to Ses- sion OA-18 of the AOGS 2005 meeting and to this Special section. I am grateful to the review- ers (Drs. Hermann W Bange of Forschungs- bereich Marine Biogeochemie, Kiel, Germany...

  15. The Influence of Toy Design Activities on Middle School Students' Understanding of the Engineering Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ninger; Pereira, Nielsen L.; George, Tarun Thomas; Alperovich, Jeffrey; Booth, Joran; Chandrasegaran, Senthil; Tew, Jeffrey David; Kulkarni, Devadatta M.; Ramani, Karthik

    2017-10-01

    The societal demand for inspiring and engaging science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students and preparing our workforce for the emerging creative economy has necessitated developing students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes from as early as elementary school levels. Hands-on engineering design activities have shown the potential to promote middle school students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes. However, traditional classrooms often lack hands-on engineering design experiences, leaving students unprepared to solve real-world design problems. In this study, we introduce the framework of a toy design workshop and investigate the influence of the workshop activities on students' understanding of and self-efficacy beliefs in engineering design. Using a mixed method approach, we conducted quantitative analyses to show changes in students' engineering design self-efficacy and qualitative analyses to identify students' understanding of the engineering design processes. Findings show that among the 24 participants, there is a significant increase in students' self-efficacy beliefs after attending the workshop. We also identified major themes such as design goals and prototyping in students' understanding of engineering design processes. This research provides insights into the key elements of middle school students' engineering design learning and the benefits of engaging middle school students in hands-on toy design workshops.

  16. Summertime calcium carbonate undersaturation in shelf waters of the western Arctic Ocean – how biological processes exacerbate the impact of ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    N. R. Bates; M. I. Orchowska; R. Garley; J. T. Mathis

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean accounts for only 4% of the global ocean area, but it contributes significantly to the global carbon cycle. Recent observations of seawater CO2-carbonate chemistry in shelf waters of the western Arctic Ocean, primarily in the Chukchi Sea, from 2009 to 2011 indicate that bottom waters are seasonally undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals, particularly aragonite. Nearly 40% of sampled bottom waters on the shelf have saturation states...

  17. Exploring potentials of sense-making theory for understanding social processes in public hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    This paper has point of departure in a planning process on energy infrastructure in Denmark and focuses on a particular public hearing meeting characterised by trenchant opposition and distrust to the authorities among the public. It points at the need to understand the interaction between author...... of such a public meeting and the importance of trust and openness in the social processes in a public hearing....... authorities and the public in such planning often characterised by conflict. A sense-making framework is developed based on Karl Weick's theory to investigate how participants at the meeting change their understanding aspects like other actors' opinions and the infrastructure project. Through interviews...

  18. Macrosystems ecology: novel methods and new understanding of multi-scale patterns and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Qinfeng Guo; Kevin Potter

    2016-01-01

    As the global biomes are increasingly threatened by human activities, understanding of macroscale patterns and processes is pressingly needed for effective management and policy making. Macrosystems ecology, which studies multiscale ecologicalpatterns and processes, has gained growing interest in the research community. However, as a relatively new field in...

  19. Duality of Ross Ice Shelf systems: crustal boundary, ice sheet processes and ocean circulation from ROSETTA-Ice surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, K. J.; Siddoway, C. S.; Padman, L.; Fricker, H. A.; Das, I.; Porter, D. F.; Springer, S. R.; Siegfried, M. R.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Bell, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Bathymetry beneath Antarctic ice shelves controls sub-ice-shelf ocean circulation and has a major influence on the stability and dynamics of the ice sheets. Beneath the Ross Ice Shelf, the sea-floor bathymetry is a product of both tectonics and glacial processes, and is influenced by the processes it controls. New aerogeophysical surveys have revealed a fundamental crustal boundary bisecting the Ross Ice Shelf and imparting a duality to the Ross Ice Shelf systems, encompassing bathymetry, ocean circulation and ice flow history. The ROSETTA-Ice surveys were designed to increase the resolution of Ross Ice Shelf mapping from the 55 km RIGGS survey of the 1970s to a 10 km survey grid, flown over three years from New York Air National Guard LC130s. Radar, LiDAR, gravity and magnetic instruments provide a top to bottom profile of the ice shelf and the underlying seafloor, with 20 km resolution achieved in the first two survey seasons (2015 and 2016). ALAMO ocean-profiling floats deployed in the 2016 season are measuring the temperature and salinity of water entering and exiting the sub-ice water cavity. A significant east-west contrast in the character of the magnetic and gravity fields reveals that the lithospheric boundary between East and West Antarctica exists not at the base of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), as previously thought, but 300 km further east. The newly-identified boundary spatially coincides with the southward extension of the Central High, a rib of shallow basement identified in the Ross Sea. The East Antarctic side is characterized by lower amplitude magnetic anomalies and denser TAM-type lithosphere compared to the West Antarctic side. The crustal structure imparts a fundamental duality on the overlying ice and ocean, with deeper bathymetry and thinner ice on the East Antarctic side creating a larger sub-ice cavity for ocean circulation. The West Antarctic side has a shallower seabed, more restricted ocean access and a more complex history of

  20. Processes influencing the transport and fate of contaminated sediments in the coastal ocean: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P. Soupy; Baldwin, Sandra M.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Borden, Jonathan; Casso, Michael A.; Crusius, John; Goudreau, Joanne; Kalnejais, Linda H.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Martin, William R.; Martini, Marinna A.; Rendigs, Richard R.; Sayles, Frederick L.; Signell, Richard P.; Valentine, Page C.; Warner, John C.; Bothner, Michael H.; Butman, Bradford

    2007-01-01

    Most of the major urban centers of the United States including Boston, New York, Washington, Chicago, New Orleans, Miami, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Seattle—are on a coast (fig. 1.1). All of these cities discharge treated sewage effluent into adjacent waters. In 2000, 74 percent of the U.S. population lived within 200 kilometers (km) of the coast. Between 1980 and 2002, the population density in coastal communities increased approximately 4.5 times faster than in noncoastal areas of the U.S. (Perkins, 2004). More people generate larger volumes of wastes, increase the demands on wastewater treatment, expand the area of impervious land surfaces, and use more vehicles that contribute contaminants to street runoff. According to the National Coastal Condition Report II (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2005a), on the basis of coastal habitat, water and sediment quality, benthic index, and fish tissue, the overall national coastal condition is only poor to fair and the overall coastal condition in the highly populated Northeast is poor. Scientific information helps managers to prioritize and regulate coastal-ocean uses that include recreation, commercial fishing, transportation, waste disposal, and critical habitat for marine organisms. These uses are often in conflict with each other and with environmental concerns. Developing a strategy for managing competing uses while maintaining sustainability of coastal resources requires scientific understanding of how the coastal ocean system behaves and how it responds to anthropogenic influences. This report provides a summary of a multidisciplinary research program designed to improve our understanding of the transport and fate of contaminants in Massachusetts coastal waters. Massachusetts Bay and Boston Harbor have been a focus of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research because they provide a diverse geographic setting for developing a scientific understanding of the geology, geochemistry, and oceanography of

  1. Understanding Customer Product Choices: A Case Study Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Robert J. Bush; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1996-01-01

    The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to characterize the bridge material selection decisions of highway officials across the United States. Understanding product choices by utilizing the AHP allowed us to develop strategies for increasing the use of timber in bridge construction. State Department of Transportation engineers, private consulting engineers, and...

  2. Understanding Teachers' Cognitive Processes during Online Professional Learning: A Methodological Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Pamela; Willows, Dale

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of three types of think aloud methods for understanding elementary teachers' cognitive processes as they used a professional development website. A methodology combining a retrospective think aloud procedure with screen capture technology (referred to as the virtual revisit) was compared with concurrent and…

  3. Videogame Construction by Engineering Students for Understanding Modelling Processes: The Case of Simulating Water Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretelín-Ricárdez, Angel; Sacristán, Ana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    We present some results of an ongoing research project where university engineering students were asked to construct videogames involving the use of physical systems models. The objective is to help them identify and understand the elements and concepts involved in the modelling process. That is, we use game design as a constructionist approach…

  4. Embedded Formative Assessment and Classroom Process Quality: How Do They Interact in Promoting Science Understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decristan, Jasmin; Klieme, Eckhard; Kunter, Mareike; Hochweber, Jan; Büttner, Gerhard; Fauth, Benjamin; Hondrich, A. Lena; Rieser, Svenja; Hertel, Silke; Hardy, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the interplay between curriculum-embedded formative assessment--a well-known teaching practice--and general features of classroom process quality (i.e., cognitive activation, supportive climate, classroom management) and their combined effect on elementary school students' understanding of the scientific concepts of…

  5. Utilizing the Theoretical Framework of Collective Identity to Understand Processes in Youth Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futch, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores collective identity as a useful theoretical framework for understanding social and developmental processes that occur in youth programs. Through narrative analysis of past participant interviews (n = 21) from an after-school theater program, known as "The SOURCE", it was found that participants very clearly describe…

  6. The Role of Regulation and Processing Strategies in Understanding Science Text among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilppu, Henna; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Ahopelto, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of regulation and processing strategies in understanding science text. A total of 91 student teachers answered open-ended questions concerning photosynthesis before and after reading either a traditional or a refutational science text. After this, they also answered parts of the Inventory of…

  7. Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of…

  8. A physiological approach to oceanic processes and glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep L. Pelegrí

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available One possible path for exploring the Earth’s far-from-equilibrium homeostasis is to assume that it results from the organisation of optimal pulsating systems, analogous to that in complex living beings. Under this premise it becomes natural to examine the Earth’s organisation using physiological-like variables. Here we identify some of these main variables for the ocean’s circulatory system: pump rate, stroke volume, carbon and nutrient arterial-venous differences, inorganic nutrients and carbon supply, and metabolic rate. The stroke volume is proportional to the water transported into the thermocline and deep oceans, and the arterial-venous differences occur between recently-upwelled deep waters and very productive high-latitudes waters, with atmospheric CO2 being an indicator of the arterial-venous inorganic carbon difference. The metabolic rate is the internal-energy flux (here expressed as flux of inorganic carbon in the upper ocean required by the system’s machinery, i.e. community respiration. We propose that the pump rate is set externally by the annual cycle, at one beat per year per hemisphere, and that the autotrophic ocean adjusts its stroke volume and arterial-venous differences to modify the internal-energy demand, triggered by long-period astronomical insolation cycles (external-energy supply. With this perspective we may conceive that the Earth’s interglacial-glacial cycle responds to an internal organisation analogous to that occurring in living beings during an exercise-recovery cycle. We use an idealised double-state metabolic model of the upper ocean (with the inorganic carbon/nutrients supply specified through the overturning rate and the steady-state inorganic carbon/nutrients concentrations to obtain the temporal evolution of its inorganic carbon concentration, which mimics the glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 pattern.

  9. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Tsung-Hung; Takahashi, Taro

    1993-01-01

    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0 2 include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO 2 and total concentration of dissolved C0 2 , sea-air pCO 2 difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0 2 uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0 2 from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0 2 fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks

  10. Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Dannenmann, Michael; Kiese, Ralf; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well established that soils are the dominating source for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), we are still struggling to fully understand the complexity of the underlying microbial production and consumption processes and the links to biotic (e.g. inter- and intraspecies competition, food webs, plant–microbe interaction) and abiotic (e.g. soil climate, physics and chemistry) factors. Recent work shows that a better understanding of the composition and diversity of the microbial community across a variety of soils in different climates and under different land use, as well as plant–microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, may provide a key to better understand the variability of N2O fluxes at the soil–atmosphere interface. Moreover, recent insights into the regulation of the reduction of N2O to dinitrogen (N2) have increased our understanding of N2O exchange. This improved process understanding, building on the increased use of isotope tracing techniques and metagenomics, needs to go along with improvements in measurement techniques for N2O (and N2) emission in order to obtain robust field and laboratory datasets for different ecosystem types. Advances in both fields are currently used to improve process descriptions in biogeochemical models, which may eventually be used not only to test our current process understanding from the microsite to the field level, but also used as tools for up-scaling emissions to landscapes and regions and to explore feedbacks of soil N2O emissions to changes in environmental conditions, land management and land use. PMID:23713120

  11. Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: examining information processing among young women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. The purpose of this article is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semistructured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by 5 dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women's information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care.

  12. Enhanced process understanding and multivariate prediction of the relationship between cell culture process and monoclonal antibody quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Michael; Ritscher, Jonathan; MacKinnon, Nicola; Souquet, Jonathan; Broly, Hervé; Morbidelli, Massimo; Butté, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    This work investigates the insights and understanding which can be deduced from predictive process models for the product quality of a monoclonal antibody based on designed high-throughput cell culture experiments performed at milliliter (ambr-15 ® ) scale. The investigated process conditions include various media supplements as well as pH and temperature shifts applied during the process. First, principal component analysis (PCA) is used to show the strong correlation characteristics among the product quality attributes including aggregates, fragments, charge variants, and glycans. Then, partial least square regression (PLS1 and PLS2) is applied to predict the product quality variables based on process information (one by one or simultaneously). The comparison of those two modeling techniques shows that a single (PLS2) model is capable of revealing the interrelationship of the process characteristics to the large set product quality variables. In order to show the dynamic evolution of the process predictability separate models are defined at different time points showing that several product quality attributes are mainly driven by the media composition and, hence, can be decently predicted from early on in the process, while others are strongly affected by process parameter changes during the process. Finally, by coupling the PLS2 models with a genetic algorithm first the model performance can be further improved and, most importantly, the interpretation of the large-dimensioned process-product-interrelationship can be significantly simplified. The generally applicable toolset presented in this case study provides a solid basis for decision making and process optimization throughout process development. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1368-1380, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Understanding the Role of Water on Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Bruce C [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colson, Steven D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dixon, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Laufer, Allan H [US Department of Energy Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences; Ray, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2003-06-10

    On September 26–28, 2002, a workshop entitled “Understanding the Role of Water on Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry” was held to assess new research opportunities in electron-driven processes and radical chemistry in aqueous systems. Of particular interest was the unique and complex role that the structure of water plays in influencing these processes. Novel experimental and theoretical approaches to solving long-standing problems in the field were explored. A broad selection of participants from universities and the national laboratories contributed to the workshop, which included scientific and technical presentations and parallel sessions for discussions and report writing.

  14. A conceptual prediction model for seasonal drought processes using atmospheric and oceanic standardized anomalies: application to regional drought processes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenchen; Lu, Guihua; He, Hai; Wu, Zhiyong; He, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Reliable drought prediction is fundamental for water resource managers to develop and implement drought mitigation measures. Considering that drought development is closely related to the spatial-temporal evolution of large-scale circulation patterns, we developed a conceptual prediction model of seasonal drought processes based on atmospheric and oceanic standardized anomalies (SAs). Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is first applied to drought-related SAs at 200 and 500 hPa geopotential height (HGT) and sea surface temperature (SST). Subsequently, SA-based predictors are built based on the spatial pattern of the first EOF modes. This drought prediction model is essentially the synchronous statistical relationship between 90-day-accumulated atmospheric-oceanic SA-based predictors and SPI3 (3-month standardized precipitation index), calibrated using a simple stepwise regression method. Predictor computation is based on forecast atmospheric-oceanic products retrieved from the NCEP Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2), indicating the lead time of the model depends on that of CFSv2. The model can make seamless drought predictions for operational use after a year-to-year calibration. Model application to four recent severe regional drought processes in China indicates its good performance in predicting seasonal drought development, despite its weakness in predicting drought severity. Overall, the model can be a worthy reference for seasonal water resource management in China.

  15. A conceptual prediction model for seasonal drought processes using atmospheric and oceanic standardized anomalies: application to regional drought processes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable drought prediction is fundamental for water resource managers to develop and implement drought mitigation measures. Considering that drought development is closely related to the spatial–temporal evolution of large-scale circulation patterns, we developed a conceptual prediction model of seasonal drought processes based on atmospheric and oceanic standardized anomalies (SAs. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF analysis is first applied to drought-related SAs at 200 and 500 hPa geopotential height (HGT and sea surface temperature (SST. Subsequently, SA-based predictors are built based on the spatial pattern of the first EOF modes. This drought prediction model is essentially the synchronous statistical relationship between 90-day-accumulated atmospheric–oceanic SA-based predictors and SPI3 (3-month standardized precipitation index, calibrated using a simple stepwise regression method. Predictor computation is based on forecast atmospheric–oceanic products retrieved from the NCEP Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2, indicating the lead time of the model depends on that of CFSv2. The model can make seamless drought predictions for operational use after a year-to-year calibration. Model application to four recent severe regional drought processes in China indicates its good performance in predicting seasonal drought development, despite its weakness in predicting drought severity. Overall, the model can be a worthy reference for seasonal water resource management in China.

  16. Understanding Craftsman’s Creativity in a Framework of Person, Process, Product and Press (4Ps)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Chunfang; Tanggaard, Lene

    2016-01-01

    , Process, Product, and Press (4Ps) This research question drives to develop a theoretical study bridging two areas of creativity and craftsman’s work. This will further indicate craftsman’s working practice is full of complexity that stimulates creative behavior and that also requires a systematic view......The recent work has emphasized craftsmen are key actors in developing creative industries. However, little attention has been paid to the particular study on creativity of craftsmen. This paper aims to explore how can we understand craftsman’s creativity in a theoretical framework of Person...... to understand craftsman’s creativity as involving interaction between 4Ps....

  17. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on research for the History of Marine Animal Populations project, Oceans Past examines the complex relationship our forebears had with the sea and the animals that inhabit it. It presents eleven studies ranging from fisheries and invasive species to offshore technology and the study of marine...... environmental history, bringing together the perspectives of historians and marine scientists to enhance understanding of ocean management of the past, present and future. In doing so, it also highlights the influence that changes in marine ecosystems have upon the politics, welfare and culture of human...

  18. Oxygen in the Southern Ocean From Argo Floats: Determination of Processes Driving Air-Sea Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushinsky, Seth M.; Gray, Alison R.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-11-01

    The Southern Ocean is of outsized significance to the global oxygen and carbon cycles with relatively poor measurement coverage due to harsh winters and seasonal ice cover. In this study, we use recent advances in the parameterization of air-sea oxygen fluxes to analyze 9 years of oxygen data from a recalibrated Argo oxygen data set and from air-calibrated oxygen floats deployed as part of the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) project. From this combined data set of 150 floats, we find a total Southern Ocean oxygen sink of -183 ± 80 Tmol yr-1 (positive to the atmosphere), greater than prior estimates. The uptake occurs primarily in the Polar-Frontal Antarctic Zone (PAZ, -94 ± 30 Tmol O2 yr-1) and Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ, -111 ± 9.3 Tmol O2 yr-1). This flux is driven by wintertime ventilation, with a large portion of the flux in the SIZ passing through regions with fractional sea ice. The Subtropical Zone (STZ) is seasonally driven by thermal fluxes and exhibits a net outgassing of 47 ± 29 Tmol O2 yr-1 that is likely driven by biological production. The Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) uptake is -25 ± 12 Tmol O2 yr-1. Total oxygen fluxes were separated into a thermal and nonthermal component. The nonthermal flux is correlated with net primary production and mixed layer depth in the STZ, SAZ, and PAZ, but not in the SIZ where seasonal sea ice slows the air-sea gas flux response to the entrainment of deep, low-oxygen waters.

  19. Uncertainty in ocean mass trends from GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine J.; Ponte, Rui M.

    2010-05-01

    Ocean mass, together with steric sea level, are the key components of total observed sea level change. Monthly observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) can provide estimates of the ocean mass component of the sea level budget, but full use of the data requires a detailed understanding of its errors and biases. We have examined trends in ocean mass calculated from 6 yr of GRACE data and found differences of up to 1 mmyr-1 between estimates derived from different GRACE processing centre solutions. In addition, variations in post-processing masking and filtering procedures required to convert the GRACE data into ocean mass lead to trend differences of up to 0.5 mmyr-1. Necessary external model adjustments add to these uncertainties, with reported postglacial rebound corrections differing by as much as 1 mmyr-1. Disagreement in the regional trends between the GRACE processing centres is most noticeably in areas south of Greenland, and in the southeast and northwest Pacific Ocean. Non-ocean signals, such as in the Indian Ocean due to the 2004 Sumatran-Andean earthquake, and near Greenland and West Antarctica due to land signal leakage, can also corrupt the ocean trend estimates. Based on our analyses, formal errors may not capture the true uncertainty in either regional or global ocean mass trends derived from GRACE.

  20. Coastal biogeochemical processes in the north Indian Ocean (14, S-W)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A; Narvekar, P.V.; Desa, E.

    , and close to Sow- tra Island-both PP (c1 g C m2 dl) and chl n (<0.6 mg m 3, were below expecta- tions due to a combination of factors such as the short residence time of upwelled water over the shelf, deep mixed layers caused by wind-induced turbulence...) in the northeastern Bay of Bcngal (Wyrtki, 1971). S. WAJ~H A. NAQVI, PRADIP V. NAHVEKAR AND EE~RLICH DESA 725 ZON 15N Figure 19.1 Major features of surface circulation in the North Indian Ocean (after Schott and McCreary, 2001) during (a) Northeast Monsoon...

  1. Large-scale processes in the upper layers of the Indian Ocean inferred from temperature climatology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.

    ; Schott et al., 1990), still remain the atlas of Wyrtki (1971) prepared based on the International Indian Ocean Expedition data and that of Cutler and Swallow (1984) using the ship drift data collected by the British meteorological office. Rao et al..., the former persisting from May till October, while the latter is present between August and October. These are associated with intense upwelling along the Somali and Arabian coasts and to a lesser extent along the Indian coast. The low found along the west...

  2. UNDERSTANDING THAI CULTURE AND ITS IMPACT ON REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING PROCESS MANAGEMENT DURING INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerasak Thanasankit

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of Thai culture on managing the decision making process in requirements engineering and contribution a better understand of its influence on the management of requirements engineering process. The paper illustrates the interaction of technology and culture and shows that rather than technology changing culture, culture can change the way technology is used. Thai culture is naturally inherent in Thai daily life and Thais bring that into their work practices. The concepts of power and uncertainty in Thai culture contribute toward hierarchical forms of communication and decision making process in Thailand, especially during requirements engineering, where information systems requirements need to be established for further development. The research shows that the decision making process in Thailand tends to take a much longer time, as every stage during requirements engineering needs to be reported to management for final decisions. The tall structure of Thai organisations also contributes to a bureaucratic, elongated decision-making process during information systems development. Understanding the influence of Thai culture on requirements engineering and information systems development will assist multinational information systems consulting organisations to select, adapt, better manage, or change requirements engineering process and information systems developments methodologies to work best with Thai organisations.

  3. A review of concentrated flow erosion processes on rangelands: Fundamental understanding and knowledge gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayjro K. Nouwakpo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated flow erosion processes are distinguished from splash and sheetflow processes in their enhanced ability to mobilize and transport large amounts of soil, water and dissolved elements. On rangelands, soil, nutrients and water are scarce and only narrow margins of resource losses are tolerable before crossing the sustainability threshold. In these ecosystems, concentrated flow processes are perceived as indicators of degradation and often warrant the implementation of mitigation strategies. Nevertheless, this negative perception of concentrated flow processes may conflict with the need to improve understanding of the role of these transport vessels in redistributing water, soil and nutrients along the rangeland hillslope. Vegetation influences the development and erosion of concentrated flowpaths and has been the primary factor used to control and mitigate erosion on rangelands. At the ecohydrologic level, vegetation and concentrated flow pathways are engaged in a feedback relationship, the understanding of which might help improve rangeland management and restoration strategies. In this paper, we review published literature on experimental and conceptual research pertaining to concentrated flow processes on rangelands to: (1 present the fundamental science underpinning concentrated flow erosion modeling in these landscapes, (2 discuss the influence of vegetation on these erosion processes, (3 evaluate the contribution of concentrated flow erosion to overall sediment budget and (4 identify knowledge gaps.

  4. The ocean lifeguard drowning prevention paradigm: how and where do lifeguards intervene in the drowning process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, William; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Quan, Linda

    2017-10-10

    Drowning is a global health problem that can be addressed with multiple strategies including utilisation of lifeguards in recreational swim areas. However, few studies have described lifeguard prevention activities. We conducted a retrospective analysis using lifeguard activity data collected in real time with a Computer-Aided-Dispatch (CAD) system to characterise the nature of lifeguard primary and secondary drowning prevention at a popular ocean beach in California. Preventative actions constituted the majority (232 065/423 071; 54.8%) of lifeguard activities, while rescues represented 1.9%. Most preventative actions and rescues occurred during summer months, weekends and afternoons. Statistically significant geographical clusters of preventative actions were identified all over the beach, while rescue clusters were primarily restricted to two sites. Using the most reliable and valid collection system to date, these data show spatial and temporal patterns for ocean lifeguard provision of primary prevention as well as secondary drowning prevention (rescue). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. The Oceans 2015 Initiative, Part I - An updated synthesis of the observed and projected impacts of climate change on physical and biological processes in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, Ella L.; Joos, Fortunat; Eakin, Mark; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The oceans have absorbed approximately 93% of the excess heat caused by global warming. Warming increases stratification, limiting the circulation of nutrients from deep waters to the surface. There is evidence that enhanced stratification and increasing temperature are causing a decline in dissolved oxygen concentration and expanding existing oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Approximately 26% of anthropogenic CO 2 is absorbed by the oceans, resulting in a reduction in pH and carbonate ion concentration, termed ocean acidification. Anthropogenic CO 2 has caused global ocean pH to decrease by 0.1 units since the start of the Industrial Revolution. The ocean ecosystems are responding to the changing environment, but at different rates and magnitudes and with interspecific and geographic variation in responses. Warming causes shifts in species' geographic distribution, abundance, migration patterns and phenology. Organisms that produce shells and skeletons from calcium carbonate are at most risk from ocean acidification as it lowers the saturation state of the mineral, favouring a dissolution reaction. To date, there are few observations of ocean acidification effects in natural communities; however, experimental evidence suggests that the risk to ecosystems will increase over the coming decades. Decreasing dissolved oxygen concentrations and expanding OMZs will favour anaerobic metabolisers such as bacteria and small microbes whilst reducing habitat for larger, oxygen dependent organisms. The interaction of multiple drivers can amplify or alleviate each other's effects. It is likely that marine organisms will experience a combination of warming, acidification and declining oxygen concentrations as well as regionally specific local stressors. This makes it difficult to predict the responses of individual species to multiple drivers, and species interactions make ecosystem- based projections challenging. Using the available evidence, projections have been

  6. Societal rationality; towards an understanding of decision making processes in society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, Bjoern

    2001-01-01

    In a search for new ways to structure decision making on complex and controversial issues it is necessary to build an understanding of why traditional decision making processes break down. One reason is connected to the issues themselves. They represent steps into the unknown and decisions should therefore be made with prudence. A second reason is connected to a track record according to which new technologies are seen as generating more problems than solutions. A third and more fundamental reason is connected to the decision making processes themselves and a need to find better ways to approach difficult questions in the society. One way to approach societal decision making processes is to investigate their hidden rationality in an attempt to understand causes of observed difficulties. The paper is based mainly on observations from the nuclear industry, but it builds also on controversies experienced in attempts to agree on global efforts towards sustainable approaches to development. It builds on an earlier paper, which discussed the basis of rationality both on an individual and a societal level. Research in societal decision making has to rely on a true multi-disciplinary approach. It is nor enough to understand the technical and scientific models by which outcomes are predicted, but it is also necessary to understand how people make sense of their environment and how they co-operate. Rationality is in this connection one of the key concepts, with an understanding that people always are rational in their own frame of action. The challenge in this connection is to understand how this subjective rationality is formed. Societal rationality has to do with the allocation of resources. There are decisions in which several conflicting views have to be considered. Spending time and resources ex ante may support a consensus ex post, but unfortunately there is no panacea for approaching difficult decisions. Decisions with an uncertain future have to be more robust than

  7. Societal rationality; towards an understanding of decision making processes in society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstroem, Bjoern [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    In a search for new ways to structure decision making on complex and controversial issues it is necessary to build an understanding of why traditional decision making processes break down. One reason is connected to the issues themselves. They represent steps into the unknown and decisions should therefore be made with prudence. A second reason is connected to a track record according to which new technologies are seen as generating more problems than solutions. A third and more fundamental reason is connected to the decision making processes themselves and a need to find better ways to approach difficult questions in the society. One way to approach societal decision making processes is to investigate their hidden rationality in an attempt to understand causes of observed difficulties. The paper is based mainly on observations from the nuclear industry, but it builds also on controversies experienced in attempts to agree on global efforts towards sustainable approaches to development. It builds on an earlier paper, which discussed the basis of rationality both on an individual and a societal level. Research in societal decision making has to rely on a true multi-disciplinary approach. It is nor enough to understand the technical and scientific models by which outcomes are predicted, but it is also necessary to understand how people make sense of their environment and how they co-operate. Rationality is in this connection one of the key concepts, with an understanding that people always are rational in their own frame of action. The challenge in this connection is to understand how this subjective rationality is formed. Societal rationality has to do with the allocation of resources. There are decisions in which several conflicting views have to be considered. Spending time and resources ex ante may support a consensus ex post, but unfortunately there is no panacea for approaching difficult decisions. Decisions with an uncertain future have to be more robust than

  8. Using a Design Science Perspective to Understand a Complex Design-Based Research Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how a design science perspective can be used to describe and understand a set of related design-based research processes. We describe and analyze a case study in a manner that is inspired by design science. The case study involves the design of modeling......-based research processes. And we argue that a design science perspective may be useful for both researchers and practitioners....... tools and the redesign of an information service in a library. We use a set of guidelines from a design science perspective to organize the description and analysis of the case study. By doing this we demonstrate the usefulness of design science as an analytical tool for understanding related design...

  9. Impacts of Ocean Acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijma, Jelle (Alfred Wegener Inst., D-27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)) (and others)

    2009-08-15

    often not well known or are completely unknown, a strategic workshop was organised by the ESF Standing Committee for Life, Earth and Environmental Sciences (LESC) in cooperation with the ESF EUROCORES Programme EuroCLIMATE. The aim was to address the issue of the impacts of ocean acidification on both the natural and socioeconomic systems, and to identify the gaps of knowledge in this field. The present Science Policy Briefing resulting from this strategic workshop has undergone external international peer review and has been approved by both the Marine Board-ESF and LESC. The ESF considers this Science Policy Briefing on the Impacts of Ocean Acidification an important step towards raising awareness amongst a wide range of research actors, policy makers and funding agencies. Taking into account the range of priorities and key areas of research requiring action at the pan-European level, a series of recommendations for European actions have been drawn up under the following five headings: (i) increase understanding and improve quantification of the organismal and ecosystem responses to ocean acidification; (ii) include the human dimension by increasing collaboration and integration efforts between natural and social sciences; (iii) rationalise, improve and focus monitoring and data gathering, management, processing and accessibility efforts; (iv) increase dissemination, outreach and capacity-building efforts, in particular related to communicating ocean acidification to stakeholders (policy makers, research founders, public, media, etc.); and (v) improve coordination of ocean acidification research and collaboration both at the national and international levels

  10. Embedded formative assessment and classroom process quality. How do they interact in promoting students' science understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Decristan, Jasmin; Klieme, Eckhard; Kunter, Mareike; Hochweber, Jan; Büttner, Gerhard; Fauth, Benjamin; Hondrich, Anna Lena; Rieser, Svenja; Hertel, Silke; Hardy, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the interplay between curriculum-embedded formative assessment-a well-known teaching practice-and general features of classroom process quality (i.e., cognitive activation, supportive climate, classroom management) and their combined effect on elementary school students' understanding of the scientific concepts of floating and sinking. We used data from a cluster-randomized controlled trial and compared curriculum-embedded formative assessment (17 classes) with a cont...

  11. Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of influence, probing the conditions under which influence is amplified/attenuated (moderators), testing theoretically based models of peer influence pr...

  12. Neural Information Processing in Cognition: We Start to Understand the Orchestra, but Where is the Conductor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Research in neural information processing has been successful in the past, providing useful approaches both to practical problems in computer science and to computational models in neuroscience. Recent developments in the area of cognitive neuroscience present new challenges for a computational or theoretical understanding asking for neural information processing models that fulfill criteria or constraints from cognitive psychology, neuroscience and computational efficiency. The most important of these criteria for the evaluation of present and future contributions to this new emerging field are listed at the end of this article. PMID:26858632

  13. Powder stickiness in milk drying: uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for process understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Adrián; Gutiérrez, Soledad; Sin, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    A powder stickiness model based in the glass transition temperature (Gordon – Taylor equations) was built for a production scale milk drying process (including a spray chamber, and internal/external fluid beds). To help process understanding, the model was subjected to sensitivity analysis (SA......) of inputs/parameters, and uncertainty analysis (UA) to estimate confidence intervals on model predictions. For SA, a differential local and also a global approach were used. A variance decomposition method (e.g. Sobol first order sensitivity index) was implemented for global SA, and Monte Carlo technique...

  14. Referral to a periodontist by a general dentist: An understanding of the referral process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Bhati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is one of the most common health care problems. The type of treatment of periodontal disease depends on the diagnosis. The treatment plan should also focus on managing the risk factors and modifying factors which affect the periodontal disease and treatment. The evidence-based advancements have given a success predictability level to the periodontal diagnosis and treatment plan. The level of specialty education is limited in the curriculum for undergraduates. Patients should receive the same quality of treatment whether administered by a specialist or general practitioner. Therefore, general dentists need to be well informed about how to make timely and appropriate referrals to periodontists when necessary. An online literature search was done through PubMed, PMC, and open access journals to understand the referral process. Articles pertaining to referral process were selected. Based on the search, it was found that knowledge of elements of the referral process, conditions (general and periodontal requiring referral, and selection of periodontist are important aspects of the referral process. This short communication will help the general dentist to understand the referral process that will enable them to provide the timely periodontal referral and treatment to the patients.

  15. Indian Ocean margins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The most important biogeochemical transformations and boundary exchanges in the Indian Ocean seem to occur in the northern region, where the processes originating at the land-ocean boundary extend far beyond the continental margins. Exchanges across...

  16. Ocean Mixed Layer Response to Gap Wind Scenarios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Konstantinou, Nikolaos

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding the oceanic response to gap outflow and the air-sea interaction processes during the gap wind event between 26 and 28 February 2004 over the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. The U.S...

  17. Marked phylogeographic structure of Gentoo penguin reveals an ongoing diversification process along the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Juliana A; Noll, Daly; Dantas, Gisele P M; Petry, Maria Virginia; Barbosa, Andrés; González-Acuña, Daniel; Le Bohec, Céline; Bonadonna, Francesco; Poulin, Elie

    2017-02-01

    Two main hypotheses have been debated about the biogeography of the Southern Ocean: (1) the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), acting as a barrier between Antarctic and sub-Antarctic provinces, and (2) the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), promoting gene flow among sub-Antarctic areas. The Gentoo penguin is distributed throughout these two provinces, separated by the APF. We analyzed mtDNA (HVR1) and 12 microsatellite loci of 264 Gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, from 12 colonies spanning from the Western Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands (WAP) to the sub-Antarctic Islands (SAI). While low genetic structure was detected among WAP colonies (mtDNA Ф ST =0.037-0.133; microsatellite F ST =0.009-0.063), high differentiation was found between all SAI and WAP populations (mtDNA Ф ST =0.678-0.930; microsatellite F ST =0.110-0.290). These results suggest that contemporary dispersal around the Southern Ocean is very limited or absent. As predicted, the APF appears to be a significant biogeographical boundary for Gentoo penguin populations; however, the ACC does not promote connectivity in this species. Our data suggest demographic expansion in the WAP during the last glacial maximum (LGM, about 20kya), but stability in SAI. Phylogenetic analyses showed a deep divergence between populations from the WAP and those from the SAI. Therefore, taxonomy should be further revised. The Crozet Islands resulted as a basal clade (3.57Mya), followed by the Kerguelen Islands (2.32Mya) as well as a more recent divergence between the Falkland/Malvinas Islands and the WAP (1.27Mya). Historical isolation, local adaptation, and past climate scenarios of those Evolutionarily Significant Units may have led to different potentials to respond to climate changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding Nutrient Processing Under Similar Hydrologic Conditions Along a River Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayburu-Caruso, V. A.; Mortensen, J.; Van Horn, D. J.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.

    2015-12-01

    Eutrophication is one of the main causes of water impairment across the US. The fate of nutrients in streams is typically described by the dynamic coupling of physical processes and biochemical processes. However, isolating each of these processes and determining its contribution to the whole system is challenging due to the complexity of the physical, chemical and biological domains. We conducted column experiments seeking to understand nutrient processing in shallow sediment-water interactions along representative sites of the Jemez River-Rio Grande continuum (eight stream orders), in New Mexico (USA). For each stream order, we used a set of 6 columns packed with 3 different sediments, i.e., Silica Cone Density Sand ASTM D 1556 (0.075-2.00 mm), gravel (> 2mm) and native sediments from each site. We incubated the sediments for three months and performed tracer experiments in the laboratory under identical flow conditions, seeking to normalize the physical processes along the river continuum. We added a short-term pulse injection of NO3, resazurin and NaCl to each column and determined metabolism and NO3 processing using the Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization method (TASCC). Our methods allowed us to study how changes in bacterial communities and sediment composition along the river continuum define nutrient processing.

  19. Understanding how replication processes can maintain systems away from equilibrium using Algorithmic Information Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Sean D

    2016-02-01

    Replication can be envisaged as a computational process that is able to generate and maintain order far-from-equilibrium. Replication processes, can self-regulate, as the drive to replicate can counter degradation processes that impact on a system. The capability of replicated structures to access high quality energy and eject disorder allows Landauer's principle, in conjunction with Algorithmic Information Theory, to quantify the entropy requirements to maintain a system far-from-equilibrium. Using Landauer's principle, where destabilising processes, operating under the second law of thermodynamics, change the information content or the algorithmic entropy of a system by ΔH bits, replication processes can access order, eject disorder, and counter the change without outside interventions. Both diversity in replicated structures, and the coupling of different replicated systems, increase the ability of the system (or systems) to self-regulate in a changing environment as adaptation processes select those structures that use resources more efficiently. At the level of the structure, as selection processes minimise the information loss, the irreversibility is minimised. While each structure that emerges can be said to be more entropically efficient, as such replicating structures proliferate, the dissipation of the system as a whole is higher than would be the case for inert or simpler structures. While a detailed application to most real systems would be difficult, the approach may well be useful in understanding incremental changes to real systems and provide broad descriptions of system behaviour. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Processes of enhanced self-understanding during a counselling programme for parents of children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugstvedt, Karen Therese Sulheim; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Bukholm, Ida Rashida Khan; Haugli, Liv; Hallberg, Ulrika

    2013-03-01

    The stress and burden on parents of children with disabilities are well documented, and the parents' way of handling the situation is crucial to the health and well-being of all family members, including the child with special needs. We conducted a group-based counselling programme for parents, based mainly on Gestalt education and personal construct theories, aiming at increasing the parents' ability to handle the situation. To explore the parents' experiences from processes of change after the counselling programme. METHOD DESIGN: This qualitative study is based on modified grounded theory. The study conducted in Norway examines the experiences of 67 parents (of whom 29 fathers) of children with disabilities. Information was collected through focus group discussions after finishing their sessions of the counselling programme. From the parents' experiences, the following categories were developed: feeling motivated to communicate, describing oneself in new words, being inspired to experience one's own emotions, being more present and in charge and making a difference by taking new steps. The core category in our analysis turned out to be Improved handling of the situation by enhanced self-understanding. The parents seemed to redevelop their self-understanding through new experiences of themselves. They emphasized the importance of a secure setting of peers with similar experiences and skilled counsellors to feel free to explore one's own emotions with connecting thoughts and bodily reactions. Discussion of existential issues as one's own values also contributed to enhanced self-understanding, which strengthened the parents to find new possibilities and priorities in handling the situation. The parents described subjective processes of awareness and self-reflection as important for being able to start a process towards enhanced self-understanding, which helped to detect one's own values and new ways of acting. These experiences may be relevant for the parents and

  1. Towards an integrated understanding of how micro scale processes shape groundwater ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne I; Cuthbert, Mark O; Schwientek, Marc

    2017-08-15

    Micro scale processes are expected to have a fundamental role in shaping groundwater ecosystems and yet they remain poorly understood and under-researched. In part, this is due to the fact that sampling is rarely carried out at the scale at which microorganisms, and their grazers and predators, function and thus we lack essential information. While set within a larger scale framework in terms of geochemical features, supply with energy and nutrients, and exchange intensity and dynamics, the micro scale adds variability, by providing heterogeneous zones at the micro scale which enable a wider range of redox reactions. Here we outline how understanding micro scale processes better may lead to improved appreciation of the range of ecosystems functions taking place at all scales. Such processes are relied upon in bioremediation and we demonstrate that ecosystem modelling as well as engineering measures have to take into account, and use, understanding at the micro scale. We discuss the importance of integrating faunal processes and computational appraisals in research, in order to continue to secure sustainable water resources from groundwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

    2009-07-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  3. Collaborative Project. Understanding the effects of tides and eddies on the ocean dynamics, sea ice cover and decadal/centennial climate prediction using the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, Jennifer [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Joseph, Renu [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2013-09-14

    The goal of this project is to develop an eddy resolving ocean model (POP) with tides coupled to a sea ice model (CICE) within the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) to investigate the importance of ocean tides and mesoscale eddies in arctic climate simulations and quantify biases associated with these processes and how their relative contribution may improve decadal to centennial arctic climate predictions. Ocean, sea ice and coupled arctic climate response to these small scale processes will be evaluated with regard to their influence on mass, momentum and property exchange between oceans, shelf-basin, ice-ocean, and ocean-atmosphere. The project will facilitate the future routine inclusion of polar tides and eddies in Earth System Models when computing power allows. As such, the proposed research addresses the science in support of the BER’s Climate and Environmental Sciences Division Long Term Measure as it will improve the ocean and sea ice model components as well as the fully coupled RASM and Community Earth System Model (CESM) and it will make them more accurate and computationally efficient.

  4. Fundamental understanding of distracted oxygen delignification efficiency by dissolved lignin during biorefinery process of eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huifang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Xuejin

    2018-02-27

    In this work, a fundamental understanding of oxygen delignification distracted by dissolved lignin was investigated. In the new biorefinery model of shortening kraft pulping integrated with extended oxygen delignification process, increasing content of residual lignin in the original pulp could result in enhanced delignification efficiency, higher pulp viscosity and less carbonyl groups. However, the invalid oxygen consumption by dissolved lignin could be increased with the increase of process temperature and alkali dosage. The normalized ultraviolet absorbance (divided by absorbance at 280 nm) also showed that the content of chromophoric group in dissolved lignin decreased with oxygen delignification proceeded, both of which indicated that dissolved lignin could enhance the invalid oxygen consumption. Therefore, a conclusion that replacement of the liquor at the initial phase of oxygen delignification process would balance the enhancement of delignification efficiency and invalid oxygen consumption was achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding Coupled Earth-Surface Processes through Experiments and Models (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Kim, W.

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, both numerical models and experiments have been purposefully designed to ';isolate' singular components or certain processes of a larger mountain to deep-ocean interconnected source-to-sink (S2S) transport system. Controlling factors driven by processes outside of the domain of immediate interest were treated and simplified as input or as boundary conditions. Increasingly, earth surface processes scientists appreciate feedbacks and explore these feedbacks with more dynamically coupled approaches to their experiments and models. Here, we discuss key concepts and recent advances made in coupled modeling and experimental setups. In addition, we emphasize challenges and new frontiers to coupled experiments. Experiments have highlighted the important role of self-organization; river and delta systems do not always need to be forced by external processes to change or develop characteristic morphologies. Similarly modeling f.e. has shown that intricate networks in tidal deltas are stable because of the interplay between river avulsions and the tidal current scouring with both processes being important to develop and maintain the dentritic networks. Both models and experiment have demonstrated that seemingly stable systems can be perturbed slightly and show dramatic responses. Source-to-sink models were developed for both the Fly River System in Papua New Guinea and the Waipaoa River in New Zealand. These models pointed to the importance of upstream-downstream effects and enforced our view of the S2S system as a signal transfer and dampening conveyor belt. Coupled modeling showed that deforestation had extreme effects on sediment fluxes draining from the catchment of the Waipaoa River in New Zealand, and that this increase in sediment production rapidly shifted the locus of offshore deposition. The challenge in designing coupled models and experiments is both technological as well as intellectual. Our community advances to make numerical model coupling more

  6. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

  7. A Study of the Abundance and 13C/12C Ratio of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide to Advance the Scientific Understanding of Terrestrial Processes Regulating the Global Carbon Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Piper

    2005-10-15

    The primary goal of our research program, consistent with the goals of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and funded by the terrestrial carbon processes (TCP) program of DOE, has been to improve understanding of changes in the distribution and cycling of carbon among the active land, ocean and atmosphere reservoirs, with particular emphasis on terrestrial ecosystems. Our approach is to systematically measure atmospheric CO2 to produce time series data essential to reveal temporal and spatial patterns. Additional measurements of the 13C/12C isotopic ratio of CO2 provide a basis for distinguishing organic and inorganic processes. To pursue the significance of these patterns further, our research also involved interpretations of the observations by models, measurements of inorganic carbon in sea water, and of CO2 in air near growing land plants.

  8. Cognitive analysis as a way to understand students' problem-solving process in BODMAS rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Ting Su; Kiong, Paul Lau Ngee; Manaf, Badron bin; Hamdan, Anniza Binti; Khium, Chen Chee

    2017-04-01

    Students tend to make lots of careless mistake during the process of mathematics solving. To facilitate effective learning, educators have to understand which cognitive processes are used by students and how these processes help them to solve problems. This paper is only aimed to determine the common errors in mathematics by pre-diploma students that took Intensive Mathematics I (MAT037) in UiTM Sarawak. Then, concentrate on the errors did by the students on the topic of BODMAS rule and the mental processes corresponding to these errors that been developed by students. One class of pre-diploma students taking MAT037 taught by the researchers was selected because they performed poorly in SPM mathematics. It is inevitable that they finished secondary education with many misconceptions in mathematics. The solution scripts for all the tutorials of the participants were collected. This study was predominately qualitative and the solution scripts were content analyzed to identify the common errors committed by the participants, and to generate possible mental processes to these errors. Selected students were interviewed by the researchers during the progress. BODMAS rule could be further divided into Numerical Simplification and Powers Simplification. Furthermore, the erroneous processes could be attributed to categories of Basic Arithmetic Rules, Negative Numbers and Powers.

  9. Understanding the implementation of complex interventions in health care: the normalization process model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Anne

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Normalization Process Model is a theoretical model that assists in explaining the processes by which complex interventions become routinely embedded in health care practice. It offers a framework for process evaluation and also for comparative studies of complex interventions. It focuses on the factors that promote or inhibit the routine embedding of complex interventions in health care practice. Methods A formal theory structure is used to define the model, and its internal causal relations and mechanisms. The model is broken down to show that it is consistent and adequate in generating accurate description, systematic explanation, and the production of rational knowledge claims about the workability and integration of complex interventions. Results The model explains the normalization of complex interventions by reference to four factors demonstrated to promote or inhibit the operationalization and embedding of complex interventions (interactional workability, relational integration, skill-set workability, and contextual integration. Conclusion The model is consistent and adequate. Repeated calls for theoretically sound process evaluations in randomized controlled trials of complex interventions, and policy-makers who call for a proper understanding of implementation processes, emphasize the value of conceptual tools like the Normalization Process Model.

  10. Functional traits can improve our understanding of niche- and dispersal-based processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Xun, Yanhan; Cai, Huiying; Jin, Guangze

    2018-03-01

    Ecologists often determine the relative importance of niche- and dispersal-based processes via variation partitioning based on species composition. Functional traits and their proxies of phylogeny are expected to increase the detection of niche-based processes and reduce the unexplained variation relative to species identity. We collected eight adult tree traits and phylogenetic data of 41 species and employed a phylogenetic fuzzy weighting method to address this issue in a 9-ha temperate forest dynamics plot. We used redundancy analysis to relate species, phylogenetic and functional compositions to environmental (soil resources and topography) and spatial variables. We also performed multi-scaled analyses on spatial variables by adding environment as the covariates to determine if functional traits increase the detection of niche-based processes at broad scales. The functional traits and intraspecific variation of the wood density among ontogenetic stages could dramatically increase the detection of niche-based processes and reduce the unexplained variation relative to species identity. Phylogenetic and functional compositions were mainly driven by total soil P and elevation, while species composition was weakly affected by multiple environmental variables. After controlling for the environment, a larger amount of the compositional variations in seed mass and maximum height were explained by finer-scaled spatial variables, indicating that dispersal processes may be important at fine spatial scales. Our results suggested that considering functional traits and their intraspecific variations could improve our understanding of ecological processes and increase our ability to predict the responses of plants to environmental change.

  11. The problem of “culture” in the process of intercultural understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreana Marchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n1p251 The problem of “culture” in the process of intercultural understanding is one of the most discussed issues among scholars today. Anthropologists, linguists, literary critics, and philosophers, just to name a few, study this issue in a problem-based and research format. Culture and cultural understanding are hereby presented by demonstrating studies and observations of two cultural anthropologists, R. H. Robbins and Clifford Geertz, a literary critic, Lionel Trilling, and C. S. Lewis, a famous writer of both fiction and non-fiction. My intention here is to answer the question: how to describe and analyze a culture that is so different from the perspective of our own? In this sense, language and discourse are also analyzed in this paper as part of culture and can indicate some of our own moral perspectives and judgments on others’ cultures.

  12. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

    1997-01-01

    Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

  13. Understanding the process of social network evolution: Online-offline integrated analysis of social tie formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Doyeon; Kim, Wonjoon

    2017-01-01

    It is important to consider the interweaving nature of online and offline social networks when we examine social network evolution. However, it is difficult to find any research that examines the process of social tie formation from an integrated perspective. In our study, we quantitatively measure offline interactions and examine the corresponding evolution of online social network in order to understand the significance of interrelationship between online and offline social factors in generating social ties. We analyze the radio signal strength indicator sensor data from a series of social events to understand offline interactions among the participants and measure the structural attributes of their existing online Facebook social networks. By monitoring the changes in their online social networks before and after offline interactions in a series of social events, we verify that the ability to develop an offline interaction into an online friendship is tied to the number of social connections that participants previously had, while the presence of shared mutual friends between a pair of participants disrupts potential new connections within the pre-designed offline social events. Thus, while our integrative approach enables us to confirm the theory of preferential attachment in the process of network formation, the common neighbor theory is not supported. Our dual-dimensional network analysis allows us to observe the actual process of social network evolution rather than to make predictions based on the assumption of self-organizing networks.

  14. Dual processing and discourse space: Exploring fifth grade students' language, reasoning, and understanding through writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol

    analysis of writing and talking. The results showed (1) students' low level of engagement in evaluation impacted their reasoning and use of sources for making meanings, as well as their understanding of the topic. Compared to the results of a previous study, students' complexity of reasoning was relatively less developed, and similarly students' use of reflective sources was generally observed relatively less often. (2) The teacher and students in this study engaged in limited public negotiation, which focused more on articulating than on evaluating ideas. The limited public negotiation that was represented by the dialogical patterns in this study cannot support the development of understanding through writing or the practice of the roles of constructor and critiquer, which play a core function in the comprehension of scientific practice. This study has several implications for teacher education and research. Teacher education needs to be centered more on how to encourage students' engagement in the process of evaluation, since this plays an important function not only in the development of understanding, but also in providing opportunities to perform the roles of both constructor and critiquer. Teachers can use writing as an argumentative activity to encourage or foster students' engagement in the process of evaluation or critique. Additionally, this study provides insight into the importance of the learning environment in which the teacher and students create and develop; this learning environment needs to provide not only opportunities but also demands for students to engage in both constructing and critiquing ideas.

  15. Warm Rain Processes Over the Tropical Oceans and Implications on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Wu, H. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will first show results from TRMM regarding the characteristics of warm rains over the tropical oceans, and the dependence of rate of warm rain production on sea surface temperature. Results lead to the hypothesis that warm rain production efficiency, i.e., autoconversion, may be increased in a warm climate. We use the GEOS-II GCM to test this hypothesis. Our modeling results show that in a climate with increased rate of autoconversion, the total rain amount is increased, with warm rain contributing to a larger portion of the increase. The abundant rainout of warm precipitation at middle to low levels causes a reduction of high cloud cover due to the depletion of water available for ice-phase rain production. As a result, more isolated, but more intense penetrative convection develops. Results also show that increased autoconversion reduces the convective adjustment time scale tends, implying a faster recycling of atmospheric water. Most interestingly, the increased low level heating associated with warm rain leads to more energetic Madden and Julian oscillations in the tropics, with well-defined eastward propagation. While reducing the autoconversion leads to an abundant mix of westward and eastward tropical disturbance on daily to weekly time scales. The causes of the sensitivity of the dynamical regimes to the microphysics parameterization in the GCM will be discussed.

  16. Two examples of the use of Habitus to understand processes of marginalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arp Fallov, Mia; Armstrong, Jo E.

    This paper offers an evaluation of the concept of habitus from a policy oriented perspective, drawing on empirical material from two research projects; one on urban regeneration, and one on women’s working lives. Addressing different substantive areas, these projects found common strengths...... and weaknesses in applying habitus to understand processes of continuity and change in institutions and individuals’ lives. The concept provides a temporal and spatial framework that is valuable in explaining the embodiment and reproduction of inequality. Using habitus points to the importance of social...

  17. Pharmaceutical quality by design: product and process development, understanding, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lawrence X

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pharmaceutical Quality by Design (QbD) and describe how it can be used to ensure pharmaceutical quality. The QbD was described and some of its elements identified. Process parameters and quality attributes were identified for each unit operation during manufacture of solid oral dosage forms. The use of QbD was contrasted with the evaluation of product quality by testing alone. The QbD is a systemic approach to pharmaceutical development. It means designing and developing formulations and manufacturing processes to ensure predefined product quality. Some of the QbD elements include: Defining target product quality profile; Designing product and manufacturing processes; Identifying critical quality attributes, process parameters, and sources of variability; Controlling manufacturing processes to produce consistent quality over time. Using QbD, pharmaceutical quality is assured by understanding and controlling formulation and manufacturing variables. Product testing confirms the product quality. Implementation of QbD will enable transformation of the chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) review of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) into a science-based pharmaceutical quality assessment.

  18. Understanding the Relative Influence of Anthropogenic Versus Natural Nitrogen on Biogeochemical Processes in the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, K.; Howard, M. D.; Beck, C. D. A.; Emler, L.; Nezlin, N. P.; Sutula, M.

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) pollution is considered to be one of the most significant consequences of human-accelerated global change on coastal oceans (Howarth and Marino 2006). In the southern California Bight, wastewater effluent represents 92% of total terrestrial N loading and these loads are equivalent to the "background" N flux from upwelling (Howard et al. 2014). In this study, we attempt to quantify the relative influence of the two dominant nitrogen sources to the Bight (wastewater effluent and upwelled nitrogen) on biogeochemical processes linked to dissolved oxygen, pH and algal blooms. We will compare the sources and fate of nitrogen in an effluent impacted region (offshore of Los Angeles and Orange Counties) to minimally-impacted regions both along the coastline (offshore of Northern San Diego County) and two offshore stations. Key rates of nitrogen and carbon cycling are measured, including primary production and respiration, nitrogen uptake by primary producers, and nitrification. Stable isotope tracer techniques have also been applied to determine the relative influence of effluent versus upwelled nitrogen on biological communities and concentrations. Data generated from this study will be used to validate calculated rate constants used in oceanographic models of ecological response from natural and anthropogenic nutrient inputs in the Bight. These models will be used to estimate the extent to which anthropogenic nutrients are affecting primary production, acidification and hypoxia, as well as which regions are most at risk. They will also be used to analyze management scenarios to understand the effects of anthropogenic nutrient load reductions relative to climate change scenarios.

  19. Geology of the Icy Galilean Satellites: Understanding Crustal Processes and Geologic Histories Through the JIMO Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, P. H.; Tanaka, K.; Senske, D.; Greeley, R.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the geology, style and time history of crustal processes on the icy Galilean satellites is necessary to understanding how these bodies formed and evolved. Data from the Galileo mission have provided a basis for detailed geologic and geo- physical analysis. Due to constrained downlink, Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) data consisted of global coverage at a -1 km/pixel ground sampling and representative, widely spaced regional maps at -200 m/pixel. These two data sets provide a general means to extrapolate units identified at higher resolution to lower resolution data. A sampling of key sites at much higher resolution (10s of m/pixel) allows evaluation of processes on local scales. We are currently producing the first global geological map of Europa using Galileo global and regional-scale data. This work is demonstrating the necessity and utility of planet-wide contiguous image coverage at global, regional, and local scales.

  20. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion crack

  1. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian

    2014-01-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion – crack

  2. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalupski, Peter R.; Martin, Leigh R.; Nash, Ken; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N(double p rime),N(double p rime)-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  3. From Process Understanding Via Soil Functions to Sustainable Soil Management - A Systemic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschlaeger, U.; Bartke, S.; Bartkowski, B.; Daedlow, K.; Helming, K.; Kogel-Knabner, I.; Lang, B.; Rabot, E.; Russell, D.; Stößel, B.; Weller, U.; Wiesmeier, M.; Rabot, E.; Vogel, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Fertile soils are central resources for the production of biomass and the provision of food and energy. A growing world population and latest climate targets lead to an increasing demand for both, food and bio-energy, which requires preserving and improving the long-term productivity of soils as a bio-economic resource. At the same time, other soil functions and ecosystem services need to be maintained: filter for clean water, carbon sequestration, provision and recycling of nutrients, and habitat for biological activity. All these soil functions result from the interaction of a multitude of physical, chemical and biological processes that are not yet sufficiently understood. In addition, we lack understanding about the interplay between the socio-economic system and the soil system and how soil functions benefit human wellbeing. Hence, a solid and integrated assessment of soil quality requires the consideration of the ensemble of soil functions and its relation to soil management to finally be able to develop site-specific options for sustainable soil management. We present an integrated modeling approach that investigates the influence of soil management on the ensemble of soil functions. It is based on the mechanistic relationships between soil functional attributes, each explained by a network of interacting processes as derived from scientific evidence. As the evidence base required for feeding the model is for the most part stored in the existing scientific literature, another central component of our work is to set up a public "knowledge-portal" providing the infrastructure for a community effort towards a comprehensive knowledge base on soil processes as a basis for model developments. The connection to the socio-economic system is established using the Drivers-Pressures-Impacts-States-Responses (DPSIR) framework where our improved understanding about soil ecosystem processes is linked to ecosystem services and resource efficiency via the soil functions.

  4. Beyond Engagement to Reflection and Understanding: Focusing on the process of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotchmoor, J. G.; Mitchell, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    We must engage the public and make science more accessible to all...It is important that the scientific community, in its outreach, help people not only to see the fun of science but also to understand what science is, what a scientific theory is, how science is done, that accepted scientific models or theories are based on evidence, that hypotheses are tested by experiment, and that theories change as new evidence emerges. Shirley Ann Jackson, AAAS Presidential Address, 2005 The nature of science is noted as a critical topic for science literacy; however, by all accounts, Americans' understanding of the nature of science is inadequate, and students and teachers at all grade levels have inaccurate understandings of what science is and how it works. Such findings do not bode well for the future of scientific literacy in the United States. In large part, the current confusions about evolution, global warming, stem cell research, and other aspects of science deemed by some as "controversial" are symptomatic of a general misunderstanding of what science is and what it is not. Too few of our citizens view science as a dynamic process through which we gain a reliable understanding of the natural world. As a result, the public becomes vulnerable to misinformation and the very real benefits of science are obscured. New opportunities are emerging for members of the scientific community to share their science with segments of the public - both informally through science cafés and science festivals, and more formally through science competitions and classroom visits. Each of these helps to make science more accessible and provides a critical first step toward connecting the public to the "fun and excitement" of science. Less often these activities focus on how science works - what science is, what it is not, and what is not science - as well as the creativity, curiosity, exploration, dead-ends, and a-ha moments that inspire scientists. This talk will share a teacher

  5. Understanding non-radiative recombination processes of the optoelectronic materials from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yinan

    The annual potential of the solar energy hit on the Earth is several times larger than the total energy consumption in the world. This huge amount of energy source makes it appealing as an alternative to conventional fuels. Due to the problems, for example, global warming, fossil fuel shortage, etc. arising from utilizing the conventional fuels, a tremendous amount of efforts have been applied toward the understanding and developing cost effective optoelectrical devices in the past decades. These efforts have pushed the efficiency of optoelectrical devices, say solar cells, increases from 0% to 46% as reported until 2015. All these facts indicate the significance of the optoelectrical devices not only regarding protecting our planet but also a large potential market. Empirical experience from experiment has played a key role in optimization of optoelectrical devices, however, a deeper understanding of the detailed electron-by-electron, atom-by-atom physical processes when material upon excitation is the key to gain a new sight into the field. It is also useful in developing the next generation of solar materials. Thanks to the advances in computer hardware, new algorithms, and methodologies developed in computational chemistry and physics in the past decades, we are now able to 1). model the real size materials, e.g. nanoparticles, to locate important geometries on the potential energy surfaces(PESs); 2). investigate excited state dynamics of the cluster models to mimic the real systems; 3). screen large amount of possible candidates to be optimized toward certain properties, so to help in the experiment design. In this thesis, I will discuss the efforts we have been doing during the past several years, especially in terms of understanding the non-radiative decay process of silicon nanoparticles with oxygen defects using ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics as well as the accurate, efficient multireference electronic structure theories we have developed to

  6. UNDERSTANDING AND PERCEPTION OF THE CHARACTER IMAGE BY PRIMARY SCHOOLCHILDREN IN THE PROCESS OF TEXT INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Hnatenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern literature research works practically assert that literature is a way of thinking in imagery, and the interpretation of art works is almost always the interpretation of imagery, in other words perfect reality. Psychologists confirm that educational process in primary school should be formed on the account of both present and potential abilities of the children. Literature is an important means of pupils’ development. Reading in grades 1 − 4 promotes the development of children’s positive moral and will-power qualitie. With its help children perceive the world, learn to understand and love beautiful things. The writer’s ideological content of a piece of literature can be revealed in images. The main objective of text interpretation in grades 1 − 4 is to promote pupils’ perception and comprehension. Nowadays the changes in educational sphere require more attention to the issue of literary perception. In 2011, primary school changed the training course of "Reading" into "Literary reading," which aims at the development of the following reader’s qualities: to be capable to independent reading,to perform different communicative and creative activities. However, the educational process observation showed the existence of problems in young learners’ perception and understanding of literary art, and especially the role of character and its images. Today, the methodology pays attention to the quality of the perception, its depth and awareness. The efficiency level of children’s literary work perception is set on the analysis of readers’ activity results. Difficulties in the determination of the literary work perception level lie in various interpretations, complexity of the perception process, necessity to reflect different sides and emotions of imagination and thinking. Many scientific works are devoted to the analysis of literary texts understanding, to the role of visual images and imagination in literary text understanding

  7. Elementary education preservice teachers' understanding of biotechnology and its related processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2011-07-01

    This study examined preservice teachers' understanding of biotechnology and its related processes. A sample comprised 88 elementary education preservice teachers at a large university in the Midwest of the USA. A total of 60 and 28 of the participants were enrolled in introductory and advanced science methods courses, respectively. Most participants had taken two integrated science courses at the college level. Data were collected using a questionnaire, which had open-ended items and which required participants to write the definitions and examples of the following terms: biotechnology, genetic engineering, cloning and genetically modified foods. The results indicate that preservice teachers had limited understanding of biotechnology and its related processes. The majority of the preservice teachers provided poor definitions, explanations, and examples of biotechnology, genetic engineering and genetically modified foods. Surprisingly, however, a moderate number of preservice teachers correctly defined cloning and provided correct examples of cloning. Implications for science teacher education, science curriculum, as well as recommendations for further research are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Redefining fine roots improves understanding of below-ground contributions to terrestrial biosphere processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, M Luke; Dickie, Ian A; Eissenstat, David M; Fahey, Timothy J; Fernandez, Christopher W; Guo, Dali; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Hobbie, Erik A; Iversen, Colleen M; Jackson, Robert B; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Norby, Richard J; Phillips, Richard P; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Pritchard, Seth G; Rewald, Boris; Zadworny, Marcin

    2015-08-01

    Fine roots acquire essential soil resources and mediate biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Estimates of carbon and nutrient allocation to build and maintain these structures remain uncertain because of the challenges of consistently measuring and interpreting fine-root systems. Traditionally, fine roots have been defined as all roots ≤ 2 mm in diameter, yet it is now recognized that this approach fails to capture the diversity of form and function observed among fine-root orders. Here, we demonstrate how order-based and functional classification frameworks improve our understanding of dynamic root processes in ecosystems dominated by perennial plants. In these frameworks, fine roots are either separated into individual root orders or functionally defined into a shorter-lived absorptive pool and a longer-lived transport fine-root pool. Using these frameworks, we estimate that fine-root production and turnover represent 22% of terrestrial net primary production globally - a c. 30% reduction from previous estimates assuming a single fine-root pool. Future work developing tools to rapidly differentiate functional fine-root classes, explicit incorporation of mycorrhizal fungi into fine-root studies, and wider adoption of a two-pool approach to model fine roots provide opportunities to better understand below-ground processes in the terrestrial biosphere. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Making and Unmaking the Endangered in India (1880-Present: Understanding Animal-Criminal Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concerns of the present paper emerge from the single basic question of whether the available histories of the tiger are comprehensive enough to enable an understanding of how this nodular species comprises/contests the power dynamics of the present. Starting with this basic premise, this paper retells a series of events which go to clarify that a nuanced understanding of the manner in which a species serves certain political purposes is not possible by tracking the animal alone. A discourse on endangerment has beginnings in the body and being of species that are remarkably cut off from the tiger-the elephant, birds, and the rhino (and man if we might add-and develops with serious implications for power, resource appropriation, and criminality, over a period of time, before more directly recruiting the tiger itself. If we can refer to this as the intermittent making and unmaking of the endangered, it is by turning to the enunciations of Michel Foucault that we try to canvas a series of events that can be described as animal-criminal processes. The role of such processes in the construction of endangerment, the structuring of space, and shared ideas of man-animal relations is further discussed in this paper.

  10. Hydrologic Connectivity for Understanding Watershed Processes: Brand-new Puzzle or Emerging Panacea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, G. A.; Roy, A. G.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    As a way to develop a more holistic approach to watershed assessment and management, the concept of hydrologic connectivity (HC) is often put at the forefront. HC can be seen as the strength of the water-mediated linkages between discrete units of the landscape and as such, it facilitates our intuitive understanding of the mechanisms driving runoff initiation and cessation. Much of the excitement surrounding HC is attributable to its potential to enhance our ability to gain insights into multiple areas including process dynamics, numerical model building, the effects of human elements in our landscape conceptualization, and the development of simplified watershed management tools. However, before such potential can be fully demonstrated, many issues must be resolved with regards to the measure of HC. Here we provide examples highlighting how connectivity can be useful towards understanding water routing in river basins, ecohydrological systems coupling, and intermittent rainfall-runoff dynamics. First, the use of connectivity metrics to examine the relative influence of surface/subsurface topography and soil characteristics on runoff generation will be discussed. Second, the effectiveness of using geochemical tracers will be examined with respect to identifying non-point runoff sources and linking hillslope-to-channel connectivity with surface water-groundwater exchanges in the biologically sensitive hyporheic zone. Third, the identification of different hydrologic thresholds will be presented as a way to discriminate the establishment of connectivity across a range of contrasted catchments located in Canada, Scotland, the USA, and Sweden. These examples will show that current challenges with regards to HC revolve around the choice of an accurate methodological framework for an appropriate translation of experimental findings into effective watershed management approaches. Addressing these questions simultaneously will lead to the emergence of HC as a powerful tool

  11. ATOMIC PHYSICS PROCESSES IMPORTANT TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE SCRAPE-OFF LAYER OF TOKAMAKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEST, W.P.; GOLDSMITH,; B. EVANS,T.E.; OLSON, R.J.

    2002-05-01

    The region between the well-confined plasma and the vessel walls of a magnetic confinement fusion research device, the scrape-off layer (SOL), is typically rich in atomic and molecular physics processes. The most advanced magnetic confinement device, the magnetically diverted tokamak, uses a magnetic separatrix to isolate the confinement zone (closed flux surfaces) from the edge plasma (open field lines). Over most of their length the open field lines run parallel to the separatrix, forming a thin magnetic barrier with the nearby vessel walls. In a poloidally-localized region, the open field lines are directed away from the separatrix and into the divertor, a region spatially separated from the separatrix where intense plasma wall interaction can occur relatively safely. Recent data from several tokamaks indicate that particle transport across the field lines of the SOL can be somewhat faster than previously thought. In these cases, the rate at which particles reach the vessel wall is comparable to the rate to the divertor from parallel transport. The SOL can be thin enough that the recycling neutrals and sputtered impurities from the wall may refuel or contaminate the confinement zone more efficiently than divertor plasma wall interaction. Just inside the SOL is a confinement barrier that produces a sharp pedestal in plasma density and temperature. Understanding neutral transport through the SOL and into the pedestal is key to understanding particle balance and particle and impurity exhaust. The SOL plasma is sufficiently hot and dense to excite and ionize neutrals. Ion and neutral temperatures are high enough that charge exchange between the neutrals and fuel and impurity ions is fast. Excitation of neutrals can be fast enough to lead to nonlinear behavior in charge exchange and ionization processes. In this paper the detailed atomic physics important to the understanding of the neutral transport through the SOL will be discussed.

  12. X-ray crystallography and its impact on understanding bacterial cell wall remodeling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Felix Michael; Renner-Schneck, Michaela; Stehle, Thilo

    2015-02-01

    The molecular structure of matter defines its properties and function. This is especially true for biological macromolecules such as proteins, which participate in virtually all biochemical processes. A three dimensional structural model of a protein is thus essential for the detailed understanding of its physiological function and the characterization of essential properties such as ligand binding and reaction mechanism. X-ray crystallography is a well-established technique that has been used for many years, but it is still by far the most widely used method for structure determination. A particular strength of this technique is the elucidation of atomic details of molecular interactions, thus providing an invaluable tool for a multitude of scientific projects ranging from the structural classification of macromolecules over the validation of enzymatic mechanisms or the understanding of host-pathogen interactions to structure-guided drug design. In the first part of this review, we describe essential methodological and practical aspects of X-ray crystallography. We provide some pointers that should allow researchers without a background in structural biology to assess the overall quality and reliability of a crystal structure. To highlight its potential, we then survey the impact X-ray crystallography has had on advancing an understanding of a class of enzymes that modify the bacterial cell wall. A substantial number of different bacterial amidase structures have been solved, mostly by X-ray crystallography. Comparison of these structures highlights conserved as well as divergent features. In combination with functional analyses, structural information on these enzymes has therefore proven to be a valuable template not only for understanding their mechanism of catalysis, but also for targeted interference with substrate binding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Science Process Skills in Relation to Their Teaching Qualifications and Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahali, Edy H. M.; Halim, Lilia; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the understanding of science process skills (SPS) of 329 science teachers from 52 primary schools selected by random sampling. The understanding of SPS was measured in terms of conceptual and operational aspects of SPS using an instrument called the "Science Process Skills Questionnaire" (SPSQ) with a Cronbach's…

  14. Understanding Earthquake Processes in the Central and Eastern US and Implications for Nuclear Reactor Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seber, D.; Tabatabai, S.

    2012-12-01

    All of the early site permits and new reactor licensing applications, which have been submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC), are located in the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). Furthermore, among the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) already licensed to operate in the US, 96 are located in the CEUS. While there are many considerations in siting commercial NPPs, the perceived lower seismic hazard in the CEUS compared to the Western United States is one of the reasons why the majority of operating and potential future nuclear reactors are located in the CEUS. However, one important criterion used in the licensing and safe operation of a nuclear power plant is its seismic design basis, which establishes the plant's ability to withstand ground motions produced by moderate- to large-sized earthquakes without suffering any damage to its critical safety related structures, systems, and components. The seismic design basis for a NPP is site specific and determined using up-to-date knowledge and information about seismic sources surrounding the site and seismic wave propagation characteristics. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the processes generating earthquakes (tectonic or man-made) and the seismic wave propagation characteristics in the CEUS is crucial. The U.S. NRC's seismic review process for evaluating new reactor siting applications heavily relies upon up-to-date scientific knowledge of seismic sources within at least 320 km of a proposed site. However, the availability of up-to-date knowledge and information about potential seismic sources in low-seismicity regions is limited and relevant data are sparse. Recently, the NRC participated in a joint effort to develop new seismic source models to be used in the CEUS seismic hazard studies for nuclear facilities. In addition, efforts are underway to better understand the seismic potential of the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone. While very large and successful scientific

  15. Late Quaternary sedimentary processes and ocean circulation changes at the Southeast Greenland margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, A.; Troelstra, S.R.; Prins, M.A.; Linthout, K.; Akhmetzhanov, A.; Bouryak, S.; Bachmann, M.F.; Lassen, S.; Rasmussen, S.; Jensen, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    A study has been made of late Quaternary depositional processes and bottom current activity on the Southeast Greenland margin, using seismic, sub-bottom profiling and deep-tow side-scan sonar data as well as sediment core information. The seabed data demonstrate the occurrence of strong, southerly

  16. Toward an understanding of methane selectivity in the Fischer-Tropsch process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarras, Peter C.

    The purpose of this research is to elucidate a better understanding of the conditions relevant to methane selectivity in the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process. The development of more efficient FT catalysts can result in great commercial profit. The industrially relevant FT process has long been hampered by the production of methane. Nearly 60 percent of FT capital is devoted to the removal of methane and purification of feed-stock gases through steam-reforming. Naturally, a more efficient FT catalyst would need to have a reasonable balance between catalytic activity and suppression of methane formation (low methane selectivity). Though a significant amount of work has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms involved in methane selectivity, the exact mechanism is still not well understood. Density functional theory (DFT) methods provide an opportunity to explore the FT catalytic process at the molecular level. This work represents a combination of various DFT approaches in an attempt to gather new insight on the conditions relevant to methane selectivity. A thorough understanding of the electronic environment involved in the surface-adsorbate interaction is necessary to the advancement of more efficient Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. This study investigates the promotive effect of four late transition metals (Cu, Ag, Au and Pd) on three FT catalytic surfaces (Fe, Co and Ni). The purpose of this research is to examine the surface-adsorbate interaction from two perspectives: 1) interactions occurring between FT precursors and small, bimetallic surface analogs (clusters), and 2) plane-wave calculations of the interactions between FT precursors and simulated bulk surfaces. Our results suggest that promising candidates for the reduction of FT methane selectivity include Au and Pd on Ni, Au and Ag on Co, and Cu, Ag, and Pd on Fe. Additionally, cluster models were susceptible to effects not encountered in the plane-wave approach. Thermodynamic trends can be made more

  17. Graduate training in Earth science across borders and disciplines: ArcTrain -"Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Rüdiger; Kucera, Michal; Walter, Maren; de Vernal, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Due to a complex set of feedback processes collectively known as "polar amplification", the Arctic realm is expected to experience a greater-than-average response to global climate forcing. The cascades of feedback processes that connect the Arctic cryosphere, ocean and atmosphere remain incompletely constrained by observations and theory and are difficult to simulate in climate models. Our capacity to predict the future of the region and assess the impacts of Arctic change processes on global and regional environments hinges on the availability of interdisciplinary experts with strong international experience and understanding of the science/society interface. This is the basis of the International Research Training Group "Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic - ArcTrain", which was initiated in 2013. ArcTrain aims to educate PhD students in an interdisciplinary environment that combines paleoclimatology, physical oceanography, remote sensing and glaciology with comprehensive Earth system modelling, including sea-ice and ice-sheet components. The qualification program for the PhD students includes joint supervision, mandatory research residences at partner institutions, field courses on land and on sea (Floating University), annual meetings and training workshops and a challenging structured training in expert skills and transferrable skills. Its aim is to enhance the career prospects and employability of the graduates in a challenging international job market across academic and applied sectors. ArcTrain is a collaborative project at the University of Bremen and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven. The German part of the project is designed to continue for nine years and educate three cohorts of twelve PhD students each. The Canadian partners comprise a consortium of eight universities led by the GEOTOP cluster at the Université du Québec à Montréal and including

  18. Open-ocean convection process: A driver of the winter nutrient supply and the spring phytoplankton distribution in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Tatiana; Kessouri, Faycal; Rembauville, Mathieu; Sánchez-Pérez, Elvia Denisse; Oriol, Louise; Caparros, Jocelyne; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Ghiglione, Jean-François; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Taillandier, Vincent; Mayot, Nicolas; Durrieu De Madron, Xavier; Ulses, Caroline; Estournel, Claude; Conan, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    This study was a part of the DeWEX project (Deep Water formation Experiment), designed to better understand the impact of dense water formation on the marine biogeochemical cycles. Here, nutrient and phytoplankton vertical and horizontal distributions were investigated during a deep open-ocean convection event and during the following spring bloom in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWM). In February 2013, the deep convection event established a surface nutrient gradient from the center of the deep convection patch to the surrounding mixed and stratified areas. In the center of the convection area, a slight but significant difference of nitrate, phosphate and silicate concentrations was observed possibly due to the different volume of deep waters included in the mixing or to the sediment resuspension occurring where the mixing reached the bottom. One of this process, or a combination of both, enriched the water column in silicate and phosphate, and altered significantly the stoichiometry in the center of the deep convection area. This alteration favored the local development of microphytoplankton in spring, while nanophytoplankton dominated neighboring locations where the convection reached the deep layer but not the bottom. This study shows that the convection process influences both winter nutrients distribution and spring phytoplankton distribution and community structure. Modifications of the convection's spatial scale and intensity (i.e., convective mixing depth) are likely to have strong consequences on phytoplankton community structure and distribution in the NWM, and thus on the marine food web.Plain Language SummaryThe deep open-ocean convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea is an important process for the formation and the circulation of the deep waters of the entire Mediterranean Sea, but also for the local spring phytoplankton bloom. In this study, we showed that variations of the convective mixing depth induced different supply in nitrate

  19. Toward a better understanding of the complex geochemical processes governing subsurface contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puls, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Identification and understanding of the geochemical processes, including ion exchange, precipitation, organic partitioning, chemisorption, aqueous complexation, and colloidal stability and transport, controlling subsurface contamination is essential for making accurate predictions of the fate and transport of these constituents. Current approaches to quantify the effect of these processes primarily involve laboratory techniques, including the use of closed static systems (batch experiments) where small amounts of aquifer solids or minerals are contacted with an aqueous phase containing the components of interest for relatively short durations; and dynamic systems (column experiments) where a larger segment of the aquifer is investigated by analyzing the breakthrough profiles of reactive and non-reactive species. Both approaches are constrained by differences in scale, alteration of media during sample collection and use, and spatial variability. More field reactivity studies are needed to complement established laboratory approaches for the determination of retardation factors and scaling factors, corroboration of batch and column results, and validation of sampling techniques. These studies also serve to accentuate areas of geochemical process research where data deficiencies exist, such as the kinetics of adsorption-desorption, metal-organic-mineral interactions, and colloidal mobility. The advantages and disadvantages of the above approaches are discussed in the context of achieving a more completely integrated approach to geochemical transport experiments, with supportive data presented from selected studies. (Author) (16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.)

  20. A new method of analysis enabled a better understanding of clinical practice guideline development processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Tiago; May, Carl; Mason, James; Eccles, Martin

    2006-11-01

    To describe the process by which various forms of evidence are discussed, valued, and interpreted within the process of developing evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and, in so doing, to develop a method for such studies. An observational study. Two guideline development groups were observed by a nonparticipant observer. The 21 meetings were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory and frame analysis. Qualitative analysis was complemented with descriptive statistics. The groups organized their discussion around four domains--'science', 'practice', politics', and 'process'--and used boundary work to mediate between these domains. Both groups spent most time discussing 'science', followed by 'practice' or its relation with 'science'. Our analysis offers an innovative, replicable method of analysis of guideline development that permits the identification of the proportions and interrelations between knowledge domains deployed by guideline groups. This analysis also suggests that the participation hierarchy observed here and by others might be an effect of the imbalanced use of knowledge domains in the construction of clinical guidance. This constitutes an important framework to understand the interplay of participants and knowledge in guideline development.

  1. New understanding of rhizosphere processes enabled by advances in molecular and spatially resolved techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Nancy J.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the role played by microorganisms within soil systems is challenged by the unique intersection of physics, chemistry, mineralogy and biology in fostering habitat for soil microbial communities. To address these challenges will require observations across multiple spatial and temporal scales to capture the dynamics and emergent behavior from complex and interdependent processes. The heterogeneity and complexity of the rhizosphere require advanced techniques that press the simultaneous frontiers of spatial resolution, analyte sensitivity and specificity, reproducibility, large dynamic range, and high throughput. Fortunately many exciting technical advancements are now available to inform and guide the development of new hypotheses. The aim of this Special issue is to provide a holistic view of the rhizosphere in the perspective of modern molecular biology methodologies that enabled a highly-focused, detailed view on the processes in the rhizosphere, including numerous, strong and complex interactions between plant roots, soil constituents and microorganisms. We discuss the current rhizosphere research challenges and knowledge gaps, as well as perspectives and approaches using newly available state-of-the-art toolboxes. These new approaches and methodologies allow the study of rhizosphere processes and properties, and rhizosphere as a central component of ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles.

  2. Understanding large-scale, long-term larval connectivity patterns: The case of the Northern Line Islands in the Central Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Lorenzo; Bonaventura, Luca; Storto, Andrea; Melià, Paco; Gatto, Marino; Masina, Simona; Casagrandi, Renato

    2017-01-01

    Protecting key hotspots of marine biodiversity is essential to maintain ecosystem services at large spatial scales. Protected areas serve not only as sources of propagules colonizing other habitats, but also as receptors, thus acting as protected nurseries. To quantify the geographical extent and the temporal persistence of ecological benefits resulting from protection, we investigate larval connectivity within a remote archipelago, characterized by a strong spatial gradient of human impact from pristine to heavily exploited: the Northern Line Islands (NLIs), including part of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument (PRI-MNM). Larvae are described as passive Lagrangian particles transported by oceanic currents obtained from a oceanographic reanalysis. We compare different simulation schemes and compute connectivity measures (larval exchange probabilities and minimum/average larval dispersal distances from target islands). To explore the role of PRI-MNM in protecting marine organisms with pelagic larval stages, we drive millions of individual-based simulations for various Pelagic Larval Durations (PLDs), in all release seasons, and over a two-decades time horizon (1991-2010). We find that connectivity in the NLIs is spatially asymmetric and displays significant intra- and inter-annual variations. The islands belonging to PRI-MNM act more as sinks than sources of larvae, and connectivity is higher during the winter-spring period. In multi-annual analyses, yearly averaged southward connectivity significantly and negatively correlates with climatological anomalies (El Niño). This points out a possible system fragility and susceptibility to global warming. Quantitative assessments of large-scale, long-term marine connectivity patterns help understand region-specific, ecologically relevant interactions between islands. This is fundamental for devising scientifically-based protection strategies, which must be space- and time-varying to cope with the

  3. Understanding large-scale, long-term larval connectivity patterns: The case of the Northern Line Islands in the Central Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Mari

    Full Text Available Protecting key hotspots of marine biodiversity is essential to maintain ecosystem services at large spatial scales. Protected areas serve not only as sources of propagules colonizing other habitats, but also as receptors, thus acting as protected nurseries. To quantify the geographical extent and the temporal persistence of ecological benefits resulting from protection, we investigate larval connectivity within a remote archipelago, characterized by a strong spatial gradient of human impact from pristine to heavily exploited: the Northern Line Islands (NLIs, including part of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument (PRI-MNM. Larvae are described as passive Lagrangian particles transported by oceanic currents obtained from a oceanographic reanalysis. We compare different simulation schemes and compute connectivity measures (larval exchange probabilities and minimum/average larval dispersal distances from target islands. To explore the role of PRI-MNM in protecting marine organisms with pelagic larval stages, we drive millions of individual-based simulations for various Pelagic Larval Durations (PLDs, in all release seasons, and over a two-decades time horizon (1991-2010. We find that connectivity in the NLIs is spatially asymmetric and displays significant intra- and inter-annual variations. The islands belonging to PRI-MNM act more as sinks than sources of larvae, and connectivity is higher during the winter-spring period. In multi-annual analyses, yearly averaged southward connectivity significantly and negatively correlates with climatological anomalies (El Niño. This points out a possible system fragility and susceptibility to global warming. Quantitative assessments of large-scale, long-term marine connectivity patterns help understand region-specific, ecologically relevant interactions between islands. This is fundamental for devising scientifically-based protection strategies, which must be space- and time-varying to cope with

  4. Study of a low-dose capsule filling process by dynamic and static tests for advanced process understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranzinger, S; Faulhammer, E; Scheibelhofer, O; Calzolari, V; Biserni, S; Paudel, A; Khinast, J G

    2018-04-05

    Precise filling of capsules with doses in the mg-range requires a good understanding of the filling process. Therefore, we investigated the various process steps of the filling process by dynamic and static mode tests. Dynamic tests refer to filling of capsules in a regular laboratory dosator filling machine. Static tests were conducted using a novel filling system developed by us. Three grades of lactose excipients were filled into size 3 capsules with different dosing chamber lengths, nozzle diameters and powder bed heights, and, in the dynamic mode, with two filling speeds (500, 3000 caps/h). The influence of the gap at the bottom of the powder container on the fill weight and variability was assessed. Different gaps resulted in a change in fill weight in all materials, although in different ways. In all cases, the fill weight of highly cohesive Lactohale 220 increased when decreasing the gap. Furthermore, experiments with the stand-alone static test tool indicated that this very challenging powder could successfully be filled without any pre-compression in the range of 5 mg-20 mg with acceptable RSDs. This finding is of great importance since for very fine lactose powders high compression ratios (dosing-chamber-length-to-powder-bed height compression ratios) may result in jamming of the piston. Moreover, it shows that the static mode setup is suitable for studying fill weight and variability. Since cohesive powders, such as Lactohale 220, are hard to fill, we investigated the impact of vibration on the process. Interestingly, we found no correlation between the reported fill weight changes in dynamic mode at 3000 cph and static mode using similar vibration. However, we could show that vibrations during sampling in the static mode dramatically reduced fill weight variability. Overall, our results indicate that by fine-tuning instrumental settings even very challenging powders can be filled with a low-dose dosator capsule filling machine. This study is a

  5. Nursing Students' Experiences of Health Care in Swaziland: Transformational Processes in Developing Cultural Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Bethany A

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the experiences of nursing students following a service-learning placement in Swaziland. Students worked in a hospital and implemented community health clinics. Six students were interviewed 1 month after their return from the overseas study experience. A thematic analysis was performed. Four themes emerged. The first theme was transitions-students experienced personal hardships, emotional reactions, and language difficulties that created discomfort. The second theme was perceptions-cultural dissonance was encountered between the health care and nursing cultures of Swaziland and the United States. The third theme was internalization-discomfort and cultural dissonance activated coping mechanisms within students that generated a process of change in attitudes and beliefs. The fourth theme was incorporation-personal and professional growth were demonstrated with greater awareness, compassion, resourcefulness, and comfort with diversity. The stress and cultural dissonance experienced by students led to an increase in cultural understanding and awareness. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Constraining land carbon cycle process understanding with observations of atmospheric CO2 variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collatz, G. J.; Kawa, S. R.; Liu, Y.; Zeng, F.; Ivanoff, A.

    2013-12-01

    We evaluate our understanding of the land biospheric carbon cycle by benchmarking a model and its variants to atmospheric CO2 observations and to an atmospheric CO2 inversion. Though the seasonal cycle in CO2 observations is well simulated by the model (RMSE/standard deviation of observations 40N though fluxes match poorly at regional to continental scales. Regional and global fire emissions are strongly correlated with variability observed at northern flask sample sites and in the global atmospheric CO2 growth rate though in the latter case fire emissions anomalies are not large enough to account fully for the observed variability. We discuss remaining unexplained variability in CO2 observations in terms of the representation of fluxes by the model. This work also demonstrates the limitations of the current network of CO2 observations and the potential of new denser surface measurements and space based column measurements for constraining carbon cycle processes in models.

  7. SOCRATE: an optical bench dedicated to the understanding and improvement of a laser conditioning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertussi, Bertrand; Piombini, Hervé; Damiani, David; Pommies, Matthieu; Le Borgne, Xavier; Plessis, Daniel

    2006-11-01

    We present an automatic excimer laser bench (SOCRATE) allowing for the treatment of optical components by laser conditioning. This apparatus, developed at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique-Le Ripault, has been designed to add to this conditioning process an in situ, accurate laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) measurement and different nondestructive optical techniques for the characterization of the component during treatment. Through different examples, we demonstrate the importance of these characterizations to improve the understanding of the laser conditioning. The role of an in situ adapted metrology associated in real time with a laser conditioning bench offers new opportunities to analyze laser-induced damage mechanisms and subsequently to increase the LIDT of optical components.

  8. Understanding High-Resolution Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Groundwater Recharge Using Process Based Hydrologic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, G.; Qiu, H.; Li, S. G.; Lusch, D.; Phanikumar, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the natural rates of groundwater recharge and identifying the location and timing of major recharge events are essential for maintaining sustainable water yields and for understanding contaminant transport mechanisms in groundwater systems. Using Ottawa County, Michigan as a case study in sustainable water resources management, this research is part of a larger project that examines the issues of declining water tables and increasing chloride concentrations within the county. A process-based hydrologic model (PAWS) is used to mechanistically evaluate the integrated hydrologic response of both the surface and subsurface systems to further compute daily fluxes due to evapotranspiration, surface runoff, recharge and groundwater-stream interactions. Both rain gauge (NCDC) and NEXRAD precipitation data are used as input for the model. The model is built based on three major watersheds at 300m spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution, covering all of Ottawa County and is calibrated using streamflow data from USGS gauging stations. In addition, synoptic and time-series baseflow data collected using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers and electromagnetic flow meters during the summer of 2015 are used to test the ability of the model to simulate baseflows and to quantify the uncertainty. The MODIS evapotranspiration product is used to evaluate model performance in simulating ET. The primary objectives of this study are to (1) understand the periods of high and low groundwater recharge in the county between the years 2009 and 2015; and (2) analyze the impacts of different types of land use, soil, elevation, and slope on groundwater recharge.

  9. Preparation and Support of Patients through the Transplant Process: Understanding the Recipients' Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Mauthner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation for heart transplant commonly includes booklets, instructional videos, personalized teaching sessions, and mentorship. This paper explores heart transplant recipients’ thoughts on their preparation and support through the transplant process. Twenty-five interviews were audio-/videotaped capturing voice and body language and transcribed verbatim. Coding addressed language, bodily gesture, volume, and tone in keeping with our visual methodology. Recipients reported that only someone who had a transplant truly understands the experience. As participants face illness and life-altering experiences, maintaining a positive attitude and hope is essential to coping well. Healthcare professionals provide ongoing care and reassurance about recipients’ medical status. Mentors, family members, and close friends play vital roles in supporting recipients. Participants reported that only heart transplant recipients understood the experience, the hope, and ultimately the suffering associated with living with another persons’ heart. Attention needs to be focused not solely on the use of teaching modalities, but also on the development of innovative support networks. This will promote patient and caregiver engagement in self-management. Enhancing clinicians’ knowledge of the existential aspects of transplantation will provide them with a nuanced understanding of the patients’ experience, which will ultimately enhance their ability to better prepare and support patients and their caregivers.

  10. Influence of ocean acidification on the complexation of iron and copper by organic ligands in estuarine waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gledhill, M.; Achterberg, E.P.; Li, K.; Mohamed, K.N.; Rijkenberg, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The uptake of anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 by the oceans causes a shift in the carbonate chemistry system which includes a lowering of pH; this process has been termed ocean acidification. Our understanding of the specific effects of ocean acidification on chemical speciation of trace metals, in

  11. Classroom virtual lab experiments as teaching tools for explaining how we understand planetary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C. N.; Schools, H.; Research Team Members

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will report on a classroom pilot study in which we teamed with school teachers in four middle school classes to develop and deploy course modules that connect the real-world to virtual forms of laboratory experiments.The broad goal is to help students realize that seemingly complex Earth system processes can be connected to basic properties of the planet and that this can be illustrated through idealized experiment. Specifically the presentation will describe virtual modules based on on-demand cloud computing technologies that allow students to test the notion that pole equator gradients in radiative forcing together with rotation can explain characteristic patterns of flow in the atmosphere. The module developed aligns with new Massachusetts science standard requirements regarding understanding of weather and climate processes. These new standards emphasize an appreciation of differential solar heating and a qualitative understanding of the significance of rotation. In our preliminary classroom pilot studies we employed pre and post evaluation tests to establish that the modules had increased student knowledge of phenomenology and terms. We will describe the results of these tests as well as results from anecdotal measures of student response. This pilot study suggests that one way to help make Earth science concepts more tractable to a wider audience is through virtual experiments that distill phenomena down, but still retain enough detail that students can see the connection to the real world. Modern computer technology and developments in research models appear to provide an opportunity for more work in this area. We will describe some follow-up possibilities that we envisage.

  12. Understanding the creation of & reducing surface microroughness during polishing & post-processing of glass optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratwala, Tayyab [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-22

    In the follow study, we have developed a detailed understanding of the chemical and mechanical microscopic interactions that occur during polishing affecting the resulting surface microroughness of the workpiece. Through targeted experiments and modeling, the quantitative relationships of many important polishing parameters & characteristics affecting surface microroughness have been determined. These behaviors and phenomena have been described by a number of models including: (a) the Ensemble Hertzian Multi Gap (EHMG) model used to predict the removal rate and roughness at atomic force microscope (AFM) scale lengths as a function of various polishing parameters, (b) the Island Distribution Gap (IDG) model used to predict the roughness at larger scale lengths, (c) the Deraguin-Verwey-Landau-Overbeek (DLVO) 3-body electrostatic colloidal model used to predict the interaction of slurry particles at the interface and roughness behavior as a function of pH, and (d) a diffusion/chemical reaction rate model of the incorporation of impurities species into the polishing surface layer (called the Bielby layer). Based on this improved understanding, novel strategies to polish the workpiece have been developed simultaneously leading to both ultrasmooth surfaces and high material removal rates. Some of these strategies include: (a) use of narrow PSD slurries, (b) a novel diamond conditioning recipe of the lap to increase the active contact area between the workpiece and lap without destroying its surface figure, (c) proper control of pH for a given glass type to allow for a uniform distribution of slurry particles at the interface, and (d) increase in applied load just up to the transition between molecular to plastic removal regime for a single slurry particle. These techniques have been incorporated into a previously developed finishing process called Convergent Polishing leading to not just economical finishing process with improved surface figure control, but also

  13. The Critical Zone: A Necessary Framework for Understanding Surface Earth Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, W. E.

    2016-12-01

    One definition of the critical zone is: the thin veneer of Earth that extends from the top of the vegetation to the base of weathered bedrock. With this definition we can envision the critical zone as a distinct entity with a well-defined top and a fairly well-defined bottom that is distributed across terrestrial earth landscapes. It is a zone of co-evolving processes and, importantly, much of this zone is well below the soil mantle (and commonly more than 10 times thicker than the soil). Weathering advance into fresh bedrock creates a hydrologically-conductive skin that mediates runoff and solute chemistry, stores water used by vegetation, releases water as baseflow to streams, influences soil production and hillslope evolution, and feeds gasses to the atmosphere. Especially in seasonally dry environments, rock moisture in the critical zone, i.e. moisture that is exchangeable and potentially mobile in the matrix and fractures of the bedrock, can be a significant source of water to plants and is a previously unrecognized large component of the water budget that matters to climate models. First observations on the systematic variation of the critical zone across hillslopes have led to four distinct theories representing four distinct processes for what controls the depth to fresh bedrock (and thus the thickness of this zone across a hillslope). These theories are motivating geophysical surveys, deep drilling, and other actions to parameterize and explore the power of these models. Studies at the NSF-supported Critical Zone Observatories have taught us that the critical zone is an entity and that enduring field studies reveal key processes. A challenge we now face is how to include this emerging understanding of the critical zone into models of reactive transport, hydrologic processes and water supply, critical zone structure, landscape evolution, and climate.

  14. Contrasting spreading processes at Gakkel Ridge across the 3°E boundary shaped the Arctic Ocean lithosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Schlindwein, Vera; Schmid, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The Arctic mid-ocean ridge system is one of the two main representatives of the particular class of ultraslow spreading ridges with spreading rates of less than 20 mm/y full rate. The formation of new ocean lithosphere at these ridges strongly deviates from any other ocean basin. Typical properties of ultraslow spreading ridges are alternating rift sections with magmatic and amagmatic spreading. At 3°E on Gakkel Ridge, a prominent boundary exists. Here magmatic spreading in the...

  15. Understanding the structured processes followed by organisations prior to engaging in agile processes: A South African Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Noruwana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There appears to be a lack of knowledge on the phases South African (SA organisations go through while adopting agile methods. As a means to address this gap, this study uncovered empirical evidence on the phases SA organisations go through whilst adopting agile methods as well as the disparities between agile prescriptions and the way SA organisations actually implement agile methods. The data collected using a case study approach was analysed through the lens of Actor-Network Theory (ANT. The results reveal that there is no structured process for adopting agile methods and organisations go through various phases in their attempts to adopt agile methods. During the various phases, organisations face challenges which are culture as well as people related. Through this study South African practitioners could now be aware that before adopting an agile methodology, there has to be a common understanding of the problems at hand and the envisioned solution. The findings also inform aspiring adopters in South Africa that adoption of the methods does not have to be as prescribed. They are free to adopt only those aspects the organisations need most.

  16. Peer review in design: Understanding the impact of collaboration on the review process and student perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Mahender Arjun

    A cornerstone of design and design education is frequent situated feedback. With increasing class sizes, and shrinking financial and human resources, providing rich feedback to students becomes increasingly difficult. In the field of writing, web-based peer review--the process of utilizing equal status learners within a class to provide feedback to each other on their work using networked computing systems--has been shown to be a reliable and valid source of feedback in addition to improving student learning. Designers communicate in myriad ways, using the many languages of design and combining visual and descriptive information. This complex discourse of design intent makes peer reviews by design students ambiguous and often not helpful to the receivers of this feedback. Furthermore, engaging students in the review process itself is often difficult. Teams can complement individual diversity and may assist novice designers collectively resolve complex task. However, teams often incur production losses and may be impacted by individual biases. In the current work, we look at utilizing a collaborative team of reviewers, working collectively and synchronously, in generating web based peer reviews in a sophomore engineering design class. Students participated in a cross-over design, conducting peer reviews as individuals and collaborative teams in parallel sequences. Raters coded the feedback generated on the basis of their appropriateness and accuracy. Self-report surveys and passive observation of teams conducting reviews captured student opinion on the process, its value, and the contrasting experience they had conducting team and individual reviews. We found team reviews generated better quality feedback in comparison to individual reviews. Furthermore, students preferred conducting reviews in teams, finding the process 'fun' and engaging. We observed several learning benefits of using collaboration in reviewing including improved understanding of the assessment

  17. Understanding the Local Socio-political Processes Affecting Conservation Management Outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M.; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

  18. The hydrogeochemical evolution of a barrier island freshwater reservoir: Conceptual understanding and identification of key processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Stephan; Holt, Tobias; Greskowiak, Janek; Freund, Holger; Böttcher, Michael E.; Massmann, Gudrun

    2017-04-01

    Coastal aquifers play an important role in satisfying the water demands for many people in the world. However, exposition to storm surges, climate change and extensive abstraction pose a threat to current and future use of these valuable water resources in many cases. To mitigate water quality constraints and ensure safe water supply applications, an in-depth understanding of relevant process that determine the water quality is required. We investigated two freshwater reservoirs below the barrier island Spiekeroog, Germany. The main freshwater reservoir is located at the western part of the island, ˜350 years old and has a vertical extension of ˜45m. The other investigated freshwater reservoir is located at the east of Spiekeroog, only a few decades old and has a vertical extension pH values ranging between 7.5-8.5 confirm that groundwater at Spiekeroog is in equilibrium with calcite and underline that calcite dissolution is an important process. With respect to the redox system, the data indicates oxygen and nitrate reduction within the first meters of the saturated zone but Mn-Oxide and Fe-Oxide reduction rates seem to be low in the aquifer based on measured dissolved Mn(2+) and Fe(2+) concentrations. The absence of dissolved Fe(2+) could be explained by the formation of iron sulfide minerals which is in agreement with observed sulfate reduction at greater depth indicated by elevated H2S concentrations and PHREEQC speciation calculations.

  19. Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

  20. Contribution of Satellite Gravimetry to Understanding Seismic Source Processes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Riva, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 great Tohoku-Oki earthquake, apart from shaking the ground, perturbed the motions of satellites orbiting some hundreds km away above the ground, such as GRACE, due to coseismic change in the gravity field. Significant changes in inter-satellite distance were observed after the earthquake. These unconventional satellite measurements were inverted to examine the earthquake source processes from a radically different perspective that complements the analyses of seismic and geodetic ground recordings. We found the average slip located up-dip of the hypocenter but within the lower crust, as characterized by a limited range of bulk and shear moduli. The GRACE data constrained a group of earthquake source parameters that yield increasing dip (7-16 degrees plus or minus 2 degrees) and, simultaneously, decreasing moment magnitude (9.17-9.02 plus or minus 0.04) with increasing source depth (15-24 kilometers). The GRACE solution includes the cumulative moment released over a month and demonstrates a unique view of the long-wavelength gravimetric response to all mass redistribution processes associated with the dynamic rupture and short-term postseismic mechanisms to improve our understanding of the physics of megathrusts.

  1. Ocean-atmosphere pollutant circulation processes: The Heligoland Bight ecosystem (PRISMA). 2. interim report (1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The PRISMA BMFT project is an important stage on the way to a comprehensive knowledge of the impacts of pollutants on the North Sea/Heligoland Bight ecosystem. The overall project is dedicated to the development, verification and application of a complex shelf-sea model which provides qualitative and quantitative data about the causal interactions between the basic atmospheric conditions, the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the water, the chemical reactons in the air, in the water and the sediments, and the activity of organisms. The model comprises a compact set of formulae, process formulations, initial and marginal conditions and empirical parameters which serves to describe the origin, transport, reactions and final deposition of pollutants in the North Sea, helps to analyze and elucidate the present condition of the ecosystem and its spatial and temporal variability, and provides forecasts in accordance with the changing natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. (orig.) [de

  2. Application of characterization, modelling, and analytics towards understanding process-structure linkages in metallic 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeber, M. A.; Schwalbach, E.; Donegan, S.; Chaput, K.; Butler, T.; Miller, J.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents methods for combining process monitoring, thermal modelling and microstructure characterization together to draw process-to-structure relationships in metal additive manufacturing. The paper discusses heterogeneities in the local processing conditions within additively manufactured components and how they affect the resulting material structure. Methods for registering and fusing disparate data sources are presented, and some effort is made to discuss the utility of different data sources for specific microstructural features of interest. It is the intent that this paper will highlight the need for improved understanding of metallic additive manufacturing processes and show that combining experimental data with modelling and advanced data processing and analytics methods will accelerate that understanding.

  3. Understanding aquatic microbial processes using EEM's and in-situ fluorescence sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Bethany; Attridge, John; Rushworth, Cathy; Cox, Tim; Anesio, Alexandre; Reynolds, Darren

    2015-04-01

    The diverse origin of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic systems is well documented within the literature. Previous literature indicates that coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is, in part, transformed by aquatic microbial processes, and that dissolved organic material derived from a microbial origin exhibits tryptophan-like fluorescence. However, this phenomenon is not fully understood and very little data is available within the current literature. The overall aim of our work is to reveal the microbial-CDOM interactions that give rise to the observed tryptophan-like fluorescence. The work reported here investigates the microbial processes that occur within freshwater aquatic samples, as defined by the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) test, as a function of the T1 peak (λex/em 280/330-370 nm). A series of standard water samples were prepared using glucose, glutamic acid, BOD dilution water and a bacterial seed (Cole-Parmer BOD microbe capsules). Samples were spiked with CDOM (derived from an environmental water body) and subjected to time resolved BOD analysis and as excitation-emission fluorescence spectroscopy. All EEM spectral data was interrogated using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) in an attempt to determine the presence and dominance (relative intensities) of the CDOM-related and T1-related fluorophores within the samples. In-situ fluorescence sensors (Chelsea Technologies Group Ltd.) were also used to monitor the T1 fluorescence peak (UviLux Tryptophan) and the CDOM fluorescence peak (UviLux CDOM) during experiments. Tryptophan-like fluorescence was observed (albeit transient) in both spiked and un-spiked standard water samples. By furthering our understanding of aquatic organic matter fluorescence, its origin, transformation, fate and interaction with aquatic microbiological processes, we aim to inform the design of a new generation in-situ fluorescence sensor for the monitoring of aquatic ecosystem health.

  4. Process Network Approach to Understanding How Forest Ecosystems Adapt to Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Yun, J.; Hong, J.; Kwon, H.; Chun, J.

    2011-12-01

    Sustainability challenges are transforming science and its role in society. Complex systems science has emerged as an inevitable field of education and research, which transcends disciplinary boundaries and focuses on understanding of the dynamics of complex social-ecological systems (SES). SES is a combined system of social and ecological components and drivers that interact and give rise to results, which could not be understood on the basis of sociological or ecological considerations alone. However, both systems may be viewed as a network of processes, and such a network hierarchy may serve as a hinge to bridge social and ecological systems. As a first step toward such effort, we attempted to delineate and interpret such process networks in forest ecosystems, which play a critical role in the cycles of carbon and water from local to global scales. These cycles and their variability, in turn, play an important role in the emergent and self-organizing interactions between forest ecosystems and their environment. Ruddell and Kumar (2009) define a process network as a network of feedback loops and the related time scales, which describe the magnitude and direction of the flow of energy, matter, and information between the different variables in a complex system. Observational evidence, based on micrometeorological eddy covariance measurements, suggests that heterogeneity and disturbances in forest ecosystems in monsoon East Asia may facilitate to build resilience for adaptation to change. Yet, the principles that characterize the role of variability in these interactions remain elusive. In this presentation, we report results from the analysis of multivariate ecohydrologic and biogeochemical time series data obtained from temperate forest ecosystems in East Asia based on information flow statistics.

  5. Understanding controls on redox processes in floodplain sediments of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noël, Vincent; Boye, Kristin; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Bone, Sharon; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Cardarelli, Emily; Janot, Noémie; Fendorf, Scott; Williams, Kenneth H.; Bargar, John R.

    2017-12-15

    River floodplains, heavily used for water supplies, housing, agriculture, mining, and industry, may have water quality jeopardized by native or exogenous metals. Redox processes mediate the accumulation and release of these species in groundwater. Understanding the physicochemical, hydrological, and biogeochemical controls on the distribution and variability and variability of redox conditions is therefore critical to developing conceptual and numerical models of contaminants transport within floodplains. The distribution and intensity of redox activity at the Rifle, CO, site within the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), are believed to be controlled by textural and compositional heterogeneities. Regionally, the UCRB is impacted by former uranium and vanadium ore processing, resulting in contaminations by U, Mo, V, As, Se, and Mn. Floodplains throughout the UCRB share sediment and groundwater characteristics, making redox activity regionally important to metal and radionuclide mobility. In this study, Fe and S speciation were used to track the distribution and stability of redox processes in sediment cores from three floodplain sites covering a 250 km range in the central portion of the UCRB. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that Fe(III) and sulfate reducing sediments are regionally important in the UCRB. The presence of organic carbon together with pore saturation were the key requirements for reducing conditions, dominated by sulfate-reduction. Sediment texture moderated the response of the system to external forcing, such as oxidant infusion, making fine-grain sediments resistant to change in comparison to coarser-grained sediments. Exposure to O2 and NO3- mediates the reactivity and longevity of freshly precipitated sulfides creating the potential for release of sequestered radionuclides and metals. The physical and chemical parameters of reducing zones evidenced in this study are thus thought to be key parameters on the dynamic exchange

  6. Understanding system disturbance and ecosystem services in restored saltmarshes: Integrating physical and biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, K. L.; Harvey, G. L.

    2012-06-01

    Coastal saltmarsh ecosystems occupy only a small percentage of Earth's land surface, yet contribute a wide range of ecosystem services that have significant global economic and societal value. These environments currently face significant challenges associated with climate change, sea level rise, development and water quality deterioration and are consequently the focus of a range of management schemes. Increasingly, soft engineering techniques such as managed realignment (MR) are being employed to restore and recreate these environments, driven primarily by the need for habitat (re)creation and sustainable coastal flood defence. Such restoration schemes also have the potential to provide additional ecosystem services including climate regulation and waste processing. However, these sites have frequently been physically impacted by their previous land use and there is a lack of understanding of how this 'disturbance' impacts the delivery of ecosystem services or of the complex linkages between ecological, physical and biogeochemical processes in restored systems. Through the exploration of current data this paper determines that hydrological, geomorphological and hydrodynamic functioning of restored sites may be significantly impaired with respects to natural 'undisturbed' systems and that links between morphology, sediment structure, hydrology and solute transfer are poorly understood. This has consequences for the delivery of seeds, the provision of abiotic conditions suitable for plant growth, the development of microhabitats and the cycling of nutrients/contaminants and may impact the delivery of ecosystem services including biodiversity, climate regulation and waste processing. This calls for a change in our approach to research in these environments with a need for integrated, interdisciplinary studies over a range of spatial and temporal scales incorporating both intensive and extensive research design.

  7. Active spreading processes at ultraslow mid-ocean ridges: The 1999-2001 seismo-volcanic episode at 85°E Gakkel ridge, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlindwein, Vera; Riedel, Carsten; Korger, Edith; Läderach, Christine

    2010-05-01

    The rate of magma and crustal production at mid-ocean ridges is thought to decrease with decreasing spreading rate. At ultraslow spreading rates below 10-20 mm/y full rate, heat loss by conduction greatly reduces melt production with less melt produced at increasingly greater depths. Gakkel Ridge, the actively spreading mid-ocean ridge in the Arctic Ocean, opens at rates of 14 mm/y in the west decreasing to less than 6 mm/y at its eastern termination and demonstrates that magma production is not only a function of spreading rate. Whereas amagmatic spreading takes place at rates of about 12-10 mm/y, focussed melt production occurs at even lower spreading rates in long-lived discrete volcanic centres. One such centre is the 85°E volcanic complex at eastern Gakkel ridge where in 1999 a teleseismically recorded earthquake swarm consisting of more than 250 earthquakes over 9 months signalled the onset of an active spreading episode. The earthquake swarm is believed to be associated with volcanic activity although no concurrent lava effusion was found. We analysed the teleseismic earthquake swarm together with visual observation and microseismic data recorded at this site in 2001 and 2007 and noted the following characteristics which may be indicative for volcanic spreading events at the still poorly explored ultraslow spreading ridges: - unusual duration: The 1999 earthquake swarm lasted over 9 months rather than a few weeks as observed on faster spreading ridges. In addition, in 2001 seismoacoustic sounds which we interpret as gas discharge in Strombolian eruptions and a giant event plume maintained over more than one year indicate waxing and waning volcanic activity since 1999. - unusual strength: The earthquake swarm was detected at teleseismic distances of more than 1000 km and included 11 events with a magnitude >5. No other confirmed mid-ocean ridge eruption released a comparable seismic moment. Rather than focussing in a narrow area or showing pronounced

  8. Evaluating the damage process of dynamic target by high-energy laser in ocean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ye, Demao

    2013-12-01

    The high-energy laser, as one of directed energy weapon, is famous for its unique advantage of speed-of-light response which was considered as an ideal weapon against anti-ship missile. This paper commits to evaluate the damage process of missile by high-energy laser weapon. We analyze the propagation properties which are susceptible to atmospheric attenuation effects, atmospheric turbulence effects, thermal blooming effects in sky-sea atmosphere firstly. Then because laser weapons attack one target at a time and it takes several seconds at a minimum for the target engaged, a model of calculating the required t ime for damaging the attack target was built . In the end effective evaluation methods of hot-ablated and high-energy laser weapon's damaging effectiveness are made, when the body or the optical elements of the missile is irradiated by the concatenation wave laser weapon. And one of the issues just as laser power, propagation distance is changed; the model can make different evaluation. The above model can provide the theoretical basis for the high-energy laser weapon intercept anti-ship missile and tactic deraign rationality for naval ship-borne laser weapons.

  9. Can spectroscopic analysis improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes in agricultural streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieroza, Magdalena; Heathwaite, Ann Louise

    2015-04-01

    In agricultural catchments diffuse fluxes of nutrients, mainly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from arable land and livestock are responsible for pollution of receiving waters and their eutrophication. Organic matter (OM) can play an important role in mediating a range of biogeochemical processes controlling diffuse pollution in streams and at their interface with surrounding land in the riparian and hyporheic zones. Thus, a holistic and simultaneous monitoring of N, P and OM fractions can help to improve our understanding of biogeochemical functioning of agricultural streams. In this study we build on intensive in situ monitoring of diffuse pollution in a small agricultural groundwater-fed stream in NW England carried out since 2009. The in situ monitoring unit captures high-frequency (15 minutes to hourly) responses of water quality parameters including total phosphorus, total reactive phosphorus and nitrate-nitrogen to changing flow conditions. For two consecutive hydrological years we have carried out additional spectroscopic water analyses to characterise organic matter components and their interactions with nutrient fractions. Automated and grab water samples have been analysed using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorbance and excitation-emission (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, a tryptophan sensor was trialled to capture in situ fluorescence dynamics. Our paper evaluates patterns in nutrient and OM responses to baseflow and storm flow conditions and provides an assessment of storage-related changes of automated samples and temperature and turbidity effects on in situ tryptophan measurements. The paper shows the value of spectroscopic measurements to understand biogeochemical and hydrological nutrient dynamics and quantifies analytical uncertainty associated with both laboratory-based and in situ spectroscopic measurements.

  10. Influence of physical and biological processes on the seasonal cycle of biogenic flux in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vidya, P.J.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Gauns, M.; Verenkar, A; Unger, D.; Ramaswamy, V.

    Seasonal cycle of biogenic fluxes obtained from sediment trap at two locations 5°24` N, 86°46` E (southern Bay of Bengal trap; SBBT) and 3°34` N, 77°46` E (equatorial Indian Ocean trap; EIOT) within the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) were examined...

  11. Quantitative analysis of precipitation over Fukushima to understand the wet deposition process in March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatagai, A.; Onda, Y.; Watanabe, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP), leading to the emission of large amounts of radioactive pollutants into the environment. The transport and diffusion of these radioactive pollutants in the atmosphere caused a disaster for residents in and around Fukushima. Studies have sought to understand the transport, diffusion, and deposition process, and to understand the movement of radioactive pollutants through the soil, vegetation, rivers, and groundwater. However, a detailed simulation and understanding of the distribution of radioactive compounds depend on a simulation of precipitation and on the information on the timing of the emission of these radioactive pollutants from the NPP. Past nuclear expansion studies have demonstrated the importance of wet deposition in distributing pollutants. Hence, this study examined the quantitative precipitation pattern in March 2011 using rain-gauge observations and X-band radar data from Fukushima University. We used the AMeDAS rain-gauge network data of 1) the Japan Meteorological Agency (1273 stations in Japan) and 2) the Water Information System (47 stations in Fukushima prefecture) and 3) the rain-gauge data of the Environmental Information Network of NTT Docomo (30 stations in Fukushima) to construct 0.05-degree mesh data using the same method used to create the APHRODITE daily grid precipitation data (Yatagai et al., 2009). Since some AMeDAS data for the coastal region were lost due to the earthquake, the complementary network of 2) and 3) yielded better precipitation estimates. The data clarified that snowfall was observed on the night of Mar 15 into the morning of Mar 16 throughout Fukushima prefecture. This had an important effect on the radioactive contamination pattern in Fukushima prefecture. The precipitation pattern itself does not show one-on-one correspondence with the contamination pattern. While the pollutants transported northeast of the

  12. Ocean circulation and shelf processes in the Arctic, Mediterranean traced by radiogenic neodymium isotopes, rare earth elements and stable oxygen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laukert, Georgi

    2017-02-20

    Disentangling the sources, distribution and mixing of water masses involved in the transport and transfer of heat and freshwater in the Arctic Mediterranean (i.e. the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, AM) is critical for the understanding of present and future hydrological changes in the high-latitude regions. This study refines the knowledge of water mass circulation in the AM and provides new insights into the processes occurring on the Arctic shelves and in high-latitude estuaries. A multi-proxy approach is used combining dissolved radiogenic Nd isotopes (ε{sub Nd}), rare earth elements (REEs) and stable oxygen isotopes (δ{sup 18}O) together with standard hydrographic tracers. The sources, distribution and mixing of water masses that circulate in the AM and pass the Fram Strait are assessed through evaluation of dissolved ε{sub Nd} and REE, and δ{sup 18}O data obtained from samples recovered in 2012, 2014 and 2015, and through a compilation and reassessment of literature Nd isotope and concentration data previously reported for other sites within the AM. The Nd isotope and REE distribution in the central Fram Strait and the open AM is shown to primarily reflect the lateral advection of water masses and their mixing, whereas seawater-particle interactions exert important control only above the shelf regions. New insights into the processes occurring in high latitude estuaries are provided by dissolved Nd isotope and REE compositions together with δ{sup 18}O data for the Laptev Sea based on filtered samples recovered in 2012, 2013 and 2014. A combination of REE removal through coagulation of nanoparticles and colloids and REE redistribution within the water column through formation and melting of sea ice and river ice is suggested to account for the distribution of all REEs, while no REE release from particles is observed. The ice-related processes contribute to the redistribution of other elements and ultimately may also affect primary productivity in high

  13. Spies and Bloggers: New Synthetic Biology Tools to Understand Microbial Processes in Soils and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Silberg, J. J.; Cheng, H. Y.; Del Valle, I.; Fulk, E. M.; Gao, X.; Bennett, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    Microbes can be programmed through synthetic biology to report on their behavior, informing researchers when their environment has triggered changes in their gene expression (e.g. in response to shifts in O2 or H2O), or when they have participated in a specific step of an elemental cycle (e.g. denitrification). This use of synthetic biology has the potential to significantly improve our understanding of microbes' roles in elemental and water cycling, because it allows reporting on the environment from the perspective of a microbe, matching the measurement scale exactly to the scale that a microbe experiences. However, synthetic microbes have not yet seen wide use in soil and sediment laboratory experiments because synthetic organisms typically report by fluorescing, making their signals difficult to detect outside the petri dish. We are developing a new suite of microbial programs that report instead by releasing easily-detected gases, allowing the real-time, noninvasive monitoring of behaviors in sediments and soils. Microbial biosensors can, in theory, be programmed to detect dynamic processes that contribute to a wide range of geobiological processes, including C cycling (biofilm production, methanogenesis, and synthesis of extracellular enzymes that degrade organic matter), N cycling (expression of enzymes that underlie different steps of the N cycle) and potentially S cycling. We will provide an overview of the potential uses of gas-reporting biosensors in soil and sediment lab experiments, and will report the development of the systematics of these sensors. Successful development of gas biosensors for laboratory use will require addressing issues including: engineering the intensity and selectivity of microbial gas production to maximize the signal to noise ratio; normalizing the gas reporter signal to cell population size, managing gas diffusion effects on signal shape; and developing multiple gases that can be used in parallel.

  14. Understanding and Controlling Sialylation in a CHO Fc-Fusion Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amanda M; Croughan, William D; Aranibar, Nelly; Lee, Alison G; Warrack, Bethanne; Abu-Absi, Nicholas R; Patel, Rutva; Drew, Barry; Borys, Michael C; Reily, Michael D; Li, Zheng Jian

    2016-01-01

    A Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) bioprocess, where the product is a sialylated Fc-fusion protein, was operated at pilot and manufacturing scale and significant variation of sialylation level was observed. In order to more tightly control glycosylation profiles, we sought to identify the cause of variability. Untargeted metabolomics and transcriptomics methods were applied to select samples from the large scale runs. Lower sialylation was correlated with elevated mannose levels, a shift in glucose metabolism, and increased oxidative stress response. Using a 5-L scale model operated with a reduced dissolved oxygen set point, we were able to reproduce the phenotypic profiles observed at manufacturing scale including lower sialylation, higher lactate and lower ammonia levels. Targeted transcriptomics and metabolomics confirmed that reduced oxygen levels resulted in increased mannose levels, a shift towards glycolysis, and increased oxidative stress response similar to the manufacturing scale. Finally, we propose a biological mechanism linking large scale operation and sialylation variation. Oxidative stress results from gas transfer limitations at large scale and the presence of oxygen dead-zones inducing upregulation of glycolysis and mannose biosynthesis, and downregulation of hexosamine biosynthesis and acetyl-CoA formation. The lower flux through the hexosamine pathway and reduced intracellular pools of acetyl-CoA led to reduced formation of N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylneuraminic acid, both key building blocks of N-glycan structures. This study reports for the first time a link between oxidative stress and mammalian protein sialyation. In this study, process, analytical, metabolomic, and transcriptomic data at manufacturing, pilot, and laboratory scales were taken together to develop a systems level understanding of the process and identify oxygen limitation as the root cause of glycosylation variability.

  15. Understanding the Journey: A Phenomenological Study of College Students' Lived Experiences during the Weight-Loss Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Although numerous studies have focused on understanding various aspects of the science of weight loss and weight gain in college students, understanding how the weight-loss process affects college students psychologically and behaviorally may help administrators and student affairs professionals to better work with students on their campuses. The…

  16. NetCDF-CF-OPeNDAP: Standards for ocean data interoperability and object lessons for community data standards processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Steven C.; Blower, Jon D.; Carval, Thierry; Casey, Kenneth S.; Donlon, Craig; Lauret, Olivier; Loubrieu, Thomas; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Trinanes, Joaquin; Godøy, Øystein; Mendelssohn, Roy; Signell, Richard P.; de La Beaujardiere, Jeff; Cornillon, Peter; Blanc, Frederique; Rew, Russ; Harlan, Jack; Hall, Julie; Harrison, D.E.; Stammer, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    It is generally recognized that meeting society's emerging environmental science and management needs will require the marine data community to provide simpler, more effective and more interoperable access to its data. There is broad agreement, as well, that data standards are the bedrock upon which interoperability will be built. The path that would bring the marine data community to agree upon and utilize such standards, however, is often elusive. In this paper we examine the trio of standards 1) netCDF files; 2) the Climate and Forecast (CF) metadata convention; and 3) the OPeNDAP data access protocol. These standards taken together have brought our community a high level of interoperability for "gridded" data such as model outputs, satellite products and climatological analyses, and they are gaining rapid acceptance for ocean observations. We will provide an overview of the scope of the contribution that has been made. We then step back from the information technology considerations to examine the community or "social" process by which the successes were achieved. We contrast the path by which the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has advanced the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) - netCDF/CF/OPeNDAP exemplifying a "bottom up" standards process whereas GTS is "top down". Both of these standards are tales of success at achieving specific purposes, yet each is hampered by technical limitations. These limitations sometimes lead to controversy over whether alternative technological directions should be pursued. Finally we draw general conclusions regarding the factors that affect the success of a standards development effort - the likelihood that an IT standard will meet its design goals and will achieve community-wide acceptance. We believe that a higher level of thoughtful awareness by the scientists, program managers and technology experts of the vital role of standards and the merits of alternative standards processes can help us as a community to

  17. Recent developments toward understanding magnetization processes in Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, S.; Fukagawa, T.; Maki, T.

    2007-01-01

    The quick rise of an enormous market of high-coercivity grades of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) has created a new concern about resources of certain elements such as Tb and Dy which is used in order to guarantee stability of magnetic flux at operating temperatures. Accordingly, improvements of coercivity in the Nd-Fe-B magnets at elevated temperatures without heavily using these scarce elements are required. For this goal, deeper understanding of the coercivity mechanism is necessary. In order to clearly study the relationship between local microstructure and coercivity related to that microstructure, an approach using a model magnet composed of a thin sintered magnet and an Nd layer deposited on its surface is reported. Besides this micropscopic apporach, macroscopic approaches are also indepensable. Also described in this paper is investigation of successive recoil curves and their relation with magnetic domain structures in a system composed of submicron size grains of Nd 2 Fe 14 B that can be prepared by means of hydrogenation-disproportionation-dehydrogenation-decomposition process. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Dynamics of gas-surface interactions atomic-level understanding of scattering processes at surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Díez Muniño, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a representative survey of the state of the art of research on gas-surface interactions. It provides an overview of the current understanding of gas surface dynamics and, in particular, of the reactive and non-reactive processes of atoms and small molecules at surfaces. Leading scientists in the field, both from the theoretical and the experimental sides, write in this book about their most recent advances. Surface science grew as an interdisciplinary research area over the last decades, mostly because of new experimental technologies (ultra-high vacuum, for instance), as well as because of a novel paradigm, the ‘surface science’ approach. The book describes the second transformation which is now taking place pushed by the availability of powerful quantum-mechanical theoretical methods implemented numerically. In the book, experiment and theory progress hand in hand with an unprecedented degree of accuracy and control. The book presents how modern surface science targets the atomic-level u...

  19. Changes in health perceptions after exposure to human suffering: using discrete emotions to understand underlying processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia A Paschali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality, as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An experimental group (N = 47 was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N = 47 was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being.

  20. Process analytical technology to understand the disintegration behavior of alendronate sodium tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Gupta, Abhay; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Khan, Mansoor A

    2013-05-01

    Various adverse events including esophagus irritations have been reported with the use of alendronate tablets, likely attributed to the rapid tablet disintegration in the mouth or esophagus. Accordingly, the disintegration of six alendronate tablet drug products was studied using a newly developed testing device equipped with in-line sensors, in addition to the official compendial procedure for measuring the disintegration time. The in-line sensors were used to monitor the particle count and solution pH change to assess the onset and duration of disintegration. A relatively large variation was observed in the disintegration time of the tested drug products using the compendial method. The data collected using the in-line sensors suggested that all tested drug products exhibited almost instantaneous onset of disintegration, under 2 s, and a sharp drop in solution pH. The drop in pH was slower for tablets with slower disintegration. The in-house prepared alendronate test tablets also showed similar trends suggesting rapid solubilization of the drug contributed to the fast tablet disintegration. This research highlights the usefulness of the newly developed in-line analytical method in combination with the compendial method in providing a better understanding of the disintegration and the accompanying drug solubilization processes for fast disintegrating tablet drug products. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Warm Rain Processes over the Tropical Oceans and Implications on Climate Change: Results from TRMM and GEOS GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Wu, H. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will first show results from TRMM data regarding the characteristics of warm rains over the tropical oceans, and the dependence of rate of warm rain production on sea surface temperature. Results lead to the hypothesis that warm rain production efficiency, i.e., autoconversion, may be increased in a warm climate. We use the GEOS-II GCM to test this hypothesis. Our modeling results show that in a climate with increased rate of autoconversion, the total rain amount is increased, with warm rain contributing to larger portion of the increase. The abundant rainout of warm precipitation causes a reduction of low and middle cloud amount due to rainout, and reduced high clouds due to less water vapor available for ice-phase convection. However, clod radiation feedback caused by the increased rainfall efficiency, leads to differential vertical heating/cooling producing a more unstable atmosphere, allowing, more intense, but isolated penetrative convection, with contracted anvils to develop. Results also show that increased autoconversion reduces the convective adjustment time scale, resulting in faster recycling of atmospheric water. Most interestingly, the increased low level heating associated with warm rain leads to more energetic Madden and Julian oscillations in the tropics, with well-defined eastward propagation. While reducing the autoconversion leads to an abundant mix of westward and eastward tropical disturbances on daily to weekly time scales. The crucial link of precipitation microphysical processes to climate change including the effects of aerosols will be discussed.

  2. Warm Rain Processes Over the Tropical Oceans and Implications on Climate Change: Results from TRMM and GOES GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Wu, H. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will first show results from TRMM data regarding the characteristics of warm rains over the tropical oceans, and the dependence of rate of warm rain production on sea surface temperature. Results lead to the hypothesis that warm rain production efficiency, i.e., autoconversion, may be increased in a warm climate. We use the GEOS-II GCM to test this hypothesis. Our modeling results show that in a climate with increased rate of autoconversion, the total rain amount is increased, with warm rain contributing to a larger portion of the increase. The abundant rainout of warm precipitation causes a reduction of low and middle cloud amount due to rainout, and reduced high clouds due to less water vapor available for ice-phase convection. However, clod radiation feedback caused by the increased rainfall efficiency, leads to differential vertical heating/cooling producing a more unstable atmosphere, allowing, more intense, but isolated penetrative convection, with contracted anvils to develop. Results also show that increased autoconversion reduces the convective adjustment time scale, resulting in faster recycling of atmospheric water. Most interestingly, the increased low level heating associated with warm rain leads to more energetic Madden and Julian oscillations in the tropics, with well-defined eastward propagation. While reducing the autoconversion leads to an abundant mix of westward and eastward tropical disturbances on daily to weekly time scales. The crucial link of precipitation microphysical processes to climate change including the effects of aerosols will be discussed.

  3. Advances in Understanding Decadal Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a joint Brazil-France-U.S. program, known as PIRATA (Pilot Research moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic), was proposed to begin the deployment of moored measurement platforms in the tropical Atlantic in order to enhance the existing observational data base and subsequent understanding of the processes by which the ocean and atmosphere couple in key regions of the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Empirical studies have suggested that there are strong relationships between tropical Atlantic upper ocean variability, SST, ocean-atmosphere coupling and regional climate variability. During the early 1980's a coordinated set of surface wind, subsurface thermal structure, and subsurface current observations were obtained as part of the U.S.-France SEQUAL-FOCAL process experiment designed to observe the seasonal response of the tropical Atlantic Ocean to surface forcing. Since that time, however, the observational data base for the tropical Atlantic Ocean has disintegrated to a few ship-tracks measuring ocean temperatures and a small collection of tide gauge stations measuring sea level. A more comprehensive set of observations, modeling and empirical studies is now in order to make progress on understanding the regional climate variability. The proposed PIRATA program will use mooring platforms similar to the tropical Pacific Ocean TAO array to measure surface fluxes of momentum and heat and the corresponding changes in the upper ocean thermal structure. It is anticipated that the oceanic data from this monitoring array will also be used in a predictive mode for initialization studies of regional coupled climate models. Of particular interest are zonal and meridional modes of ocean-atmosphere variability within the tropical Atlantic basin that have significant impacts on the regional climate of the bordering continents.

  4. Emergency management: does it have a sufficiently comprehensive understanding of decision-making, process and context?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niculae, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: It is now widely recognized in the social and management sciences that the effective support of decision-making requires a multi-disciplinary perspective, with businesses increasingly using inter-disciplinary teams. This trend is also seen in nuclear emergency management, for example in the UK inter-disciplinary groups are formed to focus on specific topics such as remediation where their recommendations are feed to the decision makers. The necessity of taking a multi-disciplinary perspective is particularly important for contexts in which the decision makers are likely to be under high stress and so could revert to instinctive patterns of behaviour and modes of communication found in their core disciplines. Yet when we look at the design of the information systems produced to support emergency management, we find a very partial set of disciplinary perspectives providing a strongly rationalistic, technocratic view. These systems have been developed by the technical community with little consultation with non-expert decision makers and limited understanding of emergency management processes across Europe and the social systems with which they interact. In this paper we have considered the Cynefin model, developed by IBM, which draws together much of the work on decision making and decision context over the past 30-40 years, describing the possible contexts in which decision-making may take place, the known, the knowable, the complex and the chaotic space. The known space is the realm of scientific knowledge where the cause and effect are understood. Next, there is the knowable space the realm of scientific enquiry where the cause and effect can be determined with sufficient data. In the complex space there are many interacting cause and effects, to the extent that we do not have sufficiently refined models to predict what will happen as a consequence of any particular actions and the cause and effect may only be explained after the event. In the chaotic

  5. Understanding controls of hydrologic processes across two monolithological catchments using model-data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, D.; Shi, Y.; Li, L.

    2016-12-01

    Field measurements are important to understand the fluxes of water, energy, sediment, and solute in the Critical Zone however are expensive in time, money, and labor. This study aims to assess the model predictability of hydrological processes in a watershed using information from another intensively-measured watershed. We compare two watersheds of different lithology using national datasets, field measurements, and physics-based model, Flux-PIHM. We focus on two monolithological, forested watersheds under the same climate in the Shale Hills Susquehanna CZO in central Pennsylvania: the Shale-based Shale Hills (SSH, 0.08 km2) and the sandstone-based Garner Run (GR, 1.34 km2). We firstly tested the transferability of calibration coefficients from SSH to GR. We found that without any calibration the model can successfully predict seasonal average soil moisture and discharge which shows the advantage of a physics-based model, however, cannot precisely capture some peaks or the runoff in summer. The model reproduces the GR field data better after calibrating the soil hydrology parameters. In particular, the percentage of sand turns out to be a critical parameter in reproducing data. With sandstone being the dominant lithology, GR has much higher sand percentage than SSH (48.02% vs. 29.01%), leading to higher hydraulic conductivity, lower overall water storage capacity, and in general lower soil moisture. This is consistent with area averaged soil moisture observations using the cosmic-ray soil moisture observing system (COSMOS) at the two sites. This work indicates that some parameters, including evapotranspiration parameters, are transferrable due to similar climatic and land cover conditions. However, the key parameters that control soil moisture, including the sand percentage, need to be recalibrated, reflecting the key role of soil hydrological properties.

  6. Upper Ocean Mixing Processes and Circulation in the Arabian Sea during Monsoons using Remote Sensing, Hydrographic Observations and HYCOM Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    salinity fronts observed by SMOS & Aquarius, Open Science Conference, Salinity and Freshwater Changes in the Ocean...variability of the Seychelles-Chagos thermocline ridge, Open Science Conference, Salinity and Freshwater Changes in the Ocean, October 12-14, 2015, Hamburg, Germany. (Poster Presentation) HONORS/AWARDS/PRIZES None ...Arabian Sea experiences more evaporation than precipitation and is connected to the warm and highly saline waters of the Persian Gulf and Red

  7. Ocean microbial metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhof, Lee J.; Goodman, Robert M.

    2009-09-01

    Technology for accessing the genomic DNA of microorganisms, directly from environmental samples without prior cultivation, has opened new vistas to understanding microbial diversity and functions. Especially as applied to soils and the oceans, environments on Earth where microbial diversity is vast, metagenomics and its emergent approaches have the power to transform rapidly our understanding of environmental microbiology. Here we explore select recent applications of the metagenomic suite to ocean microbiology.

  8. Insights into Students' Conceptual Understanding Using Textual Analysis: A Case Study in Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncher, Andrea M.; Jayalath, Dhammika; Boles, Wageeh

    2016-01-01

    Concept inventory tests are one method to evaluate conceptual understanding and identify possible misconceptions. The multiple-choice question format, offering a choice between a correct selection and common misconceptions, can provide an assessment of students' conceptual understanding in various dimensions. Misconceptions of some engineering…

  9. The Grieving Process in Children: Strategies for Understanding, Educating, and Reconciling Children's Perceptions of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Clarissa A.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of how young children understand death, and offers concrete strategies for talking to children about death and suggestions for teachers about how to help children of various ages through grief and mourning. Highlights developmental differences in four components of children's understanding of death: irreversibility, finality,…

  10. Organics and Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    We now know that the outer solar system contains a number of Ocean Worlds (and candidate Ocean Worlds), including Europa, Titan, Enceladus, Callisto, and Ganymede. The presence of liquid water on these worlds (and also liquid hydrocarbons on the multi-ocean world Titan) means they are particularly intriguing sites for searching for life in the solar system. In addition to the presence of liquid, the search for life centers around understanding the abundance and composition of organic materials available for the origin, evolution, and persistence of life. Characterization of these organics is necessary for assessing the habitability of Ocean Worlds and searching for past or extant life, which in turn requires a robust framework for identifying biosignatures and instruments that are capable of the required measurements. I will review our current understanding of organic materials and Ocean Worlds and discuss future prospects for improving the state of knowledge including the search for life.

  11. Upper ocean variability of the equatorial Indian Ocean and its relation to chlorophyll pigment concentration.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, J.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    Hydrographic data from the upper ocean together with atmospheric data and satellite data are used to understand the variability of upper ocean and its relation to surface chlorophyll in the Equatorial Indian Ocean. The sea surface temperature showed...

  12. A biologically relevant method for considering patterns of oceanic retention in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Mao; Corney, Stuart P.; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Klocker, Andreas; Sumner, Michael; Constable, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Many marine species have planktonic forms - either during a larval stage or throughout their lifecycle - that move passively or are strongly influenced by ocean currents. Understanding these patterns of movement is important for informing marine ecosystem management and for understanding ecological processes generally. Retention of biological particles in a particular area due to ocean currents has received less attention than transport pathways, particularly for the Southern Ocean. We present a method for modelling retention time, based on the half-life for particles in a particular region, that is relevant for biological processes. This method uses geostrophic velocities at the ocean surface, derived from 23 years of satellite altimetry data (1993-2016), to simulate the advection of passive particles during the Southern Hemisphere summer season (from December to March). We assess spatial patterns in the retention time of passive particles and evaluate the processes affecting these patterns for the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. Our results indicate that the distribution of retention time is related to bathymetric features and the resulting ocean dynamics. Our analysis also reveals a moderate level of consistency between spatial patterns of retention time and observations of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) distribution.

  13. The ocean circulation inverse problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wunsch, C

    1996-01-01

    .... This book addresses the problem of inferring the state of the ocean circulation, understanding it dynamically, and even forecasting it through a quantitative combination of theory and observation...

  14. Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.

    2012-12-01

    Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non

  15. ZOOPLANKTON and other data from net casts in the Antarctic Ocean (>60 degrees South) from the NATHANIEL B. PALMER in support of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) / Southern Ocean and the US JGOFS Antarctic Environments Southern Ocean Process Study (AESOPS) projects from 28 October 1997 to 03 February 1998 (NODC Accession 0000498)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and other data were collected from the NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Antarctic Ocean (> 60 degrees South) from 28 October 1997 to 03 February 1998. Data...

  16. The pH of Enceladus' ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glein, Christopher R.; Baross, John A.; Waite, J. Hunter

    2015-08-01

    Saturn's moon, Enceladus, is a geologically active waterworld. The prevailing paradigm is that there is a subsurface ocean that erupts to the surface, which leads to the formation of a plume of vapor and ice above the south polar region. The chemistry of the ocean is just beginning to be understood, but is of profound geochemical and astrobiological interest. Here, we determine the pH of the ocean using a thermodynamic model of carbonate speciation. Observational data from the Cassini spacecraft are used to make a chemical model of ocean water on Enceladus. The model suggests that Enceladus' ocean is a Na-Cl-CO3 solution with an alkaline pH of ∼11-12. The dominance of aqueous NaCl is a feature that Enceladus' ocean shares with terrestrial seawater, but the ubiquity of dissolved Na2CO3 suggests that soda lakes are more analogous to the Enceladus ocean. The high pH implies that the hydroxide ion should be relatively abundant, while divalent metals should be present at low concentrations owing to buffering by carbonates and phyllosilicates on the ocean floor. Carboxyl groups in dissolved organic species would be negatively charged, while amino groups would exist predominately in the neutral form. Knowledge of the pH improves our understanding of geochemical processes in Enceladus' ocean. The high pH is interpreted to be a key consequence of serpentinization of chondritic rock, as predicted by prior geochemical reaction path models; although degassing of CO2 from the ocean may also play a role depending on the efficiency of mixing processes in the ocean. Serpentinization leads to the generation of H2, a geochemical fuel that can support both abiotic and biological synthesis of organic molecules such as those that have been detected in Enceladus' plume. Serpentinization and H2 generation should have occurred on Enceladus, like on the parent bodies of aqueously altered meteorites; but it is unknown whether these critical processes are still taking place, or if

  17. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the terrestrial planets: importance for understanding of processes of their formation and subsequent development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, E.; Bogatikov, O.

    2009-04-01

    Our knowledge about formation and evolution of the terrestrial planets (the Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury and, possibly, the Moon) based on different physical and geochemical speculations and models. The main disadvantage of such hypotheses is their abstract character and ignoring any data on tectonomagmatic evolution of those planets. At the same time, just this type of data provide an important information, which is necessary for elaborating of a present-day theory of their formation and evolution. The Earth has been much better studied compared to the other planets, therefore we will discuss the main questions of planetary tectonomagmatic evolution using the Earth as example plus involve other data on the Moon and the terrestrial planets. Two dominating hypotheses about composition of the primordial Earth's crust exist now: (1) traditional implies that the primordial crust had basic composition, whereas the sialic crust resulted from a geosyncline process or, in modern terms, from processes at convergent plate margins, and (2) primordial crust was sialic; the plate tectonic mechanisms started in the Middle Paleoproterozoic and resulted in oceanic spreading and formation of the secondary oceanic crust. Both models require a global melting of a primary chondritic material to form the primordial crust. The final result depends on the degree of melt differentiation during solidification of a magmatic ocean. Such a solidification, due to differences between adiabatic and melting-points gradients had to proceed in bottom-top direction (Jeffries, 1929) and resulted in accumulation of low-temperature derivates in the primordial crust. Geological data, namely granite-dominated Archean crust, and results of studying of detrital zircon from Australia supports the primordial-sialic crust hypothesis. The Moon which is four times smaller than Earth has a basic primordial crust. Such a difference can be explained by different depths of their magmatic oceans. The Early

  18. Ocean Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Andrew F.; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The ocean moderates the Earth's climate due to its vast capacity to store and transport heat; the influence of the large-scale ocean circulation on changes in climate is considered in this chapter. The ocean experiences both buoyancy forcing (through heating/cooling and evaporation/precipitation) and wind forcing. Almost all ocean forcing occurs at the surface, but these changes are communicated throughout the entire depth of the ocean through the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). In ...

  19. Increasing ocean sciences in K and 1st grade classrooms through ocean sciences curriculum aligned to A Framework for K-12 Science Education, and implementation support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedemonte, S.; Weiss, E. L.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean and climate sciences are rarely introduced at the early elementary levels. Reasons for this vary, but include little direct attention at the national and state levels; lack of quality instructional materials; and, lack of teacher content knowledge. Recent recommendations by the National Research Council, "revise the Earth and Space sciences core ideas and grade band endpoints to include more attention to the ocean whenever possible" (NRC, 2012, p. 336) adopted in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), may increase the call for ocean and climate sciences to be addressed. In response to these recommendations' and the recognition that an understanding of some of the Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs) would be incomplete without an understanding of processes or phenomena unique to the ocean and ocean organisms; the ocean Literacy community have created documents that show the alignment of NGSS with the Ocean Literacy Principles and Fundamental Concepts (Ocean Literacy, 2013) as well as the Ocean Literacy Scope and Sequence for Grades K-12 (Ocean Literacy, 2010), providing a solid argument for how and to what degree ocean sciences should be part of the curriculum. However, the percentage of science education curricula focused on the ocean remains very low. This session will describe a new project, that draws on the expertise of curriculum developers, ocean literacy advocates, and researchers to meet the challenges of aligning ocean sciences curriculum to NGSS, and supporting its implementation. The desired outcomes of the proposed project are to provide a rigorous standards aligned curricula that addresses all of the Life Sciences, and some Earth and Space Sciences and Engineering Design Core Ideas for Grades K and 1; and provides teachers with the support they need to understand the content and begin implementation. The process and lessons learned will be shared.

  20. Electromagnetic exploration of the oceanic mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic exploration is a geophysical method for examining the Earth's interior through observations of natural or artificial electromagnetic field fluctuations. The method has been in practice for more than 70 years, and 40 years ago it was first applied to ocean areas. During the past few decades, there has been noticeable progress in the methods of instrumentation, data acquisition (observation), data processing and inversion. Due to this progress, applications of this method to oceanic regions have revealed electrical features of the oceanic upper mantle down to depths of several hundred kilometers for different geologic and tectonic environments such as areas around mid-oceanic ridges, areas around hot-spot volcanoes, subduction zones, and normal ocean areas between mid-oceanic ridges and subduction zones. All these results estimate the distribution of the electrical conductivity in the oceanic mantle, which is key for understanding the dynamics and evolution of the Earth together with different physical properties obtained through other geophysical methods such as seismological techniques.

  1. A Goal Congruity Model of Role Entry, Engagement, and Exit: Understanding Communal Goal Processes in STEM Gender Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Amanda B; Steinberg, Mia; Brown, Elizabeth R; Belanger, Aimee L; Clark, Emily K

    2017-05-01

    The goal congruity perspective provides a theoretical framework to understand how motivational processes influence and are influenced by social roles. In particular, we invoke this framework to understand communal goal processes as proximal motivators of decisions to engage in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). STEM fields are not perceived as affording communal opportunities to work with or help others, and understanding these perceived goal affordances can inform knowledge about differences between (a) STEM and other career pathways and (b) women's and men's choices. We review the patterning of gender disparities in STEM that leads to a focus on communal goal congruity (Part I), provide evidence for the foundational logic of the perspective (Part II), and explore the implications for research and policy (Part III). Understanding and transmitting the opportunities for communal goal pursuit within STEM can reap widespread benefits for broadening and deepening participation.

  2. I'm sorry to say, but your understanding of image processing fundamentals is absolutely wrong

    OpenAIRE

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I have proposed a few ideas that are entirely new and therefore might look suspicious. All the novelties come as a natural extension of a new definition of information that is sequentially applied to various aspects of image processing. The most important innovation is positing information image processing as the prime mode of image processing (in contrast to traditionally dominant data image processing). The next novelty is the dissociation between physical and semantic inform...

  3. Coastal Ocean Observing Network - Open Source Architecture for Data Management and Web-Based Data Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattabhi Rama Rao, E.; Venkat Shesu, R.; Udaya Bhaskar, T. V. S.

    2012-07-01

    The observations from the oceans are the backbone for any kind of operational services, viz. potential fishing zone advisory services, ocean state forecast, storm surges, cyclones, monsoon variability, tsunami, etc. Though it is important to monitor open Ocean, it is equally important to acquire sufficient data in the coastal ocean through coastal ocean observing systems for re-analysis, analysis and forecast of coastal ocean by assimilating different ocean variables, especially sub-surface information; validation of remote sensing data, ocean and atmosphere model/analysis and to understand the processes related to air-sea interaction and ocean physics. Accurate information and forecast of the state of the coastal ocean at different time scales is vital for the wellbeing of the coastal population as well as for the socio-economic development of the country through shipping, offshore oil and energy etc. Considering the importance of ocean observations in terms of understanding our ocean environment and utilize them for operational oceanography, a large number of platforms were deployed in the Indian Ocean including coastal observatories, to acquire data on ocean variables in and around Indian Seas. The coastal observation network includes HF Radars, wave rider buoys, sea level gauges, etc. The surface meteorological and oceanographic data generated by these observing networks are being translated into ocean information services through analysis and modelling. Centralized data management system is a critical component in providing timely delivery of Ocean information and advisory services. In this paper, we describe about the development of open-source architecture for real-time data reception from the coastal observation network, processing, quality control, database generation and web-based data services that includes on-line data visualization and data downloads by various means.

  4. Please Wait, Processing: A Selective Literature Review of the Neurological Understanding of Emotional Processing in ASD and Its Potential Contribution to Neuroeducation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyman, Eric

    2017-11-17

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its corresponding conditions have been investigated from a multitude of perspectives resulting in varying understandings of its origin, its outplay, its prognosis, and potential methods of intervention and education for individuals with the disorder. One area that has contributed significantly to providing a different type of understanding is that of neuroscience, and specifically neuroimaging. This paper will offer a selective literature review of research that investigates the role of emotional processing in ASD, and how a deepening of this line of understanding can be used to inform more comprehensive educational practices.

  5. Please Wait, Processing: A Selective Literature Review of the Neurological Understanding of Emotional Processing in ASD and Its Potential Contribution to Neuroeducation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Shyman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD and its corresponding conditions have been investigated from a multitude of perspectives resulting in varying understandings of its origin, its outplay, its prognosis, and potential methods of intervention and education for individuals with the disorder. One area that has contributed significantly to providing a different type of understanding is that of neuroscience, and specifically neuroimaging. This paper will offer a selective literature review of research that investigates the role of emotional processing in ASD, and how a deepening of this line of understanding can be used to inform more comprehensive educational practices.

  6. Geomorphic and vegetation processes of the Willamette River floodplain, Oregon: current understanding and unanswered science questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Hulse, David; Gregory, Stanley V.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the current understanding of floodplain processes and landforms for the Willamette River and its major tributaries. The area of focus encompasses the main stem Willamette River above Newberg and the portions of the Coast Fork Willamette, Middle Fork Willamette, McKenzie, and North, South and main stem Santiam Rivers downstream of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dams. These reaches constitute a large portion of the alluvial, salmon-bearing rivers in the Willamette Basin. The geomorphic, or historical, floodplain of these rivers has two zones - the active channel where coarse sediment is mobilized and transported during annual flooding and overbank areas where fine sediment is deposited during higher magnitude floods. Historically, characteristics of the rivers and geomorphic floodplain (including longitudinal patterns in channel complexity and the abundance of side channels, islands and gravel bars) were controlled by the interactions between floods and the transport of coarse sediment and large wood. Local channel responses to these interactions were then shaped by geologic features like bedrock outcrops and variations in channel slope. Over the last 150 years, floods and the transport of coarse sediment and large wood have been substantially reduced in the basin. With dam regulation, nearly all peak flows are now confined to the main channels. Large floods (greater than 10-year recurrence interval prior to basinwide flow regulation) have been largely eliminated. Also, the magnitude and frequency of small floods (events that formerly recurred every 2–10 years) have decreased substantially. The large dams trap an estimated 50–60 percent of bed-material sediment—the building block of active channel habitats—that historically entered the Willamette River. They also trap more than 80 percent of the estimated bed material in the lower South Santiam River and Middle and Coast Forks of the Willamette River. Downstream, revetments further

  7. Changes in Pre-service Science Teachers' Understandings After Being Involved in Explicit Nature of Science and Socioscientific Argumentation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutluca, A. Y.; Aydın, A.

    2017-08-01

    The study explored the changes in pre-service science teachers' understanding of the nature of science and their opinions about the nature of science, science teaching and argumentation after their participation in explicit nature of science (NOS) and socioscientific argumentation processes. The participants were 56 third-grade pre-service science teachers studying in a state university in Turkey. The treatment group comprised 27 participants, and there were 29 participants in the comparison group. The comparison group participants were involved in a student-centred science-teaching process, and the participants of the treatment group were involved in explicit NOS and socioscientific argumentation processes. In the study, which lasted a total of 11 weeks, a NOS-as-argumentation questionnaire was administered to all the participants to determine their understanding of NOS at the beginning and end of the data collection process, and six random participants of the treatment group participated in semi-structured interview questions in order to further understand their views regarding NOS, science teaching and argumentation. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis revealed that the explicit NOS and socioscientific argumentation processes had a significant effect on pre-service science teachers' NOS understandings. Furthermore, NOS, argumentation and science teaching views of the participants in the treatment group showed a positive change. The results of this study are discussed in light of the related literature, and suggestions are made within the context of contribution to science-teaching literature, improvement of education quality and education of pre-service teachers.

  8. Understanding price discovery in interconnected markets: Generalized Langevin process approach and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Natalya A.; Horvath, Philip A.; Sinha, Amit K.

    2018-02-01

    While the literature on price discovery process and information flow between dominant and satellite market is exhaustive, most studies have applied an approach that can be traced back to Hasbrouck (1995) or Gonzalo and Granger (1995). In this paper, however, we propose a Generalized Langevin process with asymmetric double-well potential function, with co-integrated time series and interconnected diffusion processes to model the information flow and price discovery process in two, a dominant and a satellite, interconnected markets. A simulated illustration of the model is also provided.

  9. Understanding community-based processes for research ethics review: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Nancy; Brazauskas, Ruta; Drew, Elaine; Wong, Kristine A; Moy, Lisa; Baden, Andrea Corage; Cyr, Kirsten; Ulevicus, Jocelyn; Seifer, Sarena D

    2011-12-01

    Institutional review boards (IRBs), designed to protect individual study participants, do not routinely assess community consent, risks, and benefits. Community groups are establishing ethics review processes to determine whether and how research is conducted in their communities. To strengthen the ethics review of community-engaged research, we sought to identify and describe these processes. In 2008 we conducted an online survey of US-based community groups and community-institutional partnerships involved in human-participants research. We identified 109 respondents who met participation criteria and had ethics review processes in place. The respondents' processes mainly functioned through community-institutional partnerships, community-based organizations, community health centers, and tribal organizations. These processes had been created primarily to ensure that the involved communities were engaged in and directly benefited from research and were protected from research harms. The primary process benefits included giving communities a voice in determining which studies were conducted and ensuring that studies were relevant and feasible, and that they built community capacity. The primary process challenges were the time and resources needed to support the process. Community-based processes for ethics review consider community-level ethical issues that institution-based IRBs often do not.

  10. Understanding the Condemnation Process in Texas. Teachers Instructional Packet, TIP No. 8, Fall 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Real Estate Research Center.

    Part of a series of classroom aids designed for real estate instructors, this instructional packet was developed to help real estate students understand where the power to condemn property comes from, which entities have this power, what the condemnation procedure is in Texas, and how property rights are best protected. First, information about…

  11. Modelling Joint Decision Making Processes Involving Emotion-Related Valuing and Mutual Empathic Understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a social agent model for joint decision making is presented addressing the role of mutually acknowledged empathic understanding in the decision making. The model is based on principles from recent neurological theories on mirror neurons, internal simulation, and emotion-related

  12. A process approach to children's understanding of scientific concepts : A longitudinal case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, Steffie; Steenbeek, Henderien; van Dijk, Marijn; van Geert, Paul

    In order to optimally study changes in the complexity of understanding, microgenetic measures are needed, and a coupling of these to longer-term measures. We focus on the interaction dynamics between a 4-year old boy and a researcher while they work on tasks about air pressure in three subsequent

  13. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Nathoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS.

  14. Position, Possession or Process? Understanding Objective and Subjective Employability during University-to-Work Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay-Somerville, Belgin; Scholarios, Dora

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to understand predictors of objective (i.e. job offers, employment status and employment quality) and subjective (i.e. perceived) graduate employability during university-to-work transitions. Using survey data from two cohorts of graduates in the UK (N = 293), it contrasts three competing theoretical approaches to employability:…

  15. Watersheds in Baltimore, Maryland: understanding and application of integrated ecological and social processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward T.A. Pickett; Kenneth T. Belt; Michael F. Galvin; Peter M. Groffman; J. Morgan Grove; Donald C. Outen; Richard V. Pouyat; William P. Stack; Mary L. Cadenasso

    2007-01-01

    The Water and Watersheds program has made significant and lasting contributions to the basic understanding of the complex ecological system of Baltimore, MD. Funded at roughly the same time as the urban Long- Term Ecological Research (LTER) project in Baltimore, the Water and Watersheds grant and the LTER grant together established the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES)...

  16. Evaluation of Scaling Approaches for the Oceanic Dissipation Rate of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in the Surface Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esters, L. T.; Ward, B.; Sutherland, G.; Ten Doeschate, A.; Landwehr, S.; Bell, T. G.; Christensen, K. H.

    2016-02-01

    The air-sea exchange of heat, gas and momentum plays an important role for the Earth's weather and global climate. The exchange processes between ocean and atmosphere are influenced by the prevailing surface ocean dynamics. This surface ocean is a highly turbulent region where there is enhanced production of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The dissipation rate of TKE (ɛ) in the surface ocean is an important process for governing the depth of both the mixing and mixed layers, which are important length-scales for many aspects of ocean research. However, there exist very limited observations of ɛ under open ocean conditions and consequently our understanding of how to model the dissipation profile is very limited. The approaches to model profiles of ɛ that exist, differ by orders of magnitude depending on their underlying theoretical assumption and included physical processes. Therefore, scaling ɛ is not straight forward and requires open ocean measurements of ɛ to validate the respective scaling laws. This validated scaling of ɛ, is for example required to produce accurate mixed layer depths in global climate models. Errors in the depth of the ocean surface boundary layer can lead to biases in sea surface temperature. Here, we present open ocean measurements of ɛ from the Air-Sea Interaction Profiler (ASIP) collected during several cruises in different ocean basins. ASIP is an autonomous upwardly rising microstructure profiler allowing undisturbed profiling up to the ocean surface. These direct measurements of ɛ under various types of atmospheric and oceanic conditions along with measurements of atmospheric fluxes and wave conditions allow us to make a unique assessment of several scaling approaches based on wind, wave and buoyancy forcing. This will allow us to best assess the most appropriate ɛ-based parameterisation for air-sea exchange.

  17. Towards a Dialogic Understanding of Children's Art-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsu

    2018-01-01

    This article is intended to identify the complex process of children's art making by bringing new methodologies into the analysis of children's pictures. This article analyses the art-making process of a selected drawing by a five-year-old boy. The study builds on previous findings regarding children's verbal discourses during the art-making…

  18. Understanding bit by bit: information theory and the role of inflections in sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manika, S.

    2014-01-01

    What makes a sentence hard to process? Apart from the meanings of the words it contains, their number, and the way these words combine into constituents, words also contribute to processing difficulty on the basis of their accessibility in lexical retrieval. Apart from their frequency of use or

  19. Propositional integration and world-knowledge inference: Processes in understanding because sentences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozijn, R.; Noordman, L.G.M.; Vonk, W.

    2011-01-01

    he issue addressed in this study is whether propositional integration and world-knowledge inference can be distinguished as separate processes during the comprehension of Dutch omdat (because) sentences. “Propositional integration” refers to the process by which the reader establishes the type of

  20. A Scheme for Understanding Group Processes in Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar Chiriac, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify, describe and interpret group processes occurring in tutorials in problem-based learning. Another aim was to investigate if a combination of Steiner's (Steiner, I. D. (1972). "Group process and productivity". New York: Academic Press.) theory of group work and Bion's (Bion, W. R. (1961). "Experiences in…

  1. Understanding micro-processes of institutionalization: stewardship contracting and national forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Moseley; Susan Charnley

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines micro-processes of institutionalization, using the case of stewardship contracting within the US Forest Service. Our basic premise is that, until a new policy becomes an everyday practice among local actors, it will not become institutionalized at the macro-scale. We find that micro-processes of institutionalization are driven by a mixture of large-...

  2. A study on the evolution of Indian Ocean triple junction and the process of deformation in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.

    and Southeast Asia. The deformation effects, viz., folded and faulted oceanic basement/sediments, high localized heat flow, intraplate seismicity are well reported over a narrow band in the equatorial region of the basin (5 degrees N to 8 degrees S, 80 degrees E...

  3. Climate fluctuations of tropical coupled systems — The role of ocean dynamics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chang, P.; Yamagata, T.; Schopf, P.; Behera, S.K.; Carton, J.; Kessler, W.S.; Meyers, G.; Qu, T.; Schott, F.; Shetye, S.R.; Xie, S.P.

    research was on understanding El Niño-related processes and on development of tropical ocean models capable of simulating and predicting El Niño. These studies led to an appreciation of the vital role the ocean plays in providing the memory for predicting...

  4. The recent availability of data from a new generation of ocean colour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The recent availability of data from a new generation of ocean colour sensors, such as the Seaviewing. Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) has stimulated the need for a greater understanding of the bio-optical processes fundamental to the interpretation of remotely sensed ocean colour. One of the most pressing ...

  5. Ocean acidification postcards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreppel, Heather A.; Cimitile, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting research on ocean acidification in polar, temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions including the Arctic, West Florida Shelf, and the Caribbean. Project activities include field assessment, experimental laboratory studies, and evaluation of existing data. The USGS is participating in international and interagency working groups to develop research strategies to increase understanding of the global implications of ocean acidification. Research strategies include new approaches for seawater chemistry observation and modeling, assessment of physiological effects on organisms, changes in marine ecosystem structure, new technologies, and information resources. These postcards highlight ongoing USGS research efforts in ocean acidification and carbon cycling in marine and coastal ecosystems in three different regions: polar, temperate, and tropical. To learn more about ocean acidification visit: http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/ocean-acidification/.

  6. Using Self-Efficacy Beliefs to Understand How Students in a General Chemistry Course Approach the Exam Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson-Conrad, Angela; Kowalske, Megan Grunert

    2018-01-01

    Retention of students who major in STEM continues to be a major concern for universities. Many students cite poor teaching and disappointing grades as reasons for dropping out of STEM courses. Current college chemistry courses often assess what a student has learned through summative exams. To understand students' experiences of the exam process,…

  7. Enduring Understandings, Artistic Processes, and the New Visual Arts Standards: A Close-up Consideration for Curriculum Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Marilyn G.

    2014-01-01

    National Coalition for Core Arts Standards (NCCAS) Writing Team member Marilyn G. Stewart discusses what to expect from the new "next generation" Visual Arts Standards, detailing the 4 Artistic Processes and 15 Enduring Understandings. This invited essay addresses the instructional aspects of the standards, and looks at how they can help…

  8. Understanding How Students Study: The Genealogy and Conceptual Basis of a Widely Used Pedagogical Research Tool, Biggs' Study Process Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Warren; Boyd, William; Boyd, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    The Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) continues to be applied in a wide range of pedagogical situations. However, the question remains as to how well a researcher understands the conceptual basis behind the tool they choose. This essay provides a compact and comprehensive view of the conceptual basis for the development of the original SPQ, and…

  9. The Influence of Toy Design Activities on Middle School Students' Understanding of the Engineering Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ninger; Pereira, Nielsen L.; Tarun, Thomas George; Alperovich, Jeffrey; Booth, Joran; Chandrasegaran, Senthil; Tew, Jeffrey David; Kulkarni, Devadatta M.; Ramani, Karthik

    2017-01-01

    The societal demand for inspiring and engaging science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students and preparing our workforce for the emerging creative economy has necessitated developing students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes from as early as elementary school levels. Hands-on engineering design…

  10. Mitochondrial diversity in Gonionemus (Trachylina:Hydrozoa and its implications for understanding the origins of clinging jellyfish in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette F. Govindarajan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining whether a population is introduced or native to a region can be challenging due to inadequate taxonomy, the presence of cryptic lineages, and poor historical documentation. For taxa with resting stages that bloom episodically, determining origin can be especially challenging as an environmentally-triggered abrupt appearance of the taxa may be confused with an anthropogenic introduction. Here, we assess diversity in mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I sequences obtained from multiple Atlantic and Pacific locations, and discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the origin of clinging jellyfish Gonionemus in the Northwest Atlantic. Clinging jellyfish are known for clinging to seagrasses and seaweeds, and have complex life cycles that include resting stages. They are especially notorious as some, although not all, populations are associated with severe sting reactions. The worldwide distribution of Gonionemus has been aptly called a “zoogeographic puzzle” and our results refine rather than resolve the puzzle. We find a relatively deep divergence that may indicate cryptic speciation between Gonionemus from the Northeast Pacific and Northwest Pacific/Northwest Atlantic. Within the Northwest Pacific/Northwest Atlantic clade, we find haplotypes unique to each region. We also find one haplotype that is shared between highly toxic Vladivostok-area populations and some Northwest Atlantic populations. Our results are consistent with multiple scenarios that involve both native and anthropogenic processes. We evaluate each scenario and discuss critical directions for future research, including improving the resolution of population genetic structure, identifying possible lineage admixture, and better characterizing and quantifying the toxicity phenotype.

  11. Naive Architecting - Understanding the Reasoning Process of Students A Descriptive Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesch, Uwe van; Avgeriou, Paris; Babar, MA; Gorton,

    2010-01-01

    Software architecting entails making architecture decisions, which requires a lot of experience and expertise. Current literature contains several methods and processes to support architects with architecture design, documentation and evaluation but not with the design reasoning involved in

  12. Understanding process-induced microstructures in RBa2Cu3O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, R. W.; Kramer, M. J.

    1990-06-01

    During the processing of rare earth (R)-barium-copper-oxygen superconductors, a variety of microstructures can be induced. Many processes are designed to avoid forming some structures, but these same processes can result in other structures which degrade the superconducting properties. Because liquid phases can be detrimental, for example, low-temperature calcination is often employed. But the CO2 gas evolved during calcination leads to the formation of a nanoc-rystalline microstructure which may affect superconducting properties. Textures and defects can be induced by high-temperature and high-pressure deformation. For commercial dreams to become reality, these processing-induced microstructures, and their effects on properties, will have to be understood and controlled.

  13. The role of stable isotopes in understanding rainfall interception processes: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The isotopic composition of water transmitted by the canopy as throughfall or stemflow reflects important hydrologic processes occurring in the canopy. A synthesis of the literature shows that complex spatiotemporal variations of isotopic composition are created by canopy interce...

  14. Using iterative learning to improve understanding during the informed consent process in a South African psychiatric genomics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susser, Ezra; Mall, Sumaya; Mqulwana, Sibonile G.; Mndini, Michael M.; Ntola, Odwa A.; Nagdee, Mohamed; Zingela, Zukiswa; Van Wyk, Stephanus; Stein, Dan J.

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining informed consent is a great challenge in global health research. There is a need for tools that can screen for and improve potential research participants’ understanding of the research study at the time of recruitment. Limited empirical research has been conducted in low and middle income countries, evaluating informed consent processes in genomics research. We sought to investigate the quality of informed consent obtained in a South African psychiatric genomics study. A Xhosa language version of the University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent Questionnaire (UBACC) was used to screen for capacity to consent and improve understanding through iterative learning in a sample of 528 Xhosa people with schizophrenia and 528 controls. We address two questions: firstly, whether research participants’ understanding of the research study improved through iterative learning; and secondly, what were predictors for better understanding of the research study at the initial screening? During screening 290 (55%) cases and 172 (33%) controls scored below the 14.5 cut-off for acceptable understanding of the research study elements, however after iterative learning only 38 (7%) cases and 13 (2.5%) controls continued to score below this cut-off. Significant variables associated with increased understanding of the consent included the psychiatric nurse recruiter conducting the consent screening, higher participant level of education, and being a control. The UBACC proved an effective tool to improve understanding of research study elements during consent, for both cases and controls. The tool holds utility for complex studies such as those involving genomics, where iterative learning can be used to make significant improvements in understanding of research study elements. The UBACC may be particularly important in groups with severe mental illness and lower education levels. Study recruiters play a significant role in managing the quality

  15. Using iterative learning to improve understanding during the informed consent process in a South African psychiatric genomics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M Campbell

    Full Text Available Obtaining informed consent is a great challenge in global health research. There is a need for tools that can screen for and improve potential research participants' understanding of the research study at the time of recruitment. Limited empirical research has been conducted in low and middle income countries, evaluating informed consent processes in genomics research. We sought to investigate the quality of informed consent obtained in a South African psychiatric genomics study. A Xhosa language version of the University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent Questionnaire (UBACC was used to screen for capacity to consent and improve understanding through iterative learning in a sample of 528 Xhosa people with schizophrenia and 528 controls. We address two questions: firstly, whether research participants' understanding of the research study improved through iterative learning; and secondly, what were predictors for better understanding of the research study at the initial screening? During screening 290 (55% cases and 172 (33% controls scored below the 14.5 cut-off for acceptable understanding of the research study elements, however after iterative learning only 38 (7% cases and 13 (2.5% controls continued to score below this cut-off. Significant variables associated with increased understanding of the consent included the psychiatric nurse recruiter conducting the consent screening, higher participant level of education, and being a control. The UBACC proved an effective tool to improve understanding of research study elements during consent, for both cases and controls. The tool holds utility for complex studies such as those involving genomics, where iterative learning can be used to make significant improvements in understanding of research study elements. The UBACC may be particularly important in groups with severe mental illness and lower education levels. Study recruiters play a significant role in managing

  16. Understanding the Processes of Customer Acquisition, Customer Retention and Customer Relationship Development

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Filip; Lelia Voinea

    2012-01-01

    Attracting new customers is an objective pursued by any organization, which in the actual competitive environment is almost inevitably facing with a phenomenon of customer migration. Therefore, lost customers must be replaced and this process involves specific activities of prospects identification, communication channels selection and choice of the adequate supply for targeting potential customers. Processes of customer retention and customer relationship development are a logical continuati...

  17. Process, institutional and organizational approaches in sociological understanding of educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Klyov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article draws attention to the nature and characteristics of culture­centric, process, institutional and organizational approaches to form the essence of the educational process as a whole. The author examines the university not only as an educational and scientific center, but also as a spiritual center, forming a new type of professional identity. It is noted that as a social phenomenon, process and social institution, education makes social changes in society, and the transparent nature of social processes, the dominance of market relations in turn affect the educational institute. However, the institutional approach makes it possible to consider the educational processes on social, and personal levels. It is observed that the institutionalization of higher education as a particular social institution within the entire social institution of education occurred in the second half of the twentieth century, which allowed to talk about the leading role of universities in modern culture. The author stresses that the theory of higher education is the widely recognized thesis that has multiple arguments. They are governed by national law based on national finance, train specialists for the national economy. In fact, the emergence of new forms of relationships is a positive social process, but there are also negative effects. Their premise, according to some researchers, was globalization, the effect of «market forces» that contribute to the development of «a world without borders».

  18. NIR spectroscopy as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for monitoring and understanding of a hydrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhisheng; Peng, Yanfang; Chen, Wei; Xu, Bing; Ma, Qun; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2013-06-01

    The use of near infrared spectroscopy was investigated as a process analytical technology to monitor the amino acids concentration profile during hydrolysis process of Cornu Bubali. A protocol was followed, including outlier selection using relationship plot of residuals versus the leverage level, calibration models using interval partial least squares and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS). A strategy of four robust root mean square error of predictions (RMSEP) values have been developed to assess calibration models by means of the desirability index. Furthermore, multivariate quantification limits (MQL) values of the optimum model were determined using two types of error. The SiPLS(3) models for L-proline, L-tyrosine, L-valine, L-phenylalanine and L-lysine provided excellent accuracies with RMSEP values of 0.0915 mg/mL, 0.1605 mg/mL, 0.0515 mg/mL, 0.0586 mg/mL and 0.0613 mg/mL, respectively. The MQL ranged from 90 ppm to 810 ppm, which confirmed that these models can be suitable for most applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding the effects of pre-processing on extracted signal features from gait accelerometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millecamps, Alexandre; Lowry, Kristin A; Brach, Jennifer S; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-07-01

    Gait accelerometry is an important approach for gait assessment. Previous contributions have adopted various pre-processing approaches for gait accelerometry signals, but none have thoroughly investigated the effects of such pre-processing operations on the obtained results. Therefore, this paper investigated the influence of pre-processing operations on signal features extracted from gait accelerometry signals. These signals were collected from 35 participants aged over 65years: 14 of them were healthy controls (HC), 10 had Parkinson׳s disease (PD) and 11 had peripheral neuropathy (PN). The participants walked on a treadmill at preferred speed. Signal features in time, frequency and time-frequency domains were computed for both raw and pre-processed signals. The pre-processing stage consisted of applying tilt correction and denoising operations to acquired signals. We first examined the effects of these operations separately, followed by the investigation of their joint effects. Several important observations were made based on the obtained results. First, the denoising operation alone had almost no effects in comparison to the trends observed in the raw data. Second, the tilt correction affected the reported results to a certain degree, which could lead to a better discrimination between groups. Third, the combination of the two pre-processing operations yielded similar trends as the tilt correction alone. These results indicated that while gait accelerometry is a valuable approach for the gait assessment, one has to carefully adopt any pre-processing steps as they alter the observed findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High-velocity basal sediment package atop oceanic crust, offshore Cascadia: Impacts on plate boundary processes and fluid migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D. E.; Keranen, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Differences in fluid pressure and mechanical properties at megathrust boundaries in subduction zones have been proposed to create varying seismogenic behavior. In Cascadia, where large ruptures are possible but little seismicity occurs presently, new seismic transects across the deformation front (COAST cruise; Holbrook et al., 2012) image an unusually high-wavespeed sedimentary unit directly overlying oceanic crust. Wavespeed increases before sediments reach the deformation front, and the well-laminated unit, consistently of 1 km thickness, can be traced for 50 km beneath the accretionary prism before imaging quality declines. Wavespeed is modeled via iterative prestack time migration (PSTM) imaging and increases from 3.5 km/sec on the seaward end of the profile to >5.0 km/s near the deformation front. Landward of the deformation front, wavespeed is low along seaward-dipping thrust faults in the Quaternary accretionary prism, indicative of rapid dewatering along faults. The observed wavespeed of 5.5 km/sec just above subducting crust is consistent with porosity consolidation, cementation, and diagenesis as the sediments encounter the deformation front. Beneath the sediment, the compressional wavespeed of uppermost oceanic crust is 3-4 km/sec, likely reduced by alteration and/or fluids, lowest within a propagator wake. The propagator wake intersects the plate boundary at an oblique angle and changes the degree of hydration of the oceanic plate as it subducts within our area. Fluid flow out of oceanic crust is likely impeded by the low-porosity basal sediment package except along the focused thrust faults. Decollements are present at the top of oceanic basement, at the top of the high-wavespeed basal unit, and within sedimentary strata at higher levels; the decollement at the top of oceanic crust is active at the toe of the deformation front. The basal sedimentary unit appears to be mechanically strong, similar to observations from offshore Sumatra, where strongly

  1. Using a Virtual Tablet Machine to Improve Student Understanding of the Complex Processes Involved in Tablet Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Sofia; Sjöström, Hans-Erik; Englund, Claire

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To develop and implement a virtual tablet machine simulation to aid distance students' understanding of the processes involved in tablet production. Design. A tablet simulation was created enabling students to study the effects different parameters have on the properties of the tablet. Once results were generated, students interpreted and explained them on the basis of current theory. Assessment. The simulation was evaluated using written questionnaires and focus group interviews. Students appreciated the exercise and considered it to be motivational. Students commented that they found the simulation, together with the online seminar and the writing of the report, was beneficial for their learning process. Conclusion. According to students' perceptions, the use of the tablet simulation contributed to their understanding of the compaction process.

  2. Applying traditional signal processing techniques to social media exploitation for situational understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelzaher, Tarek; Roy, Heather; Wang, Shiguang; Giridhar, Prasanna; Al Amin, Md. Tanvir; Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Kolodny, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Signal processing techniques such as filtering, detection, estimation and frequency domain analysis have long been applied to extract information from noisy sensor data. This paper describes the exploitation of these signal processing techniques to extract information from social networks, such as Twitter and Instagram. Specifically, we view social networks as noisy sensors that report events in the physical world. We then present a data processing stack for detection, localization, tracking, and veracity analysis of reported events using social network data. We show using a controlled experiment that the behavior of social sources as information relays varies dramatically depending on context. In benign contexts, there is general agreement on events, whereas in conflict scenarios, a significant amount of collective filtering is introduced by conflicted groups, creating a large data distortion. We describe signal processing techniques that mitigate such distortion, resulting in meaningful approximations of actual ground truth, given noisy reported observations. Finally, we briefly present an implementation of the aforementioned social network data processing stack in a sensor network analysis toolkit, called Apollo. Experiences with Apollo show that our techniques are successful at identifying and tracking credible events in the physical world.

  3. Commonisation and decommonisation: Understanding the processes of change in the Chilika Lagoon, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateep Kumar Nayak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the processes of change in a large lagoon system, and its implications for how commons can be managed as commons in the long run. We use two related concepts in our analysis of change: commonisation and decommonisation; ′commonisation′ is understood as a process through which a resource gets converted into a jointly used resource under commons institutions that deal with excludability and subtractability, and ′decommonisation′ refers to a process through which a jointly used resource under commons institutions loses these essential characteristics. We analyse various contributing issues and dynamics associated with the processes of commonisation and decommonisation. We consider evidence collected through household and village level surveys, combined with a host of qualitative and quantitative research methods in the Chilika Lagoon, the largest lagoon in India, and one of the largest lagoons in Asia. We suggest that in order to keep the Chilika commons as commons will require, as a starting point, a policy environment in which legal rights and customary livelihoods are respected. With international prawn markets stabilised and the ′pink gold rush′ over, the timing may be good for a policy change in order to create a political space for negotiation and to reverse the processes causing decommonisation. Fishers need to be empowered to re-connect to their environment and re-invent traditions of stewardship, without which there will be no resources left to fight over.

  4. Biological Niches within Human Calcified Aortic Valves: Towards Understanding of the Pathological Biomineralization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cottignoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances, mineralization site, its microarchitecture, and composition in calcific heart valve remain poorly understood. A multiscale investigation, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS, from micrometre up to nanometre, was conducted on human severely calcified aortic and mitral valves, to provide new insights into calcification process. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial relationship existing between bioapatite crystals, their local growing microenvironment, and the presence of a hierarchical architecture. Here we detected the presence of bioapatite crystals in two different mineralization sites that suggest the action of two different growth processes: a pathological crystallization process that occurs in biological niches and is ascribed to a purely physicochemical process and a matrix-mediated mineralized process in which the extracellular matrix acts as the template for a site-directed nanocrystals nucleation. Different shapes of bioapatite crystallization were observed at micrometer scale in each microenvironment but at the nanoscale level crystals appear to be made up by the same subunits.

  5. Satellite Ocean Color: Present Status, Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Watson W.; McClain, Charles R.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We are midway into our 5th consecutive year of nearly continuous, high quality ocean color observations from space. The Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner/Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances (OCTS/POLDER: Nov. 1996 - Jun. 1997), the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS: Sep. 1997 - present), and now the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS: Sep. 2000 - present) have and are providing unprecedented views of chlorophyll dynamics on global scales. Global synoptic views of ocean chlorophyll were once a fantasy for ocean color scientists. It took nearly the entire 8-year lifetime of limited Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) observations to compile seasonal climatologies. Now SeaWIFS produces comparably complete fields in about 8 days. For the first time, scientists may observe spatial and temporal variability never before seen in a synoptic context. Even more exciting, we are beginning to plausibly ask questions of interannual variability. We stand at the beginning of long-time time series of ocean color, from which we may begin to ask questions of interdecadal variability and climate change. These are the scientific questions being addressed by users of the 18-year Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer time series with respect to terrestrial processes and ocean temperatures. The nearly 5-year time series of ocean color observations now being constructed, with possibilities of continued observations, can put us at comparable standing with our terrestrial and physical oceanographic colleagues, and enable us to understand how ocean biological processes contribute to, and are affected by global climate change.

  6. Interactive Whiteboard Integration in Classrooms: Active Teachers Understanding about Their Training Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Meritxell Cortada; Quintana, Maria Graciela Badilla; Romaní, Jordi Riera

    With the incorporation in education of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), especially the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB), emerges the need for a proper teacher training process due to adequate the integration and the didactic use of this tool in the classroom. This article discusses the teachers' perception on the training process for ICT integration. Its main aim is to contribute to the unification of minimum criteria for effective ICT implementation in any training process for active teachers. This case study begins from the development of a training model called Eduticom which was putted into practice in 4 schools in Catalonia, Spain. Findings indicated different teachers' needs such as an appropriate infrastructure, a proper management and a flexible training model which essentially addresses methodological and didactic aspects of IWB uses in the classroom.

  7. Understanding Managers Decision Making Process for Tools Selection in the Core Front End of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appio, Francesco P.; Achiche, Sofiane; McAloone, Tim C.

    2011-01-01

    and optimise the activities. To select these tools, managers of the product development team have to use several premises to decide upon which tool is more appropriate to which activity. This paper proposes an approach to model the decision making process of the managers. The results underline the dimensions...... hypotheses are tested. A preliminary version of a theoretical model depicting the decision process of managers during tools selection in the FFE is proposed. The theoretical model is built from the constructed hypotheses....... influencing the decision process before a certain tool is chosen, and how those tools impact the performance of cost, time and efficiency. In order to achieve this, five companies participated for the data collection. Interesting trends and differences emerge from the analysis of the data in hand, and several...

  8. Understanding Managers Decision Making Process for Tools Selection in the Core Front End of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appio, Francesco P.; Achiche, Sofiane; McAloone, Tim C.

    2011-01-01

    and optimise the activities. To select these tools, managers of the product development team have to use several premises to decide upon which tool is more appropriate to which activity. This paper proposes an approach to model the decision making process of the managers. The results underline the dimensions......New product development (NPD) describes the process of bringing a new product or service to the market. The Fuzzy Front End (FFE) of Innovation is the term describing the activities happening before the product development phase of NPD. In the FFE of innovation, several tools are used to facilitate...... influencing the decision process before a certain tool is chosen, and how those tools impact the performance of cost, time and efficiency. In order to achieve this, five companies participated for the data collection. Interesting trends and differences emerge from the analysis of the data in hand, and several...

  9. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  10. Present status of theoretical understanding of charge changing processes at low beam energies

    OpenAIRE

    Swami, D. K.; Nandi, T.

    2017-01-01

    A model for the evaluation of charge-state distributions of fast heavy ions in solid targets is being developed since late eighties in terms of ETACHA code. Time to time it is being updated to deal with more number of electrons and non-perturbative processes. The calculation approach of the recent one, which is formulated for handling the non-perturbative processes better, is different from the earlier ones. However, the experimental results for the projectiles up to 28 electrons can be compa...

  11. Hydrology of prairie wetlands: Understanding the integrated surface-water and groundwater processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masaki; van der Kamp, Garth; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland managers and policy makers need to make decisions based on a sound scientific understanding of hydrological and ecological functions of wetlands. This article presents an overview of the hydrology of prairie wetlands intended for managers, policy makers, and researchers new to this field (e.g., graduate students), and a quantitative conceptual framework for understanding the hydrological functions of prairie wetlands and their responses to changes in climate and land use. The existence of prairie wetlands in the semi-arid environment of the Prairie-Pothole Region (PPR) depends on the lateral inputs of runoff water from their catchments because mean annual potential evaporation exceeds precipitation in the PPR. Therefore, it is critically important to consider wetlands and catchments as highly integrated hydrological units. The water balance of individual wetlands is strongly influenced by runoff from the catchment and the exchange of groundwater between the central pond and its moist margin. Land-use practices in the catchment have a sensitive effect on runoff and hence the water balance. Surface and subsurface storage and connectivity among individual wetlands controls the diversity of pond permanence within a wetland complex, resulting in a variety of eco-hydrological functionalities necessary for maintaining the integrity of prairie-wetland ecosystems.

  12. Ocean Biological Pump Sensitivities and Implications for Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanou, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    The ocean is one of the principal reservoirs of CO2, a greenhouse gas, and therefore plays a crucial role in regulating Earth's climate. Currently, the ocean sequesters about a third of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, mitigating the human impact on climate. At the same time, the deeper ocean represents the largest carbon pool in the Earth System and processes that describe the transfer of carbon from the surface of the ocean to depth are intimately linked to the effectiveness of carbon sequestration.The ocean biological pump (OBP), which involves several biogeochemical processes, is a major pathway for transfer of carbon from the surface mixed layer into the ocean interior. About 75 of the carbon vertical gradient is due to the carbon pump with only 25 attributed to the solubility pump. However, the relative importance and role of the two pumps is poorly constrained. OBP is further divided to the organic carbon pump (soft tissue pump) and the carbonate pump, with the former exporting about 10 times more carbon than the latter through processes like remineralization.Major uncertainties about OBP, and hence in the carbon uptake and sequestration, stem from uncertainties in processes involved in OBP such as particulate organicinorganic carbon sinkingsettling, remineralization, microbial degradation of DOC and uptakegrowth rate changes of the ocean biology. The deep ocean is a major sink of atmospheric CO2 in scales of hundreds to thousands of years, but how the export efficiency (i.e. the fraction of total carbon fixation at the surface that is transported at depth) is affected by climate change remains largely undetermined. These processes affect the ocean chemistry (alkalinity, pH, DIC, particulate and dissolved organic carbon) as well as the ecology (biodiversity, functional groups and their interactions) in the ocean. It is important to have a rigorous, quantitative understanding of the uncertainties involved in the observational measurements, the models and the

  13. Further Understanding of Complex Information Processing in Verbal Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Goldstein, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    More than 20?years ago, Minshew and colleagues proposed the Complex Information Processing model of autism in which the impairment is characterized as a generalized deficit involving multiple modalities and cognitive domains that depend on distributed cortical systems responsible for higher order abilities. Subsequent behavioral work revealed a…

  14. Integrating Process and Factor Understanding of Environmental Innovation by Water Utilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, Marc; McIntosh, Brian S.; Seaton, Roger A.F.; Jeffrey, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in technology and organisations are central to enabling the water sector to adapt to major environmental changes such as climate change, land degradation or drinking water pollution. While there are literatures on innovation as a process and on the factors that influence it, there is

  15. Understanding the innovation adoption process of construction clients, Clients driving Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.; Reymen, Isabelle; Adams, L.; Guest, K.

    2006-01-01

    Although the role of clients in stimulating construction innovation seems to be controversial, little has been known about their innovation adoption behaviour. This paper presents first results of an ongoing research project the aim of which is to shed more light on the adoption processes of

  16. Understanding Data Use Practice among Teachers: The Contribution of Micro-Process Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Judith Warren

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing volume of research on data use systems or data use activities in which teachers engage, micro-process studies--investigations of what teachers and others actually do under the broad banner of "data use" or "evidence-based decision making"--remain substantially underdeveloped. Starting with a review of the…

  17. Understanding consumers' multichannel choices across the different stages of the buying process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, Sonja; Verhoef, Peter C.; Boehm, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a more integrative approach toward channel choice than previous research by considering all stages of the buying process (search, purchase, and after-sales), and by taking channel attributes, experience, and spillover effects into account when examining consumers' channel

  18. Reframing the Glass Ceiling as a Socially Constructed Process: Implications for Understanding and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzanell, Patrice M.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that traditional definitions of "glass ceiling" perpetuate gender-biased organizational practices and create an illusion of women's opportunity, preventing critical assessment of contemporary organizational practices and of gendered communication. Creates awareness of unjust organizing processes by juxtaposing the ordinary ways of "doing…

  19. Compliance pluralisme and processes : Understanding compliance behavior in restaurants in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to offer a case study of dynamic compliance processes in selected Chinese restaurants with the main methods of participant observation and in-depth interviews. It applied an integrated and dynamic research approach, called descriptive analysis of compliance behavior, which

  20. Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies to understand the primary processes in radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Lewis, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of pulse radiolysis to learn about processes which occur before the beginning of chemical times is discussed. Two examples, the distance distribution of positive and negative ions in hydrocarbons, and the state of the dry electron are discussed in detail

  1. Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies to understand the primary processes in radiolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonah, C.D.; Lewis, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of pulse radiolysis to learn about processes which occur before the beginning of chemical times is discussed. Two examples, the distance distribution of positive and negative ions in hydrocarbons, and the state of the dry electron are discussed in detail.

  2. A multiscale dataset for understanding complex eco-hydrological processes in a heterogeneous oasis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Liu, Shaomin; Xiao, Qin; Ma, Mingguo; Jin, Rui; Che, Tao; Wang, Weizhen; Hu, Xiaoli; Xu, Ziwei; Wen, Jianguang; Wang, Liangxu

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a multiscale dataset obtained from Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) in an oasis-desert area in 2012. Upscaling of eco-hydrological processes on a heterogeneous surface is a grand challenge. Progress in this field is hindered by the poor availability of multiscale observations. HiWATER is an experiment designed to address this challenge through instrumentation on hierarchically nested scales to obtain multiscale and multidisciplinary data. The HiWATER observation system consists of a flux observation matrix of eddy covariance towers, large aperture scintillometers, and automatic meteorological stations; an eco-hydrological sensor network of soil moisture and leaf area index; hyper-resolution airborne remote sensing using LiDAR, imaging spectrometer, multi-angle thermal imager, and L-band microwave radiometer; and synchronical ground measurements of vegetation dynamics, and photosynthesis processes. All observational data were carefully quality controlled throughout sensor calibration, data collection, data processing, and datasets generation. The data are freely available at figshare and the Cold and Arid Regions Science Data Centre. The data should be useful for elucidating multiscale eco-hydrological processes and developing upscaling methods.

  3. Undocumented and Unafraid: Understanding the Disclosure Management Process for Undocumented College Students and Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Susana M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous qualitative studies on undocumented college students have primarily focused on their lived experiences; however, little research has been done to consider the disclosure process or identity management for undocumented students, particularly students who self-identify as "undocumented and unafraid." Using research on legal…

  4. FEATURES OF INVESTMENT PROCESS UNDERSTANDING BY A. SMITH AS THE FOUNDER OF CLASSICAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ovcharenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the essence and the nature of the concept of “investment”. The main conceptual elements of a scientific theory of Adam Smith are defined. The features of the investment process by Adam Smith as the driving mechanism for social and economic development of a society are revealed.

  5. The Relevance of the Social Information Processing Model for Understanding Relational Aggression in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Marcelle M.; Finch, Cambra L.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined whether social information-processing variables predict relational aggression in girls. In Study 1, fourth- through sixth-grade girls reported their intent attributions, social goals, outcome expectancies for relational aggression, and the likelihood that they would choose a relationally aggressive response in response to…

  6. A semiotic framework to understand how signs in construction process simulations convey information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Timo; Vossebeld, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Planning the production sequence for a construction project requires the combination and transfer of information and knowledge from a large variety of areas. To support this knowledge combination and transfer, construction process visualizations, also referred to as 4D CAD, have proven to be

  7. The Role of Mid-Atlantic Ocean Data Portal in Supporting Ocean Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Lathrop

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO was established in 2009 to enhance the vitality of the region's ocean ecosystem and economy. One of MARCO's first action items was the development of the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Data Portal to serve as an on-line platform to engage stakeholders across the region with the objective of improving their understanding of how ocean resources and places are being used, managed, and conserved. A key component is the Marine Planner, an interactive map-based visualization and decision support tool. These types of on-line tools are becoming increasingly popular means of putting essential data and state-of-the-art visualization technology into the hands of the agencies, industry, community leaders, and stakeholders engaged in ocean planning. However, to be effective, the underlying geospatial data has to be seen as objective, comprehensive, up-to-date and regionally consistent. To meet this challenge, the portal utilizes a distributed network of web map services from credible and authoritative sources. Website analytics and feedback received during the review and comment period of the 2016 release of the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Action Plan confirm that the Data Portal is viewed as integral to this ocean planning process by the MidAtlantic Regional Planning Body and key stakeholders. While not all stakeholders may agree with specific planning decisions, there is broad based agreement on the need for better data and making access to that data widely available.

  8. Understanding and Mastering Dynamics in Computing Grids Processing Moldable Tasks with User-Level Overlay

    CERN Document Server

    Moscicki, Jakub Tomasz

    Scientic communities are using a growing number of distributed systems, from lo- cal batch systems, community-specic services and supercomputers to general-purpose, global grid infrastructures. Increasing the research capabilities for science is the raison d'^etre of such infrastructures which provide access to diversied computational, storage and data resources at large scales. Grids are rather chaotic, highly heterogeneous, de- centralized systems where unpredictable workloads, component failures and variability of execution environments are commonplace. Understanding and mastering the hetero- geneity and dynamics of such distributed systems is prohibitive for end users if they are not supported by appropriate methods and tools. The time cost to learn and use the interfaces and idiosyncrasies of dierent distributed environments is another challenge. Obtaining more reliable application execution times and boosting parallel speedup are important to increase the research capabilities of scientic communities. L...

  9. Understanding and retention of the informed consent process among parents in rural northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atuguba Frank

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The individual informed consent model remains critical to the ethical conduct and regulation of research involving human beings. Parental informed consent process in a rural setting of northern Ghana was studied to describe comprehension and retention among parents as part of the evaluation of the existing informed consent process. Methods The study involved 270 female parents who gave consent for their children to participate in a prospective cohort study that evaluated immune correlates of protection against childhood malaria in northern Ghana. A semi-structured interview with questions based on the informed consent themes was administered. Parents were interviewed on their comprehension and retention of the process and also on ways to improve upon the existing process. Results The average parental age was 33.3 years (range 18–62, married women constituted a majority (91.9%, Christians (71.9%, farmers (62.2% and those with no formal education (53.7%. Only 3% had ever taken part in a research and 54% had at least one relation ever participate in a research. About 90% of parents knew their children were involved in a research study that was not related to medical care, and 66% said the study procedures were thoroughly explained to them. Approximately, 70% recalled the study involved direct benefits compared with 20% for direct risks. The majority (95% understood study participation was completely voluntary but only 21% recalled they could withdraw from the study without giving reasons. Younger parents had more consistent comprehension than older ones. Maternal reasons for allowing their children to take part in the research were free medical care (36.5%, better medical care (18.8%, general benefits (29.4%, contribution to research in the area (8.8% and benefit to the community (1.8%. Parental suggestions for improving the consent process included devoting more time for explanations (46.9%, use of the local languages (15

  10. An Exploration of High School (12 17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-03-01

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the development of understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes as students progress through high school. In a cross-sectional case study, data was obtained from student interviews and written surveys of students aged 12 to 17 years. The results indicate that students' ability to provide a generally accepted definition and examples of biotechnology, cloning and genetically modified foods was relatively poor amongst 12 13 year old students but improved in older students. Most students approved of the use of biotechnology processes involving micro-organisms, plants and humans and disapproved of the use of animals. Overall, 12 13 year old students' attitudes were less favourable than older students regardless of the context. An awareness of the development and range of students' understandings and attitudes may lead to a more appropriate use of biotechnology curriculum materials and thus improved biotechnology education in schools.

  11. How ocean acidification can benefit calcifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Sean D; Doubleday, Zoë A; Hamlyn, Sarah B; Foster, Nicole R; Harley, Christopher D G; Helmuth, Brian; Kelaher, Brendan P; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Sarà, Gianluca; Russell, Bayden D

    2017-02-06

    Reduction in seawater pH due to rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the world's oceans is a major force set to shape the future of marine ecosystems and the ecological services they provide [1,2]. In particular, ocean acidification is predicted to have a detrimental effect on the physiology of calcifying organisms [3]. Yet, the indirect effects of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms, which may counter or exacerbate direct effects, is uncertain. Using volcanic CO 2 vents, we tested the indirect effects of ocean acidification on a calcifying herbivore (gastropod) within the natural complexity of an ecological system. Contrary to predictions, the abundance of this calcifier was greater at vent sites (with near-future CO 2 levels). Furthermore, translocation experiments demonstrated that ocean acidification did not drive increases in gastropod abundance directly, but indirectly as a function of increased habitat and food (algal biomass). We conclude that the effect of ocean acidification on algae (primary producers) can have a strong, indirect positive influence on the abundance of some calcifying herbivores, which can overwhelm any direct negative effects. This finding points to the need to understand ecological processes that buffer the negative effects of environmental change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Coastal ocean circulation during Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Travis; Seroka, Greg; Glenn, Scott

    2017-09-01

    Hurricane Sandy (2012) was the second costliest tropical cyclone to impact the United States and resulted in numerous lives lost due to its high winds and catastrophic storm surges. Despite its impacts little research has been performed on the circulation on the continental shelf as Sandy made landfall. In this study, integrated ocean observing assets and regional ocean modeling were used to investigate the coastal ocean response to Sandy's large wind field. Sandy's unique cross-shelf storm track, large size, and slow speed resulted in along-shelf wind stress over the coastal ocean for nearly 48 h before the eye made landfall in southern New Jersey. Over the first inertial period (˜18 h), this along-shelf wind stress drove onshore flow in the surface of the stratified continental shelf and initiated a two-layer downwelling circulation. During the remaining storm forcing period a bottom Ekman layer developed and the bottom Cold Pool was rapidly advected offshore ˜70 km. This offshore advection removed the bottom Cold Pool from the majority of the shallow continental shelf and limited ahead-of-eye-center sea surface temperature (SST) cooling, which has been observed in previous storms on the MAB such as Hurricane Irene (2011). This cross-shelf advective process has not been observed previously on continental shelves during tropical cyclones and highlights the need for combined ocean observing systems and regional modeling in order to further understand the range of coastal ocean responses to tropical cyclones.

  13. Understanding processing-induced phase transformations in erythromycin-PEG 6000 solid dispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Sabiruddin; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Miroshnyk, Inna

    2006-01-01

    Since the quality and performance of a pharmaceutical solid formulation depend on solid state of the drug and excipients, a thorough investigation of potential processing-induced transformations (PITs) of the ingredients is required. In this study, the physical phenomena taking place during...... intermolecular interactions between the drug and polymer in the solid state were further studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. While in the absence of PEG the dehydration was the only transformation observed, hot-melt processing with the polymer caused the drug to undergo multiple phase...... formulation of erythromycin (EM) dihydrate solid dispersions with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 by melting were investigated. PITs were monitored in situ using variable temperature X-ray powder diffraction (VT-XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and hot-stage microscopy (HSM). Possible...

  14. Living systems theory as a paradigm for organizational behavior: understanding humans, organizations, and social processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancouver, J B

    1996-07-01

    Living systems theories have been used to model human, organization, and communication processes. This paper attempts to describe these models and to highlight the isomorphisms among the models. Particular emphasis is given to self-regulating properties of humans as a subsystem of social systems. Attention is given to the advantages of generalizing across levels and phenomena and integrating the middle-range theories that dominate the field of organizational behavior. Three broad recommendations for future research are discussed.

  15. A multiscale dataset for understanding complex eco-hydrological processes in a heterogeneous oasis system

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Liu, Shaomin; Xiao, Qin; Ma, Mingguo; Jin, Rui; Che, Tao; Wang, Weizhen; Hu, Xiaoli; Xu, Ziwei; Wen, Jianguang; Wang, Liangxu

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a multiscale dataset obtained from Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) in an oasis-desert area in 2012. Upscaling of eco-hydrological processes on a heterogeneous surface is a grand challenge. Progress in this field is hindered by the poor availability of multiscale observations. HiWATER is an experiment designed to address this challenge through instrumentation on hierarchically nested scales to obtain multiscale and multidisciplinary data. The HiWAT...

  16. Understanding Immersivity: Image Generation and Transformation Processes in 3D Immersive Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Dhond, Rupali P

    2012-01-01

    Most research on three-dimensional (3D) visual-spatial processing has been conducted using traditional non-immersive 2D displays. Here we investigated how individuals generate and transform mental images within 3D immersive (3DI) virtual environments, in which the viewers perceive themselves as being surrounded by a 3D world. In Experiment 1, we compared participants' performance on the Shepard and Metzler (1971) mental rotation (MR) task across the following three types of visual presentation environments; traditional 2D non-immersive (2DNI), 3D non-immersive (3DNI - anaglyphic glasses), and 3DI (head mounted display with position and head orientation tracking). In Experiment 2, we examined how the use of different backgrounds affected MR processes within the 3DI environment. In Experiment 3, we compared electroencephalogram data recorded while participants were mentally rotating visual-spatial images presented in 3DI vs. 2DNI environments. Overall, the findings of the three experiments suggest that visual-spatial processing is different in immersive and non-immersive environments, and that immersive environments may require different image encoding and transformation strategies than the two other non-immersive environments. Specifically, in a non-immersive environment, participants may utilize a scene-based frame of reference and allocentric encoding whereas immersive environments may encourage the use of a viewer-centered frame of reference and egocentric encoding. These findings also suggest that MR performed in laboratory conditions using a traditional 2D computer screen may not reflect spatial processing as it would occur in the real world.

  17. A mechanistic understanding of processing additive-induced efficiency enhancement in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Kristin

    2013-10-31

    The addition of processing additives is a widely used approach to increase power conversion efficiencies for many organic solar cells. We present how additives change the polymer conformation in the casting solution leading to a more intermixed phase-segregated network structure of the active layer which in turn results in a 5-fold enhancement in efficiency. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Understanding the Cognition Process of the Students using the Internet as a Learning Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniyatus Salamah Zainiati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how students search and process the information found on the Internet to meet the needs of their academic tasks as well as how they view such information compared to printed materials. The study was conducted targeting the student teachers at Primary School Teacher Education (PGMI Program and Kindergarten Teacher Education Program (PGRA in State Islamic University Sunan Ampel Surabaya. Such information search and processing are then later viewed through the lens of Blooms’ taxonomy. A qualitative method using the phenomenological approach is adopted in the study. Nine student participants of 1st, 2nd, 3rd-year classes were interviewed. The study indicates that the presence of the Internet as a source of learning has not shifted the role of the textbook as a primary source of information for the students while working on their academic assignments. It was revealed that the information search activities on the Internet have facilitated students to experience the four domains of the learning process in Bloom's Taxonomy. 

  19. Experimental impact cratering provides ground truth data for understanding planetary-scale collision processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelchau, Michael H.; Deutsch, Alex; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Impact cratering is generally accepted as one of the primary processes that shape planetary surfaces in the solar system. While post-impact analysis of craters by remote sensing or field work gives many insights into this process, impact cratering experiments have several advantages for impact research: 1) excavation and ejection processes can be directly observed, 2) physical parameters of the experiment are defined and can be varied, and 3) cratered target material can be analyzed post-impact in an unaltered, uneroded state. The main goal of the MEMIN project is to comprehensively quantify impact processes by conducting a stringently controlled experimental impact cratering campaign on the meso-scale with a multidisciplinary analytical approach. As a unique feature we use two-stage light gas guns capable of producing impact craters in the decimeter size-range in solid rocks that, in turn, allow detailed spatial analysis of petrophysical, structural, and geochemical changes in target rocks and ejecta. In total, we have carried out 24 experiments at the facilities of the Fraunhofer EMI, Freiburg - Germany. Steel, aluminum, and iron meteorite projectiles ranging in diameter from 2.5 to 12 mm were accelerated to velocities ranging from 2.5 to 7.8 km/s. Targets were solid rocks, namely sandstone, quartzite and tuff that were either dry or saturated with water. In the experimental setup, high speed framing cameras monitored the impact process, ultrasound sensors were attached to the target to record the passage of the shock wave, and special particle catchers were positioned opposite of the target surface to capture the ejected target and projectile material. In addition to the cratering experiments, planar shock recovery experiments were performed on the target material, and numerical models of the cratering process were developed. The experiments resulted in craters with diameters up to 40 cm, which is unique in laboratory cratering research. Target porosity

  20. Impact of hydrothermalism on the ocean iron cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Alessandro; Resing, Joseph

    2016-11-28

    As the iron supplied from hydrothermalism is ultimately ventilated in the iron-limited Southern Ocean, it plays an important role in the ocean biological carbon pump. We deploy a set of focused sensitivity experiments with a state of the art global model of the ocean to examine the processes that regulate the lifetime of hydrothermal iron and the role of different ridge systems in governing the hydrothermal impact on the Southern Ocean biological carbon pump. Using GEOTRACES section data, we find that stabilization of hydrothermal iron is important in some, but not all regions. The impact on the Southern Ocean biological carbon pump is dominated by poorly explored southern ridge systems, highlighting the need for future exploration in this region. We find inter-basin differences in the isopycnal layer onto which hydrothermal Fe is supplied between the Atlantic and Pacific basins, which when combined with the inter-basin contrasts in oxidation kinetics suggests a muted influence of Atlantic ridges on the Southern Ocean biological carbon pump. Ultimately, we present a range of processes, operating at distinct scales, that must be better constrained to improve our understanding of how hydrothermalism affects the ocean cycling of iron and carbon.This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Brain reflections: A circuit-based framework for understanding information processing and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Gabriele

    2018-03-01

    Here, I propose a view of the architecture of the human information processing system, and of how it can be adapted to changing task demands (which is the hallmark of cognitive control). This view is informed by an interpretation of brain activity as reflecting the excitability level of neural representations, encoding not only stimuli and temporal contexts, but also action plans and task goals. The proposed cognitive architecture includes three types of circuits: open circuits, involved in feed-forward processing such as that connecting stimuli with responses and characterized by brief, transient brain activity; and two types of closed circuits, positive feedback circuits (characterized by sustained, high-frequency oscillatory activity), which help select and maintain representations, and negative feedback circuits (characterized by brief, low-frequency oscillatory bursts), which are instead associated with changes in representations. Feed-forward activity is primarily responsible for the spread of activation along the information processing system. Oscillatory activity, instead, controls this spread. Sustained oscillatory activity due to both local cortical circuits (gamma) and longer corticothalamic circuits (alpha and beta) allows for the selection of individuated representations. Through the interaction of these circuits, it also allows for the preservation of representations across different temporal spans (sensory and working memory) and their spread across the brain. In contrast, brief bursts of oscillatory activity, generated by novel and/or conflicting information, lead to the interruption of sustained oscillatory activity and promote the generation of new representations. I discuss how this framework can account for a number of psychological and behavioral phenomena. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. Understanding the process of establishing a food and nutrition policy: the case of Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelberg, Susanna; Jönsson, Kristina; Yngve, Agneta

    2012-09-01

    There has been an increasing effort across Europe to develop national policies in food and nutrition during the last decade. However, little is known about how public health nutrition issues get on the public health agenda and the roles individuals have when these agendas are being set. The aims of this study were to scrutinise the development process of the Slovenian national food and nutrition policy, and to identify the roles and functions of individuals who have contributed to that process. This study undertook a qualitative approach. Data collection included 18 semi-structured interviews between 2007 and 2011, and grey and scientific literature search. Text analysis was based on Kingdon's streams model, which involved highlighting the relationship between problem identification, policy solutions and political opportunities. Data were coded to identify the roles and functions of individuals participating in the agenda-setting process. The analysis showed that the opportunity for the Slovenian food and nutrition policy to be developed was largely explained by a change in political circumstances, namely the accession of Slovenia to the European Union and the Common Agricultural Policy. Individuals with experience in policy development were identified because of their analytical, strategic and policy entrepreneurial skills. The analyst was responsible for communicating the key nutrition issues to policy-makers, the strategist joined international networks and promoted policy solutions from international experts including the World Health Organization, and the policy entrepreneur took advantage of the political situation to enlist the participation of previous opponents to a national nutrition policy. This study found that individuals, their roles and skills, played an important role in the development of the Slovenian National Food and Nutrition Policy. The roles and functions of these individuals, which are identified in this study, may assist future endeavours

  3. Understanding the process of patient satisfaction with nurse-led chronic disease management in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Rosemary; St John, Winsome; Patterson, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

      To investigate the process of patient satisfaction with nurse-led chronic disease management in Australian general practice.   Nurses working in the primary care context of general practice, referred to as practice nurses, are expanding their role in chronic disease management; this is relatively new to Australia. Therefore, determining patient satisfaction with this trend is pragmatically and ethically important. However, the concept of patient satisfaction is not well understood particularly in relation to care provided by practice nurses.   A grounded theory study underpinned by a relativist ontological position and a relativist epistemology.   Grounded theory was used to develop a theory from data collected through in-depth interviews with 38 participants between November 2007-April 2009. Participants were drawn from a larger project that trialled a practice nurse-led, collaborative model of chronic disease management in three Australian general practices. Theoretical sampling, data collection, and analysis were conducted concurrently consistent with grounded theory methods.   Patients undergo a cyclical process of Navigating Care involving three stages, Determining Care Needs, Forming Relationship, and Having Confidence. The latter two processes are inter-related and a feedback loop from them informs subsequent cycles of Determining Care Needs. If any of these steps fails to develop adequately, patients are likely to opt out of nurse-led care.   Navigating Care explains how and why time, communication, continuity, and trust in general practitioners and nurses are important to patient satisfaction. It can be used in identifying suitable patients for practice nurse-led care and to inform the practice and organization of practice nurse-led care to enhance patient satisfaction. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Understanding the pregnancy decision-making process among couples seeking induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costescu, Dustin J; Lamont, John A

    2013-10-01

    The role of partners in the abortion experience is complex and poorly understood. We sought to examine how women and their partners navigate the pregnancy decision-making process. Thirty couples presenting for abortion completed questionnaires exploring experiences leading to the abortion. Participants were sequestered from their partners during completion of the study, and booklets were coded to allow comparison within couples. This portion of the study explored partner involvement in the decision-making process. One half of women had decided on abortion before informing their partner of the pregnancy. Of those who were undecided at the time of disclosure, all sought their partner's advice. Most participants (84%) were happy with the amount of discussion that took place with their partners, although one fifth of women and nearly one third of men could have discussed it more. More women than men were happy with the discussions that took place (96.6% vs. 70.4%). Two thirds of respondents viewed the decision to have an abortion as being made by both partners, one quarter viewed the decision as being mostly the woman's choice, and 5% viewed the decision as being mostly the male partner's choice. Although making the choice to have an abortion rests with the woman, her partner may play a role in the decision-making process, particularly when the woman is undecided. For many couples presenting for abortion, the decision is seen as being made jointly by both partners. Further research may identify opportunities to foster greater partner support throughout a woman's abortion experience.

  5. Study and understanding of n/γ discrimination processes in organic plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, Matthieu; Blanc, Pauline; Rocha, Licinio; Normand, Stephane; Pansu, Robert

    2013-01-01

    For 50 years, it was assumed that unlike liquid scintillators or organic crystals, plastic scintillators were not able to discriminate fast neutrons from gamma. In this work, we will demonstrate that triplet-triplet annihilations (which are responsible of n/γ discrimination) can occur even in plastic scintillators, following certain conditions. Thus, the presentation will deal with the chemical preparation, the characterization and the comparison of n/γ pulse shape discrimination of various plastic scintillators. To this aim, scale-up of the process allowed us to prepare a O 100 mm x*110 mm thick. (authors)

  6. How Radiologists Think: Understanding Fast and Slow Thought Processing and How It Can Improve Our Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gijp, Anouk; Webb, Emily M; Naeger, David M

    2017-06-01

    Scholars have identified two distinct ways of thinking. This "Dual Process Theory" distinguishes a fast, nonanalytical way of thinking, called "System 1," and a slow, analytical way of thinking, referred to as "System 2." In radiology, we use both methods when interpreting and reporting images, and both should ideally be emphasized when educating our trainees. This review provides practical tips for improving radiology education, by enhancing System 1 and System 2 thinking among our trainees. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding defect related luminescence processes in wide bandgap materials using low temperature multi-spectroscopic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Amit Kumar

    tunneling loss of the trapped electrons over geological time (so called anomalous fading); this gives rise to apparent ages that underestimate the true age. Despite a rapid progress in the infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating technique using feldspar, a clear understanding of luminescence...... play a role in charge transport. The main defect used in optical dating is called the infra-red dosimetric trap (IR trap), which has a thermal lifetime of millions of years, appropriate for dating Middle to Late Quaternary time scales. However, this trap is known to suffer from instability arising from...... to the thesis, while Chapter 2 describes the instrumentation and samples used to carry out this research. The key findings of my Ph.D. research are summarized in five different chapters (Chapter 3 to Chapter 7). I discovered a ‘red edge effect’ in the greenorange emission in feldspar, and demonstrated...

  8. Understanding watershed hydrogeochemistry: 2. Synchronized hydrological and geochemical processes drive stream chemostatic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Bao, Chen; Sullivan, Pamela L.; Brantley, Susan; Shi, Yuning; Duffy, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Why do solute concentrations in streams remain largely constant while discharge varies by orders of magnitude? We used a new hydrological land surface and reactive transport code, RT-Flux-PIHM, to understand this long-standing puzzle. We focus on the nonreactive chloride (Cl) and reactive magnesium (Mg) in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO). Simulation results show that stream discharge comes from surface runoff (Qs), soil lateral flow (QL), and deeper groundwater (QG), with QL contributing >70%. In the summer, when high evapotranspiration dries up and disconnects most of the watershed from the stream, Cl is trapped along planar hillslopes. Successive rainfalls connect the watershed and mobilize trapped Cl, which counteracts dilution effects brought about by high water storage (Vw) and maintains chemostasis. Similarly, the synchronous response of clay dissolution rates (Mg source) to hydrological conditions, maintained largely by a relatively constant ratio between "wetted" mineral surface area Aw and Vw, controls Mg chemostatic behavior. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cation exchange plays a secondary role in determining chemostasis compared to clay dissolution, although it does store an order-of-magnitude more Mg on exchange sites than soil water. Model simulations indicate that dilution (concentration decrease with increasing discharge) occurs only when mass influxes from soil lateral flow are negligible (e.g., via having low clay surface area) so that stream discharge is dominated by relatively constant mass fluxes from deep groundwater that are unresponsive to surface hydrological conditions.

  9. Carbon-water Cycling in the Critical Zone: Understanding Ecosystem Process Variability Across Complex Terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, Holly [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Brooks, Paul [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2016-06-16

    One of the largest knowledge gaps in environmental science is the ability to understand and predict how ecosystems will respond to future climate variability. The links between vegetation, hydrology, and climate that control carbon sequestration in plant biomass and soils remain poorly understood. Soil respiration is the second largest carbon flux of terrestrial ecosystems, yet there is no consensus on how respiration will change as water availability and temperature co-vary. To address this knowledge gap, we use the variation in soil development and topography across an elevation and climate gradient on the Front Range of Colorado to conduct a natural experiment that enables us to examine the co-evolution of soil carbon, vegetation, hydrology, and climate in an accessible field laboratory. The goal of this project is to further our ability to combine plant water availability, carbon flux and storage, and topographically driven hydrometrics into a watershed scale predictive model of carbon balance. We hypothesize: (i) landscape structure and hydrology are important controls on soil respiration as a result of spatial variability in both physical and biological drivers: (ii) variation in rates of soil respiration during the growing season is due to corresponding shifts in belowground carbon inputs from vegetation; and (iii) aboveground carbon storage (biomass) and species composition are directly correlated with soil moisture and therefore, can be directly related to subsurface drainage patterns.

  10. Understanding the Process and Success Factors to Increase Synergies between Research and Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Ballou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While the synergies between research for knowledge discovery and teaching are widely accepted, the evidence is mostly implicit, verbal and poorly documented, and many times contradictive. In an effort to better understand the interaction between these important activities, the main objective of this study is to collect knowledge illustrating their synergies through specific cases. A complementary objective is to identify the important factors, which professionals should implement or avoid for increasing the likelihood that these synergies will be derived. To collect the necessary information personal interviews have been used to address the research question. The same set of questions was sent to several professionals known to have extensive experience in the areas of academic research and teaching. The respondents were asked to: 1. briefly describe the knowledge area in which the synergies occurred; 2. For the specified knowledge area, to please describe in summary form but specifically how they derived the synergy between research and teaching; and 3. Based on their personal experience, to please identify the important factors to increase the likelihood that academic research will produce benefits for teaching, and vice versa. The results strongly corroborate the importance of academic research for effective teaching. Based on the results, a set of recommendations are made to faculty members and school administrators to further promote academic research as an important factor for more effective teaching.

  11. Unexpected implications of Anisian limestone blocks in the Çetmi mélange (NW Turkey) : younger ocean or mixing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaletto, L.; Stampfli, G. M.

    2003-04-01

    The 2000 km long Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture, separating the Sakarya zone from the Anatolide-tauride block, extends from north of Izmir eastwards to the border with Georgia from where it may continue as the Sevan-Akera suture. One of its main feature is the widespread occurrence of Cretaceous subduction-accretion complexes, mainly made of basalt, radiolarian chert, pelagic limestone, pelagic shale and serpentinite. The Çetmi accretionary mélange of NW Turkey is now considered as a part of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture belt. Hallstatoid red pelagic limestones from the mélange have yielded Anisian conodonts making them its oldest lithology. This block is rather seen as a consequence of the mixing of two different units (the Çetmi mélange and the Karakaya Complex), than a witness of the first deposits of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Ocean itself. Therefore this discovery does not imply an older age for the opening of the latter. The possible occurrence of tectonic mixing processes between successive accretionary complexes is finally shown through the whole evolution of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Ocean, from its opening to its closure. This observation may be extended to all mélanges which record different oceanic domains.

  12. Cooling a quantum oscillator: A useful analogy to understand laser cooling as a thermodynamical process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Nahuel; Paz, Juan Pablo

    2018-03-01

    We analyze the lowest achievable temperature for a mechanical oscillator coupled with a quantum refrigerator composed of a parametrically driven system that is in contact with a bosonic reservoir where the energy is dumped. We show that the cooling of the oscillator (achieved by the resonant transport of its phonon excitations into the environment) is always stopped by a fundamental heating process that is dominant at sufficiently low temperatures. This process can be described as the nonresonant production of excitation pairs. This result is in close analogy with the recent study that showed that pair production is responsible for enforcing the validity of the dynamical version of the third law of thermodynamics [Phys. Rev. E 95, 012146 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevE.95.012146]. Interestingly, we relate our model to the ones used to describe laser cooling of a single trapped ion reobtaining the correct limiting temperatures for the regimes of resolved and nonresolved sidebands. We show that the limiting temperature for laser cooling is achieved when the cooling transitions induced by the resonant transport of excitations from the motion into the electromagnetic environment is compensated by the heating transitions induced by the creation of phonon-photon pairs.

  13. Utilizing Virtual Reality to Understand Athletic Performance and Underlying Sensorimotor Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitaka Kimura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In behavioral sports sciences, knowledge of athletic performance and underlying sensorimotor processing remains limited, because most data is obtained in the laboratory. In laboratory experiments we can strictly control the measurement conditions, but the action we can target may be limited and differ from actual sporting action. Thus, the obtained data is potentially unrealistic. We propose using virtual reality (VR technology to compensate for the lack of actual reality. We have developed a head mounted display (HMD-based VR system for application to baseball batting where the user can experience hitting a pitch in a virtual baseball stadium. The batter and the bat movements are measured using nine-axis inertial sensors attached to various parts of the body and bat, and they are represented by a virtual avatar in real time. The pitched balls are depicted by computer graphics based on previously recorded ball trajectories and are thrown in time with the motion of a pitcher avatar based on simultaneously recorded motion capture data. The ball bounces depending on its interaction with the bat. In a preliminary measurement where the VR system was combined with measurement equipment we found some differences between the behavioral and physiological data (i.e., the body movements and respiration of experts and beginners and between the types of pitches during virtual batting. This VR system with a sufficiently real visual experience will provide novel findings as regards athletic performance that were formerly hard to obtain and allow us to elucidate their sensorimotor processing in detail.

  14. Big-data reflection high energy electron diffraction analysis for understanding epitaxial film growth processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-10-28

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) has by now become a standard tool for in situ monitoring of film growth by pulsed laser deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Yet despite the widespread adoption and wealth of information in RHEED images, most applications are limited to observing intensity oscillations of the specular spot, and much additional information on growth is discarded. With ease of data acquisition and increased computation speeds, statistical methods to rapidly mine the data set are now feasible. Here, we develop such an approach to the analysis of the fundamental growth processes through multivariate statistical analysis of a RHEED image sequence. This approach is illustrated for growth of La(x)Ca(1-x)MnO(3) films grown on etched (001) SrTiO(3) substrates, but is universal. The multivariate methods including principal component analysis and k-means clustering provide insight into the relevant behaviors, the timing and nature of a disordered to ordered growth change, and highlight statistically significant patterns. Fourier analysis yields the harmonic components of the signal and allows separation of the relevant components and baselines, isolating the asymmetric nature of the step density function and the transmission spots from the imperfect layer-by-layer (LBL) growth. These studies show the promise of big data approaches to obtaining more insight into film properties during and after epitaxial film growth. Furthermore, these studies open the pathway to use forward prediction methods to potentially allow significantly more control over growth process and hence final film quality.

  15. Evolutionary theories of aging. 1. The need to understand the process of natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L; Genoud, M

    1999-01-01

    In a Forum article Le Bourg (1998) criticized recent tests of evolutionary theories of aging and suggested alternative explanations for the long lifespan of ant queens and the positive relationship between body size and lifespan in mammals. Moreover, he attempts to criticize evolutionary theories of aging by showing that explanations other than evolutionary theories of aging probably account for the variation in human lifespan across countries. Here we show that the arguments of Le Bourg suffer several problems. First, many of the arguments reveal a misunderstanding of the process of natural selection. Second, some of the arguments reflect a lack of knowledge of evolutionary theories of aging (e.g. pre-reproductive mortality is not predicted to influence lifespan of organisms contrary to what is claimed). Finally, his final example on lifespan in humans simply is a straw-man because serious evolutionary biologists are well aware of the importance of confounding variables and would certainly not make the type of conclusion suggested by Le Bourg. Although a critical discussion of evolutionary theories of aging is welcome, we believe that the alternative explanations proposed by Le Bourg are implausible and reflect a misunderstanding of the process of natural selection. Copyright 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Understanding the core of RNA interference: The dynamic aspects of Argonaute-mediated processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Lizhe

    2016-10-05

    At the core of RNA interference, the Argonaute proteins (Ago) load and utilize small guide nucleic acids to silence mRNAs or cleave foreign nucleic acids in a sequence specific manner. In recent years, based on extensive structural studies of Ago and its interaction with the nucleic acids, considerable progress has been made to reveal the dynamic aspects of various Ago-mediated processes. Here we review these novel insights into the guide-strand loading, duplex unwinding, and effects of seed mismatch, with a focus on two representative Agos, the human Ago 2 (hAgo2) and the bacterial Thermus thermophilus Ago (TtAgo). In particular, comprehensive molecular simulation studies revealed that although sharing similar overall structures, the two Agos have vastly different conformational landscapes and guide-strand loading mechanisms because of the distinct rigidity of their L1-PAZ hinge. Given the central role of the PAZ motions in regulating the exposure of the nucleic acid binding channel, these findings exemplify the importance of protein motions in distinguishing the overlapping, yet distinct, mechanisms of Ago-mediated processes in different organisms.

  17. Understanding modern and past sedimentary processes in selected lakes from the High Arctic and the Mediterranean realm

    OpenAIRE

    Francke, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Lacustrine sediment sequences can provide valuable archives of past environmental and climatological variability in terrestrial realms. In order to unravel the history of a lake and of a lake’s catchment, a profound understanding of the sedimentary processes is required. This encompasses the supply of allochthonous organic matter, nutrients and clastic material to the lake, the subsequent redistribution within the lake as well as autochthonous organic matter and mineral deposition. These lake...

  18. Cloud-based Virtual Reality Integrated Automatic Presentation Script for Understanding Urban Design Concepts in the Consensus Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyi, Zhang; Zhenjiang, Shen; Kai, Wang; Fumihiko, Kobayashi; Xinyi, Lin

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, designers have used various types of tools, such as public Participation GIS (PP GIS) and Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML), to improve urban design concept understanding in the consensus process. However, these tools were frequently criticized as being too complex for the majority of potential users. Moreover, due to the limitations of data compression, hardware performance, network bandwidth and costs of current virtual reality platforms, the users need to gather in...

  19. The modeling of understanding and sense’s generation processes in different architectural environmental situations of socio-cultural interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Марія Юріївна Блінова

    2015-01-01

    The article is an attempt to modeling of understanding and sense’s generation processes in different architectural environmental situations of socio-cultural interaction. Methodologically interpretation of the subject sociocultural interaction offered to make from the standpoint of modern social theories, the entity that is the social role, understood as a model of human behavior objectively given social position of the individual in the system of social relations

  20. An innovative lab-based training program to help patient groups understand their disease and the research process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Mathieu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genuine partnership between patient groups and medical experts is important but challenging. Our training program meets this challenge by organizing hands-on, lab-based training sessions for members of patient groups. These sessions allow "trainees" to better understand their disease and the biomedical research process, and strengthen links between patients and local researchers. Over the past decade, we and our partner institutes have received more than 900 French patients, with the participation of over 60 researchers and clinicians.

  1. An innovative lab-based training program to help patient groups understand their disease and the research process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Marion; Hammond, Constance; Karlin, David G

    2015-02-01

    Genuine partnership between patient groups and medical experts is important but challenging. Our training program meets this challenge by organizing hands-on, lab-based training sessions for members of patient groups. These sessions allow "trainees" to better understand their disease and the biomedical research process, and strengthen links between patients and local researchers. Over the past decade, we and our partner institutes have received more than 900 French patients, with the participation of over 60 researchers and clinicians.

  2. Small-scale Fisheries Governance and Understanding the Snoek (Thyrsites atun Supply Chain in the Ocean View Fishing Community, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moenieba Isaacs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Postapartheid fisheries reform in South Africa, through the Marine Living Resources Act (MLRA 18 of 1998, used individual transferable quotas (ITQs to broaden resource access through allocating quotas to new entrants, even though the system has been created to reduce capacity through a reduction in the number of active fishers. The formal action space created through fisheries reform in South Africa left many artisanal fishers to operate in the informal action spaces, selling Thyrsites atun (snoek to poor communities to sustain their livelihoods. Artisanal fishers were not recognized by MLRA of 1998 and through class action case brought against the ITQ system, and in out of court settlement with the claimants in 2007, 1000 interim relief permits will be allocated to artisanal fishes and the development of a new small-scale fisheries policy for South Africa. In this case study of a fishing community in Ocean View, Cape Town I examine a snoek fishery that operates differently, through a community supply chain and informal markets, than that of the high value ITQ regulated species, yet plays a significant role in the livelihoods of artisanal fishers and in the food security of poor households. The findings of this case study show the failures of existing policy frameworks and the implications for the implementation of the new small-scale fisheries policy in South Africa.

  3. Understanding the self-assembly process and behavior of metal-seamed pyrogallol[4]arene nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossine, Andrew V.

    time of measurement as well as the solvent system during synthesis were also performed. Furthermore, SANS was also used to study Fe3+-PgC complexes. These complexes are difficult if not impossible to crystallize, and therefore cannot be studied using scXRD. SANS was used in conjunction with elemental analysis to deduce a structure for these materials. In addition to understanding the synthesis of MONCs, another goal was to also use them for other (possibly practical) purposes. To this end, PgC-based MONCs were used as building blocks in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). This involved the use of divergent ligands to "link" capsular monomers together, resulting in one and two dimensional frameworks. This work not only produced functional materials that may be useful in future research efforts, but also showed that exo-ligand exchange can be used to derivatize MONCs into potentially useful and functional materials. The introduction of radioisotopes into the nanocapsule was another method by which functionality could theoretically be imparted into MONCs. It was envisioned that MONCs could potentially be used as carrier systems for radioisotopes, and thereby function as agents for therapy or medical imaging. Copper hexamers constructed from 64Cu2+ were therefore prepared and studied in a living system. However, these studies were unsuccessful at showing that the copper-seamed MONCs differed in behavior from 64Cu in vivo, either due to poor labeling efficiency or metabolism. Nevertheless, radiolabeling of hexameric nanocapsules was helpful in broadening our understanding of these materials. Some of the studies that were conducted include those that gauge the solubility and stability of nanocapsules, as well as others that explore the conditions required for cationic uptake and exchange.

  4. An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Space Physics Course: Understanding the Process of Science Through One Field's Colorful History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ramon E.

    1996-01-01

    Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.

  5. A conceptual framework for understanding the process of family caregiving to frail elders in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Yea-Ing Lotus

    2002-04-01

    This descriptive, correlational study of family caregivers (N=125) tested a conceptual framework for family caregiving to frail elders in Taiwan, using the concept of "finding a balance point" derived from a previous qualitative study. It was hypothesized that caregivers who were better able to find a balance point among competing needs would provide better-quality care to frail elders, which would lead to more positive caregiver and family outcomes. After controlling for the influence of caregiving characteristics and caregiving factors, finding a balance point significantly explained 7% of the variance in overall caregiving consequences. The findings of this study add a new perspective to the caregiving process in Taiwan. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Understanding the nature of the manganese hot dip phosphatizing process of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado M, G.; Fuentes A, J. C.; Salinas R, A.; Rodriguez V, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the phosphatizing process of steel is investigated using open circuit potential and Tafel curves as well as scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results reveal that a ph of 2.57 in the phosphatizing solution promotes the dissociation of phosphoric acid which assist the formation of the manganese tertiary salt (Mn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ), which is deposited on the substrate. It was also observed that an increase in the temperature from 25 to 90 C and the presence of HNO 3 as catalysts enhances the manganese phosphatizing kinetics. On the other hand, the generation of iron phosphates and oxides is predominant at a ph of 1 and 90 C. These observations are supported by species distribution and Pourbaix thermodynamic diagrams. (Author)

  7. Understanding the nature of the manganese hot dip phosphatizing process of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado M, G.; Fuentes A, J. C.; Salinas R, A.; Rodriguez V, F. J., E-mail: juan.fuentes@cinvestav.edu.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalurgica No. 1062, Parque Industrial Ramos Arizpe, 25900 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the phosphatizing process of steel is investigated using open circuit potential and Tafel curves as well as scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results reveal that a ph of 2.57 in the phosphatizing solution promotes the dissociation of phosphoric acid which assist the formation of the manganese tertiary salt (Mn{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}), which is deposited on the substrate. It was also observed that an increase in the temperature from 25 to 90 C and the presence of HNO{sub 3} as catalysts enhances the manganese phosphatizing kinetics. On the other hand, the generation of iron phosphates and oxides is predominant at a ph of 1 and 90 C. These observations are supported by species distribution and Pourbaix thermodynamic diagrams. (Author)

  8. Water Pollution Control Legislation in Israel: Understanding Implementation Processes from an Actor-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Hophmayer-Tokich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Israel, advanced legislation for the management of scarce water resources, including legislation to prevent water pollution, were put in place in the early stages of the State’s formation. Despite that, on-going uncontrolled pollution has deteriorated the quality of water sources for decades, with the main source of pollution being untreated or partially treated domestic wastewater. This has been mainly the result of lack of enforcement of the existing laws. During the 1990s and onwards, a shift to forceful enforcement has been observed and wastewater treatment substantially improved. The paper analyzes the implementation processes of the pollution control legislations (the lack-of and the shift to forceful enforcement based on an actor-centered approach, using the contextual interaction theory.

  9. Understanding processes at the origin of species flocks with a focus on the marine Antarctic fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenuil, Anne; Saucède, Thomas; Hemery, Lenaïg G; Eléaume, Marc; Féral, Jean-Pierre; Améziane, Nadia; David, Bruno; Lecointre, Guillaume; Havermans, Charlotte

    2018-02-01

    Species flocks (SFs) fascinate evolutionary biologists who wonder whether such striking diversification can be driven by normal evolutionary processes. Multiple definitions of SFs have hindered the study of their origins. Previous studies identified a monophyletic taxon as a SF if it displays high speciosity in an area in which it is endemic (criterion 1), high ecological diversity among species (criterion 2), and if it dominates the habitat in terms of biomass (criterion 3); we used these criteria in our analyses. Our starting hypothesis is that normal evolutionary processes may provide a sufficient explanation for most SFs. We thus clearly separate each criterion and identify which biological (intrinsic) and environmental (extrinsic) traits are most favourable to their realization. The first part focuses on evolutionary processes. We highlight that some popular putative causes of SFs, such as key innovations or ecological speciation, are neither necessary nor sufficient to fulfill some or all of the three criteria. Initial differentiation mechanisms are diverse and difficult to identify a posteriori because a primary differentiation of one type (genetic, ecological or geographical) often promotes other types of differentiation. Furthermore, the criteria are not independent: positive feedbacks between speciosity and ecological diversity among species are expected whatever the initial cause of differentiation, and ecological diversity should enhance habitat dominance at the clade level. We then identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors that favour each criterion. Low dispersal emerges as a convincing driver of speciosity. Except for a genomic architecture favouring ecological speciation, for which assessment is difficult, high effective population sizes are the single intrinsic factor that directly enhances speciosity, ecological diversity and habitat dominance. No extrinsic factor appeared to enhance all criteria simultaneously but a combination of factors

  10. Landscape community genomics: understanding eco-evolutionary processes in complex environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian K.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Luikart, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Extrinsic factors influencing evolutionary processes are often categorically lumped into interactions that are environmentally (e.g., climate, landscape) or community-driven, with little consideration of the overlap or influence of one on the other. However, genomic variation is strongly influenced by complex and dynamic interactions between environmental and community effects. Failure to consider both effects on evolutionary dynamics simultaneously can lead to incomplete, spurious, or erroneous conclusions about the mechanisms driving genomic variation. We highlight the need for a landscape community genomics (LCG) framework to help to motivate and challenge scientists in diverse fields to consider a more holistic, interdisciplinary perspective on the genomic evolution of multi-species communities in complex environments.

  11. Planet Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  12. Assessing ocean alkalinity for carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renforth, Phil; Henderson, Gideon

    2017-09-01

    Over the coming century humanity may need to find reservoirs to store several trillions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from fossil fuel combustion, which would otherwise cause dangerous climate change if it were left in the atmosphere. Carbon storage in the ocean as bicarbonate ions (by increasing ocean alkalinity) has received very little attention. Yet recent work suggests sufficient capacity to sequester copious quantities of CO2. It may be possible to sequester hundreds of billions to trillions of tons of C without surpassing postindustrial average carbonate saturation states in the surface ocean. When globally distributed, the impact of elevated alkalinity is potentially small and may help ameliorate the effects of ocean acidification. However, the local impact around addition sites may be more acute but is specific to the mineral and technology. The alkalinity of the ocean increases naturally because of rock weathering in which >1.5 mol of carbon are removed from the atmosphere for every mole of magnesium or calcium dissolved from silicate minerals (e.g., wollastonite, olivine, and anorthite) and 0.5 mol for carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite). These processes are responsible for naturally sequestering 0.5 billion tons of CO2 per year. Alkalinity is reduced in the ocean through carbonate mineral precipitation, which is almost exclusively formed from biological activity. Most of the previous work on the biological response to changes in carbonate chemistry have focused on acidifying conditions. More research is required to understand carbonate precipitation at elevated alkalinity to constrain the longevity of carbon storage. A range of technologies have been proposed to increase ocean alkalinity (accelerated weathering of limestone, enhanced weathering, electrochemical promoted weathering, and ocean liming), the cost of which may be comparable to alternative carbon sequestration proposals (e.g., $20-100 tCO2-1). There are still many

  13. Understanding rhizosphere processes to enhance phytoextraction of germanium and rare earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Germanium (Ge) and rare earth elements (REEs) are economically valuable raw materials that are not actually rare in terms of concentrations in soils but they are hardly available for plant uptake due to interactions with organic matter (SOM), secondary soil constituents such as Fe/Mn oxides and P bearing soil fractions. Processes in the rhizosphere might influence availability of Ge and REEs in the soil-plant system, since lowering of the pH and presence of carboxylates and siderophores (small molecules that strongly chelate Fe and other elements) strongly influences the chemical speciation of Ge and REEs in soil and consequently this comprehensive knowledge helps us to improve phytomining. In a series of field and greenhouse experiments 16 plant species from the functional groups of grasses, herbs and legumes were tested with regard to their accumulation efficiency of Ge and REEs in shoots. Subsequently, we conducted mixed culture experiments in which inefficient species (e.g. cereals like Avena sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Panicum miliaceum) were cultivated in mixed cultures with efficient species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius). Based on the plant concentrations a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify significant factors that explain the accumulation behavior of different plant species with regard to Ge, REEs, Si, Fe and Mn. In this analysis Mn was used to identify plant species with efficient mechanisms to access sparingly available P-resources in soils. Particularly in nonmycorrhizal species concentrations of Mn in leaves often indicate a carboxylate based P-mobilising strategy. Herbaceous plant species accumulated significantly higher amounts of REEs while grasses accumulated significantly higher amounts of Ge. Concentrations of Ge in shoots of grasses correlated significantly positive with Si, but negatively with concentrations of Mn. Indeed, the results of the PCA clearly show that plants with high Mn concentrations tend to have

  14. Understanding controls of hydrologic processes across two headwater monolithological catchments using model-data synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, D.; Shi, Y.; Hoagland, B.; Del Vecchio, J.; Russo, T. A.; DiBiase, R. A.; Li, L.

    2017-12-01

    How do watershed hydrologic processes differ in catchments derived from different lithology? This study compares two first order, deciduous forest watersheds in Pennsylvania, a sandstone watershed, Garner Run (GR, 1.34 km2), and a shale-derived watershed, Shale Hills (SH, 0.08 km2). Both watersheds are simulated using a combination of national datasets and field measurements, and a physics-based land surface hydrologic model, Flux-PIHM. We aim to evaluate the effects of lithology on watershed hydrology and assess if we can simulate a new watershed without intensive measurements, i.e., directly use calibration information from one watershed (SH) to reproduce hydrologic dynamics of another watershed (GR). Without any calibration, the model at GR based on national datasets and calibration inforamtion from SH cannot capture some discharge peaks or the baseflow during dry periods. The model prediction agrees well with the GR field discharge and soil moisture after calibrating the soil hydraulic parameters using the uncertainty based Hornberger-Spear-Young algorithm and the Latin Hypercube Sampling method. Agreeing with the field observation and national datasets, the difference in parameter values shows that the sandstone watershed has a larger averaged soil pore diameter, greater water storage created by porosity, lower water retention ability, and greater preferential flow. The water budget calculation shows that the riparian zone and the colluvial valley serves as buffer zones that stores water at GR. Using the same procedure, we compared Flux-PIHM simulations with and without a field measured surface boulder map at GR. When the boulder map is used, the prediction of areal averaged soil moisture is improved, without performing extra calibration. When calibrated separately, the cases with or without boulder map yield different calibration values, but their hydrologic predictions are similar, showing equifinality. The calibrated soil hydraulic parameter values in the

  15. Diamond morphology as a key to understanding metasomatic processes in subcratonic mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedortchouk, Yana; Perritt, Samantha; Chinn, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    Metasomatism in the subcratonic mantle is responsible for growth as well as dissolution of diamond. The morphology of resorption features developed on diamond during its residence in the mantle provides an important record of the nature of the metasomatic media and conditions of diamond destructive metasomatic events, while the diversity of these features indicates different metasomatic processes occurring in the mantle. The objective of this study was to shed more light on the nature of metasomatic processes in the subcratonic mantle by examining the conditions of mantle-derived diamond resorption. Towards this end, we conducted a study of 800 diamonds from two kimberlite pipes in the Orapa kimberlite field, Botswana, and examined the relationship between the conditions of diamond growth, as recorded in their nitrogen defects, and subsequent dissolution recorded in their resorption features. Using a set of morphological criteria we identified preservation of mantle-derived resorption features on 55% of diamonds from one pipe and 25-75% of diamonds from the second pipe. We identified at least twelve distinct morphological types developed during mantle residence of the diamond, and examined the possible effect of diamond internal features vs. the effect of the conditions of the mantle metasomatism. The mantle resorption types are the same for diamonds from both of the Orapa kimberlites studied, and compare well to the types previously described on diamonds from Ekati Mine (Canada), implying similarity of metasomatic history beneath the Slave and Zimbabwe cratons. A comparison of the mantle-derived diamond morphologies to the products of diamond dissolution experiments allows assessment of the importance of metasomatism caused by carbonatitic melts vs. aqueous silicate melts in the mantle underlying the kimberlites. The nitrogen content and nitrogen aggregation state of the diamonds from the different morphological groups provides insights into the relationship

  16. The importance of Soil Science to understand and remediate Land Degradation and Desertification processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan; Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Documentation is abundantly available to demonstrate the devastating effect of Land degradation and desertification on sustainable development in many countries. This present a major barrier to achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals by 2030, as agreed upon at the General Assembly of the UN in September 2015. Research has certainly been successful in reversing these two processes in many case studies but persistant problems remain not only in developing countries but also in developed countries where, for example, soil compaction and loss of soil organic matter due to the industrialization of agriculture, result in a structural decline of agricultural productivity and environmental quality. The problems are quite complex because not only technical matters play a role but also, and often quite prominantly, socio-economic factors. What turn out to be successful remediation procedures at a given location or region, based on the characterization of underlying soil processes, will most likely not work in other regions inhibiting the extrapolation of local research results to areas elsewhere. One important reason for location specificity of research is the variation of soil properties in combination with the location of soils in a given landscape which governs its water, energy and nutrient dynamics, also considering the climate. Different soils are characterized by different natural riks for degradation and , in arid regions, deserticification and their particular remediation potential differs widely as well. Such risks can sometimes be overcome by innovative soil management and knowing the soil type, the climate and landscape processes, extrapolation of such types of innovative management to comparable soils and landscapes elsewhere may be feasible and effective , provided that socio-economic conditions allow the required risk-reducing measures to be realized in practice. More cooperation between soil scientists and physical geographers, familiar with landscape

  17. Geobiological Cycling of Gold: From Fundamental Process Understanding to Exploration Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Reith

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities mediating gold cycling occur on gold grains from (sub-tropical, (semi-arid, temperate and subarctic environments. The majority of identified species comprising these biofilms are β-Proteobacteria. Some bacteria, e.g., Cupriavidus metallidurans, Delftia acidovorans and Salmonella typhimurium, have developed biochemical responses to deal with highly toxic gold complexes. These include gold specific sensing and efflux, co-utilization of resistance mechanisms for other metals, and excretion of gold-complex-reducing siderophores that ultimately catalyze the biomineralization of nano-particulate, spheroidal and/or bacteriomorphic gold. In turn, the toxicity of gold complexes fosters the development of specialized biofilms on gold grains, and hence the cycling of gold in surface environments. This was not reported on isoferroplatinum grains under most near-surface environments, due to the lower toxicity of mobile platinum complexes. The discovery of gold-specific microbial responses can now drive the development of geobiological exploration tools, e.g., gold bioindicators and biosensors. Bioindicators employ genetic markers from soils and groundwaters to provide information about gold mineralization processes, while biosensors will allow in-field analyses of gold concentrations in complex sampling media.

  18. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in the processing environment by understanding biofilm formation and resistance to sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Stavros G; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize in the food processing environment and thus pose a greater risk of cross-contamination to food. One of the proposed mechanisms that facilitates such colonization is biofilm formation. As part of a biofilm, it is hypothesized that L. monocytogenes can survive sanitization procedures. In addition, biofilms are difficult to remove and may require additional physical and chemical mechanisms to reduce their presence and occurrence. The initial stage of biofilm formation is attachment to surfaces, and therefore it is important to be able to determine the ability of L. monocytogenes strains to attach to various inert surfaces. In this chapter, methods to study bacterial attachment to surfaces are described. Attachment is commonly induced by bringing planktonic cells into contact with plastic, glass, or stainless steel surfaces with or without food residues ("soil") in batch or continuous (e.g., with constant flow of nutrients) culture. Measurement of biofilm formed is carried out by detaching cells (with various mechanical methods) and measuring the viable counts or by measuring the total attached biomass. Resistance of biofilms to sanitizers is commonly carried out by exposure of the whole model surface bearing the attached cells to a solution of sanitizer, followed by measuring the survivors as described above.

  19. Recent Advances in Improvement of Forecast Skill and Understanding Climate Processes Using AIRS Version-5 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena; Rosenberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the state of the art infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system flying aboard EOS Aqua. These observations, covering the period September 2002 until the present, have been analyzed using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 retrieval algorithm. AIRS is a high spectral resolution infrared grating spectrometer with spect,ral coverage from 650 per centimeter extending to 2660 per centimeter, with low noise and a spectral resolving power of 2400. A brief overview of the AIRS Version-5 retrieval procedure will be presented, including the AIRS channels used in different steps in the retrieval process. Many researchers have used these products to make significant advances in both climate and weather applications. Recent significant results of these experiments will be presented, including results showing that 1) assimilation of AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles into a General Circulation Model (GCM) significantly improves the ability to predict storm tracks of intense precipitation events; and 2) anomaly time-series of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) computed using AIRS sounding products closely match those determined from the CERES instrument, and furthermore explain that the phenomenon that global and especially tropical mean OLR have been decreasing since September 2002 is a result of El Nino/La Nina oscillations during this period.

  20. Understanding and improving communication processes in an increasingly multicultural aged care workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Pam; Horner, Barbara; Fyfe, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how culture shapes relationships in aged care and the extent to which the residential aged care sector supports a cohesive multicultural workforce. An exploratory methodology utilising semi-structured questionnaires collected data from 58 participants comprising: staff who provide direct care to residents; managers; and family members from six residential care facilities in Perth, Western Australia. Communication issues emerged as an over-arching theme, and included interpersonal communication, the effect of cultural norms on communication and the impact of informal and formal workplace policies relating to spoken and written language. Sixty percent of participants from a culturally and linguistically diverse (CaLD) background had experienced negative reactions from residents with dementia, linked to visible cultural difference. They used a range of coping strategies including ignoring, resilience and avoidance in such situations. CaLD participants also reported prejudicial treatment from non-CaLD staff. The findings highlight the need for organisations to incorporate explicit processes which address the multiple layers of influence on cross cultural communication: internalised beliefs and values; moderating effects of education, experience and social circumstance; and factors external to the individuals, including workplace culture and the broader political economy, to develop a cohesive multicultural workplace. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Multichannel auditory search: toward understanding control processes in polychotic auditory listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M D

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments are presented that serve as a framework for exploring auditory information processing. The framework is referred to as polychotic listening or auditory search, and it requires a listener to scan multiple simultaneous auditory streams for the appearance of a target word (the name of a letter such as A or M). Participants' ability to scan between two and six simultaneous auditory streams of letter and digit names for the name of a target letter was examined using six loudspeakers. The main independent variable was auditory load, or the number of active audio streams on a given trial. The primary dependent variables were target localization accuracy and reaction time. Results showed that as load increased, performance decreased. The performance decrease was evident in reaction time, accuracy, and sensitivity measures. The second study required participants to practice the same task for 10 sessions, for a total of 1800 trials. Results indicated that even with extensive practice, performance was still affected by auditory load. The present results are compared with findings in the visual search literature. The implications for the use of multiple auditory displays are discussed. Potential applications include cockpit and automobile warning displays, virtual reality systems, and training systems.

  2. Untargeted Metabolomics Approach in Halophiles: Understanding the Biodeterioration Process of Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Adamiak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the halophile metabolome in building materials using untargeted metabolomics which allows for broad metabolome coverage. For this reason, we used high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC/HRMS. As an alternative to standard microscopy techniques, we introduced pioneering Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy (CARS to non-invasively visualize microbial cells. Brick samples saturated with salt solution (KCl, NaCl (two salinity levels, MgSO4, Mg(NO32, were inoculated with the mixture of preselected halophilic microorganisms, i.e., bacteria: Halobacillus styriensis, Halobacillus naozhouensis, Halobacillus hunanensis, Staphylococcus succinus, Marinococcus halophilus, Virgibacillus halodenitryficans, and yeast: Sterigmatomyces halophilus and stored at 28°C and 80% relative humidity for a year. Metabolites were extracted directly from the brick samples and measured via HPLC/HRMS in both positive and negative ion modes. Overall, untargeted metabolomics allowed for discovering the interactions of halophilic microorganisms with buildings materials which together with CARS microscopy enabled us to elucidate the biodeterioration process caused by halophiles. We observed that halophile metabolome was differently affected by different salt solutions. Furthermore, we found indications for haloadaptive strategies and degradation of brick samples due to microbial pigment production as a salt stress response. Finally, we detected changes in lipid content related to changes in the structure of phospholipid bilayers and membrane fluidity.

  3. Comparison of observed and simulated spatial patterns of ice microphysical processes in tropical oceanic mesoscale convective systems: Ice Microphysics in Midlevel Inflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Hannah C. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle Washington USA; Houze, Robert A. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle Washington USA; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-07-25

    To equitably compare the spatial pattern of ice microphysical processes produced by three microphysical parameterizations with each other, observations, and theory, simulations of tropical oceanic mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were forced to develop the same mesoscale circulations as observations by assimilating radial velocity data from a Doppler radar. The same general layering of microphysical processes was found in observations and simulations with deposition anywhere above the 0°C level, aggregation at and above the 0°C level, melting at and below the 0°C level, and riming near the 0°C level. Thus, this study is consistent with the layered ice microphysical pattern portrayed in previous conceptual models and indicated by dual-polarization radar data. Spatial variability of riming in the simulations suggests that riming in the midlevel inflow is related to convective-scale vertical velocity perturbations. Finally, this study sheds light on limitations of current generally available bulk microphysical parameterizations. In each parameterization, the layers in which aggregation and riming took place were generally too thick and the frequency of riming was generally too high compared to the observations and theory. Additionally, none of the parameterizations produced similar details in every microphysical spatial pattern. Discrepancies in the patterns of microphysical processes between parameterizations likely factor into creating substantial differences in model reflectivity patterns. It is concluded that improved parameterizations of ice-phase microphysics will be essential to obtain reliable, consistent model simulations of tropical oceanic MCSs.

  4. CROOS - Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Goal 1: Improve understanding of salmon ocean ecology by integrating stock-specific distribution patterns over space and time with biological and environmental data....

  5. Understanding the Budget Process Bütçe Sürecini Anlamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline J. Daubert

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Line-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the operating budget, while long-term plans are reflected in the capital budget. Since the time when cash is available to an organization does not usually coincide with the time that disbursements must be made, it is also important to carefully plan for the inflow and outflow of funds by means of a cash budget. During the budget process an organization selects its programs and activities by providing the necessary funding; the library, along with others in the organization, must justify its requests. Because of the cyclical nature of the budget process, it is possible continually to gather information and evaluate alternatives for the next budget period so that the library may achieve its maximum potential for service to its patrons. Kütüphanelerde bir çok farklı bütçeleme tekniği kullanılabilir ve bu tekniklerin bazı kombinasyonları, hemen hemen her özel durum için uygundur. Kalem, Program, Performans, Formül, Değişken ve Sıfır-tabanlı bütçelerinin hepsi, bir bütçenin hazırlanmasında yararlı olacak özelliklere sahiptirler. Bütçeler aynı zamanda kısa ve uzun vadeli parasal planlamaları ve belli bir zaman sürecinde para idaresini sağlamak gibi çeşitli işlere hizmet ederler. Kısa vadeli projeler, cari bütçede yansıtılırken, uzun vadeli planlar yatırım bütçede yansıtılırlar. Nakitin kurumun kullanımına hazır olduğu zamanlarla, ödemelerin yapılacağı zamanlar genellikle çakışmadığından, bir nakit b

  6. Towards the understanding of biogeochemical processes involved in the release of carbonyl sulfide (COS) from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Thomas; Catao, Elisa; Bunk, Rüdiger; Yi, Zhigang; Greule, Markus; Keppler, Frank; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Trumbore, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is present in the atmosphere in low mixing ratio ( 500ppt). It is relevant in climate change through the effect in aerosol formation. Soils can act as source of COS, e.g. by microbial degradation of thiocyanate from plant material. On the other side it is known that COS can be consumed via various enzymatic pathways. Assuming that biogenic processes dominate over chemical reactions we extracted nucleic acids and performed amplicon sequencing for bacteria (16S rRNA) and fungi (ITS region) from a mid-latitude agricultural maize soil which was previously incubated under ambient COS and COS fumigation ( 1000ppt). The mixing ratios of COS have been measured online from soil samples in a dynamic chamber system under laboratory conditions by an integrated cavity output spectroscopy (IOCS) analyzer (Los Gatos Research Inc., USA). Additionally stable carbon isotope values (δ13C values) of COS were measured using a pre-concentration method and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Under low COS mixing ratio ( 50ppt) δ13C +4.7 ‰ for spruce forest ( 23°C), and -24.4‰ for mid-latitude cornfield ( 22°C), respectively. Linking gas release rates of (COS, CO2, CO, NO) to isotopic signatures of COS and molecular results might allow us to indicate bacterial s-compound degradation related to the higher activity of β-Proteobacteria and of the family Acetobacteraceae from the α-Proteobacteria phylum, potentially involved with the hydrolysis of thiocyanate in the soil releasing COS. Furthermore, our study reports the first COS data for rainforest and desert soils which are in the order of 0.5 pmol gdw-1 h-1 and 2 pmol gdw-1 h-1, respectively.

  7. Advances in Understanding Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanagioti, H. K.; Werner, D.; Werth, C.

    2012-04-01

    The results of a call for a special issue that is now in press by the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology will be presented. This special issue is edited by the authors and is entitled "Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface". A short abstract of each paper will be presented along with the most interesting results. Nine papers were accepted. Pollutants studied include: biocolloids, metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, micropollutants (PAHs, PCBs), pesticides (glyphosate, 2,4-D). Findings presented in the papers include a modified batch reactor system to study equilibrium-reactive transport problems of metals. Column studies along with theoretical approximations evaluate the combined effects of grain size and pore water velocity on the transport in water saturated porous media of three biocolloids. A polluted sediment remediation method is evaluated considering site-specific conditions through monitoring results and modelling. A field study points to glogging and also sorption as mechanisms affecting the effectiveness of sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. A new isotherm model combining modified traditionally used isotherms is proposed that can be used to simulate pH-dependent metal adsorption. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) demonstrate ability to predict slight isotope shifts into the groundwater due to sorption. Possible modifications that improve the reliability of kinetic models and parameter values during the evaluation of experiments that assess the sorption of pesticides on soils are tested. Challenges in selecting groundwater pollutant fate and transport models that account for the effect of grain-scale sorption rate limitations are evaluated based on experimental results and are discussed based on the Damköhler number. Finally, a thorough review paper presents the impact of mineral micropores on the transport and fate of

  8. An interactive modelling tool for understanding hydrological processes in lowland catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Claudia; Torfs, Paul; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2016-04-01

    Recently, we developed the Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS), a rainfall-runoff model for catchments with shallow groundwater (Brauer et al., 2014ab). WALRUS explicitly simulates processes which are important in lowland catchments, such as feedbacks between saturated and unsaturated zone and between groundwater and surface water. WALRUS has a simple model structure and few parameters with physical connotations. Some default functions (which can be changed easily for research purposes) are implemented to facilitate application by practitioners and students. The effect of water management on hydrological variables can be simulated explicitly. The model description and applications are published in open access journals (Brauer et al, 2014). The open source code (provided as R package) and manual can be downloaded freely (www.github.com/ClaudiaBrauer/WALRUS). We organised a short course for Dutch water managers and consultants to become acquainted with WALRUS. We are now adapting this course as a stand-alone tutorial suitable for a varied, international audience. In addition, simple models can aid teachers to explain hydrological principles effectively. We used WALRUS to generate examples for simple interactive tools, which we will present at the EGU General Assembly. C.C. Brauer, A.J. Teuling, P.J.J.F. Torfs, R. Uijlenhoet (2014a): The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): a lumped rainfall-runoff model for catchments with shallow groundwater, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2313-2332. C.C. Brauer, P.J.J.F. Torfs, A.J. Teuling, R. Uijlenhoet (2014b): The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): application to the Hupsel Brook catchment and Cabauw polder, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4007-4028.

  9. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  10. The role of high frequency monitoring in understanding nutrient pollution processes to address catchment management issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul; Jonczyk, Jennine; Owen, Gareth; Barber, Nick; Adams, Russell; ODonnell, Greg; EdenDTC Team

    2015-04-01

    The process insights afforded to catchment scientists through the availability of high frequency time series of hydrological and nutrient pollution datasets are invaluable. However, the observations reveal both good and bad news for the WFD. Data for flow, N, P and sediment (taken at 30 min intervals) from the River Eden Demonstration Test Catchment and several other detailed UK studies, will be used to discuss nutrient fluxes in catchments between 1km2 and 10km2. Monitoring of the seasonal groundwater status and the forensic analysis of numerous storm events have identified dominant flow pathways and nutrient losses. Nonetheless, many of the management questions demanded by the WFD will not be resolved by collecting these datasets alone. Long term trends are unlikely to be determined from these data and even if trends are found they are unlikely to be accurately apportioned to the activities that have caused them. The impacts of where and when an action takes place will not be detected at the catchment scale and the cost effectiveness of any mitigation method is unlikely to be quantifiable. Even in small well instrumented catchments the natural variability in rainfall, antecedent patterns and the variability in farming practices will mask any identifiable catchment scale signal. This does not mean the cost of the data acquisition has been wasted, it just means that the knowledge and expertise gained from these data should be used in new novel ways. It will always be difficult to quantify the actual losses occurring at the farm or field scale, but the positive benefits of any mitigation may still be approximated. The evidence for the rate of nutrient removal from a local sediment trap, wetland and a pond can be shown with high resolution datasets. However, any quantifiable results are still highly localised and the transfer and upscaling of any findings must be done with care. Modelling these datasets is also possible and the nature of models have evolved in the

  11. The world at 1.5°C: Understanding its regional dimensions and driving processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, S. I.; Wartenburger, R.; Vogel, M.; Hirsch, A.; Guillod, B.; Donat, M.; Pitman, A. J.; Davin, E.; Greve, P.; Hirschi, M.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation reviews the available evidence regarding projected regional changes in climate extremes at 1.5°C vs higher levels of warming based on recent analyses (Seneviratne et al. 2016; Wartenburger et al., submitted; Greve et al., submitted). In several regions, significant differences in the occurrence of climate extremes can be identified already for half a degree of warming when assessing changes at 1.5°C vs 2°C global warming. An important feature is the much stronger warming of hot extremes in several continental regions compared to the global mean warming, which implies that temperature extremes can warm regionally by much more than 1.5°C, even if global temperature warming is stabilized at this level (e.g. up to 6°C for certain models in the Arctic). This feature is due to a combination of feedbacks and internal climate variability. We highlight in particular the importance of land-climate feedbacks for projected changes in hot extremes in mid-latitude regions (Vogel et al. 2017). Because of the strong effects of land processes on regional changes in temperature extremes, changes in land surface properties, including land use changes, are found to be particularly important for projections in low-emissions scenarios (Hirsch et al. 2017; Guillod et al., submitted). References: Greve, P., et al.: Regional scaling of annual mean precipitation and water availability with global temperature change. Submitted. Guillod, B.P., et al.: Land use in low climate warming targets critical for hot extreme projections. Submitted. Hirsch, A.L., et al., 2017: Can climate-effective land management reduce regional warming? J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 122, 2269-2288, doi:10.1002/2016JD026125. Seneviratne, S.I., et al., 2016: Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate targets. Nature, 529, 477-483, doi:10.1038/nature16542. Vogel, M.M., et al., 2017: Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil

  12. Understanding charge carrier relaxation processes in terbium arsenide nanoparticles using transient absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoef, Laura R.

    Erbium arsenide nanoparticles epitaxially grown within III-V semiconductors have been shown to improve the performance of devices for applications ranging from thermoelectrics to THz pulse generation. The small size of rare-earth nanoparticles suggests that interesting electronic properties might emerge as a result of both spatial confinement and surface states. However, ErAs nanoparticles do not exhibit any signs of quantum confinement or an emergent bandgap, and these experimental observations are understood from theory. The incorporation of other rare-earth monopnictide nanoparticles into III-V hosts is a likely path to engineering carrier excitation, relaxation and transport dynamics for optoelectronic device applications. However, the electronic structure of these other rare-earth monopnictide nanoparticles remains poorly understood. The objective of this research is to explore the electronic structure and optical properties of III-V materials containing novel rare-earth monopnictides. We use ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy to investigate the electronic structure of TbAs nanoparticles in III-V hosts. We start with TbAs:GaAs, which was expected to be similar to ErAs:GaAs. We study the dynamics of carrier relaxation into the TbAs states using optical pump terahertz probe transient absorption spectroscopy. By analyzing how the carrier relaxation rates depend on pump fluence and sample temperature, we conclude that the TbAs states are saturable. Saturable traps suggest the existence of a bandgap for TbAs nanoparticles, in sharp contrast with previous results for ErAs. We then apply the same experimental technique to two samples of TbAs nanoparticles in InGaAs with different concentrations of TbAs. We observe similar relaxation dynamics associated with trap saturation, though the ability to resolve these processes is contingent upon a high enough TbAs concentration in the sample. We have also constructed an optical pump optical probe transient absorption

  13. Extraction of water and solutes from argillaceous rocks for geochemical characterisation: Methods, processes and current understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Elisa; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Pitsch, Helmut; Lalieux, Philippe; Aranyossy, Jean-François

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of a comprehensive critical review, initiated by the OECD/NEA "Clay Club," of the extraction techniques available to obtain water and solutes from argillaceous rocks. The paper focuses on the mechanisms involved in the extraction processes, the consequences on the isotopic and chemical composition of the extracted pore water and the attempts made to reconstruct its original composition. Finally, it provides some examples of reliable techniques and information, as a function of the purpose of the geochemical study. Résumé. Cet article résume les résultats d'une synthèse critique d'ensemble, lancée par le OECD/NEA "Clay Club", sur les techniques d'extraction disponibles pour obtenir l'eau et les solutés de roches argileuses. L'article est consacré aux mécanismes impliqués dans les processus d'extraction, aux conséquences sur la composition isotopique et chimique de l'eau porale extraite et aux tentatives faites pour reconstituer sa composition originelle. Finalement, il donne quelques exemples de techniques fiables et d'informations, en fonction du but de l'étude géochimique. Resúmen. Este artículo resume los resultados de una revisión crítica exhaustiva (iniciada por el "Clay Club" OECD/NEA) de las técnicas de extracción disponibles para obtener agua y solutos en rocas arcillosas. El artículo se centra en los mecanismos involucrados en los procesos extractivos, las consecuencias en la composición isotópica y química del agua intersticial extraída, y en los intentos realizados para reconstruir su composición original. Finalmente, se presentan algunos ejemplos de técnicas fiables e información, en función del propósito del estudio geoquímico.

  14. Mid Ocean Ridge Processes at Very Low Melt Supply : Submersible Exploration of Smooth Ultramafic Seafloor at the Southwest Indian Ridge, 64 degree E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannat, M.; Agrinier, P.; Bickert, M.; Brunelli, D.; Hamelin, C.; Lecoeuvre, A.; Lie Onstad, S.; Maia, M.; Prampolini, M.; Rouméjon, S.; Vitale Brovarone, A.; Besançon, S.; Assaoui, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridges are the Earth's most extensive and active volcanic chains. They are also, particularly at slow spreading rates, rift zones, where plate divergence is in part accommodated by faults. Large offset normal faults, also called detachments, are characteristic of slow-spreading ridges, where they account for the widespread emplacement of mantle-derived rocks at the seafloor. In most cases, these detachments occur together with ridge magmatism, with melt injection and faulting interacting to shape the newly formed oceanic lithosphere. Here, we seek to better understand these interactions and their effects on oceanic accretion by studying the end-member case of a ridge where magmatism is locally almost absent. The portion of the Southwest Indian ridge we are studying has an overal low melt supply, focused to discrete axial volcanoes, leaving almost zero melt to intervening sections of the axial valley. One of these nearly amagmatic section of the ridge, located at 64°E, has been the focus of several past cruises (sampling, mapping and seismic experiments). Here we report on the most recent cruise to the area (RV Pourquoi Pas? with ROV Victor; dec-jan 2017), during which we performed high resolution mapping, submersible exploration and sampling of the ultramafic seafloor and of sparse volcanic formations. Our findings are consistent with the flip-flop detachment hypothesis proposed for this area by Sauter et al. (Nature Geosciences, 2013; ultramafic seafloor forming in the footwall of successive detachment faults, each cutting into the footwall of the previous fault, with an opposite polarity). Our observations also document the extent and geometry of deformation in the footwall of a young axial detachment, the role of mass-wasting for the evolution of this detachment, and provide spectacular evidence for serpentinization-related hydrothermal circulation and for spatial links between faults and volcanic eruptions.

  15. Beyond Climate Scenarios: Advancing from Changes in the Mean to a Better Understanding of Physical Processes to Enhance Stakeholder Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, D. N.; Kaatz, L.; Ammann, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Great strides have been made within the climate sciences community to make Global Climate Model (GCM) output and their results as meaningful as possible to the broad community of stakeholders that might benefit from this information. Regardless of these good intentions, the fact remains that most data from GCMs are viewed as being highly uncertain and thus not actionable for water resources planning. The most common use of GCM data is informing projected future climate by use of a mean change, primarily for temperature, given the generally greater confidence in this variable. In contrast, precipitation is viewed as highly uncertain, primarily because it has not validated well against observed precipitation climatologies at local and regional levels. Simple perturbations to historical mean temperature and precipitation sequences are not as complex as using direct GCM outputs and have fewer analytical requirements. Mean climate change information can still give valuable information to water managers, providing meaningful insights and sign posts into future vulnerabilities and is an approach that is arguably deemed more actionable. These temperature and precipitation sign posts can be monitored and used as indicators when certain actions become necessary and/or until there are improvements in actionable climate science information. Recent advances in regional climate modeling (RCM), particularly those run at very high resolution and are cloud resolving, show promise in advancing our understanding of the interaction among climate variables at the regional level. Thus, in addition to exploring how changes in the mean climate (e.g. 2oC warming) might impact a water system, this bottom-up approach makes use of carefully constructed regional climate experiments that are conducted, for example, under conditions of a warmer atmosphere that can hold more moisture. One can then explore what happens to, for example, rain-snow partitioning at various elevations across a snow

  16. Ocean optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinard, R.W.; Carder, K.L.; Perry, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    This volume is the twenty fifth in the series of Oxford Monographs in Geology and Geophysics. The propagation off light in the hydra-atmosphere systems is governed by the integral-differential Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). Closure and inversion are the most common techniques in optical oceanography to understand the most basic principles of natural variability. Three types of closure are dealt with: scale closure, experimental closure, and instrument closure. The subject is well introduced by Spinard et al. in the Preface while Howard Gordon in Chapter 1 provides an in-depth introduction to the RTE and its inherent problems. Inherent and apparent optical properties are dealt with in Chapter 2 by John Kirk and the realities of optical closure are presented in the following chapter by Ronald Zaneveld. The balance of the papers in this volume is quite varied. The early papers deal in a very mathematical manner with the basics of radiative transfer and the relationship between inherent and optical properties. Polarization of sea water is discussed in a chapter that contains a chronological listing of discoveries in polarization, starting at about 1000 AD with the discovery of dichroic properties of crystals by the Vikings and ending with the demonstration of polarotaxis in certain marine organisms by Waterman in 1972. Chapter 12 on Raman scattering in pure water and the pattern recognition techniques presented in Chapter 13 on the optical effects of large particles may be of relevance to fields outside ocean optics.

  17. In-depth experimental analysis of pharmaceutical twin-screw wet granulation in view of detailed process understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Maxim; Van Hauwermeiren, Daan; Lee, Kai; Turnbull, Neil; Wilsdon, David; Am Ende, Mary; Doshi, Pankaj; Vervaet, Chris; Brouckaert, Davinia; Mortier, Séverine T F C; Nopens, Ingmar; Beer, Thomas De

    2017-08-30

    Twin-screw wet granulation is gaining increasing interest within the pharmaceutical industry for the continuous manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms. However, limited prior fundamental physical understanding has been generated relating to the granule formation mechanisms and kinetics along the internal compartmental length of a twin-screw granulator barrel, and about how process settings, barrel screw configuration and formulation properties such as particle size, density and surface properties influence these mechanisms. One of the main reasons for this limited understanding is that experimental data is generally only collected at the exit of the twin-screw granulator barrel although the granule formation occurs spatially along the internal length of the barrel. The purpose of this study is to analyze the twin-screw wet granulation process using both hydrophilic and hydrophobic formulations, manufactured under different process settings such as liquid-to-solid ratio, mass throughput and screw speed, in such a way that the mechanisms occurring in the individual granulator barrel compartments (i.e., the wetting and different conveying and kneading compartments) and their impact upon granule formation are understood. To achieve this, a unique experimental setup was developed allowing granule characteristic data-collection such as size, shape, liquid and porosity distribution at the different compartments along the length of the granulator barrel. Moreover, granule characteristic information per granule size class was determined. The experimental results indicated that liquid-to-solid ratio is the most important factor dictating the formation of the granules and their corresponding properties, by regulating the degree of aggregation and breakage in the different compartments along the internal length of the twin-screw granulator barrel. Collecting appropriate and detailed experimental data about granule formation along the internal length of the granulator barrel

  18. CO2-mineral Wettability and Implications for Understanding Leakage Processes from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarens, A. F.; Edwards, I.; Wang, S.

    2011-12-01

    In geological carbon sequestration (GCS), leakage events will be difficult to predict because parcels of CO2 will travel over long length scales and encounter a number of heterogeneous formations and endogenous brine in their rise to the surface. A constitutive model of a rising parcel of CO2 includes at least three main forces: 1) buoyant forces, 2) surface tension forces, and 3) shear drag forces. Of these, surface tension forces are of great significance, especially for predicting capillary and mineral trapping, and are affected by surface tension and the three-phase contact angle between CO2, brine, and the solid host mineral surfaces. Very limited experimental data on contact angles in GCS relevant systems has been reported in the academic literature. Here, the contact angle of several of the rock and clay species prevailing near GCS sites, e.g. quartz, feldspar, calcite, kaolinite, smectite and illite, were measured under a range of relevant temperature, pressure and ionic strength conditions. The measurements were made in a custom-built high-pressure view cell by introducing precisely controlled pendant CO2 droplets of constant volume to smooth and clean mineral surfaces after saturating the surrounding brine with CO2 and images were recorded using a high resolution digital camera. Images were processed and the contact angle measured using ImageJ software with a plug-in designed for this purpose. To measure the contact angle of CO2 on clay surfaces, ultra-pure microscope glass slides were coated with cleaned and particle-size-separated clay particles using hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohol to ensure adhesion and a continuous coating on the surface. The uniform morphology of the surface was confirmed using electron microscopy. Preliminary results demonstrate differences in contact angle between the tested minerals, with calcite > quartz > feldspar. The absolute differences between the minerals were on the order of 3-7%. The results also demonstrate that under