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Sample records for understanding numerous questions

  1. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  2. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque,Bruno Saboia de; Callado,Marcelo de Castro

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity. O objetivo deste trabalho é promover um desafio de investigação sobre a moeda digital chamada Bitcoins, bem como e...

  3. The Turbulent Interstellar Medium: Insights and Questions from Numerical Models

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; de Avillez, Miguel A.; Korpi, Maarit J.

    2003-01-01

    "The purpose of numerical models is not numbers but insight." (Hamming) In the spirit of this adage, and of Don Cox's approach to scientific speaking, we discuss the questions that the latest generation of numerical models of the interstellar medium raise, at least for us. The energy source for the interstellar turbulence is still under discussion. We review the argument for supernovae dominating in star forming regions. Magnetorotational instability has been suggested as a way of coupling di...

  4. Questioning in Distributed Product Development Teams: Supporting Shared Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Distributed teams are an increasingly common feature of New Product Development (NPD). Key to the success of these teams is the development of both short and longerterm shared understanding. Lack of shared understanding has been recognized as a significant challenge, particularly in the context...... globally distributed NPD activities. Poor shared understanding can ultimately result in delays and rework. One major antecedent of shared understanding development is question asking. This work uses a quasiexperimental study to test the impact of questioning support on different types of distributed teams......, both homogeneous and heterogeneous. This extends theoretical insight into the development of shared understanding and contributes one of few empirical studies directly comparing the response characteristics of different team types. From a managerial perspective this work has implications for how...

  5. Children’s understanding of emotion causes: Question of future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Jovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Question of development of children’s understanding of emotions causes has attracted a significant research attention. Child’s understanding of present wishes and beliefs, as well as understanding of past events as being the cause of emotions, has been researched. Research reported in this paper expands upon the issues of child’s understanding of emotions in relation to the future. It starts with the question of determining the age at which a child begins to understand that emotions might be caused by mental states related to the future - through imagining or expecting the future events. Three basic emotions (fear, happiness, and sadness has been selected and for each of them two simple stories have been created: one for immediate and other for the more distant future. Stories were illustrated and given to the group of 24 participants (12 boys and 12 girls ages of 5, 8 and 11 (total N = 72. Overall findings are in accord with previous research in the fild. It’s been determined that even preschool children can understand mental states related to the future. Such mental states more often occur as explanation of fear than of happiness or sadness, while the transitional age from situational to mental states explanations is between ages of five to eight.

  6. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the "teaching games for understanding" (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches' learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools.

  7. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the “teaching games for understanding” (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches’ learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools. PMID:26452580

  8. Understanding Etna flank instability through numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuani, Tiziana; Corazzato, Claudia; Merri, Andrea; Tibaldi, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    As many active volcanoes, Mount Etna shows clear evidence of flank instability, and different mechanisms were suggested to explain this flank dynamics, based on the recorded deformation pattern and character. Shallow and deep deformations, mainly associated with both eruptive and seismic events, are concentrated along recognised fracture and fault systems, mobilising the eastern and south-eastern flank of the volcano. Several interacting causes were postulated to control the phenomenon, including gravity force, magma ascent along the feeding system, and a very complex local and/or regional tectonic activity. Nevertheless, the complexity of such dynamics is still an open subject of research and being the volcano flanks heavily urbanised, the comprehension of the gravitative dynamics is a major issue for public safety and civil protection. The present research explores the effects of the main geological features (in particular the role of the subetnean clays, interposed between the Apennine-Maghrebian flysch and the volcanic products) and the role of weakness zones, identified by fracture and fault systems, on the slope instability process. The effects of magma intrusions are also investigated. The problem is addressed by integrating field data, laboratory tests and numerical modelling. A bi- and tri-dimensional stress-strain analysis was performed by a finite difference numerical code (FLAC and FLAC3D), mainly aimed at evaluating the relationship among geological features, volcano-tectonic structures and magmatic activity in controlling the deformation processes. The analyses are well supported by dedicated structural-mechanical field surveys, which allowed to estimate the rock mass strength and deformability parameters. To take into account the uncertainties which inevitably occur in a so complicated model, many efforts were done in performing a sensitivity analysis along a WNW-ESE section crossing the volcano summit and the Valle del Bove depression. This was

  9. How do 5-year-olds understand questions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes; Teresa Guasti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    the question word was related to the sentential subject or object position of the verb. The findings show that there is considerable variation among languages, but the two factors mentioned consistently affect children’s performance. The cross-linguistic variation shows that three linguistic factors facilitate...... developing children across 19 European countries, 18 different languages, and 7 language (sub-)families. The study investigated the effects of two factors on question formation: (a) whether the question contains a simple interrogative word like ‘who’ or a complex one like ‘which princess’, and (b) whether...

  10. Fraction Development in Children: Importance of Building Numerical Magnitude Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Carrique, Jessica; Hansen, Nicole; Resnick, Ilyse

    2016-01-01

    This chapter situates fraction learning within the integrated theory of numerical development. We argue that the understanding of numerical magnitudes for whole numbers as well as for fractions is critical to fraction learning in particular and mathematics achievement more generally. Results from the Delaware Longitudinal Study, which examined…

  11. Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Photosynthesis Using Diagnostic Question Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce M.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific…

  12. Numerical modelling of groundwater flow to understand the impacts ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 2. Numerical modelling of groundwater flow to understand the impacts of pumping on arsenic migration in the aquifer of North Bengal Plain. P K Sikdar Surajit Chakraborty. Volume 126 Issue 2 March 2017 Article ID 29 ...

  13. Numerical modelling of groundwater flow to understand the impacts ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12040-017-0799-x. Numerical modelling of groundwater flow to understand the impacts of pumping on arsenic migration in the aquifer of North Bengal Plain. P K Sikdar∗ and Surajit Chakraborty. Department of Environment Management, Indian Institute of Social Welfare and.

  14. Written Extended-Response Questions as Classroom Assessment Tools for Meaningful Understanding of Evolutionary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieswandt, Martina; Bellomo, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed grade 12 biology students' answers to written extended-response questions that describe hypothetical scenarios of animals' evolution. We investigated whether these type of questions are suitable for students (n = 24) to express a meaningful understanding of evolutionary theory. Meaningful understanding is comprised…

  15. The symbol-grounding problem in numerical cognition: A review of theory, evidence, and outstanding questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovich, Tali; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    How do numerical symbols, such as number words, acquire semantic meaning? This question, also referred to as the "symbol-grounding problem," is a central problem in the field of numerical cognition. Present theories suggest that symbols acquire their meaning by being mapped onto an approximate system for the nonsymbolic representation of number (Approximate Number System or ANS). In the present literature review, we first asked to which extent current behavioural and neuroimaging data support this theory, and second, to which extent the ANS, upon which symbolic numbers are assumed to be grounded, is numerical in nature. We conclude that (a) current evidence that has examined the association between the ANS and number symbols does not support the notion that number symbols are grounded in the ANS and (b) given the strong correlation between numerosity and continuous variables in nonsymbolic number processing tasks, it is next to impossible to measure the pure association between symbolic and nonsymbolic numerosity. Instead, it is clear that significant cognitive control resources are required to disambiguate numerical from continuous variables during nonsymbolic number processing. Thus, if there exists any mapping between the ANS and symbolic number, then this process of association must be mediated by cognitive control. Taken together, we suggest that studying the role of both cognitive control and continuous variables in numerosity comparison tasks will provide a more complete picture of the symbol-grounding problem. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Analyzing student conceptual understanding of resistor networks using binary, descriptive, and computational questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Abid H.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a case study assessing and analyzing student engagement with and responses to binary, descriptive, and computational questions testing the concepts underlying resistor networks (series and parallel combinations). The participants of the study were undergraduate students enrolled in a university in Pakistan. The majority of students struggled with the descriptive question, and while successfully answering the binary and computational ones, they failed to build an expectation for the answer, and betrayed significant lack of conceptual understanding in the process. The data collected was also used to analyze the relative efficacy of the three questions as a means of assessing conceptual understanding. The three questions were revealed to be uncorrelated and unlikely to be testing the same construct. The ability to answer the binary or computational question was observed to be divorced from a deeper understanding of the concepts involved.

  17. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau

    2013-01-01

    During their education, students are presented with information across a variety of academic domains. How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of age and prior knowledge on the ways students approach questioning across history and…

  18. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau; Rabinowitz, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of domain, age, and previous experience with content on the ways students approach questioning across history and science texts. In 3 experiments, 3rd-, 8th-, and 10th-grade students in large…

  19. Can adults with low literacy understand shared decision making questions? A qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Danielle M; Shepherd, Heather L; Morony, Suzanne; Smith, Sian K; Dhillon, Haryana M; Trevena, Lyndal; Hayen, Andrew; Luxford, Karen; Nutbeam, Don; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2016-11-01

    Participation in shared decision-making (SDM) may be difficult for adults with lower literacy. Tools to support consumers to engage in SDM are rarely designed for or evaluated with adults with lower literacy and/or poor English language. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 26 adults with lower literacy and/or poor English language skills to investigate (a) whether participants where able to read and understand two generic SDM consumer support tools (Smart Health Choices and AskShareKnow question-sets), (b) which question-set was easier for participants and, (c) perceived usefulness of the question-sets and barriers to use. Interviews were analysed using Framework Analysis. Participants had difficulties understanding terms embedded within both the AskShareKnow and Smart Health Choices questions. Our findings suggest that the AskShareKnow question-set was easier for our participants than the Smart Health Choices questions, and clarification using a structured response was reasonably effective. While participants appreciated the usefulness of the questions, they identified important barriers to use. Generic question-sets alone are not sufficient to support SDM for adults with lower literacy and/or poor English-language skills. To ensure that SDM is accessible to all, we must consider how best to support adults with low literacy and/or poor English-language skills to participate in this process. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. The Scientific Approach Learning: How prospective science teachers understand about questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiyanto; Nugroho, S. E.; Hartono

    2017-04-01

    In the new curriculum, questioning is one of theaspects of scientific approach learning. It means teachers should facilitate students to ask their questions during science learning. The purpose of this research was to reveal the prospective science teachers’ understanding about questioning and how the science teachers implement of that in the scientific approach learning. Data of the prospective science teachers’ understanding was explored from their teaching plan that produced during microteaching. The microteaching is an activity that should be followed by students before they conduct partnership program in school. Data about theimplementation of questioning that conducted by theteacher was be collected by video-assisted observation in junior school science class. The results showed that majority of the prospective science teachers had difficulty to write down in their teaching plan about how to facilitate students to ask their questions, even majority of them understood that questioning is not students’ activity, but it is an activity that should be done by teachers. Based on the observation showed that majority of teachers did not yet implement a learning that facilitates students to ask their questions.

  1. 100 commonly asked questions in math class answers that promote mathematical understanding, grades 6-12

    CERN Document Server

    Posamentier, Alfred S (Steven); Germain-Williams, Terri L (Lynn); Paris, Elaine S; Lehmann, Ingmar H (Horst)

    2013-01-01

    100 ways to get students hooked on math! That one question got you stumped? Or maybe you have the answer, but it's not all that compelling. Al Posamentier and his coauthors to the rescue with this handy reference containing fun answers to students'100 most frequently asked math questions. Even if you already have the answers, Al's explanations are certain to keep kids hooked. The big benefits? You'll discover high-interest ways to Teach to the Common Core's math content standards Promote inquiry and process in mathematical thinking Build procedural skills and conceptual understanding Encourage

  2. Understanding students’ misconceptions: An analysis of final Grade 12 examination questions in geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakoma Luneta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role geometry plays in real life makes it a core component of mathematics that students must understand and master. Conceptual knowledge of geometric concepts goes beyond the development of skills required to manipulate geometric shapes. This study is focused on errors students made when solving coordinate geometry problems in the final Grade 12 examination in South Africa. An analysis of 1000 scripts from the 2008 Mathematics examination was conducted. This entailed a detailed analysis of one Grade 12 geometry examination question. Van Hiele levels of geometrical thought were used as a lens to understand students’ knowledge of geometry. Studies show that Van Hiele levels are a good descriptor of current and future performance in geometry. This study revealed that whilst students in Grade 12 are expected to operate at level 3 and level 4, the majority were operating at level 2 of Van Hiele’s hierarchy. The majority of students did not understand most of the basic concepts in Euclidian transformation. Most of the errors were conceptual and suggested that students did not understand the questions and did not know what to do as a result. It is also noted that when students lack conceptual knowledge the consequences are so severe that they hardly respond to the questions in the examination.

  3. Donor's understanding of the definition of sex as applied to predonation screening questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S F; Ram, S S; Yi, Q-L; Goldman, M

    2008-05-01

    Predonation screening questions about sexual risk factors should provide an extra layer of safety from recently acquired infections that may be too early to be detected by testing. Donors are required to read a definition of sex as it applies to predonation screening questions each time they come to donate, but how well donors apply such definitions has not been evaluated. We aimed to determine how donors define sex when answering screening questions. In total, 1297 whole blood donors were asked in a private interview to select from a list of sexual activities which ones they believed were being asked about in sexual background questions. Donors' definitions were coded as under-inclusive, correct or over-inclusive in relation to the blood services' definition. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 21 donors to understand reasoning behind definitions. Most donors had an over-inclusive definition (58.7%) or the correct definition (31.9%). Of the 9.4% of donors who had an under-inclusive definition, 95% included both vaginal and anal sex, but not oral sex. About 9% in each group were first-time donors (P > 0.05) who had never read the definition. The qualitative interviews indicated that donors reason their definition based on their own concept of transmissible disease risk. Donors apply a range of definitions of sex when answering questions about their sexual background. This may be due to different concepts of risk activities, and required reading of the definition has little impact.

  4. Numerical modelling of groundwater flow to understand the impacts ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    @hotmail.com. In this paper, numerical simulations of regional-scale groundwater flow of North Bengal Plain have been carried out with special emphasis on the arsenic (As)-rich alluvium filled gap between the Rajmahal hills on the west and ...

  5. An Investigation into Students' Difficulties in Numerical Problem Solving Questions in High School Biology Using a Numeracy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Fraser J.

    2016-01-01

    The "mathematics problem" is a well-known source of difficulty for students attempting numerical problem solving questions in the context of science education. This paper illuminates this problem from a biology education perspective by invoking Hogan's numeracy framework. In doing so, this study has revealed that the contextualisation of…

  6. The Question of Racism: How to Understand the Violent Attacks on Indian Students in Australia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Baas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the past ten years I have been involved in research on the topic of Indian student-migrants in Australia. What started in India in 2004 with the ostensibly simple questions why there was such a surge in Indian students’ enrolments in Australia, turned into a study which had the question of migration at the heart of its investigation. Realising that the majority of Indian students based their decision for Australia on the relatively easy pathway the country offered towards permanent residency my research focused on understanding how such trajectories from students to migrants took shape. However, as I argued in Imagined Mobility (Anthem Press, 2010, while the propensity to apply for PR may be high, permanently residing in Australia was often not the objective. Instead many Indian students saw a PR as facilitating the start of transnational existence. In this paper I will draw upon a vast collection of newspaper articles as well as ethnographic material collected over this period in order to produce a personalised account of how I, as an academic researcher, observed the discourse about Indian students in Australia ‘migrate’ from them being welcome international students and would-be migrants to unwelcome profiteers whose place in Australian cities was highly contested. Questions I will focus on are: how did the violent attacks and subsequent debate about their racist nature impact the lives and trajectories of Indian student-migrants as starting transnationals; how did they themselves reflect on these attacks especially in relation to them now being ‘permanent residents’; and finally, what role do ‘Indian students’ continue to play in Australia’s skilled migration debate?

  7. Research and Teaching: Correlations between Students' Written Responses to Lecture-Tutorial Questions and Their Understandings of Key Astrophysics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, Jeffrey; Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin S.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the correlations between students' understandings of introductory astronomy concepts and the correctness and coherency of their written responses to targeted Lecture-Tutorial questions.

  8. A Flexible Question-and-Answer Task for Measuring Speech Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Best

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This report introduces a new speech task based on simple questions and answers. The task differs from a traditional sentence recall task in that it involves an element of comprehension and can be implemented in an ongoing fashion. It also contains two target items (the question and the answer that may be associated with different voices and locations to create dynamic listening scenarios. A set of 227 questions was created, covering six broad categories (days of the week, months of the year, numbers, colors, opposites, and sizes. All questions and their one-word answers were spoken by 11 female and 11 male talkers. In this study, listeners were presented with question-answer pairs and asked to indicate whether the answer was true or false. Responses were given as simple button or key presses, which are quick to make and easy to score. Two preliminary experiments are presented that illustrate different ways of implementing the basic task. In the first experiment, question-answer pairs were presented in speech-shaped noise, and performance was compared across subjects, question categories, and time, to examine the different sources of variability. In the second experiment, sequences of question-answer pairs were presented amidst competing conversations in an ongoing, spatially dynamic listening scenario. Overall, the question-and-answer task appears to be feasible and could be implemented flexibly in a number of different ways.

  9. Breaking the Mold: A Fresh Look at Children's Understanding of Questions About Lies and Mistakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Peterson, Candida C.

    1996-01-01

    Examined the claim that young children (three to five years old) regard all false statements as lies. Found that most young children at all ages could distinguish between lies and mistaken statements, if care was taken to clarify the form of question. (Author/DR)

  10. Understanding the Factors Influencing User Experience of Social Question and Answer Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shengli; Fang, Yuling; Liu, Yong; Li, Hongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The popularity of social question and answer sites has made it an important and convenient source for obtaining knowledge. This study quantifies how three different system characteristics (interface design, interaction and answer quality) affect users' perceptions (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment),…

  11. Geomorphic and vegetation processes of the Willamette River floodplain, Oregon: current understanding and unanswered science questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Hulse, David; Gregory, Stanley V.

    2013-01-01

    are now largely stable in response to flow regulation and revetment construction. The upper Willamette and North Santiam Rivers retain some dynamic characteristics, and provide the greatest diversity of aquatic and riparian habitats under the current flow and sediment regime. The McKenzie River has some areas that are more dynamic, whereas other sections are stable due to geology or revetments. Historical reductions in channel dynamism also have implications for ongoing and future recruitment and succession of floodplain forests. For instance, the succession of native plants like black cottonwood is currently limited by (1) fewer low-elevation gravel bars for stand initiation; (2) altered streamflow during seed release, germination, and stand initiation; (3) competition from introduced plant species; and (4) frequent erosion of young vegetation in some locations because scouring flows are concentrated within a narrow channel corridor. Despite past alterations, the Willamette River Basin has many of the physical and ecological building blocks necessary for highly functioning rivers. Management strategies, including environmental flow programs, river and floodplain restoration, revetment modifications, and reclamation of gravel mines, are underway to mitigate some historical changes. However, there are some substantial gaps in the scientific understanding of the modern Willamette basin that is needed to efficiently integrate these blocks and to establish realistic objectives for future conditions. Unanswered questions include: 1. What is the distribution and diversity of landforms and habitats along the Willamette River and its tributaries?

  12. Communicating Numerical Risk: Human Factors That Aid Understanding in Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust-Renck, Priscila G.; Royer, Caisa E.; Reyna, Valerie F.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we review evidence from the human factors literature that verbal and visual formats can help increase the understanding of numerical risk information in health care. These visual representations of risk are grounded in empirically supported theory. As background, we first review research showing that people often have difficulty understanding numerical risks and benefits in health information. In particular, we discuss how understanding the meanings of numbers results in healthier decisions. Then, we discuss the processes that determine how communication of numerical risks can enhance (or degrade) health judgments and decisions. Specifically, we examine two different approaches to risk communication: a traditional approach and fuzzy-trace theory. Applying research on the complications of understanding and communicating risks, we then highlight how different visual representations are best suited to communicating different risk messages (i.e., their gist). In particular, we review verbal and visual messages that highlight gist representations that can better communicate health information and improve informed decision making. This discussion is informed by human factors theories and methods, which involve the study of how to maximize the interaction between humans and the tools they use. Finally, we present implications and recommendations for future research on human factors in health care. PMID:24999307

  13. Understanding the cellular mode of action of vernakalant using a computational model: answers and new questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loewe Axel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vernakalant is a new antiarrhythmic agent for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. While it has proven to be effective in a large share of patients in clinical studies, its underlying mode of action is not fully understood. In this work, we aim to link experimental data from the subcellular, tissue, and system level using an in-silico approach. A Hill’s equation-based drug model was extended to cover the frequency dependence of sodium channel block. Two model variants were investigated: M1 based on subcellular data and M2 based on tissue level data. 6 action potential (AP markers were evaluated regarding their dose, frequency and substrate dependence. M1 comprising potassium, sodium, and calcium channel block reproduced the reported prolongation of the refractory period. M2 not including the effects on potassium channels reproduced reported AP morphology changes on the other hand. The experimentally observed increase of ERP accompanied by a shortening of APD90 was not reproduced. Thus, explanations for the drug-induced changes are provided while none of the models can explain the effects in their entirety. These results foster the understanding of vernakalant’s cellular mode of action and point out relevant gaps in our current knowledge to be addressed in future in-silico and experimental research on this aspiring antiarrhythmic agent.

  14. Questions of migration and belonging: understandings of migration under neoliberalism in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, V

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores alternative understandings and experiences of migration under neoliberalism in Ecuador. Through the case study, the study examines migrants' multiple motivations for mobility and their ambivalence toward the process. Insights from the transnational migration literature were drawn in order to think through the implications of an increasingly contradictory context of economic modernization and its impact upon the sense of possibilities and belonging of migrants. In-depth interviews with urban-destined migrants in Ecuador were drawn to argue that mobility produces ambivalent development subjects. This argument is developed in three sections. First, the paper centers on the epistemological and theoretical basis for the relevance of migrant narratives in extending theorizations of migration. Second, in-depth interviews with migrants to Quito are drawn to explore migrants' sense of belonging and regional affiliation, identity formation through migration, and experiences of alienation and disruption in their lives. Lastly, this paper concludes with a retheorization of the role of migration places in the migrant identity construction.

  15. RESEARCH REPORT: Eliciting students' understandings of chemical reactions using two forms of essay questions during a learning cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Ann M. L.

    2003-05-01

    We examined ninth-grade students' explanations of chemical reactions using two forms of an open-ended essay question during a learning cycle. One form provided students with key terms to be used as 'anchors' upon which to base their essay, whereas the second form did not. The essays were administered at three points: pre-learning cycle, post-concept application, and after additional concept application activities. Students' explanations were qualitatively examined and grouped according to common patterns representing their understandings or misunderstandings. Findings indicated that more misunderstandings were elicited by the use of key terms as compared to the non-use of key terms in the pre-test. Misunderstandings in the key term essay responses generally involved the misuse of these terms and their association with the concept. Findings also indicated significant positive shifts in students' understanding over the learning cycle. No perceptible increase in understanding occurred after additional application activities. Differences in gender were observed, with females showing equal or greater understanding compared to males, contradicting reports that males typically outperform females in the physical sciences and supporting the need to reconstruct assessment techniques to better reveal the conceptual understandings of all students.

  16. Using targeted active-learning exercises and diagnostic question clusters to improve students' understanding of carbon cycling in ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and organic carbon-containing compounds in biological systems. These results helped us identify specific active-learning exercises that would be responsive to students' existing knowledge. The effects of the active-learning interventions were then examined through analysis of students' pre- and postinstruction responses on the DQCs. The biology and non-biology majors participating in this study attended a range of institutions and the instructors varied in their use of active learning; one lecture-only comparison class was included. Changes in pre- to postinstruction scores on the DQCs showed that an instructor's teaching method had a highly significant effect on student reasoning following course instruction, especially for questions pertaining to cellular-level, carbon-transforming processes. We conclude that using targeted in-class activities had a beneficial effect on student learning regardless of major or class size, and argue that using diagnostic questions to identify effective learning activities is a valuable strategy for promoting learning, as gains from lecture-only classes were minimal.

  17. FDiff3: a finite-difference solver for facilitating understanding of heat conduction and numerical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, M.B. [University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield (United Kingdom). Department of Aerospace, Automotive and Design Engineering; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom). School of Engineering

    2004-12-01

    The growing requirement for energy thrift and hence the increasing emphasis on 'low-purchased-energy' designs are stimulating the need for more accurate insights into the thermal behaviours of buildings and their components. This better understanding is preferably achieved, rather than by using 'closed software' or teaching the relevant mathematics outside heat-transfer lessons, but from embedding the pertinent tutoring while dealing with heat-transfer problems using an open-source code approach. Hence a finite-difference software program (FDiff3) has been composed to show the principles of numerical analysis as well as improve the undergraduates' perception of transient conduction. The pedagogic approach behind the development, its present capabilities and applications to sample test-cases are discussed. (author)

  18. First clues to understand red blood cell interactions: numerical studies of vesicle suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiébaud, Marine; Misbah, Chaouqi; Dyfcom Team

    2014-03-01

    The scientific community started raising questions on blood flow for nearly two centuries, a period traced back to the pioneering work of Poiseuille. This topic has known a considerable upsurge of interest during the past decade. Vesicles capture several essential features shared with red blood cells. A single vesicle is now fairly understood, whereas study of suspensions is still unclear. We conduct bidimensionnal numerical studies by mean of the boundary integral method. Confinement plays a major role in that it introduces an interaction cut-off length. I will present results on the behavior of relative viscosity as function of the viscosity contrast between the fluid encapsulated by vesicles and the ambient fluid. This viscosity contrast is a key parameter: it triggers transition from tank-treading to tumbling regimes. Historical characterization of blood have led to the discovery of the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. I will introduce some results on this effect with a rheological study as function of concentration and confinement. I will report on non-standard behavior induced by a subtle spatio-temporal organization of the suspension. We would like to thank CNES for financial support.

  19. Questioning and metacognitive thinking: On-line and off-line assessments in understanding the role of prompting/questioning and metacognitive thinking in a digital learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Mubina Khan

    In science education, the use of digital technology-based learning can help students struggling with difficult concepts such as the movement of molecules. While digital learning tools hold much promise for science education, the question arises as to whether or not such technology can serve as an adequate surrogate for the teacher-student interactions that theorists like Lev Vygotsky (1978) underscored as being critical to learning. In response to such concerns, designers of digital curricula often utilize scaffolds to help students as they learn from such programs. Using a simulation designed to teach students about the concept of diffusion as an example, I examine the effect of including prompting language in the learning sequence of the simulation. The use of prompting language in digital curriculum appears to be successful because it elicits science students to reflect and metacognise about their learning, lending support to Vygotsky's (1978) ideas of teaching and learning involving outer and inner dialog. However, findings from think aloud data continue to underscore the importance of human linguistic exchange as a preferable learning paradigm.

  20. The unique and shared contributions of arithmetic operation understanding and numerical magnitude representation to children's mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Terry Tin-Yau

    2017-12-01

    The current study examined the unique and shared contributions of arithmetic operation understanding and numerical magnitude representation to children's mathematics achievement. A sample of 124 fourth graders was tested on their arithmetic operation understanding (as reflected by their understanding of arithmetic principles and the knowledge about the application of arithmetic operations) and their precision of rational number magnitude representation. They were also tested on their mathematics achievement and arithmetic computation performance as well as the potential confounding factors. The findings suggested that both arithmetic operation understanding and numerical magnitude representation uniquely predicted children's mathematics achievement. The findings highlight the significance of arithmetic operation understanding in mathematics learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, L Ridgway

    2011-01-01

    Computational science is fundamentally changing how technological questions are addressed. The design of aircraft, automobiles, and even racing sailboats is now done by computational simulation. The mathematical foundation of this new approach is numerical analysis, which studies algorithms for computing expressions defined with real numbers. Emphasizing the theory behind the computation, this book provides a rigorous and self-contained introduction to numerical analysis and presents the advanced mathematics that underpin industrial software, including complete details that are missing from most textbooks. Using an inquiry-based learning approach, Numerical Analysis is written in a narrative style, provides historical background, and includes many of the proofs and technical details in exercises. Students will be able to go beyond an elementary understanding of numerical simulation and develop deep insights into the foundations of the subject. They will no longer have to accept the mathematical gaps that ex...

  2. Understanding the Mapping between Numerical Approximation and Number Words: Evidence from Williams Syndrome and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin; Landau, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    All numerate humans have access to two systems of number representation: an exact system that is argued to be based on language and that supports formal mathematics, and an Approximate Number System (ANS) that is present at birth and appears independent of language. Here we examine the interaction between these two systems by comparing the…

  3. Understanding the tensile behaviour of masonry parallel to the bed joints: A numerical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenço, P.B.; Rots, J.G.; Pluijm, R. van der

    1999-01-01

    The lack of experimental data for the complete characterisation of the inelastic behaviour of masonry is a key issue in numerical modelling of masonry structures. A solution to obtain the material properties of masonry at the macro-level is to derive them on the basis of the geometrical and material

  4. Biodiversity in the City: Fundamental Questions for Understanding the Ecology of Urban Green Spaces for Biodiversity Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Lepczyk; Myla F. J. Aronson; Karl L. Evans; Mark A. Goddard; Susannah B. Lerman; J. Scott MacIvor

    2017-01-01

    As urban areas expand, understanding how ecological processes function in cities has become increasingly important for conserving biodiversity. Urban green spaces are critical habitats to support biodiversity, but we still have a limited understanding of their ecology and how they function to conserve biodiversity at local and landscape scales across multiple taxa....

  5. Some analytical and numerical approaches to understanding trap counts resulting from pest insect immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearup, Daniel; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Petrovskii, Sergei

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring of pest insects is an important part of the integrated pest management. It aims to provide information about pest insect abundance at a given location. This includes data collection, usually using traps, and their subsequent analysis and/or interpretation. However, interpretation of trap count (number of insects caught over a fixed time) remains a challenging problem. First, an increase in either the population density or insects activity can result in a similar increase in the number of insects trapped (the so called "activity-density" problem). Second, a genuine increase of the local population density can be attributed to qualitatively different ecological mechanisms such as multiplication or immigration. Identification of the true factor causing an increase in trap count is important as different mechanisms require different control strategies. In this paper, we consider a mean-field mathematical model of insect trapping based on the diffusion equation. Although the diffusion equation is a well-studied model, its analytical solution in closed form is actually available only for a few special cases, whilst in a more general case the problem has to be solved numerically. We choose finite differences as the baseline numerical method and show that numerical solution of the problem, especially in the realistic 2D case, is not at all straightforward as it requires a sufficiently accurate approximation of the diffusion fluxes. Once the numerical method is justified and tested, we apply it to the corresponding boundary problem where different types of boundary forcing describe different scenarios of pest insect immigration and reveal the corresponding patterns in the trap count growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Is Logic in the Mind or in the World? Why a Philosophical Question can Affect the Understanding of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Hanns; Schreiber, Lothar

    2012-05-01

    Dreyfus' call ‘to make artificial intelligence (AI) more Heideggerian‘ echoes Heidegger's affirmation that pure calculations produce no ‘intelligence’ (Dreyfus, 2007). But what exactly is it that AI needs more than mathematics? The question in the title gives rise to a reexamination of the basic principles of cognition in Husserl's Phenomenology. Using Husserl's Phenomenological Method, a formalization of these principles is presented that provides the principal idea of cognition, and as a consequence, a ‘natural logic’. Only in a second step, mathematics is obtained from this natural logic by abstraction. The limitations of pure reasoning are demonstrated for fundamental considerations (Hilbert's ‘finite Einstellung’) as well as for the task of solving practical problems. Principles will be presented for the design of general intelligent systems, which make use of a natural logic.

  7. Understanding Piloted Ignition of Solid Combustibles in Spacecraft Environments through Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereres, S.; Fernandez-Pello, C.; Ruff, G.; Urban, D.

    2012-01-01

    Space exploration vehicles can present internal atmospheres different from sea level standard atmospheric conditions (100 kPa, 21%O2). In NASA's most recent human space exploration crew vehicles the cabin environments were designed to have reduced ambient pressure and increased oxygen concentration (around 55 kPa, 32%O2,). These distinct ambient conditions, in addition to the absence of gravity, may increase the fire risk of combustible materials on board. Enhancing the oxygen concentration will lead to higher flame temperatures. Reducing the ambient pressure will decrease convective heat losses from heated surfaces but also will reduce the amount of pyrolyzate required to reach a flammable mixture near the pilot. This study explores the effect of ambient variables such as reduced pressure, oxygen concentration or microgravity on the physical mechanisms that lead to the piloted ignition of solid combustibles through numerical analysis. Two-dimensional simulations of piloted ignition of thermally irradiated samples of PMMA (polymethyl- methacrylate) were performed with the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS5) code. Finite-rate single-step combustion kinetics is used in the gas-phase and a single step Arrhenius type reaction rate describes the solid pyrolysis. Oxidative pyrolysis is not considered and the in-depth formed pyrolyzate is assumed to flow unrestricted through the PMMA. The model correctly describes the thermo-physical mechanisms leading to the piloted ignition of solid fuels. It is shown that as the ambient pressure is reduced or the oxygen concentration enhanced, both the time to ignition and the fuel mass loss rate at ignition are reduced, increasing the fire hazard of the material when externally heated. The calculated ignition times and mass loss rates at ignition are compared to those measured experimentally in a laboratory-scale combustion wind tunnel. It is also shown that with appropriate kinetic parameters the model agrees qualitatively well with the

  8. Numerical simulation of two consecutive nasal respiratory cycles: toward a better understanding of nasal physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gabory, Ludovic; Reville, Nicolas; Baux, Yannick; Boisson, Nicolas; Bordenave, Laurence

    2018-01-16

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have greatly improved the understanding of nasal physiology. We postulate that simulating the entire and repeated respiratory nasal cycles, within the whole sinonasal cavities, is mandatory to gather more accurate observations and better understand airflow patterns. A 3-dimensional (3D) sinonasal model was constructed from a healthy adult computed tomography (CT) scan which discretized in 6.6 million cells (mean volume, 0.008 mm 3 ). CFD simulations were performed with ANSYS©FluentTMv16.0.0 software with transient and turbulent airflow (k-ω model). Two respiratory cycles (8 seconds) were simulated to assess pressure, velocity, wall shear stress, and particle residence time. The pressure gradients within the sinus cavities varied according to their place of connection to the main passage. Alternations in pressure gradients induced a slight pumping phenomenon close to the ostia but no movement of air was observed within the sinus cavities. Strong movements were observed within the inferior meatus during expiration contrary to the inspiration, as in the olfactory cleft at the same time. Particle residence time was longer during expiration than inspiration due to nasal valve resistance, as if the expiratory phase was preparing the next inspiratory phase. Throughout expiration, some particles remained in contact with the lower turbinates. The posterior part of the olfactory cleft was gradually filled with particles that did not leave the nose at the next respiratory cycle. This pattern increased as the respiratory cycle was repeated. CFD is more efficient and reliable when the entire respiratory cycle is simulated and repeated to avoid losing information. © 2018 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  9. Numerical problems in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Devraj

    2015-01-01

    Numerical Problems in Physics, Volume 1 is intended to serve the need of the students pursuing graduate and post graduate courses in universities with Physics and Materials Science as subject including those appearing in engineering, medical, and civil services entrance examinations. KEY FEATURES: * 29 chapters on Optics, Wave & Oscillations, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Solid State Physics & Modern Physics * 540 solved numerical problems of various universities and ompetitive examinations * 523 multiple choice questions for quick and clear understanding of subject matter * 567 unsolved numerical problems for grasping concepts of the various topic in Physics * 49 Figures for understanding problems and concept

  10. Playing Linear Number Board Games--but Not Circular Ones--Improves Low-Income Preschoolers' Numerical Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Ramani, Geetha B.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the development of numerical representations indicated that playing linear number board games should enhance preschoolers' numerical knowledge and ability to acquire new numerical knowledge. The effect on knowledge of numerical magnitudes was predicted to be larger when the game was played with a linear board than with a…

  11. The Sustainability of Habitability on Terrestrial Planets: Insights, Questions, and Needed Measurements from Mars for Understanding the Evolution of Earth-Like Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, B. L.; Anderson, F. S.; Andrews-Hanna, J.; Catling, D. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Cohen, B. A.; Dressing, C. D.; Edwards, C. S.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Farley, K. A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    What allows a planet to be both within a potentially habitable zone and sustain habitability over long geologic time? With the advent of exoplanetary astronomy and the ongoing discovery of terrestrial-type planets around other stars, our own solar system becomes a key testing ground for ideas about what factors control planetary evolution. Mars provides the solar systems longest record of the interplay of the physical and chemical processes relevant to habitability on an accessible rocky planet with an atmosphere and hydrosphere. Here we review current understanding and update the timeline of key processes in early Mars history. We then draw on knowledge of exoplanets and the other solar system terrestrial planets to identify six broad questions of high importance to the development and sustaining of habitability (unprioritized): (1) Is small planetary size fatal? (2) How do magnetic fields influence atmospheric evolution? (3) To what extent does starting composition dictate subsequent evolution, including redox processes and the availability of water and organics? (4) Does early impact bombardment have a net deleterious or beneficial influence? (5) How do planetary climates respond to stellar evolution, e.g., sustaining early liquid water in spite of a faint young Sun? (6) How important are the timescales of climate forcing and their dynamical drivers? Finally, we suggest crucial types of Mars measurements (unprioritized) to address these questions: (1) in situ petrology at multiple units/sites; (2) continued quantification of volatile reservoirs and new isotopic measurements of H, C, N, O, S, Cl, and noble gases in rocks that sample multiple stratigraphic sections; (3) radiometric age dating of units in stratigraphic sections and from key volcanic and impact units; (4) higher-resolution measurements of heat flux, subsurface structure, and magnetic field anomalies coupled with absolute age dating. Understanding the evolution of early Mars will feed forward to

  12. Understanding sexual orientation and health in Canada: Who are we capturing and who are we missing using the Statistics Canada sexual orientation question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharma, Christoffer; Bauer, Greta R

    2017-04-20

    Public health research on inequalities in Canada depends heavily on population data sets such as the Canadian Community Health Survey. While sexual orientation has three dimensions - identity, behaviour and attraction - Statistics Canada and public health agencies assess sexual orientation with a single questionnaire item on identity, defined behaviourally. This study aims to evaluate this item, to allow for clearer interpretation of sexual orientation frequencies and inequalities. Through an online convenience sampling of Canadians ≥14 years of age, participants (n = 311) completed the Statistics Canada question and a second set of sexual orientation questions. The single-item question had an 85.8% sensitivity in capturing sexual minorities, broadly defined by their sexual identity, lifetime behaviour and attraction. Kappa statistic for agreement between the single item and sexual identity was 0.89; with past year, lifetime behaviour and attraction were 0.39, 0.48 and 0.57 respectively. The item captured 99.3% of those with a sexual minority identity, 84.2% of those with any lifetime same-sex partners, 98.4% with a past-year same-sex partner, and 97.8% who indicated at least equal attraction to same-sex persons. Findings from Statistics Canada surveys can be best interpreted as applying to those who identify as sexual minorities. Analyses using this measure will underidentify those with same-sex partners or attractions who do not identify as a sexual minority, and should be interpreted accordingly. To understand patterns of sexual minority health in Canada, there is a need to incorporate other dimensions of sexual orientation.

  13. Digital Learning Aids for Nynorsk Pupils in School: - A Politically Sensitive Area or a Question of a Deeper Scientific Understanding of Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Johan Krumsvik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This position paper focuses on Nynorsk in the digital era and the need for research-based knowledge about it in school settings in Norway. The Norwegian language situation is exceptional because Norway has two written standards, Bokmål (majority variety and Nynorsk (minority variety, and both the Education Act and the Norwegian Directorate of Education require that publishers provide parallel editions of all paper-based and digital learning aids for pupils. However, a national report by Skjær,Eiksund, Fretland, Holen & Netteland(2008 revealed that few publishers have developed and offered digital learning aids in Nynorsk. In 2015 the situation appears to be largely unchanged, even though the authorities, language organisations and “leadings lights” have taken several initiatives to encourage compliance with the Education Act; however, what is needed is further research into the situation of parallel editions of digital learning aids. This is of particular interest today since the pupils in the county with the highest rate (97% of Nynorsk-pupils has consistently been at the top of the list as one of the best performing counties in Norway in national tests since 2006 (Directorate of Education 2015. In addition, Vangsnes, Söderlund & Blekesaune (2015 find that municipalities in Norway with more than 50% Nynorsk-pupils achieve better in National tests when compared to Bokmål municipalities. The main message in our position paper is that the digital revolution might have changed some underlying premises for how we understand and use language and dialects, and the need for parallel editions of digital learning aids in Bokmål and Nynorsk is no longer a question of economics or of political statements for or against Nynorsk, etc., but is instead a question of a more nuanced scientific understanding of learning and achievement in today’s digitized school. The achievements of Nynorsk pupils in national tests is one indicator of school

  14. Using numerical model simulations to improve the understanding of micro-plastic distribution and pathways in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardesty, Britta D.; Harari, Joseph; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Lebreton, Laurent; Maximenko, Nikolai; Potemra, Jim; van Sebille, Erik; Vethaak, A.Dick; Wilcox, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Numerical modeling is one of the key tools with which we can gain insight into the distribution of marine litter, especially micro-plastics. Over the past decade, a series of numerical simulations have been constructed that specifically target floating marine litter, based on ocean models of various

  15. Linking petrology and numerical modeling to understand geophysical signals of unrest at Rabaul caldera (Papua New Guinea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet de Maisonneuve, C.; Costa Rodriguez, F.; Patia, H.; Huber, C.

    2012-12-01

    Caldera-forming eruptions are among the most voluminous and explosive eruptions on earth, but they are difficult to anticipate. Caldera unrest in many occasions consists of long periods (years or decades) of waxing and waning deformation and earthquake activity before the actual eruption. This complex behavior has created dilemmas that volcano scientists are confronted to during the reactivation of caldera volcanoes. The unrest of the Rabaul caldera (Papua New Guinea) is a perfect example of the complexity and problems associated with not understanding the processes behind unrest. Above background seismic and deformation signals started in 1971 and intensified between 1983 and 1985. But the onset of eruptive activity only occurred a decade later (19 September 1994), with the simultaneous eruption of two volcanoes on opposite sides of the caldera. Rabaul is therefore a unique site, as it is possible to study the deposits from eruptions after the prolonged period of seismic and deformational activity to gain insights into the processes responsible for the unrest. While Vulcan, the volcano to the west, erupted dacitic pumice and ash during the first few hours producing a high plinian eruption column, Tavurvur, the volcano to the east, erupted andesitic ash at a lower intensity. Eruptions at Tavurvur have continued since then with episodic Strombolian and Vulcanian events. Here we combine a petrologic study of the erupted rocks with a numerical computational study of the magmatic processes to obtain a more complete picture of the causes behind the long period of unrest. Most lavas and tephra erupted since 1994 are andesitic to dacitic and fall on a mixing line between the evolved dacite which produced the 1400y BP caldera and ignimbrite (~68 wt% SiO2) and the basalt which produced the tephra of Kombiu (~49 wt% SiO2), an older volcanic center to the NE of the caldera rim. Mixing proportions were estimated to ~20 wt% basalt in Vulcan 1994, ~28 wt% basalt in Tavurvur 1994

  16. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    This book is composed of two parts: First part describes basics in numerical relativity, that is, the formulations and methods for a solution of Einstein's equation and general relativistic matter field equations. This part will be helpful for beginners of numerical relativity who would like to understand the content of numerical relativity and its background. The second part focuses on the application of numerical relativity. A wide variety of scientific numerical results are introduced focusing in particular on the merger of binary neutron stars and black holes.

  17. Understanding the seismic wave propagation inside and around an underground cavity from a 3D numerical survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhazy, Sofi; Schneider, Felix; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by the need to detect an underground cavity within the procedure of an On-Site-Inspection (OSI) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), which might be caused by a nuclear explosion/weapon testing, we aim to provide a basic numerical study of the wave propagation around and inside such an underground cavity. One method to investigate the geophysical properties of an underground cavity allowed by the Comprehensive Nuclear-test Ban Treaty is referred to as "resonance seismometry" - a resonance method that uses passive or active seismic techniques, relying on seismic cavity vibrations. This method is in fact not yet entirely determined by the Treaty and so far, there are only very few experimental examples that have been suitably documented to build a proper scientific groundwork. This motivates to investigate this problem on a purely numerical level and to simulate these events based on recent advances in numerical modeling of wave propagation problems. Our numerical study includes the full elastic wave field in three dimensions. We consider the effects from an incoming plane wave as well as point source located in the surrounding of the cavity at the surface. While the former can be considered as passive source like a tele-seismic earthquake, the latter represents a man-made explosion or a viborseis as used for/in active seismic techniques. Further we want to demonstrate the specific characteristics of the scattered wave field from a P-waves and S-wave separately. For our simulations in 3D we use the discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Element Code SPEED developed by MOX (The Laboratory for Modeling and Scientific Computing, Department of Mathematics) and DICA (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering) at the Politecnico di Milano. The computations are carried out on the Vienna Scientific Cluster (VSC). The accurate numerical modeling can facilitate the development of proper analysis techniques to detect the remnants of an

  18. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  19. Identification of women at risk of depression in pregnancy: using women's accounts to understand the poor specificity of the Whooley and Arroll case finding questions in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwin, Zoe; McGowan, Linda; Edozien, Leroy C

    2016-02-01

    Antenatal mental health assessment is increasingly common in high-income countries. Despite lacking evidence on validation or acceptability, the Whooley questions (modified PHQ-2) and Arroll 'help' question are used in the UK at booking (the first formal antenatal appointment) to identify possible cases of depression. This study investigated validation of the questions and women's views on assessment. Women (n = 191) booking at an inner-city hospital completed the Whooley and Arroll questions as part of their routine clinical care then completed a research questionnaire containing the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS). A purposive subsample (n = 22) were subsequently interviewed. The Whooley questions 'missed' half the possible cases identified using the EPDS (EPDS threshold ≥ 10: sensitivity 45.7 %, specificity 92.1 %; ≥ 13: sensitivity 47.8 %, specificity 86.1 %), worsening to nine in ten when adopting the Arroll item (EPDS ≥ 10: sensitivity 9.1 %, specificity 98.2 %; ≥ 13: sensitivity 9.5 %, specificity 97.1 %). Women's accounts indicated that under-disclosure relates to the context of assessment and perceived relevance of depression to maternity services. Depression symptoms are under-identified in current local practice. While validated tools are needed that can be readily applied in routine maternity care, psychometric properties will be influenced by the context of disclosure when implemented in practice.

  20. On the Complexity of Numerical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Johan; Burgisser, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We study two quite different approaches to understanding the complexity of fundamental problems in numerical analysis. We show that both hinge on the question of understanding the complexity of the following problem, which we call PosSLP: Given a division-free straight-line program producing...... of classical complexity classes) being PSPACE....

  1. Make Us Question, Think, Reflect and Understand: Secondary Students' Beliefs and Attitudes towards the Inclusion of LGBTQ Themed Literature in the English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greathouse, Paula

    2016-01-01

    There are innumerable subcultures within American society, all of which come to interact within the walls of a school and all of which should be recognized and valued by the classroom teacher. This article shares secondary students' beliefs and attitudes about reading and studying lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and/or questioning (LGBTQ)…

  2. Gay-Straight Alliances: Understanding Their Impact on the Academic and Social Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Adam; Schmidt, Kathryn; Clifton, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effectiveness of gay-straight alliances (GSAs) on the social and academic experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youths. The limited research on GSAs suggests that they are associated with positive youth development and increased safety; however, little qualitative information…

  3. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non...

  4. Traveling questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  5. Une question

    OpenAIRE

    Resweber, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    Dans deux conférences consacrées à une analyse critique du discours de Freud, L. Althusser, pose, semble-t-il, la bonne question , quoique d’une manière quelque peu embarrassée et péremptoire. Le rapport de Freud à la philosophie, qu’il soit examiné au travers d’une confrontation problématique entre celle-ci et psychanalyse naissante, ou bien au travers d’un dialogue entre les postulats nouveaux et les thèses classiques défendues par Platon, Kant, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer ou Wittgenstein, ne s...

  6. Machinery Question

    OpenAIRE

    Meacci, Ferdinando

    2008-01-01

    The “machinery question” was developed by the economist David Ricardo (1772–1823) in the chapter “On Machinery” added to the third edition of his Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1821). This question related, in his words, to the “influence of machinery on the interests of the different classes of society” and particularly to the “opinion entertained by the labouring class, that the employment of machinery is frequently detrimental to their interests”. Ricardo’s argument was pres...

  7. Toward a better understanding of tool wear effect through a comparison between experiments and SPH numerical modelling of machining hard materials

    OpenAIRE

    CALAMAZ , Madalina; LIMIDO , Jérôme; NOUARI , Mohammed; Espinosa , Christine; COUPARD , Dominique; Salaun , Michel; GIROT , Franck; Chieragatti , Rémy

    2009-01-01

    The authors whish to thank J. Geraud and D. Gehin for their help in the experimental part. Part of this work has been funded by the French Department of Education and Science through the contract no. 02K0538 (MEDOC Project); International audience; The aim of this study is to improve the general understanding of tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tool wear under dry machining of the hard-to-cut titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. The chosen approach includes experimental and numerical tests. The experimental part ...

  8. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, G Shanker

    2006-01-01

    About the Book: This book provides an introduction to Numerical Analysis for the students of Mathematics and Engineering. The book is designed in accordance with the common core syllabus of Numerical Analysis of Universities of Andhra Pradesh and also the syllabus prescribed in most of the Indian Universities. Salient features: Approximate and Numerical Solutions of Algebraic and Transcendental Equation Interpolation of Functions Numerical Differentiation and Integration and Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations The last three chapters deal with Curve Fitting, Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors of a Matrix and Regression Analysis. Each chapter is supplemented with a number of worked-out examples as well as number of problems to be solved by the students. This would help in the better understanding of the subject. Contents: Errors Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations Finite Differences Interpolation with Equal Intervals Interpolation with Unequal Int...

  9. What Is Digital Labour? What Is Digital Work? What’s their Difference? And Why Do These Questions Matter for Understanding Social Media?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the questions: What is digital labour? What is digital work? Based on Marx’s theory, we distinguish between work and labour as anthropological and historical forms of human activity. The notion of alienated labour is grounded in a general model of the work process that is conceptualized based on a dialectic of subject and object in the economy that we present in the form of a model, the Hegelian-Marxist dialectical triangle of the work process. Various aspects of a Marxist theory of work and labour, such as the notions of abstract and concrete labour, double-free labour, productive labour, the collective worker and general work are presented. Labour is based on a fourfold alienation of the human being. After these concepts are introduced, they are used for discussing the notions of digital labour and digital work. The presentation is on the one hand general and on the other hand uses Facebook as a concrete case for explaining how digital labour functions. Digital work is the organisation of human experiences with the help of the human brain, digital media and speech in such a way that new products are created. Digital labour is the valorisation dimension of digital work. We conclude that we require the transformation of digital labour into digital work, a true social media revolution that makes “social media” truly and fully social. We also argue why in our view work is not the same as labour by discussing the concept of playful work and pointing out limits of concepts such as antiwork, postwork and zerowork.

  10. Question time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer

    Choosing to train as a nurse is a major decision, rife with different emotions and considerations. Regardless of what point you have reached in your studies, whether you are studying towards a degree or diploma, whatever your age and whether you are from the UK or overseas, you face common challenges. These include surviving financially, juggling study and clinical placements, learning new information and addressing patients' needs. While the profession certainly offers exciting opportunities, nursing students in 2006 face a range of uncertainties. There have been cuts and freezes to existing and vacant posts across NHS trusts, while students from overseas face the additional problem that band 5 and 6 nursing posts have been removed from the Home Office's shortage occupation list. Will there be enough mentors to teach students? Will there be jobs when they qualify? How can students survive financially? Will overseas students be able to stay once qualified? NT put students' key questions to a panel of experts and influential figures.

  11. GEM Plate Boundary Simulations for the Plate Boundary Observatory: A Program for Understanding the Physics of Earthquakes on Complex Fault Networks via Observations, Theory and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Rundle, P. B.; Klein, W.; de sa Martins, J.; Tiampo, K. F.; Donnellan, A.; Kellogg, L. H.

    The last five years have seen unprecedented growth in the amount and quality of geodetic data collected to characterize crustal deformation in earthquake-prone areas such as California and Japan. The installation of the Southern California Integrated Geodetic Network (SCIGN) and the Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network are two examples. As part of the recently proposed Earthscope NSF/GEO/EAR/MRE initiative, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) plans to place more than a thousand GPS, strainmeters, and deformation sensors along the active plate boundary of the western coast of the United States, Mexico and Canada (http://www.earthscope.org/pbo.com.html). The scientific goals of PBO include understanding how tectonic plates interact, together with an emphasis on understanding the physics of earthquakes. However, the problem of understanding the physics of earthquakes on complex fault networks through observations alone is complicated by our inability to study the problem in a manner familiar to laboratory scientists, by means of controlled, fully reproducible experiments. We have therefore been motivated to construct a numerical simulation technology that will allow us to study earthquake physics via numerical experiments. To be considered successful, the simulations must not only produce observables that are maximally similar to those seen by the PBO and other observing programs, but in addition the simulations must provide dynamical predictions that can be falsified by means of observations on the real fault networks. In general, the dynamical behavior of earthquakes on complex fault networks is a result of the interplay between the geometric structure of the fault network and the physics of the frictional sliding process. In constructing numerical simulations of a complex fault network, we will need to solve a variety of problems, including the development of analysis techniques (also called data mining), data assimilation, space-time pattern definition

  12. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  13. Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

  14. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  15. Understanding Nuclear Forensics in 5 Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Forensic science, commonly referred to as forensics, is the examination of physical, biological, behavioural and documentary evidence. The goal of forensics is to discover linkages among people, places, things and events. A sub-discipline of forensic science, nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material, which can assist in law enforcement investigations as well as assessments of the potential vulnerabilities associated with the use, production and storage of these materials as part of a nuclear security infrastructure. The analysis of nuclear or other radioactive material seeks to identify what the materials are, how, when, and where the materials were made, and what their intended uses were. Nuclear forensics is an important tool in the fight against illicit trafficking in nuclear and radiological material

  16. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  17. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  18. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  19. On the complexity of numerical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Allender, Eric; Burgisser, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We study two quite different approaches to understanding the complexity of fundamental problems in numerical analysis: • The Blum-Shub-Smale model of computation over the reals. • A problem we call the “Generic Task of Numerical Computation,” which captures an aspect of doing numerical computation...... in floating point, similar to the “long exponent model” that has been studied in the numerical computing community. We show that both of these approaches hinge on the question of understanding the complexity of the following problem, which we call PosSLP: Given a division-free straight-line program producing...... Salesman Problem lies in the counting hierarchy – the previous best upper bound for this important problem (in terms of classical complexity classes) being PSPACE. In the course of developing the context for our results on arithmetic circuits, we present some new observations on the complexity of ACIT...

  20. After sympathy, a question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Anne Line

    2018-01-01

    in particular one young woman's telling of a likewise fictional romantic ending to Dalsgård's piece. The argument developed in the chapter leads to a definition of friendship, which is based on the mutual recognition of difference. It also leads to a question of responsi-bility, which transcends the framework......Within a discussion of fieldwork, friendship and ethics Dalsgård describes how a piece of fictional writing worked as a sympathetic experiment and both changed her understanding of a young woman's situation and deepened her relationship to her. She employs Adam Smith’s concept of sympathy...... excites it. The precondition for sympathy is thus a willingness to let oneself be moved by the situation of the other, which implies a thorough insight into all that this situation consists of. However, Dalsgård argues, sympathy may lead to a question about the proper response to the distress of another...

  1. Excel spreadsheet in teaching numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamila, Harimi

    2017-09-01

    One of the important objectives in teaching numerical methods for undergraduates’ students is to bring into the comprehension of numerical methods algorithms. Although, manual calculation is important in understanding the procedure, it is time consuming and prone to error. This is specifically the case when considering the iteration procedure used in many numerical methods. Currently, many commercial programs are useful in teaching numerical methods such as Matlab, Maple, and Mathematica. These are usually not user-friendly by the uninitiated. Excel spreadsheet offers an initial level of programming, which it can be used either in or off campus. The students will not be distracted with writing codes. It must be emphasized that general commercial software is required to be introduced later to more elaborated questions. This article aims to report on a teaching numerical methods strategy for undergraduates engineering programs. It is directed to students, lecturers and researchers in engineering field.

  2. How can coastal parks contain the destructive impact of a tsunami? A numerical approach to the understanding of tsunami-triggered waves in the presence of coastal hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Simone; Suckale, Jenny; Lunghino, Brent; Giraldo, Francis X.; Constantinescu, Emil

    2016-04-01

    reducing it. Nevertheless, without a thorough understanding of the behavior of non-linear waves when they approach coastal configurations such as hills, coastal parks may still be far from a safe reality. References [1] P. Lynett (2007) "Effect of shallow water obstruction on long wave run-up and overland flow velocity" J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, Ocean Engrg. 136:455-462 [2] G. F. Carrier, T. T. Wu, H. Yeh (2003) "Tsunami run-up and draw-down on a plane beach" J. Fluid Mech. 475:79-99. [3] F. X. Giraldo and M. Restelli (2010) "High-order semi- implicit time-integrators for a triangular discontinuous Galerkin oceanic shallow water model" Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 63:1077-1102. [4] F X. Giraldo, J F.. Kelly, and E. Constantinescu. "Implicit-explicit formulations of a three-dimensional Nonhydrostatic Unified Model of the Atmosphere (NUMA)" SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 35:1162-1194, 2013.

  3. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis of t...... concerning thinking reflects these consequences and finally strives to find another way to think about thinking - a way that brings us back to another of Heidegger's thoughts and that makes it possible to appreciate the work of thought......Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However...

  4. A combined field and numerical approach to understanding dilute pyroclastic density current dynamics and hazard potential: Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Gravley, Darren M.; Clarke, Amanda B.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Bloomberg, Simon H.; Agustin-Flores, Javier; Németh, Károly

    2014-04-01

    less damage is expected up to the final runout distance of 4 km. For larger eruptions (base surge runout distance 4-6 km), Pdyn of > 35 kPa can be expected up to 2.5 km from source, ensuring complete destruction within this area. Moderate damage to reinforced structures and damage to weaker structures can be expected up to 6 km from source. In both cases hot ash may still cause damage due to igniting flammable materials in the distal-most regions of a base surge. This work illustrates our ability to combine field observations and numerical models to explore the depositional mechanisms, macroscale current dynamics, and potential impact of dilute PDCs. Thus, this approach may serve as a tool to understand the damage potential and extent of previous and potential future eruptions in the AVF.

  5. A questioning environment for scaffolding learners' questioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given that questioning is one of the most important learning-teaching tools available to both learner and educator, we have created a computer-based scaffolding environment in which students are required to generate questions to interrogate academic texts. Learners have been using this new scaffolding tool this year, and ...

  6. Spinning top—the question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featonby, David

    2017-11-01

    The motion of a spinning top can be mystifying at times until some basic principles are understood. In this question the key to understanding what happens is the nature of the bottom tip of the top in contact with the surface on which it spins.

  7. Burning Questions about Calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  8. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  9. The Questions of Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    What are the basic things that compose curriculum, and what are the questions that may be posed about these things? Joseph Schwab's conception of curriculum is used to introduce a scheme of questions concerning the nature, elements, and practice of curriculum. Formulations of questions by other curriculum theorists are reviewed and analysed in…

  10. Interfacing with questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses an artistic project entitled If I wrote you a love letter would you write back (and thousands of other questions): a piece of software that utilizes Twitter web API to query questions, drawing unpredictable questions in real-time from the distributed database of Twitter...

  11. Une question interdite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legendre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Is legal history a left-over or is it waiting for a takeover bid (just like a company in serious trouble which would allow the expression of new analyses and outlines for a better understanding of the contemporary western world? Its propositions of erudition, are they just interesting for small academic circles, or could they open a new pathway for fundamental reflections on the phenomenon of norms in general and the structure of its evolution in the special case of norm-production coming from Roman Christianity? And what is the significance of the idea of »legal tradition«, an idea forged in Western Europe, within the framework of a presumed global westernization without any counter-balance? The essay discusses the illegibility of legal history in today’s culture. Under the well reflected motto »The Forbidden Question« it concludes firmly: To renovate itself, this discipline has to perform its work in a new way, guided by a very precise and distinct vision on theory. The author examines the conditions for this.

  12. A multi-tracer approach coupled to numerical models to improve understanding of mountain block processes in a high elevation, semi-humid catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, R.; McIntosh, J. C.; Meixner, T.; Ferré, T. P. A.; Chorover, J.

    2016-12-01

    Mountain systems are critical sources of recharge to adjacent alluvial basins in dryland regions. Yet, mountain systems face poorly defined threats due to climate change in terms of reduced snowpack, precipitation changes, and increased temperatures. Fundamentally, the climate risks to mountain systems are uncertain due to our limited understanding of natural recharge processes. Our goal is to combine measurements and models to provide improved spatial and temporal descriptions of groundwater flow paths and transit times in a headwater catchment located in a sub-humid region. This information is important to quantifying groundwater age and, thereby, to providing more accurate assessments of the vulnerability of these systems to climate change. We are using: (a) combination of geochemical composition, along with 2H/18O and 3H isotopes to improve an existing conceptual model for mountain block recharge (MBR) for the Marshall Gulch Catchment (MGC) located within the Santa Catalina Mountains. The current model only focuses on shallow flow paths through the upper unconfined aquifer with no representation of the catchment's fractured-bedrock aquifer. Groundwater flow, solute transport, and groundwater age will be modeled throughout MGC using COMSOL Multiphysics® software. Competing models in terms of spatial distribution of required hydrologic parameters, e.g. hydraulic conductivity and porosity, will be proposed and these models will be used to design discriminatory data collection efforts based on multi-tracer methods. Initial end-member mixing results indicate that baseflow in MGC, if considered the same as the streamflow during the dry periods, is not represented by the chemistry of deep groundwater in the mountain system. In the ternary mixing space, most of the samples plot outside the mixing curve. Therefore, to further constrain the contributions of water from various reservoirs we are collecting stable water isotopes, tritium, and solute chemistry of

  13. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  14. Live your questions now

    OpenAIRE

    Brownrigg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    'Live Your Questions Now' is a case study for Cubitt Education's publication 'Aging in Public: creative practice in ageing and the public realm from across the UK', edited by Daniel Baker and published by Cubitt Gallery, Studios and Education, London in 2016. The publication was linked to Cubitt's programme 'Public Wisdom' (2011-2015). My case study is about 'Live your questions now', a group exhibition I curated in 2011 for Mackintosh Museum, The Glasgow School of Art. 'Live your questions n...

  15. Answers to Your Questions about Transgender Individuals and Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions for a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation & Homosexuality for more information on sexual orientation). The degree ... questions for a better understanding of sexual orientation & homosexuality. Retrieved from http: / / www. apa. org/ topics/ lgbt/ ...

  16. A question of authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Earl W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-10-15

    A Question of Authority. This article deals with a certain scenario and several reviewers are to give their opinion. This one is in regards to - Suspending an IACUC approved animal use activity is about the last thing a research institution wants to do. Consider the predicament that the Great Eastern University IACUC faced when Dr. Janet Jenkins, the Attending Veterinarian, suspended all animal use activity on an approved protocol of Dr. Roy Maslo. Jenkins had the IACUCs authority to temporarily suspend a protocol, subject to review by a quorum of the full committee. She alleged that Maslo used mice from his breeding colony, not purchased rats, to begin a new study. Jenkins saw Maslos technicians bringing mouse cages to a procedure room and setting up for a minor survival surgery. She asked them to wait until she clarified things as she felt confident that the protocol called for rats. She called Maslo and asked him if the study had been approved for mice, to which he responded affirmatively. Still not feeling quite assured, she went to her office, reviewed the protocol, and found only rat studies described. She also called the IACUC office to see if there were any approved amendments which she may not have received, and was told that there were none. By the time she returned, one procedure was completed. Understandably upset, she informed the technicians and Maslo that any further activity on the protocol was suspended until the issue was resolved. Jenkins informed the IACUC chairman who in turned called an emergency meeting of the committee.

  17. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  18. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field......; the aim, scope, the future direction of epistemology and how their work fits in these respects...

  19. Exam Question Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three examination questions which could be used in college chemistry courses. Discusses each problem and gives acceptable solutions. Problems include: "A Multi-Topic Problem for General Chemistry"; "Consumption of Air by Biuret Reagent--a Question Involving Experimental Design"; and "An Instructive Problem in Heterogeneous Equilibrium."…

  20. Probation, 12 essential questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fergus McNeill; Rene Butter; Ioan Durnescu

    2016-01-01

    This volume poses a series of key questions about the practice of probation as an integral part of the European criminal justice system. The contributors are established experts in their respective fields of study and together their questions address the legitimacy, and perhaps continued existence,

  1. Numerical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…

  2. Hindi Numerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, William

    In most languages encountered by linguists, the numerals, considered as a paradigmatic set, constitute a morpho-syntactic problem of only moderate complexity. The Indo-Aryan language family of North India, however, presents a curious contrast. The relatively regular numeral system of Sanskrit, as it has developed historically into the modern…

  3. Question Wording (Version 2.0)

    OpenAIRE

    Lenzner, Timo; Menold, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    This contribution provides an overview of the basic rules that should be observed when formulating survey questions. The structure of the chapter is oriented towards the cognitive response process that respondents undergo when answering survey questions. This process involves a total of four tasks: understanding the question text, retrieving information from memory, forming a judgment, and formulating a response in the format provided. Using practical examples, the authors demonstrate how que...

  4. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  5. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  6. Tetanus: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetanus: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes tetanus? Tetanus is caused by a toxin (poison) produced by ... to heat and many chemical agents. How does tetanus spread? C. tetani spores can be found in ...

  7. Pertussis Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAC) Parents of Kids with Infectious Diseases (PKIDs) Pertussis Frequently Asked Questions Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... frecuentes sobre la tosferina Q: Can vaccines prevent pertussis? A: Yes. Vaccines can prevent pertussis, or whooping ...

  8. Interesting Questions in Freakonomics

    OpenAIRE

    John DiNardo

    2007-01-01

    Freakonomics is more about "entertainment" than it is a serious attempt at popularization. Consequently, rather than conduct a comprehensive fact check, I use the book as a springboard for a broader inquiry into social science research and take issue with the book's surprising premise that "Economics is a science with excellent tools for gaining answers but a serious shortage of interesting questions." Using examples from Freakonomics , I argue that some of the questions the book addresses ar...

  9. Panspermia asks new questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyce, Brig

    2001-08-01

    There is a widespread sentiment that panspermia is uninteresting is because it does not answer fundamental questions about the origin of life. The strongest version of panspermia asks entirely new questions. While barriers to the acceptance of panspermia are falling and evidence supporting it is accumulating, the mere possibility of panspermia unhinges the Darwinian account of evolutionary progress. The new theory removes an issue dividing science and religion, but it requires an amendment to the big bang theory.

  10. Semantic annotation of consumer health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Ben Abacha, Asma; Mrabet, Yassine; Shooshan, Sonya E; Rodriguez, Laritza; Masterton, Kate; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2018-02-06

    Consumers increasingly use online resources for their health information needs. While current search engines can address these needs to some extent, they generally do not take into account that most health information needs are complex and can only fully be expressed in natural language. Consumer health question answering (QA) systems aim to fill this gap. A major challenge in developing consumer health QA systems is extracting relevant semantic content from the natural language questions (question understanding). To develop effective question understanding tools, question corpora semantically annotated for relevant question elements are needed. In this paper, we present a two-part consumer health question corpus annotated with several semantic categories: named entities, question triggers/types, question frames, and question topic. The first part (CHQA-email) consists of relatively long email requests received by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) customer service, while the second part (CHQA-web) consists of shorter questions posed to MedlinePlus search engine as queries. Each question has been annotated by two annotators. The annotation methodology is largely the same between the two parts of the corpus; however, we also explain and justify the differences between them. Additionally, we provide information about corpus characteristics, inter-annotator agreement, and our attempts to measure annotation confidence in the absence of adjudication of annotations. The resulting corpus consists of 2614 questions (CHQA-email: 1740, CHQA-web: 874). Problems are the most frequent named entities, while treatment and general information questions are the most common question types. Inter-annotator agreement was generally modest: question types and topics yielded highest agreement, while the agreement for more complex frame annotations was lower. Agreement in CHQA-web was consistently higher than that in CHQA-email. Pairwise inter-annotator agreement proved most

  11. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education....... Contemporary as well as the 19th century debates about the social dimension and the social question deal with social integration. The recent London Communiqué of Ministers emphasizes the importance of the social dimension in higher education in terms of fostering social cohesion, reducing inequalities...... the diversity of relevant populations “without obstacles related to their social and economic background”. In the 19th century the social question was raised in a context of industrialization of societies. It dealt with suggestions about disintegration of predominant social structures and the management...

  12. Effect of Learning Think-Pair-Share Think through the combined pattern Empowerment Question on Metacognitive Skills, Creative Thinking, Understanding Concepts IPA and retention as well as Social Attitudes Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryanti Ekoningtyas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Pembelajaran Think-Pair-Share dipadu Pola Pemberdayaan Berpikir melalui Pertanyaan terhadap Keterampilan Metakognitif, Berpikir Kreatif, Pemahaman Konsep IPA dan Retensinya serta Sikap Sosial Siswa Abstract: cooperative learning is a teaching strategy to raise awareness of student thinking, solve problems together by integrating and applying skills and knowledge, empowering metacognitive learning development, a means to teach social skills students need to live and work together. This study aims to determine the effect pattern combined PBMP TPS learning strategy against metacognitive skills, creative thinking skills, understanding of concepts, understanding of the concept of retention, and social attitudes of students. This study used a quasi-experimental approach (quasi experimental to design non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Analysis of data normality test and homogeneity test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. The study population is class VIII SMPN 1 Pasuruan learning year 2012/2013. Samples were selected at random to determine the experimental class and control class. Results of the study are: (1 no influence on the strategy of metacognitive skills, creative thinking skills, understanding of concepts, and social attitudes among the students who were given a learning strategy with the given TPS PBMP multistrategi learning, (2 there is an influence on the retention of understanding of the concept among students TPS given PBMP learning strategy with a given learning multistrategi. The increase occurred in the class and the class multistrategi PBMP TPS. Key Words: TPS, PBMP, metacognitive skills, creative thinking, understanding of concepts, understanding of the concept of retention, social attitudes Abstrak: Strategi pembelajaran kooperatif merupakan pembelajaran untuk menumbuhkan kesadaran berpikir siswa, menyelesaikan masalah secara bersama dengan mengintegrasikan serta mengaplikasikan kemampuan dan pengetahuan

  13. Question Their Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Brenda

    2004-10-01

    Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by "questioning their answers."

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prognosis Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., ... find our information on Coping With Cancer helpful. Understanding Statistics About Survival Doctors estimate prognosis by using ...

  15. Numerical relativity; La relatividad numerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcubierre, M.

    2015-07-01

    Today the numerical relativity has developed numerical techniques and an understanding of the structure of the field equations and terms of coordinates, as well as an explosion in speed and memory capacity of supercomputers, make it possible to simulate the collision of black holes with masses and different spins in gravitational orbits. It has also allowed to study in detail the collapse and collision of stars neutrons.la numerical relativity has allowed other both numerical and theoretical studies. (Author)

  16. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  17. A question of emphasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Björnsdóttir, I

    2000-01-01

    The reported results are part of the overall evaluation of the new drug distribution legislation that went into effect in March 1996, liberalising ownership of community pharmacies in Iceland. We addressed the following question: What impact did the legislation have on users' access to and costs...

  18. A freedom to question...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    the family about things he had read and studied opened up the entire world of academia to me. Here, it seemed that one could as an adult pursue one's interests single-mindedly, without worries about earning a living! Until class ten, I also had very good teach- ers who encouraged questioning. I enjoyed listening to and re-.

  19. Transportation questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This document summarizes the transport and handling of radioactive materials in a ''question'' and ''answer'' form. It explains what is radioactive material, how it is shipped, and in case there is a spill, who is responsible for it. It also provides safeguard measures for radioactive materials. (TC)

  20. Triglycerides : Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions Why are triglycerides important? The amount of triglycerides (or blood fats) in blood are one important barometer of metabolic health; high levels are associated with coronary heart disease, diabetes and fatty liver disease. Metabolism refers to the chemical process that converts the ...

  1. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brezinski, C

    2012-01-01

    Numerical analysis has witnessed many significant developments in the 20th century. This book brings together 16 papers dealing with historical developments, survey papers and papers on recent trends in selected areas of numerical analysis, such as: approximation and interpolation, solution of linear systems and eigenvalue problems, iterative methods, quadrature rules, solution of ordinary-, partial- and integral equations. The papers are reprinted from the 7-volume project of the Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics on '/homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html<

  2. The Question of Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    For too long, educators' approach to understanding the relationships between poverty, class and education has been framed by studying the behaviors and cultures of poor students and their families. If only people--in the middle and upper-middle classes--can understand "their" culture, why "those people" do not value education, why "those parents"…

  3. Numerical Studies of Collective Phenomena in Two-Dimensional Electron and Cold Atom Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezayi, Edward

    2013-07-25

    Numerical calculations were carried out to investigate a number of outstanding questions in both two-dimensional electron and cold atom systems. These projects aimed to increase our understanding of the properties of and prospects for non-Abelian states in quantum Hall matter.

  4. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  5. Understanding Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Maple is a powerful symbolic computation system that is widely used in universities around the world. This short introduction gives readers an insight into the rules that control how the system works, and how to understand, fix, and avoid common problems. Topics covered include algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics, programming, and procedures. Each chapter contains numerous illustrative examples, using mathematics that does not extend beyond first-year undergraduate material. Maple worksheets containing these examples are available for download from the author's personal website. The book is suitable for new users, but where advanced topics are central to understanding Maple they are tackled head-on. Many concepts which are absent from introductory books and manuals are described in detail. With this book, students, teachers and researchers will gain a solid understanding of Maple and how to use it to solve complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way.

  6. Exam Question Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents background information and a problem on "escape velocity," which applies the gas laws to atmospheric and meteorological phenomena. Also, a problem is presented which requires an understanding of the principles of operation of pressure gauges. (CS)

  7. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, T

    1993-01-01

    In GR13 we heard many reports on recent. progress as well as future plans of detection of gravitational waves. According to these reports (see the report of the workshop on the detection of gravitational waves by Paik in this volume), it is highly probable that the sensitivity of detectors such as laser interferometers and ultra low temperature resonant bars will reach the level of h ~ 10—21 by 1998. in this level we may expect the detection of the gravitational waves from astrophysical sources such as coalescing binary neutron stars once a year or so. Therefore the progress in numerical relativity is urgently required to predict the wave pattern and amplitude of the gravitational waves from realistic astrophysical sources. The time left for numerical relativists is only six years or so although there are so many difficulties in principle as well as in practice.

  8. The question about paleoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartic, Andrei

    2006-12-01

    The author is treating questions about development of informatics in ancient Dacia during Y-th Century B.C. - 2-nd Century A.C. He is introducing a new terminology (paleoinformatics) in view of defining the interests of Daces in numbering, the elementary numbers theory and various aspects of numbers representation. A relation between elementary numbers theory and informatisation has been discussed. A particular interest has been given to calculation of the Circle length/Diameter ratio (number Pi), its calculation by Daces.

  9. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses the language and satirical cartoons that describe African Danes in the Danish media. Starting with a brief historical overview of the social fonction of satirical cartoons in Denmark since the Reformation, it is discussed whether satire and satirical cartoons actually have s...... Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  10. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena......? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic...

  11. Now That's a Good Question! How to Promote Cognitive Rigor through Classroom Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Erik M.

    2016-01-01

    In this book, Erik M. Francis explores how one of the most fundamental instructional strategies--questioning--can provide the proper scaffolding to deepen student thinking, understanding, and application of knowledge. You'll learn: (1) Techniques for using questioning to extend and evaluate student learning experiences; (2) Eight different kinds…

  12. Four Principles for Selecting HCI Research Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    In this position paper, I present and explain the position that what we should study in HCI depends on the objective of the research and its political, social, cultural, technological, and historical context. I outline four principles for selecting research questions and give a personal account...... of how I have selected research questions using these four principles. The aim with the paper is to generate discussion and advance the understanding of what to study in HCI....

  13. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  14. Questions and Answers about Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary RAISE Questions and Answers Questions & Answers about Psychosis What is psychosis? What causes psychosis? How common ... we learn from RAISE-IES? Questions & Answers About Psychosis Q: What is psychosis? A: The word psychosis ...

  15. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  16. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  17. 1. Methodological Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Arcari (a cura di

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this monographic section aims at analysing some methodological questions concerning identities, ethnicities, collectivities and religions, starting from the academic debate occurred between historians and anthropologists since the last decades of Twentieth Century, considering its reception especially for the study of ethnicity and collective and/or (so-called religious identities in the cultural context of ancient Greece. Another aspect of such a methodological section deals with the innovative approach inaugurated by the so-called “School of Wien” in the study of ethnic identity-constructions, especially analysing the relationships with Biblical texts as well as their multiform receptions between late-antiquity and early medieval period.

  18. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  19. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  20. Big questions about the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, Magda

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.

  1. Are Quantum Theory Questions Epistemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How to displace-move quantum theory [Ǭ] questions-problems to philosophy? Seeing the collapse of our society’s cultural-intellectual-morals, the philosophy of the 21st century has to contribute to the formation of new principles-formalisms: the big task of the contemporary philosophy ©] is to innovate, to transform the building of the knowledge! Which is the role of the contemporary philosopher? (Noam Chomsky. Building science so that it is more human, out of the scientific mercantilism so that it does not continue transgressing that which is most precious: the thought-life. The ideas that I propose demand a deep cultural-epistemiologicscientific-philosophical-ethical rethinking that goes from quantum entities up to life in society. The starting idea is «the quantum [Ǭ], the paradigm of the contemporary science ©]» (Bernard D’Espagnat. I propose to displace-move questions of the quantum theory [Ǭ]: spin, measure, layering to the field of philosophy (φ to build generic symbols. Can the contemporary episteme model the collapse of the ? For a philosopher, can understanding the importance and the behaviour of the spin bring something new to philosophy ? Can information of the states of the spin be used to observe in a holographic way the pattern energy-information contained in the quantum entities? Is quantum [Ǭ] physics mechanical?

  2. Numerical ecology with R

    CERN Document Server

    Borcard, Daniel; Legendre, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This new edition of Numerical Ecology with R guides readers through an applied exploration of the major methods of multivariate data analysis, as seen through the eyes of three ecologists. It provides a bridge between a textbook of numerical ecology and the implementation of this discipline in the R language. The book begins by examining some exploratory approaches. It proceeds logically with the construction of the key building blocks of most methods, i.e. association measures and matrices, and then submits example data to three families of approaches: clustering, ordination and canonical ordination. The last two chapters make use of these methods to explore important and contemporary issues in ecology: the analysis of spatial structures and of community diversity. The aims of methods thus range from descriptive to explanatory and predictive and encompass a wide variety of approaches that should provide readers with an extensive toolbox that can address a wide palette of questions arising in contemporary mul...

  3. Numerical ecology with r

    CERN Document Server

    Borcard, Daniel; Legendre, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This new edition of Numerical Ecology with R guides readers through an applied exploration of the major methods of multivariate data analysis, as seen through the eyes of three ecologists. It provides a bridge between a textbook of numerical ecology and the implementation of this discipline in the R language. The book begins by examining some exploratory approaches. It proceeds logically with the construction of the key building blocks of most methods, i.e. association measures and matrices, and then submits example data to three families of approaches: clustering, ordination and canonical ordination. The last two chapters make use of these methods to explore important and contemporary issues in ecology: the analysis of spatial structures and of community diversity. The aims of methods thus range from descriptive to explanatory and predictive and encompass a wide variety of approaches that should provide readers with an extensive toolbox that can address a wide palette of questions arising in contemporary mul...

  4. Climate - 30 questions to understand the Paris Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfin, Pascal; Staime, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The authors, who participate in the negotiations on climate, propose an analysis and a description of the various geopolitical, economic and financial challenges which are part of the next conference on climate (Conference of Parties, COP 21) which is to take place in France in December 2015. They notably discuss to which extent France is an example, what Obama can do, why things are changing in China, who are the opponents in the struggle against climate change. While one of the main issue of this conference, and the possible cause of its failure, will be the financial issue, and particularly the promise made in 2009 to mobilise 100 billions dollars every year in favour of developing countries which are the most impacted by global warming, in an interview, one of the author evokes the content of his book: he discusses the general consensus about the human origin of climate change, evokes fossil industries and oil producing countries as opponents to an energy revolution, outlines that energy transition is at the heart of what he calls the Battle of Paris (the conference), outlines the important role France can play despite some weaknesses of its climate policy, the new momentum given by China and the USA. He considers low carbon economy as the main world challenge on the long term

  5. Assessing Question Quality Using NLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Kristopher J.; Johnson, Amy M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2017-01-01

    An NLP algorithm was developed to assess question quality to inform feedback on questions generated by students within iSTART (an intelligent tutoring system that teaches reading strategies). A corpus of 4575 questions was coded using a four-level taxonomy. NLP indices were calculated for each question and machine learning was used to predict…

  6. Numerical Approaches to Spacetime Singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly K. Berger

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available This review updates a previous review article. Numerical explorationof the properties of singularities could, in principle, yield detailed understanding of their nature in physically realistic cases. Examples of numerical investigations into the formation of naked singularities, critical behavior in collapse, passage through the Cauchy horizon, chaos of the Mixmaster singularity, and singularities in spatially inhomogeneous cosmologies are discussed.

  7. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jacques, Ian

    1987-01-01

    This book is primarily intended for undergraduates in mathematics, the physical sciences and engineering. It introduces students to most of the techniques forming the core component of courses in numerical analysis. The text is divided into eight chapters which are largely self-contained. However, with a subject as intricately woven as mathematics, there is inevitably some interdependence between them. The level of difficulty varies and, although emphasis is firmly placed on the methods themselves rather than their analysis, we have not hesitated to include theoretical material when we consider it to be sufficiently interesting. However, it should be possible to omit those parts that do seem daunting while still being able to follow the worked examples and to tackle the exercises accompanying each section. Familiarity with the basic results of analysis and linear algebra is assumed since these are normally taught in first courses on mathematical methods. For reference purposes a list of theorems used in the t...

  8. 101 questions about energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  9. Cosmic questions: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

    2001-12-01

    This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle.

  10. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  11. After sympathy, a question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Anne Line

    2018-01-01

    Within a discussion of fieldwork, friendship and ethics Dalsgård describes how a piece of fictional writing worked as a sympathetic experiment and both changed her understanding of a young woman's situation and deepened her relationship to her. She employs Adam Smith’s concept of sympathy...... of their future possibilities, and the text describes a young mother, who by becoming pregnant without means to bring up the child finds herself confirm-ing all prejudices about teenage pregnancy and irresponsible youth. Dalsgård de-scribes the responses she receives from readers of the text and focuses...

  12. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in…

  13. Lymphoma-clinical questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. C.

    2002-01-01

    Lymphoma is a group of neoplastic disease of lymphoid tissues, which can be classified into categories of Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma(NHL). Prognosis of lymphoma depends on the extent of disease (staging) especially in Hodgkin's disease, but also depends on the histologic make up in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Although non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a neoplastic transformation of lymphoid cell it is a collection of disease with morphologically and immunologically diverse make up. Consequently the classification of NHL has changed frequently and evolved according to the progress of immunologic and molecular knowledge added to the original morphologic classification. Lymphoma is a disorder sensitive to chemotherapy which often leads to cure of the disease even in advanced stage, while many other patients die from the progression of disease. Therefore, better understanding in newer classification and sensitive imaging technique, such as PET, in lymphoma will likely lead to the improvement of survival rate

  14. The implications of nonauthentic questions in Galatians | Verster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new classification of non-authentic questions is helpful in understanding the way in which Paul uses persuasion in Galatians. Paul uses many non-authentic questions, and the implications thereof are evident in the type of question used. The way in which he violates the maxims identified by Grice also entails certain ...

  15. Numerical Solution of Parabolic Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerby, Ole

    . Among the special features of this book can be mentioned the presentation of a practical approach to reliable estimates of the global error, including warning signals if the reliability is questionable. The technique is generally applicable for estimating the discretization error in numerical...

  16. Dog Bite Reflections--Socratic Questioning Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Cheri A.

    2015-01-01

    In the online environment, the asynchronous discussion is an important tool for creating community, developing critical thinking skills, and checking for understanding. As students learn how to use Socratic questions for effective interactions, the discussion boards can become the most exciting part of the course. This sequel to the article…

  17. Question Quality in Community Question Answering Forums : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltadzhieva, Antoaneta; Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Community Question Answering websites (CQA) offer a new opportunity for users to provide, search and share knowledge. Although the idea of receiving a direct, targeted response to a question sounds very attractive, the quality of the question itself can have an important effect on the likelihood of

  18. [Genetic questions of hemophilia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbach, G; Lenk, H

    1981-06-01

    Haemophilia A and B are X-chromosomally recessively inherited. In the GDR the frequency of these genuine haemophilias is 1 to 6,500 male births. The frequency of sporadic haemophilias is still in dispute and certainly depends on the intensity of genealogic examinations. The mutation rate for haemophilia A is estimated to 1.3 to 3.6 x 10(-5). In secure female conductors the lyonisation evokes a considerable dispersion of the factor VIII coagulation activity, wherefore this is able to prove also only a small proportion, about 20-50%. The lyonisation apparently takes place in a critical anlage of less than 32 cells. Bleeding female conductors are in the first place the sequel of extreme lyonisation, more infrequently homozygotes or such ones with anomalies of the X-chromosomes. The state of female conductors is best characterized by th discrepancy between decreased factor VIII coagulation activity and the normal factor VIII associated antigen. At present numerous variants of this female conductor test are used, particularly concerning its calculatory evaluation. In many places only quotients from the two parameters are formed. Discriminancy-analytical methods brings without doubt better results. They allow to coordinate a certain probability to each result, which with the help of genealogic criteria may be combined to an evidence. Immunochemical determinations of the factor IX are certainly not of value for the proof of the state of female conductors of haemophilia B. The prenatal diagnostics of sex is recommended for pregnant conductors by amniocentesis in the 14th week of pregnancy. Only in few countries the prenatal diagnostics of haemophilia is possible. In blood tests taken by means of fetoscopy beginning with the 18th week of pregnancy the factor VIII coagulation property is determined by immunoradiometrical methods or recently even by means of a coagulation method. Though for the genetic consultation only female conductors in the reproductive phase are of

  19. Comparison of Performance on Multiple-Choice Questions and Open-Ended Questions in an Introductory Astronomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Michelle M.; Cool, Adrienne M.; Prather, Edward E.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2014-01-01

    When considering the variety of questions that can be used to measure students' learning, instructors may choose to use multiple-choice questions, which are easier to score than responses to open-ended questions. However, by design, analyses of multiple-choice responses cannot describe all of students' understanding. One method that can…

  20. Lymphoma-clinical questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. C. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Lymphoma is a group of neoplastic disease of lymphoid tissues, which can be classified into categories of Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma(NHL). Prognosis of lymphoma depends on the extent of disease (staging) especially in Hodgkin's disease, but also depends on the histologic make up in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Although non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a neoplastic transformation of lymphoid cell it is a collection of disease with morphologically and immunologically diverse make up. Consequently the classification of NHL has changed frequently and evolved according to the progress of immunologic and molecular knowledge added to the original morphologic classification. Lymphoma is a disorder sensitive to chemotherapy which often leads to cure of the disease even in advanced stage, while many other patients die from the progression of disease. Therefore, better understanding in newer classification and sensitive imaging technique, such as PET, in lymphoma will likely lead to the improvement of survival rate.

  1. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  2. Can we share questions? Performance of questions from different question banks in a single medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Adrian; Nicholls, Anthony; Ricketts, Chris; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    To use progress testing, a large bank of questions is required, particularly when planning to deliver tests over a long period of time. The questions need not only to be of good quality but also balanced in subject coverage across the curriculum to allow appropriate sampling. Hence as well as creating its own questions, an institution could share questions. Both methods allow ownership and structuring of the test appropriate to the educational requirements of the institution. Peninsula Medical School (PMS) has developed a mechanism to validate questions written in house. That mechanism can be adapted to utilise questions from an International question bank International Digital Electronic Access Library (IDEAL) and another UK-based question bank Universities Medical Assessment Partnership (UMAP). These questions have been used in our progress tests and analysed for relative performance. Data are presented to show that questions from differing sources can have comparable performance in a progress testing format. There are difficulties in transferring questions from one institution to another. These include problems of curricula and cultural differences. Whilst many of these difficulties exist, our experience suggests that it only requires a relatively small amount of work to adapt questions from external question banks for effective use. The longitudinal aspect of progress testing (albeit summatively) may allow more flexibility in question usage than single high stakes exams.

  3. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  4. Issues in direct numerical simulation of plasma turbulence and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagaraja, A.; Arter, W.; Haas, F. A.

    1991-04-01

    The problem of direct numerical simulation of plasma turbulence in magnetic confinement systems such as a tokamak is important in gaining a theoretical understanding of anomalous transport of particles, energy, momentum and impurities in such systems. Two approaches to this question are being developed. The design philosophy and the basic numerical problems encountered and solved in the construction of a two-fluid, 3-D, electro-magnetic, finite difference, time evolution code, CUTIE, are outlined. The importance of qualitative consistency, time-reversal, conservation properties, phase mixing, and boundary conditions are illustrated in the context of both passive and active electrostatic turbulence. A separate study was undertaken to aid in the understanding of drift wave turbulence in tokamak plasmas. In this connection a 3-D, time-dependant, electrostatic drift wave code called DRIFT was written. This has features which take account of toroidicity, non-adiabaticity and magnetic shear. The resulting code is very flexible, and was used to solve the Hasegawa-Mima equation efficiently in 2-D. Results from time-dependant, 3-D calculation run on a Cray-2 are presented. The aim is to obtain a proper physical understanding of plasma turbulence in typical tokamak conditions by calculating the power spectra of the turbulent fluctuations and their transport consequences. It is believed that this can only be achieved by a step-by-step approach to the numerics, making sure that the calculated effects represent genuine physics and are not mere artifacts of the numerical simulation.

  5. Training IBM Watson using Automatically Generated Question-Answer Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jangho; Kim, Gyuwan; Yoo, Jaeyoon; Jung, Changwoo; Kim, Minseok; Yoon, Sungroh

    2016-01-01

    IBM Watson is a cognitive computing system capable of question answering in natural languages. It is believed that IBM Watson can understand large corpora and answer relevant questions more effectively than any other question-answering system currently available. To unleash the full power of Watson, however, we need to train its instance with a large number of well-prepared question-answer pairs. Obviously, manually generating such pairs in a large quantity is prohibitively time consuming and...

  6. Questioning as a teaching tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Michele; Blankenburg, Rebecca; Butani, Lavjay

    2015-03-01

    The Dreyfus and Bloom frameworks can help the great clinical teacher craft questions that are learner-centric and appropriately challenging.Employing strategies to ask the right questions in the right way can further add to the effectiveness of using questions as a valuable teaching,learning, and assessment tool.

  7. Which Are Our Next Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel Joao

    2013-01-01

    The importance of posing the best questions in research studies in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) is undisputed. Researchers may spend long hours reflecting and discussing with colleagues how to improve a certain question they have in mind. The best questions are always original,

  8. Domain-General Factors Influencing Numerical and Arithmetic Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Knops

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue contains 18 articles that address the question how numerical processes interact with domain-general factors. We start the editorial with a discussion of how to define domain-general versus domain-specific factors and then discuss the contributions to this special issue grouped into two core numerical domains that are subject to domain-general influences (see Figure 1. The first group of contributions addresses the question how numbers interact with spatial factors. The second group of contributions is concerned with factors that determine and predict arithmetic understanding, performance and development. This special issue shows that domain-general (Table 1a as well as domain-specific (Table 1b abilities influence numerical and arithmetic performance virtually at all levels and make it clear that for the field of numerical cognition a sole focus on one or several domain-specific factors like the approximate number system or spatial-numerical associations is not sufficient. Vice versa, in most studies that included domain-general and domain-specific variables, domain-specific numerical variables predicted arithmetic performance above and beyond domain-general variables. Therefore, a sole focus on domain-general aspects such as, for example, working memory, to explain, predict and foster arithmetic learning is also not sufficient. Based on the articles in this special issue we conclude that both domain-general and domain-specific factors contribute to numerical cognition. But the how, why and when of their contribution still needs to be better understood. We hope that this special issue may be helpful to readers in constraining future theory and model building about the interplay of domain-specific and domain-general factors.

  9. Numerical analysis using Sage

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    2015-01-01

    This is the first numerical analysis text to use Sage for the implementation of algorithms and can be used in a one-semester course for undergraduates in mathematics, math education, computer science/information technology, engineering, and physical sciences. The primary aim of this text is to simplify understanding of the theories and ideas from a numerical analysis/numerical methods course via a modern programming language like Sage. Aside from the presentation of fundamental theoretical notions of numerical analysis throughout the text, each chapter concludes with several exercises that are oriented to real-world application.  Answers may be verified using Sage.  The presented code, written in core components of Sage, are backward compatible, i.e., easily applicable to other software systems such as Mathematica®.  Sage is  open source software and uses Python-like syntax. Previous Python programming experience is not a requirement for the reader, though familiarity with any programming language is a p...

  10. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice...

  11. Understanding analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-sty...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a ... for provider care teams (PDF-210KB). Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three ...

  13. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    included factoid questions grouped around a set of target entities. For example, for the target entity “ Franz Kafka ”, associated questions included: “Where...from Franz Schubert. A year later he did on Dec 5th.”). Depending on the task, an answer extractor may identify very small, factoid candidates which...IWP): Paraphrase Ac- quisition and Applications, 2003. [55] A. Ittycheriah, M. Franz , and S. Roukos. Ibm’s statistical question answering system - trec

  14. Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Assael, Marc J

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever had a question that keeps persisting and for which you cannot find a clear answer? Is the question seemingly so "simple" that the problem is glossed over in most resources, or skipped entirely? CRC Press/Taylor and Francis is pleased to introduce Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics, the first in a new series of books that address the questions that frequently arise in today's major scientific and technical disciplines. Designed for a wide audience, from students and researchers to practicing professionals in related areas, the books are organized in a user friend

  15. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-02-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  16. Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper

    2012-01-01

    Bidrag til festskrift til Jesper Hoffmeyer i anledning af hans 70 års dag i Don Favineau, Paul Cobley & Kalevi Kull (eds.): "A More Developed Sign. Interpreting the Work of Jesper Hoffmeyer". Antologien udg. som særnummer af Tartu Semiotics Library Nr. 10 og mit bidrag forefindes på p. 217-220....

  17. Three growing questions about Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Crimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Through three capital questions, this short essay tries to offer a general panorama and a better understanding of the proteiform complex body or Masonry. Through by a multi-level hermeneutic, this study get the ambition to be comprehensible both to Readers who are not used to this kind of literature and to the ones advanced and skilled in symbolic thought. The main important conclusion owes the quality of the symbolic level, which is the property to refuse a single interpretation: notwithstanding, this does not prevent from a clear historical and political evaluation of the phenomena under analysis, according the methodologies of social sciences. This political evaluability drives to the main valuable output of the essay, which concerns the anthropological statement that the logical label of Masonry, with this name or many others, it exists since always. Under the category of initiatory institution, we may consider the step between individual and society, and a society inside a larger one. Evolving from the needs of the individuals to the ones of social groups, the matter joins to the land of political sciences. The sociological meaning can be posed under analytic view in reason of the functionalist meaning emerging from the alternative couples status-quo/emancipation and conservatism/progressivism. Through by this perspective, anyway the theme seems not to reveal much more, because this “proteiform complex body” manifest itself as something too much complex in its inner core to be considered in a way or in another. What remains is strictly symbolic, with some theological and eschatological points that refuse to be posed under restrain.

  18. Some of the unanswered questions in finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Dragana M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A very dynamic development of finance in the last 50 years is inter alia probably due to experiments and innovations in this field. Previously theoretical base could not explain and predict movements especially in volatile times. "The new finance" appeared 50 years ago (portfolio theory CAPM, the efficient market theory, M&M theorem and made substantial progress in understanding movements in globalized and internationalized financial markets. However, many questions remain open. The author tries to put emphasis on some of these questions, perfectly aware that these are not the only ones. Unresolved questions are related to company's aims, project's risks, degree of portfolio optimization, importance of liquidity, dividend policy, as well as factors that determine M&A. As the "new finance" is not able to predict and explain volatile movements, a question that should be posed is whether it is appropriate to add some non-economic factors as the behaviorist theory suggests. Although the behaviorist theory is an important part of "new finance", it is unfortunately the only theory able to explain movements in volatile times. In conclusion, many questions still remain unanswered and wait for appropriate theoretical explanations.

  19. Key questions and challenges in angiosperm macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauquet, Hervé; Magallón, Susana

    2018-03-25

    Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Six key questions III. Three key challenges IV. Conclusions Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: The origin and rapid diversification of angiosperms (flowering plants) represent one of the most intriguing topics in evolutionary biology. Despite considerable progress made in complementary fields over the last two decades (paleobotany, phylogenetics, ecology, evo-devo, genomics), many important questions remain. For instance, what has been the impact of mass extinctions on angiosperm diversification? Are the angiosperms an adaptive radiation? Has morphological evolution in angiosperms been gradual or pulsed? We propose that the recent and ongoing revolution in macroevolutionary methods provides an unprecedented opportunity to explore long-standing questions that probably hold important clues to understand present-day biodiversity. We present six key questions that explore the origin and diversification of angiosperms. We also identify three key challenges to address these questions: (1) the development of new integrative models that include diversification, multiple intrinsic and environmental traits, biogeography and the fossil record all at once, whilst accounting for sampling bias and heterogeneity of macroevolutionary processes through time and among lineages; (2) the need for large and standardized synthetic databases of morphological variation; and (3) continuous effort on sampling the fossil record, but with a revolution in current paleobotanical practice. © 2018 Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Questions of Representations in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Questions of Representations in Architecture is the first major Danish contribution to the current international discussion on architects' use of representations and the significance of visual media for architecture.......Questions of Representations in Architecture is the first major Danish contribution to the current international discussion on architects' use of representations and the significance of visual media for architecture....

  1. KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING AND ADVANCED SEARCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vidya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It’s a comprehensive fact that millions of people around the world surf the Internet for want of answers for their questions. Generally, the questions are asked in the form of Searching or direct questions which follow perfect ontological directions. It is important that the system understands the questions in the right sense and can provide the best answer for all the questions raised in the web forum. One such pragmatic method is required which is expected to provide optimum solution to achieve best answers for questions that not only percepts language but also follows perfect ontological information in accordance with the cyber law. This Proposed Model presents a new dynamic model called Knowledge Understanding and Advance Searching (KUAS that studies the importance of Smart Question Answering with other question answering engines like START and proves to give the optimal solution compared to them.

  2. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  3. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  4. Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christian; Su, Yanqing; Parmigiani, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the complex non-linear physics that governs volcanic eruptions is contingent on our ability to characterize the dynamics of bubbles and its effect on the ascending magma. The exsolution and migration of bubbles has also a great impact on the heat and mass transport in and out of magma bodies stored at shallow depths in the crust. Multiphase systems like magmas are by definition heterogeneous at small scales. Although mixture theory or homogenization methods are convenient to represent multiphase systems as a homogeneous equivalent media, these approaches do not inform us on possible feedbacks at the pore-scale and can be significantly misleading. In this presentation, we discuss the development and application of bubble-scale multiphase flow modeling to address the following questions : How do bubbles impact heat and mass transport in magma chambers ? How efficient are chemical exchanges between the melt and bubbles during magma decompression? What is the role of hydrodynamic interactions on the deformation of bubbles while the magma is sheared? Addressing these questions requires powerful numerical methods that accurately model the balance between viscous, capillary and pressure stresses. We discuss how these bubble-scale models can provide important constraints on the dynamics of magmas stored at shallow depth or ascending to the surface during an eruption.

  5. Combining Narrative and Numerical Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sanne; Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2011-01-01

    Strategic simulation is the combination of narrative and numerical simulation and can be used as a tool to support strategic decision making by providing different scenarios in combination with computer modelling. The core of the combined simulation approach (CSA) is to make it possible for decis......Strategic simulation is the combination of narrative and numerical simulation and can be used as a tool to support strategic decision making by providing different scenarios in combination with computer modelling. The core of the combined simulation approach (CSA) is to make it possible...... to the decision making in operations and production management by providing new insights into modelling and simulation based on the combined narrative and numerical simulation approach as a tool for strategy making. The research question asks, “How can the CSA be applied in a practical context to support strategy...

  6. Infant foods: Debatable questions and real answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Belmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ms/her practice, a pediatrician frequently faces ambiguous questions about foods for infants during the first year of life in particular. Not only parents ask pediatricians these questions - the latter naturally arise during work and attempts to pinpoint the problem of adequate nutrition during infancy. These questions are whether complementary foods containing starch cause allergy in an infant; gluten is a detrimental ingredient of infant foods; hydrolysis of cereal polysaccharides is essential; palm oil is dangerous to an infant's health; butter fat as an ingredient infant foods may be harmful to a child. Among other things, butter fat in globules is shown to contain phospholipids, gangliosides, cholesterol, which are essential for a child's development and absent in infant formulas. In this connection, addition of fat globule membranes to foods is promising in terms of the provision of an infant with lipids of full value. There is a need for further in-depth investigations of infant feeding practices, by keeping in mind numerous features of an infant's organism.

  7. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunization Partners Sexually Transmitted Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Immunization Partners Sexually Transmitted Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  8. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  9. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  10. Frequently Asked Questions about Rotavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Herpes Zoster) Tetanus (Lockjaw) Frequently Asked Questions About Rotavirus What is Rotavirus? Why can dehydration be serious ... I find information about the vaccine? What is Rotavirus? Rotavirus is a highly contagious virus that infects ...

  11. LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions Order this publication Printer- ... service or organization is open to working with LGBT families? Kudos to you for managing to “go ...

  12. Children's Identification of Questions from Rising Terminal Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saindon, Mathieu R.; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Young children are slow to master conventional intonation patterns in their "yes/no" questions, which may stem from imperfect understanding of the links between terminal pitch contours and pragmatic intentions. In Experiment 1, five to ten-year-old children and adults were required to judge utterances as questions or statements on the…

  13. Some Big Questions about Design in Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    This article asks five questions that lead us to the foundations of design practice in educational technology. Design processes structure time, space, place, activity, role, goal, and resource. For educational technology to advance in its understanding of design practice, it must question whether we have clear conceptions of how abstract…

  14. The science and art of asking questions in cognitive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ian Andrew; Morse, Rachel; Howarth, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Questions underpin all aspects of therapeutic assessment and intervention and are a vital component of the clinical process. Over recent years frameworks have started to be applied to obtain a greater understanding of questioning formats and processes. This paper examines the use of questions in cognitive therapy (CT). An overview of the main types of questions identified in the literature is presented. In addition, we examine a range of client and therapist characteristics that may impact on the questioning process. Asking questions in therapy is a complex, yet under-taught, skill. This paper provides a set of frameworks to assist in identifying helpful and unhelpful questioning skills. Thus the article has implications for further training and research.

  15. Comparison of performance on multiple-choice questions and open-ended questions in an introductory astronomy laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle M. Wooten; Adrienne M. Cool; Edward E. Prather; Kimberly D. Tanner

    2014-01-01

    When considering the variety of questions that can be used to measure students’ learning, instructors may choose to use multiple-choice questions, which are easier to score than responses to open-ended questions. However, by design, analyses of multiple-choice responses cannot describe all of students’ understanding. One method that can be used to learn more about students’ learning is the analysis of the open-ended responses students’ provide when explaining their multiple-choice response. I...

  16. Outstanding questions: physics beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2012-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics agrees very well with experiment, but many important questions remain unanswered, among them are the following. What is the origin of particle masses and are they due to a Higgs boson? How does one understand the number of species of matter particles and how do they mix? What is the origin of the difference between matter and antimatter, and is it related to the origin of the matter in the Universe? What is the nature of the astrophysical dark matter? How does one unify the fundamental interactions? How does one quantize gravity? In this article, I introduce these questions and discuss how they may be addressed by experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, with particular attention to the search for the Higgs boson and supersymmetry.

  17. Searching for a question and an answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Le Roux

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focusses on Eckart Otto’s theory of the Pentateuch, his contribution to Pro Pent (the “Project for the study of the Pentateuch” and his influence on our understanding of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. There was something in his thinking that appealed to many South African scholars; an appeal that softened down the harsh criticism and blunted the sharp edges of Pentateuch study of the past two centuries. And this was accomplished by turning the focus to the theological and ethical issues, which were the driving forces behind the formation of the Pentateuch. Put differently: to show the Pentateuch as an answer to a question and Pentateuch criticism as a constant search for the questions to which the Pentateuch is answer.

  18. The central question in superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J. E.

    I will argue that the most basic and fundamental question in superconductivity is: when a superconductor in a magnetic field goes normal, how does the supercurrent stop? The supercurrent has to stop before the material becomes resistive because the transition is reversible in an ideal situation, with no Joule heat dissipated. I will argue that the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity cannot answer this question. I will propose an answer to this question that requires that there is flow and counterflow of charge across the normal-superconductor phase boundary, and requires that the normal state current carriers have hole-like character. The conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity does not have these physical elements, the theory of hole superconductivity does.

  19. Reflective Questioning in Management Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge C. M. van Seggelen-Damen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reflective questioning is a critical activity in management learning and education. This article describes research on the nature of reflective questioning in groups of management students working on final MSc projects. Drawing on content analysis of recorded meetings, we identify the following key dimensions of reflective questioning: provocation, need for cognition, epistemology, locus of cognition, logic, heuristics, level of abstraction, and cognitive complexity. The data suggest that individual reflection by students and collective reflection in group meetings are highly complementary in management education. In particular, individual reflection by students combined with meetings that support and provoke collective reflection may create substantial synergies between individual and collective learning. We also discuss the implications of these findings for management education.

  20. Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in probability and statistics. We hear their views on the fields, aims, scopes, the future direction of research and how their work fit...... in these respects. Interviews with Nick Bingham, Luc Bovens, Terrence L. Fine, Haim Gaifman, Donald Gillies, James Hawthorne, Carl Hoefer, James M. Joyce, Joseph B. Kadane Isaac Levi, D.H. Mellor, Patrick Suppes, Jan von Plato, Carl Wagner, Sandy Zabell...

  1. Guarino Guarini open questions, possible solutions

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Baroque architect and mathematician Guarino Guarini is the subject of this issue of the Nexus Network Journal. A group of international scholars were invited to contribute papers that shed light on the unanswered questions in several areas: Baroque architecture in general and Guarini’s architecture in particular; philosophy; history of structural mechanics; mathematics and history of mathematics, cosmology. As always, the NNJ takes an interdisciplinary approach to the broad range of subjects that Guarini concerned himself with, thus the final results will add significantly to our understanding of how Guarini’s actual practical and technical processes were informed by knowledge of his multifaceted scientific and philosophical interests.

  2. Nuclear power in Canada: questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    To further public understanding of nuclear power generation, the Canadian Nuclear Association commissioned a special task force to coordinate contributions of experts in all parts of the nuclear industry. These contributions have been arranged in a question and answer format and are aimed at the average Canadian reader who is genuinely seeking factual information on nuclear power. Areas covered include electricity demand, comparison of nuclear generation with other forms of thermal electricity production, radiation sources and effects on man and his environment; features of different reactor types, thermal discharges and waste management. (O.T.)

  3. Questions Regarding Alterity in Social Collaborative Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinela Floria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of alterity has become important in the last decades, when talking about the Information Age, which provides acknowledgement to the software development specialists about the importance of understanding the other’s behavior, needs, objectives and beliefs.
    Our main purpose is to bring to attention the question of social representation related to the images of individuals as different entities that are integrated in virtual teams, virtual projects and e-activities. Regarding the consciousness about the other’s alterity, we assert that it opens a dialogical perspective about the Information Society, where it is essential to share and communicate knowledge to the others.

  4. Questioning the Patient, Questioning Hippocrates: Rufus of Ephesus and the Pursuit of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Rufus of Ephesus' short treatise, Quaestiones Medicinales, the only ancient medical work that takes as its topic the dialogue between doctor and patient, has usually been seen as a procedural practical handbook serving an essentially operational purpose. In this paper I argue that the treatise, with its insistent message that doctors cannot properly understand and treat illnesses unless they supplement their own knowledge by questioning patients, and its remarkable appreciation of the singularity of each patient's experience, shows itself to be no mere handbook but a work addressing the place of questioning in the clinical encounter. I illustrate some of the differences between Rufus' conceptualisation of the relevance and use of questioning and that which can be seen in the theoretical and descriptive writings of Galen and in the Hippocratic corpus, and show how apparent resonances with some of the preoccupations of modern Western healthcare can be used judiciously to elucidate the significance of those differences.

  5. 25 Years of Self-organized Criticality: Numerical Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAteer, R. T. James; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Dimitropoulou, Michaila; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Pruessner, Gunnar; Morales, Laura; Ireland, Jack; Abramenko, Valentyna

    2016-01-01

    The detection and characterization of self-organized criticality (SOC), in both real and simulated data, has undergone many significant revisions over the past 25 years. The explosive advances in the many numerical methods available for detecting, discriminating, and ultimately testing, SOC have played a critical role in developing our understanding of how systems experience and exhibit SOC. In this article, methods of detecting SOC are reviewed; from correlations to complexity to critical quantities. A description of the basic autocorrelation method leads into a detailed analysis of application-oriented methods developed in the last 25 years. In the second half of this manuscript space-based, time-based and spatial-temporal methods are reviewed and the prevalence of power laws in nature is described, with an emphasis on event detection and characterization. The search for numerical methods to clearly and unambiguously detect SOC in data often leads us outside the comfort zone of our own disciplines—the answers to these questions are often obtained by studying the advances made in other fields of study. In addition, numerical detection methods often provide the optimum link between simulations and experiments in scientific research. We seek to explore this boundary where the rubber meets the road, to review this expanding field of research of numerical detection of SOC systems over the past 25 years, and to iterate forwards so as to provide some foresight and guidance into developing breakthroughs in this subject over the next quarter of a century.

  6. Question Word in the Mandarin Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yunyu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In an interrogative sentence in Mandarin language, a question word can be placed in the beginning, middle or end of a sentence. Because of the different nation and culture, when a foreign student learns Mandarin, they find it difficult to understand the question words and the position of the question words in that language. Because of that, the writer proposes to explain such problems. This research aims to find out what are the types of question words in Mandarin, and also to explain the function and usage of question words in the Mandarin interrogative sentence. An interrogative sentence is a very important sentence. In Mandarin, the following question words: 谁(shuí “Who”,在哪里(zài nǎli “where”, 在哪儿(zài nǎ’er “where”,为什么(wèi shénme “why”, 怎么(zěnme “why”,多少(duō shǎo) “how many”,多久(duō jiǔ “how long”,什么时候 (shénme shíhòu “when”,什么(shénme “what”,做什么(zuò shénme “why”,干 什么(gàn shénme “why”,干嘛(gànma “why” and so on are used to ask “who”, “where”, “what”, “how much”, “when”, “what time”, and “why”. Those words have different functions and usage. Each sentence has a certain structure and word order. A question word can be placed in the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence. When the place is changed, there is a possibility of miscommunication.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2013.160106

  7. Numerical Optimization in Microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg

    2017-01-01

    Numerical modelling can illuminate the working mechanism and limitations of microfluidic devices. Such insights are useful in their own right, but one can take advantage of numerical modelling in a systematic way using numerical optimization. In this chapter we will discuss when and how numerical...... optimization is best used....

  8. Ten Questions about Language Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolitho, R.; Carter, R.; Hughes, R.; Ivanic, R.; Masuhara, H.; Tomlinson, B.

    2003-01-01

    This article was written interactively over an extended period of consultation and explores questions concerning the theory and practice of language awareness, its descriptive orientations, its relationship with critical social dimensions, and its connections with current theories of language teaching and learning. (Author/VWL)

  9. Minors and social networks: legal questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ramón Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The participation in a company increasingly technological does that numerous questions appear on the protection of the most vulnerable subjects, between them the minors. The influence of the social networks like instrument of communication is not exempt from risks for the quantity of information that is facilitated and is shared. The lack of a specific regulation that he contemplates from the point of view of the Law which is the protection that a minor must have, does that there take place situations of abandonment of the rights of the same ones.The opportunity of regulation has been left to escape in the future law of protection of the infancy, nowadays in phase of preliminary design, since it does not refer to the social networks since it had been desirable. The current procedure as for minors, as well as those of protection of information, between others, do not turn out to be sufficient to contemplate all the situations of risk that can be given in the above mentioned area. In the present work we propose to think on minors and social networks raising some legal questions, and trying to contribute some response to the problematics that appears in the juridical area.

  10. Qcorp: an annotated classification corpus of Chinese health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haihong; Na, Xu; Li, Jiao

    2018-03-22

    Health question-answering (QA) systems have become a typical application scenario of Artificial Intelligent (AI). An annotated question corpus is prerequisite for training machines to understand health information needs of users. Thus, we aimed to develop an annotated classification corpus of Chinese health questions (Qcorp) and make it openly accessible. We developed a two-layered classification schema and corresponding annotation rules on basis of our previous work. Using the schema, we annotated 5000 questions that were randomly selected from 5 Chinese health websites within 6 broad sections. 8 annotators participated in the annotation task, and the inter-annotator agreement was evaluated to ensure the corpus quality. Furthermore, the distribution and relationship of the annotated tags were measured by descriptive statistics and social network map. The questions were annotated using 7101 tags that covers 29 topic categories in the two-layered schema. In our released corpus, the distribution of questions on the top-layered categories was treatment of 64.22%, diagnosis of 37.14%, epidemiology of 14.96%, healthy lifestyle of 10.38%, and health provider choice of 4.54% respectively. Both the annotated health questions and annotation schema were openly accessible on the Qcorp website. Users can download the annotated Chinese questions in CSV, XML, and HTML format. We developed a Chinese health question corpus including 5000 manually annotated questions. It is openly accessible and would contribute to the intelligent health QA system development.

  11. JAVA Interview Questions with Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Mikky, James

    2014-01-01

    JAVA Interview Questions with Answers from ComputerTrainingsOnline.com is n interactive java online training provider to establish a standard present in programming languages training. It is a great opportunity to the people who wants to learn object oriented programming languages like java at their own pace as per the flexible schedules. Here you can share your views and thought procedures with our online community and clarify the queries in java with our core professional team. You can lear...

  12. Power dynamics and questioning in elementary science lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsvold, Lori Ann

    Discourse interactions between a teacher and students in an inquiry-based fourth-grade science classroom were analyzed to investigate how power dynamics and questioning strategies within elementary science lessons help support students in building their science understanding. Five inquiry-based classroom sessions were observed; verbal interactions were audio- and video-recorded. Research data consisted of observation transcripts, teacher interviews, student work, and instructional materials. Analyses were conducted on the frequencies of utterances, participation roles, power categories, and questioning categories. Results revealed that when students used more frequent power, (a) no significant differences were noted between frequencies of teacher and student talk, (b) the teacher posed more questions than did the students, and (c) students explained what they knew and asked questions to clarify their understanding. When the teacher used more frequent power, she asked questions to provide students opportunities to negotiate investigative processes and explain what they knew and how they knew it. Evidence of student understanding of the science concepts was found in how students used subject matter to discuss what they knew and how they knew it. Pre-service and in-service teachers should be encouraged to consider how their use of power and questioning strategies can engage students to reflect on how they build understanding of science concepts. Teachers can use Professional Learning Communities to reflect on how their practice engages students. Future research should be employed to observe classrooms across an entire school year to determine how power and questioning dynamics flow among students and teachers and change over time. Research can also be used to understand the influence of gender and culture on power and questioning dynamics in classroom settings.

  13. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Understanding Carbohydrates How much and what type of carbohydrate foods ... glucose levels in your target range. Explore: Understanding Carbohydrates Glycemic Index and Diabetes Learn about the glycemic ...

  14. Status of numerical relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Numerical relativity; gravitational waves; black hole; neutron star. Abstract. I describe the current status of numerical relativity from my personal point of view. Here, I focus mainly on explaining the numerical implementations necessary for simulating general relativistic phenomena such as the merger of compact ...

  15. Open forum: Question and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.H.; Krupa, S.; Shen, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in this section is: With the end of the Cold War and the exchange of information improving between East and West, what roles should government agencies and non-government organizations from developed countries play in assisting less developed countries in developing a stronger environmental protection program? Responses presented here were obtained from Richard H. Schulze (President of Trinity Consultants, Inc.), Sagar Krupa (Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota), and Thomas T. Shen (Ph.D., D.AAEE, Retiree of the New York Department of Environmental Conservation)

  16. Nuclear power: Questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Uranium Institute, a London-based international association of industrial enterprises in the nuclear industry, published a report entitled The Safety of Nuclear Power Plants. Based on an assessment by an international group of senior nuclear experts from eight countries, the report provides an authoritative explanation, for non-specialists of the basic principles of reactor safety, their application, and their implications. Some questions and answers are selected from that report; they address only a few of the subjects that the report itself examines in greater detail

  17. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions; Biocarburants - 5 questions qui derangent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L

    2008-07-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  18. A Reflection on Teacher Questioning Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasih Elisabeth Roostini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This small-scale research is expected to serve as a reflective means for teachers so that they can explore their questioning types in their own classroom. It analyzed questioning types used by three teachers of general English classes. The questioning types were classified based on three dimensions—purpose, form, and function. The purpose-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into two: referential and display. The form-based questioning types, based on the classification of question types by Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman (1999 and Biber et al. (1999, were classified into four major types: yes/no-questions, wh-questions, tag questions, and alternative questions. The function-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into three sub-types: comprehension checks, confirmation checks, and clarification requests.           The data, obtained from three recorded class meetings, were transcribed and analyzed to see what questioning types each teacher employed and to obtain the number and percentage distribution of questioning types each teacher used. The results showed that referential questions were more frequently used than display questions at higher levels. There were a substantial number of incomplete questions, a form-based questioning type that did not belong to the classification of form-based questioning types employed in this study. The predominant use of incomplete questions in a communicative classroom should be reviewed as this questioning type required accuracy, rather than promoting language practice. The third type, the function-based questioning types, did not occur frequently at all the three stages. This study suggests that teachers use incomplete questions less frequently and try to use other form-based questioning types. It also encourages teachers to reflect on their own teaching and pursue their professional development.

  19. False Gods and the Two Intelligent Questions of Metapsychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce S. Kerievsky

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains how the spiritual teaching known as Metapsychiatry, developed by psychiatrist Thomas Hora, employs two questions as its focal educational method. Those questions facilitate phenomenological discernment of the source (i.e. the meaning of our problems in living and help students and patients to understand the real nature of God. Perceiving our existentially invalid attachments and the inevitable suffering they produce encourages us to seek inspiration from God.

  20. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  1. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  2. Les questions de migrations internationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  3. Spatiotemporal feature integration shapes approximate numerical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciai, Michele; Park, Joonkoo

    2017-11-01

    Numerosity perception involves a complex cascade of processing stages comprising an early sensory representation stage followed by a later stage providing a conceptual representation of numerical magnitude. While much recent work has focused on understanding how nonnumerical spatial features (e.g., density, area) influence numerosity perception in this processing cascade, little is known about how the spatiotemporal properties of the stimuli affect numerosity processing. Whether numerosity information is integrated over space and time in the processing cascade is an important question as it can provide insights into how the system dedicated for numerosity interacts with other perceptual systems. To address these issues, in four independent experiments, we asked participants to judge the numerosities of various different kinds of dynamically presented dot arrays, such as dots randomly changing in their locations, moving in smooth trajectories, or flickering on and off. The results revealed a systematic overestimation of dynamically presented dot arrays, which implicates the existence of spatiotemporal integration mechanisms, both at the early sensory representation stage and the later conceptual representation stage. The results also revealed the influence of motion and color processing areas on numerosity processing. The findings thus provide empirical evidence that numerosity perception arises from a complex interaction between multiple perceptual mechanisms in the visual stream, and that it is shaped by the integration of spatiotemporal properties of visual stimuli.

  4. Understanding philosophical animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Una

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, inspired by the Predrag Krstić's book Philosophical Animal author is trying to find hers way through a broad and complex web of philosophies and roles that different animals play in them. The main question is how to understand philosophy itself in a present day context, which philosophy is supposed to think and rethink through. Animals as presented in concepts, more precisely philosophical contexts, open one interesting and innovative way to deal with this question, balancing between tradition of philosophy and its presence, structure of philosophical arguments and questioning of language of philosophy, abstract and individual. In this frame philosopher as the true philosophical animal is revealed as the main symbol that requires analysis in his philosophical strategies.

  5. Questions about Careers in Oceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Aubrey L.

    Knowing the relationship of the ocean to man, the weather and climate, availability of resources from the ocean, use of the ocean in transporation, waste disposal, and defense, and developing an understanding of the impact on the oceans of human activity are all goals of oceanographers. The goal of this brochure is to provide concise informative…

  6. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  7. Statistical questions in experimental evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the mathematical analysis of models describing evolutionary dynamics are rapidly increasing our ability to make precise quantitative predictions. These advances have created a growing need for corresponding improvements in our ability to observe evolutionary dynamics in laboratory evolution experiments. High-throughput experimental methods are particularly crucial, in order to maintain many replicate populations and measure statistical differences in evolutionary outcomes at both phenotypic and genomic levels. In this paper, I describe recent technical developments which have greatly increased the throughput of laboratory evolution experiments, and outline a few promising directions for further improvements. I then highlight a few ways in which these new experimental methods can help to answer simple statistical questions about evolutionary dynamics, and potentially guide future theoretical work

  8. Still asking the wrong questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    by setting up a chase for the heffalump entrepreneur. There has however been a break with this approach. Most commonly referenced is William B. Gartner who presents a critique of the field of entrepreneurship, wherein he questions the general investigative trend of charting the psychological make......-up of the entrepreneur (Gartner, 1988). Building on this critique I will use the presentation to show, through the use of a historical case, how much we need new conceptualizations in order to highlight the collective development of ideas, which would also open for a discussion about the values guiding entrepreneurship......The psychological discipline has contributed to an increasingly individualized focus on the entrepreneur. When psychology entered the field of entrepreneurship the main focus was on mapping the different personality traits of the entrepreneur following McClelland, leading researchers astray...

  9. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... perspective about the contribution of genes and genetic variants to disease is a key reason 'omics' has failed to deliver the anticipated breakthroughs. We then point out the critical utility of key concepts from physiology like homeostasis, regulated systems and redundancy as major intellectual tools...... common diseases. Finally, we attempt to integrate our critique of reductionism into a broader social framework about so-called translational research in specific and the root causes of common diseases in general. Throughout we offer ideas and suggestions that might be incorporated into the current...

  10. Fundamental Questions of Practical Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshev, Yurij; Teerikorpi, Pekka

    The book guides the reader (astronomer, physicist, university student) through central questions of Practical Cosmology, a term used by the late Allan Sandage to denote the modern scientific enterprise to find out the cosmological model best describing the universe of galaxies, its geometry, size, age, and material contents. The authors draw from their personal experience in astrophysics and cosmology to explain key concepts of cosmology, both observational and theoretical, and to highlight several items which give cosmology its special character: - idiosyncratic features of the "cosmic laboratory" - Malmquist bias in determination of cosmic distances - theory of gravitation as a cornerstone of cosmological models - crucial tests checking the reality of space expansion - methods of analyzing the structures of the universe as mapped by galaxies - usefulness of fractal as a model to describe the large-scale structure - new cosmological physics inherent in the Friedmann world model

  11. Cycle downstream: the plutonium question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zask, G.; Rome, M.; Delpech, M.

    1998-01-01

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 4 june 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the plutonium physics and its utilization as a nuclear fuel. This day tried to bring information to answer the following questions: do people have to keep the plutonium in the UOX fuel or in the MOX fuel in order to use it for future fast reactors? Do people have to continue obstinately the plutonium reprocessing in the MOX for the PWR type reactors? Will it be realized a underground disposal? Can it be technically developed plutonium incinerators and is it economically interesting? The plutonium physics, the experimental programs and the possible solutions are presented. (A.L.B.)

  12. Understanding Video Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide Smith, Jonas; Tosca, Susana Pajares; Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon

    From Pong to PlayStation 3 and beyond, Understanding Video Games is the first general introduction to the exciting new field of video game studies. This textbook traces the history of video games, introduces the major theories used to analyze games such as ludology and narratology, reviews...... larger questions about the medium: * What defines a video game? * Who plays games? * Why do we play games? * How do games affect the player? Extensively illustrated, Understanding Video Games is an indispensable and comprehensive resource for those interested in the ways video games are reshaping...... entertainment and society. A companion website (www.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415977210) features student resources including discussion questions for each chapter, a glossary of key terms, a video game timeline, and links to other video game studies resources for further study....

  13. Some questions about the concept of enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camino Cañón Loyes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the eighties, the question of the moral legitimacy of enhancement related to therapy emerged. In order to approach the issue at the present, the author gives the concept: Bodily Intervention Practices (BIP, characterised by five parameters: M or the material involved in the transformation, TC or the available technoscience, A or the current conceptions regarding the natural and the artificial, N or the concept of human nature culturally shared and E or the ethical evaluations appealed to justify the transformation. The ontological level is indicated as necessary in order to understand the present debate the existing differences in moral criteria. The concept of human nature as a normative reference is in crisis and its absence leaves a vacuum which makes the need for deliberation with the aim of reaching common normative criteria urgent.

  14. Questions of Modern Cosmology Galileo's Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    D'Onofrio, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Are we living in the "golden age" of cosmology? Are we close to understanding the nature of the unknown ingredients of the currently most accepted cosmological model and the physics of the early Universe? Or are we instead approaching a paradigm shift? What is dark matter and does it exist? How is it distributed around galaxies and clusters? Is the scientific community open to alternative ideas that may prompt a new scientific revolution - as the Copernican revolution did in Galileo's time? Do other types of supernovae exist that can be of interest for cosmology? Why have quasars never been effectively used as standard candles? Can you tell us about the scientific adventure of COBE? How does the extraction of the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy depend on the subtraction of the various astrophysical foregrounds? These, among many others, are the astrophysical, philosophical and sociological questions surrounding modern cosmology and the scientific community that Mauro D'Onofrio and Carlo Burigana pose t...

  15. Understanding classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subianto, M.

    2009-01-01

    In practical data analysis, the understandability of models plays an important role in their acceptance. In the data mining literature, however, understandability plays is hardly ever mentioned. If it is mentioned, it is interpreted as meaning that the models have to be simple. In this thesis we

  16. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  17. Understanding nuclear issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, G. [Department of Atomic Physics, Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1999-09-01

    In our days technological progress for the benefit of society is slowed down by the fact that common citizens (opinion-forming media reporters, journalists, furthermore elected decision-makers) are underinformed about basic numerical facts concerning harms and benefits of high technology. Here a comparative risk study is presented about smoking, ozone hole, global warming, and ionizing radiation. This approach has turned out to be successful in educating the youth in Hungary; because school-going teenagers do understand numbers. (author)

  18. Understanding nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, G.

    1999-01-01

    In our days technological progress for the benefit of society is slowed down by the fact that common citizens (opinion-forming media reporters, journalists, furthermore elected decision-makers) are underinformed about basic numerical facts concerning harms and benefits of high technology. Here a comparative risk study is presented about smoking, ozone hole, global warming, and ionizing radiation. This approach has turned out to be successful in educating the youth in Hungary; because school-going teenagers do understand numbers. (author)

  19. Demystifying Survey Research: Practical Suggestions for Effective Question Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah H. Charbonneau

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ Recent research has yielded several studies helpful for understanding the use of the survey technique in various library environments. Despite this, there has been limited discussion to guide library practitioners preparing survey questions. The aim of this article is to provide practical suggestions for effective questions when designing written surveys.Methods ‐ Advice and important considerations to help guide the process of developing survey questions are drawn from a review of the literature and personal experience.Results ‐ Basic techniques can be incorporated to improve survey questions, such as choosing appropriate question forms and incorporating the use of scales. Attention should be paid to the flow and ordering of the survey questions. Careful wording choices can also help construct clear, simple questions. Conclusion ‐ A well‐designed survey questionnaire can be a valuable source of data. By following some basic guidelines when constructing written survey questions, library and information professionals can have useful data collection instruments at their disposal.

  20. Intercultural Understanding: An Interpretive Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    Noting that intercultural understanding is a prime construct in the study of intercultural communication, this paper examines two questions that confront all intercultural communication researchers: (1) What are the underlying characteristics of intercultural understanding? and (2) What constitutes an interpretative perspective to intercultural…

  1. Understanding climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In this article the following question is answered. What is the climate? What factors do determine our climate? What is solar radiation? How does solar radiation relate to the earth's energy? What is greenhouse effect? What role does the greenhouse effect play in the global ecosystem? How does the water cycle affect climate? What is drought? What role do oceans play in influencing climate. (author)

  2. The functions and roles of questioning during nursing handovers in specialty settings: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixon, Sascha; Braaf, Sandra; Williams, Allison; Liew, Danny; Manias, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Nursing handovers are an important component of patient safety and quality in communicating across transitions of care. To determine the functions and roles of questions in nursing handovers, and of how questions contribute to handover quality improvement in specialty settings of an Australian tertiary hospital. An ethnographic research design was employed. Participant observations were conducted which were audiorecorded and transcribed. Question-response sequences and the roles of questions in the handovers were coded. Questions served many functions, and included: requests for information, requests for confirmation, other initiations of repair, outloud utterances, understanding checks, requests for action and agreement, and knowledge checks. Questioning was mostly used to transmit patient-related information, and nurses could use questioning to jointly construct understandings about patients. Future research should examine how questions function in diverse clinical environments, such as rural and regional hospitals, and how questioning occurs in multidisciplinary handover situations.

  3. The Electromagnetic Compatibility Research Group: research questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Román Campos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the Universidad Nacional de Colombia’s Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department’s Electromag- netic Compatibility Research Group (EMC-UNC activities during the last 30 years. The group was involved in developing experimental tools during the early 1980s, such as constructing high-voltage apparatus, developing high-voltage practical work for students and observing electrical discharges. These tools enabled the group to spend a decade focused on resolving one of the Colombian electrical sector’s main EMC problems: distribution transformer’s failures caused by lightning. For almost a decade this investigation was focused on understanding the causes of the extremely high failure index in Colombian rural areas, especially in the Rionegro basin. The main result of this investigation was a reduction by one order of magnitude in mean 10% distribution transformer failure rate. During this research work a noticeable pattern was observed of several electrically-isolated me- tallic bodies immersed in an electric field (i.e. floating electrodes. This was led to initiating floating electrode studies and for mulating a new scientific question, “How do corona electrical discharges interact with floating electrodes?” This new research question was dealt with during the second half of the 1990s and the first decade of the 2000s. This investigation was related to using electrostatically-accumulated charge on a floating electrode. This question opened up four research areas: gas discharge physics, generating fast current impulses, harvesting energy from the electric field and the possibility of high impedance current sources. This paper has summarised the most relevant work done by the EMC-UNC group on these topics. This floating electrode research work started by formulating four patents. Fresh research questions for the 2010s were related to measuring lightning electromagnetic pulses (LEMP, intentional electromagnetic

  4. Grant recipients' rights in question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, P D

    1984-01-01

    Although organizations that provide privately funded abortions or abortion referral and counseling are engaging in constitutionally protected activities, opponents of legal abortion are seeking to deny eligibility for federal family planning funding to them. The issue of the rights of organizations receiving federal funds has been simmering for several years, but in 1984 the US Congress must renew the key federal funding authorization for domestic and international family planning services. The question is an abortion issue but a much larger issue as well, involving the limits of the conditions any government agency can put on activities of organizations it helps to fund. Political activity regarding the question has increased, and includes attempts by 4 states to block award of state family planning funds to organizations using private funds for abortion activities, passage of the Adolescent Family Act which permits funding only to programs that do not advocate abortion, attempts to add antiabortion amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act, termination of US Agency for International Development (AID) funding of the scientific journal International Family Planning Perspectives because it reported the findings of research on the health consequences of illegal abortions, attempts to block USAID funds to the Pathfinder Fund because it used nonfederal funds for abortion-related services, and attempts to exclude the Planned Parenthood Federation of America from the annual Combined Federal Campaign, the federal employee's charitable contributions drive. If new restrictions on government funding of family planning organizations become law in 1984, they could undermine the US commitment to family planning. Only 74 of the 5000 US family planning clinics receiving Title X family planning funds perform abortions, and they use state or private funds. Efforts to block Title X funding to agencies involved in abortion would run counter to the laws and policies of 15 states that

  5. Numerical models as interactive art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; van de Pas, B.; Joling, A.

    2017-12-01

    We capture our understanding of the environment in advanced computer models. We use these numerical models to simulate the growth of deltas, meandering rivers, dune erosion, river floodings, effects of interventions. If presented with care, models can help understand the complexity of our environment and show the beautiful patterns of nature. While the topics are relevant and appealing to the general public the use of numerical models has been limited to technical users. Not many people have appreciations for the pluriform of options, esoteric user interfaces, manual editing of configuration files and extensive jargon. The models are static, you can start them, but then you have to wait, usually hours or more, for the results to become available, not something that you could imagine resulting in an immersive, interactive experience for the general public. How can we go beyond just using results? How can we adapt existing numerical models so they can be used in an interactive environment? How can we touch them and feel them? Here we show how we adapted existing models (Delft3D, Lisflood, XBeach) and reused them in as the basis for interactive exhibitions in museums with an educative goal. We present our structured approach which consists of combining a story, inspiration, a canvas, colors, shapes and interactive elements. We show how the progression from simple presentation forms to interactive art installations.

  6. Numerical methods using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Lindfield, George

    2012-01-01

    Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of useful and important numerical algorithms that can be implemented into MATLAB for a graphical interpretation to help researchers analyze a particular outcome. Many worked examples are given together with exercises and solutions to illustrate how numerical methods can be used to study problems that have applications in the biosciences, chaos, optimization, engineering and science across the board. Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of use

  7. Areva: questions about a champion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottois, P.

    2009-01-01

    Siemens announced in January 26, 2009 its decision to leave Areva NP, i.e. the Areva/Siemens common daughter company for reactors. This news re-launches the questions about the long-term financing strategy of the Areva group, of its capitalistic partnerships and of its position in the world nuclear market. Siemens on its side wishes to preserve its position in this market and a possible cooperation with the Russian AtomEnergoProm is under discussion. Areva, the world leader of nuclear industry, integrates a mining activity as well and is the world number 3 of uranium exploitation (15% of the world offer). It wishes to double its production by 2012 thanks to big investments in Niger, Namibia and Canada. Areva is developing its enrichment capacities as well thanks to the future Georges-Besse II ultracentrifugation facility which is under construction at Tricastin (Drome, France) and which should be put into service in 2009. And finally, a second EPR (European pressurized reactor), the new generation of Areva reactors, is to be built at Penly (Haute Normandie, France) between 2012 and 2017 and will generate 1400 employments in the region. (J.S.)

  8. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  9. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  10. Frequently Asked Questions: The Higgs!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? How does the Higgs mechanism work? What is the difference in physics between strong evidence and a discovery? Why do physicists speak in terms of "sigmas"? Find out here!   Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? Because it could be the answer to the question: how does Nature decide whether or not to assign mass to particles? All the fundamental particles making up matter – the electron, the quarks, etc. – have masses. Moreover, quantum physics requires that forces are also carried by particles. The W and Z particles that carry the weak force responsible for radioactivity must also have masses, whereas the photon, the carrier of the electromagnetic force, has no mass at all. This is the root of the “Higgs problem”: how to give masses to the fundamental particles and break the symmetry between the massive W and Z and the massless photon? Just assigning masses by hand...

  11. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  12. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  13. Numerical studies in geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hier Majumder, Catherine Anne

    2003-10-01

    This thesis focuses on the use of modern numerical techniques in the geo- and environmental sciences. Four topics are discussed in this thesis: finite Prandtl number convection, wavelet analysis, inverse methods and data assimilation, and nuclear waste tank mixing. The finite Prandtl number convection studies examine how convection behavior changes as Prandtl numbers are increased to as high as 2 x 104, on the order of Prandtl numbers expected in very hot magmas or mushy ice diapirs. I found that there are significant differences in the convection style between finite Prandtl number convection and the infinite Prandtl number approximation even for Prandtl numbers on the order of 104. This indicates that the infinite Prandtl convection approximation might not accurately model behavior in fluids with large, but finite Prandtl numbers. The section on inverse methods and data assimilation used the technique of four dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-VAR) developed by meteorologists to integrate observations into forecasts. It was useful in studying the predictability and dependence on initial conditions of finite Prandtl simulations. This technique promises to be useful in a wide range of geological and geophysical fields, including mantle convection, hydrogeology, and sedimentology. Wavelet analysis was used to help image and scrutinize at small-scales both temperature and vorticity fields from convection simulations and the geoid. It was found to be extremely helpful in both cases. It allowed us to separate the information in the data into various spatial scales without losing the locations of the signals in space. This proved to be essential in understanding the processes producing the total signal in the datasets. The nuclear waste study showed that techniques developed in geology and geophysics can be used to solve scientific problems in other fields. I applied state-of-the-art techniques currently employed in geochemistry, sedimentology, and mantle

  14. Understanding homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on understanding homelessness. It criticizes approaches that ignore, distort or diminish the humanity of homeless people, or else, add little to our understanding of that humanity. In particular, it rejects what it calls “epidemiological” approaches, which deny the possibility of agency for homeless people, insofar as those approaches view the situation of those people largely as a “social fact”, to be explained in terms of causal variables or “risk factors” ...

  15. Teaching sciences: The multicultural question revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, William B.; Brickhouse, Nancy W.

    2001-01-01

    We contend that science education should be multicultural. We do not believe a universalist view of science is either compatible with a multicultural approach or fully coherent as a foundation for the science curriculum. We begin by summarizing the case for a universalist approach to science education. We then show weaknesses of universalism in accounting for the following: 1. the limits of human cognitive capabilities in constraining what we can understand about nature; 2. a description of reality as a flux; 3. the disunity of science and the role of culturally different forms and social organization of research in shaping the cognitive content of the sciences. We argue that it would be valuable for students to understand the nature of the debates regarding multicultural and universalist perspectives on science. For example, what questions is contemporary molecular biology good at answering? What kinds of problems do other sciences solve? What historical conditions may explain why western sciences arose primarily out of Western European culture rather than elsewhere in the world? How do other belief systems (e.g., religion) interact with indigenous sciences, Chinese science, and Western science?

  16. Student and teacher questioning during conversations about science

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zee, Emily H.; Iwasyk, Marletta; Kurose, Akiko; Simpson, Dorothy; Wild, Judy

    2001-02-01

    This paper summarizes case studies developed by a group of collaborating educators. We investigated ways of speaking that encourage students to (a) formulate insightful questions about science topics and (b) express their own ideas during reflective discussions. The authors include elementary, high school, and college faculty. Subject-matter contexts included phases of the moon, motion, electricity, light, and waves. In developing case studies, we documented and interpreted student and teacher questions during the three ways of speaking we value most: guided discussions, student-generated inquiry discussions, and peer collaborations. Student questions occurred when we set up discourse structures that explicitly elicited student questions, engaged students in conversations about familiar contexts in which they had made many observations over a long time period, created comfortable discourse environments in which students could try to understand one another's thinking, and established small groups where students were collaborating with one another. Typically we elicited student thinking by asking questions that develop conceptual understanding. These included questions to help students clarify their meanings, explore various points of view in a neutral and respectful manner, and monitor the discussion and their own thinking. We also elicited student thinking by practicing quietness through long wait times, attentive silence, and reticence.

  17. Chaotic inflation: A numerical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biller, P.; Pertuccione, F.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical study of chaotic inflation is presented. Following a semiclassical treatment of quantum effects, the dynamics is described as a random process. The relevant Langevin equation is then integrated numerically for a large number of realizations and results are evaluated as ensemble averages. For the understanding of the global structure of the universe the fact that different domains of the universe have different growth rates is important. This is handled by a new modified algorithm. The simulation results for the probability distribution functions at constant and proper volume are given for two typical initial conditions. We compare them to the approximate results of an already existing analytical approach. The picture of an eternally existing self-reproducing universe is confirmed. (orig.)

  18. Numerical Modelling of Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Kristian

    In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the use of numerical water quality models. Numeric water quality modeling can be divided into three steps: Hydrodynamic modeling for the determination of stream flow and water levels. Modelling of transport and dispersion of a conservative...

  19. Status of numerical relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. I describe the current status of numerical relativity from my personal point of view. Here, I focus mainly on explaining the numerical implementations necessary for simulating general relativistic phenomena such as the merger of compact binaries and stellar collapse, emphasizing the well-developed current status of ...

  20. Status of numerical relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I describe the current status of numerical relativity from my personal point of view. Here, I focus mainly on explaining the numerical implementations necessary for simulating general relativistic phenomena such as the merger of compact binaries and stellar collapse, emphasizing the well-developed current status of such ...

  1. Questioning the Question: How can a husband rape his wife? : A Discussion in an International Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Nicole Walquist

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the question “How can a husband rape his wife?” I assume that upon reading this you already have some reaction or answer. I have one, too. The interesting part is that they can be very different. Some people think along the lines of “Yes, I can't imagine how a husband can rape his wife because that is so cruel.” Other people may think something like “Yes, how is this even possible, that a husband having sex with his wife could be considered rape.” These views are quite different, and it is this difference that interests me.In this essay, I will reflect upon the question “How can a husband rape his wife?” I will discuss my personal background, and describe the situation and experience in which this question was brought up. Next, I will discuss various reflections I have had about this difference. I will then reflect on how this idea, or even the definitions of the terms, may be based on a person’s culture, gender, and/or opinions. After that, I will look at how this topic may affect social workers, service users and social work as a profession. Lastly, I will also explain how this has helped me gain a better understanding of this issue.

  2. The International scale interval study: improving the comparability of responses to survey questions about happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhoven, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study is about survey questions on happiness using verbal response options, such as ‘very happy’ and ‘fairly happy’. The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and Languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a 0 to 10

  3. The international scale interval study : Improving the comparability of responses to survey questions about happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis study is about survey questions on happiness using verbal response options, such as 'very happy' and 'fairly happy'. The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a

  4. Numerical modeling of foam flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheddadi, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Liquid foam flows are involved in numerous applications, e.g. food and cosmetics industries, oil extraction, nuclear decontamination. Moreover, their study leads to fundamental knowledge: as it is easier to manipulate and analyse, foam is used as a model material to understand the flow of emulsions, polymers, pastes, or cell aggregates, all of which display both solid and liquid behaviour. Systematic experiments performed by Francois Graner et al. provide precise data that emphasize the non Newtonian properties of the foam. Meanwhile, Pierre Saramito proposed a visco-elasto-plastic continuous tensorial model, akin to predict the behaviour of the foam. The goal of this thesis is to understand this complex behaviour, using these two elements. We have built and validated a resolution algorithm based on a bidimensional finite elements methods. The numerical solutions are in excellent agreement with the spatial distribution of all measured quantities, and confirm the predictive capabilities of the model. The dominant parameters have been identified and we evidenced the fact that the viscous, elastic, and plastic contributions to the flow have to be treated simultaneously in a tensorial formalism. We provide a substantial contribution to the understanding of foams and open the path to realistic simulations of complex VEP flows for industrial applications. (author)

  5. PHENOMENOLOGY OF THE INNOVATIVE QUESTION WHEN BASED ON WONDERMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herholdt-Lomholdt, Sine Maria; Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    . Second the questions seem to arise from within the profession, being in resonance with some kind of meaningfulness. A wonder-driven approach to innovation and entrepreneurship seems in some way and degree to grasp the meaning of our professions and the deeper meaning of our existence through what we...... to get in a resonance with some kind of meaningfulness. The study has originality because of the phenomenological research-approach to innovation and entrepreneurship and because of the philosophic-hermeneutic and wonder-driven approach to innovation and entrepreneurship teaching.......This paper questions, how we, from a phenomenological point of view, can describe and understand the phenomenology of innovative questions and processes of questioning when based in a wonder-driven approach to innovation and entrepreneurship. In our research we take on a phenomenological...

  6. Resisting the Terms of Polar Questions through "Ani" ("No")-Prefacing in Korean Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stephanie Hyeri

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the conversation-analytic investigation of "ani" "no"-prefaced responses to polar questions in Korean conversation, when "ani" is not used as a negative response particle to negate or disconfirm the truth conditional proposition of the question. Understanding polar questions as advancing the…

  7. Questions Arising from the Assessment of EFL Narrative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yong

    2013-01-01

    This article questions how narrative writing is assessed, seeking to understand what we test, what we value, and why. It uses a single anomalous case that arose in the course of my recent PhD thesis to highlight the issues, asking if sufficient attention is being given to the value of emotional content in a piece of writing in comparison to its…

  8. The Incoherence of Curriculum: Questions Concerning Early Childhood Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines curriculum debates, particularly those that influence an understanding of the nature and purpose of curriculum, in providing teacher education and in influencing teaching practice. The work of Martin Heidegger provides a framework for questioning the early childhood teacher education curriculum. Central to this analysis are…

  9. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  10. Selectively using linguistic resources throughout the question answering pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardi, R.B.; Jijkoun, V.; Mishne, G.A.; de Rijke, M.

    2003-01-01

    It is generally believed that question answering can benefit from natural language processing methods. So far, however, there have been few systematic studies of this conjecture. We report on ongoing work that is aimed at understanding the contribution of linguisticallyinformed modules and resources

  11. Scientific Aspects of Two Theological Questions in Thomas Aquinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattis, James M.

    1984-01-01

    An examination of how St. Thomas Aquinas makes use of science in his theological works provides an understanding of the relations of medieval science and the Christian theology of the Middle Ages. Two issues are examined: the problem of the nature and existence of God and the question of the eternity of the world. (RM)

  12. Accuracy of questions related to allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, C J; Burden, A D; Forsyth, A

    2000-12-01

    The ability of a physician to select individuals likely to benefit from patch testing depends on his or her ability to interpret responses to enquiries related to contact allergy. The significance of such responses to questions of nickel, fragrance and colophon allergy is unclear. The specificity, sensitivity and predictive value of questions relating to nickel, fragrance and colophony allergy were determined. A total of 258 patients attending for routine patch testing were questioned about skin reactions to nickel, fragrances and Elastoplast (Smith and Nephew Healthcare, Hull, England). All subjects were then patch tested to nickel, fragrance mix, and colophony. Responses to questions were compared with patch test results. The sensitivity of questions relating to nickel, fragrance, and colophony was 82%, 49%, and 71%, respectively. The specificity of the same questions was 77%, 79%, and 90%; the positive predictive value was 54%, 46% and 29%, respectively. After adjustment to include clinical relevance, the sensitivity of nickel questions rose to 100%. These data permit greater understanding of the role of patient history in selection of patients for patch testing. Copyright 2000 by W.B. Saunders Company

  13. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  14. More questions for mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Emma

    2013-09-01

    The mirror neuron system is widely held to provide direct access to the motor goals of others. This paper critically investigates this idea, focusing on the so-called 'intentional worry'. I explore two answers to the intentional worry: first that the worry is premised on too limited an understanding of mirror neuron behaviour (Sections 2 and 3), second that the appeal made to mirror neurons can be refined in such a way as to avoid the worry (Section 4). I argue that the first response requires an account of the mechanism by which small-scale gestures are supposedly mapped to larger chains of actions but that none of the extant accounts of this mechanism are plausible. Section 4 then briefly examines refinements of the mirror neuron-mindreading hypothesis which avoid the intentional worry. I conclude that these refinements may well be plausible but that they undermine many of the claims standardly made for mirror neurons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. From Richardson to early numerical weather prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The development of computer models for numerical simulation of the atmosphere and oceans is one of the great scientific triumphs of the past fifty years. These models have added enormously to our understanding of the complex processes in the atmosphere and oceans. The consequences for humankind of ongoing climate change will be far-reaching. Earth system models are the best means we have of predicting the future of our climate. The basic ideas of numerical forecasting and c...

  16. Numerical distance protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s

  17. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  18. Numerical linear algebra theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Beilina, Larisa; Karchevskii, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    This book combines a solid theoretical background in linear algebra with practical algorithms for numerical solution of linear algebra problems. Developed from a number of courses taught repeatedly by the authors, the material covers topics like matrix algebra, theory for linear systems of equations, spectral theory, vector and matrix norms combined with main direct and iterative numerical methods, least squares problems, and eigen problems. Numerical algorithms illustrated by computer programs written in MATLAB® are also provided as supplementary material on SpringerLink to give the reader a better understanding of professional numerical software for the solution of real-life problems. Perfect for a one- or two-semester course on numerical linear algebra, matrix computation, and large sparse matrices, this text will interest students at the advanced undergraduate or graduate level.

  19. Mapping among Number Words, Numerals, and Nonsymbolic Quantities in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle; Anderson, Ursula; Cordes, Sara

    2017-01-01

    In mathematically literate societies, numerical information is represented in 3 distinct codes: a verbal code (i.e., number words); a digital, symbolic code (e.g., Arabic numerals); and an analogical code (i.e., quantities; Dehaene, 1992). To communicate effectively using these numerical codes, our understanding of number must involve an…

  20. Questioning As a Pedagogical Tool for Eliciting Student Generated Questions During the Teaching of Acid-base Equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoade Ejiwale Okanlawon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, teachers simply taught problem-solving by explaining the worked-out examples taken from textbooks and students were expected to listen quietly, copy the solution to the problem, and then work independently at their desks. But a large body of research notes that guiding students to develop a solution pathway with questioning is more effective than simply explaining the sequence of steps to solve the problem. Students involved in question- and-answer sessions are more attentive than those who listen passively to teacher explanations and they are more likely to generate questions. The questions students ask during a lesson perform a number of important functions, including providing the teacher with valuable information about students’ understanding and misunderstanding, fostering self-regulation, inviting classroom discussions and aiding comprehension of contents presented. The skill of posing questions during classroom instruction is often under-valued and under taught in today’s classrooms. To encourage students to ask quality and thought provoking questions related to the contents taught, explicit instruction is required. This paper, therefore, qualitatively reports factors that foster student generated questions during the problem-solving instruction involving acid-base titration problem.

  1. Top Questions About HIV Prevention and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THE OFFICE ON WOMEN’S HEALTH Top Questions About HIV Prevention and Women The human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, ... entry of HIV. This is Top Questions About HIV Prevention and Women 2 especially true for girls and ...

  2. Understanding genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Sune

    2018-01-01

    The article serves as an introduction to the state-of-the-art in contemporary genre research. It aims to mediate between genre research and scholars working in with genre in other disciplines by laying out six basic tenets of genre research. The article thus describes 1) how genres are almost...... omnipresent in culture, 2) how they unite regulation and innovation; 3) how they combine to form larger patterns including other genres; 4) how genres are connected in time; 5) how interpretation through genre is tacit and rarely understood as generic interpretation; and finally 6) how our perception...... of genres tends to naturalize them, thus leading to the question whether teaching genre is a conservative measure whereby the teacher, knowingly or unknowingly, naturalizes existing ideologies and power structures to the students. Drawing on these insights, the second, and shorter, part of the article...

  3. Functional imaging of numerical processing in adults and 4-y-old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica F Cantlon

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult humans, infants, pre-school children, and non-human animals appear to share a system of approximate numerical processing for non-symbolic stimuli such as arrays of dots or sequences of tones. Behavioral studies of adult humans implicate a link between these non-symbolic numerical abilities and symbolic numerical processing (e.g., similar distance effects in accuracy and reaction-time for arrays of dots and Arabic numerals. However, neuroimaging studies have remained inconclusive on the neural basis of this link. The intraparietal sulcus (IPS is known to respond selectively to symbolic numerical stimuli such as Arabic numerals. Recent studies, however, have arrived at conflicting conclusions regarding the role of the IPS in processing non-symbolic, numerosity arrays in adulthood, and very little is known about the brain basis of numerical processing early in development. Addressing the question of whether there is an early-developing neural basis for abstract numerical processing is essential for understanding the cognitive origins of our uniquely human capacity for math and science. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at 4-Tesla and an event-related fMRI adaptation paradigm, we found that adults showed a greater IPS response to visual arrays that deviated from standard stimuli in their number of elements, than to stimuli that deviated in local element shape. These results support previous claims that there is a neurophysiological link between non-symbolic and symbolic numerical processing in adulthood. In parallel, we tested 4-y-old children with the same fMRI adaptation paradigm as adults to determine whether the neural locus of non-symbolic numerical activity in adults shows continuity in function over development. We found that the IPS responded to numerical deviants similarly in 4-y-old children and adults. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that the neural locus of adult numerical cognition takes form early in

  4. Understanding climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellous, J.L.; Gautier, C.; Andre, J.C.; Balstad, R.; Boucher, O.; Brasseur, G.; Chahine, M.T.; Chanin, M.L.; Ciais, P.; Corell, W.; Duplessy, J.C.; Hourcade, J.C.; Jouzel, J.; Kaufman, Y.J.; Laval, K.; Le Treut, H.; Minster, J.F.; Moore, B. III; Morel, P.; Rasool, S.I.; Remy, F.; Smith, R.C.; Somerville, R.C.J.; Wood, E.F.; Wood, H.; Wunsch, C.

    2007-01-01

    Climatic change is gaining ground and with no doubt is stimulated by human activities. It is therefore urgent to better understand its nature, importance and potential impacts. The chapters of this book have been written by US and French experts of the global warming question. After a description of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, GIEC in French) consensus, they present the past and present researches on each of the main component of the climate system, on the question of climatic change impacts and on the possible answers. The conclusion summarizes the results of each chapter. Content: presentation of the IPCC; greenhouse effect, radiation balance and clouds; atmospheric aerosols and climatic change; global water cycle and climate; influence of climatic change on the continental hydrologic cycle; ocean and climate; ice and climate; global carbon cycle; about some impacts of climatic change on Europe and the Atlantic Ocean; interaction between atmospheric chemistry and climate; climate and society, the human dimension. (J.S.)

  5. Remarks on numerical semigroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, F.

    1995-12-01

    We extend results on Weierstrass semigroups at ramified points of double covering of curves to any numerical semigroup whose genus is large enough. As an application we strengthen the properties concerning Weierstrass weights state in [To]. (author). 25 refs

  6. Introductory numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    2006-01-01

    Written for undergraduates who require a familiarity with the principles behind numerical analysis, this classical treatment encompasses finite differences, least squares theory, and harmonic analysis. Over 70 examples and 280 exercises. 1967 edition.

  7. Introduction to numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, F B

    1987-01-01

    Well-known, respected introduction, updated to integrate concepts and procedures associated with computers. Computation, approximation, interpolation, numerical differentiation and integration, smoothing of data, other topics in lucid presentation. Includes 150 additional problems in this edition. Bibliography.

  8. Numerical semigroups and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Assi, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    This work presents applications of numerical semigroups in Algebraic Geometry, Number Theory, and Coding Theory. Background on numerical semigroups is presented in the first two chapters, which introduce basic notation and fundamental concepts and irreducible numerical semigroups. The focus is in particular on free semigroups, which are irreducible; semigroups associated with planar curves are of this kind. The authors also introduce semigroups associated with irreducible meromorphic series, and show how these are used in order to present the properties of planar curves. Invariants of non-unique factorizations for numerical semigroups are also studied. These invariants are computationally accessible in this setting, and thus this monograph can be used as an introduction to Factorization Theory. Since factorizations and divisibility are strongly connected, the authors show some applications to AG Codes in the final section. The book will be of value for undergraduate students (especially those at a higher leve...

  9. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  10. IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Hummel, Hans; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob; De Vries, Fred

    2004-01-01

    This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are: Where can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification? What is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”? What is the IMS LD Specification

  11. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  12. A Model of Designing: Understanding Engineering Design Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Aurisicchio, Marco

    2007-01-01

    This research describes an understanding of design activity through design questions. From a number of previous studies two types of questions have been identified: 1) reasoning questions; and 2) strategic questions. Strategic questions are part of an experienced designers approach to solving a d...... solving model. An example of aerospace engineering design is used to illustrate the argument. The research contributes to an understanding of design activity....

  13. Static Analysis Numerical Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    STATIC ANALYSIS OF NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS KESTREL TECHNOLOGY, LLC APRIL 2016 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) NOV 2013 – NOV 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STATIC ANALYSIS OF NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-14-C...and Honeywell Aerospace Advanced Technology to combine model-based development of complex avionics control software with static analysis of the

  14. Numerical computations with GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Kindratenko, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together research on numerical methods adapted for Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). It explains recent efforts to adapt classic numerical methods, including solution of linear equations and FFT, for massively parallel GPU architectures. This volume consolidates recent research and adaptations, covering widely used methods that are at the core of many scientific and engineering computations. Each chapter is written by authors working on a specific group of methods; these leading experts provide mathematical background, parallel algorithms and implementation details leading to

  15. Numerical transducer modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda, Vicente

    1999-01-01

    Numerical modelling is of importance for the design, improvement and study of acoustic transducers such as microphones and accelerometers. Techniques like the boundary element method and the finite element method are the most common supplement to the traditional empirical and analytical approaches...... errors and instabilities in the computations of numerical solutions. An investigation to deal with this narrow-gap problem has been carried out....

  16. Will you be alive 10 years from now? and numerous other curious questions in probability

    CERN Document Server

    Nahin, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    What are the chances of a game-show contestant finding a chicken in a box? Is the Hanukkah dreidel a fair game? Will you be alive ten years from now? These are just some of the one-of-a-kind probability puzzles that acclaimed popular math writer Paul Nahin offers in this lively and informative book. Nahin brings probability to life with colorful and amusing historical anecdotes as well as an electrifying approach to solving puzzles that illustrates many of the techniques that mathematicians and scientists use to grapple with probability. He looks at classic puzzles from the past--from Galil

  17. Understanding translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  18. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  19. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Physical Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmuir, Patricia E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    The term physical literacy is relatively new, and its definition, conceptual underpinning, how it is measured, how to change it, and its relationship with holistic health and wellness across the life span are a few of many foundational issues that lack consensus. At present, there are more questions than answers. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 important research questions related to physical literacy with the hope of fueling future research activity and debate. Input was sought from international experts and practitioners on priorities and research gaps related to physical literacy. This list was supplemented by personal experience and research priorities identified in published manuscripts. From these various sources, the top 10 research questions related to physical literacy were compiled. Research related to physical literacy is in its infancy, and many important, even fundamental research questions and priorities remain unanswered. Research needs are summarized within 4 themes: monitoring physical literacy, understanding the physical literacy journey, enhancing physical literacy, and the benefits of physical literacy. Specific research questions relate to identifying measurable aspects of physical literacy and how they change across cultures and throughout the life span, as well as understanding the individual and environmental factors that describe the physical literacy journey and are effective targets for interventions. Physical literacy is increasingly recognized as the foundation for a healthy active lifestyle; however, robust research demonstrating its constitution, its relationship with health-related outcomes, and intervention strategies for its improvement remains to be completed.

  20. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  1. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  2. Understanding unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Rocheteau

    2006-01-01

    Modern economists have built models of the labor market, which isolate the market’s key drivers and describe the way these interact to produce particular levels of unemployment. One of the most popular models used by macroeconomists today is the search-matching model of equilibrium unemployment. We explain this model, and show how it can be applied to understand the way various policies, such as unemployment benefits, taxes, or technological changes, can affect the unemployment rate.

  3. Understanding Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bendtsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We are facing radical changes in our ways of living in the nearest future. Not necessarily of our own choice, but because tchnological development is moving so fast, that it will have still greater impact on many aspects of our lives. We have seen the beginnings of that change within the latest 35 years or so, but according to newest research that change will speed up immensely in the nearest years to come. The impact of that change or these changes will affect our working life immensely as a consequence of automation. How these changes are brought about and which are their consequences in a broad sense is being attempted to be understood and guessed by researchers. No one knows for sure, but specific patterns are visible. This paper will not try to guess, what will come, but will rather try to understand the deepest ”nature” of technology in order to understand the driving factors in this development: the genesis of technology in a broad sense in order to contibute to the understanding of the basis for the expected development.

  4. Assessing the Approximate Number System: no relation between numerical comparison and estimation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Mathieu; Gevers, Wim; Content, Alain

    2016-03-01

    Whether our general numerical skills and the mathematical knowledge that we acquire at school are entwined is a debated issue, which many researchers are still striving to investigate. The findings reported in the literature are actually inconsistent; some studies emphasized the existence of a relationship between the acuity of the Approximate Number System (ANS) and arithmetic competence, while some others did not observe any significant correlation. One potential explanation of the discrepancy might stem from the evaluation of the ANS itself. In the present study, we correlated two measures used to index ANS acuity with arithmetic performance. These measures were the Weber fraction (w), computed from a numerical comparison task and the coefficient of variation (CV), computed from a numerical estimation task. Arithmetic performance correlated with estimation CV but not with comparison w. We further investigated the meaning of this result by taking the relationship between w and CV into account. We expected a tight relation as both these measures are believed to assess ANS acuity. Crucially, however, w and CV did not correlate with each other. Moreover, the value of w was modulated by the congruity of the relation between numerical magnitude and non-numerical visual cues, potentially accounting for the lack of correlation between the measures. Our findings thus challenge the overuse of w to assess ANS acuity and more generally put into question the relevance of correlating this measure with arithmetic without any deeper understanding of what they are really indexing.

  5. Heidegger and Derrida on the Nature of Questioning: Towards the Rehabilitation of Questioning in Contemporary Philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the Heidegger and Derrida controversy about the nature of questioning is revisited in order to rehabilitate questioning as an essential characteristic of contemporary philosophy. After exploring Heidegger's characterization of philosophy as questioning and Derrida's criticism of the

  6. The Question of Metropolitan Form: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Vernez Moudon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Posing the concept of ‘metropolitan form’ as a question, as in the call for papers for this issue of Footprint, is an absolute necessity at this stage of development of urbanised areas. Many of the papers in this issue begin with the straw-man notion of a formless agglomeration of activities and spaces, the – for lack of a better phrase – postmodern urban experience.[1] There is a persistent theme in the related literatures of architecture, urban design and urban and regional planning that the physical form of the contemporary metropolis is un-describable. Soja’s six metaphors (post-Fordist industrial, cosmopolis, expolis, fractal city, carceral archipelago, simcities are being indicative of the wide range of possible images.[2] The eight papers in this issue of Footprint take an opposite approach. They begin to trace the contours of the debate around how the noun ‘metropolitan form’ might be understood, how it might be studied, and how it might be possible to move from an empirical understanding of its structure to more intuitive design solutions.

  7. Some questions about creativity in digital age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksić Slavica B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of interest in this paper relates to the expression of creativity from childhood to adolescence in the society today, which many mirror as the digital age. Firstly, the paper presents a Developmental model of creativity developed in a research study focused on personal explicit theories of educational researchers. The model defines key descriptors and describes the manifestations of creativity from the preschool years all the way to the adulthood, when the individual joins the labour market. Secondly, the paper focuses onto the Digital Natives concept and attempts to describe the youngsters today taking into account research results from different settings. Thirdly, in the remaining part the manifestations of creativity from the model are associated with the characteristics of young people who were born in digital age in order to enhance understanding of creativity expression in digital age. Based on a thorough examination a list of questions and needed research studies about creativity of Digital Natives is presented, under the assumption that the digital media will only be further developed and their influence over the young generations will be even more copious. The concluding remark problematizes the notion on whether everybody may be regarded as creative in the digital age realm and if so how this changes the overall meaning of the concept of creativity?.

  8. Numerical modelling of carbonate platforms and reefs: approaches and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmasso, H.; Montaggioni, L.F.; Floquet, M. [Universite de Provence, Marseille (France). Centre de Sedimentologie-Palaeontologie; Bosence, D. [Royal Holloway University of London, Egham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology

    2001-07-01

    This paper compares different computing procedures that have been utilized in simulating shallow-water carbonate platform development. Based on our geological knowledge we can usually give a rather accurate qualitative description of the mechanisms controlling geological phenomena. Further description requires the use of computer stratigraphic simulation models that allow quantitative evaluation and understanding of the complex interactions of sedimentary depositional carbonate systems. The roles of modelling include: (1) encouraging accuracy and precision in data collection and process interpretation (Watney et al., 1999); (2) providing a means to quantitatively test interpretations concerning the control of various mechanisms on producing sedimentary packages; (3) predicting or extrapolating results into areas of limited control; (4) gaining new insights regarding the interaction of parameters; (5) helping focus on future studies to resolve specific problems. This paper addresses two main questions, namely: (1) What are the advantages and disadvantages of various types of models? (2) How well do models perform? In this paper we compare and discuss the application of five numerical models: CARBONATE (Bosence and Waltham, 1990), FUZZIM (Nordlund, 1999), CARBPLAT (Bosscher, 1992), DYNACARB (Li et al., 1993), PHIL (Bowman, 1997) and SEDPAK (Kendall et al., 1991). The comparison, testing and evaluation of these models allow one to gain a better knowledge and understanding of controlling parameters of carbonate platform development, which are necessary for modelling. Evaluating numerical models, critically comparing results from models using different approaches, and pushing experimental tests to their limits, provide an effective vehicle to improve and develop new numerical models. A main feature of this paper is to closely compare the performance between two numerical models: a forward model (CARBONATE) and a fuzzy logic model (FUZZIM). These two models use common

  9. On the comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection of indirect questioning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Adrian; Waubert de Puiseau, Berenike; Schmidt, Alexander F; Musch, Jochen

    2017-08-01

    On surveys that assess sensitive personal attributes, indirect questioning aims at increasing respondents' willingness to answer truthfully by protecting confidentiality. However, the assumption that subjects understand questioning procedures fully and trust them to protect their privacy is rarely tested. In a scenario-based design, we compared four indirect questioning procedures in terms of their comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection. All indirect questioning techniques were found to be less comprehensible by respondents than a conventional direct question used for comparison. Less-educated respondents experienced more difficulties when confronted with any indirect questioning technique. Regardless of education, the crosswise model was found to be the most comprehensible among the four indirect methods. Indirect questioning in general was perceived to increase privacy protection in comparison to a direct question. Unexpectedly, comprehension and perceived privacy protection did not correlate. We recommend assessing these factors separately in future evaluations of indirect questioning.

  10. How Pollination Ecology research can help answer important questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalheiro, Luisa G.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollination Ecology is a dynamic field of scientific research constantly adopting novel methods and making progress in understanding the interactions between plants and their pollinators. A recent paper listed the main scientific questions in this field focussing on the ecological and biological system itself. Here, we follow up on that paper and present some ideas on how to broaden our perspective and explore the role that pollination research can play in answering both ecological and societal questions relevant to a range of different stakeholders. We hope this paper may be useful to researchers aiming at improving both the scientific and societal impact of their research.

  11. The human intestinal IgA response; burning questions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo eSpencer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that generate the human intestinal IgA response is fundamentally important if effective mucosal vaccination is to be successful and broadly applied. There have been several major advances in this field recently that have allowed us to feel optimistic that this will be achieved. However, there are still many unanswered questions. These questions have been used as a scaffold for this review that considers findings at the current leading edge alongside the many uncertainties in this field.

  12. Teachers' use of questioning in supporting learners doing science investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Ramnarain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available I examine how teachers employ a questioning strategy in supporting Grade 9 learners doing science investigations in South African schools. A particular focus of this study was how teachers use questioning in contributing towards the autonomy of these learners. The research adopted a qualitative approach which involved the collection of data by means of classroom observations and interviews with five teachers at schools resourced for practical work. The analysis of transcript data revealed that teachers support learners by asking probing questions at all stages of the investigation. The teachers used a questioning strategy in enabling the learners to understand more clearly the question or hypothesis they intended investigating, to review and reconsider their planning, to rethink some of their actions when collecting data, to make sense of their data, and to revisit and amend their plan after generating incorrect findings. The significance of this study, in making explicit teacher questioning at the stages of the investigation, is that it provides a guideline for teachers on how to support learners attain greater autonomy in doing science investigations.

  13. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  14. Understanding quantum phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Lincoln

    2010-01-01

    Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) offer wonderful examples of the radical macroscopic effects inherent in quantum physics: phase changes between different forms of matter driven by quantum rather than thermal fluctuations, typically at very low temperatures. QPTs provide new insight into outstanding problems such as high-temperature superconductivity and display fundamental aspects of quantum theory, such as strong correlations and entanglement. Over the last two decades, our understanding of QPTs has increased tremendously due to a plethora of experimental examples, powerful new numerical meth

  15. Understanding uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Lindley, Dennis V

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""...a reference for everyone who is interested in knowing and handling uncertainty.""-Journal of Applied Statistics The critically acclaimed First Edition of Understanding Uncertainty provided a study of uncertainty addressed to scholars in all fields, showing that uncertainty could be measured by probability, and that probability obeyed three basic rules that enabled uncertainty to be handled sensibly in everyday life. These ideas were extended to embrace the scientific method and to show how decisions, containing an uncertain element, could be rationally made.

  16. POLLUTANT EMISSION NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF A MARINE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOREL DUMITRU VELCEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The energies produced by the diesel engines of strong power are largely used in marine propulsion because of their favorable reliability and their significant output. However, the increasingly constraining legislations, aimed at limiting the pollutant emissions from the exhaust gas produced by these engines, tend to call into question their supremacy. The analysis of the pollutant emissions and their reduction in the exhaust gas of the slow turbocharged marine diesel engine using ANSYS 15 constitutes the principal objective of this study. To address problems of global air pollution due to the pollutant emission from fuel oil engin e combustion, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms by which pollutants are produced in combustion processes. In the present work, an experimental and numerical study is carried out on a unit of real use aboard a car ferry ship. A numerical model based on a detailed chemical kinetics scheme is used to calculate the emissions of NOx, SOx and Sooth in an internal combustion engine model for the same characteristics of the real unit.

  17. Understanding ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Vaidya Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda's power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  18. Understanding Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidya Dilip Gadgil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda′s power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  19. Dynamic Question Ordering in Online Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Early Kirstin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have the potential to support adaptive questions, where later questions depend on earlier responses. Past work has taken a rule-based approach, uniformly across all respondents. We envision a richer interpretation of adaptive questions, which we call Dynamic Question Ordering (DQO, where question order is personalized. Such an approach could increase engagement, and therefore response rate, as well as imputation quality. We present a DQO framework to improve survey completion and imputation. In the general survey-taking setting, we want to maximize survey completion, and so we focus on ordering questions to engage the respondent and collect hopefully all information, or at least the information that most characterizes the respondent, for accurate imputations. In another scenario, our goal is to provide a personalized prediction. Since it is possible to give reasonable predictions with only a subset of questions, we are not concerned with motivating users to answer all questions. Instead, we want to order questions to get information that reduces prediction uncertainty, while not being too burdensome. We illustrate this framework with two case studies, for the prediction and survey-taking settings. We also discuss DQO for national surveys and consider connections between our statistics-based question-ordering approach and cognitive survey methodology.

  20. Numerical Transducer Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriquez, Vicente Cutanda

    This thesis describes the development of a numerical model of the propagation of sound waves in fluids with viscous and thermal losses, with application to the simulation of acoustic transducers, in particular condenser microphones for measurement. The theoretical basis is presented, numerical...... tools and implementation techniques are described and performance tests are carried out. The equations that govern the motion of fluids with losses and the corresponding boundary conditions are reduced to a form that is tractable for the Boundary Element Method (BEM) by adopting some hypotheses...... that are allowable in this case: linear variations, absence of flow, harmonic time variation, thermodynamical equilibrium and physical dimensions much larger than the molecular mean free path. A formulation of the BEM is also developed with an improvement designed to cope with the numerical difficulty associated...

  1. Understanding Video Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide Smith, Jonas; Tosca, Susana Pajares; Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon

    From Pong to PlayStation 3 and beyond, Understanding Video Games is the first general introduction to the exciting new field of video game studies. This textbook traces the history of video games, introduces the major theories used to analyze games such as ludology and narratology, reviews...... the economics of the game industry, examines the aesthetics of game design, surveys the broad range of game genres, explores player culture, and addresses the major debates surrounding the medium, from educational benefits to the effects of violence. Throughout the book, the authors ask readers to consider...... larger questions about the medium: * What defines a video game? * Who plays games? * Why do we play games? * How do games affect the player? Extensively illustrated, Understanding Video Games is an indispensable and comprehensive resource for those interested in the ways video games are reshaping...

  2. Industrial numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, S.; Elliott, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The applications of mathematics to industrial problems involves the formulation of problems which are amenable to mathematical investigation, mathematical modelling, the solution of the mathematical problem and the inter-pretation of the results. There are 12 chapters describing industrial problems where mathematics and numerical analysis can be applied. These range from the numerical assessment of the flatness of engineering surfaces and plates, the design of chain links, control problems in tidal power generation and low thrust satellite trajectory optimization to mathematical models in welding. One chapter, on the ageing of stainless steels, is indexed separately. (UK)

  3. On numerical Bessel transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, B.; Zabolitzky, J.G.

    1979-01-01

    The authors present a computer program to calculate the three dimensional Fourier or Bessel transforms and definite integrals with Bessel functions. Numerical integration of systems containing Bessel functions occurs in many physical problems, e.g. electromagnetic form factor of nuclei, all transitions involving multipole expansions at high momenta. Filon's integration rule is extended to spherical Bessel functions. The numerical error is of the order of the Simpson error term of the function which has to be transformed. Thus one gets a stable integral even at large arguments of the transformed function. (Auth.)

  4. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  5. Numerical transcoding proficiency in 10-year-old schoolchildren is associated with grey-matter interindividual differences: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie eLubin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in grey matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N=22 whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less grey matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  6. Numerical Transcoding Proficiency in 10-Year-Old Schoolchildren is Associated with Gray Matter Inter-Individual Differences: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Amélie; Rossi, Sandrine; Simon, Grégory; Lanoë, Céline; Leroux, Gaëlle; Poirel, Nicolas; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in gray matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N = 22) whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less gray matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri) and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  7. Annotating Logical Forms for EHR Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kirk; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the creation of a semantically annotated corpus of questions about patient data in electronic health records (EHRs). The goal is to provide the training data necessary for semantic parsers to automatically convert EHR questions into a structured query. A layered annotation strategy is used which mirrors a typical natural language processing (NLP) pipeline. First, questions are syntactically analyzed to identify multi-part questions. Second, medical concepts are recognized and normalized to a clinical ontology. Finally, logical forms are created using a lambda calculus representation. We use a corpus of 446 questions asking for patient-specific information. From these, 468 specific questions are found containing 259 unique medical concepts and requiring 53 unique predicates to represent the logical forms. We further present detailed characteristics of the corpus, including inter-annotator agreement results, and describe the challenges automatic NLP systems will face on this task.

  8. On the Development of Episodic Memory: Two Basic Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jonna Jelsbak; Sonne, Trine; Kingo, Osman Skjold

    2013-01-01

    In this focused review we present and discuss two basic questions related to the early development of episodic memory in children: (1) “What is an episode?”, and (2) “How do preverbal children recall a specific episode of a recurring event?” First, a brief introduction to episodic memory...... is outlined. We argue in favor of employing a definition of episodic memory allowing us to investigate the development of episodic memory by purely behavioral measures. Second, research related to each of the two questions are presented and discussed, at first separately, and subsequently together. We argue...... and attempt to demonstrate, that pursuing answers to both questions is of crucial importance – both conceptually and methodologically - if we are ever to understand the early development of episodic memory. ...

  9. Structured Attentions for Visual Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Chen; Zhao, Yanpeng; Huang, Shuaiyi; Tu, Kewei; Ma, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Visual attention, which assigns weights to image regions according to their relevance to a question, is considered as an indispensable part by most Visual Question Answering models. Although the questions may involve complex relations among multiple regions, few attention models can effectively encode such cross-region relations. In this paper, we demonstrate the importance of encoding such relations by showing the limited effective receptive field of ResNet on two datasets, and propose to mo...

  10. Question Classification Taxonomies as Guides to Formulating Questions for Use in Chemistry Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festo, Kayima

    2016-01-01

    Teacher questions play an important role in facilitating classroom discourse. Using appropriate question types and proper questioning techniques help to create reflective-active learners. Teacher questions can elicit students' explanations, elaboration of their ideas and thinking, and they can be used to disclose students' misconceptions. Despite…

  11. Analysis of numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacson, Eugene

    1994-01-01

    This excellent text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students covers norms, numerical solution of linear systems and matrix factoring, iterative solutions of nonlinear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, polynomial approximation, and other topics. It offers a careful analysis and stresses techniques for developing new methods, plus many examples and problems. 1966 edition.

  12. Numerical Estimation in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Piazza, Manuela; Dehaene, Stanislas; Zorzi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Children's sense of numbers before formal education is thought to rely on an approximate number system based on logarithmically compressed analog magnitudes that increases in resolution throughout childhood. School-age children performing a numerical estimation task have been shown to increasingly rely on a formally appropriate, linear…

  13. Numerical analysis targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollogoub, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Numerical analyses are needed in different steps of the overall design process. Complex models or non-linear reactor core behaviour are important for qualification and/or comparison of results obtained. Adequate models and test should be defined. Fuel assembly, fuel row, and the complete core should be tested for seismic effects causing LOCA and flow-induced vibrations (FIV)

  14. Paradoxes in numerical calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brandts, J.; Křížek, Michal; Zhang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2016), s. 317-330 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : round-off errors * numerical instability * recurrence formulae Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  15. Numerical Methods in Linguistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Numerical Methods in Linguistics - An Introduction to Glottochronology. Raamesh Gowri Raghavan. General Article Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 17-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Detailed numerical simulations of laser cooling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Serrano, J.; Kohel, J.; Thompson, R.; Yu, N.

    2001-01-01

    We developed a detailed semiclassical numerical code of the forces applied on atoms in optical and magnetic fields to increase the understanding of the different roles that light, atomic collisions, background pressure, and number of particles play in experiments with laser cooled and trapped atoms.

  17. Young Children's Understanding of Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Keith; Theakston, Anna; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although a fair amount is known about young children's production of negation, little is known about their comprehension. Here, we focus on arguably the most complex basic form, denial, and how young children understand denial, when it is expressed in response to a question with gesture, single word, or sentence. One hundred twenty-six children in…

  18. Filipino children's understanding of peace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenheimer, L.J.T.; Kuipers, I.

    2003-01-01

    This study reports on 10-year-old Filipino children's understanding of peace, war, and strategies to attain peace. In total, 56 children were presented with a semistructured interview consisting of free associations to peace and questions pertaining to the definitions of peace and war and strategies

  19. Answers to Health Questions: Internet Search Results Versus Online Health Community Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthawala, Shaheen; Vermeesch, Amber; Given, Barbara; Huh, Jina

    2016-04-28

    About 6 million people search for health information on the Internet each day in the United States. Both patients and caregivers search for information about prescribed courses of treatments, unanswered questions after a visit to their providers, or diet and exercise regimens. Past literature has indicated potential challenges around quality in health information available on the Internet. However, diverse information exists on the Internet-ranging from government-initiated webpages to personal blog pages. Yet we do not fully understand the strengths and weaknesses of different types of information available on the Internet. The objective of this research was to investigate the strengths and challenges of various types of health information available online and to suggest what information sources best fit various question types. We collected questions posted to and the responses they received from an online diabetes community and classified them according to Rothwell's classification of question types (fact, policy, or value questions). We selected 60 questions (20 each of fact, policy, and value) and the replies the questions received from the community. We then searched for responses to the same questions using a search engine and recorded the Community responses answered more questions than did search results overall. Search results were most effective in answering value questions and least effective in answering policy questions. Community responses answered questions across question types at an equivalent rate, but most answered policy questions and the least answered fact questions. Value questions were most answered by community responses, but some of these answers provided by the community were incorrect. Fact question search results were the most clinically valid. The Internet is a prevalent source of health information for people. The information quality people encounter online can have a large impact on them. We present what kinds of questions people ask

  20. Questions on criteria used for magnet field quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, S.

    1991-01-01

    Questions are raised here, without providing any answers to them, regarding the standard way of specifying the tolerances on various multipole components in superconducting dipoles. They are: (1) Dependence of systematic b{sub 6} (normal 14-pole) and b{sub 8} (normal 18-pole) on the required momentum aperture; (2) importance of resonance with (and its precise meaning) for specifying random low-order multipoles; and (3) understanding tracking results in terms of multipole components. 8 refs.

  1. Questions on criteria used for magnet field quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, S.

    1991-01-01

    Questions are raised here, without providing any answers to them, regarding the standard way of specifying the tolerances on various multipole components in superconducting dipoles. They are: (1) Dependence of systematic b 6 (normal 14-pole) and b 8 (normal 18-pole) on the required momentum aperture; (2) importance of resonance with (and its precise meaning) for specifying random low-order multipoles; and (3) understanding tracking results in terms of multipole components. 8 refs

  2. Numerical Calculation of Transport Based on the Drift-Kinetic Equation for Plasmas in General Toroidal Magnetic Geometry: Numerical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J. M.; Lopez-Bruna, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this report we continue with the description of a newly developed numerical method to solve the drift kinetic equation for ions and electrons in toroidal plasmas. Several numerical aspects, already outlined in a previous report [Informes Tecnicos Ciemat 1165, mayo 2009], will be treated now in more detail. Aside from discussing the method in the context of other existing codes, various aspects will be now explained from the viewpoint of numerical methods: the way to solve convection equations, the adopted boundary conditions, the real-space meshing procedures along with a new software developed to build them, and some additional questions related with the parallelization and the numerical integration. (Author) 16 refs

  3. Men ask more questions than women at a scientific conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsley, Amy; Sutherland, William J; Johnston, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequity in science and academia, especially in senior positions, is a recognised problem. The reasons are poorly understood, but include the persistence of historical gender ratios, discrimination and other factors, including gender-based behavioural differences. We studied participation in a professional context by observing question-asking behaviour at a large international conference with a clear equality code of conduct that prohibited any form of discrimination. Accounting for audience gender ratio, male attendees asked 1.8 questions for each question asked by a female attendee. Amongst only younger researchers, male attendees also asked 1.8 questions per female question, suggesting the pattern cannot be attributed to the temporary problem of demographic inertia. We link our findings to the 'chilly' climate for women in STEM, including wider experiences of discrimination likely encountered by women throughout their education and careers. We call for a broader and coordinated approach to understanding and addressing the barriers to women and other under-represented groups. We encourage the scientific community to recognise the context in which these gender differences occur, and evaluate and develop methods to support full participation from all attendees.

  4. Men ask more questions than women at a scientific conference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Hinsley

    Full Text Available Gender inequity in science and academia, especially in senior positions, is a recognised problem. The reasons are poorly understood, but include the persistence of historical gender ratios, discrimination and other factors, including gender-based behavioural differences. We studied participation in a professional context by observing question-asking behaviour at a large international conference with a clear equality code of conduct that prohibited any form of discrimination. Accounting for audience gender ratio, male attendees asked 1.8 questions for each question asked by a female attendee. Amongst only younger researchers, male attendees also asked 1.8 questions per female question, suggesting the pattern cannot be attributed to the temporary problem of demographic inertia. We link our findings to the 'chilly' climate for women in STEM, including wider experiences of discrimination likely encountered by women throughout their education and careers. We call for a broader and coordinated approach to understanding and addressing the barriers to women and other under-represented groups. We encourage the scientific community to recognise the context in which these gender differences occur, and evaluate and develop methods to support full participation from all attendees.

  5. Predictive coding in auditory perception: challenges and unresolved questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susan L; Winkler, István

    2017-12-18

    Predictive coding is arguably the currently dominant theoretical framework for the study of perception. It has been employed to explain important auditory perceptual phenomena, and it has inspired theoretical, experimental and computational modelling efforts aimed at describing how the auditory system parses the complex sound input into meaningful units (auditory scene analysis). These efforts have uncovered some vital questions, addressing which could help to further specify predictive coding and clarify some of its basic assumptions. The goal of the current review is to motivate these questions and show how unresolved issues in explaining some auditory phenomena lead to general questions of the theoretical framework. We focus on experimental and computational modelling issues related to sequential grouping in auditory scene analysis (auditory pattern detection and bistable perception), as we believe that this is the research topic where predictive coding has the highest potential for advancing our understanding. In addition to specific questions, our analysis led us to identify three more general questions that require further clarification: (1) What exactly is meant by prediction in predictive coding? (2) What governs which generative models make the predictions? and (3) What (if it exists) is the correlate of perceptual experience within the predictive coding framework? © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Children's questions: a mechanism for cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it. This information is available to them when they are particularly receptive to it, and because it comes as the result of their own disequilibrium, it may have depth of processing benefits. In that questions allow children to get information they need to move their knowledge structures closer to adult-like states, the ability to ask questions to gather needed information constitutes an efficient mechanism for cognitive development (referred to in this paper as the Information Requesting Mechanism [IRM]; this term is used because it includes question-asking and other information recruiting behaviors such as gestures, expressions, and vocalizations). However, the role of children's questions in their cognitive development has been largely overlooked. If questions are a force in cognitive development, the following must be true: (1) children must actually ask questions that gather information; (2) children must receive informative answers to their questions if they are able to be of use to cognitive development; (3) children must be motivated to get the information they request, rather than asking questions for other purposes such as attention; (4) the questions children ask must be relevant and of potential use to their cognitive development; (5) we must see evidence that children's questions help them in some way-that is, that they can ask questions for a purpose, and use the information they receive purposefully to successfully achieve some change of knowledge state. This monograph reports data on these points. Study 1 analyzed questions taken from four children's transcripts in the CHILDES database (age 1;2-5;1). This

  7. THE EVOLUTION OF THE POLITICAL QUESTION DOCTRINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wits-user

    1995-02-22

    Feb 22, 1995 ... Israel, judiciaries have developed what is commonly referred to as the political question doctrine to ... The political question doctrine was first enunciated in Marbury by the United States. Supreme Court when it ..... of power from the then Government of Ghana was in conflict with the Constitution required an ...

  8. Three Key Questions on Measuring Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTighe, Jay

    2018-01-01

    The author examines three essential questions on educational assessment: What really matters in a contemporary education? How should we assess those things that matter? How might our assessments enhance learning that matters, not just measure it? In answering these question, he argues that schools need a broader collection of measures, with a…

  9. Environmental Ethics: Questions for Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jenneth

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of questions through which adult educators can explore controversial questions of environmental values and moral behavior in their programs. The subjects include geography, local history, natural history, economics, politics, business, labor education, world affairs, literature, women's studies, psychology, and courses for the…

  10. Michaelis' hundred Questions and the Royal Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  11. Michaelis' Hundred Questions and the Royal Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  12. The Effects of Questioning on Thinking Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Ching-Pyng; McDaniel, Ernest

    This study investigated the effects of self-generated questions and external questions on thinking processes. Thirty-three college students acted as investigators in a computer simulation of a Congressional investigation into the Pearl Harbor attack. The simulation--known as "The Attack on Pearl Harbor: Cloud of Mystery?"--presented the…

  13. Questioning Techniques in the Gifted Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaunessy, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses using questioning techniques for encouraging purposeful inquiry among gifted students in elementary grades through college levels. A variety of questioning strategies is recommended, focusing primarily on the higher end of Bloom's taxonomy to engage students in higher level thinking. A classroom example is provided.…

  14. The beat-wave accelerator: Twenty questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Many questions in the field of accelerator physics, plasma physics and laser technology need to be addressed if a useful accelerator based on the beat-wave principle is to be constructed. Many of these must be considered together rather than sequentially. An attempt has been made to set out a number of the more important questions in a logical manner. (orig.)

  15. The ecological crisis: a question of justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, H.

    2010-01-01

    The question of ecology has become a major issue for international relations in the next half-century. But it poses new problems of worldwide justice more than questions of power politics, and its solution will always be a reflection of internal social issues in the countries concerned. (author)

  16. Statements on questions concerning nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, H.; May, H.

    1978-04-01

    Questions and answers compiled in this publication are excerpts from correspondence with citizens during the licensing procedure for the planned nuclear power plant. Subjects: Environmental impacts, environmental monitoring, earthquake safety, aircraft crashes, disaster control, questions concerning liability, waste management, energy and economy policies, and planning procedure. (HP) [de

  17. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter

  18. Preprocessing documents to answer Dutch questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Mishne, G.A.; de Rijke, M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a framework for offline extraction of certain types of information from a document collection, and discuss its usage for answering factoid questions. We implemented this approach as a part of the Dutch Question Answering System developed at the University of Amsterdam. The evaluation of

  19. "Wh"-Questions in the English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes "wh"-questions in the English Language based mainly on Chomsky's Minimalist Programme of transformational grammar as the theoretical model. The four main objectives of this paper are as follows: first, it undertakes a cross linguistic typological analysis of "wh"-questions and it then discusses the derivation of…

  20. Understanding PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen DOWNES

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding PISA Stephen DOWNESMoncton, CANADA ABSTRACT The headline was dramatic enough to cause a ripple in the reading public. "Students who use computers a lot at school have worse maths and reading performance," noted the BBC news article, citing a 2004 study by Ludger Woessmann and Thomas Fuchs (Fuchs and Woessman, 2004. It was not long before the blogosphere took notice. Taking the theme and running with it, Alice and Bill ask, "Computers Make School Kids Dumber?" They theorize, "If you track the admitted decline of education, you'll probably notice that it follows along with the increase of technology in the classroom." In a similar vein, James Bartholomew asks, "Do you think that the government will turn down the volume of its boasting about how it has spent billions introducing computers in schools (while keeping down the pay of teachers so much that there are shortages? Do you think it will stop sending governors of state schools glossy pamphlets about insisting that computers are used in their schools as much as possible?" In this study, therefore, PISA looks well beyond educational attainment, and also includes school demographics, such as whether it is a public or private school, has large or small classes, or has access or not to technological resources. Finally, it does measure student information-their family background, access to books and computers and parental support as well. The PISA survey departs from previous surveys in disregarding the stated curricula of the schools being measured. Therefore, the conclusion is not surprising, nor even wrong for him to consider independently of any parental or teacher support, considered without reference to the software running on it, considered without reference to student attitudes and interests, does not positively impact an education. Finally, he focus on missing the reporting of results

  1. Physical and Relativistic Numerical Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anninos, Peter

    1998-01-01

    In order to account for the observable Universe, any comprehensive theory or model of cosmology must draw from many disciplines of physics, including gauge theories of strong and weak interactions, the hydrodynamics and microphysics of baryonic matter, electromagnetic fields, and spacetime curvature, for example. Although it is difficult to incorporate all these physical elements into a single complete model of our Universe, advances in computing methods and technologies have contributed significantly towards our understanding of cosmological models, the Universe, and astrophysical processes within them. A sample of numerical calculations addressing specific issues in cosmology are reviewed in this article: from the Big Bang singularity dynamics to the fundamental interactions of gravitational waves; from the quark-hadron phase transition to the large scale structure of the Universe. The emphasis, although not exclusively, is on those calculations designed to test different models of cosmology against the observed Universe.

  2. Physical and Relativistic Numerical Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Anninos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to account for the observable Universe, any comprehensive theory or model of cosmology must draw from many disciplines of physics, including gauge theories of strong and weak interactions, the hydrodynamics and microphysics of baryonic matter, electromagnetic fields, and spacetime curvature, for example. Although it is difficult to incorporate all these physical elements into a single complete model of our Universe, advances in computing methods and technologies have contributed significantly towards our understanding of cosmological models, the Universe, and astrophysical processes within them. A sample of numerical calculations addressing specific issues in cosmology are reviewed in this article: from the Big Bang singularity dynamics to the fundamental interactions of gravitational waves; from the quark--hadron phase transition to the large scale structure of the Universe. The emphasis, although not exclusively, is on those calculations designed to test different models of cosmology against the observed Universe.

  3. Numerical model CCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program CCC (conduction-convection-consolidation), developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, solves numerically the heat and mass flow equations for a fully saturated medium, and computes one-dimensional consolidation of the simulated systems. The model employs the Integrated Finite Difference Method (IFDM) in discretizing the saturated medium and formulating the governing equations. The sets of equations are solved either by an iterative solution technique (old version) or an efficient sparse solver (new version). The deformation of the medium is calculated using the one-dimensional consolidation theory of Terzaghi. In this paper, the numerical code is described, validation examples given and areas of application discussed. Several example problems involving flow through fractured media are also presented

  4. Numerical simulation in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyama, Shoken

    1985-01-01

    There have been many numerical simulations of hydrodynamical problems in astrophysics, e.g. processes of star formation, supernova explosion and formation of neutron stars, and general relativistic collapse of star to form black hole. The codes are made to be suitable for computing such problems. In astrophysical hydrodynamical problems, there are the characteristics: problems of self-gravity or external gravity acting, objects of scales very large or very short, objects changing by short period or long time scale, problems of magnetic force and/or centrifugal force acting. In this paper, we present one of methods of numerical simulations which may satisfy these requirements, so-called smoothed particle methods. We then introduce the methods briefly. Then, we show one of the applications of the methods to astrophysical problem (fragmentation and collapse of rotating isothermal cloud). (Mori, K.)

  5. Handbook of numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ciarlet, Philippe G

    Mathematical finance is a prolific scientific domain in which there exists a particular characteristic of developing both advanced theories and practical techniques simultaneously. Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Methods in Finance addresses the three most important aspects in the field: mathematical models, computational methods, and applications, and provides a solid overview of major new ideas and results in the three domains. Coverage of all aspects of quantitative finance including models, computational methods and applications Provides an overview of new ideas an

  6. Numerical Modeling of Airblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    can be found in Appendix A. TASK 2.4 The 3--D FCT code was used to study the late time cloud rise geometry from multiple nulear explosions...code was used to study the possiblity of using distributed chemical charges in array geometries. Numerous chemical energy release models where employed...relief of the blast energy at the edges of the DECA charge). Later, it was realized that the edge effects are small at the time when most of the blast

  7. Comments on numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.

    1984-01-01

    The author comments on a couple of things about numerical simulation. One is just about the philosophical discussion that is, spontaneous or driven. The other thing is the numerical or technical one. Frankly, the author didn't want to touch on the technical matter because this should be a common sense one for those who are working at numerical simulation. But since many people take numerical simulation results at their face value, he would like to remind you of the reality hidden behind them. First, he would point out that the meaning of ''driven'' in driven reconnection is different from that defined by Schindler or Akasofu. The author's definition is closer to Axford's definition. In the spontaneous case, for some unpredicted reason an excess energy of the system is suddenly released at a certain point. However, one does not answer how such an unstable state far beyond a stable limit is realized in the magnetotail. In the driven case, there is a definite energy buildup phase starting from a stable state; namely, energy in the black box increases from a stable level subject to an external source. When the state has reached a certain position, the energy is released suddenly. The difference between driven and spontaneous is whether the cause (plasma flow) to trigger reconnection is specified or reconnection is triggered unpredictably. Another difference is that in driven reconnection the reconnection rate is dependent on the speed of the external plasma flow, but in spontaneous reconnection the rate is dependent on the internal condition such as the resistivity

  8. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  9. Numerical analysis II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of; Staff of Research Education Association

    1989-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Numerical Analysis II covers simultaneous linear systems and matrix methods, differential equations, Fourier transformations, partial differential equations, and Monte Carlo methods.

  10. On Numerical Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    2013-11-01

    The development of computational fluid dynamics over the last few decades has yielded enormous successes and capabilities that are being routinely employed today; however there remain some open problems to be properly resolved. One example is the so-called overheating problem, which can arise in two very different scenarios, from either colliding or receding streams. Common in both is a localized, numerically over-predicted temperature. Von Neumann reported the former, a compressive overheating, nearly 70 years ago and numerically smeared the temperature peak by introducing artificial diffusion. However, the latter is unphysical in an expansive (rarefying) situation; it still dogs every method known to the author. We will present a study aiming at resolving this overheating problem and we find that: (1) the entropy increase is one-to-one linked to the increase in the temperature rise and (2) the overheating is inevitable in the current computational fluid dynamics framework in practice. Finally we will show a simple hybrid method that fundamentally cures the overheating problem in a rarefying flow, but also retains the property of accurate shock capturing. Moreover, this remedy (enhancement of current numerical methods) can be included easily in the present Eulerian codes. This work is performed under NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program.

  11. Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Community Question Answering (CQA) is a popular type of service where users ask questions and where answers are obtained from other users or from historical question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain large volumes of questions organized into a hierarchy of categories. As an essential function......, and it applies these approaches to existing question retrieval models, including a state-of-the-art question retrieval model. Experiments conducted on real CQA data demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient and are capable of outperforming a variety of baseline methods significantly...

  12. Understanding molecular simulation: from algorithms to applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, D.; Smit, B.

    2002-01-01

    Second and revised edition Understanding Molecular Simulation: From Algorithms to Applications explains the physics behind the "recipes" of molecular simulation for materials science. Computer simulators are continuously confronted with questions concerning the choice of a particular technique

  13. Understanding deforestation and forest fragmentation from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite long-term efforts on the part of researchers, development cooperation projects and government, Madagascar has not been able to achieve a fundamental decrease in deforestation. The question of why deforestation continues in spite of such efforts remains. To answer this question, we aimed at understanding ...

  14. Meaningless questions in cosmology and relativistic astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Reinhardt, M.

    1976-01-01

    After a general classification of meaningless questions in science we concentrate on empirically meaningless questions. Introducing the concepts of informationally connected, semiconnected and disconnected observers, a formalism for the analysis of the informational structure of space-time is developed. We discuss some problems of epistemological nature in cosmology and black hole physics. A number of questions like 'What was 'before' the initial singularity of the universe' or 'What is the fate of matter in gravitational collapse inside the event horizon' turn out to be empirically meaningless. We also show that a 'wormhole' does not violate causality for the set of informationally connected observers who do not enter it. (orig.) [de

  15. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  16. Ansiedade e depressão na DPOC: O conhecimento actual, questões não respondidas e investigação necessária Anxiety and depression in COPD: Current understanding, unanswered questions, and research needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro

    2009-08-01

    recuperar de uma exacerbação, a percentagem de depressão e ansiedade aumentam para níveis próximos dos 50%. Os inquéritos utilizados na detecção de sintomas de ansiedade e depressão foram o PRIME-MD, Beck Depression Inventory – II e Beck Anxiety Inventory. O primeiro questionário apresenta um valor preditivo positivo bom na detecção destas afecções. A depressão pode ser um factor preditivo de fadiga, dispneia e descondicionamento físico e mortalidade, em doentes com insuficiência cardíaca ou DPOC. Inclusive, possui um papel preponderante nas decisões do doente em estádio terminal da DPOC, que quando deprimido opta na maioria dos casos pela não ressuscitação. A ansiedade e a depressão não tratadas aumentam a incapacidade física, a morbilidade e o consumo de recursos médicos. Os doentes, médicos e o sistema de saúde são muitas vezes responsáveis pela baixa taxa de diagnóstico destas alterações na DPOC. Existem vários trabalhos que comprovam a eficácia da intervenção farmacológica e não farmacológica no controlo destas comorbilidades em doentes com DPOC, contudo apenas uma pequena percentagem recebe tratamento eficaz. Os autores concluem que é necessária maior investigação nesta área, detecção precoce e tratamento da ansiedade e depressão nos doentes com DPOC.

  17. Trends in Soil Science education: moving from teacher's questioning to student's questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Núria

    2017-04-01

    Soil science has suffered from communication problems within its own discipline, with other disciplines (except perhaps agronomy) and with the general public. Prof. Dennis Greenland wrote the following in the early 1990s: "…soil scientists have also been frustrated as their advice has gone apparently unheeded. This may be because the advice is couched in terms more easily understood by other soil scientists than by politicians and economists who control the disposition of land. If soil science is to serve society fully it is essential that its arguments are presented in terms readily understood by all and with both scientific and economic rigor so that they are not easily refuted". Soil is a 3-dimensional body with properties that reflect the impact of climate, vegetation, fauna, man and topography on the soil's parent material over a variable time span. Therefore, soil sciences must integrate different knowledge of many disciplines. How should one go about the teaching and learning of a subject like soil science? This is an ever present question resident in the mind of a soil science teacher who knows that students will find soil science an inherently difficult subject to understand. Therefore, Soil Science cannot be taught in the same way. This paper proposes a mural construction that allows to understand soil formation, soil evolution and soil distribution. This experience has been realized with secondary teachers to offer tools for active learning methodologies. Therefore, this teaching project starts with a box and a global soil map distribution in a wall mural. The box contains many cards with soil properties, soil factors, soil process, soils orders and different natural soil photos as the pieces of a big puzzle. All these pieces will be arranged in the wall mural. These environments imply a new perspective of teaching: moving from a teacher-centered teaching to a student-centered teaching. In contrast to learning-before-doing— the model of most

  18. Questions for Your Prospective Massage Therapist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Prospective Massage Therapist Questions for Your Prospective Massage Therapist Searching for a massage therapist? Get the ... 1. Are you a member of the American Massage Therapy Association (AMTA)? AMTA members commit to the ...

  19. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Updated:May 9, ... you? This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  20. Inferring Domain Plans in Question-Answering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pollack, Martha E

    1986-01-01

    The importance of plan inference in models of conversation has been widely noted in the computational-linguistics literature, and its incorporation in question-answering systems has enabled a range...

  1. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  2. 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.

    to nature and man-made changes, in every stakeholder, from local population through tourists to managers. This book serves such a purpose by answering most of the questions we ask everyday about corals and reefs....

  3. Prader-Willi Syndrome: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of ... questions regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something ...

  4. Numerical Analysis Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael

    1997-08-01

    The Numerical Analysis Objects project (NAO) is a project in the Mathematics Department of IBM's TJ Watson Research Center. While there are plenty of numerical tools available today, it is not an easy task to combine them into a custom application. NAO is directed at the dual problems of building applications from a set of tools, and creating those tools. There are several "reuse" projects, which focus on the problems of identifying and cataloging tools. NAO is directed at the specific context of scientific computing. Because the type of tools is restricted, problems such as tools with incompatible data structures for input and output, and dissimilar interfaces to tools which solve similar problems can be addressed. The approach we've taken is to define interfaces to those objects used in numerical analysis, such as geometries, functions and operators, and to start collecting (and building) a set of tools which use these interfaces. We have written a class library (a set of abstract classes and implementations) in C++ which demonstrates the approach. Besides the classes, the class library includes "stub" routines which allow the library to be used from C or Fortran, and an interface to a Visual Programming Language. The library has been used to build a simulator for petroleum reservoirs, using a set of tools for discretizing nonlinear differential equations that we have written, and includes "wrapped" versions of packages from the Netlib repository. Documentation can be found on the Web at "http://www.research.ibm.com/nao". I will describe the objects and their interfaces, and give examples ranging from mesh generation to solving differential equations.

  5. Numerical differential protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Differential protection is a fast and selective method of protection against short-circuits. It is applied in many variants for electrical machines, trans?formers, busbars, and electric lines.Initially this book covers the theory and fundamentals of analog and numerical differential protection. Current transformers are treated in detail including transient behaviour, impact on protection performance, and practical dimensioning. An extended chapter is dedicated to signal transmission for line protection, in particular, modern digital communication and GPS timing.The emphasis is then pla

  6. Numerical derivation in optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, J.; Salhi, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Newton's method for function minimization possesses an outstanding property. Its final quadratic convergence under very weak hypothesis, but also some drawbacks, among which (i) the possibility of non convergence when starting far from the solution sought and (ii) the necessity of computing (and then programming) the first and second partial derivatives. We show in this paper how to avoid both difficulties, assuming however that the first partial derivatives are computed by exact formulae. The second partial derivatives are computed by central differences of first derivatives. The difference step h is calculated so as to establish a trade-off between accuracy and computation speed. Encouraging numerical experiments support the proposed method [fr

  7. Questions and answers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    Leading questions about nuclear power are posed. These include questions about how much extra radioactivity in the environments is due to the nuclear industry, the risk of a nuclear accident, radioactive wastes, nuclear power as a solution to the greenhouse effect, alternative energy sources, and the economics of nuclear power. The answers are presented from the view point of the authors, members of Greenpeace. A glossary, notes and references are included. (UK)

  8. On the intonation of German intonation questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrone, Caterina; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    German questions and statements are distinguished not only by lexical and syntactic but also by intonational means. This study revisits, for Northern Standard German, how questions are signalled intonationally in utterances that have neither lexical nor syntactic cues. Starting from natural......, but represents a separate attitudinal meaning dimension. Moreover, the findings support that both prenuclear and nuclear fundamental frequency (F0) patterns must be taken into account in the analysis of tune meaning....

  9. Statin intolerance: more questions than answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, John R; Campbell, Kristen B; Lakey, Wanda C

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic effectiveness of statins in improving the course of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease tends to overshadow questions of statin intolerance. Thus after more than 25 years of clinical statin use, intolerance remains a poorly understood, frustrating issue for patients and providers. It has been extraordinarily difficult to define statin intolerance and its implications for clinical practice. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge and raise questions that need to be addressed.

  10. Beginning EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Quality Questions and Their Questioning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ly Ngoc Khanh; Hamid, M. Obaidul

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the scarcity of research that examines the impact of teacher beliefs on their actual practices in Vietnam, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about quality questions and their questioning behaviours in terms of questioning purposes, content focus, students' cognitive level, wording and syntax. Thirteen…

  11. Formative student-authored question bank: perceptions, question quality and association with summative performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jason L; Harris, Benjamin H L; Denny, Paul; Smith, Phil

    2018-02-01

    There are few studies on the value of authoring questions as a study method, the quality of the questions produced by students and student perceptions of student-authored question banks. Here we evaluate PeerWise, a widely used and free online resource that allows students to author, answer and discuss multiple-choice questions. We introduced two undergraduate medical student cohorts to PeerWise (n=603). We looked at their patterns of PeerWise usage; identified associations between student engagement and summative exam performance; and used focus groups to assess student perceptions of the value of PeerWise for learning. We undertook item analysis to assess question difficulty and quality. Over two academic years, the two cohorts wrote 4671 questions, answered questions 606 658 times and posted 7735 comments. Question writing frequency correlated most strongly with summative performance (Spearman's rank: 0.24, p=<0.001). Student focus groups found that: (1) students valued curriculum specificity; and (2) students were concerned about student-authored question quality. Only two questions of the 300 'most-answered' questions analysed had an unacceptable discriminatory value (point-biserial correlation <0.2). Item analysis suggested acceptable question quality despite student concerns. Quantitative and qualitative methods indicated that PeerWise is a valuable study tool. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Instructor Modeling and Online Question Prompts for Supporting Peer-Questioning During Online Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ikseon; Land, Susan M.; Turgeon, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how the combination of instructor modeling and question prompts for peer-questioning influences students' online questioning and answering activities. Fourteen students in a turfgrass management online class at a large land-grant university participated in two three-week sessions of online discussion. Two randomly selected…

  13. Reply to the "Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity" and Related Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper answers twelve most common questions on the basics of Einstein’s theory of relativity. The answers remove most key problems with a real, solid understanding of the theory.

  14. A Genre Approach to the Effect of Academic Questions on CLIL Students' Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinares, Ana; Pascual Peña, Irene

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of teachers' questions and students' responses in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) classes of history. Through the combined application of genre theory and a typology of CLIL teacher academic questions, the study aims at contributing to the understanding of how CLIL students use the foreign language…

  15. Understanding Defense Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-12-01

    Understanding defense mechanisms is an important part of psychotherapy. In this article, we trace the history of the concept of defense, from its origin with Freud to current views. The issue of defense as an unconscious mechanism is examined. The question of whether defenses are pathological, as well as their relation to pathology, is discussed. The effect of psychotherapy on the use of defenses, and their relation to a therapeutic alliance is explored. A series of empirical research studies that demonstrate the functioning of defense mechanisms and that support the theory is presented. Research also shows that as part of normal development, different defenses emerge at different developmental periods, and that gender differences in defense use occur.

  16. Anthropological contributions to historical ecology: 50 questions, infinite prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Iain; Ekblom, Anneli; Szabó, Péter; Lane, Paul J.; McAlvay, Alex C.; Boles, Oliver J.; Walshaw, Sarah; Petek, Nik; Gibbons, Kevin S.; Quintana Morales, Erendira; Anderson, Eugene N.; Ibragimow, Aleksandra; Podruczny, Grzegorz; Vamosi, Jana C.; Marks-Block, Tony; LeCompte, Joyce K.; Awâsis, Sākihitowin; Nabess, Carly; Sinclair, Paul; Crumley, Carole L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a consensus-driven process identifying 50 priority research questions for historical ecology obtained through crowdsourcing, literature reviews, and in-person workshopping. A deliberative approach was designed to maximize discussion and debate with defined outcomes. Two in-person workshops (in Sweden and Canada) over the course of two years and online discussions were peer facilitated to define specific key questions for historical ecology from anthropological and archaeological perspectives. The aim of this research is to showcase the variety of questions that reflect the broad scope for historical-ecological research trajectories across scientific disciplines. Historical ecology encompasses research concerned with decadal, centennial, and millennial human-environmental interactions, and the consequences that those relationships have in the formation of contemporary landscapes. Six interrelated themes arose from our consensus-building workshop model: (1) climate and environmental change and variability; (2) multi-scalar, multi-disciplinary; (3) biodiversity and community ecology; (4) resource and environmental management and governance; (5) methods and applications; and (6) communication and policy. The 50 questions represented by these themes highlight meaningful trends in historical ecology that distill the field down to three explicit findings. First, historical ecology is fundamentally an applied research program. Second, this program seeks to understand long-term human-environment interactions with a focus on avoiding, mitigating, and reversing adverse ecological effects. Third, historical ecology is part of convergent trends toward transdisciplinary research science, which erodes scientific boundaries between the cultural and natural. PMID:28235093

  17. Confidence in Numerical Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemez, Francois M.

    2015-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation offers a high-level discussion of uncertainty, confidence and credibility in scientific Modeling and Simulation (M&S). It begins by briefly evoking M&S trends in computational physics and engineering. The first thrust of the discussion is to emphasize that the role of M&S in decision-making is either to support reasoning by similarity or to ''forecast,'' that is, make predictions about the future or extrapolate to settings or environments that cannot be tested experimentally. The second thrust is to explain that M&S-aided decision-making is an exercise in uncertainty management. The three broad classes of uncertainty in computational physics and engineering are variability and randomness, numerical uncertainty and model-form uncertainty. The last part of the discussion addresses how scientists ''think.'' This thought process parallels the scientific method where by a hypothesis is formulated, often accompanied by simplifying assumptions, then, physical experiments and numerical simulations are performed to confirm or reject the hypothesis. ''Confidence'' derives, not just from the levels of training and experience of analysts, but also from the rigor with which these assessments are performed, documented and peer-reviewed.

  18. Numerical analysis mathematics of scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kincaid, David

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces students with diverse backgrounds to various types of mathematical analysis that are commonly needed in scientific computing. The subject of numerical analysis is treated from a mathematical point of view, offering a complete analysis of methods for scientific computing with appropriate motivations and careful proofs. In an engaging and informal style, the authors demonstrate that many computational procedures and intriguing questions of computer science arise from theorems and proofs. Algorithms are presented in pseudocode, so that students can immediately write computer

  19. The "Individualised Accounting Questions" Technique: Using Excel to Generate Quantitative Exercises for Large Classes with Unique Individual Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnadi, Matthias; Rosser, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The "individualised accounting questions" (IAQ) technique set out in this paper encourages independent active learning. It enables tutors to set individualised accounting questions and construct an answer grid that can be used for any number of students, with numerical values for each student's answers based on their student enrolment…

  20. Numerical methods and analysis of multiscale problems

    CERN Document Server

    Madureira, Alexandre L

    2017-01-01

    This book is about numerical modeling of multiscale problems, and introduces several asymptotic analysis and numerical techniques which are necessary for a proper approximation of equations that depend on different physical scales. Aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics, engineering and physics – or researchers seeking a no-nonsense approach –, it discusses examples in their simplest possible settings, removing mathematical hurdles that might hinder a clear understanding of the methods. The problems considered are given by singular perturbed reaction advection diffusion equations in one and two-dimensional domains, partial differential equations in domains with rough boundaries, and equations with oscillatory coefficients. This work shows how asymptotic analysis can be used to develop and analyze models and numerical methods that are robust and work well for a wide range of parameters.

  1. Numerical methods and modelling for engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides a step-by-step approach to numerical methods in engineering modelling. The authors provide a consistent treatment of the topic, from the ground up, to reinforce for students that numerical methods are a set of mathematical modelling tools which allow engineers to represent real-world systems and compute features of these systems with a predictable error rate. Each method presented addresses a specific type of problem, namely root-finding, optimization, integral, derivative, initial value problem, or boundary value problem, and each one encompasses a set of algorithms to solve the problem given some information and to a known error bound. The authors demonstrate that after developing a proper model and understanding of the engineering situation they are working on, engineers can break down a model into a set of specific mathematical problems, and then implement the appropriate numerical methods to solve these problems. Uses a “building-block” approach, starting with simpler mathemati...

  2. Numerical modeling and the physical basis of seismic discriminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate seismic event discrimination is critical to detection of nuclear explosions. Numerical modeling applied to seismic event discrimination can lead to increased reliability of proliferation detection. It is particularly applicable to error budgeting and to understanding explosion and earthquake phenomenologies. There also is a need for minimum requirements to validate the models used in numerical modeling

  3. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  4. Nursing Teaching Strategies by Encouraging Students’ Questioning, Argumentation and Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Neri de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing students need to develop competences in the field of explanation, argumentation and questioning as they are pivotal to foster a relationship with their patients and achieve a greater humanisation of care. The objective of this paper is to analyse the perception of 1st-year nursing students with regard to the humanisation of care provided to patients by encouraging them to discuss real-life episodes. The study is qualitative and content analysis used the students’ questions, explanations and argumentation as core discourses. Among other conclusions, results point towards the importance of promoting activities that encourage the different nursing students’ discourses and the ability to understand the humanisation and dehumanisation patterns arising from the real-life episodes used as case study.

  5. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  6. Fifty important research questions in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwis, Rachael E; Griffiths, Sarah M; Harrison, Xavier A; Aranega-Bou, Paz; Arce, Andres; Bettridge, Aimee S; Brailsford, Francesca L; de Menezes, Alexandre; Devaynes, Andrew; Forbes, Kristian M; Fry, Ellen L; Goodhead, Ian; Haskell, Erin; Heys, Chloe; James, Chloe; Johnston, Sarah R; Lewis, Gillian R; Lewis, Zenobia; Macey, Michael C; McCarthy, Alan; McDonald, James E; Mejia-Florez, Nasmille L; O'Brien, David; Orland, Chloé; Pautasso, Marco; Reid, William D K; Robinson, Heather A; Wilson, Kenneth; Sutherland, William J

    2017-05-01

    Microbial ecology provides insights into the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of microbial communities underpinning every ecosystem on Earth. Microbial communities can now be investigated in unprecedented detail, although there is still a wealth of open questions to be tackled. Here we identify 50 research questions of fundamental importance to the science or application of microbial ecology, with the intention of summarising the field and bringing focus to new research avenues. Questions are categorised into seven themes: host-microbiome interactions; health and infectious diseases; human health and food security; microbial ecology in a changing world; environmental processes; functional diversity; and evolutionary processes. Many questions recognise that microbes provide an extraordinary array of functional diversity that can be harnessed to solve real-world problems. Our limited knowledge of spatial and temporal variation in microbial diversity and function is also reflected, as is the need to integrate micro- and macro-ecological concepts, and knowledge derived from studies with humans and other diverse organisms. Although not exhaustive, the questions presented are intended to stimulate discussion and provide focus for researchers, funders and policy makers, informing the future research agenda in microbial ecology. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkle, David

    2017-01-01

    Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.

  8. Testability of numerical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulas, B.

    1992-01-01

    In order to face up to the growing complexity of systems, the authors undertook to define a new approach for the qualification of systems. This approach is based on the concept of Testability which, supported by system modelization, validation and verification methods and tools, would allow Integrated Qualification process, applied throughout the life-span of systems. The general principles of this approach are introduced in the general case of numerical systems; in particular, this presentation points out the difference between the specification activity and the modelization and validation activity. This approach is illustrated firstly by the study of a global system and then by case of communication protocol as the software point of view. Finally MODEL which support this approach is described. MODEL tool is a commercial tool providing modelization and validation techniques based on Petri Nets with triple extension: Predicate/Transition, Timed and Stochastic Petri Nets

  9. Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkle, David

    2017-01-01

    Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.

  10. A student's guide to numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchinson, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    This concise, plain-language guide for senior undergraduates and graduate students aims to develop intuition, practical skills and an understanding of the framework of numerical methods for the physical sciences and engineering. It provides accessible self-contained explanations of mathematical principles, avoiding intimidating formal proofs. Worked examples and targeted exercises enable the student to master the realities of using numerical techniques for common needs such as solution of ordinary and partial differential equations, fitting experimental data, and simulation using particle and Monte Carlo methods. Topics are carefully selected and structured to build understanding, and illustrate key principles such as: accuracy, stability, order of convergence, iterative refinement, and computational effort estimation. Enrichment sections and in-depth footnotes form a springboard to more advanced material and provide additional background. Whether used for self-study, or as the basis of an accelerated introdu...

  11. Using PASCAL for numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volper, D.; Miller, T. C.

    1978-01-01

    The data structures and control structures of PASCAL enhance the coding ability of the programmer. Proposed extensions to the language further increase its usefulness in writing numeric programs and support packages for numeric programs.

  12. Computing the Alexander Polynomial Numerically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikael Sonne

    2006-01-01

    Explains how to construct the Alexander Matrix and how this can be used to compute the Alexander polynomial numerically.......Explains how to construct the Alexander Matrix and how this can be used to compute the Alexander polynomial numerically....

  13. On safety goals and related questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.

    1985-01-01

    The question of what safety goals should be established for nuclear power plants has been receiving a great deal of urgent attention and debate recently, both by those responsible for reactor licensing and by others interested in establishing a quantitative measure of reactor safety. The same question, phrased alternately in the forms: ''What is acceptable risk?'' and ''How safe is safe enough?,'' has been debated extensively for quite a long time. The purpose of the present paper, therefore, is to show that the above questions, taken at face value, exist within an unworkable context, which the authors shall call the Old Regulatory Context (ORC), and that within this context lead to several absurdities. They shall argue that this context needs to be replaced by another context, which they call the Decision Theory Context (DTC), and which the authors discuss here

  14. Continuing the Conversation: Questions about the Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Dempsey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the prevalence of the Information Literacy Competency Standards in the library profession for the past 15 years, and the heated debate that took place regarding whether or not the Framework for Information Literacy and the Standards could harmoniously co-exist, the article raises questions about the future of information literacy in higher education. We do not necessarily have answers to these questions, but offer our own perspectives, some insight into how the Standards have served New Jersey academic librarians in the past, and how we envision using the Framework and the Standards together to further information literacy instruction at our institutions. Discussions of these questions have led us to the conclusion that the Framework and the Standards serve different purposes and have different intended audiences and are thus both valuable to the library profession.

  15. How Do College Students Solve Logarithm Questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Abdul Aziz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate college students’ work with logarithm questions. Qualitative descriptive research is chosen to reach the research goal. The participants of the study were fourteen Indonesian students who were enrolled at different universities in Ankara, Turkey. They worked to solve ten logarithm questions which were classified according to the contents. After analysing their written responses, interviews were conducted to obtain further explanation about their strategies and common mistakes. The study found that participants’ works in dealing with logarithm questions comprised of (a processing base, (b holding the rule, (c separating, (d jumping, and (e conditioning. Therewith, several participants made common mistake because of misconception about logarithm, arithmetical problems, and misuse of algebra concept. Implication of the finding of the study for teaching and learning logarithm were presented.

  16. Understanding Callisto's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John

    2016-10-01

    We plan to address first-order questions about the nature and origin of the mysterious atmosphere of Callisto, including its composition, longitudinal distribution, formation, and support mechanisms. This investigation is made possible by the remarkable sensitivity of the COS instrument, which has recently detected faint 1304 A and 1356 A O I emission from Callisto's leading / Jupiter-facing quadrant. The emission is probably due to dissociation of O2 molecules in Callisto's atmosphere by photo-electrons, and resonant scattering from an extended atomic O corona. We suspect, from Galileo ionospheric data, that the atmosphere may be much denser, and brighter in emission, on the trailing hemisphere, as expected for a sputter-generated atmosphere, and propose to test the sputter generation hypothesis with 4-orbit COS integrations on the leading and trailing hemispheres. If the trailing side emissions are indeed brighter, the improved SNR there will also allow much improved determination of atmospheric and coronal composition and optical depth. The observations will set the stage for, and aid in planning of, the extensive observations of Callisto's environment planned for the JUICE mission. Because Callisto's atmospheric oxygen emissions are indirectly illuminated by sunlight, which is uniform and quantifiable, it is much easier to understand atmospheric spatial distribution, and thus origin, than on Europa and Ganymede were emissions depend on magnetospheric excitation which is spatially variable and poorly understood. Callisto's atmosphere thus provides a unique chance to better understand the oxygen atmospheres of all the icy Galilean moons.

  17. Diet, health and globalization: five key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T

    1999-05-01

    The present paper explores possible implications of the globalization of the food system for diet and health. The paper poses five key questions to clarify the relationship between food and globalization. The first question is what is globalization. The paper suggests that it is helpful to distinguish between economic, political, ideological and cultural processes. Globalization is also marked by internal oppositional dynamics: there are re-localization and regional tendencies which counter the global. The second question is whether there is anything new about globalization. Food has been a much traded commodity for millennia. The paper concludes that what is new about the current phases of globalization is the pace and scale of the change, and the fact that power is being concentrated into so few hands. New marketing techniques and supply-chain management consolidate these features. The third question is who is in control of the globalization era and who benefits and loses from the processes of globalization. It is argued that modern food economies are hypermarket rather than market economies, with power accruing to the distributor more than has been recognized. The fourth question concerns governance of the food system. Historically, systems of local and national government have regulated the food supply where appropriate. Now, new international systems are emerging, partly using existing bodies and partly creating new ones. The final question is of the future. Globalization is a value-laden area of study, yet its implications for dietary change and for health are considerable. The paper argues that dimensions of change can be discerned, although it would be rash to bet on which end of each dimension will emerge as dominant in the 21st century.

  18. Understanding Lustre Internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Drokin, Oleg [ORNL; Wang, Di [ORNL; Huang, He [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    Lustre was initiated and funded, almost a decade ago, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) Office of Science and National Nuclear Security Administration laboratories to address the need for an open source, highly-scalable, high-performance parallel filesystem on by then present and future supercomputing platforms. Throughout the last decade, it was deployed over numerous medium-to-large-scale supercomputing platforms and clusters, and it performed and met the expectations of the Lustre user community. As it stands at the time of writing this document, according to the Top500 list, 15 of the top 30 supercomputers in the world use Lustre filesystem. This report aims to present a streamlined overview on how Lustre works internally at reasonable details including relevant data structures, APIs, protocols and algorithms involved for Lustre version 1.6 source code base. More importantly, it tries to explain how various components interconnect with each other and function as a system. Portions of this report are based on discussions with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lustre Center of Excellence team members and portions of it are based on our own understanding of how the code works. We, as the authors team bare all responsibilities for all errors and omissions in this document. We can only hope it helps current and future Lustre users and Lustre code developers as much as it helped us understanding the Lustre source code and its internal workings.

  19. Parametrical Numerical Study on Breakwater SSG Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The report presents numerical investigations on the performance of the SSG concept for different tide and wave conditions towards different levels of discretization to an optimal solution. Benefit of extra reservoir utilization and reservoir length has also been investigated. The report must...... be considered as the response to the need for a better understanding of the parameters influencing the performance of the device and therefore of the fairness of the steps toward the optimization....

  20. The question of caution in professional medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godard, O.

    2006-01-01

    Contrived in Europe to tackle the environment protection policies and management of natural resources, the principle of caution has seen since 1990 its interest developed towards the fields of food safety and public health. The importance and the relevance of questions have lead the national institute of research and safety to constitute a working group to explore the problems and the potentialities that could be linked to the explicit introduction of this principle and this in the field of the prevention of professional risks. This work tackles several aspects of the question of caution in professional medium such history, concepts, evolution...as well as cases judged exemplary ones. (N.C.)

  1. Questioning the Universe concepts in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadoff, Ahren

    2008-01-01

    UNITS AND POWERS OF TEN PHYSICS AND ITS METHODOLOGY  What Is Physics? Methodology The First Scientist Why Do You Believe? Back to the Questions How Do We Answer theQuestions? The Need to BeQuantitative Theories Models AestheticJudgments  MOTION Relating the Variables of Motion Graphs of One-Dimensional Motion Constant Speed Constant Acceleration Two-Dimensional Motion FORCES The Fundamental Forces A Specific Force Law: Newtonian Gravity Weight How Does Force Affect Motion? Newton's SecondLaw Newton, the Apple, and the Moon Combining Two Laws The Mass of the Earth Newton's Firs

  2. The School Library: A Space for Critical Thinking about Data and Mathematical Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Sue C.

    2012-01-01

    Which potato chip is healthiest: (1) regular; (2) baked; or (3) sour cream and onion? This problem requires critical and numerical skills in order to read and compare nutrition labels. The question has applications in mathematics and science classrooms but also in teachers' lounges and school cafeterias. It is a problem that addresses the five…

  3. So much more than just a list: exploring the nature of critical questioning in undergraduate sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Moreira, Aurora; Lopes, Betina; Watts, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Background: Critical thinking is one of the very highest orders of cognitive abilities and a key competency in higher education. Asking questions is an important component of rich learning experiences, structurally embedded in the operations of critical thinking. Our clear sense is that critical thinking and, within that, critical questioning, is heavily context dependent, in the sense that is applied, used by critical learners in a contextualised way. Purpose: Our research deals with enhancing science undergraduates' critical questioning. We are interested in understanding and describing the nature and development of students' critical questioning. The purpose is to conceptualise critical questioning as a competency, into three domains - knowledge, skills and attitudes/dispositions. We have no interest in a taxonomic category of context-free question-types called 'critical questions'. In contrast, our view is that 'being a critical questioner' trades heavily on context. Sources of evidence: Four cases are considered as illuminative of the dimensions of science undergraduates' critical questioning. Data were collected in natural learning environments through non-participant observation, audio-taping teacher-students interactions and semi-structured interviews. Students' written material resulting from diverse learning tasks was also collected. Main argument: Our supposition is that one vehicle for achieving university students as critical thinkers is to enable them not just to ask critical questions, but to be critical questioners. We relate critical questioning to three domains: (1) context, (2) competency and (3) delivery, and propose a model based on illuminating examples of the in-classroom action. Conclusions: The dimensions of the competency-context-delivery model provide a framework for describing successful student critical questioning, showing that students' capacity to be critical can be developed. It is possible, in our view, to generate critical

  4. Asymptotic and numerical studies of a differential-delay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semak, Matthew Richard

    A singularly-perturbed differential-delay equation is studied the form of which is seen in various fields. Relaxation effects are combined with nonlinear driving from the past in this system. Having an infinite dimensional phase space, this flow is capable of very interesting behavior. Among the rich aspects of the dynamics of such a relation, period doubling can be observed as parameters are varied. Rigorous proofs concerning the existence of such periodic solutions can be found in the literature. Attention is given to the (first) Hopf bifurcation as the periodic structure is born. Key questions concern the limit of fast relaxation. In this limit, one can analytically understand the development of the periodic solution in the neighborhood of the bifurcation along with the frequency shift which is encountered. This limit also reveals the underlying mapping structure present. In the model studied, this is the logistic map the behavior of which is well-known. Convergence of periodic solutions to the mapping's square wave involves central issues in this work. An analogue to Gibb's phenomenon presents itself as the mapping structure is approached for a certain range of parameters. Transition layers also exist and, together with the latter, present a challenge to various computational approaches. A highly accurate and efficient spectral numerical technique is introduced to properly resolve such behavior in the limit studied. This scheme is used to measure the period's dependence on the relaxation rate in this region of parameter space. Also, numerically assisted asymptotic analysis develops relations for the layers. Moreover, regimes of parameter values have been identified for which there exist extremely long-lived transient states of arbitrarily complex form. Finally, initial interval states are designed which lead to specific long-lived multi-layer patterns of significant complexity. Layer-layer interactions are considered concerning the formation and lifetime of

  5. Understanding Your Doctors and Other Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saying? Tell them you don’t understand. Use body language. If you don’t understand shake your head ... put to sleep or a part of your body might be numbed. Ask questions about what will be done to you. If you speak another language ask for someone who speaks your language. Even ...

  6. Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

  7. Good Practices for Whom? A Vital Question for Understanding the First Year of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates that the effects of good teaching and academic challenge on leadership and psychological well-being during the first year of college differ for African-American and White students, which suggests that institutional researchers should disaggregate data by race or other relevant student characteristics when trying to…

  8. Answers to Your Questions for a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A & sexual attractions to members of the other sex), gay/lesbian (having emotional, romantic, or sexual attractions to ... data are not available, many single lesbians and gay men are also parents, and many same-sex couples are part-time parents to children whose ...

  9. Understanding knowledge disclosure of bioscientists: more than a question of contextual and organizational ambidexterity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisyte, Liudvika

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses the extent to which university scientists integrate scientific excellence and industry relevance in their knowledge disclosure. Universities are increasingly expected to be entrepreneurial and to fulfill the traditional missions of teaching and research and to transfer the

  10. Understanding, Treating, and Preventing STDs / Questions to Ask your Health Care Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it. Some viral STDs include HIV/AIDS, genital herpes, genital warts, human papilloma virus (HPV), hepatitis B virus, ... exam will include a thorough look at your genital area, oral cavity and rectum. ... herpes, there is treatment to relieve the symptoms. Prevention ...

  11. The "Energy Security Question" In The Eastern Mediterranean: Understanding The Recent Tensions

    OpenAIRE

    Karakasis, V.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new energy sources in the Eastern Mediterranean, and especially offshore the Republic of Cyprus, was believed to provide sufficient incentives to overcome the Cyprus intractable conflict. Gas was presented as the big game-changer and as a potential catalyst for a restart of the peace process, and possibly for its successful conclusion. Eight (8) months later this optimistic picture does not seem evident in the short-term horizon.

  12. The "Energy Security Question" In The Eastern Mediterranean : Understanding The Recent Tensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakasis, V.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new energy sources in the Eastern Mediterranean, and especially offshore the Republic of Cyprus, was believed to provide sufficient incentives to overcome the Cyprus intractable conflict. Gas was presented as the big game-changer and as a potential catalyst for a restart of the

  13. A Question of Literacy: Understanding and Renewing the Humanities in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the nature of humanistic knowledge. Analyzing the relation between aesthetic judgment, literacy and knowledge as defined by the French seventeenth-century Jansenist school of Port-Royal, the article argues that Port-Royal's interpretation of the enthymeme can be used to define the cognitive basis of aesthetic judgments in the…

  14. Using an APOS Framework to Understand Teachers' Responses to Questions on the Normal Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansilal, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study is an exploration of teachers' engagement with concepts embedded in the normal distribution. The participants were a group of 290 in-service teachers enrolled in a teacher development program. The research instrument was an assessment task that can be described as an "unknown percentage" problem, which required the application…

  15. Feed First, Ask Questions Later: Alleviating and Understanding Caregiver Food Insecurity in an Urban Children's Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makelarski, Jennifer A; Thorngren, Daniel; Lindau, Stacy Tessler

    2015-08-01

    We estimated the prevalence of caregiver hospital food insecurity (defined as not getting enough to eat during a child's hospitalization), examined associations between food insecurity and barriers to food access, and propose a conceptual framework to inform remedies to this problem. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 200 caregivers of hospitalized children in Chicago, Illinois (June through December 2011). A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemographic characteristics, barriers to food, and caregiver hospital food insecurity. Caregiver hospital food insecurity was prevalent (32%). Caregivers who were aged 18 to 34 years, Black or African American, unpartnered, and with less education were more likely to experience hospital food insecurity. Not having enough money to buy food at the hospital, lack of reliable transportation, and lack of knowledge of where to get food at the hospital were associated with hospital food insecurity. The proposed conceptual framework posits a bidirectional relationship between food insecurity and health, emphasizing the interdependencies between caregiver food insecurity and patient outcomes. Strategies are needed to identify and feed caregivers and to eradicate food insecurity in homes of children with serious illness.

  16. The science and questions surrounding chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Vin Shen; Madden, Christopher J; Bailes, Julian E; Hunt Batjer, H; Lonser, Russell R

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the pathobiology, causes, associated factors, incidence and prevalence, and natural history of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) have been debated. Data from retrospective case series and high-profile media reports have fueled public fear and affected the medical community's understanding of the role of sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the development of CTE. There are a number of limitations posed by the current evidence that can lead to confusion within the public and scientific community. In this paper, the authors address common questions surrounding the science of CTE and propose future research directions.

  17. The Question of Roles and Identities in Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Birgitte

    2007-01-01

    The article argues that we need to open up the question of what it means to be a civil servant today to understand the key characteristics of public administration in contemporary western democracies. The role of the civil servant is characterized by a multitude of expectations deriving from old....... The article presents the results of a case study carried out within three Danish Ministries on the role of the civil servant. It is shown how differently the role is interpreted in the Danish State Administration depending on which of the archaeological layers are activated, and how these different...

  18. Numerical model SMODERP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavka, P.; Jeřábek, J.; Strouhal, L.

    2016-12-01

    The contribution presents a numerical model SMODERP that is used for calculation and prediction of surface runoff and soil erosion from agricultural land. The physically based model includes the processes of infiltration (Phillips equation), surface runoff routing (kinematic wave based equation), surface retention, surface roughness and vegetation impact on runoff. The model is being developed at the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, CTU in Prague. 2D version of the model was introduced in last years. The script uses ArcGIS system tools for data preparation. The physical relations are implemented through Python scripts. The main computing part is stand alone in numpy arrays. Flow direction is calculated by Steepest Descent algorithm and in multiple flow algorithm. Sheet flow is described by modified kinematic wave equation. Parameters for five different soil textures were calibrated on the set of hundred measurements performed on the laboratory and filed rainfall simulators. Spatially distributed models enable to estimate not only surface runoff but also flow in the rills. Development of the rills is based on critical shear stress and critical velocity. For modelling of the rills a specific sub model was created. This sub model uses Manning formula for flow estimation. Flow in the ditches and streams are also computed. Numerical stability of the model is controled by Courant criterion. Spatial scale is fixed. Time step is dynamic and depends on the actual discharge. The model is used in the framework of the project "Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins and its Influence on Water Resources Management". Main goal of the project is to elaborate a methodology and online utility for deriving short-term design precipitation series, which could be utilized by a broad community of scientists, state administration as well as design planners. The methodology will account for

  19. Spatial Thinking: Precept for Understanding Operational Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    ATP Army Techniques Publication COP Common Operating Picture DOTMLPF Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership and education ...numbers, linguists in vocal tones (words), and artists in images of feeling. To understand spatial thinking is to understand the nature of how humans...how that space impacts our interactions. Like any mode of thinking, be it numerical, artistic , or vocal, spatial thinking requires a medium for

  20. Understanding Food Allergy | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issue contents Understanding Food Allergy Follow us Understanding Food Allergy Latest Updates from NIH Food allergies are often ... ways to diagnose, prevent, and treat the disease.” Food allergy studies With so many unanswered questions surrounding food ...

  1. Top 40 questions in coupled human and natural systems (CHANS research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Boyd. Kramer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and managing coupled human and natural systems (CHANS is a central challenge of the 21st century, but more focus is needed to pursue the most important questions within this vast field given limited research capacity and funding. We present 40 important questions for CHANS research, identified through a two-part crowdsourcing exercise within the CHANS community. We solicited members of the International Network of Research on Coupled Human and Natural Systems (CHANS-Net to submit up to three questions that they considered transformative, receiving 540 questions from 207 respondents. After editing for clarity and consistency, we asked the network's members to each evaluate a random subset of 20 questions in importance on a scale from 1 (least important to 7 (extremely important. Questions on land use and agriculture topped the list, with a median importance ranking of 5.7, followed by questions of scale, climate change and energy, sustainability and development, adaptation and resilience, in addition to seven other categories. We identified 40 questions with a median importance of 6.0 or above, which we highlight as the current view of researchers active in the field as research questions to pursue in order to maximize impact on understanding and managing coupled human and natural systems for achieving sustainable development goals and addressing emerging global challenges.

  2. Numerical Processing Efficiency Improved in Experienced Mental Abacus Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqi; Geng, Fengji; Hu, Yuzheng; Du, Fenglei; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-01-01

    Experienced mental abacus (MA) users are able to perform mental arithmetic calculations with unusual speed and accuracy. However, it remains unclear whether their extraordinary gains in mental arithmetic ability are accompanied by an improvement in numerical processing efficiency. To address this question, the present study, using a numerical…

  3. Aging and Depression: Some Unanswered Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvik, Lissy F.

    1976-01-01

    The subject of aging and depression leaves many unanswered questions which this author raises. Little is known regarding the differentiation of depressive illness from a melancholic response to the stressful aging process, and equally little regarding the natural history of depressions with onset in the teens, 20s, or 30s. (Author)

  4. Brain Training Draws Questions about Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    While programs to improve students' working memory are among the hottest new education interventions, new studies are calling into question whether exercises to improve this foundational skill can actually translate into greater intelligence, problem-solving ability, or academic achievement. Working memory is the system the mind uses to hold…

  5. Philosophy, Human Development and National Question | Ekei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the solution to this dilemma is still being sought, Socrates shifted the attention of philosophy (with obvious reasons) from nature to ethical-political question, that is, to the issue of human development. It interests this essay, to find out, what exactly is human development, and why philosophy after Socrates considers ...

  6. The "Volvo Effect"--Questioning Standardized Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Questions current emphasis on standardized tests and discusses several factors about the tests that should prompt reevaluation of their usefulness. Issues discussed include: development and design of standardized tests; the correlation between test scores and socioeconomic position; the discrepancy between test designs and accurate reflection of…

  7. WDM Questions and Answers-Eng

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    rsamir

    WDM Questions and Answers. Why is there growing concern about water issues in the MENA region? The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the most water-scarce region in the world. The renewable water resources per capita is currently 1,100 m. 3 per person per year, compared to a global average of 8,900.

  8. Public Opinion Poll Question Databases: An Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates five polling resource: iPOLL, Polling the Nations, Gallup Brain, Public Opinion Poll Question Database, and Polls and Surveys. Content was evaluated on disclosure standards from major polling organizations, scope on a model for public opinion polls, and presentation on a flow chart discussing search limitations and usability.

  9. Questions Students Ask: About Terminal Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Earl R.; Nelson, Jim

    1984-01-01

    If a ball were given an initial velocity in excess of its terminal velocity, would the upward force of air resistance (a function of velocity) be greater than the downward force of gravity and thus push the ball back upwards? An answer to this question is provided. (JN)

  10. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  11. 8 Questions About the Conscious Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, A.J.P.W.

    Can the mind function separately from the brain? Can machines have conscious minds? Is Google Maps part of the conscious mind? Hans Dooremalen provides answers to these three and five other questions about the conscious mind in an easy to read introduction to the philosophy of mind.

  12. Transnational aspects of the Kurdish question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Simplifying a complex question, one may observe that the objectives of all Kurdish political movements of the past century have concerned two central issues, culture and territory. The Kurdish language and the region historically known as Kurdistan are the Kurds’ most important national symbols.

  13. Preposed Subjects in Questions: Some Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, John M.

    1977-01-01

    The preposing of subject pronouns in questions containing an interrogative word has become common in several Caribbean countries. Use of preposing with "tu,""usted" and "ustedes" is discussed, including its relation to final "s" aspirated or dropped, preservation of morphological oppositions, and increased use of subject pronouns. (CHK)

  14. Semantics-based Question Generation and Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, X.; Bouma, G.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a question generation system based on the approach of semantic rewriting. The state-of-the-art deep linguistic parsing and generation tools are employed to convert (back and forth) between the natural language sentences and their meaning representations in the form of Minimal

  15. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  16. Intellectuals, Tertiary Education and Questions of Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In contemplating the roles and responsibilities of intellectuals in the 21st century, the notion of "difference" is significant in at least two senses. First, work on the politics of difference allows us to consider the question "For whom does the intellectual speak?" in a fresh light. Second, we can ask: "To what extent, and in what ways, might…

  17. Cooperative rhetoric question in contemporary Persian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Dashti ahangar

    2016-09-01

    Finally some samples of cooperative rhetoric question in current literature will be presented. It should be noted that the goal of these samples is to be more familiar with the subject matter and not the analysis of current literal texts; because it needs more time and study.

  18. Computers into Classrooms: More Questions than Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynon, John, Ed.; Mackay, Hughie, Ed.

    This is one of a series of three books addressing the question of the nature of technological literacy. This volume, consisting of an introduction, an epilogue, and 12 chapters, focuses on classrooms and classroom processes involving computers and deals directly with teacher and student usage of microcomputers in teaching and learning. The 12…

  19. REPRODUCIBILITY OF CHILDHOOD RESPIRATORY SYMPTOM QUESTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUNEKREEF, B; GROOT, B; RIJCKEN, B; HOEK, G; STEENBEKKERS, A; DEBOER, A

    The reproducibility of answers to childhood respiratory symptom questions was investigated by administering two childhood respiratory symptom questionnaires twice, with a one month interval, to the same population of Dutch school children. The questionnaires were completed by the parents of 410

  20. The Miracle Question & Therapy with College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Rita, Emilio

    Solution-focused therapy is based on the premise that client goals and solutions are more important than problems the client depicts in sessions. The miracle question technique is used in the first session to help the client construct and consider a future without the problem: "Suppose that one night, while you were asleep, there was a…

  1. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The Predictive Power of Subjective Probability Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bresser, Jochem; van Soest, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the predictive validity of stated intentions for actual behaviour. In the context of the 2017 Dutch parliamentary election, we compare how well polls based on probabilistic and deterministic questions line up with subsequent votes. Our empirical strategy is built around a

  3. Questioning the Technical Quality of Performance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva L.

    1993-01-01

    Ongoing research finds that alternatives to formal tests carry hidden costs and require trade-offs. National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) is studying how performance assessments work so that they may be designed to help students reach their highest potential. This article raises priority questions,…

  4. Questions in Crocodilian Physiology | Gans | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphologists, physiologists, behaviourists and ecologists have traditionally asked different and often mutually exclusive questions within their different conceptual frameworks. Only the concept of natural selection and the idea that the animals have been modified for one or another mode of life history provide a common ...

  5. Interdisciplinarity and the Question of Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, James, IV

    2012-01-01

    The question of being adds another dimension to interdisciplinary theory and practice. The interdisciplinary approach to complex problems requires engaging with multiple perspectives from various disciplines, schools of thought, ideologies, and belief systems. All of these perspectives possess underlying and often unacknowledged ontological…

  6. Children Ask Questions about West African Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Denice; Cochran, Mathilda; Mims, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents a collection of questions that fifth-grade students asked about African artwork and answers provided by staff from the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Observes that students' interest in important visual aspects of the art creates lead-ins to more detailed discussions of West African art and culture. (DSK)

  7. Natural Language Question Answering in Open Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-growing volume of information on the web, the traditional search engines, returning hundreds or thousands of documents per query, become more and more demanding on the user patience in satisfying his/her information needs. Question Answering in Open Domains is a top research and development topic in current language technology. Unlike the standard search engines, based on the latest Information Retrieval (IR methods, open domain question-answering systems are expected to deliver not a list of documents that might be relevant for the user's query, but a sentence or a paragraph answering the question asked in natural language. This paper reports on the construction and testing of a Question Answering (QA system which builds on several web services developed at the Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (ICIA/RACAI. The evaluation of the system has been independently done by the organizers of the ResPubliQA 2009 exercise and has been rated the best performing system with the highest improvement due to the natural language processing technology over a baseline state-of-the-art IR system. The system was trained on a specific corpus, but its functionality is independent on the linguistic register of the training data.

  8. Input Enhancement and L2 Question Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lydia; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which form-focused instruction and corrective feedback (i.e., "input enhancement"), provided within a primarily communicative program, contribute to learners' accuracy in question formation. Study results are interpreted as evidence that input enhancement can bring about genuine changes in learners' interlanguage…

  9. French and european opinions about energy questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a statistical study of french and european opinions in 1989 about energy questions. The main subjects studied are: qualities of different energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energies); perception in public opinion of nuclear industry; energy and environmental effects. 6 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices

  10. Memorial Consequences of Answering SAT II Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Elizabeth J.; Agarwal, Pooja K.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2009-01-01

    Many thousands of students take standardized tests every year. In the current research, we asked whether answering standardized test questions affects students' later test performance. Prior research has shown both positive and negative effects of multiple-choice testing on later tests, with negative effects arising from students selecting…

  11. Guiding Questions for Data Analysis, by Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake County Public School System, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This document, which is provided by the Data and Accountability Department staff at Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), is to be used as a resource to help guide the review of student data. This document provides examples of questions to consider when reviewing frequently accessed reports located in Case21, Quickr, EVAAS®, mClass®, or…

  12. Questions of Value to this presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Questions of Value to this presentation. Does a self assembly of collagen act smart? Can man make collagen based smart biomaterials? To what beneficial uses smart collagen based biomaterials can be put to?

  13. Teaching Children with Autism to Ask Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Katie E.; Bickel, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism have impairments in communication that make it difficult for them to acquire the ability to ask appropriate wh- questions. This is a very important skill, and one that clinicians often do not know how to target. Search terms were entered into several databases to locate studies published in peer-reviewed journals. The studies…

  14. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  15. Response to Questions on Presentation to NAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-03-17

    Response to questions on the presentation 'Overview to Chamber and Power Plant Designs for IFE' made at the 1/29-31 meeting of the National Academies Committee on the Prospects for Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy Systems.

  16. Business Education: Addressing the "What" Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoharby, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to diversify the economy and stimulate private enterprise development, government agencies and private institutions in many countries have emphasized the importance of setting up and developing small and medium-size enterprises and promoting entrepreneurship. An important question confronting policy makers, however, is how they can…

  17. Questioning the Athlete's Right to Sue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, A

    1989-03-01

    The once-common doctrine that an athlete assumes the risks of the sport in which he or she competes almost disappeared in the 1970s. In the following interview, legal expert Gerald J. Todaro, JD, questions an athlete's right to sue for an injury that occurred in an inherently dangerous sport.

  18. Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, Annie; O'Connell, Libby Haight; Rust, Mead

    2003-01-01

    The spring 2003 The Idea Book for Educators highlights television programming from the Arts and Entertainment Network (A&E), the History Channel, and the Biography Channel, with a focus on an A&E original movie premiere, "Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor." The booklet contains the following materials: "A&E Study…

  19. Mathematica with a Numerical Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Rodney

    2003-04-01

    An interdisciplinary "Numerical Methods" course has been shared between physics, mathematics and computer science since 1992 at Hunter C. Recently, the lectures and workshops for this course have become formalized and placed on the internet at http://www.ph.hunter.cuny.edu (follow the links "Course Listings and Websites" >> "PHYS385 (Numerical Methods)". Mathematica notebooks for the lectures are available for automatic download (by "double clicking" the lecture icon) for student use in the classroom or at home. AOL (or Netscape/Explorer) can be used provided Mathematica (or the "free" MathReader) has been made a "helper application". Using Mathematica has the virtue that mathematical equations (no LaTex required) can easily be included with the text and Mathematica's graphing is easy to use. Computational cells can be included within the notebook and students may easily modify the calculation to see the result of "what if..." questions. Homework is sent as Mathematica notebooks to the instructor via the internet and the corrected workshops are returned in the same manner. Most exam questions require computational solutions.

  20. MFIX documentation numerical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syamlal, M.

    1998-01-01

    MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges) is a general-purpose hydrodynamic model for describing chemical reactions and heat transfer in dense or dilute fluid-solids flows, which typically occur in energy conversion and chemical processing reactors. The calculations give time-dependent information on pressure, temperature, composition, and velocity distributions in the reactors. The theoretical basis of the calculations is described in the MFIX Theory Guide. Installation of the code, setting up of a run, and post-processing of results are described in MFIX User`s manual. Work was started in April 1996 to increase the execution speed and accuracy of the code, which has resulted in MFIX 2.0. To improve the speed of the code the old algorithm was replaced by a more implicit algorithm. In different test cases conducted the new version runs 3 to 30 times faster than the old version. To increase the accuracy of the computations, second order accurate discretization schemes were included in MFIX 2.0. Bubbling fluidized bed simulations conducted with a second order scheme show that the predicted bubble shape is rounded, unlike the (unphysical) pointed shape predicted by the first order upwind scheme. This report describes the numerical technique used in MFIX 2.0.

  1. Personalized numerical observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankov, Jovan G.; Pretorius, P. Hendrik

    2010-02-01

    It is widely accepted that medical image quality should be assessed using task-based criteria, such as humanobserver (HO) performance in a lesion-detection (scoring) task. HO studies are time consuming and cost prohibitive to be used for image quality assessment during development of either reconstruction methods or imaging systems. Therefore, a numerical observer (NO), a HO surrogate, is highly desirable. In the past, we have proposed and successfully tested a NO based on a supervised-learning approach (namely a support vector machine) for cardiac gated SPECT image quality assessment. In the supervised-learning approach, the goal is to identify the relationship between measured image features and HO myocardium defect likelihood scores. Thus far we have treated multiple HO readers by simply averaging or pooling their respective scores. Due to observer variability, this may be suboptimal and less accurate. Therefore, in this work, we are setting our goal to predict individual observer scores independently in the hope to better capture some relevant lesion-detection mechanism of the human observers. This is even more important as there are many ways to get equivalent observer performance (measured by area under receiver operating curve), and simply predicting some joint (average or pooled) score alone is not likely to succeed.

  2. Patient question set proliferation: scope and informatics challenges of patient question set management in a large multispecialty practice with case examples pertaining to tobacco use, menopause, and Urology and Orthopedics specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Loo, Sarah J; North, Frederick

    2016-04-12

    Health care institutions have patient question sets that can expand over time. For a multispecialty group, each specialty might have multiple question sets. As a result, question set governance can be challenging. Knowledge of the counts, variability and repetition of questions in a multispecialty practice can help institutions understand the challenges of question set proliferation. We analyzed patient-facing question sets that were subject to institutional governance and those that were not. We examined question variability and number of repetitious questions for a simulated episode of care. In addition to examining general patient question sets, we used specific examples of tobacco questions, questions from two specialty areas, and questions to menopausal women. In our analysis, there were approximately 269 institutionally governed patient question sets with a mean of 74 questions per set accounting for an estimated 20,000 governed questions. Sampling from selected specialties revealed that 50 % of patient question sets were not institutionally governed. We found over 650 tobacco-related questions in use, many with only slight variations. A simulated use case for a menopausal woman revealed potentially over 200 repeated questions. A group practice with multiple specialties can have a large volume of patient questions that are not centrally developed, stored or governed. This results in a lack of standardization and coordination. Patients may be given multiple repeated questions throughout the course of their care, and providers lack standardized question sets to help construct valid patient phenotypes. Even with the implementation of a single electronic health record, medical practices may still have a health information management gap in the ability to create, store and share patient-generated health information that is meaningful to both patients and physicians.

  3. Answers to the Question: "Who Developed Race?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Having served as a college and university instructor at several institutions, the author has taught numerous history courses that have dealt with race relations in the United States. A class that he currently teaches, titled "Race in America," focuses specifically upon this topic. It is designed for non-history majors who are in their…

  4. Comparison of University Students' Understanding of Graphs in Different Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinic, Maja; Ivanjek, Lana; Susac, Ana; Milin-Sipus, Zeljka

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates university students' understanding of graphs in three different domains: mathematics, physics (kinematics), and contexts other than physics. Eight sets of parallel mathematics, physics, and other context questions about graphs were developed. A test consisting of these eight sets of questions (24 questions in all) was…

  5. Auto/Ethnography and the Question of Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff-Michael Roth

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Auto/ethnography has emerged as an important method in the social sciences for contributing to the project of understanding human actions and concerns. Although the name of the method includes "ethnography," auto/ethnography often is concerned exclusively with an abstract (i.e., undeveloped and abstracting understanding, and therefore the writing, of the Self rather than the writing of the "ethno." Auto/ethnography, such conceived, is a form of therapy, in the best case, and a form of narcissism and autoerotic relation, in the worst case. But because the Self exists in relation to the world, becomes in and through participation in everyday events, and because the human relation is inherently ethical, there are inherent ethical questions where the Other may come to be harmed as much as the Self. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901381

  6. Epidemiologic Evidence to Guide the Understanding and Prevention of Gun Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Daniel W; Cerdá, Magdalena; Wintemute, Garen J; Cook, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Gunfire from assaults, suicides, and unintentional shootings exacts an enormous burden on public health globally. The epidemiologic reviews in this special issue enhance our understanding of various forms of gun violence, inform interventions, and help chart directions for future research. The available science, however, is limited to answer many important questions necessary for mounting successful efforts to reduce gun violence. Certain data are lacking, and there are numerous analytical challenges to deriving unbiased estimates of policy impacts. Significant investments in research over the long term are warranted to answer questions central to successful prevention of gun violence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Water-energy-food nexus: concepts, questions and methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Chen, X.; Ding, W.; Zhang, C.; Fu, G.

    2017-12-01

    The term of water-energy -food nexus has gained increasing attention in the research and policy making communities as the security of water, energy and food becomes severe under changing environment. Ignorance of their closely interlinkages accompanied by their availability and service may result in unforeseeable, adverse consequences. This paper comprehensively reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of water-energy-food, with a focus on concepts, research questions and methodologies. First, two types of nexus definition are compared and discussed to understand the essence of nexus research issues. Then, three kinds of nexus research questions are presented, including internal relationship analysis, external impact analysis, and evaluation of the nexus system. Five nexus modelling approaches are discussed in terms of their advantages, disadvantages and application, with an aim to identify research gaps in current nexus methods. Finally, future research areas and challenges are discussed, including system boundary, data uncertainty and modelling, underlying mechanism of nexus issues and system performance evaluation. This study helps bring research efforts together to address the challenging questions in the nexus and develop the consensus on building resilient water, energy and food systems.

  8. Biomechanical model of the thorax under blast loading: a three dimensional numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumtcha, Aristide Awoukeng; Thoral-Pierre, Karine; Roth, Sébastien

    2014-12-01

    Injury mechanisms due to high speed dynamic loads, such as blasts, are not well understood. These research fields are widely investigated in the literature, both at the experimental and numerical levels, and try to answer questions about the safety and efficiency of protection devices or biomechanical traumas. At a numerical level, the development of powerful mathematical models tends to study tolerance limits and injury mechanisms in order to avoid experimental tests which cannot be easily conducted. In a military framework, developing a fighter/soldier numerical model can help to the understanding of many traumas which are specific to soldier injuries, like mines, ballistic impacts or blast traumas. The aim of this study is to investigate the consequences of violent loads in terms of human body response, submitting a developed and validated three-dimensional thorax finite element (FE) model to blast loadings. Specific formulations of FE methods are used to simulate this loading, and its consequence on the biomechanical model. Mechanical parameters such as pressure in the air field and also in internal organs are observed, and these values are compared to the experimental data in the literature. This study gives encouraging results and allows going further in soldier trauma investigations. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Numerical Models of Alaskan Tectonics: A Review and Looking Ahead to a New Era of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadamec, M. A.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific-North American plate boundary in Alaska is in the current scientific spotlight, as a highlighted tectonic region for integrated scientific investigation. It is timely, therefore, to step back and examine the previous numerical modeling studies of Alaska. Reviewing the numerical models is valuable, as geodynamic modeling can be a predictive tool that can guide and target field studies, both geologic and geophysical. This review presents a comparison of the previous numerical modeling studies of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone, including the mainland and extending into northwestern Canada. By distinguishing between the model set-up, governing equations, and underlying assumptions, non-modelers can more easily understand under what context the modeling predictions can be interpreted. Several key features in the Alaska tectonic setting appear in all the models to have a first order effect on the resulting deformation, such as the plate margin geometry and Denali fault. In addition, there are aspects of the tectonic setting that lead to very different results depending how they are implemented into the models. For example, models which fix the slab velocity to surface plate motions predict lower mantle flow rates than models that allow the slab to steepen. Despite the previous modeling studies, many unanswered questions remain, including the formation of the Wrangell volcanics, the driver for motion in western and interior Alaska, and the timing and nature of slab deformation. A synthesis of this kind will be of value to geologists, geodeticists, seismologists, volcanologists, sedimentologists, geochemists, as well as geodynamicists.

  10. Understanding molecular simulation from algorithms to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Frenkel, Daan

    2001-01-01

    Understanding Molecular Simulation: From Algorithms to Applications explains the physics behind the ""recipes"" of molecular simulation for materials science. Computer simulators are continuously confronted with questions concerning the choice of a particular technique for a given application. A wide variety of tools exist, so the choice of technique requires a good understanding of the basic principles. More importantly, such understanding may greatly improve the efficiency of a simulation program. The implementation of simulation methods is illustrated in pseudocodes and their practic

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask About Cancer Research Advanced ... Cancer Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask About ... to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers Questions to Ask About ...

  13. Difficult Questions of Difficult Questions: The Role of The Researcher and Transcription Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Holly

    2018-01-01

    This paper refracts a comparison of three distinct transcription styles through questions of researcher reflexivity. It uses the data from a single question asked by the researcher in multiple interviews for a small empirical project. These data are transcribed in three ways, and the resulting transcripts are discussed in relation to the analysis…

  14. Numerical simulation of the Polywell device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, K.H.; Santarius, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Recent ideas concerning inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) of fusion plasmas coupled with recent experimental results have motivated looking at the problem of confinement of these plasmas in both the gridded (pure electrostatic) and magnetically assisted (via confinement of high beta plasmas in a magnetic cusp) configuration. Questions exist as to the nature of the potential well structure and the confinement properties of high beta plasmas in magnetic cusp configurations. This work focuses on the magnetically assisted concept known as the Polywell trademark. Results are reported on the numerical simulation of IEC plasmas aimed at answering some of these questions. In particular the authors focus on two aspects of the Polywell, namely the structure of the magnetic cusp field in the Polywell configuration and the nature of the confinement of a high beta plasma in a magnetic cusp field. The existence of line cusps in the Polywell is still in dispute. A computer code for modeling the magnetic field structure and mod-B surface has been written and results are presented for the Polywell. Another source of controversy is the nature of the confinement of a high beta plasma in a magnetic cusp, and in particular in the polywell. Results from 2-D Particle In Cell (PIC) simulations aimed at answering some of these questions are presented

  15. Numerical simulations of thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar G Ramunigari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mathematical approaches for biological events have gained significant importance in development of biomedical research. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is caused by blood clot in veins deeply rooted in the body, resulting in loss of blood, pain, and numbness of the body part associated with that vein. This situation can get complicated and can be fatal, when the blood clot travels to other parts of the body which may result in pulmonary embolism (PE. PE causes approximately 300,000 deaths annually in the United States alone. Materials and Methods: We are trying to propose a computational approach for understanding venous thrombosis using the theory of fluid mechanics. In our study, we are trying to establish a computational model that mimics the venous blood flow containing unidirectional venous valves and will be depicting the blood flow in the veins. We analyzed the flow patterns in veins, which are included with lump like substances. This lump like substances can be clots, tissue debris, collagen or even cholesterol. Our study will facilitate better understanding of the biophysical process in case of thrombosis. Results: The predicted model analyzes the consequences that occur due to the clot formations in veins. Knowledge of Navier-Stokes equations in fluid dynamics along with the computational model of a complex biological system would help in diagnosis of the problem at much faster rate of time. Valves of the deep veins are damaged as a result of DVT, with no valves to prevent deep system reflux, the hydrostatic venous pressure in the lower extremity increases dramatically. Conclusion: Our model is used to determine the effects of an interrupted blood flow as a result of thrombin formation, which might result in disturbed systemic circulation. Our results indicated a positive inverse correlation exists between clots and the flow velocity. This would support medical practitioners to recommend faster curing measures.

  16. THE EXPLICIT COMPREHENSION-STRATEGY INSTRUCTION: QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP VS SELF-QUESTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalu Thohir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at examining and comparing the effectiveness of the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR and Self-Questioning (SQ strategies in improving the reading ability of the undergraduate students. This study was a quasi-experimental study in which two out of three classes of the third semester students at English department of Mataram University were selected randomly to receive either QAR strategy or SQ strategy instructions for ten weekly meetings. The findings of pre- and posttest with multiple-choice questions revealed that both comprehension strategies were effective in improving the undergraduate students‘ reading ability. The findings from the posttest with multiple-choice questions indicated the students who received SQ strategy instruction scored significantly higher than those students who received QAR strategy instruction. On the other hand, the students who received QAR strategy instruction scored slightly higher than those students who received SQ strategy instruction in the posttest with open-ended questions.

  17. "Known Unknowns": Current Questions in Muscle Satellite Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelison, Ddw

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of satellite cells, now known to be the obligate stem cells of skeletal muscle, has increased dramatically in recent years due to the introduction of new molecular, genetic, and technical resources. In addition to their role in acute repair of damaged muscle, satellite cells are of interest in the fields of aging, exercise, neuromuscular disease, and stem cell therapy, and all of these applications have driven a dramatic increase in our understanding of the activity and potential of satellite cells. However, many fundamental questions of satellite cell biology remain to be answered, including their emergence as a specific lineage, the degree and significance of heterogeneity within the satellite cell population, the roles of their interactions with other resident and infiltrating cell types during homeostasis and regeneration, and the relative roles of intrinsic vs extrinsic factors that may contribute to satellite cell dysfunction in the context of aging or disease. This review will address the current state of these open questions in satellite cell biology. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Flower development: open questions and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Frank; Bowman, John L; Davies, Brendan; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Franks, Robert G; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Gregis, Veronica; Ito, Toshiro; Jack, Thomas P; Jiao, Yuling; Kater, Martin M; Ma, Hong; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Prunet, Nathanaël; Riechmann, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Almost three decades of genetic and molecular analyses have resulted in detailed insights into many of the processes that take place during flower development and in the identification of a large number of key regulatory genes that control these processes. Despite this impressive progress, many questions about how flower development is controlled in different angiosperm species remain unanswered. In this chapter, we discuss some of these open questions and the experimental strategies with which they could be addressed. Specifically, we focus on the areas of floral meristem development and patterning, floral organ specification and differentiation, as well as on the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolutionary changes that have led to the astounding variations in flower size and architecture among extant and extinct angiosperms.

  19. Model Answers to Lipid Membrane Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, O. G.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental ...... to pursue. Here we review some membrane models for lipid self-assembly, monolayers, bilayers, liposomes, and lipid-protein interactions and illustrate how such models can help answering questions in modern lipid cell biology....... scientist to plan experiments and interpret data. Theoretical models are the theoretical scientist's preferred toys to make contact between membrane theory and experiments. Most importantly, models serve to shape our intuition about which membrane questions are the more fundamental and relevant ones...

  20. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.