WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding motivations underlying

  1. Understanding Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…

  2. Using travel socialization and underlying motivations to better understand motorcycle usage in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Lai, Chi-Yen

    2015-06-01

    This study introduces self-determination theory (SDT) to refine previous models of vehicle usage motivation. We add travel socialization theory regarding parental influence on vehicle usage to enhance previous structural models describing motorcycle usage behavior. Our newly developed model was empirically verified in a sample of 721 motorcycle users in Taiwan. In addition to instrumental, symbolic, and affective motivations, perceived parental attitudes (PPAs) towards motorcycle riding were found to have a significant effect on individuals' motorcycle use habits. Additionally, participants who perceived their parents to have more positive attitudes toward motorcycles were found to have more experience being chauffeured on motorcycles by their parents. Based on these results, we suggest means to confront the challenges brought on by the rapid growth of motorcycle usage, especially serious motorcycle traffic accidents. These results improve our understanding motorcycle usage in Taiwan and can be used by transportation professionals who are seeking solutions to the rapid growth of motorcycle usage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding Employee Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  4. Understanding producers' motives for adopting sustainable practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo-Barrera, Andres; Pennings, Joost M.E.; Hofenk, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the motives and risk attitudes of producers to engage in sustainable practices is important for policy-makers who wish to increase the likelihood of adoption and improve the design of incentives. This article examines the underlying motives of producers to adopt sustainable

  5. Artistic Understanding and Motivational Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekue, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse artistic understanding in primary and secondary education and the relationship between this understanding and motivational characteristics such as goal orientation, engagement in art activities and attitude to art education at school, which determine (according to prior research) learners' academic achievement, in…

  6. Understanding Teenagers' motivation in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian; Hansen, Elin

    2014-01-01

    -established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame...

  7. Understanding the underlying motives and intention among Indian blood donors towards voluntary blood donation: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S; Chandra, B

    2018-05-01

    The present study aims to fill the gap in the literature by conducting a comprehensive research on Indian donor's intention towards voluntary blood donation in India. The study attempts to conceptualize and validate an integrative framework incorporating voluntary function inventory (VFI) in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model with the purpose tomeasure the voluntary blood donation intention. Structural equation modeling (SEM) has been used to rigorously test the hypothesized interrelationships among the underlying motives influencing voluntary blood donation intention. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of respondents selected conveniently from selct locations in India. Total 450 completed questionnaires were received out of 1000 distributed. The study develops a final conceptual framework that determines the drivers of blood donor's intention towards voluntary donation. The components of theory of planned behavior (TPB) model which include 'attitude', 'subjective norms' (SN), and 'perceived behavioral control' (PBC) along with modified volunteer functions namely 'value', 'social', 'career' and 'enhancement' were found significantly explaining the donation intention in the model. The model achieves robustness with respect to predicting Indian donor's intention towards the voluntary donation of blood. The proposed model in this study advances the theory and research on thevolunteering motives towards blood donation. The study would provide a comprehensiveunderstanding of donors' intention to the practitioners, policy makers and Non-Government Organization (NGO), helping them to frame a calibrated strategydirected towards facilitating healthy blood donation practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  9. Underlying Motivations of Volunteering Across Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takashi; Keene, Jennifer R; Lu, Chi-Jung; Carr, Dawn C

    2017-03-01

    Volunteering is beneficial not only for individuals' well-being but also for society's well-being; yet only a fraction of U.S. citizens regularly engage in volunteer activities. This study examined how underlying motivations are associated with interest in volunteering for individuals in three major life phases: early, middle, and later adulthood. Data were collected from 1,046 adults who volunteered through nonprofit organizations in Nevada (USA). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that community service, career advancement, and well-being were common underlying motivations for individuals across life stages. However, generativity among the later adulthood group, and social networking among the early and middle adulthood groups were unique motivations for volunteering. Regression analysis showed that the community service motivation was significantly associated with individuals' interest in volunteering among all life stages. Simultaneously, generativity for the later adulthood group, and career advancement for the early adulthood group were unique motivations linked to their actual interest in volunteering.

  10. Using self-determination theory to understand motivation deficits in schizophrenia: the 'why' of motivated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, David E; Sanchez, Amy H; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect-disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or 'passing time'. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: (1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; (2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; (3) more disconnected-disengaged. Higher disconnected-disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Northern Virginia wineries: understanding visitor motivations for market segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammeral Geide; Laurie Harmon; Robert Baker

    2009-01-01

    The wine industry is a rapidly growing sector of Virginia's economy, yet little research has been done on this topic. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of northern Virginia winery visitors' motivations to help winery operators better focus their marketing efforts. This exploratory research project collected basic information about...

  12. Using goal orientations to understand motivation in strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Todd A; Chow, Graig M; Ewing, Martha E

    2008-07-01

    Despite the importance that today's athletics place on strength training, research exploring the motivation of athletes in this arena is sparse. It is known that not all athletes will use the same motivational cognitions as inspiration, and these differences can be explored through achievement goal orientations. Through questionnaire data and semistructured interviews, the present study investigated how collegiate athletes maintain high levels of motivation over a period of time during strength training and explored relationships among five goal orientations: task-orientation, self-enhancing ego-orientation, self-defeating ego-orientation, social-approval orientation, and work-avoidance orientation. Subjects (N = 133), comprising 90 men and 43 women, were current varsity collegiate athletes from 15 different sports at a major Midwestern university. In addition, using a screener survey to assess achievement goal orientations, 15 subjects from the sample group who demonstrated a stronger inclination to only one achievement goal orientation were interviewed to gain a more in-depth understanding of their motivation cognitions in strength training. Results showed that the strongest achievement goal orientations reported from all athletes were task-orientation and social-approval. Additionally, five higher-order themes (significant others, improvement, competitive demands, being stronger than others, and miscellaneous) were consistent among the interviewed athletes when describing how they stay motivated during strength training. Whereas all athletes were able to describe at least one motivational strategy they employed during strength training, the dominant achievement goal orientation of some athletes influenced their motivational strategy. By employing the T.A.R.G.E.T. model (), strength coaches can foster adaptive achievement goal orientations and thereby enhance intrinsic motivation for athletes engaging in strength training.

  13. Understanding why users tag: A survey of tagging motivation literature and results from an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmaier, Markus; Körner, Christian; Kern, Roman

    2012-12-01

    While recent progress has been achieved in understanding the structure and dynamics of social tagging systems, we know little about the underlying user motivations for tagging, and how they influence resulting folksonomies and tags. This paper addresses three issues related to this question. (1) What distinctions of user motivations are identified by previous research, and in what ways are the motivations of users amenable to quantitative analysis? (2) To what extent does tagging motivation vary across different social tagging systems? (3) How does variability in user motivation influence resulting tags and folksonomies? In this paper, we present measures to detect whether a tagger is primarily motivated by categorizing or describing resources, and apply these measures to datasets from seven different tagging systems. Our results show that (a) users' motivation for tagging varies not only across, but also within tagging systems, and that (b) tag agreement among users who are motivated by categorizing resources is significantly lower than among users who are motivated by describing resources . Our findings are relevant for (1) the development of tag-based user interfaces, (2) the analysis of tag semantics and (3) the design of search algorithms for social tagging systems.

  14. Motivational Processes Underlying Substance Abuse Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher P.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a syndrome of dysregulated motivation, evidenced by intense drug craving and compulsive drug-seeking behavior. In the search for common neurobiological substrates of addiction to different classes of drugs, behavioral neuroscientists have attempted to determine the neural basis for a number of motivational concepts and describe how they are changed by repeated drug use. Here, we describe these concepts and summarize previous work describing three major neural systems that play distinct roles in different conceptual aspects of motivation: (1) a nigrostriatal system that is involved in two forms of instrumental learning, (2) a ventral striatal system that is involved in Pavlovian incentive motivation and negative reinforcement, and (3) frontal cortical areas that regulate decision making and motivational processes. Within striatal systems, drug addiction can involve a transition from goal-oriented, incentive processes to automatic, habit-based responding. In the cortex, weak inhibitory control is a predisposing factor to, as well as a consequence of, repeated drug intake. However, these transitions are not absolute, and addiction can occur without a transition to habit-based responding, occurring as a result of the overvaluation of drug outcomes and hypersensitivity to incentive properties of drug-associated cues. Finally, we point out that addiction is not monolithic and can depend not only on individual differences between addicts, but also on the neurochemical action of specific drug classes. PMID:26475159

  15. Understanding and Assessing the Work Motivations of Employed Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Bezzina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study investigates the work motivations of employed women in the Maltese labor market. A self-administered questionnaire purposely designed for the present study was presented to a quota sample of 400 women employed in Malta. Statistical analyses revealed that (a the most important work motivators are “financial independence” and “earning money for basic necessities”; (b the 16 proposed work motivations could be grouped under two internally consistent and unidimensional factors, namely, “personal and professional development” and “social and economic well-being”; and (c that the intention to continue to work in the future was associated with a higher level of “education,” and greater levels of work motivation related to “personal and professional development” and “social and economic well-being.” The findings are discussed and the study provides 10 important recommendations for Maltese labor market policy makers and employers aimed at boosting the participation of working women. These include a more supportive support system for working mothers, flexible educational and training opportunities, and tighter enforcement of laws to prevent gender discrimination and harassment at the place of work and nonobserved economic activity. The study concludes by providing some interesting avenues for further research.

  16. UNDERSTANDING VISITOR EXPERIENCES AND MOTIVATIONS IN SUBURBAN TAIPEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Tzu Lucetta TSAI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to cultivate higher-qualified human resources within the tourism field and provide plaining and developing direction based on the understanding of tourism features in San-ying area. There is a growing research interest in understanding the individual consumer's preferences, as well as management approaches of experiences and therefore, it has explored the understanding of the many different facets of experiences in tourism and hispitality business in suburban Taipei in particular the impact of the Sanxia and Yingge area. There is an attempt to examine the service quality of tourist attractions, moreover, the perceptions and travel experiences of tourists who visit Sanxia and Yingge area. Tourism and hospitality business in Sanxia and Yingge area present culture images and this study has discussed how this has influenced tourists' experiences, motivation and consumer behavior during their visit.

  17. Categorizing terrorist entities listed by the European Union according to terrorist groups’ underlying motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Rothenberger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available States and international organizations have compiled lists of a great variety of terrorist groups. The current European Union list includes 44 entities. This study analyzes the underlying motives of the terrorist organizations named in this list. In order to understand the groups’ motivations and consequently be able to advise on methods of countering them with communication strategies, we employ a three-item typology provided by Waldmann (2001. The results show that only five of the 44 groups were religiously motivated to commit terrorism. Most of the groups (n=20 had nationalist-separatist motives, and 19 groups displayed social-revolutionary motives. Based on the respective motives, differing counter-terrorism strategies are proposed, e.g., developing rhetorical counter-narratives that address and reduce the groups’ motivational and identity-generating characteristics.

  18. Different groups, different motives: identity motives underlying changes in identification with novel groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Matt; Vignoles, Vivian L

    2012-08-01

    Social identification is known to have wide-reaching implications, but theorists disagree about the underlying motives. Integrating motivated identity construction theory with recent social identity research, the authors predicted which motives underlie identification with two types of groups: interpersonal networks and social categories. In a five-wave longitudinal study of social identity processes among 268 new university residents, multilevel analyses showed that motives involved in identity enactment processes--self-esteem, belonging, and efficacy--significantly predicted within-person changes in identification with flatmates (an interpersonal network group), whereas motives involved in identity definition processes--meaning, self-esteem, and distinctiveness--significantly predicted within-person changes in identification with halls of residence (an abstract social category). This article discusses implications for research into identity motives and social identity.

  19. Motivation Cards to Support Students’ Understanding on Fraction Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamirsyah Wahyu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This design research aims to develop a learning activity which supports the fifth-grade students to understand measurement fraction division problems (A whole number divided by a fraction that result in a whole number answer conceptually. Furthermore, how students solve the fraction division problem using models is also analyzed.  Data for the retrospective analysis is collected through two teaching experiments in the form of students’ work, field notes, and some part of classroom discussions. The important findings in this research are: 1 the developed learning activity namely Motivation Cards support students understand that  3 divided by one-half means how many one-half are in 3 through models. However, when the divisor is not a unit fraction they could not directly relate the unshaded part in area model for example. 2 area model is proper model to be firstly introduced when the students work on fraction division. 3 understanding this kind of fraction division help students understand other measurement fraction division where both divisor and dividend are fractions. 4 the learning activity supports the development of character values for students.    

  20. Understanding the motives for food choice in Western Balkan Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, Jasna; Žeželj, Iris; Gorton, Matthew; Barjolle, Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Substantial empirical evidence exists regarding the importance of different factors underlying food choice in Western Europe. However, research results on eating habits and food choice in the Western Balkan Countries (WBCs) remain scarce. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the reported importance of nine factors underlying food choice, was administered to a representative sample of 3085 adult respondents in six WBCs. The most important factors reported are sensory appeal, purchase convenience, and health and natural content; the least important are ethical concern and familiarity. The ranking of food choice motives across WBCs was strikingly similar. Factor analysis revealed eight factors compared to nine in the original FCQ model: health and natural content scales loaded onto one factor as did familiarity and ethical concern; the convenience scale items generated two factors, one related to purchase convenience and the other to preparation convenience. Groups of consumers with similar motivational profiles were identified using cluster analysis. Each cluster has distinct food purchasing behavior and socio-economic characteristics, for which appropriate public health communication messages can be drawn. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding youth motivation for water onion (Crinum thaianum J. Schulze conservation in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttasun Athihirunwong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water Onion is an aquatic plant endemic to the coastal plains of southern Thailand. The species is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List. Despite rapidly declining stocks, the species is not protected under any Thai legislation nor under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES. At the local level, Water Onion is protected and conserved by young people and adults for various socio-economic reasons. The study explored the participation and underlying conservation motivations of 312 youths in Kapoe district, Ranong province. Using principal component analysis, the youth's motivation for Water Onion conservation was classified into four categories: pro-social, pro-nature, social image, and extrinsic. The results from a logit regression indicated that pro-nature is one of the key motivational factors enhancing actual youth participation in the protection and conservation of Water Onion. It is important for policy makers to understand the effects of various types of motivation on different policy mechanisms in order to craft more effective policies that can further enhance youth participation in conservation initiatives. Keywords: biodiversity conservation, endemic species, pro-nature motivation, water onion, youth

  2. Motivation and flow: toward an understanding of the dynamics of the relation in architecture students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Maura J; Fullagar, Clive J

    2008-09-01

    The authors investigated the relation between motivation and flow in a sample of 327 architecture students. Specifically, they investigated the relation between flow and several levels of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as amotivation. They also assessed the need for autonomy in moderating the relation between intrinsic motivation and engagement. Results indicated a significant relation between flow experiences in academic activities and the more self-determined forms of intrinsic motivation, but not for extrinsic motivation. The need for autonomy moderated the relation between flow and intrinsic motivation. These results are discussed in the context of understanding flow as an intrinsically motivating state and a viable construct for understanding engagement.

  3. The added value of sustainability motivations in understanding sustainable food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verain, M.C.D.; Onwezen, M.C.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding consumer food choices is crucial to stimulate sustainable food consumption. Food choice motives are shown to be relevant in understanding consumer food choices. However, there is a focus on product motives, such as price and taste, whereas process motives (i.e. environmental welfare)

  4. Motivation in rehabilitation and acquired brain injury: can theory help us understand it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusec, Andrea; Velikonja, Diana; DeMatteo, Carol; Harris, Jocelyn E

    2018-04-25

    In acquired brain injury (ABI) populations, low motivation to engage in rehabilitation is associated with poor rehabilitation outcomes. Motivation in ABI is thought to be influenced by internal and external factors. This is consistent with Self-determination Theory, which posits that motivation is intrinsic and extrinsic. This paper discusses the benefit of using Self-determination Theory to guide measurement of motivation in ABI. Using a narrative review of the Self-determination Theory literature and clinical rehabilitation research, this paper discusses the unique role intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has in healthcare settings and the importance of understanding both when providing rehabilitation in ABI. Based on the extant literature, it is possible that two independently developed measures of motivation for ABI populations, the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust Motivation Questionnaire-Self and the Motivation for Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Questionnaire, may assess intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, respectively. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in ABI may be two equally important but independent factors that could provide a comprehensive understanding of motivation in individuals with ABI. This increased understanding could help facilitate behavioural approaches in rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Conceptualization of motivation in ABI would benefit from drawing upon Self-determination Theory. External factors of motivation such as the therapeutic environment or social support should be carefully considered in rehabilitation in order to increase engagement. Assessing motivation as a dual rather than a global construct may provide more precise information about the extent to which a patient is motivated.

  5. The added value of sustainability motivations in understanding sustainable food choices

    OpenAIRE

    Verain, M.C.D.; Onwezen, M.C.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding consumer food choices is crucial to stimulate sustainable food consumption. Food choice motives are shown to be relevant in understanding consumer food choices. However, there is a focus on product motives, such as price and taste, whereas process motives (i.e. environmental welfare) are understudied. The current study aims to add to the existing literature by investigating the added value of sustainable process motives (environmental welfare, animal welfare and social justice) ...

  6. Understanding Student Motivation: A Key to Retention in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizkallah Elias G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores what motivates college students at different stages of their academic studies. Using Herzberg’s two-factor theory, the researchers conducted a survey of 535 students in three south-western universities to determine if motivations changed throughout their academic careers. Results showed that students at different stages of their college careers have different concerns and, as such, different motivational strategies are needed to respond to their concerns. Implications are given to grow and retain enrolment.

  7. Children's understanding of and motivations for toothbrushing: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, P; Stewart, K; Chetcuti, D; Chestnutt, I G

    2011-02-01

    To explore children's understanding of why they do or do not brush their teeth and their motivations for toothbrushing. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 66 children aged 6-7 years and 10-11 years in four purposively selected primary schools in Cardiff, UK. Data were analysed using a constructive process of Thematic Content Analysis and techniques of open and selective coding. While a routine activity, toothbrushing was prompted rather than monitored by parents and easily fell by the wayside because of tiredness, excitement or distraction. Rationalizations for toothbrushing were poorly formed in the children's accounts and related to 'doom scenarios' such as teeth falling out, or to issues of personal grooming and cleanliness rather than caries prevention. Electric (powered) toothbrushes were popular and had engaged the children's interest. Social and domestic circumstances, such as when children stayed with different parents at different times, impacted on toothbrushing routines. This study has revealed information that is of value in directing oral health education messages, oral health promotion programmes and has identified issues that potentially affect compliance with toothbrushing that merit further investigation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Internet Uses and Gratifications: Understanding Motivations for Using the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hanjun

    In this study, the uses and gratifications theory was applied to investigate the Internet users' motivations and their relationship with attitudes toward the Internet as well as types of Web site visited by users. Subjects were 185 college students who completed a self-report questionnaire. Four motivations and five types of Web sites were…

  9. Understanding the Motivation and Transformation of White Culturally Responsive Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, China; Alfred, Mary

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the motivation for White professors in higher education to become culturally inclusive in their teaching practices and the transformational experiences that created this motivation and shaped their development. The findings revealed personal convictions that centred on moral obligations towards teaching was…

  10. Motives underlying food consumption in the Western Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mardon, Julie; Thiel, Elise; Laniau, Martine; Sijtsema, Siet; Zimmermann, Karin; Barjolle, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to identify subgroups of consumers based on the health motives underlying their food choice in Western Balkan Countries. Methods: The survey (n = 2943) was based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and elicited information on socio-demographic characteristics,

  11. Response inhibition under alcohol: effects of cognitive and motivational conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, M T; Vogel-Sprott, M

    2000-03-01

    This experiment tested the effect of cognitive and motivational conflict on response inhibition under alcohol. Fifty-six male social drinkers were randomly assigned to one of eight groups (n = 8). Four pairs of groups received 0.62 g/kg of alcohol, or a placebo, and each pair performed a go/stop choice reaction time task under one of four conflict conditions. One condition (C) produced cognitive conflict by presenting "go" and "stop" signals in the task. Another condition (IR) added motivational conflict by administering an equal monetary reward for inhibiting responses to stop-signals, and for responding to go-signals. The remaining two conditions resolved the motivational conflict by administering the monetary reward only for inhibitions (I), or only for responses (R). Compared with placebo, alcohol reduced inhibitions (i.e., impaired inhibitory control) under cognitive conflict (C; p = .041) and under motivational conflict (IR; p = .012). No significant effect of alcohol on inhibitions was observed in conditions where conflict was resolved (i.e., I and R). The study shows that alcohol can reduce the ability to inhibit a response. However, impaired inhibitory control is not an inevitable outcome of the drug action, because it can be counteracted by the consequences of behavior in the situation.

  12. Using Self-Determination Theory to Understand Motivation Deficits in Schizophrenia: The ‘Why’ of Motivated Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, David E.; Sanchez, Amy H.; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Self-Determination Theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect/disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or ‘passing time’. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: 1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; 2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; 3) more disconnected/disengaged. Higher disconnected/disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. PMID:24853060

  13. Achievement Goals and their Underlying Goal Motivation: Does it Matter Why Sport Participants Pursue their Goals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gaudreau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether the good or bad outcomes associated with mastery-approach (MAP and performance-approach (PAP goals depend on the extent to which they are motivated by autonomous or controlled motivation. A sample of 515 undergraduate students who participated in sport completed measures of achievement goals, motivation of achievement goals, perceived goal attainment, sport satisfaction, and both positive and negative affect. Results of moderated regression analyses revealed that the positive relations of both MAP and PAP goals with perceived goal attainment were stronger for athletes pursuing these goals with high level of autonomous goal motivation. Also, the positive relations between PAP goals and both sport satisfaction and positive affect were stronger at high levels of autonomous goal motivation and controlled goal motivation. The shape of all these significant interactions was consistent with tenets of Self-Determination Theory as controlled goal motivation was negatively associated with positive affect and sport satisfaction and positively associated with negative affect. Overall, these findings demonstrated the importance of considering goal motivation in order to better understand the conditions under which achievement goals are associated with better experiential and performance outcomes in the lives of sport participants.

  14. The Importance of Motivation Theories for Understanding Washback to the Learner

    OpenAIRE

    WATANABE, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    The present paper portrays three theories of motivation in the expectation that it will help to understand the washback effect of language tests on learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The three theories that are identified involve attribution theories of motivation, flow, and functional theories of motivation. The characteristics of these theories are described in a way in which they may help understand the meaning of the recent attempt by the Japanese Ministry of Education to innov...

  15. Understanding Western Students: Motivations and Benefits for Studying in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Alexander S.; Allison, Jessica; Ma, Jian Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been a rise in the number of Western students who are studying in China. Governments in China, and in other Western nations are expanding relations because China is currently developing world-class higher education institutions (Hennock, 2012). The present study explores motivations, deterrents and benefits of…

  16. Human mesostriatal response tracks motivational tendencies under naturalistic goal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Tal; Soreq, Eyal; Eldar, Eran; Ben-Simon, Eti; Raz, Gal; Hendler, Talma

    2016-06-01

    Goal conflict situations, involving the simultaneous presence of reward and punishment, occur commonly in real life, and reflect well-known individual differences in the behavioral tendency to approach or avoid. However, despite accumulating neural depiction of motivational processing, the investigation of naturalistic approach behavior and its interplay with individual tendencies is remarkably lacking. We developed a novel ecological interactive scenario which triggers motivational behavior under high or low goal conflict conditions. Fifty-five healthy subjects played the game during a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A machine-learning approach was applied to classify approach/avoidance behaviors during the game. To achieve an independent measure of individual tendencies, an integrative profile was composed from three established theoretical models. Results demonstrated that approach under high relative to low conflict involved increased activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), peri-aquaductal gray, ventral striatum (VS) and precuneus. Notably, only VS and VTA activations during high conflict discriminated between approach/avoidance personality profiles, suggesting that the relationship between individual personality and naturalistic motivational tendencies is uniquely associated with the mesostriatal pathway. VTA-VS further demonstrated stronger coupling during high vs low conflict. These findings are the first to unravel the multilevel relationship among personality profile, approach tendencies in naturalistic set-up and their underlying neural manifestation, thus enabling new avenues for investigating approach-related psychopathologies. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Human mesostriatal response tracks motivational tendencies under naturalistic goal conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Tal; Soreq, Eyal; Eldar, Eran; Ben-Simon, Eti; Raz, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Goal conflict situations, involving the simultaneous presence of reward and punishment, occur commonly in real life, and reflect well-known individual differences in the behavioral tendency to approach or avoid. However, despite accumulating neural depiction of motivational processing, the investigation of naturalistic approach behavior and its interplay with individual tendencies is remarkably lacking. We developed a novel ecological interactive scenario which triggers motivational behavior under high or low goal conflict conditions. Fifty-five healthy subjects played the game during a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A machine-learning approach was applied to classify approach/avoidance behaviors during the game. To achieve an independent measure of individual tendencies, an integrative profile was composed from three established theoretical models. Results demonstrated that approach under high relative to low conflict involved increased activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), peri-aquaductal gray, ventral striatum (VS) and precuneus. Notably, only VS and VTA activations during high conflict discriminated between approach/avoidance personality profiles, suggesting that the relationship between individual personality and naturalistic motivational tendencies is uniquely associated with the mesostriatal pathway. VTA–VS further demonstrated stronger coupling during high vs low conflict. These findings are the first to unravel the multilevel relationship among personality profile, approach tendencies in naturalistic set-up and their underlying neural manifestation, thus enabling new avenues for investigating approach-related psychopathologies. PMID:26833917

  18. Clinical teaching in paediatrics: understanding perceptions, motives and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaber, R E; Pollock, I

    2009-05-01

    Children and young people are used as cases and standardised patients in clinical exams and teaching courses. Consultation with them suggests that education and training are areas they feel they should actively participate in. To examine the perceptions, motives and concerns of children and young people participating in exam-focused clinical teaching, and to compare these views with those of their parents, trainees and tutors. Consultation and a pilot study were used to design an anonymised questionnaire with 5-point Likert scales and free text answers. This was sent to 112 children and young people, their parents, and tutors and trainees attending a clinical teaching course. Results were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U test. 71% of the questionnaires sent to children and young people and their parents were completed. For children and young people the major reasons for taking part were the enjoyment of helping people to learn (92% agreement) and wanting to "give something back" (85% agreement). Parents put significantly more emphasis on giving something back than anything else. Tutors and trainees felt the chance for children and young people to earn pocket money was their most important motivation. The major problem highlighted was that it is tiring being repeatedly examined. All children and young people and their parents said that they would participate in future clinical teaching. This study demonstrates that in the context of well-planned, structured clinical teaching, most children and young people are primarily motivated to participate to help educate doctors.

  19. Understanding the motivations of the multigenerational physician assistant workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, John E; Delellis, Nailya O

    2013-10-01

    Physician assistants (PAs) are more frequently finding themselves in positions where they are responsible for staff recruitment and retention. Staff turnover is associated with significant financial costs for organizations. Motivational theories focusing on job design indicate that paying attention to a combination of factors related to the work itself, in addition to the environment where the work is performed, increases satisfaction. This study asked a convenience sample of practicing PAs to rate the importance of a number of work-related factors known to influence job satisfaction. The results may be used as a basis for designing an environment to increase job satisfaction and improve recruitment and retention of highly qualified staff.

  20. Understanding Reactions to Workplace Injustice through Process Theories of Motivation: A Teaching Module and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Mary D.; Rosse, Joseph G.

    2007-01-01

    Management and organizational behavior students are often overwhelmed by the plethora of motivation theories they must master at the undergraduate level. This article offers a teaching module geared toward helping students understand how two major process theories of motivation, equity and expectancy theories and theories of organizational…

  1. Attitude roots and Jiu Jitsu persuasion: Understanding and overcoming the motivated rejection of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsey, Matthew J; Fielding, Kelly S

    2017-01-01

    There is a worryingly large chasm between scientific consensus and popular opinion. Roughly one third of Americans are skeptical that humans are primarily responsible for climate change; rates of some infectious diseases are climbing in the face of anti-immunization beliefs; and significant numbers of the population worldwide are antievolution creationists. It is easy to assume that resistance to an evidence-based message is a result of ignorance or failure to grasp evidence (the "deficit model" of science communication). But increasingly, theorists understand there are limits to this approach, and that if people are motivated to reject science, then repeating evidence will have little impact. In an effort to create a transtheoretical language for describing these underlying motivations, we introduce the notion of "attitude roots." Attitude roots are the underlying fears, ideologies, worldviews, and identity needs that sustain and motivate specific "surface" attitudes like climate skepticism and creationism. It is the antiscience attitude that people hear and see, but it is the attitude root-what lies under the surface-that allows the surface attitudes to survive even when they are challenged by evidence. We group these attitude roots within 6 themes-worldviews, conspiratorial ideation, vested interests, personal identity expression, social identity needs, and fears and phobias-and review literature relevant to them. We then use these insights to develop a "jiu jitsu" model of persuasion that places emphasis on creating change by aligning with (rather than competing with) these attitude roots. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. An analysis for understanding the process of textual deconstruction as a motivator for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Delia Barrera Jiménez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to analyze the potential of the process of textual understanding and construction, for the development of motivation towards learning in teacher trainees for Preuniversities. In this direction it advocates in the first place, to understand the dynamic relationship established between the process of textual attribution and production and the motivational one, which provides the indispensable condition for promoting the work with the text from all the subjects in the curriculum.

  3. Children's understandings and motivations surrounding novelty sweets: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kate F; Fairchild, Ruth M; Jones, Rhiannon J; Hunter, Lindsay; Harris, Carole; Morgan, Maria Z

    2013-11-01

    Novelty sweets resemble or can be used as toys, are brightly coloured, with striking imagery, and sold at pocket money prices. They encourage regular consumption as packaging can be resealed, leading to prolonged exposure of these high-sugar and low pH products to the oral tissues, risk factors for dental caries and erosion, respectively. To determine how children conceptualise novelty sweets and their motivations for buying and consuming them. Focus groups conducted using a brief schedule of open-ended questions, supported by novelty sweets used as prompts in the latter stages. Participants were school children (aged 9-10) from purposively selected state primary schools in Cardiff, UK. Key findings related to the routine nature of sweet eating; familiarity with and availability of novelty sweets; parental awareness and control; lack of awareness of health consequences; and the overall appeal of novelty sweets. Parents reported vagueness regarding consumption habits and permissiveness about any limits they set may have diluted the concept of treats. Flexible permissiveness to sweet buying applied to sweets of all kinds. Parents' reported lack of familiarity with novelty sweets combined with their low cost, easy availability, high sugar content, and acidity give cause for concern. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.

  4. Understanding employee motivation and organizational performance: Arguments for a set-theoretic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence demonstrates that motivated employees mean better organizational performance. The objective of this conceptual paper is to articulate the progress that has been made in understanding employee motivation and organizational performance, and to suggest how the theory concerning employee motivation and organizational performance may be advanced. We acknowledge the existing limitations of theory development and suggest an alternative research approach. Current motivation theory development is based on conventional quantitative analysis (e.g., multiple regression analysis, structural equation modeling. Since researchers are interested in context and understanding of this social phenomena holistically, they think in terms of combinations and configurations of a set of pertinent variables. We suggest that researchers take a set-theoretic approach to complement existing conventional quantitative analysis. To advance current thinking, we propose a set-theoretic approach to leverage employee motivation for organizational performance.

  5. Understanding space science under the northern lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, H.

    What is space science? The answers to this question can be very variable indeed. In fact, space research is a field where science, technology, and applications are so closely tied together that it is often difficult to recognize the central role of science. However, as paradoxical as it may sound, it appears that the less-educated public often appreciates the value of space science better than highly educated policy makers and bureaucrats who tend to evaluate the importance of space activities in terms of economic and societal benefits only. In a country like Finland located below the zone, where auroras are visible during the long dark winter nights, the space is perhaps closer to the public than in countries where the visible objects are the Moon, planets and stars somewhere far away. This positive fact has been very useful, for example, in popularization of such an abstract concept as space weather. In Finland it is possible to see space weather and this rises the curiosity about the processes behind this magnificent phenomenon. Of course, also in Finland the beautiful SOHO images of the Sun and the Hubble Space Telescope pictures of the remote universe attract the attention of the large public. We also have an excellent vehicle in increasing the public understanding in the society of Finnish amateur astronomers Ursa. It is an organization for anyone interested in practically everything from visual phenomena in the air to the remote galaxies and the Big Bang. Ursa publishes a high-quality monthly magazine in Finnish and runs local amateur clubs. Last year its 80th birthday exhibition was one of the best-visited public events in Helsinki. It clearly gave a strong evidence of wide public interest in space in general and in space science in particular. Only curious people can grasp the beauty and importance of the underlying science. Thus, we should focus our public space science education and outreach primarily on waking up the curiosity of the public instead of

  6. Understanding parental motivators and barriers to uptake of child poison safety strategies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, L; Waters, E; Sherrard, J; Ozanne-Smith, J; Robinson, J; Young, S; Hutchinson, A

    2005-12-01

    To develop an understanding of factors acting as barriers and motivators to parental uptake of child poison safety strategies. A qualitative study involving semistructured interviews and focus groups. A grounded theory approach was used for the collection and analysis of data. Sixty five parents of children under 5 years of age, some of whom had experienced an unintentional child poisoning incident. A range of knowledge based, environmental, and behavioral barriers to comprehensive parental uptake of poison safety practices were identified. As a result there tended to be only partial implementation of safety initiatives in the home. Selection of safety practices was often guided by the interests and behaviors of the child. This made the child vulnerable to changes in the home environment, inadequate supervision, and/or shifts in their own behavior and developmental ability. Personal or vicarious exposure of a parent to a child poisoning incident was a significant motivator for parental review of safety practices. Environmental measures targeting child resistant containers, warning labels, and lockable poisons cupboards will support parents' efforts to maintain poison safety. Additional education campaigns using stories of actual poisoning incidents may help to increase awareness of risk and encourage increased uptake.

  7. Stress, cues, and eating behavior. Using drug addiction paradigms to understand motivation for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James

    2015-09-01

    Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding the motivation: a qualitative study of dental students' choice of professional career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J; Clarke, W; Wilson, N

    2008-05-01

    Given the changing nature of the dental workforce, and the need to retain the services of future members, it is important to understand why current dental students perceive that they were motivated to study dentistry. Qualitative research provides the opportunity to explore the underlying issues in addition to informing subsequent quantitative research. The objectives of this research were to investigate final-year dental students' motivation for studying dentistry and how they perceive this has been modified during their undergraduate degree programme. Purposive sampling of a representative group of 35 final-year dental students at King's College London Dental Institute to participate in audio-taped focus groups. Qualitative data were analysed using Framework Methodology. The findings suggest a strong emphasis on having a career, providing 'professional status', 'financial benefits', 'job security, flexibility and independence' and 'good quality of life'. Students reported being attracted by features of the job, supported to a greater or lesser extent by personal experience, family and friends. It appears however that students' initial motivation is being tempered by their experiences during their undergraduate degree programme, in particular, the 'responsibilities of an intensive professional education', their 'mounting student debt' and the perception of 'feeling undervalued'. This perception related to dentistry in general and National Health Service dentistry in particular, being undervalued, by government, patients, the public and members of the dental profession. Students' vision of a 'contained professional career' within health care, providing status and financial benefits, appears to have influenced their choice of dentistry. Pressures relating to student life and policy changes are perceived as impacting on key components of professional life, particularly status in the social and economic order. The implications for educators, professional leaders and

  9. Expanding the understanding of motivation in the theory of public service contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    The understanding of what drives efficient performance is only partial in the standard theory of public service contracting where performance essentially is explained as dependent on extrinsic incentives. In this paper I claim that intrinsic motivations and the dynamics between intrinsic...... motivations and extrinsic incentives also have a role for explaining performance. This role is not limited to shifts from the public to the private service sector, as suggested by current supplements to standard theory, but it is also extended to play a part in on-going and recurrent contractual relationships...... that motivations among staff are rooted in both intrinsic as well as extrinsic motives and the provision of extrinsic incentives through the performance management scheme provokes different motivational reactions among staff with importance for both performance and management....

  10. Motivation to hide emotion and children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Warren, Madeleine; Diotte, Michèle

    2002-12-01

    The authors investigated the extent to which children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions varied according to the motivation to hide emotions. Children, aged 6-7 and 10-11 years, were read stories designed to elicit either prosocial or self-protective motivated display rules and were asked to predict the facial expressions the protagonists would make to hide felt emotions. Children were found to understand the distinction between real and apparent emotions very well, independently of the type of motivation. Contrary to predictions, boys understood this distinction better than did girls when the motivation to hide positive emotions was prosocial. Children perceived neutralization as the most appropriate strategy to hide felt emotions, followed by masking.

  11. MOTIVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction What is the difference between instrumental and integrative motivation? What kind of motivations do students have? How can our knowledge of motivation help the language learning process? Motivation can be very important in language teaching. Students can do very well when they are motivated. Teachers, with their knowledge of motivation, can make their classes more efficient and successful. Middle school teachers, in addition to learning about the English language itself, and about teaching methods, should also learn more about motivation and how this affects our students. "When we consider language teaching, motivation can be classified as either integrative or instrumental motivation" (Luxon)

  12. Understanding traffic crash under-reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Kaplan, Sigal; Hels, Tove

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aligns to the body of research dedicated to estimating the underreporting of road crash injuries and adds the perspective of understanding individual and crash factors contributing to the decision to report a crash to the police, the hospital, or both. Method: This study foc...... policy measures aimed at increasing the reporting rate by targeting specific road user groups (e.g., males, young road users) or specific situational factors (e.g., slight injuries, arm injuries, leg injuries, weekend)....

  13. Underlying motivation in the approach and avoidance goals of depressed and non-depressed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Katherine A L; MacLeod, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    Neurobiological theories predict decreased approach motivation and increased avoidance motivation in depression, but the results of previous studies have been equivocal. This study addressed a key limitation of previous research by assessing participants' underlying motivation for adopting their goals. Depressed (N=26) and non-depressed (N=33) participants listed approach and avoidance goals and wrote down their underlying reasons for adopting those goals. The groups did not differ on either the number of goals or underlying reasons but when underlying reasons were coded for approach or avoidance motivation depressed participants, compared to controls, showed less approach motivation and more avoidance motivation in relation to their approach goals. There were no effects related to avoidance goals. The results suggest that while the goals of depressed persons appear to be similar to those who are not depressed there are important differences at the level of underlying motivation.

  14. Self-determination theory and understanding of student motivation in physical education instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđić Višnja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical education is considered to be a favorable context for accomplishment of important educational outcomes and promotion of physical activity in children and youth. The real scope of physical education instruction largely depends on student motivation. Self-determination theory, as a specific macrotheory of motivation, offers a rewarding framework for understanding student motivation in physical education instruction. The paper presents the basic tenets of self-determination theory, the most important studies in the domain of physical education and didactic and methodical implications. Two mini-theories within the self-determination theory are analyzed in more detail, the cognitive evaluation theory and the organismic integration theory. Empirical verification of the theoretical tenets indicates the existence of typical motivational profiles of students in physical education instruction, the basic psychological needs as mediators of influence of social and interpersonal factors on student motivation, followed by the importance of motivational climate, students' goal orientations and teaching style for self-determination of students' behavior in physical education instruction. Didactic and methodical implications refer to the need for developing a more flexible curriculum of physical education, encouraging a motivational climate, task-focused goal orientations, and, especially, encouraging the perceived moving competence of the student.

  15. Vegetarian on purpose: Understanding the motivations of plant-based dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel L; Burrow, Anthony L

    2017-09-01

    Much recent research has explored vegetarians' dietary motivations, recurrently highlighting the significant influence they exert on how people view themselves and others. For vegetarians and other plant-based dieters, dietary motivations have been theorized to be a central aspect of identity. Yet not all plant-based dieters are motivated to follow their diets; rather, some face aversions and constraints. In this paper, we propose that motivations, aversions, and constraints constitute three distinct reasons for consuming a plant-based diet. After conceptually distinguishing motivations from aversions and constraints, we critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of two conceptual frameworks that exist for studying these motivations systematically: the ethical-health framework and the Unified Model of Vegetarian Identity (UMVI) motivational orientations framework. Importantly, these frameworks serve different purposes, and their suitability often depends on the research question at hand. Particularly given an increasing prevalence of plant-based dieting, cultivating a more holistic understanding of these two frameworks is necessary for advancing this discipline. Directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding the motivational perspectives of sustainability: A case of biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pereira Querol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the expectations and visions of the actors involved in sustainable innovations, only the societal, motivational perspective is usually considered. The fact that local actors may have different multi-motivations is typically overlooked. The aim of this study is to examine and understand the multi-motivational perspectives in a sustainable production project. First, we introduce the concept of the object and analyze the case of a biogas production project as a mediating activity for making swine production more sustainable. We argue that the object of the activity, as manifested in motivational perspectives, shapes the way in which biogas production (BP systems are implemented. The article concludes by discussing how the concept of object can be used to explore the actual and future possibilities of using artifacts for increasing the sustainability of production.

  17. Neural mechanisms underlying motivation of mental versus physical effort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Schmidt

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mental and physical efforts, such as paying attention and lifting weights, have been shown to involve different brain systems. These cognitive and motor systems, respectively, include cortical networks (prefronto-parietal and precentral regions as well as subregions of the dorsal basal ganglia (caudate and putamen. Both systems appeared sensitive to incentive motivation: their activity increases when we work for higher rewards. Another brain system, including the ventral prefrontal cortex and the ventral basal ganglia, has been implicated in encoding expected rewards. How this motivational system drives the cognitive and motor systems remains poorly understood. More specifically, it is unclear whether cognitive and motor systems can be driven by a common motivational center or if they are driven by distinct, dedicated motivational modules. To address this issue, we used functional MRI to scan healthy participants while performing a task in which incentive motivation, cognitive, and motor demands were varied independently. We reasoned that a common motivational node should (1 represent the reward expected from effort exertion, (2 correlate with the performance attained, and (3 switch effective connectivity between cognitive and motor regions depending on task demand. The ventral striatum fulfilled all three criteria and therefore qualified as a common motivational node capable of driving both cognitive and motor regions of the dorsal striatum. Thus, we suggest that the interaction between a common motivational system and the different task-specific systems underpinning behavioral performance might occur within the basal ganglia.

  18. Developing Public Health Initiatives through Understanding Motivations of the Audience at Mass-Gathering Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Alison; Ranse, Jamie; Munn, Matthew Brendan

    2018-04-01

    This report identifies what is known about audience motivations at three different mass-gathering events: outdoor music festivals, religious events, and sporting events. In light of these motivations, the paper discusses how these can be harnessed by the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services. Lastly, motivations tell what kinds of interventions can be used to achieve an understanding of audience characteristics and the opportunity to develop tailor-made programs to maximize safety and make long-lasting public health interventions to a particular "cohort" or event population. A lot of these will depend on what the risks/hazards are with the particular populations in order to "target" them with public health interventions. Audience motivations tell the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services about the types of behaviors they should expect from the audience and how this may affect their health while at the event. Through these understandings, health promotion and event safety messages can be developed for a particular type of mass-gathering event based on the likely composition of the audience in attendance. Health promotion and providing public information should be at the core of any mass-gathering event to minimize public health risk and to provide opportunities for the promotion of healthy behaviors in the local population. Audience motivations are a key element to identify and agree on what public health information is needed for the event audience. A more developed understanding of audience behavior provides critical information for event planners, event risk managers, and Emergency Medical Services personnel to better predict and plan to minimize risk and reduce patient presentations at events. Mass-gathering event organizers and designers intend their events to be positive experiences and to have meaning for those who attend. Therefore, continual vigilance to improve public health effectiveness and efficiency can become best practice at events

  19. The Flipped Classroom and College Physics Students' Motivation and Understanding of Kinematics Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagande, Jeffrey Lloyd L.; Jugar, Richard R.

    2018-01-01

    Reversing the traditional classroom activities, in the flipped classroom model students view lectures at home and perform activities during class period inside the classroom. This study investigated the effect of a flipped classroom implementation on college physics students' motivation and understanding of kinematics graphs. A Solomon four-group…

  20. The Effect of Using the History of Sciences on Conceptual Understanding and Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizak, Djanette

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of using the history of science in teaching geometrical optics on the motivation and conceptual understanding of first year university students. For this purpose, 54 students were randomly selected, then divided into two groups: the experimental group was taught by using history of science before traditional…

  1. Understanding Crowdsourcing: Effects of motivation and rewards on participation and performance in voluntary online activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A.M. Borst (Irma)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCompanies increasingly outsource activities to volunteers that they approach via an open call on the internet. The phenomenon is called ‘crowdsourcing’. For an effective use of crowdsourcing it is important to understand what motivated these online volunteers and what is the influence of

  2. Conceptual Understanding of Acids and Bases Concepts and Motivation to Learn Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin-Dindar, Ayla; Geban, Omer

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 5E learning cycle model oriented instruction (LCMI) on 11th-grade students' conceptual understanding of acids and bases concepts and student motivation to learn chemistry. The study, which lasted for 7 weeks, involved two groups: An experimental group (LCMI) and a control group (the…

  3. Motivations Underlying Consumers’ Preference for Farmers’ Markets in Klang Valley: A Means-End Chain Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Sheng Tey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly competitive market environment, understanding why consumers purchase fresh produce from farmers’ markets is pivotal to understanding the markets’ value and to strengthening the rural economy. This is the first study to employ a means-end chain (MEC framework to analyze the motivations underlying consumer preference for farmers’ markets. The linkages between these motivators are important steps in understanding why consumers purchase fresh produce from farmers’ markets. Based on in-depth interviews with 212 shoppers at the farmers’ markets in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, we identified the attributes ‘fresh’, ‘nearby’, ‘variety’, and ‘cheap’ as the means of achieving self-directed personal values (e.g., ‘expenses are better managed’, security values (‘live longer’, and benevolent values (e.g., ‘close the ties’. The insights gained should prove useful to policy-makers and to the farmers’ market sector, allowing them to more effectively communicate with consumers from the basis of a better understanding of the attributes, benefits, and personal values influencing them.

  4. In search of a theoretical structure for understanding motivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalia, Alice; Brekke, John

    2010-09-01

    This themed issue considers different ways to conceptualize the motivational impairment that is a core negative symptom of schizophrenia. Motivational impairment has been linked to poor functional outcome, thus it is important to understand the nature and causes of motivational impairment in order to develop better treatment strategies to enhance motivation and engage patients in the process of recovery. Motivation refers to the processes whereby goal-directed activities are instigated and sustained and can be thought of as the product of a complex interaction of physiological processes and social contextual variables. In this issue, the physiological processes of motivation are the focus of Barch and Dowd, who highlight the role of prefrontal and subcortical mesolimbic dopamine systems in incentive-based learning and the difficulties people with schizophrenia have using internal representations of relevant experiences and goals to drive the behavior that should allow them to obtain desired outcomes. The articles in this issue by Choi et al., Nakagami et al., and Silverstein, focus on social contextual or environmental variables that can shape behavior and motivation. Together, these articles highlight the impact of external cues and goal properties on the expectations and values attached to goal outcomes. Expectancy-value and Self-Determination theories provide an overarching framework to accommodate the perspectives and data provided in all these articles. In the following introduction we show how the articles in this themed issue both support the role of expectancies and value in motivation in schizophrenia and elucidate possible deficiencies in the way expectations and value get assigned.

  5. Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  6. Targeting cessation: understanding barriers and motivations to quitting among urban adult daily tobacco smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Sackey, Naa; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Santilli, Alycia; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2013-03-01

    Many people continue to smoke tobacco products despite known negative health consequences, including increased risk of chronic disease and death. Disparities exist in rates of smoking and chronic disease, underscoring the importance of understanding the barriers and motivations to smoking cessation among vulnerable populations, such as socioeconomically disadvantaged people of color. This study uses data from a cross-sectional randomized household survey conducted in six low-income neighborhoods in New Haven, Connecticut, USA (N=1205). The objectives were to examine barriers and motivations to quitting smoking among daily tobacco smokers (31.6% of respondents) and sociodemographic differences in endorsement of barriers and motivations. The two most common barriers to quitting were perceiving it to be too difficult and not wanting to quit. Financial costs, social support, and social influence were themes endorsed highly across both barriers and motivations to quitting. Sociodemographic differences were found, such as women and Black participants being more likely to be interested in a free quitline or quit website; women and Latinos being more likely to be afraid of gaining weight; and women, participants with less education, and older participants being more likely to be concerned about the cost of cessation products. Understanding barriers and motivations to quitting among disadvantaged populations is crucial. Financial issues, social support, and social norms should be targeted in promoting cessation among disadvantaged, urban populations. Programs, interventions, and policies can also use research about specific barriers and motivations for sociodemographic sub-groups to be tailored, targeted, and more effective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education.

  8. Scaffolding software: How does it influence student conceptual understanding and motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kyle A.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of scaffolding software on student conceptual understanding and motivation. This study also provides insight on how students use the scaffolding features found in Artemis and the extent to which features show a relationship to student conceptual understanding and motivation. A Randomized Solomon Four Group Design was used in this study. As students worked through a project based unit over photosynthesis, the students performed information seeking activities that were based on their own inquiry. For this purpose, the students in the experimental group used an example of scaffolding software called Artemis, while the students in the control group used a search engine of their choice. To measure conceptual understanding, the researcher analyzed student generated concept maps on photosynthesis using three different methods (quantitative, qualitative, hierarchical). To measure motivation, the researcher used a survey that measured motivation on five different indicators: intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, task value, control of learning beliefs, self-efficacy for learning and performance. Finally, the researcher looked at the relationship and influence of the scaffolding features on two student performance scores at the end of the unit. This created a total of ten dependent variables in relationship to the treatment. Overall, the students used the collaborative features 25% of the time, the maintenance features 0.84% of the time, the organizational features 16% of the time, the saving/viewing features 7% of the time and the searching features 51% of the time. There were significant correlations between the saving/viewing features hits and the students' task value (r = .499, p motivation.

  9. The Virtue of Culture in Understanding Motivation at School: Commentary on the Special Issue on Culture and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Students' higher level of motivation is not based solely on intrapersonal factors as innate characteristics, but also on contexts in which students are supposed to develop their competencies. Thus, the cultural context is expected to shape motivation. Values and beliefs shared by a cultural group will affect students' motivation to learn and…

  10. Time pressure undermines performance more under avoidance than approach motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, M.; Elliot, A.J.; Nijstad, B.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2013-01-01

    Four experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that performance is particularly undermined by time pressure when people are avoidance motivated. The results supported this hypothesis across three different types of tasks, including those well suited and those ill suited to the type of

  11. Study motivation under social temptation; effects of trait procrastination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouwenburg, HC; Groenewoud, J

    2001-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the view that procrastination can be explained as a result of the joint effect of a general discounting mechanism and a personality trait. To demonstrate the discounting mechanism, the process of study motivation prior to an examination was mentally simulated by

  12. Time Pressure Undermines Performance More Under Avoidance Than Approach Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    Four experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that performance is particularly undermined by time pressure when people are avoidance motivated. The results supported this hypothesis across three different types of tasks, including those well suited and those ill suited to the type of

  13. Understanding Motivations and User Interests as Antecedents for Different Interaction Forms in Online Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lina; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    This study contributes to the understanding of online user communities as a potential source of innovation. That would require an interest from users in interacting in such communities. In order to establish interaction, users must provide as well as consume information. However, depending...... on the innovation task, one may be more important than the other. It is therefore important to understand, how companies can increase user willingness to engage in these different interaction forms. This study investigates the influence of various motivation factors and user interests on intention to provide...... or consume information in online food communities. A survey was conducted among 1009 respondents followed by analysis based on Structural Equation Modelling. Results revealed the effect of motivation factors to be stronger than basic consumer interests indicating that companies can influence the intended...

  14. Understanding consumer motivations for interacting in online food communities – potential for innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lina; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    This study contributes to the understanding of online user communities as a potential source of innovation. That would require an interest from users in interacting in such communities. In order to establish interaction, users must provide as well as consume information. However, depending...... on the innovation task, one may be more important than the other. It is therefore important to understand, how companies can increase user willingness to engage in these different interaction forms. This study investigates the influence of various motivation factors and user interests on intention to provide...... or consume information in online food communities. A survey was conducted among 1009 respondents followed by analysis based on Structural Equation Modelling. Results revealed the effect of motivation factors to be stronger than basic consumer interests indicating that companies can influence the intended...

  15. Motives underlying food choice: dentists, porters and dietary health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, M L; Khan, S N

    2001-08-25

    Differences in dental decay and disease amongst socioeconomic groups are thought to derive, in part, from variations in dietary practices and differences in education. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine whether differences in motivating factors affecting food choice could be found in a comparison of two groups at very different ends of the social spectrum: dentists and porters/cleaners. A convenience sample of 100 people (51 porters/cleaners and 49 dentists) working in the dental school at a university in the North West of England were approached to interview face-to-face and complete the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), a previously validated measure designed to assess nine main factors relevant to peoples' food choices. A sample size of 100 was chosen because it was adequate to test validity (using a two-group Chi-square test with a 0.050 two sided significance). Findings were analysed using independent sample t-test and multiple linear regression. Results indicated significant differences between porters/cleaners and dentists in terms of their motives for food choice on six of the nine FCQ factors. These included convenience (p motivational factors affecting food choice between different social groups is important to dental practitioners who are being taught to play an increasing role in health promotion. If dental practitioners are to partake meaningfully in such a role, it is necessary for them to be aware not only of their own motives in food selection, but also of the way in which those motives may differ from those of their clients.

  16. Evidence against the continuum structure underlying motivation measures derived from self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemolli, Emanuela; Gagné, Marylène

    2014-06-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) proposes a multidimensional conceptualization of motivation in which the different regulations are said to fall along a continuum of self-determination. The continuum has been used as a basis for using a relative autonomy index as a means to create motivational scores. Rasch analysis was used to verify the continuum structure of the Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale and of the Academic Motivation Scale. We discuss the concept of continuum against SDT's conceptualization of motivation and argue against the use of the relative autonomy index on the grounds that evidence for a continuum structure underlying the regulations is weak and because the index is statistically problematic. We suggest exploiting the full richness of SDT's multidimensional conceptualization of motivation through the use of alternative scoring methods when investigating motivational dynamics across life domains.

  17. Adopting a dyadic perspective to better understand the association between physical attractiveness and dieting motivations and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Tania; Meltzer, Andrea L

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between women's objective physical attractiveness and their dieting motivations and behaviors may depend upon their social environment-specifically, their romantic partners' attractiveness-such that less attractive women with more attractive partners may be particularly motivated to diet. Theoretically, men's dieting motivations should not depend on their partners' attractiveness. We tested this possibility using a sample of 223 U.S. newlywed spouses. After completing measures assessing dieting motivations, each participant was photographed; we used those photographs to code spouses' objective facial and body attractiveness. Results demonstrated that own and partner attractiveness interacted to predict only women's dieting motivations and behaviors. Less attractive wives married to more (versus less) attractive husbands reported more dieting motivations and behaviors. In contrast, men's dieting motivations were not significantly associated with their own and their partners' attractiveness. These findings highlight the value of adopting a dyadic approach to understanding dieting motivations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding how prevocational training on care farms can lead to functioning, motivation and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen-Dalskau, Lina H; Berget, Bente; Pedersen, Ingeborg; Tellnes, Gunnar; Ihlebæk, Camilla

    2016-12-01

    Prevocational training aims to improve basic vocational and social skills, supporting return to work for people who have been out of work for a long time. Care farms provide prevocational training; the aim of the study was to use the self-determination theory to gain an understanding of how these programmes can lead to healthy functioning and motivation for clients. A total of 194 participants in prevocational training on care farms answered questions about demographic information, their perception of being a colleague, the social community on the farm, experiencing nature and animals and need satisfaction. A cross-sectional design resulting in a structural equation model was used to understand how elements of the care farm context influence satisfaction of three psychological needs. The results showed that a feeling of being a useful colleague led to competence, experiencing a sense of group belonging led to relatedness and autonomy, while receiving social support from the farmer led to satisfaction of all three needs for the participants. The results explain how prevocational training can stimulate participants' functionality, motivation and well-being. This understanding enables initiators and managers of prevocational training to understand and further strengthen the need-supportive elements of such programmes. Implications for Rehabilitation Prevocational training on care farms can facilitate motivation, functioning and well-being for clients. Making clients feel like useful colleagues that belong to a client group will strengthen the positive qualities of these programmes. Support, understanding and acknowledgement from the farmer are the most important elements for a positive development for the clients.

  19. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweiki E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ehyal Shweiki,1 Niels D Martin,2 Alec C Beekley,1 Jay S Jenoff,1 George J Koenig,1 Kris R Kaulback,1 Gary A Lindenbaum,1 Pankaj H Patel,1 Matthew M Rosen,1 Michael S Weinstein,1 Muhammad H Zubair,2 Murray J Cohen1 1Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. Keywords: learning, education, achievement

  20. Measuring and understanding motivation among community health workers in rural health facilities in India-a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Goel, Sonu; Kumar, Ajay M V

    2016-08-09

    Motivated human resource is the key to improve health system performance and retention of health workers. There is scanty literature on measuring motivation of health workers in India. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure and identify important aspects of health workers' motivation in North India. A mixed method study design was adopted. Under the quantitative component, we interviewed randomly selected 62 community health workers (CHWs) in 18 sub-centres in two blocks of District Ambala, Haryana, India using a structured motivation scale. In-depth interviews were also carried out with 18 CHWs to explore the sources of motivation. The age of respondents and training in the past 12 months were found to be significantly associated with motivation. Job burnout, poor personal health, job insecurity and less career development opportunities were the individual level de-motivators, whereas not being able to fulfil family roles and poor supportive supervision were identified as environmental factors for poor motivation. Love for work, and financial incentives were individual level motivators, while community support and recognition, organizational commitment and pride, regular training were identified as environmental level motivators. Non-financial motivators such as interpersonal relations, family support, skill and career development opportunities require more attention. Regular need-based training is essential to maintain high levels of motivation.

  1. Understanding motivations for dietary supplementation during pregnancy: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek PhD, Lenka; Umberger PhD, Wendy J; Makrides PhD, Maria; Collins PhD, Carmel T; Zhou PhD, Shao Jia

    2018-02-01

    to increase understanding of psychosocial factors (behavioural, normative and control beliefs) motivating vitamin and mineral supplement use during pregnancy. ten focus group discussions and two in-depth interviews were conducted using a script comprising questions based on study objectives. All discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a framework approach. South Australia, Australia. 40 women aged 21-45 years who were either pregnant oreducation level (secondary education only vs. post-secondary) and gravidity (first vs. subsequent pregnancy). all women, except one, used dietary supplements during pregnancy. Most women took supplements to achieve peace of mind knowing that nutrient requirements were 'definitely' being met. Other common factors motivating supplement use were the beliefs that supplementation: benefits maternal and fetal health; corrects known nutritional deficiencies; and is a more efficient method of obtaining required nutrients relative to food. Advice received from healthcare providers and marketing of supplements also motivated supplementation, while forgetting to take supplements was the most common barrier to use. Cost was only a barrier when considering whether or not to continue supplementation post-birth. women believe that supplements are an easier and more reliable source of nutrients than food intake alone, and rely on dietary supplementation as an insurance policy during pregnancy. Further studies are needed in larger and more representative samples to validate these findings and to test the effectiveness of information and intervention strategies targeting appropriate supplement use during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding Motivations for Abstinence among Adolescent Young Women: Insights into Effective Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents’ motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 15–19 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893

  3. Understanding the Motivations: A Qualitative Analysis of Israelis Holding a Bachelor's Degree Who Pursue an MBA Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Ayelet

    2017-01-01

    Motivations for study abroad have been studied mostly from a quantitative point of view. This study attempted to understand those motivations through qualitative methodology, by getting "into the heads" of international students using a multiple case study approach. Participants were 15 Israeli Hebrew-speaking graduates. Data sources…

  4. Understanding informal payments in health care: motivation of health workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Thomas, Steve; Bidwell, Posy; Mtui, Tina; Mwisongo, Aziza

    2009-06-30

    There is growing evidence that informal payments for health care are fairly common in many low- and middle-income countries. Informal payments are reported to have a negative consequence on equity and quality of care; it has been suggested, however, that they may contribute to health worker motivation and retention. Given the significance of motivation and retention issues in human resources for health, a better understanding of the relationships between the two phenomena is needed. This study attempts to assess whether and in what ways informal payments occur in Kibaha, Tanzania. Moreover, it aims to assess how informal earnings might help boost health worker motivation and retention. Nine focus groups were conducted in three health facilities of different levels in the health system. In total, 64 health workers participated in the focus group discussions (81% female, 19% male) and where possible, focus groups were divided by cadre. All data were processed and analysed by means of the NVivo software package. The use of informal payments in the study area was confirmed by this study. Furthermore, a negative relationship between informal payments and job satisfaction and better motivation is suggested. Participants mentioned that they felt enslaved by patients as a result of being bribed and this resulted in loss of self-esteem. Furthermore, fear of detection was a main demotivating factor. These factors seem to counterbalance the positive effect of financial incentives. Moreover, informal payments were not found to be related to retention of health workers in the public health system. Other factors such as job security seemed to be more relevant for retention. This study suggests that the practice of informal payments contributes to the general demotivation of health workers and negatively affects access to health care services and quality of the health system. Policy action is needed that not only provides better financial incentives for individuals but also

  5. Understanding informal payments in health care: motivation of health workers in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidwell Posy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that informal payments for health care are fairly common in many low- and middle-income countries. Informal payments are reported to have a negative consequence on equity and quality of care; it has been suggested, however, that they may contribute to health worker motivation and retention. Given the significance of motivation and retention issues in human resources for health, a better understanding of the relationships between the two phenomena is needed. This study attempts to assess whether and in what ways informal payments occur in Kibaha, Tanzania. Moreover, it aims to assess how informal earnings might help boost health worker motivation and retention. Methods Nine focus groups were conducted in three health facilities of different levels in the health system. In total, 64 health workers participated in the focus group discussions (81% female, 19% male and where possible, focus groups were divided by cadre. All data were processed and analysed by means of the NVivo software package. Results The use of informal payments in the study area was confirmed by this study. Furthermore, a negative relationship between informal payments and job satisfaction and better motivation is suggested. Participants mentioned that they felt enslaved by patients as a result of being bribed and this resulted in loss of self-esteem. Furthermore, fear of detection was a main demotivating factor. These factors seem to counterbalance the positive effect of financial incentives. Moreover, informal payments were not found to be related to retention of health workers in the public health system. Other factors such as job security seemed to be more relevant for retention. Conclusion This study suggests that the practice of informal payments contributes to the general demotivation of health workers and negatively affects access to health care services and quality of the health system. Policy action is needed that not only

  6. Measuring and understanding motivation among community health workers in rural health facilities in India-a mixed method study

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Goel, Sonu; Kumar, Ajay M. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Motivated human resource is the key to improve health system performance and retention of health workers. There is scanty literature on measuring motivation of health workers in India. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure and identify important aspects of health workers? motivation in North India. Methods A mixed method study design was adopted. Under the quantitative component, we interviewed randomly selected 62 community health workers (CHWs) in 18 sub-centres in two...

  7. Understanding and motivating health care employees: integrating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, training and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Suzanne G; Dundis, Stephen P

    2003-09-01

    This paper applies Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Model to the challenges of understanding and motivating employees in a rapidly changing health care industry. The perspective that Maslow's Model brings is an essential element that should be considered as the health care arena is faced with reorganization, re-engineering, mergers, acquisitions, increases in learning demands, and the escalating role of technology in training. This paper offers a new perspective related to how Maslow's Model, as used in business/organizational settings, can be directly related to current workforce concerns: the need for security and freedom from stress, social belongingness, self-esteem, self-actualization, altered work/social environments, and new opportunities for learning and self-definition. Changes in health care will continue at an accelerated pace and with these changes will come the need for more and more training. The use of technology in training has heightened access, faster distribution, innovation and increased collaboration. However, with this technology come attendant challenges including keeping up with the technology, the increased pace of training, depersonalization, and fear of the unknown. The Maslow model provides a means for understanding these challenges in terms of universal individual needs. How does one motivate employees in the face of increased demands, particularly when they are being asked to meet these demands with fewer resources? The answer is, in large part, to make the employee feel secure, needed, and appreciated. This is not at all easy, but if leaders take into consideration the needs of the individual, the new technology that provides challenges and opportunities for meeting those needs, and provides the training to meet both sets of needs, enhanced employee motivation and commitment is possible.

  8. Understanding family health information seeking: a test of the theory of motivated information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R

    2014-01-01

    Although a family health history can be used to assess disease risk and increase health prevention behaviors, research suggests that few people have collected family health information. Guided by the Theory of Motivated Information Management, this study seeks to understand the barriers to and facilitators of interpersonal information seeking about family health history. Individuals who were engaged to be married (N = 306) were surveyed online and in person to understand how factors such as uncertainty, expectations for an information search, efficacy, and anxiety influence decisions and strategies for obtaining family health histories. The results supported the Theory of Motivated Information Management by demonstrating that individuals who experienced uncertainty discrepancies regarding family heath history had greater intention to seek information from family members when anxiety was low, outcome expectancy was high, and communication efficacy was positive. Although raising uncertainty about family health history may be an effective tool for health communicators to increase communication among family members, low-anxiety situations may be optimal for information seeking. Health communication messages must also build confidence in people's ability to communicate with family to obtain the needed health information.

  9. Enriching the hierarchical model of achievement motivation: autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-12-01

    The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between achievement motives and outcomes. We tested whether mastery approach, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals and their underlying autonomous and controlling reasons would jointly explain the relation between achievement motives (i.e., fear of failure and need for achievement) and learning strategies (Study 1). Additionally, we examined whether the autonomous and controlling reasons underlying learners' dominant achievement goal would account for the link between achievement motives and the educational outcomes of learning strategies and cheating (Study 2). Six hundred and six Greek adolescent students (Mage = 15.05, SD = 1.43) and 435 university students (Mage M = 20.51, SD = 2.80) participated in studies 1 and 2, respectively. In both studies, a correlational design was used and the hypotheses were tested via path modelling. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals mediated, respectively, the relation of need for achievement and fear of failure to aspects of learning outcomes. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals could further explain learners' functioning in achievement settings. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Student Use of Scaffolding Software: Relationships with Motivation and Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kyle A.; Lumpe, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    This study was designed to theoretically articulate and empirically assess the role of computer scaffolds. In this project, several examples of educational software were developed to scaffold the learning of students performing high level cognitive activities. The software used in this study, Artemis, focused on scaffolding the learning of students as they performed information seeking activities. As 5th grade students traveled through a project-based science unit on photosynthesis, researchers used a pre-post design to test for both student motivation and student conceptual understanding of photosynthesis. To measure both variables, a motivation survey and three methods of concept map analysis were used. The student use of the scaffolding features was determined using a database that tracked students' movement between scaffolding tools. The gain scores of each dependent variable was then correlated to the students' feature use (time and hits) embedded in the Artemis Interface. This provided the researchers with significant relationships between the scaffolding features represented in the software and student motivation and conceptual understanding of photosynthesis. There were a total of three significant correlations in comparing the scaffolding use by hits (clicked on) with the dependent variables and only one significant correlation when comparing the scaffold use in time. The first significant correlation ( r = .499, p students' task value. This correlation supports the assumption that there is a positive relationship between the student use of the saving/viewing features and the students' perception of how interesting, how important, and how useful the task is. The second significant correlation ( r = 0.553, p students' self-efficacy for learning and performance. This correlation supports the assumption that there is a positive relationship between the student use of the searching features and the students' perception of their ability to accomplish a task as

  11. Consumers’ social media brand behaviors: uncovering underlying motivators and deriving meaningful consumer segments

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriu, Radu; Guesalaga Trautmann, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    The current research identifies the range of social media brand behaviors (i.e., brand touch points) that consumers can exhibit on social media, and subsequently queries a representative sample of consumers with regard to such behaviors. The analysis reveals four underlying motivators for consumers’ social media behaviors, including brand tacit engagement, brand exhibiting, brand patronizing and brand deal seeking. These motivators are used to derive meaningful consumer segments identified as...

  12. Teaching Games for Understanding: A Comprehensive Approach to Promote Student's Motivation in Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortigüela Alcalá, David; Hernando Garijo, Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    It seems important to consider students' attitudes towards physical education (PE), and the way they learn sports. The present study examines students' perceptions of motivation and achievement in PE after experiencing three consecutive sport units. Two hundred and thirty seven students from the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade in a high school in Burgos (Spain) and two teachers agreed to participate. They were divided into two groups in order to compare two instructional approaches. The experimental group (A), 128 students, experienced Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), while the control group (B), 109 students, experienced a technical-traditional approach. Each group was taught by a different teacher. The study followed a mixed-method research design with quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interview) data. Results revealed that group A showed greater motivation and achievement in PE than group B. Significant differences were found in achievement. Participants with better academic results in group A were more positive in sport participation. Meanwhile, students who practiced more extracurricular sports in group B were more actively involved in sport. Teachers disagreed greatly on the way sport should be taught in PE.

  13. Can achievement emotions be used to better understand motivation, learning, and performance in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider an emergent theory of human emotion. The overarching purpose of the article is to introduce medical education researchers to the notion of achievement emotions and provide a brief overview of how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. First, we define achievement emotions and describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun R. 2006. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educ Psychol Rev 18:315-341.). Next, we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal causes, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance, and we discuss several implications for educational practice. Finally, we end with a call for more research on achievement emotions in medical education to facilitate our understanding of emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  14. Paradigms for Assessing Hedonic Processing and Motivation in Humans: Relevance to Understanding Negative Symptoms in Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barch, Deanna M; Gold, James M; Kring, Ann M

    2017-07-01

    Clinicians and researchers have long known that one of the debilitating aspects of psychotic disorders is the presence of "negative symptoms," which involve impairments in hedonic and motivational function, and/or alterations in expressive affect. We have a number of excellent clinical tools available for assessing the presence and severity of negative symptoms. However, to better understand the mechanisms that may give rise to negative symptoms, we need tools and methods that can help distinguish among different potential contributing causes, as a means to develop more targeted intervention pathways. Using such paradigms is particularly important if we wish to understand whether the causes are the same or different across disorders that may share surface features of negative symptoms. This approach is in line with the goals of the Research Diagnostic Criteria Initiative, which advocates understanding the nature of core dimensions of brain-behavior relationships transdiagnostically. Here we highlight some of the emerging measures and paradigms that may help us to parse the nature and causes of negative symptoms, illustrating both the research approaches from which they emerge and the types of constructs that they can help elucidate. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Developing high-performance cross-functional teams: Understanding motivations, functional loyalties, and teaming fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    Teamwork is the key to the future of effective technology management. Today`s technologies and markets have become too complex for individuals to work alone. Global competition, limited resources, cost consciousness, and time pressures have forced organizations and project managers to encourage teamwork. Many of these teams will be cross-functional teams that can draw on a multitude of talents and knowledge. To develop high-performing cross-functional teams, managers must understand motivations, functional loyalties, and the different backgrounds of the individual team members. To develop a better understanding of these issues, managers can learn from experience and from literature on teams and teaming concepts. When studying the literature to learn about cross-functional teaming, managers will find many good theoretical concepts, but when put into practice, these concepts have varying effects. This issue of varying effectiveness is what drives the research for this paper. The teaming concepts were studied to confirm or modify current understanding. The literature was compared with a {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes}, a survey of the reality of teaming practices, to examine the teaming concepts that the literature finds to be critical to the success of teams. These results are compared to existing teams to determine if such techniques apply in real-world cases.

  16. Toward an Understanding of Motivational Influences on Prospective Memory Using Value-Added Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel I Cook

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined value-added intentions by manipulating the cognitive frame associated with monetary contingencies for detecting prospective memory cues. We associated a loss-frame with a monetary punishment for failing to respond to cues and a gain-frame with a monetary reward for remembering to respond to cues and compared those frames to a no-frame control condition with no contingency linked to performance. Across two experiments, we find increased prospective memory performance for participants in the loss-frame (Experiments 1 and 2 and in the gain-frame (Experiment 2 conditions relative to the no-frame condition. This value-related improvement in prospective memory was not accompanied by a significant increase in cue monitoring as measured by intention induced interference to an ongoing task and recognition memory for ongoing task items. The few previous studies investigating motivational prospective memory showed mixed results regarding whether prospective memory improves due to incentives or not. Our results provide further evidence that, under some experimental conditions, prospective memory improves with rewards and that the benefit generalizes to penalizing performance. The results have both practical implications and theoretical implications for motivation models of prospective memory.

  17. A self-determination theory approach to understanding the antecedents of teachers' motivational strategies in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ian M; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Standage, Martyn

    2008-02-01

    Physical education teachers can influence students' self-determination through the motivational strategies that they use. The current study examined how teachers' reported use of three motivational strategies (providing a meaningful rationale, providing instrumental help and support, and gaining an understanding of the students) were predicted by perceived job pressure, perceptions of student self-determination, the teachers' autonomous orientation, psychological need satisfaction, and self-determination to teach. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which perceived job pressure, perceptions of student self-determination, and teacher autonomous orientation predicted teacher psychological need satisfaction, which, in turn positively influenced teacher self-determination. The last positively predicted the use of all three strategies. Direct positive effects of teachers' psychological need satisfaction on the strategies of gaining an understanding of students and instrumental help and support were also found. In summary, factors that influence teacher motivation may also indirectly affect their motivational strategies toward students.

  18. Self-Determination Approach to Understanding of Motivation in Students of Helping Professions

    OpenAIRE

    Hrbáčková, Karla; Suchánková, Eliška

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents research results aimed at the identification of the motivation to learn of students in the preparation of helping professions. Student motivation is an important part of the self-regulated learning process, yet not sufficient attention is paid to this issue at the tertiary level of education. The research aims to discover the extent to which students' motivation to learn is internalized, and also to determine the extent to which this motivation is domain-specific. For resea...

  19. Understanding feeding patterns in growing pigs by modelling growth and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, I.J.M.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Hofstede, G.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding is an essential behaviour for body maintenance in pigs and closely related to their growth and productivity performance. Mechanisms underlying feeding behaviour in pigs are still unclear. Understanding these mechanisms can provide valuable insights into the complex interactions among various

  20. Understanding Middle School Students' Motivation in Math Class: The Expectancy-Value Model Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Eyup

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important variables affecting middle school students' mathematics performance is motivation. Motivation is closely related with expectancy belief regarding the task and value attached to the task. Identification of which one or ones of the factors constituting motivation is more closely related to mathematics performance may help…

  1. Testing the simplex assumption underlying the Sport Motivation Scale: a structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F; Harmer, P

    1996-12-01

    Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) suggests that motivational orientation or regulatory styles with respect to various behaviors can be conceptualized along a continuum ranging from low (a motivation) to high (intrinsic motivation) levels of self-determination. This pattern is manifested in the rank order of correlations among these regulatory styles (i.e., adjacent correlations are expected to be higher than those more distant) and is known as a simplex structure. Using responses from the Sport Motivation Scale (Pelletier et al., 1995) obtained from a sample of 857 college students (442 men, 415 women), the present study tested the simplex structure underlying SMS subscales via structural equation modeling. Results confirmed the simplex model structure, indicating that the various motivational constructs are empirically organized from low to high self-determination. The simplex pattern was further found to be invariant across gender. Findings from this study support the construct validity of the SMS and have important implications for studies focusing on the influence of motivational orientation in sport.

  2. Principal Leadership and Teacher Motivation under High-Stakes Accountability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, Kara S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines principal leadership and teacher motivation in schools under accountability sanctions. The conceptual framework is grounded in research on expectancy theory and transformational leadership. The study involves a survey of Chicago teachers and indicates that principal instructional leadership and support for change are…

  3. Quality Challenges in Transnational Higher Education under Profit-Driven Motives: The Vietnamese Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhan, Thi Thuy; Nguyen, Huu Cuong

    2018-01-01

    Among educational practices in the era of globalisation, developing countries are emerging with diverse representations of transnational collaboration. This paper investigates the operation and regulation of joint programs in Vietnam as a case study of higher education under the impact of profit-driven motives. It first reviews the trends,…

  4. To travel or not to travel: towards understanding the theory of nativistic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    George, Babu P.; Inbakaran, Robert; Poyyamoli, Gopalsamy

    2010-01-01

    Largely employing the frameworks provided by the opponent process theory, the trans-theoretical model of change, and the two factor theory of motivation, the present paper introduces the concept of ‘nativistic motivation’ into the tourism literature. Although nativistic motivation might turn out to be an important category in the nomological network of tourism theory, it has thus far escaped the attention of tourism researchers. The traditional conceptualization of tourism motivation included...

  5. [Intrinsic motivation: a new direction of understanding and treatment of schizophrenia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, Maayan; Grunhaus, Leon; Israeli, David

    2013-09-01

    While diagnosing schizophrenia, clinicians focus on feeling the quality and nature of the internal motivation of patients. This motivational quality was theoretically conceptualized by Self Determination Theory (SDT). In this article we will review some of the basics of this theory, which focuses on motivational variables assessing behavior on an internal-external axis. Then, we will review prominent findings in the topic of using SDT concepts for the treatment of schizophrenia. The next stage will include a discussion as to the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivators as well as possible neuroanatomy of these behavioral variables. Finally, directions for research will be offered in the field of schizophrenia diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Understanding motivational structures that differentially predict engagement and achievement in middle school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine S.; Hayes, Kathryn N.; Seitz, Jeffery; DiStefano, Rachelle; O'Connor, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Middle school has been documented as the period in which a drop in students' science interest and achievement occurs. This trend indicates a lack of motivation for learning science; however, little is known about how different aspects of motivation interact with student engagement and science learning outcomes. This study examines the relationships among motivational factors, engagement, and achievement in middle school science (grades 6-8). Data were obtained from middle school students in the United States (N = 2094). The theoretical relationships among motivational constructs, including self-efficacy, and three types of goal orientations (mastery, performance approach, and performance avoid) were tested. The results showed that motivation is best modeled as distinct intrinsic and extrinsic factors; lending evidence that external, performance based goal orientations factor separately from self-efficacy and an internal, mastery based goal orientation. Second, a model was tested to examine how engagement mediated the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and science achievement. Engagement mediated the relationship between intrinsic motivation and science achievement, whereas extrinsic motivation had no relationship with engagement and science achievement. Implications for how classroom practice and educational policy emphasize different student motivations, and in turn, can support or hinder students' science learning are discussed.

  7. Use of protection motivation theory, affect, and barriers to understand and predict adherence to outpatient rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindley, Emma J; Zizzi, Samuel J; Nasypany, Alan M

    2008-12-01

    Protection motivation theory (PMT) has been used in more than 20 different health-related fields to study intentions and behavior, albeit primarily outside the area of injury rehabilitation. In order to examine and predict patient adherence behavior, this study was carried out to explore the use of PMT as a screening tool in a general sample of people with orthopedic conditions. New patients who were more than 18 years old and who were prescribed 4 to 8 weeks of physical therapy treatment (n=229) were administered a screening tool (Sports Injury Rehabilitation Beliefs Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and a barriers checklist) prior to treatment. Participants' adherence was assessed with several attendance measures and an in-clinic assessment of behavior. Statistical analyses included correlation, chi-square, multiple regression, and discriminant function analyses. A variety of relationships among affect, barriers, and PMT components were evident. In-clinic behavior and attendance were influenced by affect, whereas dropout status was predicted by affect, severity, self-efficacy, and age. The screening tool used in this study may assist in identifying patients who are at risk for poor adherence and provide valuable information to enhance provider-patient relationships and foster patient adherence. However, it is recommended that more research be conducted to further understand the impact of variables on patient adherence and that the screening tool be enhanced to increase its predictive ability.

  8. Predictors of children's prosocial lie-telling: Motivation, socialization variables, and moral understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popliger, Mina; Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela

    2011-11-01

    Children tell prosocial lies for self- and other-oriented reasons. However, it is unclear how motivational and socialization factors affect their lying. Furthermore, it is unclear whether children's moral understanding and evaluations of prosocial lie scenarios (including perceptions of vignette characters' feelings) predict their actual prosocial behaviors. These were explored in two studies. In Study 1, 72 children (36 second graders and 36 fourth graders) participated in a disappointing gift paradigm in either a high-cost condition (lost a good gift for a disappointing one) or a low-cost condition (received a disappointing gift). More children lied in the low-cost condition (94%) than in the high-cost condition (72%), with no age difference. In Study 2, 117 children (42 preschoolers, 41 early elementary school age, and 34 late elementary school age) participated in either a high- or low-cost disappointing gift paradigm and responded to prosocial vignette scenarios. Parents reported on their parenting practices and family emotional expressivity. Again, more children lied in the low-cost condition (68%) than in the high-cost condition (40%); however, there was an age effect among children in the high-cost condition. Preschoolers were less likely than older children to lie when there was a high personal cost. In addition, compared with truth-tellers, prosocial liars had parents who were more authoritative but expressed less positive emotion within the family. Finally, there was an interaction between children's prosocial lie-telling behavior and their evaluations of the protagonist's and recipient's feelings. Findings contribute to understanding the trajectory of children's prosocial lie-telling, their reasons for telling such lies, and their knowledge about interpersonal communication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding and imitating unfamiliar actions: distinct underlying mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana C Carmo

    Full Text Available The human "mirror neuron system" has been proposed to be the neural substrate that underlies understanding and, possibly, imitating actions. However, since the brain activity with mirror properties seems insufficient to provide a good description for imitation of actions outside one's own repertoire, the existence of supplementary processes has been proposed. Moreover, it is unclear whether action observation requires the same neural mechanisms as the explicit access to their meaning. The aim of this study was two-fold as we investigated whether action observation requires different processes depending on 1 whether the ultimate goal is to imitate or understand the presented actions and 2 whether the to-be-imitated actions are familiar or unfamiliar to the subject. Participants were presented with both meaningful familiar actions and meaningless unfamiliar actions that they had to either imitate or discriminate later. Event-related Potentials were used as differences in brain activity could have been masked by the use of other techniques with lower temporal resolution. In the imitation task, a sustained left frontal negativity was more pronounced for meaningless actions than for meaningful ones, starting from an early time-window. Conversely, observing unfamiliar versus familiar actions with the intention of discriminating them led to marked differences over right centro-posterior scalp regions, in both middle and latest time-windows. These findings suggest that action imitation and action understanding may be sustained by dissociable mechanisms: while imitation of unfamiliar actions activates left frontal processes, that are likely to be related to learning mechanisms, action understanding involves dedicated operations which probably require right posterior regions, consistent with their involvement in social interactions.

  10. [Learning pathologic anatomy during medical formation: Understanding the contribution of the motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toquet, Claire; Normand, Adeline; Guihard, Gilles

    2018-05-26

    The motivations of medical students for Pathologic Anatomy are little known although they can strongly influence their academic performance. Our work focused on the analysis of the relationship between performance and motivation for Pathologic Anatomy. Second-year students (n=268) from the University of Nantes were contacted to complete a motivation questionnaire and to provide indicators of performance and attendance. The responses were analyzed in order to establish the psychometric reliability and the factorial structure of the questionnaire. The relationship between motivation and performance was explored by correlation and by linear regression studies. A cluster analysis was performed to specify the distribution of the two variables in our sample. The sample corresponded to 168 respondents with a F/M ratio similar to that of our population. Our data demonstrated the reliability of the questionnaire and a structure described by 5 motivation factors (self-determination, self-efficacy, career, grade and intrinsic motivation). The academic performance was not significantly correlated with the overall motivation or with student attendance. However, it was predicted by self-determination and self-efficacy. Our work revealed gender differences as well as the existence of two distinct clusters defined by the motivation and performance of the students. This work constitutes the first study of the motivations of French medical students for cyto-pathology. It validates a quantitative assessment tool for motivation. Finally, it explores the heterogeneity of the distribution of motivation and academic performance within a population of learners. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Motivated Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard ePatterson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of motivated thinking, its powerful and pervasive influence on explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or epistemic criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving of explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or (following Kunda’s usage, directional motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms, combined with an effort to preserve the appearance of accuracy; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. In short, real life explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. Our proposals are largely programmatic, although we do review a good deal of relevant behavioral and neurological evidence. Specifically, we recognize five generative processes, some of which cover further sub-processes, and six evaluative processes. All of these are potential points of entry for the influence of motivation. We then suggest in some detail how specific sorts of explanatory motivation interact with specific explanatory processes.

  12. Understanding changes in the motivation of stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation in hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickrell, M.; Bongers, B.; van den Hoven, E.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke patient motivation can fluctuate during rehabilitation due to a range of factors. This study reports on qualitative research, consisting of observations of stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation and interviews with patients about the changes in motivation they identified during their time

  13. Understanding and Motivating Human Control: Outcome and Reward Information in Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marien, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323242529

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis motivated goal-directed behavior is investigated from a self-emergent process perspective. This perspective supposes that motivation for goal-directed behavior can be the result of a pattern of relatively simple interactions between reward and outcome information. In this thesis three

  14. Examining the Reggio Emilia Approach: Keys to Understanding Why It Motivates Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Alexa Fraley; Jones, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Because of the success of the Reggio Emilia Approach in early childhood education, it could be useful to researchers and practitioners to identify and explicate components of the approach that make it effective in motivating students. In this paper, we examine the Reggio Emilia Approach through the lens of the MUSIC® Model of Motivation, a model…

  15. Understanding Instructor Nonverbal Immediacy, Verbal Immediacy, and Student Motivation at a Small Liberal Arts University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlich, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Instructor communication behaviors and student motivation to learn relationships were studied at a small liberal arts university. Specifically, relationships between instructor nonverbal immediacy, verbal immediacy behaviors and student motivation to learn were measured. Only instructor verbal immediacy behaviors had a significant linear…

  16. Applying Self-Determination Theory to Understand the Motivation for Becoming a Physical Education Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Michael; Jackson, Kevin; Casey, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the reasons people choose physical education teaching as a profession and investigated the relationship of these choices with motivation. Physical education pre-service teachers (n = 324) completed the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) and a measure of reasons for choosing physical education teaching. Confident interpersonal…

  17. Understanding the Leaky Engineering Pipeline: Motivation and Job Adaptability of Female Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathiamma, Manjusha Thekkedathu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a mixed-method study conducted using qualitative grounded theory and quantitative survey and correlation approaches. This study aims to explore the motivation and adaptability of females in the engineering profession and to develop a theoretical framework for both motivation and adaptability issues. As a result, this study…

  18. Understanding the role of emotion-oriented coping in women's motivation for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Slesnick, Natasha; Zhang, Jing

    2018-03-01

    This study tested a sequential mediation model that emotion-oriented coping and motivation for change mediate the relations between anxiety and depressive symptoms and the change in substance use. Data included 183 substance using women, randomly assigned to family therapy (N=123) or individual therapy (N=60). They reported their baseline anxiety and depressive symptoms, emotion-oriented coping, as well as motivation for change throughout treatment, and substance use over a time period of 1.5years. Latent growth curve modeling showed that increased baseline motivation was associated with a faster decline in alcohol and drug use. Moreover, higher baseline anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with a faster decrease in drug use through higher emotion-oriented coping and higher baseline motivation. This study underscores the importance of emotion-oriented coping in increasing clients' motivation and reducing their drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Practical implications of understanding the influence of motivations on commitment to voluntary urban conservation stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asah, Stanley T; Blahna, Dale J

    2013-08-01

    Although the word commitment is prevalent in conservation biology literature and despite the importance of people's commitment to the success of conservation initiatives, commitment as a psychological phenomenon and its operation in specific conservation behaviors remains unexplored. Despite increasing calls for conservation psychology to play a greater role in meeting conservation goals, applications of the psychological sciences to specific conservation behaviors, illustrating their utility to conservation practice, are rare. We examined conservation volunteers' motivations and commitment to urban conservation volunteering. We interviewed key informant volunteers and used interview findings to develop psychometric scales that we used to assess motivations and commitment to volunteer. We surveyed 322 urban conservation volunteers and used factor analysis to reveal how volunteers structure their motivations and commitment to volunteer for urban conservation activities. Six categories of motivations and 2 categories of commitment emerged from factor analysis. Volunteers were motivated by desires to help the environment, defend and enhance the ego, career and learning opportunities, escape and exercise, social interactions, and community building. Two forms of commitment, affective and normative commitment, psychologically bind people to urban conservation volunteerism. We used linear-regression models to examine how these categories of motivations influence volunteers' commitment to conservation volunteerism. Volunteers' tendency to continue to volunteer for urban conservation, even in the face of fluctuating counter urges, was motivated by personal, social, and community functions more than environmental motivations. The environment, otherwise marginally important, was a significant motivator of volunteers' commitment only when volunteering met volunteers' personal, social, and community-building goals. Attention to these personal, social, and community

  20. Understanding motivation for substance use treatment: the role of social pressure during the transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ilana; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Henderson, Joanna

    2011-06-01

    Research has shown that social pressure is related to treatment motivation and plays an important role in treatment engagement in adults with problematic substance use. Despite the shifts in autonomy and decision-making in emerging adulthood, the factors affecting treatment motivation (e.g., readiness to comply with treatment) during this period have been largely ignored. In this cross sectional study, 134 youth (83 males and 51 females) presenting to an outpatient substance abuse program completed questionnaires regarding substance use history, mental health, social pressure to reduce use and enter treatment, and treatment motivation. Age was positively related to identification of internal reasons for seeking treatment and negatively related to external coercive social pressures as a motivator for treatment. Peer pressure accounted for significant variance in Identified (e.g., personal choice and commitment to the program) and Introjected (e.g., guilt about continued substance use) treatment motivation. Family pressure was related only to External treatment motivation when peer pressure was considered in the regression model. These results highlight the importance of emerging adult peers as motivators of youths' treatment seeking. Limitations, directions for future research and treatment implications are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Heating up Climate Literacy Education: Understanding Teachers' and Students' Motivational and Affective Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    presentation, findings from a research program exploring the role of "hot constructs" such as motivation and emotion in teaching and learning about climate change will be shared. In these studies, we have explored constructs such as emotions, misconceptions, plausibility perceptions, understanding deep time, and dispositions towards uncertainty. Results from four studies will be highlighted. In the first study, we demonstrated that comfort with ambiguity and a willingness to think deeply about issues predicted both change in attitudes towards climate change and expressed willingness to take mitigative action in college students (Sinatra, et al. 2011). In another study with college students, we demonstrated that knowledge of deep time and plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate change were related to students' understanding of weather and climate distinctions (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). In a study with graduate education students, we found that misconceptions about climate change were associated with strong emotions (Broughton, et al., 2011). With practicing teachers we have found that emotions, specifically anger and hopelessness, were significant predictors of plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, in preparation). The implications for climate change education of the findings will be discussed.

  2. Evolving social responsibility understandings, motivations, and career goals of undergraduate students initially pursuing engineering degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulifson, Gregory A.

    Engineers impact the lives of every person every day, and need to have a strong sense of social responsibility. Understanding what students think about social responsibility in engineering and their futures is very important. Further, by identifying influences that change these ideas and shape their conceptualizations, we can intervene to help prepare students for their responsibilities as part of the profession in the future. This thesis presents the experiences, in their own words, of 34 students who started in engineering. The study is composed of three parts: (i) engineering students' ideas about socially responsible engineering and what influenced these ideas, (ii) how students see themselves as future socially responsible engineers and how this idea changes over their first three years of college, and (iii) what social responsibility-related reasons students who leave engineering have for choosing a new major. Results show that students are complicated and have varied paths through and out of engineering studies. Students came up with their own ideas about socially responsible engineering that converged over the years on legal and safety related aspects of the profession. Relatedly, students identified with the engineering profession through internships and engineering courses, and rarely described socially responsible aspirations that could be accomplished with engineering. More often, those students who desired to help the disadvantaged through their engineering work left engineering. Their choice to leave was a combination of an unsupportive climate, disinterest in their classes, and a desire to combine their personal and professional social responsibility ambitions. If we want engineering students to push the engineering profession forward to be more socially responsible, we can identify the effective influences and develop a curriculum that encourages critical thinking about the social context and impacts of engineering. Additionally, a social

  3. How do cancer patients navigate the public information environment? Understanding patterns and motivations for movement among information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Rebekah H; Romantan, Anca; Kelly, Bridget J; Stevens, Robin S; Gray, Stacy W; Hull, Shawnika J; Ramirez, A Susana; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about how patients move among information sources to fulfill unmet needs. We interviewed 43 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer patients. Using a grounded theory approach, we identified patterns and motivations for movement among information sources. Overall, patients reported using one source (e.g., newspaper) followed by the use of another source (e.g., Internet), and five key motivations for such cross-source movement emerged. Patients' social networks often played a central role in this movement. Understanding how patients navigate an increasingly complex information environment may help clinicians and educators to guide patients to appropriate, high-quality sources.

  4. Understanding gendered aspects of migration aspiration and motives of university students by multivariate statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đula Borozan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of multivariate analysis of variance and logistic regression in measuring, explaining and evaluating (i gender differences in expressing migration aspirations, and (ii a gender effect on migration motivation of university students in Croatia. The results supported the thesis that migration is a complex gendering process that assumes subjective assessment of the whole set of interrelated motives. According to logistic regression, gender is a significant predictor of migration aspirations among the selected demographic and socio-economic variables. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that gender and migration aspirations in interaction matter when it comes to migration motives, particularly related to the perceived importance of social networks. Females, and especially those who aspire to migrate, assessed these motives as more important than males.

  5. A cross-cultural, multilevel study of inquiry-based instruction effects on conceptual understanding and motivation in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Meiko

    Student achievement and motivation to learn physics is highly valued in many industrialized countries including the United States and Japan. Science education curricula in these countries emphasize the importance and encourage classroom teachers to use an inquiry approach. This dissertation investigated high school students' motivational orientations and their understanding of physics concepts in a context of inquiry-based instruction. The goals were to explore the patterns of instructional effects on motivation and learning in each country and to examine cultural differences and similarities. Participants consisted of 108 students (55 females, 53 males) and 9 physics teachers in the United States and 616 students (203 females and 413 males) and 11 physics teachers in Japan. Students were administered (a) Force Concept Inventory measuring physics conceptual understanding and (b) Attitudes about Science Questionnaire measuring student motivational orientations. Teachers were given a survey regarding their use of inquiry teaching practices and background information. Additionally, three teachers in each country were interviewed and observed in their classrooms. For the data analysis, two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methods were used to examine individual student differences (i.e., learning, motivation, and gender) within each classroom (i.e., inquiry-based teaching, teaching experience, and class size) in the U.S. and Japan, separately. Descriptive statistical analyses were also conducted. The results indicated that there was a cultural similarity in that current teaching practices had minimal influence on conceptual understanding as well as motivation of high school students between the U.S. and Japan. In contrast, cultural differences were observed in classroom structures and instructional approaches. Furthermore, this study revealed gender inequity in Japanese students' conceptual understanding and self-efficacy. Limitations of the study, as well as

  6. Understanding producers’ motives to adopt sustainable practices: the role of expected rewards, risk perception, and risk tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofenk, D.J.B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Trujillo Barrera, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine producers’ motives underlying the adoption of sustainable practices. In particular, we focus on expected economic, social, and personal rewards, and examine the roles of producers’ risk perception and risk tolerance. Preliminary results from a survey

  7. Understanding Producers’ Motives for Adopting Sustainable Practices: The Role of Expected Rewards, Risk Perception, and Risk Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofenk, D.J.B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Trujillo Barrera, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines producers’ motives underlying the adoption of sustainable practices. In particular, we focus on expected economic, social, and personal rewards, and examine the role of producers’ risk perception and risk tolerance. Results from personal computer-guided interviews with164 hog

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS’ MOTIVATIONAL DIMENSIONS UNDER THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Hasanbegović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the development of some motivational dimensions of secondary school students when they are treated by the experimental way of teaching. The study was conducted on a sample of 240 pupils of The Secondary School Banovici, out of which 124 males and 116 females. The pupils were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 120 pupils divided into four sections, out of which 73 males and 47 females. This is the control group. The second group also consisted of 120 pupils divided into four sections, out of which 51 male and 69 females. This group was subjected to the experimental way of teaching and thus represents the experimental group. Results show the changes in pupils’ motivational characteristics under the influence of innovative educational content that are reflected through their activities and final attitudes on the physical education value. The discriminate analysis revealed the statistically important differences between pupils that are treated by the experimental program compared to students treated by traditional program in terms of motivation in physical education classes (PE classes. However, the study, in some way, solves the problem of inactivity and pupils’ lack of interest for the PE classes, i.e. it suggests the pupils’ possible development of motivation for work using the appropriate educational contents.

  9. Understanding and scaffolding Danish schoolteachers’ motivation for using classroom-based physical activity: study protocol for a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Thomas; Bredahl, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of physical activity for children’s health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited amount of knowledge about teachers’ views when it comes to integrating physical activity as part of teaching. The aim of this study is to understand teachers’ motivation for integrating physical activity as part of teaching and to assess their need for guidance and support. Methods and analysis The study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Schools from across Denmark are included in the sample. The design comprises two separated phases—a quantitative and qualitative phase. The quantitative phase is guided by the self-determination theory where teachers’ motivation will be measured using the Work Task Motivation Scale for Teachers. The theory of scaffolding guides the qualitative phase, which consists of in-depth interviews with participants selected from the quantitative phase based on levels of motivation and on demographic information. In accordance with the study aims, the analysis of data will identify teachers’ internal and external levels of motivation. The purpose of the qualitative phase is to enhance understanding of teachers’ motivation and of their need for support in the use of physical activity in teaching. Ethics and dissemination All relevant ethics approvals have been acquired. All participants in this study will provide written informed consent prior to data collection. All data emerging from the quantitative and qualitative phase will be anonymised for analysis. Ethics approval was requested from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics for Southern Denmark approval ID S-20162000–40 and the Danish Data Protection Agency approval ID 16/15491). The study was deemed not notifiable by both authorities. Trial

  10. Understanding and scaffolding Danish schoolteachers' motivation for using classroom-based physical activity: study protocol for a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Louise Stjerne; Skovgaard, Thomas; Bredahl, Thomas

    2018-03-14

    The benefits of physical activity for children's health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited amount of knowledge about teachers' views when it comes to integrating physical activity as part of teaching. The aim of this study is to understand teachers' motivation for integrating physical activity as part of teaching and to assess their need for guidance and support. The study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Schools from across Denmark are included in the sample. The design comprises two separated phases-a quantitative and qualitative phase. The quantitative phase is guided by the self-determination theory where teachers' motivation will be measured using the Work Task Motivation Scale for Teachers. The theory of scaffolding guides the qualitative phase, which consists of in-depth interviews with participants selected from the quantitative phase based on levels of motivation and on demographic information. In accordance with the study aims, the analysis of data will identify teachers' internal and external levels of motivation. The purpose of the qualitative phase is to enhance understanding of teachers' motivation and of their need for support in the use of physical activity in teaching. All relevant ethics approvals have been acquired. All participants in this study will provide written informed consent prior to data collection. All data emerging from the quantitative and qualitative phase will be anonymised for analysis. Ethics approval was requested from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics for Southern Denmark approval ID S-20162000-40 and the Danish Data Protection Agency approval ID 16/15491). The study was deemed not notifiable by both authorities. NCT02894346; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated

  11. `Discover, Understand, Implement, and Transfer': Effectiveness of an intervention programme to motivate students for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Kerstin; Köller, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Considerable research has focused on how best to satisfy modern societies' needs for skilled labour in the field of science. The present study evaluated an intervention programme designed to increase secondary school students' motivation to pursue a science career. Students from 3 schools of the highest educational track participated for up to 2 years in the intervention programme, which was implemented as an elective in the school curriculum. Our longitudinal study design for evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention programme included all students at the grade levels involved in the programme with students who did not participate serving as a control group. Mixed-model analyses of variance showed none of the intended effects of the intervention programme on science motivation; latent growth models corroborated these results. When the programme began, students who enrolled in the science elective (n = 92) were already substantially more motivated than their classmates (n = 228). Offering such an intervention programme as an elective did not further increase the participating students' science motivation. It seems worthwhile to carry out intervention programmes with talented students who show (comparatively) little interest in science at the outset rather than with highly motivated students who self-select into the programme.

  12. Understanding the leaky engineering pipeline: Motivation and job adaptability of female engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathiamma, Manjusha Thekkedathu

    This dissertation is a mixed-method study conducted using qualitative grounded theory and quantitative survey and correlation approaches. This study aims to explore the motivation and adaptability of females in the engineering profession and to develop a theoretical framework for both motivation and adaptability issues. As a result, this study endeavors to design solutions for the low enrollment and attenuation of female engineers in the engineering profession, often referred to as the "leaky female engineering pipeline." Profiles of 123 female engineers were studied for the qualitative approach, and 98 completed survey responses were analyzed for the quantitative approach. The qualitative, grounded-theory approach applied the constant comparison method; open, axial, and selective coding was used to classify the information in categories, sub-categories, and themes for both motivation and adaptability. The emergent themes for decisions motivating female enrollment include cognitive, emotional, and environmental factors. The themes identified for adaptability include the seven job adaptability factors: job satisfaction, risk- taking attitude, career/skill development, family, gender stereotyping, interpersonal skills, and personal benefit, as well as the self-perceived job adaptability factor. Illeris' Three-dimensional Learning Theory was modified as a model for decisions motivating female enrollment. This study suggests a firsthand conceptual parallelism of McClusky's Theory of Margin for the adaptability of female engineers in the profession. Also, this study attempted to design a survey instrument to measure job adaptability of female engineers. The study identifies two factors that are significantly related to job adaptability: interpersonal skills (related.

  13. Mechanisms Underlying Motivational Deficits in Psychopathology: Similarities and Differences in Depression and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barch, Deanna M; Pagliaccio, David; Luking, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Motivational and hedonic impairments are core aspects of a variety of types of psychopathology. These impairments cut across diagnostic categories and may be critical to understanding major aspects of the functional impairments accompanying psychopathology. Given the centrality of motivational and hedonic systems to psychopathology, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative includes a "positive valence" systems domain that outlines a number of constructs that may be key to understanding the nature and mechanisms of motivational and hedonic impairments in psychopathology. These component constructs include initial responsiveness to reward, reward anticipation or expectancy, incentive or reinforcement learning, effort valuation, and action selection. Here, we review behavioral and neuroimaging studies providing evidence for impairments in these constructs in individuals with psychosis versus in individuals with depressive pathology. There are important differences in the nature of reward-related and hedonic deficits associated with psychosis versus depression that have major implications for our understanding of etiology and treatment development. In particular, the literature strongly suggests the presence of impairments in in-the-moment hedonics or "liking" in individuals with depressive pathology, particularly among those who experience anhedonia. Such deficits may propagate forward and contribute to impairments in other constructs that are dependent on hedonic responses, such as anticipation, learning, effort, and action selection. Such hedonic impairments could reflect alterations in dopamine and/or opioid signaling in the striatum related to depression or specifically to anhedonia in depressed populations. In contrast, the literature points to relatively intact in-the-moment hedonic processing in psychosis, but provides much evidence for impairments in other components involved in translating reward to action selection. Particularly, individuals with

  14. Principles of motivation revealed by the diverse functions of neuropharmacological and neuroanatomical substrates underlying feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Brian A; Pratt, Wayne E; Will, Matthew J; Hanlon, Erin C; Bakshi, Vaishali P; Cador, Martine

    2013-11-01

    Circuits that participate in specific subcomponents of feeding (e.g., gustatory perception, peripheral feedback relevant to satiety and energy balance, reward coding, etc.) are found at all levels of the neural axis. Further complexity is conferred by the wide variety of feeding-modulatory neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that act within these circuits. An ongoing challenge has been to refine the understanding of the functional specificity of these neurotransmitters and circuits, and there have been exciting advances in recent years. We focus here on foundational work of Dr. Ann Kelley that identified distinguishable actions of striatal opioid peptide modulation and dopamine transmission in subcomponents of reward processing. We also discuss her work in overlaying these neuropharmacological effects upon anatomical pathways that link the telencephalon (cortex and basal ganglia) with feeding-control circuits in the hypothalamus. Using these seminal contributions as a starting point, we will discuss new findings that expand our understanding of (1) the specific, differentiable motivational processes that are governed by central dopamine and opioid transmission, (2) the manner in which other striatal neuromodulators, specifically acetylcholine, endocannabinoids and adenosine, modulate these motivational processes (including via interactions with opioid systems), and (3) the organization of the cortical-subcortical network that subserves opioid-driven feeding. The findings discussed here strengthen the view that incentive-motivational properties of food are coded by substrates and neural circuits that are distinguishable from those that mediate the acute hedonic experience of food reward. Striatal opioid transmission modulates reward processing by engaging frontotemporal circuits, possibly via a hypothalamic-thalamic axis, that ultimately impinges upon hypothalamic modules dedicated to autonomic function and motor pattern control. We will conclude by discussing

  15. Feelings and motives underlying Machiavellian behavioural strategies; narrative reports in a social dilemma situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czibor, Andrea; Vincze, Orsolya; Bereczkei, Tamas

    2014-12-01

    This study explored the reasons and motives underlying the decisions of individuals with strong Machiavellian attitudes (High Machs). One hundred and fifty undergraduate students completed the Mach-IV test, and their contributions to, financial success in and narrative reports of a public goods game were analysed. High Machs contributed less to the public good and gained more benefit than Low Machs. Analysis of the narrative reports showed that High Machs used significantly fewer verbs referring to emotional involvement and first person plural verb forms, than did Low Machs. This study confirmed previous findings that High Machs have a cool and rational character and a proself orientation and showed that their lack of group orientation may account for their low cooperation in social dilemmas. The results of narrative content analysis provide a new perspective on the motives and values behind High Machs' decisions and success in different fields of social life. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Understanding “Baby Boomers” and “Millennials” motivations to interact with brands on Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Rute Sofia Matos de

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and importance of social media and, in particular, social networking sites (SNS), has made it possible for an accessible integration between consumers and brands, by providing unlimited reasons for users to express, share and create content. The aim of this dissertation is to explore what motivates consumers to interact with brands on social media and to understand the relevance of those variables in explaining consumers’ loyalty toward a brand. Members of two distinct genera...

  17. Go East: Differences between Poland and Western European countries in the motivational structures underlying seafood consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    in the Netherlands. Despite the variation between Western European countries, a common finding was a much higher consistency between intentions and actual consumption behavior as compared to Poland. The differences are discussed in terms of their implications for supply chain management, product supply...... a deeper understanding of the preferences, motives and usage patterns of Polish seafood consumers. The aim of the study was to fill this gap. Representative consumer samples from Poland (N = 1000) and four Western European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain; total N = 3800) were surveyed...

  18. Partial Treatment Requests and Underlying Motives of Applicants for Gender Affirming Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, Titia F; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Steensma, Thomas D

    2015-11-01

    Historically, only individuals with a cross-gender identity who wanted to receive a full treatment, were eligible for "complete sex reassignment" consisting of feminizing/masculinizing hormone treatment and several surgical interventions including genital surgery (full treatment). Currently, it is unclear what motives underlie a request for hormones only or surgery only or a combination of hormones and surgery (e.g., a mastectomy), but no genital surgery (partial treatment). The aims of this study were (i) to describe treatment requests of applicants at a specialized gender identity clinic in the Netherlands; and (ii) to explore the motives underlying a partial treatment request, including the role of (non-binary) gender identity. Information was collected on all 386 adults who applied for treatment at the Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria of the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in the year 2013. Treatment requests were available for 360 individuals: 233 natal men (64.7%) and 127 natal women (35.3%). Treatment requests were systematically collected during assessment. Individuals were classified as either desiring a full or partial treatment. The motives behind a partial treatment request were collected and categorized as well. The majority of applicants at our gender identity clinic requested full treatment. Among those who requested partial treatment, the most reported underlying motive was surgical risks/outcomes. Only a small number of applicants requested partial treatment to bring their body into alignment with their non-binary gender identity. It becomes clear that partial treatment is requested by a substantial number of applicants. This emphasizes the need for gender identity clinics to provide information about the medical possibilities and limitations, and careful introduction and evaluation of non-standard treatment options. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Creating Rich Portraits: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Understanding Profiles of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Haimovitz, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    A person-centered, mixed-methods approach (self-report surveys, semistructured interviews, school records) was used to characterize and evaluate profiles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations among 243 third- through eighth-grade students. Cluster analysis suggested four distinct profiles: high quantity (high intrinsic, high extrinsic), primarily…

  20. Understanding Children's Reading Activities: Reading Motivation, Skill and Child Characteristics as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Osborne, Cara; Warhurst, Amy; Norgate, Roger; Duncan, Lynne G.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a range of child characteristics (sex, age, socioeconomic status, reading skill and intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation) predicted engagement (i.e., time spent) in different reading activities (fiction books, factual books, school textbooks, comics, magazines and digital texts). In total, 791 children…

  1. Self-Determination Theory and Middle School Mathematics Teachers: Understanding the Motivation to Attain Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Amy K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological research study was to use Self-Determination Theory as a framework to analyze middle school mathematics teachers' motivation to attain effective professional development concerning Ohio's Learning Standards as well as other instructional aspects that affect the classroom. Teachers are exceptionally busy meeting…

  2. "Discover, Understand, Implement, and Transfer": Effectiveness of an Intervention Programme to Motivate Students for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Kerstin; Köller, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on how best to satisfy modern societies' needs for skilled labour in the field of science. The present study evaluated an intervention programme designed to increase secondary school students' motivation to pursue a science career. Students from 3 schools of the highest educational track participated for up to 2…

  3. Understanding employees' informal workplace learning: The joint influence of career motivation and self-construal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Monique; Yang, H.; Sanders, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the joint influence of employees' career motivation and their self-construal on their engagement in three informal workplace learning activities: keeping up-to-date, asking for feedback from supervisors and knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach –

  4. Understanding users’ motivations to engage in virtual worlds: A multipurpose model and empirical testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.; Feldberg, J.F.M.; van den Hooff, B.J.; Meents, S.; Merikivi, J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growth and commercial potential of virtual worlds, relatively little is known about what drives users' motivations to engage in virtual worlds. This paper proposes and empirically tests a conceptual model aimed at filling this research gap. Given the multipurpose nature of virtual words

  5. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  6. Explorers, Detectives, Matchmakers, and Lion Tamers: Understanding Jigsaw Puzzlers' Techniques and Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Angela Cora

    2013-01-01

    Why do people enjoy jigsaw puzzles, which--challenging and time-consuming as they are--might be considered more like work than play? The author investigates the motivations, preferences, and satisfactions of individuals working on jigsaw puzzles, and she explores how these elements of play relate to the procedures and strategies puzzlers use to…

  7. Understanding the link between older volunteers’ resources and motivation to volunteer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Principi, Andrea; Schippers, Joop; Naegele, Gerd; Di Rosa, Mirko; Lamura, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of older volunteers’ available human, social, and cultural capital on their motivational forces to volunteer, measured through the Volunteer Function Inventory. A large European database of 955 older volunteers (i.e., aged 50+) was employed,

  8. Donor Motivations and Decision Making: Understanding the Major Gift Development Process from a Donor's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Anna Lee

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is faced with a challenge to its traditional funding structure. As a result, academic programs must seek alternative sources of support. Chief among these sources is philanthropy in the form of major gifts. Insight into donor motivations and decision making when approached to consider a major gift may help to maximize the success…

  9. Understanding Factors Associated with Children's Motivation to Engage in Recess-Time Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrat, Merav W.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is linked with health and academic benefits. While recess provides the greatest opportunity for children to accumulate physical activity, most children are not motivated to engage in sufficient amounts of physical activity during recess. Research demonstrates a strong relationship between self-efficacy and children's motivation…

  10. Pushing the boundaries of research on human resources for health: fresh approaches to understanding health worker motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Aarushi; Scott, Kerry; Govender, Veloshnee; George, Asha

    2018-04-01

    A country's health workforce plays a vital role not only in serving the health needs of the population but also in supporting economic prosperity. Moreover, a well-funded and well-supported health workforce is vital to achieving universal health coverage and Sustainable Development Goal 3 to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. This perspective article highlights the potential of underutilized health policy and systems research (HPSR) approaches for developing more effective human resources for health policy. The example of health worker motivation is used to showcase four types of HPSR (exploratory, influence, explanatory and emancipatory) that move beyond describing the extent of a problem. Most of the current literature aiming to understand determinants and dynamics of motivation is descriptive in nature. While this is an important basis for all research pursuits, it often gives little information about mechanisms to improve motivation and strategies for intervention. Motivation is an essential determinant of health worker performance, particularly for those working in difficult conditions, such as those facing many health workers in low- and middle-income countries. Motivation mediates health workforce performance in multiple ways: internally governing health worker behaviour; informing decisions on becoming a health worker; workplace location and ability to perform; and influencing willingness to engage politically. The four fresh research approaches described can help policy-makers better understand why health workers behave the way they do, how interventions can improve performance, the mechanisms that lead to change, and strategies for empowering health workers to be agents of change themselves.

  11. Understanding how dogs encourage and motivate walking: cross-sectional findings from RESIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Westgarth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people live with dogs but not all walk with them regularly. This study examines the demographic and behavioural factors that contribute towards owners reporting having a strong sense of encouragement and motivation to walk provided by their dogs, which we call ‘the Lassie effect’. Methods Data was collected from 629 dog owners participating in the RESIDE cross-sectional survey in Perth, Western Australia. Multivariable logistic regression analyses of factors associated with two separate outcome survey items ‘Dog encouragement to walk’ (how often dog encouraged me to go walking in last month and ‘Dog motivation to walk’ (Having a dog makes me walk more. Results Owning a larger dog; having an increased level of attachment to dog; knowing dog enjoys going for a walk; believing walking keeps dog healthy; and having high social support from family to go walking, were positively associated with both outcomes ‘dog encouragement to walk’ and ‘dog motivation to walk’. Conversely, reporting the presence of children at home; that the child is the main person who walks with the dog; and perceiving dog-specific barriers to walking with dog daily; were negatively associated with both outcomes. In addition, ‘Dog motivation to walk’ only was positively associated with a belief walking reduces barking, and negatively with owning a dog that is overweight or a dog that is too old/sick. Reporting that the spouse/partner is main person who walks with the dog was also negatively associated with ‘dog motivation to walk’, as was increased perceived access to public open spaces with dog-supportive features. Conclusions There are both dog and owner factors that are associated with an owner’s sense of encouragement, and motivation to walk the dog, which in turn has been found to be associated with dog waking behaviour. These factors may be targeted in future interventions to increase and maintain physical activity

  12. Organic food consumption in Taiwan: Motives, involvement, and purchase intention under the moderating role of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Chih-Ching; Lu, Chi-Heng

    2016-10-01

    Despite the progressive development of the organic food sector in Taiwan, little is known about how consumers' consumption motives will influence organic food decision through various degrees of involvement and whether or not consumers with various degrees of uncertainty will vary in their intention to buy organic foods. The current study aims to examine the effect of consumption motives on behavioral intention related to organic food consumption under the mediating role of involvement as well as the moderating role of uncertainty. Research data were collected from organic food consumers in Taiwan via a questionnaire survey, eventually obtaining 457 valid questionnaires for analysis. This study tested the overall model fit and hypotheses through structural equation modeling method (SEM). The results show that consumer involvement significantly mediates the effects of health consciousness and ecological motives on organic food purchase intention, but not applied to food safety concern. Moreover, the moderating effect of uncertainty is statistical significance, indicating that the relationship between involvement and purchase intention becomes weaker in the condition of consumers with higher degree of uncertainty. Several implications and suggestions are also discussed for organic food providers and marketers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Understanding Motivational Factors in Business Environment: Difference Between Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Y

    OpenAIRE

    Vuokko, Essi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to research and evaluate the motivational differences between three different generations, Baby Boomers (born between 1946 and 1964), generation X (born between 1965 and 1980) and generation Y (born between 1981 and 200), in business environment. As the earlier studies regarding the topic suggest, there are notable differences between the generations’ preferred rewarding systems and working environments, for example. Due to these expected differences in the ch...

  14. Understanding older adults' motivators and barriers to participating in organized programs supporting exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedenweg, Kelly; Meischke, Hendrika; Bohl, Alex; Hammerback, Kristen; Williams, Barbara; Poe, Pamela; Phelan, Elizabeth A

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about older adults' perceptions of organized programs that support exercise behavior. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 older adults residing in King County, Washington, who either declined to join, joined and participated, or joined and then quit a physical activity-oriented program. We sought to explore motivators and barriers to physical activity program participation and to elicit suggestions for marketing strategies to optimize participation. Two programs supporting exercise behavior and targeting older persons were the source of study participants: Enhance(®)Fitness and Physical Activity for a Lifetime of Success. We analyzed interview data using standard qualitative methods. We examined variations in themes by category of program participant (joiner, decliner, quitter) as well as by program and by race. Interview participants were mostly females in their early 70s. Approximately half were non-White, and about half had graduated from college. The most frequently cited personal factors motivating program participation were enjoying being with others while exercising and desiring a routine that promoted accountability. The most frequent environmental motivators were marketing materials, encouragement from a trusted person, lack of program fees, and the location of the program. The most common barriers to participation were already getting enough exercise, not being motivated or ready, and having poor health. Marketing messages focused on both personal benefits (feeling better, social opportunity, enjoyability) and desirable program features (tailored to individual needs), and marketing mechanisms ranged from traditional written materials to highly personalized approaches. These results suggest that organized programs tend to appeal to those who are more socially inclined and seek accountability. Certain program features also influence participation. Thoughtful marketing that involves a variety of messages and mechanisms is

  15. Comparison of motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among low medium income consumers in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Ares

    Full Text Available Abstract: Interventions aimed at changing dietary patterns should be designed based on the main motives underlying the food choices of specific target populations. The aim of the present study was to identify motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among consumers in two socioeconomic levels in Uruguay. Eleven focus groups were carried out with a total of 76 participants. Six of the groups involved low income participants and the others were conducted with middle income participants. Discussions were held around frequently consumed products, motives underlying food choices and barriers to healthy eating. Results confirmed the strong influence of income level on motives underlying food choice and barriers to the adoption of healthy eating. Low income participants described their choices as mainly driven by economic factors and satiety, whereas convenience was the main determinant of food selection for middle income participants. Implications for the design of public policies targeted at each group are discussed.

  16. Comparison of motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among low medium income consumers in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Machín, Leandro; Girona, Alejandra; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana

    2017-05-18

    Interventions aimed at changing dietary patterns should be designed based on the main motives underlying the food choices of specific target populations. The aim of the present study was to identify motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among consumers in two socioeconomic levels in Uruguay. Eleven focus groups were carried out with a total of 76 participants. Six of the groups involved low income participants and the others were conducted with middle income participants. Discussions were held around frequently consumed products, motives underlying food choices and barriers to healthy eating. Results confirmed the strong influence of income level on motives underlying food choice and barriers to the adoption of healthy eating. Low income participants described their choices as mainly driven by economic factors and satiety, whereas convenience was the main determinant of food selection for middle income participants. Implications for the design of public policies targeted at each group are discussed.

  17. Understanding the cognitive and motivational underpinnings of sexual passion from a dualistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Frederick L; Vallerand, Robert J; Bernard-Desrosiers, Léa; Guilbault, Valérie; Rajotte, Guillaume

    2017-11-01

    Sexual passion has always been conceptualized as a one-dimensional phenomenon that emerges from interactions with partners. Drawing from the literature on passionate activities, sexual passion was defined in terms of its intrapersonal motivational and cognitive components and examined from a dualistic perspective. More specifically, in 5 studies, we investigated how 2 types of sexual passion, harmonious and obsessive, can lead to clearly distinct subjective, relational, and cognitive outcomes. Study 1 validated a scale measuring harmonious and obsessive sexual passion, and showed that each type of sexual passion leads to common, but also distinct, subjective consequences during sexual activity engagement for both singles and romantically engaged individuals. Studies 2 and 3 differentiated the constructs of harmonious and obsessive sexual passion from competing constructs existing in the literature and provided evidence for its predictive validity regarding various relational outcomes, including relationship sustainability over time. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 investigated the cognitive consequences of each type of sexual passion by showing how they reflect distinct levels of integration of sexual and relational representations, and how they can lead to biased processing of sexual information (Study 4) and conflict with ongoing sex-unrelated goals (Studies 5a and 5b). Overall, the present series of studies provides a new look at sexual passion from a motivational and cognitive intrapersonal perspective that is not restricted to interpersonal ramifications with partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Hills and valleys: Understanding the under-eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind N Naik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue deflation and descent have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of facial aging. In the periorbital area, the upper orbital region is thought to change by descent of the eyebrow, as well as deflation of brow fat. While the understanding of the aging changes in the upper eyelid region are relatively simple, the lower eyelid poses a myriad of aging changes, each demanding a specific management plan. These can be best described in terms of elevations, or 'Hills' and hollows, or 'Valleys'. This article simplifies the understanding of the lower eyelid in the light of anatomical knowledge, and available literature. It forms a basis of easy diagnosis and treatment of the soft tissue changes in the lower eyelid and malar region.

  19. Advanced waterflooding in chalk reservoirs: Understanding of underlying mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Sandersen, Sara Bülow; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, a number of studies have shown SO42−, Ca2+ and Mg2+ to be potential determining ions, which may be added to the injected brine for improving oil recovery during waterflooding in chalk reservoirs. However the understanding of the mechanism leading to an increase in oil recove...... of a microemulsion phase could be the possible reasons for the observed increase in oil recovery with sulfate ions at high temperature in chalk reservoirs besides the mechanism of the rock wettability alteration, which has been reported in most previous studies.......Over the last decade, a number of studies have shown SO42−, Ca2+ and Mg2+ to be potential determining ions, which may be added to the injected brine for improving oil recovery during waterflooding in chalk reservoirs. However the understanding of the mechanism leading to an increase in oil recovery...

  20. The Role of Motivation and Understanding in the Change of Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This is a reflection on a case of in-service teacher education. Two Swiss teachers, assisted by a change agent, were developing an innovative teaching approach, inspired by Wiggins & McTighe's methodology Understanding by Design (UbD). While one developed a real understanding and mastery of this approach--improving therefore his professional…

  1. Homo Ethicus : Understanding the Human Nature that Underlies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The themes of human rights and human rights education in South Africa's multi-cultural society are central to the work of Cornelia Roux. This article discusses the human reality and ethics underlying those themes, using an approach based on a view of human nature. It has six sections, starting with an introduction ...

  2. Understanding motivation of visitors at dark tourism sites : Case study of August 7th Memorial Park, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Gaya, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the fascination of death and disaster has influenced the tourism scene and today, millions of visitors from all over the world travel to sites of death and disaster. This study aims to identify what motivates tourists to visit sites of death and disaster in order to understand better visitor behavior at such sites and specifically the August 7th Memorial Park, Kenya; which was the site of a 1998 terrorist bomb attack that caused the deaths of 218 people and injured thousands more. ...

  3. Understanding and scaffolding Danish schoolteachers' motivation for using classroom-based physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Louise Stjerne; Skovgaard, Thomas; Bredahl, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The benefits of physical activity for children's health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited......: The study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Schools from across Denmark are included in the sample. The design comprises two separated phases-a quantitative and qualitative phase. The quantitative phase is guided by the self-determination theory where teachers' motivation will be measured...... have been acquired. All participants in this study will provide written informed consent prior to data collection. All data emerging from the quantitative and qualitative phase will be anonymised for analysis. Ethics approval was requested from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics...

  4. Motives underlying food consumption in the Western Balkans: consumers' profiles and public health strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, Julie; Thiel, Elise; Laniau, Martine; Sijtsema, Siet; Zimmermann, Karin; Barjolle, Dominique

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to identify subgroups of consumers based on the health motives underlying their food choice in Western Balkan Countries. The survey (n = 2943) was based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and elicited information on socio-demographic characteristics, consumption frequency of healthy food products, nutrition knowledge and impulsiveness. Analysis of the FCQ data focused on items of "health and natural content" and "weight control" factors to identify clusters. The biggest group of the sample was weight control and health-concerned individuals (34 %), mainly urban women older than 50. The second group of respondents (31 %) was moderately motivated about health and weight. A third group was health concerned but paid less attention to weight control (21 %), mainly comprising men and people living with children. The last group consisted of unconcerned young men (14 %) eating less fruit and showing higher impulsiveness. Western Balkan consumers differ in the importance they attach to health and natural content and weight control. This insight is needed to target interventions.

  5. Understanding how biodiversity unfolds through time under neutral theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missa, Olivier; Dytham, Calvin; Morlon, Hélène

    2016-04-05

    Theoretical predictions for biodiversity patterns are typically derived under the assumption that ecological systems have reached a dynamic equilibrium. Yet, there is increasing evidence that various aspects of ecological systems, including (but not limited to) species richness, are not at equilibrium. Here, we use simulations to analyse how biodiversity patterns unfold through time. In particular, we focus on the relative time required for various biodiversity patterns (macroecological or phylogenetic) to reach equilibrium. We simulate spatially explicit metacommunities according to the Neutral Theory of Biodiversity (NTB) under three modes of speciation, which differ in how evenly a parent species is split between its two daughter species. We find that species richness stabilizes first, followed by species area relationships (SAR) and finally species abundance distributions (SAD). The difference in timing of equilibrium between these different macroecological patterns is the largest when the split of individuals between sibling species at speciation is the most uneven. Phylogenetic patterns of biodiversity take even longer to stabilize (tens to hundreds of times longer than species richness) so that equilibrium predictions from neutral theory for these patterns are unlikely to be relevant. Our results suggest that it may be unwise to assume that biodiversity patterns are at equilibrium and provide a first step in studying how these patterns unfold through time. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Understanding individual differences in school achievement : the specific and joint impact of motivation and parenting style independent of children's measured intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Intelligence explains some variance in students’ school achievement, but not all. Motivation and parenting have been well-documented as non-cognitive predictors and are crucial to students’ school achievement. Better performance of students under Eastern culture could be attributed to motivation and parenting. The present research is dedicated to exploring the associations among motivation and parenting, as well as their specific and joint predictive power for school achievement, independent ...

  7. Understanding the school outcomes of juvenile offenders: an exploration of neighborhood influences and motivational resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Mulvey, Edward P; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-08-01

    As a group, delinquent youth complete less education and show poor academic outcomes compared to their non-delinquent peers. To better understand pathways to school success, this study integrated individual- and neighborhood-level data to examine academic functioning among 833 White, Black, and Hispanic male juvenile offenders (age 14-17) living in two urban communities. A multilevel path analysis confirmed that youth in relatively more affluent communities report greater access to opportunities in the areas of education and employment, and that these opportunities are associated with higher expectations to succeed and better grades. Findings highlight the importance of taking an ecological approach for understanding processes that shape school effort and achievement. Implications are discussed in the context of promoting academic success among juvenile offenders, specifically, and for understanding pathways to healthy adjustment, more generally.

  8. Professional Motivation Formation of Future Specialists under the Conditions of Regional Educational Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargina, Elena Mikhaylovna

    2015-01-01

    Motivation plays the leading role in the organization of the personality structure. It is a driving force of the activity. Motivation accounts for the behavior and activity and has a great impact on professional self-determination and person's satisfaction with the work. The problem of professional motivation formation of a future specialist is…

  9. Using narratives to understand the motivational factors and experience of being a self-initiated academic expatriate in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinashe T. Harry

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A growing movement of foreign nationals is settling in South Africa. Given this, there is a need to understand not only those factors influencing foreign nationals to settle in South Africa but also their lived experiences as a basis for individual career development. Research purpose: To investigate the expatriation motivational factors and experiences of selfinitiated academic expatriates in South Africa. Motivation for the study: Calls have been made within the careers literature for more empirical focus on understanding career development using some of the neglected sample groups. Research approach, design and method: The interpretive paradigm was adopted to understand the main purpose of the study. Guided by study objectives, unstructured interviews were conducted using a sample of foreign academics working in South Africa (n = 25. Main findings: Individual stories and narratives highlighted that academics relocated for the following reasons: (1 individual preference, (2 economic meltdown and (3 political conditions. Furthermore, the lived experiences of the expatriates reflected discrimination within the workplace and the community of residences in South Africa. Practical and managerial implications: Research findings indicate that the human resources (HR function can come up with interventions that positively influence the lived experience and career development of foreign academics working in South Africa. Contribution: The expatriate experience framed in this study provides a picture of the career development processes of neglected sample groups in the extant literature. Such an understanding is key in advancing literature and proposing interventions. All this is important given the global trend on labour and skills movement added to the role South Africa plays in the international arena.

  10. Questions of migration and belonging: understandings of migration under neoliberalism in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, V

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores alternative understandings and experiences of migration under neoliberalism in Ecuador. Through the case study, the study examines migrants' multiple motivations for mobility and their ambivalence toward the process. Insights from the transnational migration literature were drawn in order to think through the implications of an increasingly contradictory context of economic modernization and its impact upon the sense of possibilities and belonging of migrants. In-depth interviews with urban-destined migrants in Ecuador were drawn to argue that mobility produces ambivalent development subjects. This argument is developed in three sections. First, the paper centers on the epistemological and theoretical basis for the relevance of migrant narratives in extending theorizations of migration. Second, in-depth interviews with migrants to Quito are drawn to explore migrants' sense of belonging and regional affiliation, identity formation through migration, and experiences of alienation and disruption in their lives. Lastly, this paper concludes with a retheorization of the role of migration places in the migrant identity construction.

  11. Understanding Motivations to Adopt Once-a-Day Milking amongst New Zealand Dairy Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewsell, D.; Clark, D. A.; Dalley, D. E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study to understand why some New Zealand dairy farmers are changing from twice-a-day (TAD) to once-a-day (OAD) milking. Increasing herd size, unavailability of suitable labour and changing lifestyle expectations from farmers and their staff have led some to explore OAD milking as a means of alleviating these…

  12. Leader Empowering Behaviour: The Leader’s Perspective : Understanding the motivation behind leader empowering behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Hakimi (Natalia)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe present dissertation tries to shed light on the phenomenon of empowering leadership. We aim to understand the antecedents of leader empowering behaviour. In doing so, we mean to remedy the stated lack of research on empowering leadership and on the effect of follower’s behaviour on

  13. Understanding students' motivation in project work: a 2 x 2 achievement goal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Woon Chia; Wang, C K John; Tan, Oon Seng; Ee, Jessie; Koh, Caroline

    2009-03-01

    The project work (PW) initiative was launched in 2000 by the Ministry of Education, Singapore, to encourage application of knowledge across disciplines, and to develop thinking, communication, collaboration, and metacognitive skills. Although PW has been introduced for a few years, few studies have examined the motivation of students in PW, especially with the use of the recently proposed 2 x 2 achievement goal framework. To use a cluster analytic approach to identify students' achievement goal profiles at an intra-individual level, and to examine their links to various psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes in PW. Participants were 491 Secondary 2 students (mean age = 13.78, SD = 0.77) from two government coeducational schools. Cluster analysis was performed to identify distinct subgroups of students with similar achievement goal profiles. One-way MANOVAs, followed by post hoc Tukey HSD tests for pairwise comparisons were used to determine whether there was any significant difference amongst clusters in terms of the psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes in PW. Four distinct clusters of students were identified. The cluster with high achievement goals and the cluster with moderately high goals had the most positive psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes. In contrast, the cluster with very low scores for all four achievement goals had the most maladaptive profile. The study provides support for the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework, and demonstrates that multiple goals can operate simultaneously. However, it highlights the need for cross-cultural studies to look into the approach-avoidance dimension in the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

  14. The disposition to understand for oneself at university: integrating learning processes with motivation and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Noel; McCune, Velda

    2013-06-01

    A re-analysis of several university-level interview studies has suggested that some students show evidence of a deep and stable approach to learning, along with other characteristics that support the approach. This combination, it was argued, could be seen to indicate a disposition to understand for oneself. To identify a group of students who showed high and consistent scores on deep approach, combined with equivalently high scores on effort and monitoring studying, and to explore these students' experiences of the teaching-learning environments they had experienced. Re-analysis of data from 1,896 students from 25 undergraduate courses taking four contrasting subject areas in eleven British universities. Inventories measuring approaches to studying were given at the beginning and the end of a semester, with the second inventory also exploring students' experiences of teaching. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify groups of students with differing patterns of response on the inventory scales, with a particular focus on students showing high, stable scores. One cluster clearly showed the characteristics expected of the disposition to understand and was also fairly stable over time. Other clusters also had deep approaches, but also showed either surface elements or lower scores on organized effort or monitoring their studying. Combining these findings with interview studies previously reported reinforces the idea of there being a disposition to understand for oneself that could be identified from an inventory scale or through further interviews. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Building an Understanding: What Motivates Teachers to use Science in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuck, Karen M.

    a means to facilitate teaching and learning goals and beliefs held by this group of teachers. Reasons for continued use included the project was found to be user friendly and the project maintained a variety of equipment, and updated labs and equipment on a regular basis. In addition, teachers were given an opportunity to have a voice in the project, selecting labs and materials as the project expanded over the years, which gave teachers a sense of ownership and empowerment. Assertions about this group of teachers were also developed. These teachers were found to be reflective about their teaching practices, and resourceful problem-solvers. They also maintain strong professional attitudes, and value life-long learning. The research participants believe maintaining a dynamic curriculum and continued professional growth keep the teaching processes exciting for themselves, which then sparks student interest excitement and motivation to learn.

  16. Understanding motivators and barriers of hospital-based obstetric and pediatric health care worker influenza vaccination programs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckerman, Jane L; Shrestha, Lexa; Collins, Joanne E; Marshall, Helen S

    2016-07-02

    Understanding motivators and barriers of health care worker (HCW) vaccination programs is important for determining strategies to improve uptake. The aim of this study was to explore key drivers and HCW decision making related to recommended vaccines and seasonal influenza vaccination programs. We used a qualitative approach with semi-structured one-to-one interviews with 22 HCWs working at a tertiary pediatric and obstetric hospital in South Australia. A thematic analysis and coding were used to examine data. Key motivators that emerged included: sense of responsibility, convenience and ease of access, rotating trolleys, the influenza vaccine being free, basic knowledge about influenza and influenza vaccination, peer pressure, personal values and family culture, as well as the culture of support for the program. Personal decisions were the major barrier to HCWs receiving the influenza vaccine which were predominantly self-protection related or due to previous experience or fear of adverse reactions. Other barriers that emerged were misconceptions about the influenza vaccine, needle phobia and privacy concerns. This study identified both attitudinal and structural barriers that could be addressed to improve uptake of the seasonal influenza vaccine.

  17. Interactive effects of video, priming, and music on emotions and the needs underlying intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Loizou, G; Karageorghis, CI; Bishop, D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Emotions can enhance motivation towards a particular goal (Brehm, 1999), while activation of human motivation does not necessarily involve conscious processes (Bargh, 1990). The main purpose of the present study was to explore the impact of video, priming, and music on a range of emotion- and motivation-related variables, while the secondary purpose was to conduct a cross-cultural comparison. Design: A randomized controlled design was employed to address the interactive effects of...

  18. Motivational Pathways to STEM Career Choices: Using Expectancy-Value Perspective to Understand Individual and Gender Differences in STEM Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica

    2013-12-01

    The United States has made a significant effort and investment in STEM education, yet the size and the composition of the STEM workforce continues to fail to meet demand. It is thus important to understand the barriers and factors that influence individual educational and career choices. In this article, we conduct a literature review of the current knowledge surrounding individual and gender differences in STEM educational and career choices, using expectancy-value theory as a guiding framework. The overarching goal of this paper is to provide both a well-defined theoretical framework and complementary empirical evidence for linking specific sociocultural, contextual, biological, and psychological factors to individual and gender differences in STEM interests and choices. Knowledge gained through this review will eventually guide future research and interventions designed to enhance individual motivation and capacity to pursue STEM careers, particularly for females who are interested in STEM but may be constrained by misinformation or stereotypes.

  19. The Effect of Cooperative Learning with DSLM on Conceptual Understanding and Scientific Reasoning among Form Four Physics Students with Different Motivation Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Hamzah

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Cooperative Learning with a Dual Situated Learning Model (CLDSLM and a Dual Situated Learning Model (DSLM on (a conceptual understanding (CU and (b scientific reasoning (SR among Form Four students. The study further investigated the effect of the CLDSLM and DSLM methods on performance in conceptual understanding and scientific reasoning among students with different motivation levels. A quasi-experimental method with the 3 x 2 Factorial Design was applied in the study. The sample consisted of 240 stu¬dents in six (form four classes selected from three different schools, i.e. two classes from each school, with students randomly selected and assigned to the treatment groups. The results showed that students in the CLDSLM group outperformed their counterparts in the DSLM group—who, in turn, significantly outperformed other students in the traditional instructional method (T group in scientific reasoning and conceptual understanding. Also, high-motivation (HM students in the CLDSLM group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the T groups in conceptual understanding and scientific reasoning. Furthermore, HM students in the CLDSLM group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the DSLM group in scientific reasoning but did not significantly outperform their counterparts on conceptual understanding. Also, the DSLM instructional method has significant positive effects on highly motivated students’ (a conceptual understanding and (b scientific reason¬ing. The results also showed that LM students in the CLDSLM group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the DSLM group and (T method group in scientific reasoning and conceptual understanding. However, the low-motivation students taught via the DSLM instructional method significantly performed higher than the low-motivation students taught via the T method in scientific reasoning. Nevertheless, they did not

  20. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Marchal, Bruno; Kane, Sumit; Petrič, Taja; Pictet, Gabriel; Pommier, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents the results of a realist evaluation that aimed to understand how, why and under what circumstances a Red Cross (RC) capacity-building intervention influences the motivation and the performance of RC community health volunteers involved in the delivery of an immunisation programme in Kampala, Uganda. Method Given the complexity of the intervention, we adopted realist evaluation as our methodological approach and the case study as our study design. Data collection included document review, participant observation and interviews. The constant comparative method was used for the analysis. Two contrasted cases were selected within the five Kampala districts. Each case covers the management of the immunisation programme implemented at a RC branch. In each case, a programme manager and 15 RC volunteers were interviewed. The selection of the volunteers was purposive. Results We found that a capacity-building programme including supervision supportive of autonomy, skills and knowledge enhancement, and adapted to the different subgroups of volunteers, leads to satisfaction of the three key drivers of volunteer motivation: feelings of autonomy, competence and connectedness. This contributes to higher retention, and better task performance and well-being among the volunteers. Enabling contextual conditions include the responsiveness of the Uganda Red Cross Society (URCS) to community needs, and recognition of the work of the volunteers, from the URCS and the community. Conclusions A management approach that caters for the different motivational states and changing needs of the volunteers will lead to better performance. The findings will inform not only the management of community health volunteers, but also the management of all kinds of health workers. PMID:26525721

  1. The Role of Intrinsic Motivation and the Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs Under Conditions of Severe Resource Scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egmond, Marieke Christina; Navarrete Berges, Andrés; Omarshah, Tariq; Benton, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    An emerging field of research is beginning to examine the ways in which socioeconomic disparities affect emotional, cognitive, and social processes. In this study, we took a two-step approach to examining the role that resource scarcity plays in the predictive power of intrinsic motivation on school attendance, as well as its influence on the precursors of intrinsic motivation: the psychological needs of relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Results revealed that intrinsic motivation predicts school attendance even under conditions of extreme adversity. The satisfaction of the basic needs is more important for participants who are exposed to severe rather than mild levels of deprivation. Our findings illustrate ecological effects on the mechanism underlying goal-directed behavior. They provide evidence in favor of self-determination theory's depiction of humans as active, growth-oriented organisms and for the potential of psychological interventions to reduce poverty.

  2. Motivations Underlying Career Decision-Making Activities: The Career Decision-Making Autonomy Scale (CDMAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frederic

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to develop and validate a measure of motivation toward career decision-making activities, the Career Decision-Making Autonomy Scale (CDMAS). The CDMAS is designed to assess the constructs of intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, and external regulation. A longitudinal study was…

  3. Motives and Suicide Intent Underlying Hospital Treated Deliberate Self-Harm and Their Association with Repetition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Carmel; Arensman, Ella; Keeley, Helen S.; Corcoran, Paul; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.

    2007-01-01

    The association between motives for deliberate self-harm (DSH), level of suicide intent, and history of DSH is poorly understood. As part of the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behavior, the Suicide Intent Scale, and the Motives for Parasuicide Questionnaire were administered to 146 patients presenting with DSH in the Cork region in…

  4. The right side? under time pressure, approach motivation leads to right-oriented bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Sligte, Daniel; Shalvi, Shaul; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2011-01-01

    Approach motivation, a focus on achieving positive outcomes, is related to relative left-hemispheric brain activation, which translates to a variety of right-oriented behavioral biases. In two studies, we found that approach-motivated individuals display a right-oriented bias, but only when they are

  5. An empirical assessment of driver motivation and emotional states in perceived safety margins under varied driving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Kaber, David B

    2013-01-01

    Motivation models in driving behaviour postulate that driver motives and emotional states dictate risk tolerance under various traffic conditions. The present study used time and driver performance-based payment systems to manipulate motivation and risk-taking behaviour. Ten participants drove to a predefined location in a simulated driving environment. Traffic patterns (density and velocity) were manipulated to cause driver behaviour adjustments due to the need to conform with the social norms of the roadway. The driving environment complexity was investigated as a mediating factor in risk tolerance. Results revealed the performance-based payment system to closely relate to risk-taking behaviour as compared with the time-based payment system. Drivers conformed with social norms associated with specific traffic patterns. Higher roadway complexity led to a more conservative safety margins and speeds. This research contributes to the further development of motivational models of driver behaviour. This study provides empirical justification for two motivation factors in driver risk-taking decisions, including compliance with social norm and emotions triggered by incentives. Environment complexity was identified as a mediating factor in motivational behaviour model. This study also recommended safety margin measures sensitive to changes in driver risk tolerance.

  6. Psychological mechanisms underlying doping attitudes in sport: motivation and moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Ken; Hargreaves, Elaine A; Gerrard, David; Lonsdale, Chris

    2013-08-01

    We examined whether constructs outlined in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2002), namely, autonomy-supportive and controlling motivational climates and autonomous and controlled motivation, were related to attitudes toward performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) in sport and drug-taking susceptibility. We also investigated moral disengagement as a potential mediator. We surveyed a sample of 224 competitive athletes (59% female; M age = 20.3 years; M = 10.2 years of experience participating in their sport), including 81 elite athletes. Using structural equation modeling analyses, our hypothesis proposing positive relationships with controlling climates, controlled motivation, and PEDs attitudes and susceptibility was largely supported, whereas our hypothesis proposing negative relationships among autonomous climate, autonomous motivation, and PEDs attitudes and susceptibility was not supported. Moral disengagement was a strong predictor of positive attitudes toward PEDs, which, in turn, was a strong predictor of PEDs susceptibility. These findings are discussed from both motivational and moral disengagement viewpoints.

  7. Understanding Negative Self-Evaluations in Borderline Personality Disorder-a Review of Self-Related Cognitions, Emotions, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Bohus, Martin; Lis, Stefanie

    2017-03-01

    Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, shame, or self-disgust, as well as self-related motives, such as self-enhancement or self-verification, influence how people perceive, evaluate, memorize, and respond to self-related information. They not only influence peoples' concepts of themselves but may also affect their behavior in social environments. In the current review, we describe alterations of self-related processing in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We chose BPD as an example of a mental disorder of which impairments in self-functioning and identity constitute a major feature. Since terminology used in clinical research on self-referential processing is diverse and often confusing, we start with reviewing some of the main concepts in this area of research using a conceptual framework provided from social psychology. Most studies on self-referential processing in BPD focused on descriptions of self-esteem and revealed a negative self-concept, particularly expressed by explicitly reported low self-esteem. Moreover, self-esteem is unstable in BPD and likely reactive to self-relevant cues. BPD patients are prone to negative emotions with respect to themselves, such as self-disgust and shame. First data point to altered self-related motives, too. In conclusion, although explicit self-esteem is widely studied as a global and trait-like feature of BPD, there is a strong lack of studies that take the complexity of the construct self-esteem into account. Further studies on alterations in self-related processes are required to deepen our understanding of impairments of the self-concept in BPD and enable the improvement of psychosocial therapeutic approaches.

  8. Will you thrive under pressure or burn out? Linking anxiety motivation and emotional exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Juliane; Lopes, Paulo N; Esteves, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Can individual differences in the tendency to use anxiety as a source of motivation explain emotional exhaustion? We examined the effects of using anxiety as a source of energy or as a source of information (viewed here as two forms of anxiety motivation) on emotional exhaustion. In Study 1, the use of anxiety as a source of energy predicted decreased emotional exhaustion one year later. Moreover, both forms of anxiety motivation buffered people from the detrimental effects of trait anxiety on later emotional exhaustion. In Study 2, an experiment, participants who were instructed to use anxiety as a source of energy reported lower emotional exhaustion following a stressful task, compared to those instructed to focus on the task or to simply do their best. These findings suggest that using anxiety as a source of motivation may protect people against emotional exhaustion.

  9. Nucleus Accumbens Microcircuit Underlying D2-MSN-Driven Increase in Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Cunha, Carina; Coimbra, Bárbara; Domingues, Ana Verónica; Vasconcelos, Nivaldo; Sousa, Nuno; Rodrigues, Ana João

    2018-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in reinforcement and motivation. Around 95% of the NAc neurons are medium spiny neurons (MSNs), divided into those expressing dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) or dopamine receptor D2 (D2R). Optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increased motivation, whereas inhibition of these neurons produced the opposite effect. Yet, it is still unclear how activation of D2-MSNs affects other local neurons/interneurons or input terminals and how this contributes for motivation enhancement. To answer this question, in this work we combined optogenetic modulation of D2-MSNs with in loco pharmacological delivery of specific neurotransmitter antagonists in rats. First, we showed that optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increases motivation in a progressive ratio (PR) task. We demonstrated that this behavioral effect relies on cholinergic-dependent modulation of dopaminergic signalling of ventral tegmental area (VTA) terminals, which requires D1R and D2R signalling in the NAc. D2-MSN optogenetic activation decreased ventral pallidum (VP) activity, reducing the inhibitory tone to VTA, leading to increased dopaminergic activity. Importantly, optogenetic activation of D2-MSN terminals in the VP was sufficient to recapitulate the motivation enhancement. In summary, our data suggests that optogenetic stimulation of NAc D2-MSNs indirectly modulates VTA dopaminergic activity, contributing for increased motivation. Moreover, both types of dopamine receptors signalling in the NAc are required in order to produce the positive behavioral effects.

  10. Understanding L2 motivation within a multilingual framework: A comparative analysis of Japanese language learners in Australia and South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    TOSHIYUKI NAKAMURA

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the motivational development of Japanese language learners in Australia and South Korea and their future self-images as bilingual or multilingual individuals. Initial motivation to study Japanese was generally linked to an interest in Japanese language and culture. However, visions of possible future careers became a more significant motivational factor as the students progressed in their studies. The study explores the impact of the students’ multilingual competencies, ...

  11. Retraining Attitudes and Stereotypes to Affect Motivation and Cognitive Capacity under Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Chad E.; Schmader, Toni

    2010-01-01

    A series of experiments used a retraining paradigm to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals’ motivation and processing capacity in stereotype threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working memory capacity, women retrained to associate their gender with being good at math exhibited increased working memory capacity (Studies 3 and 4) that in turn mediated increased math performance (Study 4) in a stereotype threatening context. Results suggest that although positive attitudes can motivate stigmatized individuals to engage with threatening domains, stereotypes need to be retrained to give them the cognitive capacity critical for success. Implications for interventions to reduce stereotype threat are discussed. PMID:20822288

  12. Retraining attitudes and stereotypes to affect motivation and cognitive capacity under stereotype threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Chad E; Schmader, Toni

    2010-11-01

    In a series of experiments, a retraining paradigm was used to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals' motivation and cognitive capacity in stereotype-threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working memory capacity, women retrained to associate their gender with being good at math exhibited increased working memory capacity (Studies 3 and 4), which in turn mediated increased math performance (Study 4) in a stereotype-threatening context. Results suggest that although positive attitudes can motivate stigmatized individuals to engage with threatening domains, stereotypes need to be retrained to give them the cognitive capacity critical for success. Implications for interventions to reduce stereotype threat are discussed.

  13. Understanding the motivations of health-care providers in performing female genital mutilation: an integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Marie-Hélène; Pallitto, Christina; Groleau, Danielle

    2017-03-23

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional harmful practice that can cause severe physical and psychological damages to girls and women. Increasingly, trained health-care providers carry out the practice at the request of families. It is important to understand the motivations of providers in order to reduce the medicalization of FGM. This integrative review identifies, appraises and summarizes qualitative and quantitative literature exploring the factors that are associated with the medicalization of FGM and/or re-infibulation. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, CINAHL and grey literature databases. Hand searches of identified studies were also examined. The "CASP Qualitative Research Checklist" and the "STROBE Statement" were used to assess the methodological quality of the qualitative and quantitative studies respectively. A total of 354 articles were reviewed for inclusion. Fourteen (14) studies, conducted in countries where FGM is largely practiced as well as in countries hosting migrants from these regions, were included. The main findings about the motivations of health-care providers to practice FGM were: (1) the belief that performing FGM would be less harmful for girls or women than the procedure being performed by a traditional practitioner (the so-called "harm reduction" perspective); (2) the belief that the practice was justified for cultural reasons; (3) the financial gains of performing the procedure; (4) responding to requests of the community or feeling pressured by the community to perform FGM. The main reasons given by health-care providers for not performing FGM were that they (1) are concerned about the risks that FGM can cause for girls' and women's health; (2) are preoccupied by the legal sanctions that might result from performing FGM; and (3) consider FGM to be a "bad practice". The findings of this review can inform public health program planners, policy makers and researchers to adapt or create strategies to end

  14. A qualitative exploration of the motivations underlying anabolic-androgenic steroid use from adolescence into adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ashley Harris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background This study explored the direct experience of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS use by young men, with an emphasis on how motivations progressed from adolescent initiation to more entrenched usage. Participants and procedure Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals ranging in experience of AAS use, from novice to experienced users. Results The results indicated that the young adult men progressed through a clear transition whereby their motives for using these substances changed from a mere desire to compete with other men to more internalised body image problems. Conclusions The findings presented suggest a more complex relationship between AAS use and body image pathology than previously suggested.

  15. Learner-Centred Teaching Contributes in Promising Results in Improving Learner Understanding and Motivation: A Case Study at Malaysia Tertiary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Wei-Li; Neo, Mai; Neo, Tse-Kian

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, traditional teaching is still a common approach among many lecturers. There have been many studies that have reported its limitations and many lecturers have started to adopt a more learner-centred teaching approach to promote better learner understanding and learner motivation. Throughout this effort, it is noticed there are…

  16. Influence of gender, age and motives underlying food choice on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2007-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to study the effect of different carriers and enrichments on the perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods; and to evaluate the effect of age, gender and motives underlying food choice. Participants had to evaluate different functional food concepts and had to answer a food choice questionnaire. Results showed that carrier products had the largest effect on consumers' perception of healthiness and willingness to try of the evaluated functional foods concepts. The highest positive relative utilities were achieved when the enrichment was a functional ingredient inherent in the product. Furthermore, gender, age and motives underlying food choice affected the preference patterns for the evaluated functional foods concepts, but it depended on the carrier and enrichment considered, suggesting that functional foods might not be accepted by all the consumers and that they could be tailored for certain groups.

  17. Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals during Task Engagement: Their Relation to Intrinsic Motivation and Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir Oz, Ayse; Lane, Jennie F.; Michou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of autonomous and controlling reasons underlying an endorsed achievement goal to intrinsic motivation and cheating. The endorsement of the achievement goal was ensured by involving 212 (M(subscript age) = 19.24, SD = 0.97) freshman students in a spatial task and asking them to report their most…

  18. Age Differences in Consumer Decision Making under Option Framing: From the Motivation Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huamao Peng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Option framing effect is the phenomena that participants often accept more options when they are asked to delete undesired options from a full model (subtractive framing than they do when they are instructed to add desired options to a base model (additive framing. Whether the same effect exists in different age groups is less well known. To explore the roles of age and purchase motivations on the option framing effect for automobiles purchases, this study adopted a 3(age group: younger, middle-aged, vs. older ×2(option framing: additive vs. subtractive ×2(focus condition: information vs. emotion mixed design. To manipulate purchase motivations, participants in the three age groups were instructed to focus on the ratio of utility and price of options (information-focus or the extent of pleasure induced by the options (emotion-focus when they made purchase decisions in two framing conditions. The results revealed similar option framing effect across all age groups in the information-focus condition regarding the total price paid for accepted options. In contrast, the framing effect was not found in the emotion-focus condition. In addition, older adults accepted more options and an overall higher price than younger and middle-aged adults in both focus conditions. This difference was more obvious in the emotion-focus condition than in the information-focus condition. Moreover, both the number of accepted options and the total accepted price of the younger group in the information-focus condition were higher than those in the emotion-focus condition, whereas the older and middle-aged groups accepted same number of options and price between two focus conditions. These results imply that purchase motivation is a moderator of the option framing effect and age characteristics linked with motivations must be considered in sales.

  19. Is it promoted or endorsed achievement goals and underlying reasons that predict students’ intrinsic motivation?

    OpenAIRE

    Karakaş, Özge N.

    2016-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, The Program of Curriculum and Instruction, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2016. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 55-60). The aim of this research was to investigate (a) the effects of mastery-approach (MAp) and performance-approach (PAp) goals induced in an autonomous or a controlling condition to students’ intrinsic motivation through an experiment (Study 1), and (b) the relation of an endorsed...

  20. Age Differences in Consumer Decision Making under Option Framing: From the Motivation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huamao; Xia, Shiyong; Ruan, Fanglin; Pu, Bingyan

    2016-01-01

    Option framing effect is the phenomena that participants often accept more options when they are asked to delete undesired options from a full model (subtractive framing) than they do when they are instructed to add desired options to a base model (additive framing). Whether the same effect exists in different age groups is less well known. To explore the roles of age and purchase motivations on the option framing effect for automobiles purchases, this study adopted a 3 (age group: younger, middle-aged, vs. older) × 2 (option framing: additive vs. subtractive) × 2 (focus condition: information vs. emotion) mixed design. To manipulate purchase motivations, participants in the three age groups were instructed to focus on the ratio of utility and price of options (information-focus) or the extent of pleasure induced by the options (emotion-focus) when they made purchase decisions in two framing conditions. The results revealed similar option framing effect across all age groups in the information-focus condition regarding the total price paid for accepted options. In contrast, the framing effect was not found in the emotion-focus condition. In addition, older adults accepted more options and an overall higher price than younger and middle-aged adults in both focus conditions. This difference was more obvious in the emotion-focus condition than in the information-focus condition. Moreover, both the number of accepted options and the total accepted price of the younger group in the information-focus condition were higher than those in the emotion-focus condition, whereas the older and middle-aged groups accepted same number of options and price between two focus conditions. These results imply that purchase motivation is a moderator of the option framing effect and age characteristics linked with motivations must be considered in sales.

  1. Age Differences in Consumer Decision Making under Option Framing: From the Motivation Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Huamao; Xia, Shiyong; Ruan, Fanglin; Pu, Bingyan

    2016-01-01

    Option framing effect is the phenomena that participants often accept more options when they are asked to delete undesired options from a full model (subtractive framing) than they do when they are instructed to add desired options to a base model (additive framing). Whether the same effect exists in different age groups is less well known. To explore the roles of age and purchase motivations on the option framing effect for automobiles purchases, this study adopted a 3 (age group: younger, m...

  2. Understanding physical activity in adults with type 2 diabetes after completing an exercise intervention trial: A mediation model of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Shane N; Fortier, Michelle S; Guérin, Eva; Tulloch, Heather; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P; Reid, Robert D

    2009-08-01

    This study was set out to test if autonomous motivation mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and 12-month physical activity (PA) in adults with type 2 diabetes involved in a randomized exercise trial. Participants (n = 234) completed questionnaires measuring barrier self-efficacy at 3 months, autonomous motivation at 6 months, and PA at 12 months. A mediational analysis of longitudinal data revealed that autonomous motivation mediated the relationship between barrier-self-efficacy and PA. High barrier self-efficacy can therefore help predict 12-month PA in adults with type 2 diabetes, although this effect is attenuated by autonomous motivation. Hence, participating in PA for autonomous reasons such as by choice and/or for fun further explains PA at 12 months in this population. Results of this study extend our understanding of the motivational constructs involved in PA in the maintenance phase. This study has important theoretical implications in that it helps to organize and consolidate well-known correlates of PA by proposing a temporal relationship between them that could be tailored in interventions.

  3. The role of motivation in understanding social contextual influences on physical activity in underserved adolescents in the ACT Trial: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawman, Hannah G; Wilson, Dawn K; Van Horn, M Lee; Zarrett, Nicole

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has shown that social contextual factors are important in understanding physical activity (PA) behavior, although little is known about how these factors may relate to PA, especially in underserved adolescents (low income, minorities). This study examined how motivation may differentially mediate the relationship of two social contextual variables (i.e., peer and parent social support) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Baseline data (n = 1421 sixth graders, 54% female, 72% African American) from the Active by Choice Today (ACT) trial in underserved adolescents were analyzed. Motivation was examined as a mediator of the relationships between peer social support, parent social support, and MVPA (measured by 7-day accelerometer estimates). Motivation and peer but not parent support were significantly related to MVPA overall. Significant mediation effects were found indicating motivation partially mediated the relation between peer social support and MVPA and to a lesser degree parent support and MVPA. These findings provide support for the importance of social contextual influences, especially peer social support, on underserved adolescents' PA and motivation for PA.

  4. On Motivation and Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea UDRESCU

    2014-01-01

    Economic motivations were a big influence on consumer behavior motivation. In this context, it is considered that the general motives which give motivation to purchase content can be structured into rational and emotional motives, the motives innate and acquired motives, all gaining an individual or group event. The study of consumer behavior, with general motivations, attention increasingly larger granted special incentives, consisting of assertiveness feeling (emerging desire for a product)...

  5. How Users Search the Mobile Web: A Model for Understanding the Impact of Motivation and Context on Search Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study explores how search motivation and context influence mobile Web search behaviors. Design/methodology/approach: We studied 30 experienced mobile Web users via questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and an online diary tool that participants used to record their daily search activities. SQLite Developer was used to extract data from the users' phone logs for correlation analysis in Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS. Findings: One quarter of mobile search sessions were driven by two or more search motivations. It was especially difficult to distinguish curiosity from time killing in particular user reporting. Multi-dimensional contexts and motivations influenced mobile search behaviors, and among the context dimensions, gender, place, activities they engaged in while searching, task importance, portal, and interpersonal relations (whether accompanied or alone when searching correlated with each other. Research limitations: The sample was comprised entirely of college students, so our findings may not generalize to other populations. More participants and longer experimental duration will improve the accuracy and objectivity of the research. Practical implications: Motivation analysis and search context recognition can help mobile service providers design applications and services for particular mobile contexts and usages. Originality/value: Most current research focuses on specific contexts, such as studies on place, or other contextual influences on mobile search, and lacks a systematic analysis of mobile search context. Based on analysis of the impact of mobile search motivations and search context on search behaviors, we built a multi-dimensional model of mobile search behaviors.

  6. North American water availability under stress and duress: building understanding from simulations, observations and data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, R. M.; Condon, L. E.; Atchley, A. L.; Hector, B.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying the available freshwater for human use and ecological function depends on fluxes and stores that are hard to observe. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the largest terrestrial flux of water behind precipitation but is observed with low spatial density. Likewise, groundwater is the largest freshwater store, yet is equally uncertain. The ability to upscale observations of these variables is an additional complication; point measurements are made at scales orders of magnitude smaller than remote sensing data products. Integrated hydrologic models that simulate continental extents at fine spatial resolution are now becoming an additional tool to constrain fluxes and address interconnections. For example, recent work has shown connections between water table depth and transpiration partitioning, and demonstrated the ability to reconcile point observations and large-scale inferences. Here we explore the dynamics of large hydrologic systems experiencing change and stress across continental North America using integrated model simulations, observations and data products. Simulations of aquifer depletion due to pervasive groundwater pumping diagnose both stream depletion and changes in ET. Simulations of systematic increases in temperature are used to understand the relationship between snowpack dynamics, surface and groundwater flow, ET and a changing climate. Remotely sensed products including the GRACE estimates of total storage change are downscaled using model simulations to better understand human impacts to the hydrologic cycle. These example applications motivate a path forward to better use simulations to understand water availability.

  7. Understanding the association between maltreatment history and adolescent risk behavior by examining popularity motivations and peer group control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years, SD = .86) reported on their alcohol use, delinquent behavior, childhood experiences of physical and emotional maltreatment and neglect, peer group processes involving control and individual popularity motivations. Regression analyses showed that, beyond the significant contributions of childhood maltreatment, peer group control predicted risky alcohol use and delinquent behavior. Peer group control and popularity motivations exacerbated the negative effect of physical maltreatment on delinquent behavior. Boys' experiences of peer group control were more strongly linked to alcohol use and delinquent behavior than girls'. These results suggest that there is a significant window of opportunity during adolescence where the peer group context can exacerbate or buffer childhood experiences.

  8. Development of a measure of the motives underlying the selection of food: the food choice questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, A; Pollard, T M; Wardle, J

    1995-12-01

    A number of factors are thought to influence people's dietary choices, including health, cost, convenience and taste, but there are no measures that address health-related and non-health-related factors in a systematic fashion. This paper describes the development of a multidimensional measure of motives related to food choice. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) was developed through factor analysis of responses from a sample of 358 adults ranging in age from 18 to 87 years. Nine factors emerged, and were labelled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity and ethical concern. The questionnaire structure was verified using confirmatory factor analysis in a second sample (n = 358), and test-retest reliability over a 2- to 3-week period was satisfactory. Convergent validity was investigated by testing associations between FCQ scales and measures of dietary restraint, eating style, the value of health, health locus of control and personality factors. Differences in motives for food choice associated with sex, age and income were found. The potential uses of this measure in health psychology and other areas are discussed.

  9. Interval timing under a behavioral microscope: Dissociating motivational and timing processes in fixed-interval performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Carter W; Sanabria, Federico

    2017-03-01

    The distribution of latencies and interresponse times (IRTs) of rats was compared between two fixed-interval (FI) schedules of food reinforcement (FI 30 s and FI 90 s), and between two levels of food deprivation. Computational modeling revealed that latencies and IRTs were well described by mixture probability distributions embodying two-state Markov chains. Analysis of these models revealed that only a subset of latencies is sensitive to the periodicity of reinforcement, and prefeeding only reduces the size of this subset. The distribution of IRTs suggests that behavior in FI schedules is organized in bouts that lengthen and ramp up in frequency with proximity to reinforcement. Prefeeding slowed down the lengthening of bouts and increased the time between bouts. When concatenated, latency and IRT models adequately reproduced sigmoidal FI response functions. These findings suggest that behavior in FI schedules fluctuates in and out of schedule control; an account of such fluctuation suggests that timing and motivation are dissociable components of FI performance. These mixture-distribution models also provide novel insights on the motivational, associative, and timing processes expressed in FI performance. These processes may be obscured, however, when performance in timing tasks is analyzed in terms of mean response rates.

  10. Neural substrates underlying effort, time, and risk-based decision making in motivated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Matthew R; Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D

    2016-09-01

    All mobile organisms rely on adaptive motivated behavior to overcome the challenges of living in an environment in which essential resources may be limited. A variety of influences ranging from an organism's environment, experiential history, and physiological state all influence a cost-benefit analysis which allows motivation to energize behavior and direct it toward specific goals. Here we review the substantial amount of research aimed at discovering the interconnected neural circuits which allow organisms to carry-out the cost-benefit computations which allow them to behave in adaptive ways. We specifically focus on how the brain deals with different types of costs, including effort requirements, delays to reward and payoff riskiness. An examination of this broad literature highlights the importance of the extended neural circuits which enable organisms to make decisions about these different types of costs. This involves Cortical Structures, including the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC), the Orbital Frontal Cortex (OFC), the Infralimbic Cortex (IL), and prelimbic Cortex (PL), as well as the Baso-Lateral Amygdala (BLA), the Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc), the Ventral Pallidal (VP), the Sub Thalamic Nucleus (STN) among others. Some regions are involved in multiple aspects of cost-benefit computations while the involvement of other regions is restricted to information relating to specific types of costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. What a man wants: understanding the challenges and motivations to physical activity participation and healthy eating in middle-aged Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kolt, Gregory S; Duncan, Mitch; Ellison, Marcus; George, Emma; Mummery, W Kerry

    2012-11-01

    Little attention has been paid to the physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviors of middle-aged men; thus, the aim of this study was to gather information and gain insight into the PA and nutrition behaviors of these men. Six focus group sessions were undertaken with middle-aged men (N = 30) from regional Australia to explore the challenges and motivations to PA participation and healthy eating. Men had a good understanding of PA and nutrition; however, this was sometimes confounded by inconsistent media messages. Work commitments and family responsibilities were barriers to PA, while poor cooking skills and abilities were barriers to healthy eating. Disease prevention, weight management, and being a good role model were motivators for PA and healthy eating. By understanding what a man wants, PA and nutrition interventions can be designed and delivered to meet the needs of this hard-to-reach population.

  12. Students’ understanding and application of the area under the curve concept in physics problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hai Nguyen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how students understand and apply the area under the curve concept and the integral-area relation in solving introductory physics problems. We interviewed 20 students in the first semester and 15 students from the same cohort in the second semester of a calculus-based physics course sequence on several problems involving the area under the curve concept. We found that only a few students could recognize that the concept of area under the curve was applicable in physics problems. Even when students could invoke the area under the curve concept, they did not necessarily understand the relationship between the process of accumulation and the area under a curve, so they failed to apply it to novel situations. We also found that when presented with several graphs, students had difficulty in selecting the graph such that the area under the graph corresponded to a given integral, although all of them could state that “the integral equaled the area under the curve.” The findings in this study are consistent with those in previous mathematics education research and research in physics education on students’ use of the area under the curve.

  13. Financial Literacy; Strategies and Concepts in Understanding the Financial Planning With Self-EfficacyTheory and Goal SettingTheory of Motivation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mu’izzuddin, -; Taufik, -; Ghasarma, Reza; Putri, Leonita; Adam, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the strategies and concepts in understanding the financial literacy with the approach of self-efficacy theory and goal setting theory of motivation. The discussion begins with the concept of behavioral finance that discusses links between financial concepts to the behavior, and then proceed with the concept and measurement of financial literacy of individuals altogether with some approaches and factors that may affect it. Self-efficacy theory and goal setting theory of ...

  14. Understanding and Modeling the Evolution of Critical Points under Gaussian Blurring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, A.; Florack, L.M.J.; Heyden, A.; Sparr, G.; Nielsen, M.; Johansen, P.

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the deep structure of Gaussian scale space images, one needs to understand the behaviour of critical points under the influence of parameter-driven blurring. During this evolution two different types of special points are encountered, the so-called scale space saddles and the

  15. Understanding Social OER Environments--A Quantitative Study on Factors Influencing the Motivation to Share and Collaborate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkkalainen, Henri; Jokinen, Jussi P. P.; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    Social software environments are increasingly used for open education: teachers and learners share and collaborate in these environments. While there are various possibilities for the inclusion of such social functionalities for OER, many organizational, individual and technological challenges can hinder the motivation of teachers to share and…

  16. Understanding by Design (UbD) in EFL Teaching: The Investigation of Students' Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtseven, Nihal; Altun, Sertel

    2016-01-01

    In today's world, where learning a foreign language is highly prioritized, it is an important prerequisite that education has components that are lasting, meaningful, and transferable to everyday life. Moreover, these components would have a positive influence on student motivation. The purpose of this study is to investigate students' language…

  17. Implications from Self-Efficacy and Attribution Theories for an Understanding of Undergraduates' Motivation in a Foreign Language Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan Peggy; Schallert, Diane L.

    2008-01-01

    Although studies on self-efficacy and attribution have independently contributed to the motivation literature, these two constructs have rarely been considered together in the domain of foreign language learning. Here, 500 undergraduates in Spanish, German, and French courses were asked to report whether test scores represented a successful or…

  18. Understanding the origin of the fracture toughness evolution of nuclear glasses under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu, L.-H.

    2011-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, complex borosilicate glasses are used for the confinement of fission products and long-life minor actinides. Under irradiations, the structure and the mechanical properties of these glasses evolve. In this work, atomistic and multi-scale simulations of three simplified borosilicate glasses were run to understand the origin of their fracture behavior change under irradiation. Under the radiation effects, elasticity decreases and plasticity increases. Fracture happens due to the formation and coalescence of nano-cavities. The structural modifications under the radiation effects lead to a delay of the coalescence and of the irradiated glass rupture. Several phenomena overlay to explain this behavior, especially the cavities distribution modifications, the sodium mobility, and the borate and silicate entities organization in the glassy network. Depending on the nature of the more important mechanism, the fracture toughness can increase or decrease under radiation. (author) [fr

  19. Understanding urban green space as a health resource: a qualitative comparison of visit motivation and derived effects among park users in Sheffield, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Katherine N; Warber, Sara L; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-01-22

    With increasing interest in the use of urban green space to promote human health, there is a need to understand the extent to which park users conceptualize these places as a resource for health and well-being. This study sought to examine park users' own reasons for and benefits from green space usage and compare these with concepts and constructs in existing person-environment-health theories and models of health. Conducted in 13 public green spaces in Sheffield, UK, we undertook a qualitative content analysis of 312 park users' responses to open-ended interview questions and identified a breadth, depth and salience of visit motivators and derived effects. Findings highlight a discrepancy between reasons for visiting and derived effects from the use of urban green space. Motivations emphasized walking, green space qualities, and children. Derived effects highlighted relaxation, positive emotions within the self and towards the place, and spiritual well-being. We generate a taxonomy of motivations and derived effects that could facilitate operationalization within empirical research and articulate a conceptual framework linking motivators to outcomes for investigating green space as a resource for human health and well-being.

  20. Understanding Urban Green Space as a Health Resource: A Qualitative Comparison of Visit Motivation and Derived Effects among Park Users in Sheffield, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Gaston

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing interest in the use of urban green space to promote human health, there is a need to understand the extent to which park users conceptualize these places as a resource for health and well-being. This study sought to examine park users’ own reasons for and benefits from green space usage and compare these with concepts and constructs in existing person-environment-health theories and models of health. Conducted in 13 public green spaces in Sheffield, UK, we undertook a qualitative content analysis of 312 park users’ responses to open-ended interview questions and identified a breadth, depth and salience of visit motivators and derived effects. Findings highlight a discrepancy between reasons for visiting and derived effects from the use of urban green space. Motivations emphasized walking, green space qualities, and children. Derived effects highlighted relaxation, positive emotions within the self and towards the place, and spiritual well-being. We generate a taxonomy of motivations and derived effects that could facilitate operationalization within empirical research and articulate a conceptual framework linking motivators to outcomes for investigating green space as a resource for human health and well-being.

  1. [A measure of the motives underlying snack selection among Japanese junior high school students: the Snack Choice Questionnaire (SCQ)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Rie

    2007-02-01

    To develop a measure of the motives underlying snack selection by Japanese junior high school students and to examine the characteristics of each motivating factor. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed in a cross-sectional study of 1,936 students in public junior high schools in Tokyo, Japan. The respondents answered the Snack Choice Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), which assess overeating, snacking behavior, the food environment, lifestyle, and demographics. Twenty-two items of the SCQ were factor-analyzed using varimax rotation. Three factors were extracted and labeled "fashion and sales promotion," "convenience and taste," "health and weight control." All factors demonstrated a satisfactory Cronbach's alpha coefficient of over 0.80, and scores for both "fashion and sales promotion" (r= 0.349, Pfoods frequently had high scores for "fashion and sales promotion" and "convenience and taste" but not for "health and weight control." The factor "fashion and sales promotion" was related to more TV viewing (beta = 0.060, Pmotives underlying snack food selection in junior high-schools in Japan suggest a need for comprehensive nutrition education, along with a focus on media literacy and consumer education.

  2. Difficulty understanding speech in noise by the hearing impaired: underlying causes and technological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Eric W; Yoho, Sarah E

    2016-08-01

    A primary complaint of hearing-impaired individuals involves poor speech understanding when background noise is present. Hearing aids and cochlear implants often allow good speech understanding in quiet backgrounds. But hearing-impaired individuals are highly noise intolerant, and existing devices are not very effective at combating background noise. As a result, speech understanding in noise is often quite poor. In accord with the significance of the problem, considerable effort has been expended toward understanding and remedying this issue. Fortunately, our understanding of the underlying issues is reasonably good. In sharp contrast, effective solutions have remained elusive. One solution that seems promising involves a single-microphone machine-learning algorithm to extract speech from background noise. Data from our group indicate that the algorithm is capable of producing vast increases in speech understanding by hearing-impaired individuals. This paper will first provide an overview of the speech-in-noise problem and outline why hearing-impaired individuals are so noise intolerant. An overview of our approach to solving this problem will follow.

  3. Understanding the motivations and activities of transnational advocacy networks against child sex trafficking in the Mekong Subregion: The value of cosmopolitan globalisation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Davy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Child sex trafficking has become one of the most highly publicised social issues of our time and, due to its global nature, transnational anti-trafficking advocacy networks are well placed and central to lead campaigns against it. Whilst there is an abundance of literature on the subjects of child sex trafficking and transnational advocacy networks we lack an understanding of the motivations of these networks that act as buffers against trafficking. Cosmopolitan globalisation theory remains a compelling framework for examining the motivations of transnational anti-child sex trafficking networks in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Applying a cosmopolitan globalisation lens, this article discusses the social justice goals of transnational advocacy networks, their centrality in combating child sex trafficking, and their ability to perform cosmopolitan ‘globalisation from below’ to counter global social problems.

  4. Deflecting the trajectory and changing the narrative: how self-affirmation affects academic performance and motivation under identity threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, David K; Hartson, Kimberly A; Binning, Kevin R; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Garcia, Julio; Taborsky-Barba, Suzanne; Tomassetti, Sarah; Nussbaum, A David; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2013-04-01

    To the extent that stereotype and identity threat undermine academic performance, social psychological interventions that lessen threat could buffer threatened students and improve performance. Two studies, each featuring a longitudinal field experiment in a mixed-ethnicity middle school, examined whether a values affirmation writing exercise could attenuate the achievement gap between Latino American and European American students. In Study 1, students completed multiple self-affirmation (or control) activities as part of their regular class assignments. Latino American students, the identity threatened group, earned higher grades in the affirmation than control condition, whereas White students were unaffected. The effects persisted 3 years and, for many students, continued into high school by lifting their performance trajectory. Study 2 featured daily diaries to examine how the affirmation affected psychology under identity threat, with the expectation that it would shape students' narratives of their ongoing academic experience. By conferring a big-picture focus, affirmation was expected to broaden construals, prevent daily adversity from being experienced as identity threat, and insulate academic motivation from identity threat. Indeed, affirmed Latino American students not only earned higher grades than nonaffirmed Latino American students but also construed events at a more abstract than concrete level and were less likely to have their daily feelings of academic fit and motivation undermined by identity threat. Discussion centers on how social-psychological processes propagate themselves over time and how timely interventions targeting these processes can promote well-being and achievement.

  5. Bridging the Gap: Towards a Cell-Type Specific Understanding of Neural Circuits Underlying Fear Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, KM; Morrison, FG; Ressler, KJ

    2016-01-01

    Fear and anxiety-related disorders are remarkably common and debilitating, and are often characterized by dysregulated fear responses. Rodent models of fear learning and memory have taken great strides towards elucidating the specific neuronal circuitries underlying the learning of fear responses. The present review addresses recent research utilizing optogenetic approaches to parse circuitries underlying fear behaviors. It also highlights the powerful advances made when optogenetic techniques are utilized in a genetically defined, cell-type specific, manner. The application of next-generation genetic and sequencing approaches in a cell-type specific context will be essential for a mechanistic understanding of the neural circuitry underlying fear behavior and for the rational design of targeted, circuit specific, pharmacologic interventions for the treatment and prevention of fear-related disorders. PMID:27470092

  6. EBT Payment for Online Grocery Orders: a Mixed-Methods Study to Understand Its Uptake among SNAP Recipients and the Barriers to and Motivators for Its Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Olivia; Tagliaferro, Barbara; Rodriguez, Noemi; Athens, Jessica; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2018-04-01

    To examine Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recipients' use of the first online supermarket accepting Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) payment. In this mixed-methods study, the authors collected EBT purchase data from an online grocer and attempted a randomized controlled trial in the South Bronx, New York City, followed by focus groups with SNAP beneficiaries aged ≥18 years. Participants were randomized to shop at their usual grocery store or an online supermarket for 3 months. Focus groups explored barriers and motivators to online EBT redemption. Few participants made online purchases, even when incentivized in the randomized controlled trial. Qualitative findings highlighted a lack of perceived control over the online food selection process as a key barrier to purchasing food online. Motivators included fast, free shipping and discounts. Electronic Benefit Transfer for online grocery purchases has the potential to increase food access among SNAP beneficiaries, but challenges exist to this new food buying option. Understanding online food shopping barriers and motivators is critical to the success of policies targeting the online expansion of SNAP benefits. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding Physical Activity Motivation and Behaviour Through Self-Determination and Servant Leadership Theories in a Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Samantha M; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2017-09-27

    Despite its well-established benefits, physical activity (PA) engagement is low in the adult population; evidence suggests that this is especially a concern for women > 60 years. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the feasibility of a six-week randomized control trial of Self-Determination Theory-based dance and walking programs for older women. Primary outcomes were feasibility measures: recruitment, retention, and satisfaction. Secondary outcomes included self-reported PA, behavioural regulations, and psychological needs. Thirty-five women completed the study (M = 62.8 ± 4.8 years), representing 39% recruitment and 95% retention rate. Both programs were highly attended. Exploratory effect sizes for secondary measures were promising. Emergent themes highlighted the importance of servant leadership concepts in the group setting for motivating PA. Our findings provide support for expanding this trial to a full-scale study.

  8. Motives underlying healthy eating: using the Food Choice Questionnaire to explain variation in dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, T M; Steptoe, A; Wardle, J

    1998-04-01

    The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), which measures the reported importance to a given individual of nine factors underlying food choice, and a food frequency questionnaire, were administered to 241 participants, who were also required to classify their diet as either 'standard', 'low in red meat' or 'vegetarian'. Respondents describing their diet as low in red meat attributed greater importance to health, natural content, weight control and ethical concern in their food choice than did those who described their diets as standard, whereas vegetarians differed significantly from those with a standard diet only on the score for ethical concern. Differences between men and women and between students and non-students in the frequency of consumption of a number of foods were shown to be mediated by differences in the importance attached to FCQ factors. Thus the generally healthier diets of women compared to men appeared to be accounted for by the greater importance attributed by women to weight control, natural content and ethical concerns.

  9. Understanding the behaviour of the actinides under disposal conditions: A comparison between calculated and experimental solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryke, D.C.; Rees, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The solubilities of plutonium, americium and neptunium measured in simulated near-field waters have compared with those predicted using the simple thermodynamic model NearSol. The dependence of solubility on pH and redox potential is examined in an effort to understand the behaviour of actinides in disposal. The agreement was variable. Differences could be appreciable, in particular for neptunium under oxidizing conditions; conversly, the model successfully predicted the behaviour of neptunium under reducing conditions. Such comparisons pinpointed deficiences in the thermodynamic data base and showed the sensitivity of solubilities to certain experimental parameters such as Eh and the concentration of carbonate ions. A comparison between NearSol and the reaction pathway program PHREEQE gave generally good agreement. NearSol was quicker and easier to use, requiring only limited preselection of participating species; however it did not account for the behaviour of bulk inactive species in solution; like feature will be built into an updated version. (orig.)

  10. Female high school biology students' biofilm-focused learning: The contributions of three instructional strategies to patterns in understanding and motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ales, Jo Dale Hill

    2000-12-01

    This exploratory study examined three instructional strategies used with female high school biology students. The relative contributions of the strategies to student understanding of microbiology and motivation in science were analyzed. The science education community targeted underachievement in science by implementing changes in content and practices (NRC, 1996). Research suggested that teachers facilitate learnirig environments based on human constructivism (Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 1997) that is rooted in meaningful learning theory (Ausubel, Novak & Hanesian, 1978). Teachers were advised to use both visual and verbal instructional strategies (Paivio, 1983) and encourage students to construct understandings by connecting new experiences to prior knowledge. The American Society for Microbiology supports the study of microorganisms because of their prominence in the biosphere (ASK 1997). In this study, two participating teachers taught selected microbiology concepts while focused on the cutting edge science of biofilms. Biology students accessed digitized biofilm images on an ASM web page and adapted them into products, communicated with biofilm researchers, and adapted a professional-quality instructional video for cross-age teaching. The study revealed improvements in understanding as evidenced on a written test; however, differences in learnirig outcomes were not significant. Other data, including student journal reflections, observations of student interactions, and student clinical interviews indicate that students were engaged in cutting edge science and adapted biofilm images in ways that increased understanding of microbiology (with respect to both science content and as a way of knowing) and motivation. An ASM CD-ROM of the images did not effectively enhance learning and this study provides insights into what could make it more successful. It also identifies why, in most cases, students' E-mail communication with biofilm researchers was unsuccessful

  11. Forests under climate change and air pollution: Gaps in understanding and future directions for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Calfapietra, C.; Vries, W. de; Dizengremel, P.; Ernst, D.; Jolivet, Y.; Mikkelsen, T.N.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Le Thiec, D.; Tuovinen, J.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems (“supersites”) will be conducive to addressing these gaps by enabling integration of experimentation and modelling within the soil-plant-atmosphere interface, as well as further model development. - Highlights: ► Research needs are identified for forests under climate change and air pollution. ► Abiotic–biotic interactions in response impede tree-ecosystem upscaling. ► Integration of empirical and modelling research is advocated. ► The concept of multi-scale investigations at novel “Supersites” is propagated. ► “Supersites” warrant mechanistic understanding of soil-plant-atmosphere interface. - Forests under climate change and air pollution require empirical and modelling research needs to be integrated at novel “Supersites” through multi-scale investigations.

  12. Age-Related Changes in Children's Understanding of Effort and Ability: Implications for Attribution Theory and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Amy S.; Cole, David A.; Sigal, Amanda B.; Benbow, Lovisa D.; Satterwhite, Lindsay F.; Swygert, Katherine E.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Building on Nicholls's earlier work, we examined developmental changes in children's understanding of effort and ability when faced with a negative outcome. In a sample of 166 children and adolescents (ages 5-15 years), younger children conflated the meaning of effort and ability, explaining that smart students work hard, whereas older children…

  13. Impact of Interactive Multimedia Module with Pedagogical Agents on Students' Understanding and Motivation in the Learning of Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamisah; Lee, Tien Tien

    2014-01-01

    The Electrochemistry topic is found to be difficult to learn due to its abstract concepts involving macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic representation levels. Studies have shown that animation and simulation using information and communication technology (ICT) can help students to visualize and hence enhance their understanding in learning…

  14. Tapping into a vital resource: Understanding the motivators and barriers to blood donation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Z. Zanin

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Due to paucity of research on this topic, our understanding of blood donor behaviour in SSA is limited. Local traditions and cultures intimately shape individuals’ proclivity towards the donation process. In order to change the attitudes and behaviours of many potential donors in SSA it is important to address the deterrents to blood donation, as many represent misconceptions or culture-specific beliefs that may be the ultimate driving force dictating donor behaviour.

  15. "The difference is in the tomato at the end": Understanding the motivations and practices of cannabis growers operating within Belgian Cannabis Social Clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardal, Mafalda

    2018-03-11

    In Belgium, Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) collectively organize the cultivation and distribution of cannabis for the personal use of their members. In this paper we seek to improve understanding of the motivations and practices of cannabis growers operating within CSCs, shedding light on the cultivation process. We draw on data gathered through face-to-face semi-structured interviews with the directors of seven active Belgian CSCs (n = 21) and CSC growers (n = 23). These data are complemented by additional fieldwork and a review of policies relating to CSCs', including bylaws and growing protocols. The Belgian CSCs rely on single and multiple in-house grower arrangements. Most CSC growers had been cultivating cannabis prior to joining their current CSC, albeit growing in different contexts (non-commercial and commercial). The CSC growers discussed both ideological and pragmatic motives for operating within a CSC. Cultivation took place indoors and followed organic practices. Despite their small-scale (20 plants on average), the grow sites used specialized equipment. The growers reported receiving financial compensation to cover production costs. This paper offers new insights into a particular sector of domestic cannabis cultivation - CSC growers and their practices within those collectives - which has not been studied previously. The Belgian CSCs have decentralized production among small-scale grow sites, at a size comparable to that found in other small-scale cultivation studies. In terms of motivations and practices, CSC growers share some features typically ascribed to small-scale cannabis cultivators. At the same time, CSC growers seemed particularly engaged with the CSC model and willing to adhere to the (self-)regulated practices developed by the organizations. This had implications for the way cultivation was organized and for the role of the grower within the CSC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The everyday lives of video game developers: Experimentally understanding underlying systems/structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey O'Donnell

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines how tensions between work and play for video game developers shape the worlds they create. The worlds of game developers, whose daily activity is linked to larger systems of experimentation and technoscientific practice, provide insights that transcend video game development work. The essay draws on ethnographic material from over 3 years of fieldwork with video game developers in the United States and India. It develops the notion of creative collaborative practice based on work in the fields of science and technology studies, game studies, and media studies. The importance of, the desire for, or the drive to understand underlying systems and structures has become fundamental to creative collaborative practice. I argue that the daily activity of game development embodies skills fundamental to creative collaborative practice and that these capabilities represent fundamental aspects of critical thought. Simultaneously, numerous interests have begun to intervene in ways that endanger these foundations of creative collaborative practice.

  17. Understanding and simulating vibrations of plain bridge cables under varying meteorological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoni, Giulia

    amplitude peak to peak amplitudes, occurred. This latter behaviour was likely to be associated to dry inclined galloping. Passive dynamic wind tunnel tests were finally undertaken in presence of rain, using the same cable model as adopted in the dry state. The tests served to improve the current......The dissertation investigates the phenomenon of wind induced vibration of bridge cables under varying meteorological conditions. A twin research approach is adopted, where wind tunnel investigation of full-scale bridge cable section models is paralleled with theoretical modelling. A literature......-scale monitoring, wind tunnel testing and theoretical modelling. An extensive wind tunnel test campaign was then undertaken in order to further understand the onset conditions and characteristics of instability in the different climatic conditions described in the literature. Tests were separated into two...

  18. Cognitive-motivational model of obesity. Motivational mechanisms and cognitive biases underlying the processing of food-related images by people with excess body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska, Monika; Kalka, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a constantly escalating problem in all age groups. In the face of ubiquitous images of food, colourful advertisements of high-calorie meals and beverages, it is necessary to examine the role of the memory and attention mechanism in the processing of these stimuli. Knowledge regarding this subject will surely significantly contribute to the improvement of prevention and management of obesity programs designed to prevent secondary psychological difficulties, including depression. This paper presents cognitive-motivational model of obesity, according to which the description of mechanisms of eating disorders occurrence should include not only motivational factors but also the cognitive ones. The paper shows theoretical perspectives on the problem of obesity irrespective of its origin, as well as the latest empirical reports in this field. The presented survey demonstrates the lack of explicit research findings related to the processing of high and low-calorie food images by persons with excess weight. It seems that the knowledge of the basic mechanisms involved in the processing of these stimuli and the exploration of this phenomenon will allow to improve programs whose objective is to prevent obesity.

  19. Motives Underlying Food Choice for Children and Perception of Nutritional Information Among Low-Income Mothers in a Latin American Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machín, Leandro; Giménez, Ana; Curutchet, María Rosa; Martínez, Joseline; Ares, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of nutritional information on how low-income mothers select food for their children. Five focus groups, each consisting of 5-10 participants, were conducted. Women, older than 18 years, mothers of young children who were beneficiaries of one of the national food stamps programs in Uruguay. Focus group discussions were held around motives underlying food choices for children and perception of labeling systems. Transcripts of the focus group discussions were analyzed using inductive coding. Forty-two women, aged between 18 and 40 years, participated in 5 focus groups. Results showed that low-income mothers do not consider nutritional information when selecting food their children. Traditional nutritional labeling was perceived as complex, difficult to find, and difficult to understand. Participants stressed that they relied on the nutrition claims included on labels for assessing the healthfulness of food products. Semi-directive and directive front-of-pack labels were positively evaluated in terms of ease of interpretation. Participants preferred the traffic light system over other alternatives. Results suggest the need to implement simplified nutritional labeling and to regulate the use of nutrition claims on products targeted at children. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Promoting Physical Activity within Under-Resourced Afterschool Programs: A Qualitative Investigation of Staff Experiences and Motivational Strategies for Engaging Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrett, Nicole; Abraczinskas, Michelle; Skiles Cook, Brittany; Wilson, Dawn K.; Ragaban, Faten

    2018-01-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have become increasingly recognized as a key context to support youth daily physical activity (PA) accrual. Using Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as a framework, this study examined staff perspectives on the strengths and barriers within under-resourced ASPs for establishing a social-motivational climate for encouraging…

  1. Deliberate choices or strong motives: Exploring the mechanisms underlying the bias of organic claims on leniency judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Marília; Rodrigues, David; Garrido, Margarida V

    2016-08-01

    Organic claims can influence how a product is perceived in dimensions that are unrelated with the food production method (e.g., organic food is perceived as more healthful and less caloric than conventional food). Such claims can also bias how the consumers of organic food are perceived and how other people judge their behavior. Schuldt and Schwarz (2010) have shown that individuals evaluating a target with a weight-loss goal are more lenient in judging the target forgoing exercise when the target had an organic (vs. conventional) dessert. This impact of organic claims on leniency judgments has been interpreted either as a halo or a licensing effect. In the current research we aim to replicate and extend Schuldt and Schwarz's (2010) results by examining the mechanisms that are more likely to explain the observed leniency judgments. In Experiment 1, we observed that leniency towards a target that has consumed an organic meal is only observed when the target intentionally chooses such organic meal (vs. choice determined by the situation). These findings suggest that the impact of organic claims on leniency judgments is not merely based on a halo effect. Instead, a licensing account emerges as the most probable mechanism. In Experiment 2, we further found that stronger (vs. weaker) motives for forgoing exercise influenced leniency judgments to the same extent as having had an organic meal. Understanding the mechanisms that shape consumers' decisions may have important implications to prevent bias in their judgments about food and exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Motivering van spoorbaaninstandhoudingstoesighouers

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Com. (Business Management) Personnel motivation is one of management's most important tasks, but due to a lack of understanding of the nature of motivation, it is also frequently neglected resulting in losses to the organisation. The purpose of this document was to perform a motivation study on the supervisory staff of a railway maintenance depot. With the results of this study the cause of the low level of motivation was determined, followed by recommendations to management in order to ...

  3. Understanding the superior photocatalytic activity of noble metals modified titania under UV and visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumajdad, Ali; Madkour, Metwally

    2014-04-28

    Although TiO2 is one of the most efficient photocatalysts, with the highest stability and the lowest cost, there are drawbacks that hinder its practical applications like its wide band gap and high recombination rate of the charge carriers. Consequently, many efforts were directed toward enhancing the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and extending its response to the visible region. To head off these attempts, modification of TiO2 with noble metal nanoparticles (NMNPs) received considerable attention due to their role in accelerating the transfer of photoexcited electrons from TiO2 and also due to the surface plasmon resonance which induces the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under visible light irradiation. This insightful perspective is devoted to the vital role of TiO2 photocatalysis and its drawbacks that urged researchers to find solutions such as modification with NMNPs. In a coherent context, we discussed here the characteristics which qualify NMNPs to possess a great enhancement effect for TiO2 photocatalysis. Also we tried to understand the reasons behind this effect by means of photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. Then the mechanism of action of NMNPs upon deposition on TiO2 is presented. Finally we introduced a survey of the behaviour of these noble metal NPs on TiO2 based on the particle size and the loading amount.

  4. Changes in health perceptions after exposure to human suffering: using discrete emotions to understand underlying processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia A Paschali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality, as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An experimental group (N = 47 was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N = 47 was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being.

  5. Understanding Nutrient Processing Under Similar Hydrologic Conditions Along a River Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayburu-Caruso, V. A.; Mortensen, J.; Van Horn, D. J.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.

    2015-12-01

    Eutrophication is one of the main causes of water impairment across the US. The fate of nutrients in streams is typically described by the dynamic coupling of physical processes and biochemical processes. However, isolating each of these processes and determining its contribution to the whole system is challenging due to the complexity of the physical, chemical and biological domains. We conducted column experiments seeking to understand nutrient processing in shallow sediment-water interactions along representative sites of the Jemez River-Rio Grande continuum (eight stream orders), in New Mexico (USA). For each stream order, we used a set of 6 columns packed with 3 different sediments, i.e., Silica Cone Density Sand ASTM D 1556 (0.075-2.00 mm), gravel (> 2mm) and native sediments from each site. We incubated the sediments for three months and performed tracer experiments in the laboratory under identical flow conditions, seeking to normalize the physical processes along the river continuum. We added a short-term pulse injection of NO3, resazurin and NaCl to each column and determined metabolism and NO3 processing using the Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization method (TASCC). Our methods allowed us to study how changes in bacterial communities and sediment composition along the river continuum define nutrient processing.

  6. Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Understand Mechanical Response of Thaumasite under Temperature and Strain Rate Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajilar, Shahin; Shafei, Behrouz; Cheng, Tao; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres

    2017-06-22

    Understanding the structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of thaumasite is of great interest to the cement industry, mainly because it is the phase responsible for the aging and deterioration of civil infrastructures made of cementitious materials attacked by external sources of sulfate. Despite the importance, effects of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical response of thaumasite had remained unexplored prior to the current study, in which the mechanical properties of thaumasite are fully characterized using the reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) method. With employing a first-principles based reactive force field, the RMD simulations enable the description of bond dissociation and formation under realistic conditions. From the stress-strain curves of thaumasite generated in the x, y, and z directions, the tensile strength, Young's modulus, and fracture strain are determined for the three orthogonal directions. During the course of each simulation, the chemical bonds undergoing tensile deformations are monitored to reveal the bonds responsible for the mechanical strength of thaumasite. The temperature increase is found to accelerate the bond breaking rate and consequently the degradation of mechanical properties of thaumasite, while the strain rate only leads to a slight enhancement of them for the ranges considered in this study.

  7. Laboratory experiments for understanding mechanical properties of fractured granite under supercritical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, M.; Takahashi, M.; Takagi, K.; Hirano, N.; Tsuchiya, N.

    2017-12-01

    To extract geothermal energy effectively and safely from magma and/or adjacent hot rock, we need to tackle many issues which require new technology development, such as a technique to control a risk from induced-earthquakes. On a development of induced-earthquake mitigation technology, it is required to understand roles of factors on occurrences of the induced-earthquake (e.g., strength, crack density, and fluid-rock reaction) and their intercorrelations (e.g., Asanuma et al., 2012). Our purpose of this series of experiments is to clarify a relationship between the rock strength and the crack density under supercritical conditions. We conducted triaxial deformation test on intact granite rock strength under high-temperature (250 - 750°C), high-pressure (104 MPa) condition at a constant load velocity (0.1 μm/sec) using a gas-rig at AIST. We used Oshima granite, which has initially Young's modulus increased with decreasing the temperature from 32.3 GPa at 750°C to 57.4 GPa at 250°C. At 400 °C, the stress drop accelerated the deformation with 98 times faster velocity than that at load-point. In contrast, at 650°C and 750°C, the velocity during stress drop kept the same order of the load-point velocity. Therefore, the deformation mechanism may start to be changed from brittle to ductile when the temperature exceeds 650°C. Highly dense cracked granite specimens were formed by a rapid decompression test (RDT) using an autoclave settled at Tohoku University (Hirano et al., 2016JpGU), caused by a reduction of fluid pressure within 1-2 sec from vapor/supercritical state (10 - 48 MPa, 550 °C) to ambient pressure. The specimens after RDT show numerous microcracks on X-ray CT images. The RDT imposed the porosity increasing towards 3.75 % and Vp and Vs decreasing towards 1.37±0.52 km/s and 0.97±0.25 km/s. The Poisson's ratio shows the negative values in dry and 0.5 in wet. In the meeting, we will present results of triaxial deformation test on such cracked granites

  8. Understanding the Role of Microorganisms in Soil Quality and Fertility under changing Climatic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dercon, Gerd; Adu-Gyamfi, Joseph; Heiling, Maria; Aigner, Martina; Nguyen, Minh-Long [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division for Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Seibersdorf (Austria); Schwartz, Egbert [Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, (United States); Dexin, Lin [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division for Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Seibersdorf, (Austria); Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fujian (China)

    2013-01-15

    The Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition (SWMCN) Subprogramme (Section and Laboratory) assists FAO and IAEA Member States in the development, validation and dissemination of a range of soil, water and crop management technology packages using nuclear and nuclear-related techniques. In the coming years, SWMCN aims to (i) improve soil quality and soil resilience against the impacts of climate change and variability and (ii) reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase soil carbon sequestration in both productive and marginal lands. To achieve these aims, the SWMCN Subprogramme is planning to put major emphasis on applied microbial ecology. Microbial communities play a major role in soil fertility improvement through the decomposition of crop residues, live- stock manure and soil organic matter. These microbes are often affected by variations in rainfall and temperature patterns caused by climate change. Recent advances in the use of stable isotopes like carbon-3, nitrogen-5 and oxygen-18 as biomarkers to characterize microbial communities and their interactions with soil nutrient and organic matter processes, known as stable isotope probing (SIP), are important for soil-water-nutrient management. SIP helps us to understand the interactions between soil microbial communities and their specific functions in soil carbon sequestration, soil organic matter stabilization, soil fertility and soil resilience, as well as the soil productive capacity for sustainable intensification of cropping and livestock production. SIP involves the introduction of a stable isotope labelled substrate into a soil microbial community to trace the fate of the substrate. This allows direct observations of substrate assimilation to be made in minimally disturbed communities of microorganisms. Microorganisms that are actively involved in specific metabolic processes can be identified under in-situ conditions. SIP is most developed for carbon-13 probing, but studies using nitrogen-15 and

  9. Understanding the Validity of Data: A Knowledge-Based Network Underlying Research Expertise in Scientific Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ros

    2016-01-01

    This article considers what might be taught to meet a widely held curriculum aim of students being able to understand research in a discipline. Expertise, which may appear as a "chain of practice," is widely held to be underpinned by networks of understanding. Scientific research expertise is considered from this perspective. Within…

  10. I See Your Point: Infants under 12 Months Understand that Pointing Is Communicative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehm, Madelaine; Onishi, Kristine H.; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Do young infants understand that pointing gestures allow the pointer to change the information state of a recipient? We used a third-party experimental scenario to examine whether 9- and 11-month-olds understand that a pointer's pointing gesture can inform a recipient about a target object. When the pointer pointed to a target, infants…

  11. The role of self-determined motivation in the understanding of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2006-01-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the purpose of the present study was to examine whether motivation, self-determined and controlling types of motivation could predict a range of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations. Exercisers (n¼375) from ten health clubs in the North of England completed questionnaires measuring exercise motivation, exercise stages of change, number of relapses from exercise, future intention to exercise, barriers s...

  12. A Proposed Framework to Understand the Intrinsic Motivation Factors on University Students’ Behavioral Intention to Use a Mobile Application for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ronnie H. Shroff; Christopher J Keyes

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: By integrating a motivational perspective into the Technology Acceptance Model, the goal of this study is to empirically test the causal relationship of intrinsic motivational factors on students’ behavioral intention to use (BIU) a mobile application for learning. Background: Although the Technology Acceptance Model is a significant model, it largely remains incomplete as it does not take into consideration the motivation factors and/or outside influences in the adoption of ...

  13. Learning Mechanics and Game Mechanics Under the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory to Foster Motivation in Digital Game Based Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Proulx, Jean-Nicolas; Romero, Margarida; Arnab, Sylvester

    2018-01-01

    Background: Using digital games for educational purposes has been associated with higher levels of motivation among learners of different educational levels. However, the underlying psychological factors involved in digital game based learning (DGBL) have been rarely analyzed considering self-determination theory (SDT, Ryan \\& Deci, 2000b); the relation of SDT with the flow experience (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) has neither been evaluated in the context of DGBL.

  14. Control-value theory: using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this AMEE Guide, we consider the emergent theoretical and empirical work on human emotion and how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. In the Guide, we define emotion, in general, and achievement emotions, more specifically. We describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun 2006), and we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal antecedents, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance. Next, we review the empirical support for control-value theory from non-medical fields and suggest several important implications for educational practice. In this section, we highlight the importance of designing learning environments that foster a high degree of control and value for students. Finally, we end with a discussion of the need for more research on achievement emotions in medical education, and we propose several key research questions we believe will facilitate our understanding of achievement emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  15. Seagrasses under threat: Understanding the resilience of temperate seagrass meadows in a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soissons, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being highly valuable ecosystems, seagrass meadows are threatened worldwide, mostly by human activities. In order to preserve seagrass meadows from collapse, we need to better understand their resilience in a changing environment. By means of various

  16. Understanding contract under the law of Lithuania and other European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tikniūtė, Agnė; Dambrauskaitė, Asta

    2011-01-01

    Contract theories may be a useful analytical tool for understanding and explaining contract, as well as for facilitating orientation in a complex and often fragmented legal regulation. The article presents main understandings of contract in various European jurisdictions: contract as free assumption of obligation, contract as a bargain based on the idea of consideration, contract as free assumption of obligation based on sufficient causa. The article inquires as to how universal those theorie...

  17. M-type thioredoxins are involved in the xanthophyll cycle and proton motive force to alter NPQ under low-light conditions in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Qingen; Sun, Ting; Wang, Menglong; Jin, Honglei; Li, Mengshu; Feng, Dongru; Wang, Jinfa; Wang, Hong-Bin; Liu, Bing

    2018-02-01

    M-type thioredoxins are required to regulate zeaxanthin epoxidase activity and to maintain the steady-state level of the proton motive force, thereby influencing NPQ properties under low-light conditions in Arabidopsis. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) helps protect photosynthetic organisms from photooxidative damage via the non-radiative dissipation of energy as heat. Energy-dependent quenching (qE) is a major constituent of NPQ. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of qE is not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that the m-type thioredoxins TRX-m1, TRX-m2, and TRX-m4 (TRX-ms) interact with the xanthophyll cycle enzyme zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZE) and are required for maintaining the redox-dependent stabilization of ZE by regulating its intermolecular disulfide bridges. Reduced ZE activity and accumulated zeaxanthin levels were observed under TRX-ms deficiency. Furthermore, concurrent deficiency of TRX-ms resulted in a significant increase in proton motive force (pmf) and acidification of the thylakoid lumen under low irradiance, perhaps due to the significantly reduced ATP synthase activity under TRX-ms deficiency. The increased pmf, combined with acidification of the thylakoid lumen and the accumulation of zeaxanthin, ultimately contribute to the elevated stable qE in VIGS-TRX-m2m4/m1 plants under low-light conditions. Taken together, these results indicate that TRX-ms are involved in regulating NPQ-dependent photoprotection in Arabidopsis.

  18. Understanding of percutaneous puncture under guidance of ultrasound in treating peritoneal and perinephritic abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Liying; Wang Jiagang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of percutaneous puncture under guidance of ultrasound in treating peritoneal abscess. Methods: To summarize 68 patients with peritoneal abscess underwent percutaneous puncture under guidance of ultrasound to analyse the method of operation and therapeutic effect. Results: effective power of percutaneous puncture under guidance of ultrasound in treating peritoneal abscess was 96.8%. Conclusion: Percutaneous puncture under guidance of ultrasound in treating peritoneal abscess may avoid injury induced by blinded puncture, with characteristic of easier operation, slighter trauma. higher safety, significant therapeutic effect, and can be spreaded to the clinical application. (authors)

  19. A Proposed Framework to Understand the Intrinsic Motivation Factors on University Students' Behavioral Intention to Use a Mobile Application for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Ronnie H.; Keyes, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: By integrating a motivational perspective into the Technology Acceptance Model, the goal of this study is to empirically test the causal relationship of intrinsic motivational factors on students' behavioral intention to use (BIU) a mobile application for learning. Background: Although the Technology Acceptance Model is a significant…

  20. Refugia: identifying and understanding safe havens for biodiversity under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppel, G.; Niel, Van K.P.; Wardell-Johnson, G.W.; Yates, C.J.; Byrne, M.; Mucina, L.; Schut, A.G.T.; Hopper, S.D.; Franklin, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Identifying and protecting refugia is a priority for conservation under projected anthropogenic climate change, because of their demonstrated ability to facilitate the survival of biota under adverse conditions. Refugia are habitats that components of biodiversity retreat to, persist in and can

  1. Exploring the motivations and emotions underlying rewarding self-gift giving and how they encourage achievement oriented goals.

    OpenAIRE

    Karayiannis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore consumers’ descriptions of rewarding self-gift behaviour during the entire consumption process, including the motivations and emotions involved and how these encourage towards the achievement of personal oriented goals. The study specifically focuses on luxury self-gifts and attempts to incorporate desires and the cycle of desire with self-gift giving. In doing so, the study adopts an interpretive approach, consistent with the author’s philosophical ass...

  2. Auditory and Cognitive Factors Underlying Individual Differences in Aided Speech-Understanding among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E. Humes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to address individual differences in aided speech understanding among a relatively large group of older adults. The group of older adults consisted of 98 adults (50 female and 48 male ranging in age from 60 to 86 (mean = 69.2. Hearing loss was typical for this age group and about 90% had not worn hearing aids. All subjects completed a battery of tests, including cognitive (6 measures, psychophysical (17 measures, and speech-understanding (9 measures, as well as the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing (SSQ self-report scale. Most of the speech-understanding measures made use of competing speech and the non-speech psychophysical measures were designed to tap phenomena thought to be relevant for the perception of speech in competing speech (e.g., stream segregation, modulation-detection interference. All measures of speech understanding were administered with spectral shaping applied to the speech stimuli to fully restore audibility through at least 4000 Hz. The measures used were demonstrated to be reliable in older adults and, when compared to a reference group of 28 young normal-hearing adults, age-group differences were observed on many of the measures. Principal-components factor analysis was applied successfully to reduce the number of independent and dependent (speech understanding measures for a multiple-regression analysis. Doing so yielded one global cognitive-processing factor and five non-speech psychoacoustic factors (hearing loss, dichotic signal detection, multi-burst masking, stream segregation, and modulation detection as potential predictors. To this set of six potential predictor variables were added subject age, Environmental Sound Identification (ESI, and performance on the text-recognition-threshold (TRT task (a visual analog of interrupted speech recognition. These variables were used to successfully predict one global aided speech-understanding factor, accounting for about 60% of the variance.

  3. The role of self-determined motivation in the understanding of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2006-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the purpose of the present study was to examine whether amotivation, self-determined and controlling types of motivation could predict a range of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations. Exercisers (n = 375) from ten health clubs in the North of England completed questionnaires measuring exercise motivation, exercise stages of change, number of relapses from exercise, future intention to exercise, barriers self-efficacy, physical self-worth and social physique anxiety. Controlling for age and sex, multiple and logistic regression analyses supported our hypotheses by showing self-determined motivation (i.e. intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) to predict more adaptive behavioural, cognitive and physical self-evaluation patterns than external regulation and amotivation. Introjected regulation was related to both adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Furthermore, a multivariate analysis of variance revealed that exercisers in the maintenance stage of change displayed significantly more self-determined motivation to exercise than those in the preparation and action stages. The results illustrate the importance of promoting self-determined motivation in exercisers to improve the quality of their experiences, as well as to foster their exercise behaviour. Future research should examine the mechanisms that promote self-determined motivation in exercise.

  4. Understanding Postpartum Healthcare Services and Exploring the Challenges and Motivations of Maternal Health Service Providers in the Philippines: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tadashi; Suplido, Sherri Ann; Llave, Cecilia; Tuliao, Maria Teresa R; Tanaka, Yuko; Matsuo, Hiroya

    2015-06-01

    Given the shortage of medical professionals in the Philippines, Barangay Health Workers (BHWs) may play a role in providing postpartum healthcare services. However, as there are no reports regarding BHW activities in postpartum healthcare, we conducted this study to understand postpartum healthcare services and to explore the challenges and motivations of maternal health service providers. Focus group interview (FGI) of 13 participants was conducted as qualitative research methodology at Muntinlupa City. The results were analyzed according to the interview guide. The proceedings of the FGI were transcribed verbatim, and researchers read and coded the transcripts. The codes were then used to construct categories. Four important activities were highlighted among 11 analysis codes. These activities were "Assessment of postpartum women's conditions," "Recommendation to visit a health facility," "Measurement of blood-pressure and vitamin intake," and "Providing postpartum health information." Among five analysis codes, we identified three challenges that BHWs face, which were "No current information regarding postpartum care," "Some postpartum women do not want to receive healthcare services from BHW," and "Too many assigned postpartum women." Among five analysis codes, we identified two reasons for continuing BHW activities, which were "Hospitality to help postpartum women and their family in the community" and "Performance of mission in providing BHW services." This study is the first to evaluate BHW activities in postpartum healthcare services. Our results indicate that BHWs play a potentially important role in evaluating postpartum women's physical and mental conditions through home-visiting services. However, several difficulties adversely affected their activities, and these must be addressed to maximize the contributions of BHWs to the postpartum healthcare system.

  5. Motivation from control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitam, Baruch; Kennedy, Patrick M; Tory Higgins, E

    2013-09-01

    Human motivation is sensitive to value-to the outcomes of actions. People invest mental and physical resources for obtaining desired results or for stopping and reversing undesired ones. Accordingly, people's motivation is sensitive to information about their standing in relation to outcome attainment ('outcome feedback'). In this paper, we argue and present the first evidence for the existence of another motivational sensitivity in humans-a sensitivity to our degree of control on the environment and hence to information about that control ('control feedback'). We show that when actions have even trivial and constant perceptual effects, participants' motivation to perform is enhanced. We then show that increased motivation is not because more information about task performance is available and that motivation is increased only in conditions in which control over the effects can be firmly established by the mind. We speculate on the implications for understanding motivation, and potentially, physical and mental health.

  6. Understanding a successful obesity prevention initiative in children under 5 from a systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Brynle; Brown, Andrew D; Kuhlberg, Jill; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Economos, Christina; Allender, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Systems thinking represents an innovative and logical approach to understanding complexity in community-based obesity prevention interventions. We report on an approach to apply systems thinking to understand the complexity of a successful obesity prevention intervention in early childhood (children aged up to 5 years) conducted in a regional city in Victoria, Australia. A causal loop diagram (CLD) was developed to represent system elements related to a successful childhood obesity prevention intervention in early childhood. Key stakeholder interviews (n = 16) were examined retrospectively to generate purposive text data, create microstructures, and form a CLD. A CLD representing key stakeholder perceptions of a successful intervention comprised six key feedback loops explaining changes in project implementation over time. The loops described the dynamics of collaboration, network formation, community awareness, human resources, project clarity, and innovation. The CLD developed provides a replicable means to capture, evaluate and disseminate a description of the dynamic elements of a successful obesity prevention intervention in early childhood.

  7. Employee Motivation for Personal Development Plan Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele, Lisa; Grohnert, Therese; Beausaert, Simon; Segers, Mien

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to understand conditions under which personal development plans (PDPs) can effectively be implemented for professional learning. Both the organization's manner of supporting the PDP practice as well as the individual employee's motivation is taken into account. Design/ methodology/approach: A questionnaire was…

  8. A Phenomenological Study on Lack of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Research and Reviews, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to point out the underlying reasons about the lack of motivation at academic activities concerning Attribution Theory. Attribution Theory trys to understand how the people answer "why" question and how they do casual explanations. This research is a qualitative based research. It used the phenomenological…

  9. Dynamic Analytical Capability to Better Understand and Anticipate Extremist Shifts Within Populations under Authoritarian Regimes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to create a generalizable data- and theory-supported capability to better understand and anticipate (with quantifiable uncertainty): 1) how the dynamics of allegiance formations between various groups and society are impacted by active conflict and by third-party interventions and 2) how/why extremist allegiances co-evolve over time due to changing geopolitical, sociocultural, and military conditions.

  10. Under the influence of Facebook? Excess use of social networking sites and drinking motives, consequences, and attitudes in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormes, Julia M

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims Excessive use of social networking sites (SNS) has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction (i.e., "disordered SNS use") using key criteria for the diagnosis of substance dependence and shown to be associated with a variety of impairments in psychosocial functioning, including an increased risk of problem drinking. This study sought to characterize associations between "disordered SNS use" and attitudes towards alcohol, drinking motives, and adverse consequences resulting from alcohol use in young adults. Methods Undergraduate students (n = 537, 64.0% female, mean age = 19.63 years, SD = 4.24) reported on their use of SNSs and completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Temptation and Restraint Inventory, Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol and Drinking Motives Questionnaires, and Drinker Inventory of Consequences. Results Respondents meeting previously established criteria for "disordered SNS use" were significantly more likely to use alcohol to cope with negative affect and to conform to perceived social norms, reported significantly more conflicting (i.e., simultaneous positive and negative) attitudes towards alcohol, and had experienced significantly more, and more frequent adverse consequences from drinking in their inter- and intrapersonal, physical, and social functioning, compared to individuals without problems related to SNS use. Discussion and conclusions Findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting a link between excess or maladaptive SNS use and problems related to alcohol in young adults and point to emotion dysregulation and coping motives as potential shared risk factors for substance and behavioral addictions in this demographic.

  11. Under the influence of Facebook? Excess use of social networking sites and drinking motives, consequences, and attitudes in college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormes, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Excessive use of social networking sites (SNS) has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction (i.e., “disordered SNS use”) using key criteria for the diagnosis of substance dependence and shown to be associated with a variety of impairments in psychosocial functioning, including an increased risk of problem drinking. This study sought to characterize associations between “disordered SNS use” and attitudes towards alcohol, drinking motives, and adverse consequences resulting from alcohol use in young adults. Methods Undergraduate students (n = 537, 64.0% female, mean age = 19.63 years, SD = 4.24) reported on their use of SNSs and completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Temptation and Restraint Inventory, Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol and Drinking Motives Questionnaires, and Drinker Inventory of Consequences. Results Respondents meeting previously established criteria for “disordered SNS use” were significantly more likely to use alcohol to cope with negative affect and to conform to perceived social norms, reported significantly more conflicting (i.e., simultaneous positive and negative) attitudes towards alcohol, and had experienced significantly more, and more frequent adverse consequences from drinking in their inter- and intrapersonal, physical, and social functioning, compared to individuals without problems related to SNS use. Discussion and conclusions Findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting a link between excess or maladaptive SNS use and problems related to alcohol in young adults and point to emotion dysregulation and coping motives as potential shared risk factors for substance and behavioral addictions in this demographic. PMID:28092186

  12. Jack Michael's Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2013-01-01

    Among many of Jack Michael's contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of motivating operation (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner's (1938) notion of drive. Conceptually, Michael's term helped us change our focus on how to study motivation by shifting its origins from the organism to the environment. Michael's account also served to stimulate applied research and to better understand behavioral functio...

  13. Why Johnny Won't Cooperate: An Examination of Behavior and Motivation Theory to Understand Resistance to Change in the Workplace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... This thesis is advanced by synthesizing the motivation theories of Maslow, McGregor, and Merzberg to develop a model which describes behavior as a function of human need and points to the existence...

  14. A Proposed Framework to Understand the Intrinsic Motivation Factors on University Students’ Behavioral Intention to Use a Mobile Application for Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie H. Shroff

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: By integrating a motivational perspective into the Technology Acceptance Model, the goal of this study is to empirically test the causal relationship of intrinsic motivational factors on students’ behavioral intention to use (BIU a mobile application for learning. Background:\tAlthough the Technology Acceptance Model is a significant model, it largely remains incomplete as it does not take into consideration the motivation factors and/or outside influences in the adoption of new technology. Methodology: A Mobile Application Motivation Instrument (MAMI was developed from a comprehensive review of literature on intrinsic motivation and verified using a formalized card sorting procedure. Four intrinsic motivation scales were developed: perceived competence (COM, perceived challenge (CHA, perceived choice (CHO, and perceived interest (INT. Consequently, a scale to assess students’ behavioral intention (BIU to use mobile applications was developed using existing scales from prior TAM instruments. Contribution: Incorporating the motivational factors into TAM may provide better explanation and prediction of student acceptance and usage of mobile applications. A potential contribution of this study is the development of a reliable and valid instrument that could be further used by a growing community of researchers, instructional designers, and instructors. Findings: Data were collected from 193 participants to test the causal relationship of perceived competence (COM, perceived challenge (CHA, perceived choice (CHO, and perceived interest (INT on students’ behavioral intention to use (BIU a mobile application, using a structural equation modeling approach. The structural path model indicated that perceived competence (COM, perceived challenge (CHA, perceived choice (CHO, and perceived interest (INT had a significant influence on students’ behavioral intention to use (BIU a mobile application for learning. Implications of this study

  15. U-Form vs. M-Form: How to Understand Decision Autonomy Under Healthcare Decentralization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Arturo Vargas

    2016-01-01

    For more than three decades healthcare decentralization has been promoted in developing countries as a way of improving the financing and delivery of public healthcare. Decision autonomy under healthcare decentralization would determine the role and scope of responsibility of local authorities. Jalal Mohammed, Nicola North, and Toni Ashton analyze decision autonomy within decentralized services in Fiji. They conclude that the narrow decision space allowed to local entities might have limited the benefits of decentralization on users and providers. To discuss the costs and benefits of healthcare decentralization this paper uses the U-form and M-form typology to further illustrate the role of decision autonomy under healthcare decentralization. This paper argues that when evaluating healthcare decentralization, it is important to determine whether the benefits from decentralization are greater than its costs. The U-form and M-form framework is proposed as a useful typology to evaluate different types of institutional arrangements under healthcare decentralization. Under this model, the more decentralized organizational form (M-form) is superior if the benefits from flexibility exceed the costs of duplication and the more centralized organizational form (U-form) is superior if the savings from economies of scale outweigh the costly decision-making process from the center to the regions. Budgetary and financial autonomy and effective mechanisms to maintain local governments accountable for their spending behavior are key decision autonomy variables that could sway the cost-benefit analysis of healthcare decentralization. PMID:27694684

  16. The Mediated MIMIC Model for Understanding the Underlying Mechanism of DIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Shao, Can; Lathrop, Quinn N.

    2016-01-01

    Due to its flexibility, the multiple-indicator, multiple-causes (MIMIC) model has become an increasingly popular method for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF). In this article, we propose the mediated MIMIC model method to uncover the underlying mechanism of DIF. This method extends the usual MIMIC model by including one variable…

  17. Understanding self-monitoring of blood glucose among individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: an information-motivation-behavioral skills analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Kohut, Taylor; Schachner, Holly; Stenger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) information deficits, motivational obstacles, and behavioral skills limitations in individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and to assess the relationship of these deficits with SMBG frequency. Individuals with type 1 (n = 208; 103 male, 105 female) and type 2 (n = 218; 107 male, 111 female) diabetes participated in an online survey assessing SMBG information, motivation, behavioral skills, and behavior. A substantial proportion of participants scored as SMBG uninformed, unmotivated, and unskilled on specific assessment items. SMBG information, motivation, and behavioral skills deficits were significantly correlated with SMBG frequency, such that individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, who were less informed, less motivated, and less behaviorally skilled, reported lower frequency of SMBG. Common and consequential SMBG information, motivation, and behavioral skills deficits were present, and patients with these gaps were less likely to test frequently. Clinical education focusing on relevant SMBG information, motivation to act, and behavioral skills for acting effectively may be a priority.

  18. Using the theory of planned behaviour to understand the motivation to learn about HIV/AIDS prevention among adolescents in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreeyesus Hadera, H; Boer, H; Kuiper, W A J M

    2007-08-01

    Various studies indicate that school- or university-based HIV prevention curricula can reduce the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour among adolescent youth in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, effective HIV/AIDS prevention education may be problematic, if the needs of youth are not served adequately. To date, little attention has been given to the motivation of youth to learn about HIV/AIDS and about their preferences for HIV/AIDS curriculum design options. The aim of this study was to get insight into the determinants of the motivation of youth to learn about HIV/AIDS prevention and to assess their curriculum design preferences. Students from a university in Tigray, Ethiopia, filled out a structured questionnaire, which assessed demographics, variables that according to the Theory of Planned Behaviour are related to the motivation to learn, and their preferences for independent, carrier and integrated HIV/AIDS curriculum designs. On average, participants were highly motivated to learn about HIV/AIDS. Motivation to learn was primarily related to social norms and was not related to self-efficacy to discuss HIV/AIDS in class. The often discussed reluctance to discuss sexuality and condom use in curricula in Sub-Saharan Africa, seems to be more related to existing negative social norms, than to lack of self-efficacy. Participants revealed a high preference for the independent, carrier and integrated curriculum design options. However, students with a higher motivation to learn about HIV/AIDS were more attracted to the independent course design.

  19. Underlying Motives, Moral Agendas and Unlikely Partnerships: The Formulation of the U.S. Trafficking in Victims Protection Act Through the Data and Voices of Key Policy Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Footen Bromfield

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the overwhelming amount of attention to human trafficking, the debates surrounding its definition, and its focus on the sex industry, the purpose of this study was to understand the motivations behind the formation of the Trafficking in Victims Protection Act (TVPA. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF as a model, data was collected and analyzed in order to examine the coalition identities of key players and their positions. Through the presentation of in-depth interview data with key policy players involved in the making of the TVPA, this article illustrates how and why the TVPA was formulated, the implications of its development, and the necessity for critical analysis of its effects. The use of alternative frameworks of labor and migration for understanding trafficking is proposed. Further consideration is given to legislative changes to eliminate anti-prostitution ideology and to support anti-oppressive approaches to addressing forced or deceptive working conditions.

  20. Understanding of Grassland Ecosystems under Climate Change and Economic Development Pressures in the Mongolia Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, J.; Chen, J.; Shan, P.; Pan, X.; Wei, Y.; Wang, M.; Xin, X.

    2011-12-01

    The land use and land cover change, especially in the form of grassland degradation, in the Mongolian Plateau, exhibited a unique spatio-temporal pattern that is a characteristic of a mixed stress from economic development and climate change of the region. The social dimension of the region played a key role in shaping the landscape and land use change, including the cultural clashes with economic development, conflicts between indigenous people and business ventures, and exogenous international influences. Various research projects have been conducted in the region to focus on physical degradation of grasslands and/or on economic development but there is a lack of understanding how the social and economic dimensions interact with grassland ecosystems and changes. In this talk, a synthesis report was made based on the most recent workshop held in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, of China, that specifically focused on climate change and grassland ecosystems. The report analyzed the degree of grassland degradation, its climate and social drivers, and coupling nature of economic development and conservation of traditional grassland values. The goal is to fully understand the socio-ecological-economic interactions that together shape the trajectory of the grassland ecosystems in the Mongolia Plateau.

  1. Assessment of Genetics Understanding. Under What Conditions Do Situational Features Have an Impact on Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiemann, Philipp; Nehm, Ross H.; Tornabene, Robyn E.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how situational features of assessment tasks impact reasoning is important for many educational pursuits, notably the selection of curricular examples to illustrate phenomena, the design of formative and summative assessment items, and determination of whether instruction has fostered the development of abstract schemas divorced from particular instances. The goal of our study was to employ an experimental research design to quantify the degree to which situational features impact inferences about participants' understanding of Mendelian genetics. Two participant samples from different educational levels and cultural backgrounds (high school, n = 480; university, n = 444; Germany and USA) were used to test for context effects. A multi-matrix test design was employed, and item packets differing in situational features (e.g., plant, animal, human, fictitious) were randomly distributed to participants in the two samples. Rasch analyses of participant scores from both samples produced good item fit, person reliability, and item reliability and indicated that the university sample displayed stronger performance on the items compared to the high school sample. We found, surprisingly, that in both samples, no significant differences in performance occurred among the animal, plant, and human item contexts, or between the fictitious and "real" item contexts. In the university sample, we were also able to test for differences in performance between genders, among ethnic groups, and by prior biology coursework. None of these factors had a meaningful impact upon performance or context effects. Thus some, but not all, types of genetics problem solving or item formats are impacted by situational features.

  2. Understanding the Paris agreement: analysing the reporting requirements under the enhanced transparency framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desgain, Denis DR; Sharma, Sudhir

    At the Paris climate conference (COP-21) in December 2015, the Conference of the Parties decided to adopt the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This was the first time that 195 Parties had agreed on a universal, legally binding climate instrument......th October 2016, 74 Par¬ties had ratified the Agreement, accounting for 58.82% of global GHG emissions.1 The Paris Agreement will thus enter into force on 4th November 2016....

  3. Motivating Tomorrow's Biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The story of biology is far more complex and fascinating than straightforward facts or neatly labeled diagrams of structures and systems. Although exams can motivate students, the key to using these extrinsic motivators to increase student understanding lies in the way the assessments are designed and what they measure. Those involved in…

  4. From motivation to acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well...

  5. Motivating the Stakeholders, a Feature of SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Raluca ROBU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivation, in a narrow meaning, based on a classical vision on the organisation and management, aims only at the employees or staff of the organization. This optics still predominates both in theory and in the worldwide managerial practice. Motivation, in a broad meaning, contoured in recent years, based on a modern vision on the organization and management is centred on the stakeholders, namely on those people, categories of staff and organisms who have major interests in developing the activity and performances of the organisation. In order to understand motivation, the managers must first understand the reasons why the individuals behave in a certain way and for which they have certain reactions under threatening situations or by which influencing is attempted. Motivation is an internal process, not an imperative one which can be compelled from the outside. Managers must understand the motivation strategies, the way in which they succeed or fail on the grounds of the way in which they succeed in influencing the inner motivations of the employees.

  6. Forests under climate change and air pollution: gaps in understanding and future directions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Calfapietra, C; de Vries, W; Dizengremel, P; Ernst, D; Jolivet, Y; Mikkelsen, T N; Mohren, G M J; Le Thiec, D; Tuovinen, J-P; Weatherall, A; Paoletti, E

    2012-01-01

    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems ("supersites") will be conducive to addressing these gaps by enabling integration of experimentation and modelling within the soil-plant-atmosphere interface, as well as further model development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cognitive neuroepigenetics: the next evolution in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Paul; Bredy, Timothy W.

    2016-07-01

    A complete understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of learning and memory continues to elude neuroscientists. Although many important discoveries have been made, the question of how memories are encoded and maintained at the molecular level remains. So far, this issue has been framed within the context of one of the most dominant concepts in molecular biology, the central dogma, and the result has been a protein-centric view of memory. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting a role for neuroepigenetic mechanisms, which constitute dynamic and reversible, state-dependent modifications at all levels of control over cellular function, and their role in learning and memory. This neuroepigenetic view suggests that DNA, RNA and protein each influence one another to produce a holistic cellular state that contributes to the formation and maintenance of memory, and predicts a parallel and distributed system for the consolidation, storage and retrieval of the engram.

  8. Forests under climate change and air pollution: Gaps in understanding and future directions for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Calfapietra, C.

    2012-01-01

    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between...... changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research...... for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems (“supersites”) will be conducive to addressing...

  9. A New Spanish Generation in Germany. Analysis of the Motivations to Leave under the Veil of the Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antía Pérez-Caramés

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the study of the new South-North European migration process within a context characterized by the economic crisis and an unprecedented rise in unemployment. More specifically, it addresses the phenomenon of Spaniards emigrating to Hamburg, Germany, since 2008. The main objective is to analyse the motivations to leave, contextualizing them within larger socio-structural processes, altogether with a study of the perceptions this community has on the profile and characteristics of this migratory wave. The methodological approach for this research is of a qualitative nature, based on semi-structured interviews to recent Spanish emigrants in Hamburg (Germany, follow-up of virtual communities and participant observation.

  10. Understanding HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy: an information--motivation--behavioral skills model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Fisher, William A; Shuper, Paul A; Cornman, Deborah H; Christie, Sarah; Macdonald, Susan; Pillay, Sandy; Mahlase, Gethwana; Fisher, Jeffrey D

    2013-08-01

    The current study applied the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model (Fisher & Fisher, 1992; Fisher & Fisher, 1993) to identify factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission risk behavior among HIV-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), a population of considerable significance for curtailing, or maintaining, South Africa's generalized HIV epidemic. HIV prevention information, HIV prevention motivation, HIV prevention behavioral skills, and HIV transmission risk behavior were assessed in a sample of 1,388 South Africans infected with HIV and receiving ART in 16 clinics in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Findings confirmed the assumptions of the IMB model and demonstrated that HIV prevention information and HIV prevention motivation work through HIV prevention behavioral skills to affect HIV transmission risk behavior in this population. Subanalyses confirmed these relationships for HIV transmission risk behavior overall and for HIV transmission risk behavior with partners perceived to be HIV-negative or HIV-status unknown. A consistent pattern of gender differences showed that for men, HIV prevention information and HIV prevention motivation may have direct links with HIV preventive behavior, whereas for women, the effect of HIV prevention motivation works through HIV prevention behavioral skills to affect HIV preventive behavior. These IMB model-based findings suggest directions for HIV prevention interventions with South African men and women living with HIV and on ART as an important component of overall strategies to contain South Africa's generalized HIV epidemic. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Understanding the mechanical and acoustical characteristics of sand aggregates compacting under triaxial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangx, Suzanne; Brantut, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    failure being present but occurring to a relatively limited extent. Acoustic emission localization showed that failure was focussed along a broad shear plane. At higher confining pressure pervasive grain failure clearly accommodated compaction, though no strain localization was observed and failure appeared to be through cataclastic flow. Chemical environment, i.e. chemically inert decane vs. water as a pore fluid, had no significant effect on compaction in the strain rate range tested. Grain size distribution or grain shape also appeared to not affect the observed mechanical behaviour. Our results can be used to better understand the compaction behaviour of poorly consolidated sandstones. Future research will focus on understanding the effect of cementation on strain localization in deforming artificial Ottawa sandstone.

  12. Understanding Innovation for Sustainable Business Management Capabilities and Competencies under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Jui Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many firms have come to understand that innovation is an important issue in sustainable business management, as it helps improve firm capabilities and competencies. Because of the fiercely competitive environment in the hotel industry, innovation has become a critical factor in the process of hotel differentiation, leading to sustainable business success. However, the literature has not thoroughly examined the role of innovation or the hierarchical structure of the capabilities and competencies in sustainable business management. This study adopts interval-valued triangular fuzzy numbers and grey relational analysis to provide a competitive priority ranking for the aspects and criteria that assist firms in decision-making. The study results indicate that innovation in technology capabilities and networking and social capabilities—in addition to competencies in systemic thinking—are the most important aspects of sustainable business management. In particular, this study indicates that to succeed in building a sustainable business in the hotel industry, firms should upgrade and integrate their business technologies, collaborate with actors inside and outside the firm, build trust as well as a shared vision that includes common agreement, and develop competencies in inventive thinking to support innovation and foster changes in strategy, structure, administrative procedures, and systems when necessary.

  13. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....

  14. Towards an understanding of self-directed language as a mechanism of behavior change: A novel strategy for eliciting client language under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin O. Ladd

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Change talk (CT and sustain talk (ST are thought to reflect underlying motivation and be important mechanisms of behavior change (MOBCs. However, greater specificity and experimental rigor is needed to establish CT and ST as MOBCs. Testing the effects of self-directed language under laboratory conditions is one promising avenue. The current study presents a replication and extension of research examining the feasibility for using simulation tasks to elicit self-directed language. Methods: First-year college students (N=92 responded to the Collegiate Simulated Intoxication Digital Elicitation, a validated task for assessing decision-making in college drinking. Verbal responses elicited via free-response and structured interview formats were coded based on established definitions of CT and ST, with minor modifications to reflect the non-treatment context. Associations between self-directed language and alcohol use at baseline and eight months were examined. Additionally, this study examined whether a contextually-based measure of decision-making, behavioral willingness, mediated relationships between self-directed language and alcohol outcome. Results: Healthy talk and unhealthy talk independently were associated with baseline alcohol use across both elicitation formats. Only healthy talk during the free-response elicitation was associated with alcohol use at follow up; both healthy talk and unhealthy talk during the interview elicitation were associated with 8-month alcohol use. Behavioral willingness significantly mediated the relationship between percent healthy talk and alcohol outcome. Conclusions: Findings support the utility of studying self-directed language under laboratory conditions and suggest that such methods may provide a fruitful strategy to further understand the role of self-directed language as a MOBC. Keywords: Change talk, College students, Alcohol, Simulation task

  15. Understanding and predicting the behaviour of silver base neutron absorbers under irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, C.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation induced transmutations on the swelling of AgInCd (AIC) alloys used as neutron absorber in the control rods of Pressurized Water Reactors has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Effective atomic volumes have been determined in synthetic AgCdInSn alloys with various compositions and containing fcc and hc phases, representative of irradiated AIC (Sn is a transmutation product). Swelling is shown to result first from the transmutation of Ag into Cd and of In into Sn, both with larger effective volume than the mother atom, and second from grain boundaries precipitation of s still less dense hc phase when solid solubility of transmuted products is exceeded. For both fcc and hc phases, we have determined profiles at the temperatures in the vicinity of the operating temperature. Unusual characteristics of second phase growth at grain boundaries induced by transmutations are identified on a simple binary alloy model: kinetics is controlled by irradiation temperature which scales diffusivities and flux which scales transmutation rates, as well as by the grain size in the underlying matrix. To address the AgInCdSn alloys, a novel technique is proposed to model diffusion in multicomponent alloys. It is based on a linearization of a simple atomistic model. With a single set of parameters, for each phase, our model well reproduces our interdiffusion measurements in quaternary alloys as well as existing interdiffusion experiments in binary alloys. Finally this diffusion model implemented with a moving interface algorithm is used to model the growth of the second phase induced by transmutation in the AIC under irradiation. (authors)

  16. Contribution to the understanding of zirconium alloy deformation under irradiation at high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharbi, Nesrine

    2015-01-01

    The growth of zirconium alloy tubes of PWR fuel assemblies is the result of two phenomena: axial irradiation creep and stress 'free' growth which is correlated to the formation of c-loops at high irradiation doses. This PhD work aims at investigating the coupling between these two phenomena through a fine Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis of the effect of a macroscopic applied stress on the c-loop microstructure. 600 keV Zr + ion irradiations were performed at 300 C on two recrystallized zirconium alloys: Zircaloy-4 and M5. Thanks to a device specifically designed, different tensile or compressive stress levels were applied under ion irradiation. The microstructural observations have shown that the c-loop density reduces in grains oriented with the c-axis close to the direction of the applied tensile stress or far from the direction of the applied compressive stress, which is in good agreement with the SIPA mechanism. Nevertheless, the examination of a large number of grains has revealed dispersion from grain to grain. This dispersion, which could be explained by the intergranular heterogeneities, reduces the magnitude of the stress effect on c-loop microstructure. In parallel to this experimental study, a cluster dynamics model has been able to describe the evolution under irradiation of zirconium and Zircaloy-4 microstructure and to assess the effect of stress on c-loop microstructure. On the macroscopic scale, a physical model was also developed to predict the irradiation growth and creep behaviour of zirconium alloy tubes. (author) [fr

  17. Understanding DNA Under Oxidative Stress and Sensitization: The Role of Molecular Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eMonari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA is constantly exposed to damaging threats coming from oxidative stress, i.e. from the presence of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Sensitization from exogenous and endogenous compounds that strongly enhance the frequency of light-induced lesions also plays an important role. The experimental determination of DNA lesions, though a difficult subject, is somehow well established and allows to elucidate even extremely rare DNA lesions. In parallel, molecular modeling has become fundamental to clearly understand the fine mechanisms related to DNA defects induction. Indeed, it offers an unprecedented possibility to get access to an atomistic or even electronic resolution. Ab initio molecular dynamics may also describe the time-evolution of the molecular system and its reactivity. Yet the modeling of DNA (photo-reactions does necessitate elaborate multi-scale methodologies to tackle a damage induction reactivity that takes place in a complex environment. The double-stranded DNA environment is first characterized by a very high flexibility, that dynamical effects are to be taken into account, but also a strongly inhomogeneous electrostatic embedding. Additionally, one aims at capturing more subtle effects, such as the sequence selectivity which is of critical important for DNA damage. The structure and dynamics of the DNA/sensitizers complexes, as well as the photo-induced electron- and energy-transfer phenomena taking place upon sensitization, should be carefully modeled. Finally the factors inducing different repair ratios for different lesions should also be rationalized.In this review we will critically analyze the different computational strategies used to model DNA lesions. A clear picture of the complex interplay between reactivity and structural factors will be sketched. The use of proper multi-scale modeling leads to the in-depth comprehension of DNA lesions mechanism and also to the rational design of new chemo-therapeutic agents.

  18. Diabetic retinopathy: Proteomic approaches to help the differential diagnosis and to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csősz, Éva; Deák, Eszter; Kalló, Gergő; Csutak, Adrienne; Tőzsér, József

    2017-01-06

    Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease and a leading cause of blindness among patients with diabetes. The appearance and the severity of the symptoms correlate with the duration of diabetes and poor blood glucose level management. Diabetic retinopathy is also categorized as a chronic low-level inflammatory disease; the high blood glucose level promotes the accumulation of the advanced glycation end products and leads to the stimulation of monocytes and macrophages. Examination of protein level alterations in tears using state-of the art proteomics techniques have identified several proteins as possible biomarkers for the different stages of the diabetic retinopathy. Some of the differentially expressed tear proteins have a role in the barrier function of tears linking the diabetic retinopathy with another eye complication of diabetes, namely the diabetic keratopathy resulting in impaired wound healing. Understanding the molecular events leading to the eye complications caused by hyperglycemia may help the identification of novel biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets in order to improve quality of life of diabetic patients. Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the leading cause of blindness among diabetic patients can develop without any serious symptoms therefore the early detection is crucial. Because of the increasing prevalence there is a high need for improved screening methods able to diagnose DR as soon as possible. The non-invasive collection and the relatively high protein concentration make the tear fluid a good source for biomarker discovery helping the early diagnosis. In this work we have reviewed the administration of advanced proteomics techniques used in tear biomarker studies and the identified biomarkers with potential to improve the already existing screening methods for DR detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Utilizing Virtual Reality to Understand Athletic Performance and Underlying Sensorimotor Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitaka Kimura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In behavioral sports sciences, knowledge of athletic performance and underlying sensorimotor processing remains limited, because most data is obtained in the laboratory. In laboratory experiments we can strictly control the measurement conditions, but the action we can target may be limited and differ from actual sporting action. Thus, the obtained data is potentially unrealistic. We propose using virtual reality (VR technology to compensate for the lack of actual reality. We have developed a head mounted display (HMD-based VR system for application to baseball batting where the user can experience hitting a pitch in a virtual baseball stadium. The batter and the bat movements are measured using nine-axis inertial sensors attached to various parts of the body and bat, and they are represented by a virtual avatar in real time. The pitched balls are depicted by computer graphics based on previously recorded ball trajectories and are thrown in time with the motion of a pitcher avatar based on simultaneously recorded motion capture data. The ball bounces depending on its interaction with the bat. In a preliminary measurement where the VR system was combined with measurement equipment we found some differences between the behavioral and physiological data (i.e., the body movements and respiration of experts and beginners and between the types of pitches during virtual batting. This VR system with a sufficiently real visual experience will provide novel findings as regards athletic performance that were formerly hard to obtain and allow us to elucidate their sensorimotor processing in detail.

  20. Understanding the physiological roles of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 under aerobic chemoheterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narancic, Tanja; Scollica, Elisa; Kenny, Shane T; Gibbons, Helena; Carr, Eibhlin; Brennan, Lorraine; Cagney, Gerard; Wynne, Kieran; Murphy, Cormac; Raberg, Matthias; Heinrich, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2016-10-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is an important biopolymer accumulated by bacteria and associated with cell survival and stress response. Here, we make two surprising findings in the PHB-accumulating species Rhodospirillum rubrum S1. We first show that the presence of PHB promotes the increased assimilation of acetate preferentially into biomass rather than PHB. When R. rubrum is supplied with (13)C-acetate as a PHB precursor, 83.5 % of the carbon in PHB comes from acetate. However, only 15 % of the acetate ends up in PHB with the remainder assimilated as bacterial biomass. The PHB-negative mutant of R. rubrum assimilates 2-fold less acetate into biomass compared to the wild-type strain. Acetate assimilation proceeds via the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway with (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate as a common intermediate with the PHB pathway. Secondly, we show that R. rubrum cells accumulating PHB have reduced ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) activity. RuBisCO activity reduces 5-fold over a 36-h period after the onset of PHB. In contrast, a PHB-negative mutant maintains the same level of RuBisCO activity over the growth period. Since RuBisCO controls the redox potential in R. rubrum, PHB likely replaces RuBisCO in this role. R. rubrum is the first bacterium found to express RuBisCO under aerobic chemoheterotrophic conditions.

  1. Under the pile. Understanding subsurface dynamics of historical cities trough geophysical models interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Paulo; Pereira, Bruno; Alves, Mafalda; Fontes, Luís; Sousa, Andreia; Martins, Manuela; Magalhães, Fernanda; Pimenta, Mário

    2017-04-01

    Braga is one of the oldest cities of the Iberian NW and as of so, the research team's studying the city's historical core for the past 40 years is often confronted with the unpredictability factor laying beneath an urban site with such a long construction history. In fact, Braga keeps redesigning its urban structure over itself on for the past 2000 years, leaving us with a research object filled with an impressive set of construction footprints from the various planning decisions that were taken in the city along its historical path. Aiming for a predicting understanding of the subsoil, we have used near surface geophysics as an effort of minimizing the areas of intervention for traditional archaeological survey techniques. The Seminário de Santiago integrated geophysical survey is an example of the difficulties of interpreting geophysical models in very complex subsurface scenarios. This geophysical survey was planned in order to aid the requalification project being designed for this set of historical buildings, that are estimated to date back to the 16h century, and that were built over one of the main urban arteries of both roman and medieval layers of Braga. We have used both GPR as well as ERT methods for the geophysical survey, but for the purpose of this article, we will focus in the use of the ERT alone. For the interpretation of the geophysical models we've cross-referenced the dense knowledge existing over the building's construction phases with the complex geophysical data collected, using mathematical processing and volume-based visualization techniques, resorting to the use of Res2Inv©, Paraview© and Voxler® software's. At the same time we tried to pinpoint the noise caused by the past 30 year's infrastructural interventions regarding the replacement of the building's water and sanitation systems and for which we had no design plants, regardless of its recent occurring. The deep impact of this replacement actions revealed by the archaeological

  2. Understanding 'caring' through biopolitics: the case of nurses under the Nazi regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    These days, discussions of what might be the 'essence' or the 'core' of nursing and nursing practice sooner or later end in a discussion about the concept of care. Most of the 'newer' nursing theories use this concept as a theoretical core concept. Even though these theoretical approaches use the concept of care with very different philosophical foundations and theoretical consistency, they concur in defining care as the essence of nursing and thereby glorify goodness as the decisive characteristic of nursing. These theoretical approaches neglect the fact that nursing is above all a profession with a societal task and is characterized by an asymmetrical power relation between nurses and their patients. Based on the results of a research project that analysed the role nurses played in the killing of psychiatric patients in Germany during the Nazi regime, I demonstrate that an approach based on the concept of care is not able to explain how nurses were able to commit crimes of such atrocity. These crimes were bound to an emotional investment that sustained the production of 'life unworthy of living'. In the case of nurses under the Nazi regime, certainly a kind of sadism was at issue that can only be explained if we recognize that the social bond is characterized by a certain tension; 'goodness' that caring theories assign to the social bond always coexists with the capacity for destruction. Using the Foucauldian theoretical framework of biopower and biopolitics enables one to analyse violence and power as integral parts of nurses' practice. Seen from this perspective, the killing of patients was part of a biopolitical programme and not a relapse into barbarism. The concept of care obscures the political agenda of nursing and does not provide a critical and political framework to analysing nursing practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Role of Cognitive, Metacognitive, and Motivational Variables in Conceptual Change: Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of the Cause of Lunar Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackes, Mesut

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to explore and describe the role of cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational variables in conceptual change. More specifically, the purposes of the study were (1) to investigate the predictive ability of a learning model that was developed based on the intentional conceptual change perspective in predicting change in conceptual…

  4. Online Military Training: Using a Social Cognitive View of Motivation and Self-Regulation to Understand Students' Satisfaction, Perceived Learning, and Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Using a social cognitive framework, the present study investigated the relations between two motivational constructs, prior experience, and several adaptive outcomes. Participants (n = 204) completed a survey that assessed their perceived task value, self-efficacy, prior experience, and a collection of outcomes that included their satisfaction,…

  5. More than fear induction: Toward an understanding of people's motivation to be well-prepared for emergencies in flood prone areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Terpstra, T.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the extent and manner to which evaluations of flood-related precautions are affected by an individual's motivation and perception of context. It argues that the relationship between risk perception and flood risk preparedness can be fruitfully specified in terms of

  6. Understanding the Relationship between Parental Education and STEM Course Taking through Identity-Based and Expectancy-Value Theories of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Ryan C.; Rozek, Christopher S.; Hyde, Janet S.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Destin, Mesmin

    2016-01-01

    High school students from lower-socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds are less likely to enroll in advanced mathematics and science courses compared to students from higher-SES backgrounds. The current longitudinal study draws on identity-based and expectancy-value theories of motivation to explain the SES and mathematics and science…

  7. How to Motivate Employees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Kušar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to motivate employees and keep them motivated? Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out what motivates employees and what motivates employees for work. Method: The results of the questionnaire are graphically presented and described. Random sampling was utilized that included participants from various professional areas and demographic characteristics. The results showed a relationship between individual motivational factors related to education, age and type of employment. All of the questions were closed - type questions except for the last question, which was an open question, in which the respondents answered in their own words. Questions were analyzed using frequency analysis of individual responses. Pearson's Chi - squared test, Spearman's rank correlation and Fisher’s Exact test was made using R Commander. Results: The research findings showed which motivational factors motivate employees the most. These are especially non - material motivational factors, such as good relationships, jobs with challenges, advancement opportunities, clear instructions, good work conditions, company reputation, etc. Organization: The study will help managers understand their role in motivating employees as well as the types of motivational factors. Society: The research shows how individuals are motivated. Originality: Certain motivators in the study are ranked differently than was found in previous literature. Most probably the reason is that the respondents in this study favored intangible motivators (good relations with leadership and their colleagues, good working conditions, etc.. Limitations/Future Research: The limitation of this study was that the sample included employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. To enhance the study and to find similar results as in previous literature, more questions should have been asked as well as increasing the sample size.

  8. Clustering Teachers' Motivations for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The motivation to teach is a powerful, yet neglected, force in teaching at institutes of higher education. A better understanding of academics' motivations for teaching is necessary. The aim of this mixed-method study was to identify groups with distinctively different motivations for teaching. Six clusters were identified: expertise, duty,…

  9. MOTIVATION AND MOTIVES - DRIVER AND REASON OF CONSUMER'S BUYING BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    TICHINDELEAN Mihai; VINEREAN Simona

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to understand and measure consumer's motives as part of the complex mental structure which has as result a certain buying behavior. To achieve this goal, the authors structured the paper in two parts: the first part contains a literature review regarding the concepts of motivation and motives, while the second part tries to measure and explain several dimensions of buying motives by using a statistical analysis tool - exploratory factor analysis.

  10. Understanding the Relationship Between Parental Education and STEM Course Taking Through Identity-Based and Expectancy-Value Theories of Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Svoboda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High school students from lower–socioeconomic status (SES backgrounds are less likely to enroll in advanced mathematics and science courses compared to students from higher-SES backgrounds. The current longitudinal study draws on identity-based and expectancy-value theories of motivation to explain the SES and mathematics and science course-taking relationship. This was done by gathering reports from students and their parents about their expectations, values, and future identities for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM topics beginning in middle school through age 20. Results showed that parental education predicted mathematics and science course taking in high school and college, and this relationship was partially mediated by students’ and parents’ future identity and motivational beliefs concerning mathematics and science. These findings suggest that psychological interventions may be useful for reducing social class gaps in STEM course taking, which has critical implications for the types of opportunities and careers available to students.

  11. Understanding the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation--uses and abuses of meta-analysis: comment on Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper, M R; Henderlong, J; Gingras, I

    1999-11-01

    Recently, 3 different meta-analytic reviews of the literature concerning the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation have appeared, including that by Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (1999) in this issue. Interestingly, despite their common focus, these reviews have offered dramatically opposed bottom-line conclusions about the meaning and implications of this literature. In this comment, the authors examine differences among these 3 reviews and conclude that the findings of this literature have been more accurately captured by the reviews of Deci et al. and Tang and Hall (1995) than by that of Cameron and Pierce (1994). More broadly, the authors also suggest that there may be significant short- and long-term costs to the unthinking or automatic use of meta-analysis with theoretically derived, procedurally diverse, and empirically complex literatures like that concerning extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation.

  12. The Effect of Educational Intervention Based on Protection Motivation Theory on Mothers’ Behaviors about Prevention of Home Accidents in Children under 5 Year Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Ebadi Fardazar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Purpose: Accidents are the first cause of death in children under 5 years, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study is to determination the effect of Educational intervention on promotion of prevention behaviors of home accidents in mothers with children less than 5 year in Joibar city based on protection motivation theory (PMT in 2015. Methods: In this controlled interventional study 190 mothers with children less than 5 year were participated (95 in case group and 95 incontrol group.The data collection toolwas researcher made questionnaire based on the structures of protection motivation theory.After done pre-test and the results obtained from it, appropriate educational intervention designed and was conducted only in case group. Then two months after the educational intervention,evaluation was done and data into SPSS 20software and by using statistical testsT-test، Paired T test ، chi _square، Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis was analyzed. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between mean scores of all structures of PMTin the case and control groups after the educational intervention, so that in all cases in the case group was better than control group (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that PMT can be used as a framework in designing educational programs in order to promotion of prevention behaviors of home accidents in mothers with children less than 5 year.

  13. Understanding motives for intravaginal practices amongst Tanzanian and Ugandan women at high risk of HIV infection: the embodiment of social and cultural norms and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Shelley; Zalwango, Flavia; Andrew, Bahati; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet; Hayes, Richard J; Francis, Suzanna C

    2014-02-01

    Some types of intravaginal practices (IVP) may increase the risk for HIV acquisition. This is particularly worrisome for populations with dual high prevalence of HIV and IVP. Women involved in transactional sex are at increased risk for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Social, cultural and economic influences are strong drivers of IVP in this population. To explore this, we carried out a qualitative research study to investigate the drivers and motivations for using IVP within a large observational study of women at high risk of HIV in Tanzania and Uganda from September 2008 to September 2009. Of the 201 women selected, 176 women took part in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Additionally, in Tanzania, eight focus group discussions among study participants and community members were carried out to obtain information on community norms and expectations. IVP were motivated by overlapping concerns with hygiene, morality, sexual pleasure, fertility, relationship security, and economic security. These motives were driven by the need to meet cultural and social expectations of womanhood, and at the same time attend to personal well-being. Among women involved in transactional sex in East Africa, interventions aimed at modifying or eliminating IVP should attend to local cultural and social norms as well as the individual as an agent of change. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding motives for intravaginal practices amongst Tanzanian and Ugandan women at high risk of HIV infection: The embodiment of social and cultural norms and well-being☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Shelley; Zalwango, Flavia; Andrew, Bahati; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet; Hayes, Richard J.; Francis, Suzanna C.

    2014-01-01

    Some types of intravaginal practices (IVP) may increase the risk for HIV acquisition. This is particularly worrisome for populations with dual high prevalence of HIV and IVP. Women involved in transactional sex are at increased risk for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Social, cultural and economic influences are strong drivers of IVP in this population. To explore this, we carried out a qualitative research study to investigate the drivers and motivations for using IVP within a large observational study of women at high risk of HIV in Tanzania and Uganda from September 2008 to September 2009. Of the 201 women selected, 176 women took part in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Additionally, in Tanzania, eight focus group discussions among study participants and community members were carried out to obtain information on community norms and expectations. IVP were motivated by overlapping concerns with hygiene, morality, sexual pleasure, fertility, relationship security, and economic security. These motives were driven by the need to meet cultural and social expectations of womanhood, and at the same time attend to personal well-being. Among women involved in transactional sex in East Africa, interventions aimed at modifying or eliminating IVP should attend to local cultural and social norms as well as the individual as an agent of change. PMID:24565154

  15. Student Learning in an International Context: Examining Motivations for Education Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darbi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the underlying motivations behind why institutions and organizations decide to apply particular policies and practices. By applying a lens of five diffusion models--learning, imitation, competition, normative, and coercion--to understand these motivations, decision makers and implementers will make better choices for…

  16. The Impact of Gender, Occupation, and Presence of Children on Telecommuting Motivations and Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtarian, Patricia L.; Bagley, Michael N.; Salomon, Ilan

    1998-01-01

    Accurate forecasts of the adoption and impacts of telecommuting depend on an understanding of what motivates individuals to adopt telecommuting and what constraints prevent them from doing so, since these motivations and constraints offer insight into who is likely to telecommute under what circumstances. Telecommuting motivations and constraints are likely to differ by various segments of society. In this study, we analyze differences in these variables due to gender, occupation, and presenc...

  17. Toward an understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying dual-task performance: Contribution of comparative approaches using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kei; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2018-01-01

    The study of dual-task performance in human subjects has received considerable interest in cognitive neuroscience because it can provide detailed insights into the neural mechanisms underlying higher-order cognitive control. Despite many decades of research, our understanding of the neurobiological basis of dual-task performance is still limited, and some critical questions are still under debate. Recently, behavioral and neurophysiological studies of dual-task performance in animals have begun to provide intriguing evidence regarding how dual-task information is processed in the brain. In this review, we first summarize key evidence in neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies in humans and discuss possible reasons for discrepancies across studies. We then provide a comprehensive review of the literature on dual-task studies in animals and provide a novel working hypothesis that may reconcile the divergent results in human studies toward a unified view of the mechanisms underlying dual-task processing. Finally, we propose possible directions for future dual-task experiments in the framework of comparative cognitive neuroscience. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. I Walk My Dog Because It Makes Me Happy: A Qualitative Study to Understand Why Dogs Motivate Walking and Improved Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Garry; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Dog walking is a popular everyday physical activity. Dog owners are generally more active than non-owners, but some rarely walk with their dog. The strength of the dog–owner relationship is known to be correlated with dog walking, and this qualitative study investigates why. Twenty-six interviews were combined with autoethnography of dog walking experiences. Dog walking was constructed as “for the dog”, however, owners represented their dog’s needs in a way which aligned with their own. Central to the construction of need was perceptions of dog personality and behaviour. Owners reported deriving positive outcomes from dog walking, most notably, feelings of “happiness”, but these were “contingent” on the perception that their dogs were enjoying the experience. Owner physical activity and social interaction were secondary bonuses but rarely motivating. Perceptions and beliefs of owners about dog walking were continually negotiated, depending on how the needs of the owner and dog were constructed at that time. Complex social interactions with the “significant other” of a pet can strongly motivate human health behaviour. Potential interventions to promote dog walking need to account for this complexity and the effect of the dog-owner relationship on owner mental wellbeing. PMID:28825614

  19. I Walk My Dog Because It Makes Me Happy: A Qualitative Study to Understand Why Dogs Motivate Walking and Improved Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Christley, Robert M; Marvin, Garry; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2017-08-19

    Dog walking is a popular everyday physical activity. Dog owners are generally more active than non-owners, but some rarely walk with their dog. The strength of the dog-owner relationship is known to be correlated with dog walking, and this qualitative study investigates why. Twenty-six interviews were combined with autoethnography of dog walking experiences. Dog walking was constructed as "for the dog", however, owners represented their dog's needs in a way which aligned with their own. Central to the construction of need was perceptions of dog personality and behaviour. Owners reported deriving positive outcomes from dog walking, most notably, feelings of "happiness", but these were "contingent" on the perception that their dogs were enjoying the experience. Owner physical activity and social interaction were secondary bonuses but rarely motivating. Perceptions and beliefs of owners about dog walking were continually negotiated, depending on how the needs of the owner and dog were constructed at that time. Complex social interactions with the "significant other" of a pet can strongly motivate human health behaviour. Potential interventions to promote dog walking need to account for this complexity and the effect of the dog-owner relationship on owner mental wellbeing.

  20. The Leadership Effect on Employees Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henrique Guilherme Scatolin; Rafael Barranco; Robson Pereira de Torres

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect that the leadership causes on employees' motivation within the organizations, in order to show the reader that leadership is an external stimulus necessary to awaken the employees' intrinsic feelings, among them, the motivation. The leader faces constant challenges in the organization day by day and he is responsible for understanding his lead team, as well as their several natures and cultural models. In the classical theory, people worked in a mechanistic manner with the motivation, but with the industrial development and the competitiveness incitement, it was observed that to survive on the market, companies need to extract as much as possible of the intellectual capital of its human factor. Therefore, it is necessary to establish conditions under which people feel motivated to work towards the goals outlined by the companies, thus obtaining satisfactory results. This article concludes that motivation is an internal force that is directly affected by external factors in which the manager is responsible for identifying what really motivates each employee in the search for the best results.

  1. Neural Correlates of Consumer Buying Motivations: A 7T functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Goodman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumer buying motivations can be distinguished into three categories: functional, experiential, or symbolic motivations (Keller, 1993. Although prior neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates which enable these motivations, direct comparisons between these three types of consumer motivations have yet to be made. In the current study, we used 7 Tesla (7T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to assess the neural correlates of each motivation by instructing participants to view common consumer goods while emphasizing either functional, experiential, or symbolic values of these products. The results demonstrated mostly consistent activations between symbolic and experiential motivations. Although, these motivations differed in that symbolic motivation was associated with medial frontal gyrus (MFG activation, whereas experiential motivation was associated with posterior cingulate cortex (PCC activation. Functional motivation was associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC activation, as compared to other motivations. These findings provide a neural basis for how symbolic and experiential motivations may be similar, yet different in subtle ways. Furthermore, the dissociation of functional motivation within the DLPFC supports the notion that this motivation relies on executive function processes relatively more than hedonic motivation. These findings provide a better understanding of the underlying neural functioning which may contribute to poor self-control choices.

  2. Skill versus luck: A motivational analysis of gambling involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantal, Y; Vallerand, R J

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to test the skill/luck distinction among gambling games by comparing the motivations underlying participation in a skill (horse racing) and a luck (lottery) betting activity. Predictions were made using Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991). It was predicted that self-determined motivations (intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) would be more prominent for the skill game because it is conducive to optimal challenges, fun, and self-involvement. Conversely, the non self-determined forms of motivation (especially external regulation) should be more important for the game of luck because the luck dimension precludes true involvement of the self and orients the individual towards material gains. Results from a hierarchical discriminant function analysis, with 120 gamblers predominantly involved in one of the two betting activities, supported these hypotheses. These results highlight the relevance of a motivational analysis for a better understanding of the inherent properties of gambling games.

  3. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Pommier, Jeanine; Kane, Sumit; Pictet, Gabriel; Marchal, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The recruitment of community health volunteers to support the delivery of health programmes is a well-established approach in many countries, particularly where health services are not readily available. However, studies on management of volunteers are scarce and current research on human resource management of volunteers faces methodological challenges. This paper presents the protocol of a realist evaluation that aims at identifying the factors influencing the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of a Red Cross immunisation programme in Kampala (Uganda) with a specific focus on motivation. Methods and analysis The realist evaluation cycle structures the protocol. To develop the theoretical basis for the evaluation, the authors conducted interviews and reviewed the literature on community health volunteers’ performance, management and organisational behaviour. This led to the formulation of the initial programme theory, which links the intervention inputs (capacity-building strategies) to the expected outcomes (positive work behaviour) with mechanisms that point in the direction of drivers of motivation. The contextual elements include components such as organisational culture, resource availability, etc. A case study design will be adopted. We define a case as a Red Cross branch, run by a programme manager, and will select two cases at the district level in Kampala. Mixed methods will be used in data collection, including individual interviews of volunteers, participant observation and document review. The thematic analysis will be based on the initial programme theory and will seek for context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Findings from the two cases will be compared. Discussion We discuss the scope for applying realist evaluation and the methodological challenges we encountered in developing this protocol. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at Rennes University Hospital

  4. Promoting justice or perpetuating prejudice? Interrupting external motivation in multicultural training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushue, George V; Hinman, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    The effects of responding to social pressure (external motivation) are short-lived. Multicultural training, however, seeks to promote change in students and trainees that will be transformative and long-lasting. To this end, understanding the motivational factors that inform training is key. The present study was an investigation of the factors underlying external motivation to respond without prejudice for White individuals from the perspective of Higgins's regulatory focus (promotion and prevention) and regulatory mode (assessment and locomotion) theories. The results indicate that locomotion was negatively associated with external motivation to respond without prejudice, while assessment and prevention were positively associated with external motivation. Taken together, findings highlight the importance of cultivating locomotion (action oriented) motivation and inhibiting prevention (loss oriented) and assessment (preoccupation with finding the correct answer) motivations in multicultural training. Implications for training, effective action for justice, and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Environmental Morale and Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Bruno S; Stutzer, Alois

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of environmental morale and environmental motivation in individual behavior from the point of view of economics and psychology. It deals with the fundamental public good problem, and presents empirical (laboratory and field) evidence on how the cooperation problem can be overcome. Four different theoretical approaches are distinguished according to how individuals� underlying environmental motivation is modeled. Specifically, we look at the interaction betwee...

  6. Drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major

  7. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    . This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  8. Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.

    The paper draws together a wide variety of research which relates to the topic of intrinsic motivation; intrinsically motivated activities are defined as those which a person does for no apparent reward except the activity itself or the feelings which result from the activity. Most of this research was not originally reported within the framework…

  9. Gerontechnology motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Gerontechnology’s framework has been formulated in a functional way, with little attention paid to motivation. Abraham H. Maslow’s theory of human motivation (1943) can fill this gap with his hierarchy of needs to be fulfilled in the following order: physiological, safety related, social, esteem and

  10. Motivational interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...

  11. Motivation in Mathematics: Goals Reflected in Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Markku S.

    2006-01-01

    Students in a mathematics classroom are motivated to do many things, not only the ones we expect them to do. In order to understand student behaviour in classrooms we need to increase our understanding of what motivation is and how it is regulated. Two issues relevant to a critique of mainstream motivation research need consideration: (a) the…

  12. Automated Motivic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lartillot, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Motivic analysis provides very detailed understanding of musical composi- tions, but is also particularly difficult to formalize and systematize. A computational automation of the discovery of motivic patterns cannot be reduced to a mere extraction of all possible sequences of descriptions...... for lossless compression. The structural complexity resulting from successive repetitions of patterns can be controlled through a simple modelling of cycles. Generally, motivic patterns cannot always be defined solely as sequences of descriptions in a fixed set of dimensions: throughout the descriptions...... of the successive notes and intervals, various sets of musical parameters may be invoked. In this chapter, a method is presented that allows for these heterogeneous patterns to be discovered. Motivic repetition with local ornamentation is detected by reconstructing, on top of “surface-level” monodic voices, longer...

  13. Automatic affective-motivational regulation processes underlying supportive dyadic coping: the role of increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals in response to a stressed relationship partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koranyi, Nicolas; Hilpert, Peter; Job, Veronika; Bodenmann, Guy

    2017-09-01

    We examined the implicit affective mechanisms underlying provision of support in intimate dyads. Specifically, we hypothesized that in individuals with high relationship satisfaction, the perception that one's partner is stressed leads to increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals. In turn, this change in implicit attitudes facilitates supportive behavior. In two studies, we induced partner stress by instructing participants to either recall a situation where their partner was highly stressed (Study 1; N = 47 university students) or imagine a specific stressful event (excessive workload; Study 2; N = 85 university students). Subsequently, implicit attitudes toward communal goals were assessed with an Implicit Association Test. In both studies, we found that among participants with high relationship satisfaction partner stress increases preferences for communal goals. In addition, implicit preferences for communal goals predicted stronger inclinations to engage in supportive dyadic coping (Study 2). The current findings provide important insights into the implicit cognitive-affective mechanics of dyadic coping. Moreover, they can explain how people manage to avoid experiencing motivational conflicts between partner-oriented and self-oriented goals in situations characterized by high partner stress.

  14. Under the influence: Effects of adolescent ethanol exposure and anxiety on motivation for uncertain gambling-like cues in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, Samantha N; Levit, Jeremy D; Robinson, Mike J F

    2018-01-30

    Gambling disorder (GD) frequently co-occurs with alcohol use and anxiety disorders, suggesting possible shared mechanisms. Recent research suggests reward uncertainty may powerfully enhance attraction towards reward cues. Here, we examined the effects of adolescent ethanol exposure, anxiety, and reward uncertainty on cue-triggered motivation. Male and female adolescent rats were given free access to ethanol or control jello for 20days. Following withdrawal, rats underwent autoshaping on a certain (100%-1) or uncertain (50%-1-2-3) reward contingency, followed by single-session conditioned reinforcement and progressive ratio tasks, and 7days of omission training, during which lever pressing resulted in omission of reward. Finally, anxiety levels were quantified on the elevated plus maze. Here, we found that uncertainty narrowed cue attraction by significantly increasing the ratio of sign-tracking to goal-tracking, particularly amongst control jello and high anxiety animals, but not in animals exposed to ethanol during adolescence. In addition, attentional bias towards the lever cue was more persistent under uncertain conditions following omission training. We also found that females consumed more ethanol, and that uncertainty mitigated the anxiolytic effects of ethanol exposure observed in high ethanol intake animals under certainty conditions. Our results further support that reward uncertainty biases attraction towards reward cues, suggesting also that heightened anxiety may enhance vulnerability to the effects of reward uncertainty. Chronic, elevated alcohol consumption may contribute to heightened anxiety levels, while high anxiety may promote the over-attribution of incentive value to reward cues, highlighting possible mechanisms that may drive concurrent anxiety, heavy drinking, and problematic gambling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Corporate social responsibility motivations in Zambian SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choongo, P.; van Burg, J.C.; Paas, L.J.; Masurel, Enno; Lungu, John

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the motivations of different forms of corporate social responsibility (CSR) by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in an under-researched Sub-Saharan African country, Zambia. The results show that internal motivations (financial motivation and moral and ethical motivation)

  16. Understanding the Behavioral Determinants of Mental Health Service Use by Urban, Under-Resourced Black Youth: Adolescent and Caregiver Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Michael A; Chambers, Kerri; Pohle, Cara; Beall, Peggy; Lucksted, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Black adolescents with mental health problems are less likely than non-Black adolescents with mental health problems to receive treatment, primarily for non-financial reasons including negative perceptions of services and providers, and self-stigma associated with experiencing mental health problems. To better understand these obstacles, 16 adolescents and 11 caregivers, recruited from two K-8th grade elementary-middle schools, participated in four focus groups guided by the unified theory of behavior to explore mental health help-seeking behaviors and perceptions of mental health services. In the focus groups, caregivers acknowledged more positive attitudes about seeking mental health services than adolescents, but both expected the experience of actually doing so to be negative. Adolescents and caregivers also acknowledged social norms that inhibit their mental health help-seeking. Therefore, we conclude that interventions targeting expectancies and social norms might increase the connection of urban, under-resourced Black adolescents and their families to mental health services, and be particularly important given the long-term consequences of untreated mental health problems for this group.

  17. Molecular phenology in plants: in natura systems biology for the comprehensive understanding of seasonal responses under natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudoh, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Phenology refers to the study of seasonal schedules of organisms. Molecular phenology is defined here as the study of the seasonal patterns of organisms captured by molecular biology techniques. The history of molecular phenology is reviewed briefly in relation to advances in the quantification technology of gene expression. High-resolution molecular phenology (HMP) data have enabled us to study phenology with an approach of in natura systems biology. I review recent analyses of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a temperature-responsive repressor of flowering, along the six steps in the typical flow of in natura systems biology. The extensive studies of the regulation of FLC have made this example a successful case in which a comprehensive understanding of gene functions has been progressing. The FLC-mediated long-term memory of past temperatures creates time lags with other seasonal signals, such as photoperiod and short-term temperature. Major signals that control flowering time have a phase lag between them under natural conditions, and hypothetical phase lag calendars are proposed as mechanisms of season detection in plants. Transcriptomic HMP brings a novel strategy to the study of molecular phenology, because it provides a comprehensive representation of plant functions. I discuss future perspectives of molecular phenology from the standpoints of molecular biology, evolutionary biology and ecology. © 2015 The Author. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Under Persistent Assault: Understanding the Factors that Deteriorate Human Skin and Clinical Efficacy of Topical Antioxidants in Treating Aging Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia K. Farris

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies contend that the skin is subject to far more damage than just ultraviolet (UV light, with infrared radiation and pollution now clearly demonstrated to degrade cutaneous tissue. While consumers continue to strive for new ways to augment the aesthetic appeal and improve the health of their skin, awareness regarding environmental insults and effective ways to protect the skin remains low. New advances in dermatologic science have exponentially increased the available information on the underlying mechanism of cutaneous damage and potential of topical antioxidants to treat aging skin. Combining antioxidants that can work through multiple pathways holds great potential for a cumulative and synergistic way to treat aging skin. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive review on environmental factors that damage human skin, discuss scientifically proven benefits of topical antioxidants, understand challenges of formulating and administering topical antioxidants, evaluate novel mechanisms of antioxidant activity, and suggest practical ways of integrating topical antioxidants with aesthetic procedures to complement clinical outcomes.

  19. The scale effect on soil erosion. A plot approach to understand connectivity on slopes under cultivation at variable plot sizes and under Mediterranean climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bagarello, Vicenzo; Ferro, Vito; Iovino, Massimo; Borja, Manuel Estaban Lucas; Francisco Martínez Murillo, Juan; González Camarena, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that soil erosion changes along time and seasons and attention was paid to this issue in the past (González Hidalgo et al., 2010; 2012). However, although the scientific community knows that soil erosion is also a time spatial scale-scale dependent process (Parsons et al., 1990; Cerdà et al., 2009; González Hidalgo et al., 2013; Sadeghi et al., 2015) very little is done on this topic. This is due to the fact that at different scales, different soil erosion mechanisms (splash, sheetflow, rill development) are active and their rates change with the scale of measurement (Wainwright et al., 2002; López-Vicente et al., 2015). This is making the research on soil erosion complex and difficult, and it is necessary to develop a conceptual framework but also measurements that will inform about the soil erosion behaviour. Connectivity is the key concept to understand how changes in the scale results in different rates of soil and water losses (Parsons et al., 1996; Parsons et al., 2015; Poeppl et al., 2016). Most of the research developed around the connectivity concept was applied in watershed or basin scales (Galdino et al., 2016; Martínez-Casasnovas et al., 2016; López Vicente et al., 2016; Marchamalo et al., 2015; Masselink et al., 2016), but very little is known about the connectivity issue at slope scale (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). El Teularet (Eastern Iberian Peninsula) and Sparacia (Sicily) soil erosion experimental stations are being active for 15 years and data collected on different plots sizes can shed light into the effect of scale on runoff generation and soil losses at different scales and give information to understand how the transport of materials is determined by the connectivity between pedon to slope scale (Cerdà et al., 2014; Bagarello et al., 2015a; 2015b). The comparison of the results of the two research stations will shed light into the rates of soil erosion and mechanisms involved that act under different scales. Our

  20. Computing Educator Attitudes about Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Settle, Amber; Sedlak, Brian

    2016-01-01

    While motivation is of great interest to computing educators, relatively little work has been done on understanding faculty attitudes toward student motivation. Two previous qualitative studies of instructor attitudes found results identical to those from other disciplines, but neither study considered whether instructors perceive student motivation to be more important in certain computing classes. In this work we present quantitative results about the perceived importance of student motivat...

  1. Research Self-Efficacy Sources and Research Motivation in a Foreign Language University Faculty in Mexico: Implications for Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cruz, María del Rosario; Perales-Escudero, Moisés Damián

    2016-01-01

    The research self-efficacy and motivation of foreign language (FL) faculty in periphery countries is under-researched, yet there is a need to understand the impact of public policies that drive such faculty to conduct research. This paper reports a qualitative case study investigating research self-efficacy and research motivation in a group of…

  2. Motivation and its importance in learning English

    OpenAIRE

    Нетесова, Мария Витальевна

    2015-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to pay our attention to such a significant problem as motivation in the process of learning a foreign language. The paper is devoted to the very important problem concerning educational process. For most purposes in today, motivation has different reasons why we act in a certain way. We may indeed be motivated by influences as basic as pain and pleasure. The key to understanding motivation is, to some, understanding why it is important to an individual...

  3. Motivating pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  4. Designing motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...... are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research...

  5. Logistical Factors in Teachers' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Research in education and psychology contributes to an understanding of how educators create contexts for learning that encourage intrinsic motivation and increase academic achievement. In this article, the researcher investigated how teachers themselves define effectiveness and identified what factors influence their motivation, both positively…

  6. Motivational Profiles and Motivation for Lifelong Learning of Medical Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burgt, Stéphanie M E; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Wilschut, Janneke A; Tjin A Tsoi, Sharon L N M; Croiset, Gerda; Peerdeman, Saskia M

    2018-05-22

    Medical specialists face the challenge of maintaining their knowledge and skills and continuing professional development, that is, lifelong learning. Motivation may play an integral role in many of the challenges facing the physician workforce today including maintenance of a high performance. The aim of this study was to determine whether medical specialists show different motivational profiles and if these profiles predict differences in motivation for lifelong learning. An online questionnaire was sent to every medical specialist working in five hospitals in the Netherlands. The questionnaire included the validated Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning together with background questions like age, gender, and type of hospital. Respondents were grouped into different motivational profiles by using a two-step clustering approach. Four motivational profiles were identified: (1) HAMC profile (for High Autonomous and Moderate Controlled motivation), (2) MAMC profile (for Moderate Autonomous and Moderate Controlled motivation), (3) MALC profile (for Moderate Autonomous and Low Controlled motivation), and (4) HALC profile (for High Autonomous and Low Controlled motivation). Most of the female specialists that work in an academic hospital and specialists with a surgical specialty were represented in the HALC profile. Four motivational profiles were found among medical specialists, differing in gender, experience and type of specialization. The profiles are based on the combination of autonomous motivation (AM) and controlled motivation (CM) in the specialists. The profiles that have a high score on autonomous motivation have a positive association with lifelong learning.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work

  7. Cooperation Models, Motivation and Objectives behind Farm–School Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyg, Pernille Malberg; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2016-01-01

    economic incentives. Teachers display academic motives for engaging in farm visits, but also a broader focus on shaping children’s world views, connectedness to food and nature and fostering life skills. The farm can be an important setting for promoting food, agricultural and ecological literacy. We...... people and their ability to understand the food system. Thus, efforts are made to promote food literacy through strengthening of farm–school links. The case-study research from Denmark investigates existing cooperation arrangements in farm–school collaboration and the underlying motivation of the farmers...... and teachers. Findings show distinct differences in motivation. Farmers want to create transparency in their production, ensure support for the agricultural profession or promote food and agricultural literacy. The idealistic motivation of teaching children about food and agriculture weighs higher than...

  8. In reality, I motivate myself!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariager-Anderson, Kristina; Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2016-01-01

    lifelong learners constituting the latter as a ‘problem’. The EU call is to make people active, with an underlying assumption of people not being motivated. This article explores how one such ‘inactive’ group, low-skilled workers, narrates motivation for learning, work and other activities through a work...

  9. On the relation between motivation and retention in educational contexts: The role of intentional and unintentional mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Wammes, Jeffrey D; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Highly motivated students often exhibit better academic performance than less motivated students. However, to date, the specific cognitive mechanisms through which motivation increases academic achievement are not well understood. Here we explored the possibility that mind wandering mediates the relation between motivation and academic performance, and additionally, we examined possible mediation by both intentional and unintentional forms of mind wandering. We found that participants reporting higher motivation to learn in a lecture-based setting tended to engage in less mind wandering, and that this decrease in mind wandering was in turn associated with greater retention of the lecture material. Critically, we also found that the influence of motivation on retention was mediated by both intentional and unintentional types of mind wandering. Not only do the present results advance our theoretical understanding of the mechanisms underlying the relation between motivation and academic achievement, they also provide insights into possible methods of intervention that may be useful in improving student retention in educational settings.

  10. Understanding Inclusive Education Practices in Schools under Local Government Jurisdiction: A Study of Khon Kaen Municipality in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantavong, Pennee

    2018-01-01

    This article investigates inclusive education practices in schools under the jurisdiction of Thai local government through a study of schools in Khon Kaen Municipality in Northeastern Thailand. Thailand's 1997 Constitution and 1999 National Education Act both legislated that the educational system must become inclusive, and under these laws…

  11. The Leadership's Role in Motivating Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horga Maria Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    It is impossible to neglect motivation, since it represents the source of team productivity. Theindividual’s availability and willingness to perform tasks represents one of the key factors in thecompany's efficient operation. The leader understands the need to motivate employees and to seethem as resources within the company; thus, the increased focus on motivating and promoting thestaff is required.

  12. Motivations for Food Consumption during Specific Eating Occasions in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Delores; Phan, Uyen T X; Chanadang, Sirichat; Maughan, Curtis; Sanchez, Karolina; Di Donfrancesco, Brizio; Gomez, David; Higa, Federica; Li, Han; Chambers, Edgar; Esen, Eyyup

    2016-05-24

    Several studies in different countries have been conducted to investigate factors affecting food choices. The objective of this study was to understand the motivations of specific food and beverage choices for different eating occasions in a typical diet of the Turkish people. A convenience sample of 141 respondents from seven different geographical regions in Turkey completed an online survey questionnaire that included questions about demographic information and details about their latest eating occasion. Respondents reported all of their motivations for choosing each food/beverage item reported for that specific eating occasion. Results indicated that different motivations played different roles in food choices of people in Turkey. Liking was a key characteristic for all eating occasions, but key natural concerns were even more important at breakfast, and need and hunger were more important for a mid-afternoon snack. Lunch involved additional motivations such as Sociability, Variety Seeking, and Social Norms. In addition to Liking, choices of different food groups were also driven by other motivations such as Habits, Convenience, Need and Hunger, Natural Concerns, and Health. This study helped better understand the current dietary patterns of Turkish people as well as the motives underlying their choices of foods and beverages for different meals and snacks. These findings could be useful for dietary campaigns that aim to improve eating behaviors in Turkey.

  13. Motivations for Food Consumption during Specific Eating Occasions in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delores Chambers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies in different countries have been conducted to investigate factors affecting food choices. The objective of this study was to understand the motivations of specific food and beverage choices for different eating occasions in a typical diet of the Turkish people. A convenience sample of 141 respondents from seven different geographical regions in Turkey completed an online survey questionnaire that included questions about demographic information and details about their latest eating occasion. Respondents reported all of their motivations for choosing each food/beverage item reported for that specific eating occasion. Results indicated that different motivations played different roles in food choices of people in Turkey. Liking was a key characteristic for all eating occasions, but key natural concerns were even more important at breakfast, and need and hunger were more important for a mid-afternoon snack. Lunch involved additional motivations such as Sociability, Variety Seeking, and Social Norms. In addition to Liking, choices of different food groups were also driven by other motivations such as Habits, Convenience, Need and Hunger, Natural Concerns, and Health. This study helped better understand the current dietary patterns of Turkish people as well as the motives underlying their choices of foods and beverages for different meals and snacks. These findings could be useful for dietary campaigns that aim to improve eating behaviors in Turkey.

  14. Motivational drive and alprazolam misuse: A recipe for aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Bonnie; Staiger, Petra K; Hall, Kate; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Best, David

    2016-06-30

    Benzodiazepine-related aggression has received insufficient research attention, in particular little is known about the motivational factors which may contribute to the development of this paradoxical response. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides a theoretical framework from which to understand the relevant underlying motivational processes. The current study aimed to identify the role of approach and avoidance motivational tendencies in the occurrence of benzodiazepine-related aggression. Data regarding benzodiazepine and other substance use, approach and avoidance motivation, and general and physical aggressive behaviour were collected via self-report questionnaires. Participants were a convenience sample (n=204) who reported using benzodiazepines in the previous year. Participants were primarily male (62.7%), aged 18-51 years old. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that general and physical aggression were predicted by alprazolam use and Drive, a facet of approach motivation. Overall, lower diazepam use significantly predicted higher levels of general aggression. However, when diazepam-preferring participants were examined in isolation of the larger sample (23.5% of sample), problematic (dependent) diazepam use was associated with greater aggression scores, as was dependence risk for alprazolam-preferring participants (39.7% of sample). The findings highlight the importance of motivational factors and benzodiazepine use patterns in understanding benzodiazepine-related aggression, with implications for violent offender rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Motivations for Food Consumption during Specific Eating Occasions in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Delores; Phan, Uyen T. X.; Chanadang, Sirichat; Maughan, Curtis; Sanchez, Karolina; Di Donfrancesco, Brizio; Gomez, David; Higa, Federica; Li, Han; Chambers, Edgar; Esen, Eyyup

    2016-01-01

    Several studies in different countries have been conducted to investigate factors affecting food choices. The objective of this study was to understand the motivations of specific food and beverage choices for different eating occasions in a typical diet of the Turkish people. A convenience sample of 141 respondents from seven different geographical regions in Turkey completed an online survey questionnaire that included questions about demographic information and details about their latest eating occasion. Respondents reported all of their motivations for choosing each food/beverage item reported for that specific eating occasion. Results indicated that different motivations played different roles in food choices of people in Turkey. Liking was a key characteristic for all eating occasions, but key natural concerns were even more important at breakfast, and need and hunger were more important for a mid-afternoon snack. Lunch involved additional motivations such as Sociability, Variety Seeking, and Social Norms. In addition to Liking, choices of different food groups were also driven by other motivations such as Habits, Convenience, Need and Hunger, Natural Concerns, and Health. This study helped better understand the current dietary patterns of Turkish people as well as the motives underlying their choices of foods and beverages for different meals and snacks. These findings could be useful for dietary campaigns that aim to improve eating behaviors in Turkey. PMID:28231134

  16. Solar disinfection of drinking water in the prevention of dysentery in South African children under 5 years: the role of participant motivation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This 1-year randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of SODIS of drinking water and motivation on the incidence of dysentery and nondysentery diarrhea among children of age 6 months to 5 years living in periurban communities in South...

  17. Directed Motivational Currents: Using vision to create effective motivational pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Muir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vision, that is, the mental representation of the sensory experience of a future goal state (involving imagination and imagery, is currently at the forefront of motivational innovation, and in recent years it has been seen increasingly more often in the motivational tool kit of practicing language teachers. Theories such as Dörnyei’s L2 motivational self system have explored the power that creating effective visions can harness (see, e.g., Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014 and when viewed in conjunction with other current research avenues, such as future time perspective and dynamic systems theory, vision offers exciting potential. A Directed Motivational Current is a new motivational construct that we suggest is capable of integrating many current theoretical strands with vision: It can be described as a motivational drive which energises long-term, sustained behaviour (such as language learning, and through placing vision and goals as critical central components within this construct, it offers real and practical motivational potential. In this conceptual paper, we first discuss current understandings of vision and of Directed Motivational Currents, and then analyse how they may be optimally integrated and employed to create effective motivational pathways in language learning environments.

  18. Integrative Perspectives of Academic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittum, Jessica Rebecca

    , interest, and caring) in science class to determine whether or not the students grouped into meaningful "motivation profiles." 5 stable profiles emerged: (1) low motivation; (2) low value and high support; (3) somewhat high motivation; (4) somewhat high empowerment and values, and high support; and (5) high motivation. As this study serves as a proof of concept, we concluded by describing the 5 clusters. Together, these studies represent a focus on more integrative and person-centered approaches to studying and understanding academic motivation.

  19. Personality Traits and Motives for Volunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Juzbasic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the possibility of predicting volunteer motives based on five-factor model of personality in a sample of 159 volunteers from Zagreb, Osijek and Split. Data was collected using IPIP-300 personality questionnaire and Volunteer Functions Inventory. Results indicate that Croatian volunteers are agreeable, conscientious, altruistic, dutiful, and moral persons with artistic interests. Their most salient motives for volunteering are understanding and values. Hierarchical regression analysis confirmed that the five-factor model personality traits independently predict 17% of protective motive variance, 12% of values motive, 18% of career motive, 10% of understanding motive, and 12% of enhancement motive. Social motive was not explained by personality traits.

  20. Analysis of farm performance in Europe under different climate and management conditions to improve understanding of adaptive capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Ewert, F.; Oude Lansink, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve understanding of the adaptive capacity of European agriculture to climate change. Extensive data on farm characteristics of individual farms from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) have been combined with climatic and socio-economic data to analyze the

  1. The neuronal substrate of risky choice: an insight into the contributions of neuroimaging to the understanding of theories on decision making under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhold, Verena

    2008-04-01

    This chapter provides an overview of studies in the field of neuroscience that investigate some of the processes and concepts of risk perception, risky choice, and decision making under risk. First, early studies in the field of neuroscience addressing the diminished decision-making abilities in lesion patients are presented. A classical task in this research field is described along with its neural implications. After this, the underlying model, its hypotheses, and neuronal implications are discussed. Different aspects within risky decision making, such as the influence of memory, inhibition, motivation, and personality, on risky choice and the respective underlying neuronal substrate are described. After this, studies of risky decision making in healthy subjects are reviewed. A selection of studies shows that theories focusing on cognitive aspects only have to be enriched in order to allow for additional aspects within risky decision making (e.g., emotion). Next, the classical economic approaches and the development of theories incorporating further aspects within economical decision making and the underlying neuronal substrate will be presented. Finally, research in the field of neuroeconomics, focusing on the role of social decision making and evaluative judgment within risky decision making, is reviewed.

  2. Motivating Students in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedden, Mandy L; Clark, Kevin R

    2016-07-01

    To examine instructors' and students' perspectives on motivation in the classroom and clinical environments and to explore instructional strategies educators can use to motivate college students in the 21st century. Articles selected for this review were from peer-reviewed journals and scholarly sources that emphasized student and educator perspectives on motivation and instructional strategies to increase student motivation. Understanding how college students are motivated can help educators engage students in lessons and activities, ultimately improving the students' academic performance. Students exhibit increased motivation in classes when educators have high expectations, conduct an open-atmosphere classroom, and use multidimensional teaching strategies. Instructional styles such as connecting with students, creating an interactive classroom, and guiding and reminding students improved student motivation. Radiologic science educators must be mindful of how college students are motivated and use various instructional strategies to increase students' motivation in the classroom and clinical setting. ©2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  3. University STAFF: motivation of innovative activities

    OpenAIRE

    Vyzhigin Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The article researches the motivation and improvement of the innovative activities of faculty by means of implementation of the score-rating assessment of knowledge in the educational process. This research clarified the scientific understanding of the nature of motivation of professors; identified criteria motivating researchers and professors; proposed an innovative method to improve motivated teaching career on the basis of score-rating system of assessment.

  4. University STAFF: motivation of innovative activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyzhigin Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the motivation and improvement of the innovative activities of faculty by means of implementation of the score-rating assessment of knowledge in the educational process. This research clarified the scientific understanding of the nature of motivation of professors; identified criteria motivating researchers and professors; proposed an innovative method to improve motivated teaching career on the basis of score-rating system of assessment.

  5. Creative Proactive-Concluding Theory of Motivating

    OpenAIRE

    Blašková, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with necessity to change the understanding of human resource philosophy to the new philosophy: philosophy of human potential. In these intentions, it is very important to motivate human potential in the organisations. But, in the area of motivating, situation within the organisations isn't sufficient. Thereto the article gives an introductive presentation of a new theory of motivating: creative proactive-concluding theory of motivating. The theory leads the managers to utili...

  6. Why Volunteer? Understanding Motivations for Student Volunteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Clare

    2010-01-01

    The profile of volunteering in English Higher Education (HE) has been enhanced in recent years through various initiatives that have not only funded activities, but have sought to expand the range of volunteering opportunities available to students and recognise the contribution that volunteering can make to students' employability. This expansion…

  7. Gambling Motives: Do They Explain Cognitive Distortions in Male Poker Gamblers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Sasha; Barrault, Servane; Brunault, Paul; Varescon, Isabelle

    2018-03-01

    Gambling behavior is partly the result of varied motivations leading individuals to participate in gambling activities. Specific motivational profiles are found in gamblers, and gambling motives are closely linked to the development of cognitive distortions. This cross-sectional study aimed to predict cognitive distortions from gambling motives in poker players. The population was recruited in online gambling forums. Participants reported gambling at least once a week. Data included sociodemographic characteristics, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Financial and the Gambling-Related Cognition Scale. This study was conducted on 259 male poker gamblers (aged 18-69 years, 14.3% probable pathological gamblers). Univariate analyses showed that cognitive distortions were independently predicted by overall gambling motives (34.8%) and problem gambling (22.4%) (p gambling problems, showing a close inter-relationship between gambling motives, cognitive distortions and the severity of gambling. These data are consistent with the following theoretical process model: gambling motives lead individuals to practice and repeat the gambling experience, which may lead them to develop cognitive distortions, which in turn favor problem gambling. This study opens up new research perspectives to understand better the mechanisms underlying gambling practice and has clinical implications in terms of prevention and treatment. For example, a coupled motivational and cognitive intervention focused on gambling motives/cognitive distortions could be beneficial for individuals with gambling problems.

  8. Using indirect methods to understand the impact of forced migration on long-term under-five mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Karunakara, Unni; Burnham, Gilbert; Hill, Kenneth

    2005-11-01

    Despite the large numbers of displaced persons and the often-lengthy periods of displacement, little is known about the impact of forced migration on long-term under-five mortality. This paper looks at the Brass Method (and adaptations of this method) and the Preceding Birth Technique in combination with a classification of women by their migration and reproductive histories, in order to study the impact of forced migration on under-five mortality. Data came from the Demography of Forced Migration Project, a study on mortality, fertility and violence in the refugee and host populations of Arua District, Uganda and Yei River District, Sudan. Results indicate that women who did not migrate in a situation of conflict and women who repatriated before the age of 15, had children with the highest under-five mortality rates compared with women who were currently refugees and women who repatriated after the age of 15.

  9. This mood is familiar and I don't deserve to feel better anyway: mechanisms underlying self-esteem differences in motivation to repair sad moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne V; Heimpel, Sara A; Manwell, Laurie A; Whittington, Elizabeth J

    2009-02-01

    Why are people with low self-esteem (LSE) less motivated than people with high self-esteem (HSE) to improve sad moods? The present research examined whether feelings of personal deservingness contribute to this difference. Four experiments with undergraduate participants involved a sad mood induction, a manipulation of personal deservingness, or both. Results suggested that (a) LSEs feel less deserving of positive outcomes and of positive moods than do HSEs, (b) feelings of personal deservingness can vary with the situation, and be lowered through reminders of social rejection and personal flaws, and (c) feeling relatively undeserving dampens LSEs', but not HSEs', motivation to repair sad moods. These results have implications for the emotion regulation, self-esteem, and social justice literatures.

  10. THE CREATIVE ACCOUNTING CONCEPT IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CONTEXT APPROACHED FROM DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES IN THE LIGHT OF MOTIVATIONS UNDERLYING THE MODELLING OF FISCAL YEAR RESULT

    OpenAIRE

    GÎNŢA ANCA IOANA

    2015-01-01

    This article is trying to tackle the relationships which exist between three dimensions of economic reality. The objective of this article is to contribute to the study of determinants of accounting result management. The accounting result management deviates from the accounting principles (honesty, regularity and faithful image) and finds its motivations in the contractual relations between the managers and stakeholders. This is in the legal, not more frame. The appreciation of acco...

  11. Black Generation Y gender differences in Premier Soccer League spectator motives : sport marketing

    OpenAIRE

    T.E. Mofokeng; A.L. Bevan-Dye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are gender differences concerning Premier Soccer League (PSL) spectator motives amongst black Generation Y students in South Africa. In South Africa, the black Generation Y cohort (individuals born between 1986 and 2005) represents an important but under-researched market segment in that, in 2013, they made up 32 percent of the country's population. From a PSL marketing perspective, understanding the motives that drive game spectatorshi...

  12. Understanding the dynamics in distribution of invasive alien plant species under predicted climate change in Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Sunil; Chitale, Vishwas; Rijal, Srijana Joshi; Bisht, Neha; Shrestha, Bharat Babu

    2018-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPS) can pose severe threats to biodiversity and stability of native ecosystems, therefore, predicting the distribution of the IAPS plays a crucial role in effective planning and management of ecosystems. In the present study, we use Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modelling approach to predict the potential of distribution of eleven IAPS under future climatic conditions under RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 in part of Kailash sacred landscape region in Western Himalaya. Based on the model predictions, distribution of most of these invasive plants is expected to expand under future climatic scenarios, which might pose a serious threat to the native ecosystems through competition for resources in the study area. Native scrublands and subtropical needle-leaved forests will be the most affected ecosystems by the expansion of these IAPS. The present study is first of its kind in the Kailash Sacred Landscape in the field of invasive plants and the predictions of potential distribution under future climatic conditions from our study could help decision makers in planning and managing these forest ecosystems effectively.

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart A of... - Memorandum of Understanding Between Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Reserve Program, a producer may request to rotate or exchange new crop grain for the original crop... is impossible for FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 or CCC to have a first lien...

  14. Work and family decision-making framework: A motivational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chinchilla, Nuria; Moragas, Maruja; Kim, Sowon

    2012-01-01

    We introduce motivation theory as a way of understanding the decision-making process in the work and family context. We use core concepts from motivation theory - extrinsic, intrinsic and prosocial motivation - and link them to motivational learning to build our framework. We then propose a framework illustrating motivational factors that influence work-family decision-making and offer propositions focusing on the motivational consequences for individuals which will impact their future decisi...

  15. Motivation og handlingskapacitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2012-01-01

    Der har i flere år være en interesse for at undersøge motivationen hos producenterne af offentlige ydelser, mens der i mindre grad findes empiriske analyser af brugernes handlingskapacitet. Artiklen råder bod på dette ved at analysere forskelle i motivation og handlingskapacitet på fire serviceom......Der har i flere år være en interesse for at undersøge motivationen hos producenterne af offentlige ydelser, mens der i mindre grad findes empiriske analyser af brugernes handlingskapacitet. Artiklen råder bod på dette ved at analysere forskelle i motivation og handlingskapacitet på fire...... serviceområder (skoler, dagpasning, hospitaler og videregående uddannelser). Der anvendes henholdsvis et veletableret mål for public service motivation (n=377 producenter) og et nyudviklet mål for handlingskapacitet (n=1056 brugere). Resultaterne viser, at der er relativt højest handlingskapacitet og public...... service motivation på daginstitutionsområdet efterfulgt af skoleområdet, mens de videregående uddannelser placerer sig relativt lavest på begge variable. Hospitalsbrugerne har næsten lige så lav handlingskapacitet som brugerne af de videregående uddannelser, mens de hospitalsansattes public service...

  16. Understanding performance properties of chemical engines under a trade-off optimization: Low-dissipation versus endoreversible model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, F. R.; Zhang, Rong; Li, Huichao; Li, C. N.; Liu, Wei; Bai, Long

    2018-05-01

    The trade-off criterion is used to systemically investigate the performance features of two chemical engine models (the low-dissipation model and the endoreversible model). The optimal efficiencies, the dissipation ratios, and the corresponding ratios of the dissipation rates for two models are analytically determined. Furthermore, the performance properties of two kinds of chemical engines are precisely compared and analyzed, and some interesting physics is revealed. Our investigations show that the certain universal equivalence between two models is within the framework of the linear irreversible thermodynamics, and their differences are rooted in the different physical contexts. Our results can contribute to a precise understanding of the general features of chemical engines.

  17. The Reparative Motive in Surrogate Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanefield, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Explores the motivations of surrogate mothers, focusing on underlying reparative motive--to compensate for or repair an earlier loss or sense of damage. Provides an overview of the typical surrogate's characteristics and personality, discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the reparative motive, and considers the tension between reparation and…

  18. Getting the phenotypes right: an essential ingredient for understanding aetiological mechanisms underlying persistent violence and developing effective treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilagh Hodgins

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce societal levels of violence, it is essential to advance understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in initiating and maintaining individual patterns of physical aggression. New technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imagining and analyses of DNA provide tools for identifying these mechanisms. The reliability and validity of the results of studies using these tools depend not only on aspects of the technology, but also on the methodological rigour with which the studies are conducted, particularly with respect to characterizing the phenotype. The present article discusses five challenges confronting scientists who aim to advance understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms associated with persistent violence. These challenges are: (1 to develop evidence-based hypotheses and to design studies that test alternate hypotheses; (2 to recruit samples that are homogeneous with respect to variables that may be linked to neurobiological mechanisms underpinning violent behaviour; (3 to use reliable and valid measures in order to fully characterize participants so that the external validity of the results is evident; (4 to restrict the range of age of participants so as not to confuse developmental change with group differences; and (5 to take account of sex. Our goal is to contribute to elevating methodological standards in this new field of research and to thereby improve the validity of results and move closer to finding effective ways to reduce violence

  19. Drinking, abstinence, and academic motives: Relationships among multiple motivational domains and alcohol use in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Ladd, Benjamin O; Anderson, Kristen G

    2016-04-01

    Drinking, abstinence, and academic motives have been previously linked with alcohol consumption in high school and college students; however, little research has examined the impact of such sources of motivations concurrently. Drawing from self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), the current study tested the hypothesis that alcohol-related and academic motives would be associated with one another along internal vs. external focused dimensions. We also examined the relative influence of these motives on alcohol consumption. College students (N=226) completed self-report measures assessing drinking motives, abstinence motives, academic motives, and alcohol-related outcomes. Findings suggest that drinking motives are related to abstinence motives but not academic motives. Both forms of alcohol-related motives were related to alcohol use and consequences; no associations between academic motives and alcohol variables were observed. The lack of associations among academic motives, alcohol-related motives, and alcohol variables departs from previous findings suggesting that academic motives impact alcohol use. The current findings indicate a greater understanding of the interplay of motivational sets related to salient issues for youth, such as academics, is needed in order to expand intervention models for alcohol use in such populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Consumer motivations for sustainable consumption:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezvani, Zeinab; Jansson, Johan; Bengtsson, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Recent conceptual studies identify gain, normative and hedonic factors as three categories of motivations of consumer proenvironmental behavior. However, empirical understanding of how these motivations interact and affect proenvironmental behavior is limited. This study is based on a survey of car...... owners in Sweden (N = 573) and uses structural equation modeling to analyze the data. The empirical findings point to the importance of all three motivations (gain, normative and hedonic) in consumer electric vehicle adoption intentions. Furthermore, for consumers who perceive high social norms regarding...

  1. Understanding Risky Behavior: The Influence of Cognitive, Emotional and Hormonal Factors on Decision-Making under Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusev, Petko; Purser, Harry; Heilman, Renata; Cooke, Alex J.; Van Schaik, Paul; Baranova, Victoria; Martin, Rose; Ayton, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Financial risky decisions and evaluations pervade many human everyday activities. Scientific research in such decision-making typically explores the influence of socio-economic and cognitive factors on financial behavior. However, very little research has explored the holistic influence of contextual, emotional, and hormonal factors on preferences for risk in insurance and investment behaviors. Accordingly, the goal of this review article is to address the complexity of individual risky behavior and its underlying psychological factors, as well as to critically examine current regulations on financial behavior. PMID:28203215

  2. Understanding Risky Behavior: The Influence of Cognitive, Emotional and Hormonal Factors on Decision-Making under Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusev, Petko; Purser, Harry; Heilman, Renata; Cooke, Alex J; Van Schaik, Paul; Baranova, Victoria; Martin, Rose; Ayton, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Financial risky decisions and evaluations pervade many human everyday activities. Scientific research in such decision-making typically explores the influence of socio-economic and cognitive factors on financial behavior. However, very little research has explored the holistic influence of contextual, emotional, and hormonal factors on preferences for risk in insurance and investment behaviors. Accordingly, the goal of this review article is to address the complexity of individual risky behavior and its underlying psychological factors, as well as to critically examine current regulations on financial behavior.

  3. Is motivation important to brook trout passage through culverts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2017-01-01

    Culverts can restrict movement of stream-dwelling fish. Motivation to enter and ascend these structures is an essential precursor for successful passage. However, motivation is challenging to quantify. Here, we use attempt rate to assess motivation of 447 brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) entering three culverts under a range of hydraulic, environmental, and biological conditions. A passive integrated transponder system allowed for the identification of passage attempts and success of individual fish. Attempt rate was quantified using time-to-event analysis allowing for time-varying covariates and recurrent events. Attempt rate was greatest during the spawning period, at elevated discharge, at dusk, and for longer fish. It decreased during the day and with increasing number of conspecifics downstream of the culvert. Results also show a positive correlation between elevated motivation and successful passage. This study enhances understanding of factors influencing brook trout motivation to ascend culverts and shows that attempt rate is a dynamic phenomenon, variable over time and among individuals. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate other species’ motivation to pass natural or anthropogenic barriers.

  4. The development of socio-motivational dependency from early to middle adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagenow, Danilo; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Research on students’ motivation has shown that motivation can be enhanced or undermined by social factors. However, when interpreting such findings, interindividual differences, and intraindividual changes underlying students’ perception of peers and teachers as a source of motivation are often neglected. The aim of the present study was to complement our understanding of socio-motivational dependency by investigating differences in the development of students’ socio-motivational dependency from early to middle adolescence. Data from 1088 students on their perceptions of peers and teachers as positive motivators when students were in seventh and eighth grade were compared with data of the same sample 2 years later. Latent class analysis supported four different motivation types (MT): (1) teacher-dependent MT, (2) peer-dependent MT, (3) teacher-and-peer-dependent MT, and (4) teacher-and-peer-independent MT. Latent transition analysis revealed substantial changes between the groups. The perceived teacher influence on students’ academic motivation increased from early to middle adolescence. Divergent roles of peers and teachers on students’ academic motivation are discussed. PMID:25762966

  5. Micro morphological and Chemical Approaches to Understand Changes in Ecological Functions of Metal-Impacted Soils under Various Land Uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, J.A; Martinez, S.M; Faz, A; Van Mourik, J.M; Arocena, J.M

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the changes in faunal activities as measures of the ecological functions of soils impacted by potentially toxic metals (PTMs) under urban, industrial, agricultural, and natural uses. Concentrations and distributions of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Fe were estimated by sequential chemical extractions, while relicts and present faunal activities were studied by micro morphological analyses. Urban and natural lands were contaminated with Pb, Cd, and Zn. Micro arthropods and fungi are observed to be active in the litter decomposition in natural, agricultural and urban lands which indicates that total concentration of PTMs in soils is not a good indicator to evaluate the limitations of PTMs to fauna activity. Metals immobilization on carbonates and Fe/Mn oxides, and fertilizations reduced the negative effects of metals on faunal activity. Micro morphological analyses showed the impacts of metal on soil ecological functions in industrial site, where the surface soils are devoid of any evidence of faunal activity; likely due to high proportion of Pb and Zn in organic components. Therefore, the impacts of metals in soil fauna activities, hence ecological functions of soils, are best evaluated by the knowledge of metal partitioning on solid phases in combination with observations of fauna activities using micro morphological techniques.

  6. The study of protein biomarkers to understand the biochemical processes underlying beef color development in young bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Terlouw, E M Claudia; Picard, Brigitte

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates relationships between 21 biomarkers and meat color traits of Longissimus thoracis muscles of young Aberdeen Angus and Limousin bulls. The relationships found allowed to propose metabolic processes underlying meat color. The color coordinates were related with several biomarkers. The relationships were in some cases breed-dependent and the variability explained in the regression models varied between 31 and 56%. The correlations between biomarkers and color parameters were sometimes opposite between breeds. The PCA using the 21 biomarkers and the instrumental color coordinates showed that these variables discriminated efficiently between the two studied breeds. Results are coherent with earlier studies on other beef breeds showing that several proteins belonging to different but partly related biological pathways involved in muscle contraction, metabolism, heat stress and apoptosis are related to beef color. The results suggest that in future, biomarkers may be used to classify meat cuts sampled early post-mortem according to their forthcoming color. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Micromorphological and Chemical Approaches to Understand Changes in Ecological Functions of Metal-Impacted Soils under Various Land Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the changes in faunal activities as measures of the ecological functions of soils impacted by potentially toxic metals (PTMs under urban, industrial, agricultural, and natural uses. Concentrations and distributions of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Fe were estimated by sequential chemical extractions, while relicts and present faunal activities were studied by micromorphological analyses. Urban and natural lands were contaminated with Pb, Cd, and Zn. Microarthropods and fungi are observed to be active in the litter decomposition in natural, agricultural and urban lands which indicates that total concentration of PTMs in soils is not a good indicator to evaluate the limitations of PTMs to fauna activity. Metals immobilization on carbonates and Fe/Mn oxides, and fertilizations reduced the negative effects of metals on faunal activity. Micromorphological analyses showed the impacts of metal on soil ecological functions in industrial site, where the surface soils are devoid of any evidence of faunal activity; likely due to high proportion of Pb and Zn in organic components. Therefore, the impacts of metals in soil fauna activities, hence ecological functions of soils, are best evaluated by the knowledge of metal partitioning on solid phases in combination with observations of fauna activities using micromorphological techniques.

  8. Motivational Leadership: Tips From the Business World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Prabhakar; Bhargava, Puneet

    2016-05-01

    It is an important task for leadership to identify the motivating factors for employees and motivate them to fulfill their individual and organizational goals. Although there are several motivational factors (extrinsic and intrinsic), intrinsic motivational factors such as autonomy, mastery, and purpose are more important for deeper lasting job satisfaction and higher performance. In this article, the authors discuss how an understanding of these factors that influence motivation has the potential to transform an organization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Development of a Bi-Lingual Assessment Instrument to Measure Agentic and Communal Consumer Motives in English and French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mike; Bartier, Anne-Laure; Lown, Josh; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Consumer behavior is driven, in part, by the degree to which goods and services appeal to underlying motives for agency and communion. The purpose of this research was to develop a brief individual differences measure of these motivations for use in behavioral research and theoretical and applied consumer psychology and marketing studies. We employed a bi-lingual scale development procedure to create the 10-item Agentic and Communal Consumer Motivation Inventory (ACCMI) in English and French. Two studies show that the ACCMI is language invariant, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with consumer, motivational, and interpersonal constructs, and predicts evaluations of products described in agentic and communal terms, respectively, in both languages. The general conclusion of this research is that agency and communion provide a useful framework for understanding and studying consumer buying motivations. Discussion focuses on the relevance of motivational factors for studying human behavior and the applied utility of the ACCMI.

  10. The development of a bi-lingual assessment instrument to measure agentic and communal consumer motives in English and French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Friedman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior is driven, in part, by the degree to which goods and services appeal to underlying motives for agency and communion. The purpose of this research was to develop a brief individual differences measure of these motivations for use in behavioral research and theoretical and applied consumer psychology and marketing studies. We employed a bi-lingual scale development procedure to create the 10-item Agentic and Communal Consumer Motivation Inventory (ACCMI in English and French. Two studies show that the ACCMI is language invariant, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with consumer, motivational, and interpersonal constructs, and predicts evaluations of products described in agentic and communal terms, respectively, in both languages. The general conclusion of this research is that agency and communion provide a useful framework for understanding and studying consumer buying motivations. Discussion focuses on the relevance of motivational factors for studying human behavior and the applied utility of the ACCMI.

  11. The Development of a Bi-Lingual Assessment Instrument to Measure Agentic and Communal Consumer Motives in English and French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mike; Bartier, Anne-Laure; Lown, Josh; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer behavior is driven, in part, by the degree to which goods and services appeal to underlying motives for agency and communion. The purpose of this research was to develop a brief individual differences measure of these motivations for use in behavioral research and theoretical and applied consumer psychology and marketing studies. We employed a bi-lingual scale development procedure to create the 10-item Agentic and Communal Consumer Motivation Inventory (ACCMI) in English and French. Two studies show that the ACCMI is language invariant, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with consumer, motivational, and interpersonal constructs, and predicts evaluations of products described in agentic and communal terms, respectively, in both languages. The general conclusion of this research is that agency and communion provide a useful framework for understanding and studying consumer buying motivations. Discussion focuses on the relevance of motivational factors for studying human behavior and the applied utility of the ACCMI. PMID:27563295

  12. Understanding Hydrological Processes in Variable Source Areas in the Glaciated Northeastern US Watersheds under Variable Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, T. S.; Azzaino, Z.; Hoang, L.; Pacenka, S.; Worqlul, A. W.; Mukundan, R.; Stoof, C.; Owens, E. M.; Richards, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    The New York City source watersheds in the Catskill Mountains' humid, temperate climate has long-term hydrological and water quality monitoring data It is one of the few catchments where implementation of source and landscape management practices has led to decreased phosphorus concentration in the receiving surface waters. One of the reasons is that landscape measures correctly targeted the saturated variable source runoff areas (VSA) in the valley bottoms as the location where most of the runoff and other nonpoint pollutants originated. Measures targeting these areas were instrumental in lowering phosphorus concentration. Further improvements in water quality can be made based on a better understanding of the flow processes and water table fluctuations in the VSA. For that reason, we instrumented a self-contained upland variable source watershed with a landscape characteristic of a soil underlain by glacial till at shallow depth similar to the Catskill watersheds. In this presentation, we will discuss our experimental findings and present a mathematical model. Variable source areas have a small slope making gravity the driving force for the flow, greatly simplifying the simulation of the flow processes. The experimental data and the model simulations agreed for both outflow and water table fluctuations. We found that while the flows to the outlet were similar throughout the year, the discharge of the VSA varies greatly. This was due to transpiration by the plants which became active when soil temperatures were above 10oC. We found that shortly after the temperature increased above 10oC the baseflow stopped and only surface runoff occurred when rainstorms exceeded the storage capacity of the soil in at least a portion of the variable source area. Since plant growth in the variable source area was a major variable determining the base flow behavior, changes in temperature in the future - affecting the duration of the growing season - will affect baseflow and

  13. A Study into the Motivation of Knowledge Workers: Using an adapted version of the MOCC model of motivation to explain the motivational tendencies of project managers and engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    There is a general need across organisations to better understand the motivation of knowledge workers. Based on our own empirical findings, research into early and contemporary motivation theories and use of Sharp et al.’s (2009) Motivators, Outcomes, Context, and Characteristics (MOCC) motivational model we adapted our own model. Through adapting the content of the model but keeping the framework intact, we were able to explain the various aspects of motivation in project management and engi...

  14. THE CREATIVE ACCOUNTING CONCEPT IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CONTEXT APPROACHED FROM DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES IN THE LIGHT OF MOTIVATIONS UNDERLYING THE MODELLING OF FISCAL YEAR RESULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÎNŢA ANCA IOANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is trying to tackle the relationships which exist between three dimensions of economic reality. The objective of this article is to contribute to the study of determinants of accounting result management. The accounting result management deviates from the accounting principles (honesty, regularity and faithful image and finds its motivations in the contractual relations between the managers and stakeholders. This is in the legal, not more frame. The appreciation of accounting information players is different, their interests are different. Therefore, the flexibility of accounting rules allowed to the managers is opportunistic. The accounting representation cannot be completely objective, it is more or less subjective, but the freedom of judgment should be based on a high level of ethical sensibility. The ethical side in accounting has something to say about the result management, it allows the result to offer a faithful image.

  15. Understanding the visual resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd L. Newby

    1971-01-01

    Understanding our visual resources involves a complex interweaving of motivation and cognitive recesses; but, more important, it requires that we understand and can identify those characteristics of a landscape that influence the image formation process. From research conducted in Florida, three major variables were identified that appear to have significant effect...

  16. The motivational landscape of first-person shooter games

    OpenAIRE

    Finnerman, T. (Tomi); Kuoppala, A. (Antti)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this research was to gain better understanding of the motivations to play video games, particularly first-person shooter games. The aim was therefore to produce a motivational landscape that describes and categorizes the main motivations to play first-person shooter games (FPS). The study tries to expand the understanding of mot...

  17. Motivating the Knowledge Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Herzberg . The Two - factor Theory asserts that motivators and de-motivators are mutually exclusive sets of factors . This research supports...various theories of motivation and the data collected from this effort, the author developed a two -dimensional model of the factors that motivate... Theory X/ Theory Y Two - factor Theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory Operant Conditioning Protection Motivation Theory

  18. Individual differences in fundamental social motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Rebecca; Kenrick, Douglas T; White, Andrew Edward; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-06-01

    Motivation has long been recognized as an important component of how people both differ from, and are similar to, each other. The current research applies the biologically grounded fundamental social motives framework, which assumes that human motivational systems are functionally shaped to manage the major costs and benefits of social life, to understand individual differences in social motives. Using the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory, we explore the relations among the different fundamental social motives of Self-Protection, Disease Avoidance, Affiliation, Status, Mate Seeking, Mate Retention, and Kin Care; the relationships of the fundamental social motives to other individual difference and personality measures including the Big Five personality traits; the extent to which fundamental social motives are linked to recent life experiences; and the extent to which life history variables (e.g., age, sex, childhood environment) predict individual differences in the fundamental social motives. Results suggest that the fundamental social motives are a powerful lens through which to examine individual differences: They are grounded in theory, have explanatory value beyond that of the Big Five personality traits, and vary meaningfully with a number of life history variables. A fundamental social motives approach provides a generative framework for considering the meaning and implications of individual differences in social motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Oxytocin, Motivation and the Role of Dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tiffany M.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin has drawn the attention of scientists for more than a century. The understanding of the function of oxytocin has expanded dramatically over the years from a simple peptide adept at inducing uterine contractions and milk ejection to a complex neuromodulator with a capacity to shape human social behavior. Decades of research have outlined oxytocin’s ability to enhance intricate social activities ranging from pair bonding, sexual activity, affiliative preferences, and parental behaviors. The precise neural mechanisms underlying oxytocin’s influence on such behaviors have just begun to be understood. Research suggests that oxytocin interacts closely with the neural pathways responsible for processing motivationally relevant stimuli. In particular, oxytocin appears to impact dopaminergic activity within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which is crucial not only for reward and motivated behavior but also for the expression of affiliative behaviors. Though most of the work performed in this area has been done using animal models, several neuroimaging studies suggest similar relationships may be observed in humans. In order to introduce this topic further, this paper will review the recent evidence that oxytocin may exert some of its social-behavioral effects through its impact on motivational networks. PMID:23850525

  20. Motivation Engineering to Employee by Employees Abraham Maslow Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Joko Suyono; Sri Wiwoho Mudjanarko

    2017-01-01

    Among many existing motivational theories, perhaps Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theories are widely known. This theory passes a message to us that once a person passes a certain level of need, he is no longer motivated by the level of motivation below. This provides an understanding that a manager or leader or motivator in the organization should know what is needed by subordinates. The need of a daily production worker with staff of managerial staff is different. To provide motivation that ca...

  1. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Pedro J; Silva, Marlene N; Mata, Jutta; Palmeira, António L; Markland, David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theor...

  2. Motivations for Extradyadic Infidelity Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selterman, Dylan; Garcia, Justin R; Tsapelas, Irene

    2017-12-15

    Relationship infidelities are motivated by many distinct factors, with previous research indicating motivations of dissatisfaction, neglect, anger, and sexual desire (Barta & Kiene, 2005). We expand on this by demonstrating additional, empirically distinct motivations for infidelity. Using an Internet-based questionnaire, participants (N = 495), most of whom were young adults, self-reported their infidelities. In addition to evidence for previously studied motivations, our data demonstrate additional factors, including lack of love ("I had 'fallen out of love with' my primary partner"), low commitment ("I was not very committed to my primary partner"), esteem ("I wanted to enhance my popularity"), gaining sexual variety ("I wanted a greater variety of sexual partners"), and situational factors ("I was drunk and not thinking clearly"). Our results also show personality correlates with infidelity motivations. Consistent with predictions, attachment insecurity was associated with motivations of anger, lack of love, neglect, low commitment, and esteem, while unrestricted sociosexual orientation was associated with sexual variety. Implicit beliefs (e.g., growth, destiny, romanticism) were differentially associated with sexual desire, low commitment, lack of love, and neglect. These findings highlight multifaceted motivations underlying infidelity, moving beyond relationship deficit models of infidelity, with implications for research and psychotherapy involving people's romantic and sexual relationships.

  3. Measuring Tourism motivation: Do Scales matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Songshan (Sam)

    2009-01-01

    Measuring tourist motivation has always been a challenging task for tourism researchers. This paper aimed to increase the understanding of tourist motivation measurement by comparing two frequently adopted motivation measurement approaches: self-perception (SP) and importance-rating (IR) approaches. Results indicated that both SP and IR scales were highly reliable in terms of internal consistency. However, respondents tended to rate more positively in the SP scale than in the IR scale. Factor...

  4. The relevance of motivation in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Paulet Manuel; Ciobica Alin; Cojocaru Sabina; Popescu Radu; Timofte Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Lately there is a growing interest in the negative symptoms in schizophrenia and their mechanisms of action, with special focus on the motivation process. The lack of motivation is increasingly recognized to be a very important impediment to positive management in schizophrenic pathology. In this mini-review, we described the current understanding of the nature and causes of the specific motivational deficits in schizophrenia in order to find better managem...

  5. HOW TO MOTIVATE OTHERS AND MOTIVATE YOURSELF IN TIMES OF CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Work motivation is an adaptive behavior with which we respond effectively to our job demands. The current crisis has introduced changes in some basic working conditions (timetable, salary, security, etc. that are affecting a type of motivation determined by the external conditions of the worker. Research shows that this nonself-determined motivation is weaker in intensity and less persistent over time than self-determined motivation. Based on the research we have been developing in recent years, we propose some guidelines that focus on encouraging a more autonomous and self-determined motivation. Much of this research has been based on a dynamic understanding of work motivation. Understanding the dynamics of motivation gives us useful guidelines for action.

  6. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...

  7. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  8. Motivation for pilgrimage: using theory to explore motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Blackwell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a discussion of the motivations for pilgrimage and it will draw upon theories of motivation to explore the continuing attraction of pilgrimage in contemporary times. This discussion is located within the field of Event Management. Event Management is a fast growing discipline which focuses on the design, production and management of planned events, such as festivals, celebrations, conferences, fund-raisers and so on. Clearly pilgrimages, as planned events, fit into this definition. In this context, it is essential to recognise the importance of understanding the motives and needs of event customers so that we can plan to help our customers satisfy their motives. Whilst it might seem abhorrent and commercial to talk of pilgrims as customers, pilgrimages and religious sites have become more and more commodified and increasingly are deemed to need professional management. Key theories of motivation will be compared in order to identify the prime motivating factors underpinning people’s decisions to make pilgrimages.

  9. Motivation: What have we learned and what is still missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, B; Knecht, S

    2016-01-01

    This final chapter deliberates three overarching topics and conclusions of the research presented in this volume: the endurance of the concept of extrinsic vs intrinsic motivation, the importance of considering subjective costs of activities when aiming to understand and enhance motivation, and current knowledge of the neurobiological underpinnings of motivation. Furthermore, three topics for future motivation research are outlined, namely the assessment and determinants of intrinsic benefits, the reconciliation of activity-specific motivation models with generalized motivation impairments in clinical populations, and the motivational dynamics of groups. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancing excitability of dopamine neurons promotes motivational behaviour through increased action initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhoudt, Linde; Wijbrans, Ellen C; Man, Jodie H K; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; de Jong, Johannes W; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2018-01-01

    Motivational deficits are a key symptom in multiple psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, schizophrenia and addiction. A likely neural substrate for these motivational deficits is the brain dopamine (DA) system. In particular, DA signalling in the nucleus accumbens, which originates from DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), has been identified as a crucial substrate for effort-related and activational aspects of motivation. Unravelling how VTA DA neuronal activity relates to motivational behaviours is required to understand how motivational deficits in psychiatry can be specifically targeted. In this study, we therefore used designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) in TH:Cre rats, in order to determine the effects of chemogenetic DA neuron activation on different aspects of motivational behaviour. We found that chemogenetic activation of DA neurons in the VTA, but not substantia nigra, significantly increased responding for sucrose under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. More specifically, high effort exertion was characterized by increased initiations of reward-seeking actions. This effect was dependent on effort requirements and instrumental contingencies, but was not affected by sucrose pre-feeding. Together, these findings indicate that VTA DA neuronal activation drives motivational behaviour by facilitating action initiation. With this study, we show that enhancing excitability of VTA DA neurons is a viable strategy to improve motivational behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding Female Receiver Psychology in Reproductive Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kathleen S

    2017-10-01

    Mate choice decision-making requires four components: sensory, cognitive, motivation, and salience. During the breeding season, the neural mechanisms underlying these components act in concert to radically transform the way a female perceives the social cues around her as well as the way in which cognitive and motivational processes influence her decision to respond to courting males. The role of each of these four components in mate choice responses will be discussed here as well as the brain regions involved in regulating each component. These components are not independent, modular systems. Instead, they are dependent on one another. This review will discuss the many ways in which these components interact and affect one another. The interaction of these components, however, ultimately leads back to a few key neuromodulators that thread motivation, sensory, salience, and cognitive components into a set of inter-dependent processes. These neuromodulators are estrogens and catecholamines. This review will highlight the need to understand estrogens in reproductive contexts not just as simply a 'sexual motivation modulator' or catecholamines as 'cognitive regulators' but as neuromodulators that work together to fully transform a non-breeding female into a completely reproductive female displaying: heightened sexual interest in courting males, greater arousal and selective attention toward courtship signals, improved signal detection and discrimination abilities, enhanced contextual signal memory, and increased motivation to respond to signals assigned incentive salience. The aim of this review is to build a foundation in which to understand the brain regions associated with cognitive, sensory, motivational, and signal salience not as independently acting systems but as a set of interacting processes that function together in a context-appropriate manner. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative

  12. Motivational Implications of Faculty Performance Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Kollmann, Sherry L.

    2012-01-01

    Expectations and how they are communicated influence employees' motivation, effort, goals, efficacy and performance. This study examined faculty performance evaluation standards and processes of 60 academic departments in research universities for motivationally relevant elements. Characteristics were systematically analysed to understand their…

  13. Open government objectives and participation motivations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.; Ehrenhard, Michel Léon; Kuhn, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Open government aims, among others, at improving engagement of citizens in public sector activities. To realize this potential, we need to understand citizens' motivations to engage in the many different variants of open government. This article identifies motivations for open government

  14. [The motivational interview in the educational approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudan, Corinne

    2014-12-01

    The motivational interview helps nurses trained in this technique to optimise the motivational approach with the patient. This communication tool also gives them greater understanding of the resistance of people confronted with a chronic disease and to support them more effectively towards change.

  15. Information-Theoretic Approach May Shed a Light to a Better Understanding and Sustaining the Integrity of Ecological-Societal Systems under Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.

    2016-12-01

    Considering high levels of uncertainty, epistemological conflicts over facts and values, and a sense of urgency, normal paradigm-driven science will be insufficient to mobilize people and nation toward sustainability. The conceptual framework to bridge the societal system dynamics with that of natural ecosystems in which humanity operates remains deficient. The key to understanding their coevolution is to understand `self-organization.' Information-theoretic approach may shed a light to provide a potential framework which enables not only to bridge human and nature but also to generate useful knowledge for understanding and sustaining the integrity of ecological-societal systems. How can information theory help understand the interface between ecological systems and social systems? How to delineate self-organizing processes and ensure them to fulfil sustainability? How to evaluate the flow of information from data through models to decision-makers? These are the core questions posed by sustainability science in which visioneering (i.e., the engineering of vision) is an essential framework. Yet, visioneering has neither quantitative measure nor information theoretic framework to work with and teach. This presentation is an attempt to accommodate the framework of self-organizing hierarchical open systems with visioneering into a common information-theoretic framework. A case study is presented with the UN/FAO's communal vision of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) which pursues a trilemma of efficiency, mitigation, and resilience. Challenges of delineating and facilitating self-organizing systems are discussed using transdisciplinary toold such as complex systems thinking, dynamic process network analysis and multi-agent systems modeling. Acknowledgments: This study was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMA-2012-0001-A (WISE project).

  16. Applied Problems and Use of Technology in an Aligned Way in Basic Courses in Probability and Statistics for Engineering Students--A Way to Enhance Understanding and Increase Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterqvist, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Researchers and teachers often recommend motivating exercises and use of mathematics or statistics software for the teaching of basic courses in probability and statistics. Our courses are given to large groups of engineering students at Lund Institute of Technology. We found that the mere existence of real-life data and technology in a course…

  17. Motives for food choice among Serbian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Gagić Snježana; Jovičić Ana; Tešanović Dragan; Kalenjuk Bojana

    2014-01-01

    People's motives for food choice depend on a number of very complex economic, social and individual factors. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the importance of factors underlying food choice, was used to reveal the Serbian consumers' food choice motives by survey of 450 respondents of different age groups. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the motive items, using 11 factors. Previous research shows that the nutrition in Serbia is not balanced enough,...

  18. Motivation programmes of organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Pízová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis "'Motivation Programmes of Organizations" focuses on an extremely important area within personnel management. Employee motivation is crucial to the effective operation of businesses. Motivation programmes assist in increasing and maintaining employee motivation and demonstrate an organization's interest in its employees. This piece is on one hand concerned with theoretical foundations of motivation, describing theories and concepts important to the area of human behaviour ...

  19. 'It's like a personal motivator that you carried around wi' you': utilising self-determination theory to understand men's experiences of using pedometers to increase physical activity in a weight management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnachie, Craig; Wyke, Sally; Mutrie, Nanette; Hunt, Kate

    2017-05-05

    Self-monitoring using pedometers is an effective behaviour change technique to support increased physical activity (PA). However, the ways in which pedometers operate as motivational tools in adoption and maintenance of PA is not well understood. This paper investigates men's experiences of pedometers as motivational tools both during and after their participation in a 12-week group-based, weight management programme for overweight/obese men, Football Fans in Training (FFIT). Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 28 men, purposively sampled to include men who did and did not achieve 5% weight loss during the programme. Data were analysed thematically utilising the framework approach, using Self-Determination Theory (SDT) - namely concepts of behavioural regulation and the basic needs of relatedness, competence and autonomy - as an analytical lens. During the programme, FFIT's context and fellow participants supported relatedness and encouraged use of the pedometer. The pedometer was seen to provide tangible proof of progress, thus increasing competence for change, whilst the ability to monitor one's own progress and take remedial action supported autonomy; these men portrayed the pedometer as an 'ally'. However, a minority found the pedometer 'dispiriting' or controlling when it evidenced their inability to meet their PA targets. After the programme, some men no longer used the device as they had fully internalised their motivations for increased PA. In contrast, others continued to use pedometers or progressed to other self-monitoring technologies because it was enjoyable and facilitated maintenance of their increased PA. However, the minority of men who experienced the pedometer as controlling no longer used it. They were less successful in achieving 5% weight loss and appeared reliant on external factors, including support from coach and group members, to maintain motivation. These findings show how self-monitoring using pedometers and

  20. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  1. Achievement motive of future physical education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Dušanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of the characteristics of achievement motive of future physical education teachers. Starting from understanding of the importance of achievement motive for the successful accomplishment of professional goals and roles of teachers, the aim of our research is to examine the level of achievement motive, the characteristics of its structure and differences according to gender. The instrument MOP2002 (Franceško et al., 2002a was applied, which presupposes the complex structure of this motive. The sample consisted of 373 students (263 male and 110 female of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Belgrade. The results show that their achievement motive is characterized by the tendency towards high level of presence, and its structure is in the largest degree determined by the components accomplishing goals as a source of pleasure and perseverance in accomplishing goals, which is followed by orientation towards planning. The component competing with others is demonstrated in a moderate degree and it is least expressed. It was shown that female students have a larger degree of achievement motive when compared to male students, and accomplishing goals as a source of pleasure and perseverance in accomplishing goals mostly contribute to the difference in structure of achievement motive. It can be expected that the achievement motive, with the structure and degree of presence determined in our respondents, will contribute that they, as future teachers, become a good motivational model and the creators of a desirable motivational climate.

  2. Understanding veterinary leadership in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Caroline Elizabeth; Butler, Allan J; Murray, Yaqub Paul

    2018-04-21

    The Vet Futures Report has identified 'exceptional leadership' as a key ambition for the long-term sustainability of the industry. This research investigates what it is like to be a veterinary surgeon in an in-practice leadership position, applying the qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Through the researchers' interpretation of the seven participants' stories of their leadership experiences, the study advances understanding of the work environment, underlying motivations and the perceived responsibilities of veterinary leaders. Findings suggest, for many, a struggle in transition to leader positions, improving with time. The increase in pace of work is relayed by participants, with an ongoing, and unchallenged, work-life imbalance. The vets involved are highly motivated, driven by enjoyment of their jobs, a desire for self-determination and a need to make a difference. Relationships form the core of the perceived responsibilities, and yet are identified as the greatest day-to-day challenge of leadership. This study offers a valuable insight for veterinary surgeons, suggesting the industry could benefit from pausing and reflecting on behaviours. With a greater understanding of the complexity of leadership and followership, progress can be made to enact positive changes for the future. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Understanding the role of clay minerals in the chromium(VI) bioremoval by Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCTCC AB93066 under growth condition: microscopic, spectroscopic and kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chunxi; Wu, Pingxiao; Li, Yuewu; Ruan, Bo; Li, Liping; Tran, Lytuong; Zhu, Nengwu; Dang, Zhi

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory batch experiments were conducted to investigate the role of clay minerals, e.g., kaolinite and vermiculite, in microbial Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas aeruginosa under growth condition in glucose-amended mediums as a method for treating Cr(VI)-contaminated subsurface environment such as soil. Our results indicated that glucose could acted as an essential electron donor, and clay minerals significantly enhanced microbial Cr(VI) reduction rates by improving the consumption rate of glucose and stimulating the growth and propagation of P. aeruginosa. Cr(VI) bioreduction by both free cells and clay minerals-amended cells followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model, with the latter one fitting better. The mass balance analyses and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis found that Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) and the adsorption of total chromium on clay minerals-bacteria complex was small, implying that Cr(VI) bioremoval was not mainly due to the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto cells or clay minerals or clay minerals-cells complex but mainly due to the Cr(VI) reduction capacity of P. aeruginosa under the experimental conditions studied (e.g., pH 7). Atomic force microscopy revealed that the addition of clay minerals (e.g. vermiculite) decreased the surface roughness of Cr(VI)-laden cells and changed the cell morphology and dimension. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that organic matters such as aliphatic species and/or proteins played an important role in the combination of cells and clay minerals. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the attachment of cells on the surface of clay minerals, indicating that clay minerals could provide a microenvironment to protect cells from Cr(VI) toxicity and serve as growth-supporting materials. These findings manifested the underlying influence of clay minerals on microbial reduction of Cr(VI) and gave an understanding of the interaction between pollutants, the environment and the biota.

  4. Motivation as Ethical Self-Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Matthew; Hennig, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is a concept more frequently found in venues concerned with educational psychology than in ones concerned with educational philosophy. Under the influence of psychology, and its typically dualistic way of making sense of the world, motivation in education has tended to be viewed in dichotomous terms, for example, as intrinsic or…

  5. Command and motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply...... to other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....

  6. Measuring motivation in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Foussias, George; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2015-12-01

    Motivational deficits are a key determinant of poor functional outcomes in schizophrenia. These impairments are typically evaluated using various clinical rating scales; however, the degree of convergence between motivation scores derived from different instruments is not clear. In the present study, we measured motivational deficits in 62 patients with schizophrenia using 5 scores derived from 3 different instruments. We found that the scores from these different instruments were highly inter-correlated, and largely independent of severity of other symptom domains (e.g., depression). Our findings suggest that clinical ratings scales evaluating motivational deficits are tapping into a similar underlying construct. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Motivating Language and Empathic Leadership Drives Aircraft Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    M.O.T.O), which has helped me understand the impact of motivating language! Commanders and senior enlisted leaders, thank you for your shared...Exchange and Motivating Language. Source: Mayfield & Mayfield (2009). 3. Empathic Leadership in the Workplace Empathy or empathic emotions has an...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. MOTIVATING

  8. Motivational Profiles and Their Associations with Achievement Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane M.

    2009-01-01

    With the belief that theoretical integration in motivation may help us better understand motivational behavior, we designed this study to explore adolescents' motivational profiles and their associations with knowledge acquisition, leisure-time exercise behaviors, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Middle school students from a large urban inner-city…

  9. Motivation, Achievement-Related Behaviours, and Educational Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.I. Rotgans (Jerome)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDo students who are motivated behave differently in terms of their learning in the classroom and perform better than students who are less or not motivated? Understanding if and how motivational beliefs (e.g. self-efficacy judgments or task-value beliefs) are related to academic

  10. The influence of motivation on Librarians' job satisfaction | Nwaigwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A general opinion that is supported by research is that motivation is crucial to any workforce, if they are expected to perform to their optimum. The common understanding being that motivated staff will put in more and be satisfied with their jobs. The influence of motivation on the job satisfaction of librarians is therefore crucial ...

  11. Improving Students' Intrinsic Motivation in Piano Learning: Expert Teacher Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zijia; Southcott, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Many students learn to play the piano but some lack the motivation to continue learning. Many students learn for extrinsic reasons. This research will explore understandings about student motivation held by expert piano teachers who have developed strategies to improve their students' intrinsic motivation to begin and continue learning. This small…

  12. Exercise motivation and nonspecific back pain: A comparison of patients and nonpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Jens; Ott, Ida; Mierswa, Tobias; Levenig, Claudia G; Wenge, Kerstin; Hasenbring, Monika; Kellmann, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Motivation is a key variable to consider during exercise or exercise therapy of individuals with back pain. Based on organismic integration theory, this study aims to improve the understanding of exercise motivation in patients and nonpatients by evaluating the relationships between typical motivational profiles and personal characteristics, therapy parameters and pain related variables. One hundred nine women and 145 men with back pain (mean age 33.3 years; 31.9% currently under the care of a physician) involved in some kind of exercise for current nonspecific back pain voluntarily participated in this study. An adapted version of the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire was used to measure exercise motivation. Furthermore, data on pain, disability status, level of sport activity, body concept, and the type of treatment or exercise were gathered. Autonomous forms of regulation were most prevalent among subjects. Of 4 motivational profiles found, 2 showed a positive pattern (29.1% highly motivated individuals, 21.7% autonomously convinced individuals), and 2 showed a more negative pattern (19.7% controlled convinced individuals, 29.5% less motivated individuals). Relationships between profiles and age, body concept, involvement in sport competition, and type of exercise were found. The different motivational profiles respectively reveal specific practical relevance. In particular, the controlled convinced pattern is supposed to be more maladaptive than all other profiles. The insights provided by this study supports the development of motivation-oriented treatments based on the assessment of individuals' motivational profiles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Study motives, career choices and interest in paediatric dentistry among final year dental students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Students’ motives for studying Dentistry have been a subject of interest for years because of the potential for understanding the psychological makeup and subsequent job satisfaction for the dentist. It is also useful in identifying expectations of the profession. This study therefore tried to identify study motives and career preferences of dental students especially with respect to the practice of paediatric dentistry. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. The final year students in six dental schools in Nigeria were required to fill the questionnaire. Students were asked to rank their motives and career preferences on a Likert like scale with points ranging from 0–5 where 0 represented a factor that had no influence on their decision and 5 represented a very influential factor. The underlying dimensions for study motives, career preference, impression about and motive for interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry were identified using factor analysis. Results One hundred and seventy nine of 223 students (80.3%) participated in this study. Motives for the practice of dentistry included characteristics of the profession, altruism and intellectual challenges, existence of artistic theme in dentistry and parent’s recommendation. Overall, 67.1% of respondents indicated interest in postgraduate studies and 50.8% were interested in paediatric dentistry practice. The main motives for showing interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry were ‘personal interest, professional interest and interest of significant others in children’, and ‘family influence’. Significantly more males than females were interested in the practice of paediatric dentistry though the motives for interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry did not differ significantly by sex or age. Conclusion The non-significant sex difference in the motives for interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry is a possible

  14. Quantifying motivation with effort-based decision-making paradigms in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, T T-J; Bonnelle, V; Husain, M

    2016-01-01

    Motivation can be characterized as a series of cost-benefit valuations, in which we weigh the amount of effort we are willing to expend (the cost of an action) in return for particular rewards (its benefits). Human motivation has traditionally been measured with self-report and questionnaire-based tools, but an inherent limitation of these methods is that they are unable to provide a mechanistic explanation of the processes underlying motivated behavior. A major goal of current research is to quantify motivation objectively with effort-based decision-making paradigms, by drawing on a rich literature from nonhuman animals. Here, we review this approach by considering the development of these paradigms in the laboratory setting over the last three decades, and their more recent translation to understanding choice behavior in humans. A strength of this effort-based approach to motivation is that it is capable of capturing the wide range of individual differences, and offers the potential to dissect motivation into its component elements, thus providing the basis for more accurate taxonomic classifications. Clinically, modeling approaches might provide greater sensitivity and specificity to diagnosing disorders of motivation, for example, in being able to detect subclinical disorders of motivation, or distinguish a disorder of motivation from related but separate syndromes, such as depression. Despite the great potential in applying effort-based paradigms to index human motivation, we discuss several caveats to interpreting current and future studies, and the challenges in translating these approaches to the clinical setting. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Motivation Engineering to Employee by Employees Abraham Maslow Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Suyono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among many existing motivational theories, perhaps Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theories are widely known. This theory passes a message to us that once a person passes a certain level of need, he is no longer motivated by the level of motivation below. This provides an understanding that a manager or leader or motivator in the organization should know what is needed by subordinates. The need of a daily production worker with staff of managerial staff is different. To provide motivation that can improve performance to both, a motivator must provide different treatment according to their needs.

  16. Introducing a New Elementary GLOBE Book on Climate: Supporting Educators and Students in their Understanding of the Concepts Underlying Climate and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitski, D.; Hatheway, B.; Gardiner, L. S.; Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Much of the focus on climate literacy in K-12 occurs in middle and high school, where teachers and students can dig into the science in some depth. It is important, however, to introduce this topic at an early age, building on a child's natural curiosity about the world around them - but without overwhelming them with frightening climate change impacts. In some U.S. school systems, a recent focus on standardized testing has crowded out science instruction in order to bring up literacy scores. To give teachers a resource to maintain some science instruction under these conditions, a series of Elementary GLOBE books have been developed. These fictional stories describe sound science and engineering practices that are essential for students to learn the process of science while expanding literacy skills, strongly encouraged in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The main concepts developed in a new Elementary GLOBE book on climate, titled "What in the World Is Happening to Our Climate?", will be introduced in this presentation. This book complements six other Earth System Science modules within the Elementary GLOBE curriculum and is freely available on the GLOBE website (www.globe.gov/elementaryglobe). The book discusses the concept that climate is changing in different ways and places around the world, and what happens to the climate in one place affects other locations across the globe. Supporting ideas clarify the difference between weather and climate, introduce climate science concepts, reveal the impacts of sea level rise, and help students understand that, while humans are contributing to climate change, they can also participate in solutions that address this challenge. Accompanying teacher's notes and companion classroom activities will be described to help elementary school teachers understand how to approach the subject of climate change with their students.

  17. Motivating Students with Authentic Science Experiences: Changes in Motivation for School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, Jenny M.; Lindberg, Stina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Students' motivation for science declines over the early teenage years, and students often find school science difficult and irrelevant to their everyday lives. This paper asks whether creating opportunities to connect school science to authentic science can have positive effects on student motivation. Purpose: To understand how…

  18. On the instigation of implicit motivation: How deprivation and positive affect cause motivated behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the question how people become motivated to perform specific actions without giving it much conscious thought. For example, how does it come that you mindlessly drink a glass of beer in one gulp? Based on a review of the literature, a framework to understand motivated

  19. College Students' Motivation for Physical Activity: Differentiating Men's and Women's Motives for Sport Participation and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Marcus; Hebert, Edward; Bartholomew, John

    2005-01-01

    Despite the many clear benefits of an active lifestyle, lack of physical activity is a significant health problem in the college population. A key issue in physical activity research is developing an understanding of motivation. Although physical activity takes many forms, most research designed to enhance motivation for and adherence to physical…

  20. Social Relationships and Motivation in Secondary School: Four Different Motivation Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Jagenow, Danilo; Drury, Kate; Hoferichter, Frances

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance our understanding of individual differences in scholastic motivation, the present study examined if social relationships in school are equally important for motivation across a large sample of adolescent students. Based on past research as well as our preliminary findings, it was hypothesized that there would be four different…

  1. Evidence for opioid involvement in the motivation to sing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riters, Lauren V.

    2009-01-01

    Songbirds produce high rates of song within multiple social contexts, suggesting that they are highly motivated to sing and that song production itself may be rewarding. Progress has been made in understanding the neural basis of song learning and sensorimotor processing, however little is known about neurobiological mechanisms regulating the motivation to sing. Neural systems involved in motivation and reward have been conserved across species and in songbirds are neuroanatomically well-positioned to influence the song control system. Opioid neuropeptides within these systems play a primary role in hedonic reward, at least in mammals. In songbirds, opioid neuropeptides and receptors are found throughout the song control system and within several brain regions implicated in both motivation and reward, including the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Growing research shows these regions to play a role in birdsong that differs depending upon whether song is sexually-motivated in response to a female, used for territorial defense or sung as part of a flock but not directed towards an individual (undirected song). Opioid pharmacological manipulations and immunocytochemical data demonstrate a role for opioid activity possibly within VTA and POM in the regulation of song production. Although future research is needed, data suggest that opioids may be most critically involved in reinforcing song that does not result in any obvious form of immediate externally-mediated reinforcement, such as undirected song produced in large flocks or during song learning. Data are reviewed supporting the idea that dopamine activity underlies the motivation or drive to sing, but that opioid release is what makes song production rewarding. PMID:19995531

  2. Evidence for opioid involvement in the motivation to sing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riters, Lauren V

    2010-03-01

    Songbirds produce high rates of song within multiple social contexts, suggesting that they are highly motivated to sing and that song production itself may be rewarding. Progress has been made in understanding the neural basis of song learning and sensorimotor processing, however little is known about neurobiological mechanisms regulating the motivation to sing. Neural systems involved in motivation and reward have been conserved across species and in songbirds are neuroanatomically well-positioned to influence the song control system. Opioid neuropeptides within these systems play a primary role in hedonic reward, at least in mammals. In songbirds, opioid neuropeptides and receptors are found throughout the song control system and within several brain regions implicated in both motivation and reward, including the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Growing research shows these regions to play a role in birdsong that differs depending upon whether song is sexually motivated in response to a female, used for territorial defense or sung as part of a flock but not directed towards an individual (undirected song). Opioid pharmacological manipulations and immunocytochemical data demonstrate a role for opioid activity possibly within VTA and POM in the regulation of song production. Although future research is needed, data suggest that opioids may be most critically involved in reinforcing song that does not result in any obvious form of immediate externally mediated reinforcement, such as undirected song produced in large flocks or during song learning. Data are reviewed supporting the idea that dopamine activity underlies the motivation or drive to sing, but that opioid release is what makes song production rewarding. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsi...

  4. Asian International Graduate Students’ Extrinsic Motivation to Pursue Degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi Takashiro

    2017-01-01

    The author examined the types of extrinsic motivation for Asian international graduate students pursuing graduate degrees. The theoretical framework used was extrinsic motivation within Self-Determination Theory. Even though the presence of Asian international graduate students is steadily increasing worldwide, research into their extrinsic motivation is scarce. It is important for educators to explore and understand Asian international graduate students’ extrinsic motivation since such stude...

  5. The Role of Client Motivation in Workplace Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Mabin; Christine Randall

    2014-01-01

    Motivation has been recognised as an essential component in managing medical issues, adjusting to physical disability, cognitive impairment, returning to work, and improving psychosocial functioning (Wagner & McMahon, 2004).  This research explores the role of client motivation in workplace rehabilitation and demonstrates the implications for rehabilitation counselling practice. The research focuses on understanding the concept of motivation, reasons for its presence or absence, and why motiv...

  6. Motivation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaccia, Thierry; Viau, Rolland

    2017-02-01

    Motivation is a concept which has fascinated researchers for many decades. The field of medical education has become interested in motivation recently, having always assumed that medical students must be motivated because of their commitment to highly specific training, leading to a very specific profession. However, motivation is a major determinant of the quality of learning and success, the lack of which may well explain why teachers sometimes observe medical students who are discouraged, have lost interest or abandon their studies, with a feeling of powerlessness or resignation. After describing the importance of motivation for learning in medicine, this Guide will define the concept of motivation, setting it within the context of a social cognitive approach. In the second part of this Guide, recommendations are made, based upon the so-called "motivational dynamic model", which provides a multitude of various strategies with positive effects on students' motivation to learn.

  7. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  8. The Impact of Motivation on Employees Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Kušar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How does Motivation Impact Employees Effectiveness? Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine how motivation contributes to greater work efficiency. Method: Qualitative method was used, specifically, interviews with five individuals, two leaders and three employees in different organizations. Results: The research study provides findings on how motivation affects theeffective work of employees and how employees are encouraged to maximize work motivation. The results also present which demotivating factors are most present at work. Organization: The findings assist management staff to understand their rolein motivating their employees and how much it is important that leaders themselves should be the most motivated. Society: Results show that employee motivation is very important at the workplace. Because of this, employees have to take care of a good work climate within the organization and for good interpersonal relationships with fellow employees. Originality: Certain motivators were ranked differently in the review of literature, because many respondents in this study favored intangible motivating factors before tangible ones. Limitations/further research: The study is limited to employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. One of the limitations is the time determination, because I was interviewing employees at a specific time (now and not for the past.

  9. Substance use and motivation: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korcha, Rachael A; Polcin, Douglas L; Bond, Jason C; Lapp, William M; Galloway, Gantt

    2011-01-01

    Motivation to change substance use behavior is an important component of the recovery process that has usually been studied at entry into treatment. Less studied, but equally important, is the measurement of motivation over time and the role motivation plays in subsequent substance use. The present study sought to examine longitudinal motivation toward sobriety among residents of sober living houses. Sober living residents (n = 167) were followed at 6-month intervals over an 18-month period and assessed for motivation and substance use outcomes at each study interview. Motivation was measured using the costs and benefits subscales of the Alcohol and Drug Consequences Questionnaire (ADCQ) and substance use outcomes included the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) alcohol scale, ASI drug scale, and peak density of substance use (number of days of most use in a month). Participants reported higher benefits than costs of sobriety or cutting down substance use at every study time point. Using lagged generalized estimating equation models, the ADCQ costs predicted increased severity for alcohol, drugs, and peak density, whereas the benefits subscale predicted decreased drug and peak density. Longitudinal measurement of motivation can be a useful clinical tool to understand later substance use problems. Given the mixed findings from prior studies on the effects of baseline motivation, a shift toward examining longitudinal measures of motivation at proximal and temporal intervals is indicated.

  10. Motivational modes and learning in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerde, Karin; Braun, Erin Kendall; Higgins, E Tory; Shohamy, Daphna

    2015-08-01

    Learning and motivation are intrinsically related, and both have been linked to dopamine. Parkinson's disease results from a progressive loss of dopaminergic inputs to the striatum and leads to impairments in motivation and learning from feedback. However, the link between motivation and learning in Parkinson's disease is not well understood. To address this gap, we leverage a well-established psychological theory of motivation, regulatory mode theory, which distinguishes between two functionally independent motivational concerns in regulating behavior: a concern with having an effect by initiating and maintaining movement (Locomotion) and a concern with establishing what is correct by critically evaluating goal pursuit means and outcomes (Assessment). We examined Locomotion and Assessment in patients with Parkinson's disease and age-matched controls. Parkinson's disease patients demonstrated a selective decrease in Assessment motivation but no change in Locomotion motivation, suggesting that Parkinson's disease leads to a reduced tendency to evaluate and monitor outcomes. Moreover, weaker Assessment motivation was correlated with poorer performance on a feedback-based learning task previously shown to depend on the striatum. Together, these findings link a questionnaire-based personality inventory with performance on a well-characterized experimental task, advancing our understanding of how Parkinson's disease affects motivation with implications for well-being and treatment outcomes. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  12. Motivation in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Kusurkar, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate medical students’ motivation, particularly the importance of quality of motivation, factors influencing and outcomes and to explore how these can be applied to ...

  13. Motivation and career development

    OpenAIRE

    Flemr, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this diploma thesis is to outline various theories of work motivation, career growth and their practical application in sales team management within a sales organization. In the theoretical part the paper deals with the definition of essential terms including but not limited to motivation, work motivation, career and work career. Moreover, it focuses on selected motivational theories, basic criteria and current principles of managing the work career, career growth and de...

  14. Unges motivation i udskolingen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Katznelson, Noemi; Hjort-Madsen, Peder

    Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen......Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen...

  15. Learner Motivation and Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalovska, Nina; Gudeva, Liljana Koleva; Ivanovska, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...

  16. Empowered women, social networks and the contribution of qualitative research: broadening our understanding of underlying causes for food and nutrition insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, S; Vorster, H H; van Rensburg, N S Jansen; Ziche, J

    2003-12-01

    To investigate underlying causes for food and nutrition insecurity in black South African households and to gain understanding of the factors contributing to better nutrition security, with emphasis on household organisation, gender and intra-household dynamics and social networks. Within a larger cross-sectional survey that investigated the impact of urbanisation on the health of black South Africans, 166 people, mostly women, were interviewed on household food security. Methods used were structured face-to-face interviews, in-depth interviews, observation, interviews with key informants and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Information was collected from 1998 to 2000 in 15 rural and urban areas of the North West Province, South Africa. Three-quarters of households in this sample are chronically food-insecure. Families are disrupted, due to migrant work, poverty and increasing societal violence, and half of households are female-headed. Certain categories of female-headed households and households based on partnership relationships, despite more limited resources, achieve a better or an equal economic status and better nutrition security than those households led by men, with the latter often being considered an economic liability. The reliance on and fostering of social ties and networks appear to be of central significance. Gender and intra-household relations, as well as social networks and income from informal sector activities, are often not uncovered by conventional statistical methods. Qualitative research can reveal the unexpected and furthermore empowers people, as their voices are heard.

  17. Motivated emotion and the rally around the flag effect: liberals are motivated to feel collective angst (like conservatives) when faced with existential threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Roni; Tamir, Maya; Wohl, Michael J A; Gur, Tamar; Halperin, Eran

    2018-04-18

    A careful look at societies facing threat reveals a unique phenomenon in which liberals and conservatives react emotionally and attitudinally in a similar manner, rallying around the conservative flag. Previous research suggests that this rally effect is the result of liberals shifting in their attitudes and emotional responses toward the conservative end. Whereas theories of motivated social cognition provide a motivation-based account of cognitive processes (i.e. attitude shift), it remains unclear whether emotional shifts are, in fact, also a motivation-based process. Herein, we propose that under threat, liberals are motivated to feel existential concern about their group's future vitality (i.e. collective angst) to the same extent as conservatives, because this group-based emotion elicits support for ingroup protective action. Within the context of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, we tested and found support for this hypothesis both inside (Study 1) and outside (Study 2) the laboratory. We did so using a behavioural index of motivation to experience collective angst. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding motivated emotion regulation in the context of intergroup threat.

  18. Theme: Motivating Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartin, Stacy A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "How Do I Turn Your Crank to Get You Going?" (Gartin); "How Do You Say 'I Don't Know' and Not Feel Guilty?" (Dickson); "Basics of Motivation" (Rankin); "Challenge to Lead Motivates Students" (D'Haem, Krueger); "Don't Just Tell Me, Teach Me!" (Custer, Leugers); "The 'I' in Motivation" (Woody); and "Student Self Discipline Scale" (Coffman).…

  19. Motivation, Management, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Joseph A.

    There is an increasing interest today in the ways in which human motivation contributes to the productivity and performance of personnel. This early study of motivation management emphasizes that the organizational environment is a principal determinant of the quality of employee motivation. Concrete considerations in the management of motivation…

  20. Explorations in achievement motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  1. Personlighed og motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan Brødslev

    2017-01-01

    ses som forskelle i deres personlighed og i deres motivation. Kapitlet er opbygget således, at ganske kort præciseres først de to begreber, personlighed og motivation, hvorefter udvalgte teoretiske perspektiver på personlighed og motivation tages op. Til sammen vil disse bidrage til at besvare...

  2. Researching Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaabi, Sultan Ali R.; Alkaabi, Warda; Vyver, Glen

    2017-01-01

    Motivation has been studied by different scientists in different fields of knowledge such as biology, psychology, and education for a long period, which has cultivated a wealth of knowledge in these disciplines. The richness in motivation theories poses complexity in motivation research. Due to these complexities, many researchers focus on using a…

  3. [Involuntary hospitalization under the Act of July 5th 2011: A study of patients' experience and understanding of their hearing with the judge ruling on civil detention cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, K; Verdoux, H

    2015-09-01

    To assess involuntary admitted patients' experience and understanding of their hearing with the judge ruling on civil detention cases according to the Act of July 5th 2011. The evaluation was conducted through face-to-face interviews, from a semi-structured questionnaire, with 48 involuntary admitted patients under psychiatric care admission on a third party request (ASPDT) or on state representative decision (ASPDRE) (participation rate=96%). Few participants knew the name of the hearing place (13%) and the judge's exact title (21%). About 58% of them had benefited from lawyer services. During the hearing, half of the patients contested the need for hospitalization. The judge was perceived as clear (79%), listening (69%) and benevolent (58%), but only 46% of patients believed that he/she was impartial and 35% that he/she was independent from medical decisions. More than half of the patients disagreed with the judge's decision (56%). However, only 19% of them planned to appeal. Three out of four were in favour of a judicial review of involuntary hospitalization. A feeling of protection was more common in people with a higher educational level (65% versus 35%, Chi(2) (1) = 3.9, P = 0.05) and who suffered from mood disorders (75% versus 46%, Chi(2) (1) = 3.8, P = 0.05). A feeling of being accused was more frequent in persons with hospitalization under psychiatric care admission on state representative decision (ASPDRE) than on a third party request (ASPDT) (37% vs 10%, Chi(2) (1) = 4.9, P = 0.03). Persons under guardianship were also more likely to report such feelings (32% versus 10%, Chi(2) (1) = 3.4, P=0.06). The feeling that "everything was preordained" was more common in younger patients (m = 36.4 years [SD = 13.9] vs m = 46.2 years [SD = 17.8], t-test [46] = 2.01, P = 0.04), as well as among those who used the advice of a lawyer, with an association at a trend level (73% versus 46%, Chi(2) (1) = 3.5, P = 0.06). Systematic judicial review of involuntary

  4. French fair trade coffee buyers' purchasing motives: An exploratory study using means-end chains analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Ferran, Florence; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2007-01-01

    Considering the growth of fair trade product consumption in European countries and the expansion of its distribution to different kinds of distribution networks in reply to increasing consumer sensitivity to the ethical characteristics of a product, it becomes important to understand it better....... In this paper, we examine the motives and the values underlying this purchase through a laddering methodology with 54 French fair trade coffee purchasers. A quantitative analysis of the ladders allows us to define several groups of motives that are socially and individually oriented. Moreover, our results...

  5. Why is a computational framework for motivational and metacognitive control needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ron

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses, in the context of computational modelling and simulation of cognition, the relevance of deeper structures in the control of behaviour. Such deeper structures include motivational control of behaviour, which provides underlying causes for actions, and also metacognitive control, which provides higher-order processes for monitoring and regulation. It is argued that such deeper structures are important and thus cannot be ignored in computational cognitive architectures. A general framework based on the Clarion cognitive architecture is outlined that emphasises the interaction amongst action selection, motivation, and metacognition. The upshot is that it is necessary to incorporate all essential processes; short of that, the understanding of cognition can only be incomplete.

  6. Pain, decisions and actions: a motivational perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eWiech

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Because pain signals potential harm to the organism, it immediately attracts attention and motivates decisions and action. However, pain is also subject to motivations – an aspect that has led to considerable changes in our understanding of (chronic pain over the recent years. The relationship between pain and motivational states is therefore clearly bidirectional.This review provides an overview on behavioral and neuroimaging studies investigating motivational aspects of pain. We highlight recent insights into the modulation of pain through fear and social factors, summarize findings on the role of pain in fear conditioning, avoidance learning and goal conflicts and discuss evidence on pain-related cognitive interference and motivational aspects of pain relief.

  7. The social motivation theory of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Coralie; Kohls, Gregor; Troiani, Vanessa; Brodkin, Edward S; Schultz, Robert T

    2012-04-01

    The idea that social motivation deficits play a central role in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has recently gained increased interest. This constitutes a shift in autism research, which has traditionally focused more intensely on cognitive impairments, such as theory-of-mind deficits or executive dysfunction, and has granted comparatively less attention to motivational factors. This review delineates the concept of social motivation and capitalizes on recent findings in several research areas to provide an integrated account of social motivation at the behavioral, biological and evolutionary levels. We conclude that ASD can be construed as an extreme case of diminished social motivation and, as such, provides a powerful model to understand humans' intrinsic drive to seek acceptance and avoid rejection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Motivator-manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Angelic P

    2009-01-01

    The radiologic career field has undergone radical changes in technology, regulatory compliance, and customer expectation.These changes often require dramatic alterations to processes,which can break down communication, create stress, and have a negative effect on department productivity. Motivation itself is a frequently analyzed and reported topic in professional publications. For this purpose, this literature review specifically researches motivation as identified by radiology administrators through Radiology Management. Three key elements surfaced as those with the most impact: (1) motivation is an intrinsic factor which can be influenced but not created, (2) clear attainable goals are an essential component of motivation,and (3) motivation begins with identification of employee needs.

  9. BULGARIAN TEACHERS’ CAREER MOTIVATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Stoyanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of several studies of teachers’ career motivation since Bulgarian Renaissance till nowadays is presented in this paper. 203 Bulgarian teachers in public schools were studied by means of a questionnaire created by Slavchov & Stoyanova (2007 measuring career motivational types, according to Moses’ typology (2003. The career motivational type of Authenticity seekers was the most preferred by the studied Bulgarian teachers, followed by Personal developers and Stability seekers. Career builders as a career motivational type was minor career motivator, the least preferred one by Bulgarian teachers. A lot of significant positive correlations existed between teachers’ career motivational types. Some social-demographic factors (such as gender, specialty, work experience, and age differentiated teachers’ career motivators. The type of Autonomy seekers was more preferred career motivator by male teachers than by female teachers in correspondence to the traditional stereotypes for men. Longer teachers’ work experience and teachers’ advance in age were related to more frequency of Stability seekers, but less frequency of Novelty seekers career motivator. Preschool and elementary school teachers preferred more strongly Authenticity seekers as a career motivator than teachers in natural sciences and mathematics. Establishing major career motivators for teachers may be related to opportunities for improvement of performance and work satisfaction.

  10. Public Service Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Marilena Mihalcioiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Public Service Motivation concept was developed in North America and focuses on specific motivations of public servants, such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, reward preferences, organizational and individual performance. Other types of motivation, as financial consideration, are relevant but have less important influences with regard to this kind of work outcomes. This strengthen the assertion for a diversified motivational strategy, which affect various types of motivation, while not losing sight of the public value that one organization shows and therefore valuing public service motivation as a specific contribution to work outcomes. The concept has been increasingly applied in European public administration. This paper presents Status Quo of international Public Service Motivation research and locates in them empirical evidences from contries that are already working with this concept, like Austria. It also analyses implications for central questions of public management. The main focus of this article is general appropriateness and possible applications for Romanian public management research.

  11. Occupational safety motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete

    2010-01-01

    Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally....... At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated...

  12. Motivational deficits in early schizophrenia: prevalent, persistent, and key determinants of functional outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Negative symptoms, in particular motivational deficits, are reported as impediments to functional recovery in patients with schizophrenia. This study examined the prevalence of motivational deficits in patients early in the illness, and the impact these deficits have on community functioning. Patients with schizophrenia between the ages of 18 and 35years, and within 5years of initiating antipsychotic treatment were included in the present investigation (N=166). The impact of motivation and cognition on concurrent and longitudinal functioning was evaluated. Motivational impairments were found in more than 75% of participants, and were not associated with receipt of social support. These deficits served as the most robust and reliable predictor of functional outcome, while neurocognition demonstrated significantly weaker associations with outcome. When considered together, motivational deficits demonstrated a reliable link with concurrent and longitudinal functioning, with cognition not offering any independent predictive value. Moreover, motivation was found to mediate the relationship between cognition and outcome. Changes in motivation were linked to changes in functioning; however, this was not the case for changes in cognitive performance. Motivation emerged as a significant predictor of functioning even after selected demographic and clinical characteristics (e.g., positive symptoms) were accounted for. These data indicate that motivational deficits are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, even in the early stages of the illness, and these deficits stand as one of the most robust barriers to people with schizophrenia achieving functional recovery. Greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying these deficits is critical to effective treatment innovation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fundamental Understanding of Methane-Carbon Dioxide-Water (CH4-CO2-H2O) Interactions in Shale Nanopores under Reservoir Conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Shale is characterized by the predominant presence of nanometer-scale (1-100 nm) pores. The behavior of fluids in those pores directly controls shale gas storage and release in shale matrix and ultimately the wellbore production in unconventional reservoirs. Recently, it has been recognized that a fluid confined in nanopores can behave dramatically differently from the corresponding bulk phase due to nanopore confinement (Wang, 2014). CO2 and H2O, either preexisting or introduced, are two major components that coexist with shale gas (predominately CH4) during hydrofracturing and gas extraction. Note that liquid or supercritical CO2 has been suggested as an alternative fluid for subsurface fracturing such that CO2 enhanced gas recovery can also serve as a CO2 sequestration process. Limited data indicate that CO2 may preferentially adsorb in nanopores (particularly those in kerogen) and therefore displace CH4 in shale. Similarly, the presence of water moisture seems able to displace or trap CH4 in shale matrix. Therefore, fundamental understanding of CH4-CO2-H2O behavior and their interactions in shale nanopores is of great importance for gas production and the related CO2 sequestration. This project focuses on the systematic study of CH4-CO2-H2O interactions in shale nanopores under high-pressure and high temperature reservoir conditions. The proposed work will help to develop new stimulation strategies to enable efficient resource recovery from fewer and less environmentally impactful wells.

  14. Support for research towards understanding the population health vulnerabilities to vector-borne diseases: increasing resilience under climate change conditions in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Bernadette

    2017-12-12

    Diseases transmitted to humans by vectors account for 17% of all infectious diseases and remain significant public health problems. Through the years, great strides have been taken towards combatting vector-borne diseases (VBDs), most notably through large scale and coordinated control programmes, which have contributed to the decline of the global mortality attributed to VBDs. However, with environmental changes, including climate change, the impact on VBDs is anticipated to be significant, in terms of VBD-related hazards, vulnerabilities and exposure. While there is growing awareness on the vulnerability of the African continent to VBDs in the context of climate change, there is still a paucity of research being undertaken in this area, and impeding the formulation of evidence-based health policy change. One way in which the gap in knowledge and evidence can be filled is for donor institutions to support research in this area. The collaboration between the WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the International Centre for Research and Development (IDRC) builds on more than 10 years of partnership in research capacity-building in the field of tropical diseases. From this partnership was born yet another research initiative on VBDs and the impact of climate change in the Sahel and sub-Saharan Africa. This paper lists the projects supported under this research initiative and provides a brief on some of the policy and good practice recommendations emerging from the ongoing implementation of the research projects. Data generated from the research initiative are expected to be uptaken by stakeholders (including communities, policy makers, public health practitioners and other relevant partners) to contribute to a better understanding of the impacts of social, environmental and climate change on VBDs(i.e. the nature of the hazard, vulnerabilities, exposure), and improve the ability of African countries to adapt to and reduce the

  15. Fundamental Understanding of Methane-Carbon Dioxide-Water (CH4-CO2-H2O) Interactions in Shale Nanopores under Reservoir Conditions: Quarterly Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Shale is characterized by the predominant presence of nanometer-scale (1-100 nm) pores. The behavior of fluids in those pores directly controls shale gas storage and release in shale matrix and ultimately the wellbore production in unconventional reservoirs. Recently, it has been recognized that a fluid confined in nanopores can behave dramatically differently from the corresponding bulk phase due to nanopore confinement (Wang, 2014). CO2 and H2O, either preexisting or introduced, are two major components that coexist with shale gas (predominately CH4) during hydrofracturing and gas extraction. Note that liquid or supercritical CO2 has been suggested as an alternative fluid for subsurface fracturing such that CO2 enhanced gas recovery can also serve as a CO2 sequestration process. Limited data indicate that CO2 may preferentially adsorb in nanopores (particularly those in kerogen) and therefore displace CH4 in shale. Similarly, the presence of water moisture seems able to displace or trap CH4 in shale matrix. Therefore, fundamental understanding of CH4-CO2-H2O behavior and their interactions in shale nanopores is of great importance for gas production and the related CO2 sequestration. This project focuses on the systematic study of CH4-CO2-H2O interactions in shale nanopores under high-pressure and high temperature reservoir conditions. The proposed work will help to develop new stimulation strategies to enable efficient resource recovery from fewer and less environmentally impactful wells.

  16. (Mis)managing employee motivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    Motivated employees are crucial to all organizations, but some management initiatives may actually decrease motivation. Motivation crowding theory thus expects that command and incentives – if they are perceived as controlling - crowd out intrinsic motivation. The perception is thus expected...

  17. Motivation in a multigenerational radiologic science workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalar, Traci

    2008-01-01

    For the first time in history, radiologic science (RS) workplaces consist of 4 generational cohorts. As each cohort possess their own attitudes, values, work habits, and expectations, motivating a generational diverse workplace is challenging. Through the understanding of generational differences, managers are better able to accommodate individual as well as generational needs and help create a more productive and higher performing workplace. The purpose of this paper is to assist managers in the understanding and utilization of generational differences to effectively motivate staff in an RS workplace. Generational cohorts will be defined and discussed along with an in-depth discussion on each of the generations performing in today's RS workplace. Motivators and how they impact the different generational cohorts will be addressed along with how to best motivate a multigenerational RS workplace.

  18. How Motivation Influences Student Engagement: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sitwat; Zyngier, David

    2012-01-01

    The authors use Ryan and Deci's (2000) Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to better understand how student motivation and engagement are linked combined with Schlechty's Student Engagement Continuum to analyse the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on students' different engagement types. The study seeks to understand which type of…

  19. Work motivation of nurses: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Suominen, Tarja

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this review is to describe nurses' work motivation from the perspective of staff nurses. This information would be useful for the development of motivation strategies and further research into nurses' work motivation. A thorough review of the research literature. The literature search was performed using four databases: CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO, and SocINDEX. Only studies that met the following criteria were selected for review: (1) were published between 1990 and 2009, (2) were written in English, (3) dealt with work motivation, (4) concerned working staff nurses, (5) involved empirical research, (6) clearly and explicitly provided the research results about the factors affecting nurses' work motivation. Altogether 24 studies met these criteria and were included in this review. Inductive content analysis was carried out to analyse and categorise the data. Nursing research has neither clear understanding nor consensus about the concept of work motivation; nor has a universal definition been adopted. Despite limited empirical evidence it may be concluded that staff nurses appear to be motivated. Five categories of factors affecting their work motivation were identified: (1) work-place characteristics, (2) working conditions, (3) personal characteristics, (4) individual priorities, and (5) internal psychological states. Further research is needed to gain a more comprehensive insight into nurses' work motivation and the factors affecting it. This can be achieved by defining the concept of work motivation as precisely as possible, working out a pertinent research methodology, and subsequently developing and testing a theoretical model of nurses' work motivation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hospital nurses' work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge surrounding nurses' work motivation is currently insufficient, and previous studies have rarely taken into account the role of many influential background factors. This study investigates the motivation of Estonian nurses in hospitals, and how individual and organisational background factors influence their motivation to work. The study is quantitative and cross-sectional. An electronically self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample comprised of 201 Registered Nurses working in various hospital settings in Estonia. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test, Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test and Spearman's correlation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations were noted among hospital nurses. Nurses were moderately externally motivated (M = 3.63, SD = 0.89) and intrinsically strongly motivated (M = 4.98, SD = 1.03). A nurses' age and the duration of service were positively correlated with one particular area of extrinsic work motivation, namely introjected regulation (p extrinsic motivation (p = 0.016) and intrinsic work motivation (p = 0.004). The findings expand current knowledge of nurses' work motivation by describing the amount and orientation of work motivation among hospital nurses and highlighting background factors which should be taken into account in order to sustain and increase their intrinsic work motivation. The instrument used in the study can be an effective tool for nurse managers to determine a nurse's reasons to work and to choose a proper motivational strategy. Further research and testing of the instrument in different countries and in different contexts of nursing is however required. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. What motivates people to volunteer? the case of volunteer AIDS caregivers in faith-based organizations in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, Olagoke

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers are increasingly being relied upon to provide home-based care for people living with AIDS in South Africa and this presents several unique challenges specific to the HIV/AIDS context in Africa. Yet it is not clear what motivates people to volunteer as home-based caregivers. Drawing on the functional theory on volunteer motivations, this study uses data from qualitative interviews with 57 volunteer caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS in six semi-rural South African communities to explore volunteer motivations. Findings revealed complex motivations underlying volunteering in AIDS care. Consistent with functional theorizing, most of the volunteers reported having more than one motive for enrolling as volunteers. Of the 11 categories of motivations identified, those relating to altruistic concerns for others and community, employment or career benefits and a desire by the unemployed to avoid idleness were the most frequently mentioned. Volunteers also saw volunteering as an opportunity to learn caring skills or to put their own skills to good use, for personal growth and to attract good things to themselves. A few of the volunteers were heeding a religious call, hoping to gain community recognition, dealing with a devastating experience of AIDS in the family or motivated for social reasons. Care organizations' poor understanding of volunteer motives, a mismatch between organizational goals and volunteer motivations, and inadequate funding meant that volunteers' most pressing motives were not satisfied. This led to discontentment, resentment and attrition among volunteers. The findings have implications for home-based care policies and programmes, suggesting the need to rethink current models using non-stipended volunteers in informal AIDS care. Information about volunteer motivations could help organizations plan recruitment messages, recruit volunteers whose motives match organizational goals and plan how to assist volunteers to satisfy these motives

  2. Investigating teachers’ exploration of a professional development website: An innovative approach to understanding the factors that motivate teachers to use Internet-based resources / Investigation de l’exploration par les enseignants d’un site Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Beach

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study examined an innovative methodology, combining screen capture technology and a retrospective think aloud, for exploring the use of Internet-based resources by elementary teachers. Pre-service and in-service teachers explored The Balanced Literacy Diet, a free, interactive, and evidenced-informed professional development website. As participants navigated through this complex site, each visual step was captured using Camtasia Studio, a screen recording computer software program developed by TechSmith. Immediately following their 10-minute exploration, participants revisited their online choices virtually and verbalized their thoughts while viewing their screen recording. Qualitative analysis confirmed the usefulness of the methodology and provided insights about the factors that motivate teachers to use professional development websites. Results of the analysis can contribute to the ongoing development of high quality online learning environments. Cette étude qualitative s’est penchée sur une méthodologie innovatrice combinant les technologies de saisie d’écran et la pensée rétrospective à voix haute pour l’exploration de l’utilisation des ressources dans Internet par les enseignants de l’élémentaire. Des enseignants en formation initiale et des enseignants sur place ont exploré The Balanced Literacy Diet, un site Web de perfectionnement professionnel gratuit, interactif et s’appuyant sur des données probantes. Tandis que les participants naviguaient dans ce site complexe, chaque étape visuelle était captée à l’aide de Camtasia Studio, un logiciel d’enregistrement de l’écran développé par TechSmith. Immédiatement après leur exploration de 10 minutes, les participants ont revisité virtuellement leurs choix en ligne et ont verbalisé leurs réflexions en regardant l’enregistrement de l’écran. L’analyse qualitative a confirmé l’utilité de la méthodologie et a fourni des

  3. Motivation, tilstedeværelse og fastholdelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels Ulrik; Hansen, Niels-Henrik Møller

    Motivation, tilstedeværelse og fastholdelse undersøger, hvordan kursisterne oplever uddannelses- og læringskulturen på VUC og hf Nordjylland, og hvordan kulturen virker sammen med deres motivation, tilstedeværelse og fastholdelse. Der tages udgangspunkt i kursisternes egne beskrivelser og...... overvejelser, belyser en række problemstillinger, som har bred relevans for VUC og det almene uddannelsessystem. Med afsæt i kursisternes perspektiv anlægger evalueringen en konstruktiv valør i blikket på, hvad der fungerer godt og mindre godt på deres uddannelsesinstitution. I Motivation, tilstedeværelse og...... kan sætte ind på en række felter. Motivation, tilstedeværelse og fastholdelse er dermed aktuel for alle institutioner/skoler, hvor fravær og manglende motivation er et problem i hverdagen....

  4. A longitudinal study: casino gambling attitudes, motivations, and gambling patterns among urban elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Fayetta; Lichtenberg, Peter A; Templin, Thomas N

    2011-06-01

    Guided by self-determination theory, the main purpose of this study was to explore demographic characteristics, attitudes toward casinos, and self-reported intrinsic and extrinsic reasons for casino gambling by urban elders. The study hypothesized that individuals would more frequently report intrinsic motivations for casino gambling (e.g., entertainment, enjoyment) rather than extrinsic motivation (e.g., financial gain). This longitudinal sample included 247 urban elders older who were 60 years and older and who had participated in surveys in 2002 and 2004. The initial survey consisted of (a) demographic items, (b) five items to measure attitudes toward casino gambling, (c) questions inquiring about motivations for casino gambling, and (d) questions about gambling frequency. The follow-up survey was an expanded questionnaire which still included these items. The sample consisted of the 247 participants, over 200 of whom were African-Americans, 188 were female, and 98 of the participants had a post graduate education. About half were widowed, and the sample generally reported a low income. The results supported the theoretical perspective underlying the project. The hypothesis that more participants would endorse intrinsic motivations for casino gambling rather than extrinsic motivations was supported. The implications of these findings represent for social workers, gambling counselors and health care services providers an important step toward understanding the attitudes, behaviors, and motivational factors involved in casino gambling among older adults.

  5. [Reconsideration of nicotine and other substance dependence: a clue from dependence-related mentation including reward, motivation, learning, delusion and hallucination toward understanding the concept of non-substance-related addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hisatsugu

    2013-11-01

    Nicotine produces core symptoms of substance dependence (craving and withdrawal) without any psychotic symptoms. The psychopharmacological structure of craving is hypothesized to be constituted by three components: the primary reinforcing property of a substance, the secondary reinforcing property of that substance (conditioned aspects of the environment, such as contextual or specific cues associated with substance taking), and the negative affective motivational property during withdrawal (i.e. the desire to avoid the dysphoric withdrawal symptoms elicits craving). Among the three components, the primary reinforcing property of a substance forms the most fundamental factor for establishing substance dependence. Sensitization or reverse tolerance observed in locomotor activity of animals, which had been believed to be a methamphetamine psychosis model, is demonstrated to reflect the establishment of conditioned reinforcement. Finally, non-substance-related addiction such as gambling, internet, and sex is discussed. From the aspect of the above hypothetical psychopharmacological structure of craving, the most significant difference between substance dependence and non-substance-related addiction is that the primary reinforcing property of non-substance reward is relatively intangible in comparison with that of a substance of abuse.

  6. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of light intensity on flavonoid production by RNA-seq analysis in Epimedium pseudowushanense B.L.Guo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqian Pan

    Full Text Available Epimedium pseudowushanense B.L.Guo, a light-demanding shade herb, is used in traditional medicine to increase libido and strengthen muscles and bones. The recognition of the health benefits of Epimedium has increased its market demand. However, its resource recycling rate is low and environmentally dependent. Furthermore, its natural sources are endangered, further increasing prices. Commercial culture can address resource constraints of it.Understanding the effects of environmental factors on the production of its active components would improve the technology for cultivation and germplasm conservation. Here, we studied the effects of light intensities on the flavonoid production and revealed the molecular mechanism using RNA-seq analysis. Plants were exposed to five levels of light intensity through the periods of germination to flowering, the flavonoid contents were measured using HPLC. Quantification of epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, and icariin showed that the flavonoid contents varied with different light intensity levels. And the largest amount of epimedin C was produced at light intensity level 4 (I4. Next, the leaves under the treatment of three light intensity levels ("L", "M" and "H" with the largest differences in the flavonoid content, were subjected to RNA-seq analysis. Transcriptome reconstruction identified 43,657 unigenes. All unigene sequences were annotated by searching against the Nr, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases. In total, 4008, 5260, and 3591 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified between the groups L vs. M, M vs. H and L vs. H. Particularly, twenty-one full-length genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were identified. The expression levels of the flavonol synthase, chalcone synthase genes were strongly associated with light-induced flavonoid abundance with the highest expression levels found in the H group. Furthermore, 65 transcription factors

  7. Support for research towards understanding the population health vulnerabilities to vector-borne diseases: increasing resilience under climate change conditions in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernadette Ramirez

    2017-01-01

    Background:Diseases transmitted to humans by vectors account for 17% of all infectious diseases and remain significant public health problems.Through the years,great strides have been taken towards combatting vectorborne diseases (VBDs),most notably through large scale and coordinated control programmes,which have contributed to the decline of the global mortality attributed to VBDs.However,with environmental changes,including climate change,the impact on VBDs is anticipated to be significant,in terms of VBD-related hazards,vulnerabilities and exposure.While there is growing awareness on the vulnerability of the African continent to VBDs in the context of climate change,there is still a paucity of research being undertaken in this area,and impeding the formulation of evidence-based health policy change.Main body:One way in which the gap in knowledge and evidence can be filled is for donor institutions to support research in this area.The collaboration between the WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the International Centre for Research and Development (IDRC) builds on more than 10 years of partnership in research capacity-building in the field of tropical diseases.From this partnership was born yet another research initiative on VBDs and the impact of climate change in the Sahel and sub-Saharan Africa.This paper lists the projects supported under this research initiative and provides a brief on some of the policy and good practice recommendations emerging from the ongoing implementation of the research projects.Conclusion:Data generated from the research initiative are expected to be uptaken by stakeholders (including communities,policy makers,public health practitioners and other relevant partners) to contribute to a better understanding of the impacts of social,environmental and climate change on VBDs(i.e.the nature of the hazard,vulnerabilities,exposure),and improve the ability of African countries to adapt to and

  8. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of light intensity on flavonoid production by RNA-seq analysis in Epimedium pseudowushanense B.L.Guo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Junqian; Chen, Haimei; Guo, Baolin; Liu, Chang

    2017-01-01

    Epimedium pseudowushanense B.L.Guo, a light-demanding shade herb, is used in traditional medicine to increase libido and strengthen muscles and bones. The recognition of the health benefits of Epimedium has increased its market demand. However, its resource recycling rate is low and environmentally dependent. Furthermore, its natural sources are endangered, further increasing prices. Commercial culture can address resource constraints of it.Understanding the effects of environmental factors on the production of its active components would improve the technology for cultivation and germplasm conservation. Here, we studied the effects of light intensities on the flavonoid production and revealed the molecular mechanism using RNA-seq analysis. Plants were exposed to five levels of light intensity through the periods of germination to flowering, the flavonoid contents were measured using HPLC. Quantification of epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, and icariin showed that the flavonoid contents varied with different light intensity levels. And the largest amount of epimedin C was produced at light intensity level 4 (I4). Next, the leaves under the treatment of three light intensity levels ("L", "M" and "H") with the largest differences in the flavonoid content, were subjected to RNA-seq analysis. Transcriptome reconstruction identified 43,657 unigenes. All unigene sequences were annotated by searching against the Nr, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. In total, 4008, 5260, and 3591 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the groups L vs. M, M vs. H and L vs. H. Particularly, twenty-one full-length genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were identified. The expression levels of the flavonol synthase, chalcone synthase genes were strongly associated with light-induced flavonoid abundance with the highest expression levels found in the H group. Furthermore, 65 transcription factors, including 31

  9. Forming and actualization of cognitive motives as means for development of students' analytical thinking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Svetlana Nikolaevna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considered different approaches to understanding the concepts of motivation and motive. Species analyzed motives of educational activity. Established that cognitive motives are most effective for the development of analytical thinking of students. The study used data from test 1-4 grade students. An interconnection between the level of academic achievement and student motivation level of its training. Isolated areas of forming and maintaining cognitive motives of students in the learning process. It is established that the formation and activation of the cognitive motivation of students affected: the content of educational material, organizing training activities, style of teaching. Each component provides the motivational aspect of students to study.

  10. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  11. Second Language Learning Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of ESP learning motivation. The meaning of motivation and three main approaches to motivational psychology: expectancy-value theory, goal-directed theory and the self-determination theory are presented, two distinct orientations for learning a language: integrative and instrumental are described in the paper. The importance of needs analysis to ESP learning is stressed and the main conditions (interest in the topic and activity; relevance to the students’ lives; expectancy of success and feelings of being in control and satisfaction in the outcome for motivation are described. The skills that ESP learners need to develop are specified. The description of approaches to motivational psychology is proposed, as motivation is of great significance in foreign language learning.

  12. Motivational Antecedents of Individual Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picci, Patrizia; Battistelli, Adalgisa

    The current work seeks to focus on the innovative work behavior and, in particular, on the stage of idea generation. An important factor that stimulates the individual to carry out the various emergent processes of change and innovation within the organization is known as intrinsic motivation, but under certain conditions, the presence of different forms of extrinsic motivation, as external regulation, introjection, identification and integration, positively influences innovative behavior at work, specifically the creative stage of the process. Starting from this evidence, the organizational environment could be capable of stimulating or indeed inhibiting potential creativity and innovation of individuals. About 100 individuals employees of a local government health department in Central Italy were given an explicit questionnaire. The results show that among external factors that effect the individual such as control, rewards and recognition for work well done, controlled motivation influences overall innovative behavior whereas autonomous motivation plays a significant role in the specific behavior of idea generation. At the same time, it must also be acknowledged that a clearly articulated task which allows an individual to identify with said task, seems to favor overall innovative behavior, whilst a task which allows a fair degree of autonomy influences the behavior of generating ideas.

  13. Brugerdeltagelse og motivation i rehabilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Elsebeth Hovmøller

    2005-01-01

    vil herunder nærmere undersøge, om inddragelse af brugerdeltagelse i en rehabiliteringsproces påvirker borgerens motivation. Vores hypotese er, at brugerdeltagelse øger motivationen hos borgeren, således at borgeren er mere klar til at tage ansvar for egen rehabiliteringsproces og den derved bliver...... brugerdeltagelse og empowerment og om motivation - herunder selvbestemmelse, autonomi, self-efficacy og forholdet mellem læring og motivation. Datamateriale Datamaterialet består seks interview med seks forskellige respondenter, som er strategisk udvalgte. Der er tale om tre kvinder og tre mænd i alderen 26 – 50...... år, der alle er fysisk funktionshæmmede, i arbejde og bosat i Jylland. Interviewene er optaget på bånd og herefter transskriberede Konklusion Konklusionen er, at brugerdeltagelse påvirker borgerens motivation i et rehabiliteringsforløb. Den ønskede grad af brugerdeltagelse er et individuelt...

  14. Motivic amplitudes and cluster coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.K.; Goncharov, A.B.; Spradlin, M.; Vergu, C.; Volovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study motivic amplitudes — objects which contain all of the essential mathematical content of scattering amplitudes in planar SYM theory in a completely canonical way, free from the ambiguities inherent in any attempt to choose particular functional representatives. We find that the cluster structure on the kinematic configuration space Conf n (ℙ 3 ) underlies the structure of motivic amplitudes. Specifically, we compute explicitly the coproduct of the two-loop seven-particle MHV motivic amplitude A 7,2 M and find that like the previously known six-particle amplitude, it depends only on certain preferred coordinates known in the mathematics literature as cluster X-coordinates on Conf n (ℙ 3 ). We also find intriguing relations between motivic amplitudes and the geometry of generalized associahedrons, to which cluster coordinates have a natural combinatoric connection. For example, the obstruction to A 7,2 M being expressible in terms of classical polylogarithms is most naturally represented by certain quadrilateral faces of the appropriate associahedron. We also find and prove the first known functional equation for the trilogarithm in which all 40 arguments are cluster X-coordinates of a single algebra. In this respect it is similar to Abel’s 5-term dilogarithm identity

  15. Breastfeeding motivation and Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestler-Peleg, Miri; Shamir-Dardikman, Merav; Hermoni, Doron; Ginzburg, Karni

    2015-11-01

    In the current social climate, breastfeeding is regarded as the "gold standard" of babies' nutrition and optimal mothering. It is not surprising, therefore, that the vast majority of contemporary women begin breastfeeding after they give birth. This paper presents two separate quantitative studies conducted in Israel which examined breastfeeding motivation and its association with maternal well-being as derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT). In Study I, a new breastfeeding motivation scale reflecting the various SDT-informed motivations was developed. Study II sought to validate the structure of the scale and to examine the hypotheses derived from SDT. In Study I, which took place in 2007, 130 mothers of at least one child under the age of eight years old filled out the Breastfeeding Motivation Scale. In Study II, which took place during the years 2008-2010, a different sample of 236 women were followed at three different time points: during the third trimester of pregnancy, at eight weeks postnatal, and at five months postnatal. The participants completed the Breastfeeding Motivation Scale and maternal well-being, maternal self-efficacy and maternal attachment questionnaires. The findings supported the structure of the Breastfeeding Motivation Scale according to SDT. As predicted, autonomous motivation was positively correlated with maternal well-being and self-efficacy, while controlled motivations were positively associated with distress and inversely correlated with self-efficacy. Anxious attachment predicted both controlled and autonomous breastfeeding motivations. The findings support the validity of the SDT for breastfeeding motivations, and highlight the role of these motivations as differentiating between positive and negative subjective well-being, among breastfeeding women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Motivation and remuneration

    OpenAIRE

    SOUKUP, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor work is analysis of remuneration and motivation in travel agencies and companies, where is established performance pay system for self-employed. Work consists of literature review and practical part. Literature review contains information about motivation and remuneration. Practical part includes information about analyzed companies, analysis remuneration and motivation, evaluation analyzed companies and conceiving performance pay system, in which are participants sel...

  17. Motivation in Experiential Education

    OpenAIRE

    Porada, Petr

    2007-01-01

    This project is dedicated to study of motivation in experiential courses. More exactly it tries to describe motivation means suitable for teenage trainees to make them cooperate willingly and actively on course asset. And not just that. It also describes factors which have influence on quality and quantity of aplicated effort, manners how to enforce trainees to carry on working when some problem appears and also how the motivation is affected by the instructor's and peers' admittance. The pro...

  18. Employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Březíková, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...

  19. Adaptive Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    concept of motivation at all. Nuttin (1973) placed -5- Landy: ONR Annual Report certain hedonistic overtones on White’s principle of effectance motivation...deficiencies of motivation theories become particularly apparent in dealing with the issue of boredom . Tn terms of objective reality, it would seem...with expcsure to a c nstant stimulus set, we might justifiably conclude that there is a regular sequence which characterizes the appearance of boredom

  20. The Motivated Project Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Financial incentives that match level of achievement • Regular, constructive feedback. Hierarchy of Needs ( Abraham H. Maslow ) Team members can be...Much has been written regarding motivational Defense AT&L: November-December 2009 58 theory . To further complicate mat- ters, some motivational... theories clearly contradict others, and a manager’s ability to motivate is, to no small degree, related to his or her leadership approach and inter