Harris, Frank, III; Harper, Shaun R.
Social scientists, educational researchers, postsecondary educators (including student affairs professionals), and others have attempted to understand problematic behavioral trends and developmental outcomes among undergraduate men. Little attention has been devoted to examining the masculine identities and ideals about manhood that these students…
Schofield, T; Connell, R W; Walker, L; Wood, J F; Butland, D L
Men's health has emerged as an important public concern that may require new kinds of healthcare interventions and increased resources. Considerable uncertainty and confusion surround prevailing understandings of men's health, particularly those generated by media debate and public policy, and health research has often operated on oversimplified assumptions about men and masculinity. A more useful way of understanding men's health is to adopt a gender-relations approach. This means examining health concerns in the context of men's and women's interactions with each other, and their positions in the larger, multidimensional structure of gender relations. Such an approach raises the issue of differences among men, which is a key issue in recent research on masculinity and an important health issue. The gender-relations approach offers new ways of addressing practical issues of healthcare for men in college environments.
Mumtaz, Zubia; Shahid, Umber; Levay, Adrienne
While infertility is a global challenge for millions of couples, low income countries have particularly high rates, of up to 30%. Infertility in these contexts is not limited to its clinical definition but is a socially constructed notion with varying definitions. In highly pronatalistic and patriarchal societies like Pakistan, women bear the brunt of the social, emotional and physical consequences of childlessness. While the often harsh consequences of childlessness for Pakistani women have been widely documented, there is a dearth of exploration into the ways in which prescribed gender roles inform the experiences of childlessness among Pakistani women and men. The aim of this study was to explore and compare how gender ideologies, values and expectations shape women's and men's experiences of infertility in Pakistan. Using an interpretive descriptive approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 women and 8 men experiencing childlessness in Punjab, Pakistan from April to May 2008. Data analysis was thematic and inductive based on the principles of content analysis. The experience of infertility for men and women is largely determined by their prescribed gender roles. Childlessness weakened marital bonds with gendered consequences. For women, motherhood is not only a source of status and power, it is the only avenue for women to ensure their marital security. Weak marital ties did not affect men's social identity, security or power. Women also face harsher psychosocial, social, emotional and physical consequences of childlessness than men. They experienced abuse, exclusion and stigmatization at the couple, household and societal level, while men only experienced minor taunting from friends. Women unceasingly sought invasive infertility treatments, while most men assumed there was nothing wrong with themselves. This study highlights the ways in which gender roles and norms shape the experiences associated with involuntary childlessness for men and women in
childlessness for men and women in Punjab, Pakistan. The insight obtained into the range of experiences can potentially contribute to deeper understanding of the social construction of infertility and childlessness in pronatalistic and patriarchal societies as well as the ways in which gender ideologies operationalise to marginalise women.
There is a general consensus that suicide is a social problem. But what exactly is the contribution of sociology to research on suicide? This paper proposes a brief overview of the historical bases of the sociology of suicide and its evolution through the study of deviance and exclusion. On the level of application, the sociology of gender contributed to better understand how some aspects of male socialisation, such as the rigid relations with norms of the male role, may act as suicide risk factors or as a path to recovery.
Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor
Full Text Available Women and men share similar health challenges yet women report poorer health. The study investigates the social determinants of self-reported health in women and men, and male-female differences in health.Data on 103154 men and 125728 women were analysed from 57 countries in the World Health Survey 2002-2004. Item Response Theory was used to construct a composite measure of health. Associations between health and determinants were assessed using multivariate linear regression. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition partitioned the inequality in health between women and men into an "explained" component that arises because men and women differ in social and economic characteristics, and an "unexplained" component due to the differential effects of these characteristics. Decomposition was repeated for 18 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO African region and 19 countries in the WHO European region.Women's health was significantly lower than men's. Health was associated with education, household economic status, employment, and marital status after controlling for age. In the pooled analysis decomposition showed that 30% of the inequality was "explained", of which almost 75% came from employment, education, marital status. The differential effects of being in paid employment increased the inequality. When countries in Africa and Europe were compared, the "explained" component (31% and 39% respectively was largely attributed to the social determinants in the African countries and to women's longevity in the European countries. Being in paid employment had a greater positive effect on the health of males in both regions.Ways in which age and the social determinants contribute to the poorer health status of women compared with men varies between groups of countries. This study highlights the need for action to address social structures, institutional discrimination and harmful gender norms and roles that differently influence health with ageing.
Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Amin, Avni; Araujo de Carvalho, Islene; Beard, John; Boerma, Ties; Kowal, Paul; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath
Women and men share similar health challenges yet women report poorer health. The study investigates the social determinants of self-reported health in women and men, and male-female differences in health. Data on 103154 men and 125728 women were analysed from 57 countries in the World Health Survey 2002-2004. Item Response Theory was used to construct a composite measure of health. Associations between health and determinants were assessed using multivariate linear regression. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition partitioned the inequality in health between women and men into an "explained" component that arises because men and women differ in social and economic characteristics, and an "unexplained" component due to the differential effects of these characteristics. Decomposition was repeated for 18 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region and 19 countries in the WHO European region. Women's health was significantly lower than men's. Health was associated with education, household economic status, employment, and marital status after controlling for age. In the pooled analysis decomposition showed that 30% of the inequality was "explained", of which almost 75% came from employment, education, marital status. The differential effects of being in paid employment increased the inequality. When countries in Africa and Europe were compared, the "explained" component (31% and 39% respectively) was largely attributed to the social determinants in the African countries and to women's longevity in the European countries. Being in paid employment had a greater positive effect on the health of males in both regions. Ways in which age and the social determinants contribute to the poorer health status of women compared with men varies between groups of countries. This study highlights the need for action to address social structures, institutional discrimination and harmful gender norms and roles that differently influence health with ageing.
Caroline Wanjiku Kihato
Full Text Available Using a gendered analysis, this article examines the post election violence (PEV in Kibera, Kenya, between December 2007 and February 2008. Through indepth interviews with Kibera residents, the article interrogates how gender influenced violent mobilizations in Kenya’s most notorious slum. Most scholarly analyses have tended to understand the post-election violence as a result of politicized ethnic identities, class, and local socio-economic dynamics. Implicitly or explicitly, these frameworks assume that women are victims of violence while men are its perpetrators, and ignore the ways in which gender, which cuts across these categories, produces and shapes conflict. Kibera’s conflict is often ascribed to the mobilization of disaffected male youths by political “Big Men.” But the research findings show how men, who would ordinarily not go to war, are obliged to fight to “save face” in their communities and how women become integral to the production of violent exclusionary mobilizations. Significantly, notions of masculinity and femininity modified the character of Kibera’s conflict. Acts of gender-based violence, gang rapes, and forced circumcisions became intensely entwined with ethno-political performances to annihilate opposing groups. The battle for political power was also a battle of masculinities.
Calzo, Jerel P.
Although early research and the popular press have characterized college men as universal beneficiaries of uncommitted sex, emerging research notes considerable variability in men's sociosexuality (i.e., uncommitted sexual beliefs, desires, and behaviors). This study examined how diversity in sociosexuality is tied to the ways in which attachment orientations, conformity to masculinity norms, and homosocial engagement (i.e., non-romantic same-sex bonds) are organized across individuals. Latent profile analysis of 495 college males (ages 17–25, 62% White, 83.5% Heterosexual) detected five subgroups: Fully Unrestricted (10% of sample; high on sociosexuality and conformity to masculinity norms); Cognitively Unrestricted (36%; comparable to Fully Unrestricteds, but low on sociosexual behavior), Fully Restricted (30%; opposite on all constructs when compared to Fully Unrestricteds); Avoidant (16%; similar to Fully Restricteds, but with greater attachment avoidance); and Discrepant (8%; above average on sociosexual behavior, but discordant within and across constructs). There were notable demographic, personality, and behavioral differences between the subgroups (e.g., nearly 50% of the Discrepants self-identified as sexual minorities, Fully Restricteds were the most religious, Avoidants were the most shy). Findings indicate that college men's sociosexuality is highly nuanced and suggest the need for additional work to understand how attachment, masculinity norms, and homosociality shape men's sexual relationships. PMID:23311325
Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Vijin, Pandara Purayil; Logie, Carmen H; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Samuel, Miriam
Few studies have assessed how sexual and gender minority stigmas affect the mental health of trans women and self-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) in India, populations with a high HIV burden. We tested whether social support and resilient coping act as mediators of the effect of sexual and gender minority stigmas on depression as proposed by Hatzenbuehler's psychological mediation framework, or as moderators based on Meyer's minority stress theory. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among trans women (n = 300) and MSM (n = 300) recruited from urban and rural sites in India. Standardized scales were used to measure depression (outcome variable), transgender identity stigma/MSM stigma (predictor variables), and social support and resilient coping (tested as moderators and parallel mediators). The mediation and moderation models were tested separately for trans women and MSM, using Hayes' PROCESS macro in SPSS. Participants' mean age was 29.7 years (standard deviation 8.1). Transgender identity stigma and MSM stigma were significant predictors (significant total and direct effects) of depression, as were social support and resilient coping. Among trans women and MSM, social support and resilient coping mediated (i.e., significant specific indirect effects), but did not moderate, the effect of stigma on depression, supporting the psychological mediation framework. Sexual and gender minority stigmas are associated with depression, with social support and resilient coping as mediators. In addition to stigma reduction interventions at the societal level, future interventions should focus on improving social support and promoting resilience among trans women and MSM in India.
Dasgupta, Anindita; Silverman, Jay; Saggurti, Niranjan; Ghule, Mohan; Donta, Balaiah; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Gajanan, Velhal; Raj, Anita
Qualitative evidence suggests that husbands' inequitable gender equity (GE) ideologies may influence associations between husbands' alcohol use and intimate partner violence (IPV) against wives. However, little quantitative research exists on the subject. To address this gap in the literature, associations of husbands' elevated alcohol use and GE ideologies with wives' reports of IPV victimization among a sample of married couples in Maharashtra, India, were examined. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using data from the baseline sample of the Counseling Husbands to Achieve Reproductive Health and Marital Equity (CHARM) study. Participants included couples aged 18 to 30 years ( N = 1081). Regression models assessed the relationship between husbands' elevated alcohol use and GE ideologies (using the Gender-Equitable Men [GEM] Scale) and wives' history of physical and/or sexual IPV victimization ever in marriage. Husbands and wives were 18 to 30 years of age, and married on average of 3.9 years ( SD ± 2.7). Few husbands (4.6%) reported elevated alcohol use. Husbands had mean GEM scores of 47.3 ( SD ± 5.4, range: 35-67 out of possible range of 24-72; least equitable to most equitable). Approximately one fifth (22.3%) of wives reported a history of physical and/or sexual IPV. Wives were less likely to report IPV if husbands reported greater GE ideologies (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.97, 95% CI [0.95, 0.99]), and husband's elevated alcohol use was associated with increased risk of IPV in the final adjusted model (AOR: 1.89, 95% CI [1.01, 3.40]). Findings from this study indicate the need for male participation in violence intervention and prevention services and, specifically, the need to integrate counseling on alcohol use and GE into such programming.
Mar 2, 2013 ... have attributed this risk to men's poorer health-seeking behaviour, which may prevent them from accessing ART, being ... Gender inequality: Bad for men's health ..... New York: United Nations Development Programme, 2005.
Despite the great influx of women into the labor market, the gap between men's and women's wages has remained stable at 40 percent since 1950. Analysis of labor data suggests that this has occurred because women's educational attainment compared to men has declined. Recently, however, the wage gap has begun to narrow, and this will probably become…
Campbell, Lori D; Martin-Matthews, Anne
This paper investigates sociodemographic and family structure factors that predict men's involvement (n = 773) in different gendered dimensions of filial caregiving: traditionally male, gender neutral, and traditionally female care. The concepts that guide this research relate to family obligations or motivations to provide care, specifically, commitment to care, legitimate excuses, and caring by default. Data for this research come from the Work and Family Survey (1991-1993) conducted by the Work and Eldercare Research Group of CARNET: The Canadian Aging Research Network. Although such factors as geographic proximity and sibling network composition predict men's involvement independent of the type of task, the gendered nature of the task is important in how other factors, such as filial obligation, parental status, education, and income influence involvement in care. The findings suggest that, for traditionally male tasks, legitimate excuses or a commitment to care may play a more minor role in influencing men's involvement than is true for traditionally female tasks. Overall, this research demonstrates the importance of examining the gendered nature of the care tasks and highlights the value of the conceptual framework for explaining variations in men's filial care.
Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Greaves, Lorraine; Johnson, Joy L; Ponic, Pamela; Chan, Anna
To further understand men's continued smoking during their partner's pregnancy and the postpartum period, a study was undertaken to explore women's perspectives of men's smoking. Using a gender lens, a thematic analysis of transcribed interviews with 27 women was completed. Women's constructions of men's smoking and linkages to masculine and feminine ideals are described. The findings highlight the ways women position themselves both as defenders and regulators of men's smoking. Femininities that aligned women with hegemonic masculine principles underpinned their roles in relation to men's smoking and presented challenges in influencing their partner's tobacco reduction. By positioning the decision to quit smoking as a man's solitary pursuit, women reduced potential relationship conflict and managed to maintain their identity as a supportive partner. Insights from this study provide direction for developing gender-specific tobacco reduction initiatives targeting expectant and new fathers. Indeed, a lack of intervention aimed at encouraging men's tobacco reduction has the potential to increase relationship tensions, and inadvertently maintain pressure on women to regulate fathers' smoking. This study illustrates how gender-based analyses can provide new directions for men's health promotion programmes and policies.
Full Text Available Men’s increased risk of death in ART programmes in sub-Saharan Africa is widely reported but poorly understood. Some studies have attributed this risk to men’s poorer health-seeking behaviour, which may prevent them from accessing ART, being adherent to treatment, or remaining in care. In a multicentre analysis of 46 201 adults starting ART in urban and rural settings in South Africa, these factors only partly explained men’s increased mortality while receiving ART. Importantly, the gender difference in mortality among patients receiving ART (31% higher for men than women was substantially smaller than that among HIV-negative South Africans, where men had twice the risk of death compared with women. Yet, this extreme gender inequality in mortality, both within and outside of ART programmes, has not given rise to widespread action. Here it is argued that, despite their dominance in society, men may be subject to a wide range of unfair discriminatory practices, which negatively affect their health outcomes. The health needs of men and boys require urgent attention. S Afr J HIV Med 2013;14(1:12-14. DOI:10.7196/SAJHIVMED.894
Peterson, Grant Tyler
This article adopts an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the intersections of gender, sexuality, and dance. It examines the expressions of sexuality among gay males through culturally popular forms of club dancing. Drawing on political and musical history, I outline an account of how gay men's gendered choreographies changed throughout the 1970s, 80s, and 90s. Through a notion of "technologies of the body," I situate these developments in relation to cultural levels of homophobia, exploring how masculine expressions are entangled with and regulated by musical structures. My driving hypothesis is that as perceptions of cultural homophobia decrease, popular choreographies of gay men's dance have become more feminine in expression. Exploring this idea in the context of the first decade of the new millennium, I present a case study of TigerHeat, one of the largest weekly gay dance club events in the United States.
Describes the processes and challenges of conducting gender sensitivity workshops for men in India and Nepal to create awareness of the gendered division of labor, clear up misconceptions about feminism, and analyze social and economic systems of oppression. (SK)
Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin
This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men--five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists--and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Among the ordinary young men the theme 'too much gender equality leads to IPV' emerged, while among the activists the theme 'gender inequality is the root of IPV'. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.
Full Text Available Background: This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods: We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results: Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.Background: This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods: We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results: Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.
O'Donnell, Sue M; MacIntosh, Judith A
Although men are targets of workplace bullying, there is limited research focused on their experiences. To address this gap, we used a qualitative grounded theory approach and interviewed a community sample of 20 Atlantic Canadian men to explore and explain their experiences of, and responses to, bullying. The main problem identified by men was a lack of workplace support to address and resolve the bullying, a challenge named abandonment. Men addressed this problem by surviving, a process that involved efforts to manage persistent bullying and the associated consequences. Men experienced physical, emotional, and social health consequences and, contrary to prevailing assumptions related to men's help-seeking behaviors, men want support and many sought help to address the problem and its consequences. Responses to abandonment and the associated consequences varied according to a number of factors including gender and highlight the need for research aimed at understanding the gendered nature of bullying. © The Author(s) 2015.
Susánszky, Anna; Susánszky, Eva; Kopp, Mária
The aim of this study was to establish the characteristics of stress associated with male gender role and its relationship to health and to risk behaviours among Hungarian men. The present analysis is based on data of the Hungarostudy 2006 survey. Forty-one percent of the participants were men. Eighty nine percent of the male respondents completed the Eisler-Skidmore Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale; data of 1764 persons were analyzed. Anxiety about sexual performance, breadwinner role, and appearance (i.e. tradition factor) causes a much greater burden of stress than anxiety about changing gender relationships (i.e. modernization factor). With the increase of age, stress caused by traditional role expectations significantly decreases; tensions caused by women's dominance and by situations which demand emotional response and empathy are the highest among middle aged men. Traditional gender role stress is more prevalent among pensioners than among economically active men; stress caused by the modernization of masculine gender role particularly afflicts unemployed men. Married men are to the least extent troubled by female dominance and difficulties in expressing emotions. Of the two dimensions analyzed here (tradition and modernization) only the values on the tradition factor were related to health status, psychological wellbeing, and frequency of smoking. Modernization of gender roles represents only a small--if any--stressor in the life of Hungarian men; on the other hand, unsuccessful adaptation to traditional role expectations highly increases the burden of stress and is closely related to smoking.
Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin
Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy. PMID:22723767
Maxwell, Annette E; Garcia, Gabriel M; Berman, Barbara A
Although lung cancer is the top cancer killer among Filipino American men, data on tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes, cessation efforts, and preferences for smoking cessation programs among this population are lacking. We interviewed a community sample of 318 Filipino American men (110 current, 108 former, and 100 never-smokers, all immigrants) aged 40-75 years in Los Angeles County in English and Tagalog, to gain a better understanding of their tobacco use as a first step toward developing a culturally tailored smoking cessation program. In our sample, smokers had lower levels of education and income compared with nonsmokers and were less acculturated based on language use and English fluency. Smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to agree that smoking can alleviate stress, depression, and boredom, and that it is part of social interactions, growing up, being a man, and looking mature. These beliefs were summarized in a Smoking Beliefs Scale (Cronbach's alpha = .84), which predicted current smoking in a multivariate analysis, together with perceived risk of getting smoking-related diseases and peer norms. The most preferred smoking cessation intervention formats were educational small group sessions with other Filipino men (32%), followed by one-on-one consultations by a health professional (26%), video (20%), pamphlet (17%), and toll-free telephone number (6%). More than half of the current smokers requested these smoking cessation activities in Tagalog (34%) or a combination of Tagalog and English (24%). Based on these findings, we make specific recommendations for a smoking cessation program for Filipino men.
Børve, Hege Eggen
This article examines the impact on work culture when men work in kindergartens. In Norway, as in other countries there has been a call for more male staff in kindergartens. Increasing the amount of men may imply that institutionalized norms and practice are put under pressure. By using a case study approach, the focus is on employees' experiences…
Husu, Liisa; Hearn, Jeff; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Vanhala, Sinikka
Leadership and management remain highly gendered. Recent decades have seen a major international growth of studies on gender relations in leadership, organisations and management, in both empirical research and theoretical analysis. The differential relations of women and men to leadership and management are a key question for both theory and practice. Recent research and discussion on the gendering of leadership have been influenced by and have addressed: feminism; recognition of women and w...
Bhana, Deevia; de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia
In South Africa, the centrality of gender-based violence in the spread of HIV/AIDS has led to many educational efforts to address it. The particular social values that male teachers hold around gender-based violence have been less examined. By focusing on African male teachers' understandings of gender-based violence, this paper highlights the…
Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina; Maria, Estephanie Sta; Lohan, Maria; Howard, Terry; Stewart, Donna E; MacMillan, Harriet
Though intimate partner violence (IPV) is predominately understood as a women's health issue most often emerging within heterosexual relationships, there is increasing recognition of the existence of male victims of IPV. In this qualitative study we explored connections between masculinities and IPV among gay men. The findings show how recognising IPV was based on an array of participant experiences, including the emotional, physical and sexual abuse inflicted by their partner, which in turn led to three processes. Normalising and concealing violence referred to the participants' complicity in accepting violence as part of their relationship and their reluctance to disclose that they were victims of IPV. Realising a way out included the participants' understandings that the triggers for, and patterns of, IPV would best be quelled by leaving the relationship. Nurturing recovery detailed the strategies employed by participants to mend and sustain their wellbeing in the aftermath of leaving an abusive relationship. In terms of masculinities and men's health research, the findings reveal the limits of idealising hegemonic masculinities and gender relations as heterosexual, while highlighting a plurality of gay masculinities and the need for IPV support services that bridge the divide between male and female as well as between homosexual and heterosexual. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The article examines the peculiarities of the bodily aspect of gender identity in men. The urgency of this work due to the fact that currently in Russia to study the influence of the bodily aspect to the whole structure of gender identity is given little attention. At the present time the problem of studying the physicality involved in domestic psychologists: Arina G. A., V. V. Nikolaev, A. S. Kostov, A. N. Borojevic, B. T. Sokolov, V. Yu., Baskakov, who agree in opinion on the necessity to study the influence of the morpho-biological patterns of gender identity, her social and personal "add-on" – of sex-role stereotypes, perceptions, behavior, preferences. However, studies supporting their interaction was not performed . In the paper the following definitions: "gender identity", "gender", "differential socialization", "the Adonis complex". Produced comprehensive analysis of foreign sources for a detailed understanding of the studied phenomenon; analysis of the structural components and characteristics of the formation of the bodily aspect of gender identity in men with the help of specifically chosen tutorials. Discovered the distinctive features of the formation of the bodily aspect of gender identity in men and their reflection in sex-role behavior. We assume that men who are not satisfied with the perception of his own body, prone to distorted perceptions of sex-role images. The data obtained can provide the basis and prospects for development of programs of prevention, diagnostics and correction.
Catherine E. Harnois
Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seem...
Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa
The focus of this paper is on the assessment and understanding of the gender equity in education in Jammu and Kashmir. Gender equity is the process of being fair to women and men. To ensure fairness, strategies and measures should be available to compensate for women's historical and social disadvantaged. The central government, state government,…
Choi, Namok; Herdman, Kevin; Fuqua, Dale R; Newman, Jody L
This exploratory study was designed to examine the relationship between gender role dimensions derived from the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the 4 dimensions of gender role conflict represented on the Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS) using a sample (N = 400) composed of exclusively gay men. Results from regression of 3 BSRI scores (femininity, social masculinity, personal masculinity) on the 4 subscale scores of the GRCS indicated that gender role conflict was most strongly and positively associated with the negative aspect of masculinity (social masculinity), accounting for about 11% of variability in social masculinity scores. In particular, the success-power-competition dimension of the GRCS was the major predictor of social masculinity in gay men. Gender role conflict was also strongly but negatively associated with femininity, accounting for approximately 10% of the variance in femininity scores among the men in the sample. Implications and recommendations for further studies are discussed.
This paper argues that in order to begin loosening the ties that bind care and gender in primary education, we need to re-examine the knowledge sought and found by educational research about teachers. The focus is primarily on how we understand men who teach. Through an examination of two scholarly texts -- Ashley, M., and J. Lee [2003.…
Catherine E. Harnois
Full Text Available Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seems an especially important even in the development of gender-conscious identities.
Pulerwitz, Julie; Michaelis, Annie; Verma, Ravi; Weiss, Ellen
In the field of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, there has been increasing interest in the role that gender plays in HIV and violence risk, and in successfully engaging men in the response. This article highlights findings from more than 10 studies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America--conducted from 1997 through 2007 as part of the Horizons program--that have contributed to understanding the relationship between gender and men's behaviors, developing useful measurement tools for gender norms, and designing and evaluating the impact of gender-focused program strategies. Studies showed significant associations between support for inequitable norms and risk, such as more partner violence and less condom use. Programmatic lessons learned ranged from insights into appropriate media messages, to strategies to engage men in critically reflecting upon gender inequality, to the qualities of successful program facilitators. The portfolio of work reveals the potential and importance of directly addressing gender dynamics in HIV- and violence-prevention programs for both men and women.
This study determined the factors associated with gender based violence among 3000 men and women in selected states in Nigeria. Respondents who had experienced physical violence were 806(26.9%), comprising 353(11.8%) males and 453(15.1%) females (p<0.001). Respondents who had experienced sexual ...
Yet, this extreme gender inequality in mortality, both within and outside of ART programmes, has not given rise to widespread action. Here it is argued that, despite their dominance in society, men may be subject to a wide range of unfair discriminatory practices, which negatively affect their health outcomes. The health ...
Cuddy, Amy J C; Wolf, Elizabeth Baily; Glick, Peter; Crotty, Susan; Chong, Jihye; Norton, Michael I
Four studies tested whether cultural values moderate the content of gender stereotypes, such that male stereotypes more closely align with core cultural values (specifically, individualism vs. collectivism) than do female stereotypes. In Studies 1 and 2, using different measures, Americans rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas Koreans rated men as more collectivistic than women. In Study 3, bicultural Korean Americans who completed a survey in English about American targets rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas those who completed the survey in Korean about Korean targets did not, demonstrating how cultural frames influence gender stereotype content. Study 4 established generalizability by reanalyzing Williams and Best's (1990) cross-national gender stereotype data across 26 nations. National individualism-collectivism scores predicted viewing collectivistic traits as more-and individualistic traits as less-stereotypically masculine. Taken together, these data offer support for the cultural moderation of gender stereotypes hypothesis, qualifying past conclusions about the universality of gender stereotype content. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
The small but growing number of men in the nursing profession does not herald a progressive integration of masculine and feminine sex roles. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that even in female-dominated occupations such as nursing, patriarchal gender relations which reflect a high valuation of all that is male and masculine, play a significant role in situating a disproportionate number of men in administrative and elite specialty positions. At the heart of this gender dynamic is the need to separate the masculine from the lesser valued feminine. Male nurses do this by employing strategies that allow them to distance themselves from female colleagues and the quintessential feminine image of nursing itself, as a prerequisite to elevating their own prestige and power. They are aided in this task by patriarchal cultural institutions that create and perpetuate male advantage, as well as by women nurses themselves who, consciously or unconsciously, nurture the careers of men colleagues.
The central purpose of this research is to initiate a theoretical understanding of the integration of women into traditionally-male, physical-labor jobs. The primary sources of data consist of in depth interviews with women and men underground coal miners and company personnel, and field notes collected during participant observation work in mining communities. Part I addresses the relationship between conditions of production and modes of interaction in underground mines. Personality traits conceived as aspects of masculinity are traced to efforts to cope with the stressors of engaging in physical labor in a work setting characterized by lack of work autonomy, a high degree of threat, and a high degree of interdependence for task accomplishment. Part II focuses on situational and individual factors affecting the integration of women in the workplace. Although most women miners are satisfied with their work, a gender based division of labor has arisen in which women are concentrated in low-prestige laborer positions. The processes involved in undermining a woman's work reputation and self-concept are summarized and forms of discrimination that recreate aspects of the female sterotype and lead to the development of sex segregation in the workplace are to the development of sex segregation in the workplace are discussed.
Elsa María Ortiz Casallas
Full Text Available Young men and women create speeches and stories based on their experiences and everyday life. That is why their notions and ways of referring to realities, are closely linked to their gender. These modes –for this particular case– explicit in lexical categories (adjectives, topics, and use of metaphors, which are generically understood as tropes of thinking, finely link thought to language.
Wilson, Bianca D M; Miyashita, Ayako
Epidemiological categories not only reflect existing frameworks for public health, but reify how subpopulations are defined, understood, and targeted for interventions. The sweeping categorization of Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) used in HIV research and intervention work is one such example. The current paper builds upon previous critiques of the "MSM" nomenclature by delineating the sexual and gender diversity embedded in the term as it pertains specifically to Black peoples. The emphasis is on developing greater specificity about the sociocultural and structural factors that may be shared among these subgroups, such as racism and poverty, and the factors that are likely to distinguish the groups, such as levels of sexual minority identification, access to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) services and community, and experiences with anti-bisexual or anti-transgender bias. The aim then is to provide a framework for HIV health policy work for Black sexual minority cisgender men (SMCM) and gender minorities (GM).
Möller-Leimkühler, A M
As epidemiological data concerning gender-related help-seeking behaviour indicate, consultation rate and help-seeking by men is consistently lower, especially in the case of emotional problems and depressive symptoms. There is empirical evidence that the poor treatment rate of men cannot be explained by a better health but must be attributed to a discrepancy of need and help-seeking behaviour. Social change and epidemiological trends in depression point to the male gender-role being an important factor of increasing rates among young men as well as an important determinant of help-seeking behaviour. It is argued that social norms of traditional masculinity make help-seeking more difficult because of the inhibition of expressiveness affecting symptom perception and symptomatology of depression. Besides these predisposing factors of male help-seeking other medical and social factors are mentioned producing further barriers to help-seeking. Further research is needed to investigate the question whether changing masculinity implies gender-role conflict or positive health effects.
F. Nii-Amoo Dodoo
Full Text Available Background: Anthropological literature has long linked bridewealth payments to decision-making about fertility. Recent research underscores the significance of men's preferences regarding women's reproductive behavior, and suggests that bridewealth payments place constraints on women's reproductive autonomy. Yet because survey data on bridewealth are rare, and the collection of new survey data on bridewealth presents serious challenges, this explanation could not be tested. Objective: Our objective in this paper is to highlight the potential utility of lab experiments (in particular, vignette experiments for improving our understanding of gender relations in Africa, using the hypothesized effect of bridewealth on normative constraints on women's reproductive autonomy as an illustration. Methods: We discuss our reasons for turning to lab experiments, and to vignette experiments in particular. We also summarize a series of studies (Horne, Dodoo, and Dodoo 2013; Dodoo, Horne, and Biney 2014 which have implemented our experimental approach. Results: Our experimental evidence shows that bridewealth payments are associated with greater normative constraints on women's reproductive autonomy. We also find that these negative effects of bridewealth are consistent across participant ages, and do not appear to be ameliorated by female schooling. Conclusions: We conclude that lab experiments in general (and vignette experiments in particular are underutilized methodological tools that may be useful for helping us gain a better understanding of the cultural context of gender relations in Africa; and that demographic research more generally may benefit from taking advantage of the strengths of experimental methods.
Dodson, Thomas A.; Borders, L. DiAnne
Men established in traditional (mechanical engineering, n = 100) and nontraditional (elementary school counseling, n = 100) careers were compared on their career compromise choices (sex type vs. prestige), adherence to masculinity ideology, gender role conflict, and job satisfaction. The engineers tended to choose sex type over prestige; the…
van Anders, Sari M; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L
Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to "sex differences" in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology.
Call, Jarrod B; Shafer, Kevin
Men who do not seek help for mental health problems may experience unnecessary suffering which ultimately affects the well-being of themselves and others. Gendered manifestations of depressive symptoms may play an important role in why some men do not seek help for mental health issues. Using data from 2,382 male respondents in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, the authors examined the relationship that both traditional and male-typical symptoms of depression had on the help-seeking behaviors of men. Traditional symptoms increased the odds of seeking help for depression for all men. Male-typical symptoms, however, did not increase the odds of seeking help for depression or another mental health concern. Both traditional and male-typical symptoms increased the odds of initially seeking help from a medical provider, and men with male-typical symptoms had an overall higher likelihood of seeking help from a medical provider. Consequently, it is important that medical professionals assess for depression even when it is not a presenting concern.
Grogan, Sarah; Parlane, Victoria L; Buckley, Emily
The purpose of this study was to explore young British men's understandings of prostate health and cancer of the prostate. A total of 16 White-British men between 31-50 years of age took part in interviews face-to-face or through computer-mediated communication. Thematic analysis broadly informed by grounded theory identified two key themes; 'limited knowledge about the prostate' and 'early detection & unpleasant procedures'. Accounts are discussed with reference to implications for improving men's understandings of prostate cancer, and likelihood of self-referral for prostate screening where necessary.
Ridge, Damien; Emslie, Carol; White, Alan
In line with the shift towards prioritising lay accounts and narratives of chronic illness in sociology, there is an emerging literature on men, their subjectivities and experiences of mental distress. We argue in this paper that subjectivities and distress among men are an important area for critical sociological research. Very little is known about men's subjectivities or the meanings they give to - and how they cope with or seek help for - distress. At the same time, current theories of gender relations, performativity and wellbeing as they pertain to men are likely to shed further light on subjectivity and distress. However, current theories (and qualitative research involving men and women) are pointing to considerable complexity. In this paper, we outline what is known about distress and men, and consider the utility of gender relations, performativity, subjectivities and wellbeing for a better understanding of distress. We also ask: What other factors influence distress, and how should these be considered in relation to men and masculinities? What are the implications for research and policy? © 2010 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2010 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Fleming, Paul J; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary
This paper examines men's lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men's support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming.
Sandfort, Theo G M; Bos, Henny; Reddy, Vasu
Unlike studies conducted in Western countries, two studies among Black South African men who have sex with men (MSM) found no support for the association between gender nonconformity and mental distress, even though gender-nonconforming men experienced more discrimination and discrimination was associated with mental distress (Cook, Sandfort, Nel, & Rich, 2013; Sandfort, Bos, Knox, & Reddy, 2016). In Sandfort et al., gender nonconformity was assessed as a continuous variable, validated by comparing scores between a categorical assessment of gender presentation (masculine, feminine, no preference). Using the same dataset, we further explored this topic by (1) testing differences between gender expression groups in sexual minority stressors, resilience factors, and mental distress; (2) testing whether the impact of elevated discrimination in the feminine group was counterbalanced by lower scores on other stressors or higher scores on resilience factors; and (3) exploring whether relationships of stressors and resilience factors with mental distress varied between gender expression groups. Controlling for demographics, we found several differences between the gender expression groups in the stressors and resilience factors, but not in mental distress. We found no support for the idea that the lack of differences in mental distress between the gender expression groups was a consequence of factors working in opposite directions. However, internalized homophobia had a differential impact on depression in feminine men compared to masculine men. In our discussion of these findings, we explored the meaning of our participants' self-categorization as it might relate to gender instead of sexual identities.
Wilson, Bianca D.M.; Miyashita, Ayako
Epidemiological categories not only reflect existing frameworks for public health, but reify how subpopulations are defined, understood, and targeted for interventions. The sweeping categorization of Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) used in HIV research and intervention work is one such example. The current paper builds upon previous critiques of the “MSM” nomenclature by delineating the sexual and gender diversity embedded in the term as it pertains specifically to Black peoples. The emphasis is on developing greater specificity about the sociocultural and structural factors that may be shared among these subgroups, such as racism and poverty, and the factors that are likely to distinguish the groups, such as levels of sexual minority identification, access to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) services and community, and experiences with anti-bisexual or anti-transgender bias. The aim then is to provide a framework for HIV health policy work for Black sexual minority cisgender men (SMCM) and gender minorities (GM). PMID:27525047
Smith, Ronda Marie; Sardeshmukh, Shruti R.; Combs, Gwendolyn M.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the complex relationships between gender and entrepreneurial intentions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a two study design where the second study is a constructive replication of the first study. The first study uses a cross-sectional design, while the second uses a design where data…
Gasch Gallén, Ángel; Tomás Aznar, Concepción; Rubio Aranda, Encarnación
To analyze the construct validity and the internal consistency of the 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI-12) questionnaire and to study the association between gender stereotypes and sexual risk practices in men who have sex with men (MSM). Cross-sectional study of 601 MSM who voluntarily and anonymously responded to an online survey on risk practices and gender stereotypes. The BSRI-12 was used to obtain gender stereotypes (masculine, feminine, undifferentiated and androgynous). For data analysis, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the BSRI-12 and logistic regression were performed. Two main factors (Cronbach alpha 0.95 and 0.81) were obtained from the EFA. Using the androgynous roles as the reference category, we found lower odds of engaging in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among those who endorse feminine roles (OR: 0.53; 95%CI: 0.29-0.95). Endorsing masculine roles with alcohol consumption (OR: 1.92; 95%CI: 1.15-3.20) or the undifferentiated when not knowing the partner's serological status (OR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.02-2.35) were associated with higher odds of UAI compared to those endorsing the androgynous roles. Undifferentiated participants also perform receptive UAI using poppers (OR: 2.19; 95%CI: 1.24-3.87), and insertive UAI not knowing the serological status of the sexual partner (OR: 1.69; 95%CI: 1.04-2.76) compared to androgynous participants. The BSRI is a valid and consistent instrument for identifying gender stereotypes in MSM. A greater proportion of participants within the undifferentiated and the masculine category engage in risk practices with the influence of substance consumption and unawareness of their sexual partner's serological status. The information obtained may be useful to define intervention and prevention programs. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Warner, David F; Brown, Tyson H
A number of studies have demonstrated wide disparities in health among racial/ethnic groups and by gender, yet few have examined how race/ethnicity and gender intersect or combine to affect the health of older adults. The tendency of prior research to treat race/ethnicity and gender separately has potentially obscured important differences in how health is produced and maintained, undermining efforts to eliminate health disparities. The current study extends previous research by taking an intersectionality approach (Mullings & Schulz, 2006), grounded in life course theory, conceptualizing and modeling trajectories of functional limitations as dynamic life course processes that are jointly and simultaneously defined by race/ethnicity and gender. Data from the nationally representative 1994-2006 US Health and Retirement Study and growth curve models are utilized to examine racial/ethnic/gender differences in intra-individual change in functional limitations among White, Black and Mexican American Men and Women, and the extent to which differences in life course capital account for group disparities in initial health status and rates of change with age. Results support an intersectionality approach, with all demographic groups exhibiting worse functional limitation trajectories than White Men. Whereas White Men had the lowest disability levels at baseline, White Women and racial/ethnic minority Men had intermediate disability levels and Black and Hispanic Women had the highest disability levels. These health disparities remained stable with age-except among Black Women who experience a trajectory of accelerated disablement. Dissimilar early life social origins, adult socioeconomic status, marital status, and health behaviors explain the racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations among Men but only partially explain the disparities among Women. Net of controls for life course capital, Women of all racial/ethnic groups have higher levels of functional
Parrott, Dominic J.
This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440
Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany
National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities. PMID:26257457
Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany
National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities.
Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Martínez, Carmen; Paterna, Consuelo
Two hundred and twenty-six heterosexual participants (115 women and 111 men) were asked to indicate their attitude toward gender-roles, their perceived similarities with gay men, and their attitude toward gay men (i.e., sexual prejudice). As expected, male participants showed more sexual prejudice than female participants, and perceived dissimilarities were related to a greater sexual prejudice. Support for gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants, but not for female participants. More interestingly, the three-way interaction suggested that perceived similarities moderated the link between gender-roles and sexual prejudice among heterosexual men, but not among heterosexual women. Attitude in favor of traditional gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants who perceived gay men as different, but not for those who perceived gay men as similar. These findings are discussed in terms of the defensive function of men's attitude toward homosexuality as a result of threat to masculinity.
Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate
To understand how young men recognise eating disorder (ED) symptoms and decide to seek help, and to examine their experiences of initial contacts with primary care. A qualitative interview study. Men from across the UK were interviewed as part of a study of 39 young men's and women's experiences of having an ED. 10 men aged 16-25 years with various EDs including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The widespread perception of EDs as uniquely or predominantly a female problem led to an initial failure by young men to recognise their behaviours as symptoms of an ED. Many presented late in their illness trajectory when ED behaviours and symptoms were entrenched, and some felt that opportunities to recognise their illness had been missed because of others' lack of awareness of EDs in men. In addition, the men discussed the lack of gender-appropriate information and resources for men with EDs as an additional impediment to making sense of their experiences, and some felt that health and other professionals had been slow to recognise their symptoms because they were men. Although increasingly common in young men, widespread cultural constructions of EDs as a 'women's illness' mean that men may fail to recognise ED symptoms until disordered behaviours become entrenched and less tractable to intervention. Men also report that such perceptions can affect the reactions of their families and friends, as well as health and educational professionals. Primary care professionals are well placed to challenge inappropriate perceptions of EDs.
Mullinax, Margo; Higgins, Jenny; Wagman, Jennifer; Nakyanjo, Neema; Kigozi, Godfrey; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria; Gray, Ronald; Nalugoda, Fred
Women's rights and gender empowerment programmes are now part of the international agenda for improving global public health, the benefits of which are well documented. However, the public health community has, yet, to address how people define and understand gender equality and how they enact the process of empowerment in their lives. This study uses safe homes and respect for everyone (SHARE), an anti-violence intervention in rural Rakai, Uganda, as a case study to investigate perceptions of gender equality. Investigators analysed 12 focus groups of adult women and men to explore how macro-level concepts of gender equality are being processed on an interpersonal level and the effects on health outcomes. Respondents generally agreed that women lack basic rights. However, they also expressed widespread disagreement about the meanings of gender equality, and reported difficulties integrating the concepts of gender equality into their interpersonal relationships. Community members reported that equality, with the resulting shift in gender norms, could expose women to adverse consequences such as violence, infidelity and abandonment with increased sexual health risks, and potential adverse effects on education. Efforts to increase women's rights must occur in conjunction with community-based work on understandings of gender equality.
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P
Androphilia is associated with an elevated number of older brothers among natal males. This association, termed the fraternal birth order effect, has been observed among gay men who exhibit marked gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity has been linked to gay men's preferred anal sex role. The present study investigated whether these two lines of research intersect by addressing whether the fraternal birth order effect was associated with both gender nonconformity and a receptive anal sex role (243 gay men, 91 heterosexual men). Consistent with previous research, we identified the fraternal birth order effect in our sample of gay men. Also, gay men were significantly more gender-nonconforming on adulthood and recalled childhood measures compared to heterosexual men. When gay men were compared based on anal sex role (i.e., top, versatile, bottom), all groups showed significantly greater recalled childhood and adult male gender nonconformity than heterosexual men, but bottoms were most nonconforming. Only gay men with a bottom anal sex role showed evidence of a fraternal birth order effect. A sororal birth order effect was found in our sample of gay men, driven by versatiles. No significant associations were found between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity measures. These results suggest that the fraternal birth order effect may apply to a subset of gay men who have a bottom anal sex role preference and that this subgroup is more gender-nonconforming. However, there were no significant associations between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity at the individual level. As such, based on the present study, whether processes underpinning the fraternal birth order effect influence gender nonconformity is equivocal.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between men who engage in carework and commitment to gender equity. The context of the study was that gender inequitable masculinities create vulnerability for men and women to HIV and other health concerns. Interventions are being developed to work with masculinity and to 'change men'. Researchers now face a challenge of identifying change in men, especially in domains of their lives beyond relations with women. Engagement in carework is one suggested indicator of more gender equitable practice. Methods A qualitative approach was used. 20 men in three South African locations (Durban, Pretoria/Johannesburg, Mthatha who were identified as engaging in carework were interviewed. The men came from different backgrounds and varied in terms of age, race and socio-economic status. A semi-structured approach was used in the interviews. Results Men were engaged in different forms of carework and their motivations to be involved differed. Some men did carework out of necessity. Poverty, associated with illness in the family and a lack of resources propelled some men into carework. Other men saw carework as part of a commitment to making a better world. 'Care' interpreted as a functional activity was not enough to either create or signify support for gender equity. Only when care had an emotional resonance did it relate to gender equity commitment. Conclusions Engagement in carework precipitated a process of identity and value transformation in some men suggesting that support for carework still deserves to be a goal of interventions to 'change men'. Changing the gender of carework contributes to a more equitable gender division of labour and challenges gender stereotypes. Interventions that promote caring also advance gender equity.
Ghajarieh, Amir Biglar Beigi; Kow, Karen Yip Cheng
To date, researchers investigating gender in relation to social issues underscore women and appear to sideline men. Focusing on women in studies concerning sociogender issues may exclude not only men from mainstream research, but also those who do not fit into the binary gender system, including gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) people. One area closely related to gender issues is the HIV epidemic. Mainstream discussions of men and other versions of masculinity and femininity including GLBT people in the gender-related studies of the HIV epidemic can decrease the vulnerability of individuals against HIV infections regardless of their biological sex.
Mishra, Anurag; Nanda, Priya; Speizer, Ilene S; Calhoun, Lisa M; Zimmerman, Allison; Bhardwaj, Rochak
Men play crucial role in contraceptive decision-making, particularly in highly gender-stratified populations. Past research examined men's attitudes toward fertility and contraception and the association with actual contraceptive practices. More research is needed on whether men's attitudes on gender equality are associated with contraceptive behaviors; this is the objective of this study. This study uses baseline data of the Measurement, Learning, and Evaluation (MLE) Project for the Urban Health Initiative in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were collected from a representative sample of 6,431 currently married men in four cities of the state. Outcomes are current use of contraception and contraceptive method choice. Key independent variables are three gender measures: men's attitudes toward gender equality, gender sensitive decision making, and restrictions on wife's mobility. Multivariate analyses are used to identify the association between the gender measures and contraceptive use. Most men have high or moderate levels of gender sensitive decision-making, have low to moderate levels of restrictions on wife's mobility, and have moderate to high levels of gender equitable attitudes in all four cities. Gender sensitive decision making and equitable attitudes show significant positive association and restrictions on wife's mobility showed significant negative relationship with current contraceptive use. The study demonstrates that contraceptive programs need to engage men and address gender equitable attitudes; this can be done through peer outreach (interpersonal communication) or via mass media. Engaging men to be more gender equal may have an influence beyond contraceptive use in contexts where men play a crucial role in household decision-making.
Makowska, Agata; Rydlewska, Agnieszka; Krakowiak, Bartosz; Kuczyłska, Alicja; Sorokowski, Piotr; Danel, Dariusz; Pawłowski, Bogusław; Banasiak, Waldemar; Ponikowski, Piotr; Jankowska, Ewa A
Diminished exercise capacity is a fundamental symptom of heart failure (HF), which is particularly disadvantageous for men for whom exercise capacity contributes significantly to their gender identity, self-esteem, and quality of life. In this study, we aimed to examine whether psychological gender would be different in men with systolic HF as compared with their healthy peers. The authors examined 48 men with systolic HF (age = 64 ± 10 years; body mass index = 28.3 ± 3.4 kg/m(2); NYHA I/II/III [%] = 25/65/10; left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] = 32.1 ± 7.8%) and 15 age-matched healthy men. Based on the results of the Polish version of the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the examined men were divided into four types of psychological gender: "masculine" (M), "feminine" (F), "unspecified" (U), and "androgynous" (A). None of the men with HF presented M type of psychological gender, whereas this type was found in 27% of the healthy men (p = .0002). The prevalence of both A (38% vs. 47%) and F (10% vs. 20%, both p > .05) types of psychological gender was similar between men with HF versus without HF. More men with HF fulfilled the criteria of the U type of psychological gender as compared with healthy peers (51% vs. 7%, p = .002). Men with HF and the F type of psychological gender were treated with spironolactone more frequently than those classified with the U and A types (both p masculine" and the overrepresentation of "psychologically unspecified" gender types in the HF group suggests that psychological gender may be affected among men with HF.
Cerwenka, Susanne; Nieder, Timo Ole; Richter-Appelt, Hertha
Diverse partner relationship constellations of gender dysphoric women and men with different sexual orientations are explored in a sample of 93 persons before gender-confirming interventions in persons with female gender identity and male body characteristics (MF) and persons with male gender identity and female body characteristics (FM). While in both gender groups the majority is single, relationship patterns show differences. Apart from working life, FM already live predominantly in the new, male gender role and have partners by whom they are desired as males. In contrast, only a small proportion of MF already conduct their private lives in the new, female gender role, and they often have relationships with partners sexually attracted to males and not to their female gender identity. The findings indicate a need for differing resources for gender dysphoric women and men in the process of a transsexual course of development. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
This paper investigates the role that emotions related to local gender norms play in urban Mexican men's understandings of erectile dysfunction (ED) aetiology and drug treatment by analysing semi-structured interviews with 28 male urology patients. Analysing narrative data from our interviews, the paper examines how these men drew differently from locally intelligible ways of understanding health and masculinity to develop context-specific understandings of causes and potential treatment outcomes. Study participants' feelings of success or failure in life areas relating to the performance of 'responsible' masculinity, especially work and romance, strongly influenced understandings of ED aetiology and goals for drug treatment. Those who felt successful at being men collaborated with loved ones to adopt purely biological understandings of ED causation, while those who expressed negative emotions about their performances of masculinity viewed these feelings, as well as the structural and interpersonal problems that caused them, as key causes and consequences of dysfunction. I discuss how these different emotional experiences led to different ways of using medication, and the relevance of these findings for clinical practice.
Toye, Francine; Room, Jonathan; Barker, Karen L
Small reductions in body weight can decrease osteoarthritic knee pain. Intuitively this should provide a strong incentive for weight-loss. However many people undergoing knee joint replacement (KJR) are categorised as obese. Gender theories can help us to understand differential responses to illness and therefore make an important contribution to rehabilitation. We aimed to explore barriers to weight loss in a group of older men with osteoarthritis. We conducted 12 in-depth interviews, before and 1 year after surgery, with six obese men listed for KJR. Analysis was influenced by constructivist grounded theory. We abstracted conceptual themes from the data through constant comparison. We identified the following themes: (1) I am big and healthy and don't need to lose weight; (2) being this size isn't good for me; (3) men don't have to worry about that sort of thing; (4) I am not as active as I used to be; (5) I have worked hard all my life; (6) what is the point in trying anyway? Gendered narratives can make it challenging for men to lose weight. Healthcare professionals cannot ignore the influence of gender on rehabilitation and should consider gender specific strategies. Implications for rehabilitation Men may not associate being overweight with being unhealthy. Men may take pride in being in good shape and may respond better to weight loss strategies that focus on fitness not body size. Men may link weight gain with decrease in activity levels rather than overeating. Health care professionals should challenge the assumption that weight loss will follow surgery. Health care professionals cannot ignore the influence of gender on the success of rehabilitation.
Stern, Erin; Cooper, Diane; Gibbs, Andrew
While much research has documented unsatisfactory sexual and reproductive health (SRH) awareness among young people in South Africa, understanding of gender differences in access to and evaluation of SRH information is limited. This paper concerned itself with men and women's informal sources and content of SRH, and gendered divergences around…
Masvawure, Tsitsi B.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Reddy, Vasu; Collier, Kate L.; Lane, Tim
Transactional sex has not been studied much among men who have sex with men in Africa. Consequently, little is understood about attitudes towards the practice, the circumstances that give rise to it, or how transactional sex relationships are managed. We conducted in-depth interviews with 81 black men aged 20–44 from four low-resourced townships in Tshwane, South Africa. Transactional sex was a widely used strategy for initiating and sustaining relationships with regular and casual partners, and was motivated by both the need for subsistence and for consumption. Alcohol-based exchanges, in particular, provided men in the townships with a covert and safe platform to communicate erotic, sexual and romantic attraction to other men and bars and other drinking places were a popular venue for meeting potential sexual partners. The majority of ‘feminine-identifying’ men had engaged in transactional sex as the providers of money and material goods compared to men who identified as either ‘masculine’ or as ‘both masculine and feminine’. Surprisingly, however, this did not necessarily give them greater control in these relationships. Our study provides an initial foray into a complex socio-sexual phenomenon and suggests that gender identity is an important construct for understanding transactional sex relationships among men in Africa. PMID:25714033
Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Valizadeh, Leila; Negarandeh, Reza; Monadi, Morteza; Azadi, Arman
Men entering the nursing profession have been investigated from several different perspectives. Due to male gender characteristics and existing public image, nursing is often not considered as a career choice by men. Whether nursing would benefit from increased number of men is a key question in the literature. The purpose of this integrative review of the literature was to identify factors influencing men to enter the nursing profession. In addition, it sought to understand the challenges they are confronted within this profession. A systematic search of the existing literature was performed using an Internet search with broad keywords to access related articles in both Persian and English databases. Finally, 34 studies (written between 2000 and early 2013) were selected and surveyed. Most of the studies were conducted in developed counties. The review identified reasons why males choose nursing, and other challenges facing men entering and working in nursing. Themes that emerged from the literature include educational and societal barriers experienced by men in nursing, recruitment, career choice, and role strain. Regarding men's influences on professional development, and also the importance of gender-based caring, policies for recruitment and retention of men in nursing must be followed hastily. However, there is a need for further research regarding the challenges faced by men entering nursing, in both Iran and other developing countries.
Gottert, Ann; Barrington, Clare; Pettifor, Audrey; McNaughton-Reyes, Heath Luz; Maman, Suzanne; MacPhail, Catherine; Kahn, Kathleen; Selin, Amanda; Twine, Rhian; Lippman, Sheri A
Gender norms and gender role conflict/stress may influence HIV risk behaviors among men; however scales measuring these constructs need further development and evaluation in African settings. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to evaluate the Gender Equitable Men's Scale (GEMS) and the Gender Role Conflict/Stress (GRC/S) scale among 581 men in rural northeast South Africa. The final 17-item GEMS was unidimensional, with adequate model fit and reliability (alpha = 0.79). Factor loadings were low (0.2-0.3) for items related to violence and sexual relationships. The final 24-item GRC/S scale was multidimensional with four factors: Success, power, competition; Subordination to women; Restrictive emotionality; and Sexual prowess. The scale had adequate model fit and good reliability (alpha = 0.83). While GEMS is a good measure of inequitable gender norms, new or revised scale items may need to be explored in the South African context. Adding the GRC/S scale to capture men's strain related to gender roles could provide important insights into men's risk behaviors.
Gendered division of occupational choices still exists in contemporary Japanese society. Women are underrepresented in traditionally male-dominated fields, while few men occupy positions in traditionally female-dominated areas. The purpose of the present study was to examine occupational gender stereotypes and its relation to the female-to-male ratio of jobholders. Participants were 540 Japanese (262 women, 278 men) who participated in an Internet survey. The results showed that the female-to-male ratio of jobholders was a strong predictor of gender stereotyping. That is to say, contemporary Japanese recognized male-dominated occupations as typically masculine and female-dominated ones as typically feminine. Gender comparisons revealed that men rated female-dominated occupations as more feminine in nature than did women, while women rated male-dominated occupations as more masculine than did men. Future implications for career interventions focusing on occupational gender stereotypes were also discussed.
Verma, Ravi K; Pulerwitz, Julie; Mahendra, Vaishali; Khandekar, Sujata; Barker, Gary; Fulpagare, P; Singh, S K
This article presents findings from a pilot intervention in 2005-6 to promote gender equity among young men from low-income communities in Mumbai, India. The project involved formative work on gender, sexuality and masculinity, and educational activities with 126 young men, aged 18-29, over a six-month period. The programme of activities was called Yari-dosti, which is Hindi for friendship or bonding among men, and was adapted from a Brazilian intervention. Pre- and post-intervention surveys, including measures of attitudes towards gender norms using the Gender Equitable Men (GEM) Scale and other key outcomes, qualitative interviews with 31 participants, monitoring and observations were used as evaluation tools. Almost all the young men actively participated in the activities and appreciated the intervention. It was often the first time they had had the opportunity to discuss and reflect on these issues. The interviews showed that attitudes towards gender and sexuality, as reported behaviour in relationships, had often changed. A survey two months later also showed a significant decrease in support for inequitable gender norms and sexual harassment of girls and women. The results suggest that the pilot was successful in reaching and engaging young men to critically discuss gender dynamics and health risk, and in shifting key gender-related attitudes.
Kato-Wallace, Jane; Barker, Gary; Eads, Marci; Levtov, Ruti
Promoting men's participation in unpaid care work is part of the Programme of Action for the International Conference on Population and Development. However, men's involvement in care work does not mirror the advances women have made in paid work outside the home. This mixed method study explores which men are more involved in caregiving, and what childhood and adulthood factors influence their level of involvement. Quantitative research presents findings from 1169 men across six countries with children aged 0-4, and a qualitative study presents findings from in-depth interviews with 83 men engaged in atypical caregiving practices. Survey research finds that being taught to care for children, witnessing one's father take care of one's siblings, respondents' present attitudes about gender equality and having outside help (or none, in some cases) were all also associated with men's higher level of involvement. Qualitative research reveals that men's experiences of violence, the normalisation of domestic work as children and life circumstances rather than greater-than-average beliefs in gender equality all propelled them into care work. Findings suggest that engaging more men into care work implies changes to policies and structural realities in the workplace coupled with changing gender attitudes. These insights inform policy and practice aimed at promoting greater involvement in care work by men.
Viitanen, Amanda P.; Colvin, Christopher J.
Background Adherence to traditional notions of masculinity has been identified as an important driver in the perpetuation of numerous health and social problems, including gender-based violence and HIV. With the largest generalized HIV epidemic in the world and high rates of violence against women, the need for gender-transformative work in South Africa is broadly accepted in activist circles and at the national and community level. Because of the integral role men play in both of these epidemics, initiatives and strategies that engage men in promoting gender equality have emerged over the last decade and the evidence base supporting the effectiveness of masculinities-based interventions is growing. However, little research exists on men's receptivity to the messages delivered in these programs. Objective This article examines the current practices among a set of gender-transformation initiatives in South Africa to see what lessons can be derived from them. We look at how South African men participating in these programs responded to three thematic messages frequently found in gender-transformative work: 1) the ‘costs of masculinity’ men pay for adherence to harmful gender constructs; 2) multiple forms of masculinity; and 3) the human rights framework and contested rights. Design This article synthesizes qualitative findings from in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and ethnographic research with men participating in several gender- and health-intervention programs in South Africa. The data were collected between 2007 and 2011 and synthesized using some of the basic principles of meta-ethnography. Results and conclusions Overall, men were receptive to the three thematic messages reviewed; they were able to see them in the context of their own lives and the messages facilitated rich dialog among participants. However, some men were more ambivalent toward shifting gender notions and some even adamantly resisted engaging in discussions over gender
Viitanen, Amanda P; Colvin, Christopher J
Adherence to traditional notions of masculinity has been identified as an important driver in the perpetuation of numerous health and social problems, including gender-based violence and HIV. With the largest generalized HIV epidemic in the world and high rates of violence against women, the need for gender-transformative work in South Africa is broadly accepted in activist circles and at the national and community level. Because of the integral role men play in both of these epidemics, initiatives and strategies that engage men in promoting gender equality have emerged over the last decade and the evidence base supporting the effectiveness of masculinities-based interventions is growing. However, little research exists on men's receptivity to the messages delivered in these programs. This article examines the current practices among a set of gender-transformation initiatives in South Africa to see what lessons can be derived from them. We look at how South African men participating in these programs responded to three thematic messages frequently found in gender-transformative work: 1) the 'costs of masculinity' men pay for adherence to harmful gender constructs; 2) multiple forms of masculinity; and 3) the human rights framework and contested rights. This article synthesizes qualitative findings from in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and ethnographic research with men participating in several gender- and health-intervention programs in South Africa. The data were collected between 2007 and 2011 and synthesized using some of the basic principles of meta-ethnography. Overall, men were receptive to the three thematic messages reviewed; they were able to see them in the context of their own lives and the messages facilitated rich dialog among participants. However, some men were more ambivalent toward shifting gender notions and some even adamantly resisted engaging in discussions over gender equality. More research is needed to gauge the long-term impact
Van de Velde, Sarah; Huijts, Tim; Bracke, Piet; Bambra, Clare
A recurrent finding in international literature is a greater prevalence of depression in women than in men. While explanations for this gender gap have been studied extensively at the individual level, few researchers have studied macro-level determinants of depression in men and women. In the current study we aim to examine the micro-macro linkage of the relationship between gender equality and depression by gender in Europe, using data from the European Social Survey, 2006-2007 (N=39,891). Using a multilevel framework we find that a high degree of macro-level gender equality is related to lower levels of depression in both women and men. It is also related to a smaller gender difference in depression, but only for certain social subgroups and only for specific dimensions of gender equality. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hodges, Eric A; Rowsey, Pamela Johnson; Gray, Tamryn Fowler; Kneipp, Shawn M; Giscombe, Cheryl Woods; Foster, Beverly B; Alexander, G Rumay; Kowlowitz, Vicki
Although the number of men entering the nursing profession over the past century has increased incrementally, the proportion of men remains low in contrast to the U.S. On matriculation into nursing school, men face stereotypes about the nursing profession and the characteristics of the men who enter it. Men may also face a number of gender-based barriers, including lack of history about men in nursing, lack of role models, role strain, gender discrimination, and isolation. This article describes each of these barriers and provides strategies to improve male students' learning experience. The efforts of one nursing school to address many of these barriers are also described. Through acknowledging gender barriers and taking intentional steps to address them with prenursing and nursing students, schools of nursing may create a more inclusive environment and enhance the profession's diversity. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(5):295-299.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
DiDonato, Matthew D; Martin, Carol L; Hessler, Eric E; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Hanish, Laura D; Fabes, Richard A
Controversy surrounds questions regarding the influence of being gender consistent (i.e., having and expressing gendered characteristics that are consistent with one's biological sex) versus being gender flexible (i.e., having and expressing gendered characteristics that vary from masculine to feminine as circumstances arise) on children's adjustment outcomes, such as self-esteem, positive emotion, or behavior problems. Whereas evidence supporting the consistency hypothesis is abundant, little support exists for the flexibility hypothesis. To shed new light on the flexibility hypothesis, we explored children's gendered behavior from a dynamical perspective that highlighted variability and flexibility in addition to employing a conventional approach that emphasized stability and consistency. Conventional mean-level analyses supported the consistency hypothesis by revealing that gender atypical behavior was related to greater maladjustment, and dynamical analyses supported the flexibility hypothesis by showing that flexibility of gendered behavior over time was related to positive adjustment. Integrated analyses showed that gender typical behavior was related to the adjustment of children who were behaviorally inflexible, but not for those who were flexible. These results provided a more comprehensive understanding of the relation between gendered behavior and adjustment in young children and illustrated for the first time the feasibility of applying dynamical analyses to the study of gendered behavior.
Siegel, Karolynn; Meunier, Étienne
Traditional stereotypes about sex and gender present men as assertive, aggressive, sexually adventurous, and emotionally restrained, and women as docile, passive, sexually modest, and emotionally sensitive. Past research has shown that such stereotypes impose constraints on heterosexual relationships that decrease sexual satisfaction for men and women. This study examined the impact of traditional sex and gender stereotypes on a sample of 203 behaviorally bisexual men who were in a heterosexual relationship with a woman to whom they did not disclose their same-sex behaviors. Participants' descriptions of their partners reified several traditional stereotypes regarding men's and women's sexual dispositions (e.g., men are more sexually adventurous than women), role during sex (e.g., men should be dominant and women submissive), relationship desires (i.e., women prefer long-term intimate relationships and men prefer unattached sexual gratification), and emotional involvement (e.g., women are emotionally sensitive and men emotionally detached). These stereotypes shaped participants' sexual relations with women and men, which were widely conceived as acts of domination-submission. Perceiving women as more skilled for emotional intimacy and affection, most participants would only develop intimate relationships with them; however, some participants also perceived women as too emotionally sensitive and described men as better companions. Many participants were dissatisfied with these gender norms although they conformed to them, further supporting that traditional sex and gender stereotypes impose constraints on relationships that can limit authentic sexual expression and intimate satisfaction.
Full Text Available The present study investigates perceived gender differences in the producion and social use of humor in the interpersonal communication of Romanian older women, aged 60 and above. The study is a qualitative investigation, based on semi-structured interviews. The aim was to understand the perceptions and motivations that women have when using humor in social interactions, and to explore the functions that humor serves in their day-to-day communication. A previous quantitative investigation found statistically significant gender differences between Romanian older men and women on a sense of humor scale, and suggested that the use of humor in interpersonal communication had stronger social benefits for women (Schiau, 2016a. Drawing on these findings, and keeping in mind other studies that discuss the different use of humor by men and women, this study aims to investigate specific gender differences in the production of humor, as perceived by the participants.
Eriksson, Kimmo; Lindholm, Torun
It is well established that an emphasis on gender differences may have a negative effect on women's math performance in USA, Germany and the Netherlands. It has further been found that an individual's identification with the stereotyped group may moderate effects of negative stereotypes. The present study investigated how gender-based expectancies affected the math performance of women and men in Sweden, a nation with a smaller gender gap than in other countries, and a strong cultural emphasis on gender equality. Participants, 112 female and 74 male undergraduate math students from Swedish universities, completed a difficult math test in which their gender was either linked to their test performance or not. Men performed better than women when gender was made relevant among participants who did not see their gender as an important aspect of their identity, while participants high in gender identification were unaffected by gender identity relevance. Moreover, the gender relevance manipulation affected men's performance more than women's. The results deviate from findings on US samples, indicating that the role of group identification as a moderator of stereotype-based expectancy effects is complex, and that factors in the cultural context may interact with individual differences in identification to determine the impact of negative stereotypes.
This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…
Keohane, Aisling; Richardson, Noel
Underpinning a general pattern of higher suicide rates in men is the assumption that men do not ask for help or utilize the health-care system during times of psychological distress. There has been a failure to grapple with the dynamic of when, how and from whom men might ask for help during times of psychological distress, and what key barriers or enabling factors are likely to influence potential help-givers' capacity or willingness to offer help to men in psychological distress. The aim of this study was to investigate how masculine norms impact men's help-seeking as well as care givers' behaviors and willingness to support men in need of psychological help or perceived to be at risk of suicide. Focus groups ( n = 13) were used with "high-risk suicide" groups of men and community gatekeepers. The principles of grounded theory were used for data analysis. Three themes emerged: "negotiating ways to ask for, offer and accept help without compromising masculinity"; "making and sustaining contact with men in psychological distress"; and "navigating roles responsibilities and boundaries to support men in psychological distress." Approaches to suicide prevention need to take account of how masculine norms shape men's willingness to ask for and accept help during times of psychological distress as well as care givers willingness to offer help. The findings address a gap in the literature by looking beyond men's help-seeking as a passive, one dimensional construct, to a more dynamic triad of help-seeking/giving/taking behaviors that are embedded in the sociocultural context of men's lives.
Evans, Joan A
The aim of this research was to explore the experience of men nurses and the ways in which gender relations structure different work experiences for women and men in the same profession. Men are now entering the nursing profession in record numbers and challenging the notion that men are inappropriate in caregiver roles or incapable of providing compassionate and sensitive care. A limitation of the current state of knowledge regarding caring and men nurses is that it is primarily focused on men nursing students, not practising nurses. Little is known about men nurses' practices of caring and how such practices reflect the gendered nature of nursing and nurses' caring work. The theme of men nurses as cautious caregivers emerged from data that were collected in two rounds of semi-structured interviews with eight men nurses practising in Nova Scotia, Canada. Thematic analysis, informed by feminist theory and masculinity theory, was used as the method for analysing the data. For men nurses, the stereotype of men as sexual aggressors is compounded by the stereotype that men nurses are gay. These stereotypes sexualize men nurses' touch and create complex and contradictory situations of acceptance, rejection and suspicion of men as nurturers and caregivers. They also situate men nurses in highly stigmatized roles in which they are subject to accusations of inappropriate behaviour. For men nurses, this situation is lived as a heightened sense of vulnerability and the continual need to be cautious while touching and caring for patients. Ultimately, this situation impacts on the ability of men nurses to do the caring work they came into nursing to do.
Truong, Nhan; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Burton, Melissa; Gipson, June; Hickson, DeMarc
Men who have sex with men (MSM) and other same-gender-loving (SGL) men continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS, particularly among the Black population. Innovative strategies are needed to support the health of this community; however, public health efforts primarily approach MSM as a monolithic population erasing the diverse identities, practices, and sexualities within and beyond this category. To better understand diversity within MSM in a geographic region with the largest proportion of Black Americans in the U.S.A. and among the most heavily affected by the epidemic, the Deep South, we conducted four focus groups (n = 29) with Black men who reported having sex with other men residing in Jackson, Mississippi. Results suggest multiple overlapping usages of MSM as identity and behaviour, reflecting internalisation of behavioural categories and co-creation of identities unique to the Black community. These narratives contribute to the literature by documenting the evolving understandings of the category 'MSM' among Black men to reflect intersections between race, socioeconomic status, sexual behaviour, sexuality, subjectivities, and social context. Findings suggest the current monolithic approach to treating MSM may limit public health efforts in developing effective HIV prevention and promotion programmes targeting SGL Black men in the Deep South.
Harris, Frank, III
Informed by the constructionist epistemological perspective, the purpose of this study was to examine socially constructed conceptualizations of masculinity and gender performance among 12 culturally diverse undergraduate men. The participants espoused seemingly productive conceptualizations of masculinity, yet their gendered behaviors were…
Perrone, Kristin M.; Wright, Stephen L.; Jackson, Z. Vance
In this article, we examine traditional and nontraditional gender roles and work-family interface for men and women. Recent empirical literature is reviewed and implications for career counselors are discussed. We discuss changing gender roles in career, marriage, and parenting and provide strategies for helping clients to cope with work-family…
Edwards, Keith E.; Jones, Susan R.
The theory that emerged from this constructivist grounded theory study of 10 college men's experiences depicts their gender identity as developed through constant interaction with society's expectations of them as men. In order to try to meet these perceived expectations, participants described putting on a performance that was like wearing a mask…
McGowan, Brian L.
I explored how African American college men conceptualized gender within their interpersonal relationships at a traditionally White institution. In interviews using both semistructured and photo elicitation interview formats, 17 participants shared stories about their interpersonal relationships with other men and ascribed multiple meanings to…
Sayer, Liana C.
This analysis uses nationally representative time diary data from 1965, 1975 and 1998 to examine trends and gender differences in time use. Women continue to do more household labor than men; however, men have substantially increased time in core household activities such as cooking, cleaning and daily child care. Nonetheless, a 30-minute-per-day…
Wester, Stephen R.
O'Neil (2008) defines male gender role conflict (GRC) as a psychological state in which the socialized male gender role has negative consequences for the person or others. Building on this, many now realize that the mechanisms through which these negative consequences occur, rather than being global, are instead contextual. That is, different men…
In this paper, I discuss [transgender] young men's social, physical and embodied experiences of sport. These discussions draw from interview research with two young people who prefer to self-identify as "male" and not as "trans men", although they do make use of this term. Finn and Ed volunteered to take part in the research…
Semenyna, Scott W; VanderLaan, Doug P; Vasey, Paul L
Having a greater than average number of older biological brothers is a robust correlate of male androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction and arousal to adult males). Previous investigations have sought to understand whether this fraternal birth order (FBO) effect is also systematically related to recalled indicators of childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). However, these investigations have relied on data from low-fertility Western populations in which expressions of femininity in male children are routinely stigmatized and consequently, suppressed. The present study examined the FBO effect (among other sibship characteristics) and recalled indicators of CGN in Samoa, a high-fertility population, whose members are relatively tolerant of male femininity. Indeed, Samoans identify feminine androphilic males as belonging to an alternative gender category, known locally as fa'afafine. The present study compared the sibship characteristics of 231 fa'afafine and 231 opposite-sex attracted men from Samoa, as well as how these characteristics related to recalled CGN. Results replicated the well-established FBO effect for predicting male sexual orientation, with each older brother increasing the odds of being androphilic by 21%. However, no relationship was found between the number of older brothers (or other siblings) a participant had and their recalled CGN. Although fa'afafine reported significantly more CGN than Samoan men, CGN did not mediate the FBO effect, nor did the FBO effect and CGN interact to predict male sexual orientation. These findings are consistent with previous studies suggesting that the FBO effect is associated with male sexual orientation, but not childhood female-typical gender expression among androphilic males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Over the last two decades, a focus on challenging and transforming dominant forms of masculinity and engaging boys and men towards gender equality and healthy masculinities has permeated South African social and health sciences and the humanities. This focus on men and boys has also been evident in intervention and activist work. However, the turn to boys, men and masculinities has not gone without resistance, contestation and contradictions. A range of localised and global realities has frus...
Torres, J B
The literature on masculinity and gender roles in American life has mostly over-looked Latino men, or has stereotyped them by means of a distorted concept of machismo. A reconceptualization of masculinity and machismo among Puerto Rican men is presented, based on a multidimensional view of their historical and current sociocultural reality. Relevant clinical and social services for Puerto Rican men are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.
Eduardo B Araújo
Full Text Available By analyzing a unique dataset of more than 270,000 scientists, we discovered substantial gender differences in scientific collaborations. While men are more likely to collaborate with other men, women are more egalitarian. This is consistently observed over all fields and regardless of the number of collaborators a scientist has. The only exception is observed in the field of engineering, where this gender bias disappears with increasing number of collaborators. We also found that the distribution of the number of collaborators follows a truncated power law with a cut-off that is gender dependent and related to the gender differences in the number of published papers. Considering interdisciplinary research, our analysis shows that men and women behave similarly across fields, except in the case of natural sciences, where women with many collaborators are more likely to have collaborators from other fields.
Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Donta, Balaiah; Silverman, Jay G
Commercial sex represents a critical context for HIV transmission within India and elsewhere. Despite research and programmatic attention to commercial sex workers (CSWs), less is known concerning the male CSW clients considered a bridge population for HIV transmission to the general population and thought to drive demand for the sex trafficking of women and girls. The current study assesses the prevalence of past year CSW contact, condom nonuse therein, and associations with demographic characteristics and gendered attitudes among a national sample of Indian men. The nationally representative Indian National Family Health Survey-3 was conducted across all Indian states in 2005-2006; the current sample was limited to 46,961 sexually active men. Analyses calculated the prevalence of past year CSW contact and inconsistent condom use; adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations of demographic characteristics, sexual entitlement and justification of wife abuse with past year CSW contact, and inconsistent condom use. Approximately 1 in 100 Indian men (0.9%) reported past year CSW contact; over half of such men reported inconsistent condom use with CSWs. CSW contact was most common among men ages 15-24 (3.6%) and never married men (9.9%). Men's CSW contact related to higher levels of sexual entitlement (adjusted odds ratio = 1.64; 95% confidence interval 1.24 to 2.17) and justification of violence against wives (adjusted odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 1.93). Men's past year CSW contact was concentrated among young and unmarried Indian men; condom nonuse with CSWs was common. Traditional gender ideologies seemed to support men's CSW contact, bolstering consideration of this behavior as a gendered form of HIV risk. Findings provide direction for interventions to reduce men's CSW contact in the Indian context by describing high-risk subpopulations and indicating that gender ideologies should be addressed.
Full Text Available Research has shown that teaching gender theories tends to be an educational challenge and elicits student resistance. However, little is known about students’ learning processes in social science. This study aims to explore these learning processes by drawing on feminist pedagogy and conceptual change theory. The results show that when students are asked to perform analysis from a structural gender perspective, they recurrently introduce other explanatory frameworks based on non-structural understandings. The students’ learning processes involve reformulating questions and making interpretations based on liberal understandings of power, freedom of choice and equality. We argue that this process is due to the hegemonic position of the liberal paradigm as well as to the dominant ideas about science. Clarifying the underlying presumptions of a liberal perspective and a structural perspective may help students to recognise applied premises and enable them to distinguish relevant explanations.
Over the last two decades, a focus on challenging and transforming dominant forms of masculinity and engaging boys and men towards gender equality and healthy masculinities has permeated South African social and health sciences and the humanities. This focus on men and boys has also been evident in intervention and activist work. However, the turn to boys, men and masculinities has not gone without resistance, contestation and contradictions. A range of localised and global realities has frustrated much of the enthusiasm for rapid, sweeping and concrete changes regarding gender justice and the making of progressive masculinities. Among the discursive and material forces that oppose work that engages boys and men are those to do with income-related issues, race and racism, cultural traditions and gender itself. Because of this, it is contended that engagement with boys and men needs to consider not only gender but also economic inequality, poverty and unemployment, divisions created by race, and struggles around tradition. This paper discusses these forces that undermine and counteract work with boys and men and how we might work through resistance in engaging with men and boys. PMID:26073936
Over the last two decades, a focus on challenging and transforming dominant forms of masculinity and engaging boys and men towards gender equality and healthy masculinities has permeated South African social and health sciences and the humanities. This focus on men and boys has also been evident in intervention and activist work. However, the turn to boys, men and masculinities has not gone without resistance, contestation and contradictions. A range of localised and global realities has frustrated much of the enthusiasm for rapid, sweeping and concrete changes regarding gender justice and the making of progressive masculinities. Among the discursive and material forces that oppose work that engages boys and men are those to do with income-related issues, race and racism, cultural traditions and gender itself. Because of this, it is contended that engagement with boys and men needs to consider not only gender but also economic inequality, poverty and unemployment, divisions created by race, and struggles around tradition. This paper discusses these forces that undermine and counteract work with boys and men and how we might work through resistance in engaging with men and boys.
Roy, Valerie; Lindsay, Jocelyn; Dallaire, Louis-Francois
This article describes a study that explored the use of mixed-gender co-facilitation in intimate partner violence groups, especially regarding its potential for gender role socialization. Using an interpretive approach, interviews with men from different mixed-gender co-facilitated groups in Canada were analyzed, with a focus on the men's…
King, Rachel; Barker, Joseph; Nakayiwa, Sylvia; Katuntu, David; Lubwama, George; Bagenda, Danstan; Lane, Tim; Opio, Alex; Hladik, Wolfgang
In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.
Full Text Available In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.
Wall, Barbra Mann
This article explores religious beliefs, practices, and representations of the Alexian Brothers, a religious order of Catholic nursing brothers, and the role of gender in this discourse. Nursing in the United States developed within a cultural framework of caring as part of women's roles in families and communities. Yet, a study of the Alexian Brothers challenges the dominance of the "female" in most gender analyses of nursing. Historical methodology is used to evaluate and interpret data within the broader framework of historiographical literature on gender, religion, and nursing. In analyzing nursing, religion, and gender, attention has been paid to representations, mainly of women, through photographs and written literature. In this article, the same sources are used for men. The story of the Alexian Brothers and the men they educated is a testament to the power of gender and religion in nursing history. These men carved out a system of caring that recognized it as a responsibility not only of women but also of men. As they asserted that their paid work was a Christian calling, they renegotiated dominant notions of masculinity. In doing so, male nurses navigated among an array of representations, from nurse, to school administrator, to military soldier, to religious person, to professional practitioner of scientific medicine. These self-representations in the masculine spaces of the hospital and nursing school were designed to debunk stereotypes of feminine men, and they challenged traditional spatial boundaries.
Mumtaz, Zubia; Salway, Sarah
Recent research and policy discourse commonly view the limited autonomy of women in developing countries as a key barrier to improvements in their reproductive health. Rarely, however, is the notion of women's autonomy interrogated for its conceptual adequacy or usefulness for understanding the determinants of women's reproductive health, effective policy formulation or program design. Using ethnographic data from 2001, including social mapping exercises, observation of daily life, interviews, case studies and focus group discussions, this paper draws attention to the incongruities between the concept of women's autonomy and the gendered social, cultural, economic and political realities of women's lives in rural Punjab, Pakistan. These inadequacies include: the concept's undue emphasis on women's independent, autonomous action; a lack of attention to men and masculinities; a disregard for the multi-sited constitution of gender relations and gender inequality; an erroneous assumption that uptake of reproductive health services is an indicator of autonomy; and a failure to explore the interplay of other axes of disadvantage such as caste, class or socio-economic position. This paper calls for alternative, more nuanced, theoretical approaches for conceptualizing gender inequalities in order to enhance our understanding of women's reproductive wellbeing in Pakistan. The extent to which our arguments may be relevant to the wider South Asian context, and women's lives in other parts of the world, is also discussed.
Hoyt, Michael A
The utility of emotional approach coping (EAC), or expressing and processing emotions, has been equivocal for men. Gender role conflict, or the negative cognitive, emotional and behavioural consequences associated with male gender role socialisation, likely shape coping responses and may negatively affect the efficacy of men's emotion-directed coping efforts and adjustment to cancer. Perceptions of receptiveness of one's interpersonal environment may be particularly important to the effectiveness of EAC. This study examined the relationships among EAC, gender role conflict, and distress in a group of 183 men with cancer. Structural equation modelling revealed that higher gender role conflict was associated with lower emotional expression, which in turn was associated with greater distress. Gender role conflict was not related to emotional processing. Higher gender role conflict also was associated directly with more distress. In subsequent analyses, social constraints and age were examined as possible moderators of EAC. Emotional expression was related to more psychological distress for those in highly constrained environments; and emotional processing was associated with more distress with younger age. Emotional expression may be particularly affected by social influences related to gender and social receptivity. More research is needed to better distinguish constructive and unconstructive emotional processing.
Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Mugny, Gabriel
Five studies examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men, but not heterosexual women, endorse negative attitudes toward homosexuality (i.e., sexual prejudice) in order to maintain a positive gender-related identity that is unambiguously different from a homosexual identity. Studies 1 and 2 showed that men's (but not women's) gender self-esteem (but not personal self-esteem) was positively related to sexual prejudice: The more positive heterosexual men's gender self-esteem, the more negative their attitude toward homosexuality. Studies 3 and 4 showed that this link appears specifically among men motivated to maintain psychological distance from gay men. Study 5 experimentally manipulated the perceived biological differences between homosexual and heterosexual men. The previously observed link between men's gender self-esteem and sexual prejudice appeared in the control and no-differences conditions but disappeared in the differences condition. These findings are discussed in terms of men's attitudes as a defensive function against threat to masculinity.
Burns, Shaun Michael; Hough, Sigmund; Boyd, Briana L; Hill, Justin
Men constitute 82% of the approximately 250,000 people in the United States living with a spinal cord injury. Unfortunately, however, little is known about the impact of men's adherence to gender norms on their adjustment to such injuries. The present investigation examined the utility of masculine norms in explaining variance in depression beyond that accounted for by commonly identified predictors of men's adjustment following spinal cord injury. As hypothesized, results suggested that men's adherence to masculine norms accounted for unique variance in their depression scores beyond that contributed by social support, environmental barriers/access, and erectile functioning. Respondents who adhered to norms stressing the primacy of men's work demonstrated lower rates of depression, whereas those who conformed to norms for self-reliance demonstrated higher depression scores. The authors discuss future research directions and potential psychotherapeutic strategies for working with men with spinal cord injuries.
Handy, Ariel B; Jackowich, Robyn A; Wibowo, Erik; Johnson, Thomas Wayne; Wassersug, Richard J
Some men seek castration outside a clear medical need. This study explored how their sexuality changed after castration. To explore changes in preferred gender(s) of sexual attraction, fantasy, and relationships in voluntarily castrated men with or without gonadal hormone therapy. A questionnaire was posted at http://www.eunuch.org that yielded data on men who had been voluntarily castrated physically (n = 198) or chemically (n = 96). Respondents were asked to report retrospectively on their sexuality, including their sexual activity and which gender(s) they were sexually attracted to, fantasized about, or had sexual relations with 6 months to 1 year before and after castration. A substantial proportion of men remained sexually active after castration; 37% had sex at least several times per week. Most respondents did not report a change in preferred gender(s) of attraction (65%, n = 181), fantasies (62%, n = 169), or sexual relationships (66%, n = 163), although approximately 20% to 30% of respondents did report such changes and 8% to 11% became non-sexual after castration. Respondents who were attracted to and fantasized about "only men" or who had sexual relationship with "only women" before castration were the least likely to report a change subsequent to castration. Respondents who were taking neither supplemental testosterone nor estrogen were more likely to report (i) becoming attracted to no one, (ii) fantasizing about no one, and (iii) becoming sexually inactive. Sexual changes in voluntarily castrated men vary and can be influenced by various factors including the use of supplemental testosterone or estrogen therapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Landstedt, Evelina; Asplund, Kenneth; Gillander Gådin, Katja
Despite a well-documented gender pattern in adolescent mental health, research investigating possible explanatory factors from a gender-theoretical approach is scarce. This paper reports a grounded theory study based on 29 focus groups. The aim was to explore 16- to 19-year-old students' perceptions of what is significant for mental health, and to apply a gender analysis to the findings in order to advance understanding of the gender pattern in adolescent mental health. Significant factors were identified in three social processes categories, including both positive and negative aspects: (1) social interactions, (2) performance and (3) responsibility. Girls more often experienced negative aspects of these processes, placing them at greater risk for mental health problems. Boys' more positive mental health appeared to be associated with their low degree of responsibility-taking and beneficial positions relative to girls. Negotiating cultural norms of femininity and masculinity seemed to be more strenuous for girls, which could place them at a disadvantage with regard to mental health. Social factors and processes (particularly responsibility), gendered power relations and constructions of masculinities and femininities should be acknowledged as important for adolescent mental health.
Gender-based violence during conflict and post-conflict situations has received increased attention in research and in the work of development agencies. Viewed primarily as a form of violence against women, this commentary questions whether male civilians have also been victims of gender-based violence during conflict, invisible due to stereotypes surrounding masculinity and a culturally permissive approach towards violence perpetrated against men, especially at times of war. The experience of civilian males of violence, including sexual violence, during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other contemporary wars, suggests that the discourse on gender-based violence and public health research should begin exploring the specific needs of men. Drawing on Nancy Krieger's (Krieger, N. (2003). Genders, sexes, and health: what are the connections-and why does it matter? International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 652-657) analysis on the differential role of 'sex' and 'gender' on a given exposure-outcome association, this commentary suggests that the impact of gender-based violence on health during conflict may be different for men and women and may require distinct therapeutic approaches. Given that perpetrators are often male, an extra level of stigma is added when heterosexual men are sexually violated, which may lead to underreporting and reduced health-service seeking behavior. Further public health research is needed to guide the work of humanitarian agencies working with survivors of gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict settings to ensure equal access to appropriate health services for men and women.
Küpper, Beate; Zick, Andreas
Across cultures studies show that men score higher on social dominance orientation than women. This gender gap is considered invariant, but conflicting explanations are discussed: Some authors refer to evolutionary psychology and perceive the gender gap to be driven by sociobiological factors. Other authors argue that social roles or gender-stereotypical self-construals encouraged by intergroup comparisons are responsible for attitudinal gender difference. In Study 1 we analyzed sex differences in social dominance orientation in three German probability surveys (each n > 2300). Unexpectedly, the analyses yielded an inverse gender gap with higher values for social dominance orientation in women than in men. Interactions with age, education, political conservatism, and perceived inequity indicated that the inverse gender gap can be mainly attributed to older, conservative, (and less educated) respondents, and those who feel they get their deserved share. In Study 2 we replicated the well-known gender gap with men scoring higher than women in social dominance orientation among German students. Results are interpreted on the basis of biocultural interaction, which integrates the sociobiological, social role, and self-construal perspectives. Our unusual findings seem to reflect a struggle for status by members of low-status groups who consider group-based hierarchy the most promising option to improve their status. While younger women take advantage of a relational, feminine self-construal that leads to lower social dominance orientation in young women than in young men, older women are supposed to profit from an agentic self-construal that results in stronger social dominance orientation values. Specific characteristics of the culture in Germany seem to promote this strategy. Here, we discuss the female ideal of the national socialist period and the agentic female social role in the post-war era necessitated by the absence of men.
No Abstract. Gender and Behaviour Vol.5 (1) 2007: pp. 1188-1214. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gab.v5i1.23383 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A.; Monks, D. Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P.
Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333) completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role) were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role). In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles. PMID:28234947
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P
Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333) completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role) were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role). In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles.
Full Text Available Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333 completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role. In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles.
Tagler, Michael J
Choking under pressure occurs when an individual underperforms due to situational pressure. The present study examined whether being the target of a positive social stereotype regarding math ability causes choking among men. Gender identification and self-consciousness were hypothesized to moderate the effect of math-gender stereotypes on men's math test performance. Men high in self-consciousness but low in gender identification significantly underperformed when exposed to gender-relevant test instructions. No significant effects were found under a gender-irrelevant condition. These findings are discussed in the contexts of research on stereotype threat, stereotype lift, and choking under pressure.
Fulton, Erika K; Bulluck, Megan; Hertzog, Christopher
It is unclear why women have superior episodic memory of faces, but the benefit may be partially the result of women engaging in superior processing of facial expressions. Therefore, we hypothesized that orienting instructions to attend to facial expression at encoding would significantly improve men's memory of faces and possibly reduce gender differences. We directed 203 college students (122 women) to study 120 faces under instructions to orient to either the person's gender or their emotional expression. They later took a recognition test of these faces by either judging whether they had previously studied the same person or that person with the exact same expression; the latter test evaluated recollection of specific facial details. Orienting to facial expressions during encoding significantly improved men's recognition of own-gender faces and eliminated the advantage that women had for male faces under gender orienting instructions. Although gender differences in spontaneous strategy use when orienting to faces cannot fully account for gender differences in face recognition, orienting men to facial expression during encoding is one way to significantly improve their episodic memory for male faces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dworkin, Shari L; Fleming, Paul J; Colvin, Christopher J
Since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, researchers and practitioners have engaged in a series of efforts to shift health programming with men from being gender-neutral to being more gender-sensitive and gender-transformative. Efforts in this latter category have been increasingly utilised, particularly in the last decade, and attempt to transform gender relations to be more equitable in the name of improved health outcomes for both women and men. We begin by assessing the conceptual progression of social science contributions to gender-transformative health programming with men. Next, we briefly assess the empirical evidence from gender-transformative health interventions with men. Finally, we examine some of the challenges and limitations of gender-transformative health programmes and make recommendations for future work in this thriving interdisciplinary area of study.
Roth, Jay E; Coleman, Christopher Lance
The objective of this literature review is to describe the perceived or real barriers to men seeking a career in nursing, and to suggest strategies for ameliorating barriers. A literature search exploring barriers existing for men pursuing nursing was conducted. Although the literature underscored the structure of nursing has changed substantially over the last fifty years, these changes have not always provoked a change in the public's perception of nursing. Barriers for men entering nursing still exist. Implications for gender diversity in nursing are discussed. Strategies for decreasing barriers experienced by males entering nursing are warranted.
Lippa, Richard A
Two studies investigated the relation between sexual orientation and gender-related traits. Analyzing data from an Internet survey, Study 1 found that gay men and lesbians differed from same-sex heterosexuals most strongly on gender diagnosticity (GD) measures, which assess male- versus female-typicality of occupational preferences (effect sizes were 1.14 for men and 0.53 for women) and least strongly on instrumentality (I) and expressiveness (E). Study 2 found that GD measures showed large differences between 289 gay and 200 heterosexual men (d = 0.95) and between 296 lesbian and 435 heterosexual women (d = 1.32), whereas I and E showed much smaller differences. In Study 2 homosexual-heterosexual diagnosticity measures, computed from men's and women's occupational preferences, correlated very strongly with GD measures (r = 0.88 for men and 0.89 for women), indicating that occupational preference items that distinguished men from women also tended to distinguish heterosexual from homosexual individuals. LISREL 8 analyses showed that self-ascribed masculinity-femininity did not mediate the strong relation between sexual orientation and GD for men or for women.
Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L
Preferences for anal sex roles (top/bottom) are an important aspect of gay male identity, but scholars have only recently begun to explore the factors that covary with these preferences. Here, we argue that the gendered nature of both racial stereotypes (i.e., Black men are masculine, Asian men are feminine) and sexual role stereotypes (i.e., tops are masculine, bottoms are feminine) link the categories Asian/bottom and the categories Black/top. We provide empirical evidence for these claims at three levels of analysis: At the cultural level based upon gay men's stereotypic beliefs about others (Study 1), at the interpersonal level based upon gay men's perceptions of others' sexual role preferences (Study 2), and at the intrapersonal level based upon racially diverse men's self-reported sexual roles on a public hookup website (Study 3). These studies offer the first systematic evidence of linkages between race categories and sexual roles in gay male communities.
Gignac, Monique A M; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Smith, Peter M; Kristman, Vicki; Beaton, Dorcas E; Mustard, Cameron A
With the aging of populations in many countries, workers are expected to remain employed longer but may struggle with the onset of common, chronic conditions like arthritis. To date, few studies have examined workplace policies and practices that could help accommodate individuals with arthritis, and fewer still have used a sex and gender-based approach to explore similarities and differences between women and men. This study compared the health and work contexts of workers aged ≥50 years to better understand similarities and differences between women and men in accommodation availability, need, use, and unmet needs. A cross-sectional survey of men and women with osteoarthritis (OA), inflammatory arthritis (IA), or both OA and IA was administered online or by telephone and assessed demographics (e.g. age, education), health (e.g. pain, fatigue, workplace activity limitations), work context factors (e.g. job sector, full/part-time work, job control), and workplace accommodations (e.g. health benefits, flexible hours, special equipment/adaptations, modified duties). Sex and gender-based analyses examined similarities and differences between men and women and included descriptive statistics, multivariable multinomial analyses, and nested regression analyses. There was a 58.9% response rate and final sample of 463 participants (women, n = 266; men, n = 197; OA = 59.0%; IA/both IA and OA = 23.7%; unsure = 17.3%). Women and men were significantly different in a number of health (e.g. fatigue, health variability, workplace activity limitations) and work context factors (e.g. job sector, part-time work, job stress). However, in other respects, they were similar (e.g. pain, job involving physical demands, size of organization, shift work, union membership, job control). There were no differences between men and women in the availability or use of workplace accommodations. However, women reported significantly more accommodation needs and had greater unmet needs
The access to employment and occupational status of men and women constitute important determinants of inequality in income and in family and social power relations. Data from the 1970 and 1990 Mexican censuses were used to analyze increases in women's economic activity over the two decades. The data indicate that women's labor force participation increased in absolute terms and relative to that of men, coincidentally with a decline in women's agricultural work. The employment increases were concentrated in the age groups from 20 to 49 years, implying significant changes in the relationships between participation and fertility. Research in the largest cities, in industry, and in the most dynamic agricultural sectors corroborate the increases in female employment but suggest that the economically active female population may have been underestimated in the 1990 census. The 1990 estimate of 23.5% for the female portion of the labor force was lower than the 25.6% of the 1980 census. The corresponding estimate based on the 1988 National Employment Survey was 31.3%. The finding of the 1990 census that female agricultural workers declined by 19.1% since 1970 was surprising in light of findings of several other studies that showed significant increases in such work in the 1970s and 1980s. Although most of the increases in female employment indicated by census data between 1970 and 1990 were in unskilled occupations, the professional and technical sector showed the greatest relative increase. Despite these advances, the 1990 data show that women occupied only 19.4% of executive and director's jobs but 96.6% of domestic jobs.
Barker, G; Ricardo, C; Nascimento, M; Olukoya, A; Santos, C
This article describes a review of 58 evaluation studies of programmes with men and boys in sexual and reproductive health (including HIV prevention, treatment, care and support); father involvement; gender-based violence; maternal, newborn and child health; and gender socialisation more broadly. While few of the programmes go beyond the pilot stage, or a relatively short-term timeframe, they offer compelling evidence that well-designed programmes with men and boys can lead to positive changes in their behaviours and attitudes related to sexual and reproductive health; maternal, newborn and child health; their interaction with their children; their use of violence against women; their questioning of violence with other men; and their health-seeking behaviour. The evidence indicates that programmes that incorporate a gender-transformative approach and promote gender-equitable relationships between men and women are more effective in producing behaviour change than narrowly focused interventions, as are programmes which reach beyond the individual level to the social context.
Bos, H.M.W.; Picavet, C.; Sandfort, T.G.M.
The aim of the present study was to assess whether children’s attitudes toward gay men and lesbian women differ in relation to their ethnic backgrounds and whether ethnic differences are a result of perceived differential gender socialization practices. Data were collected from children in eight
Gia Elise Barboza, PhD
Full Text Available We investigated whether being attacked physically due to one's gender identity or expression was associated with suicide risk among trans men and women living in Virginia. The sample consisted of 350 transgender men and women who participated in the Virginia Transgender Health Initiative Survey (THIS. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to explore the competing outcomes associated with suicidal risk. Thirty-seven percent of trans men and women experienced at least one physical attack since the age of 13. On average, individuals experienced 3.97 (SD = 2.86 physical attacks; among these about half were attributed to one's gender identity or expression (mean = 2.08, SD = 1.96. In the multivariate multinomial regression, compared to those with no risk, being physically attacked increased the odds of both attempting and contemplating suicide regardless of gender attribution. Nevertheless, the relative impact of physical victimization on suicidal behavior was higher among those who were targeted on the basis of their gender identity or expression. Finally, no significant association was found between multiple measures of institutional discrimination and suicide risk once discriminatory and non-discriminatory physical victimization was taken into account. Trans men and women experience high levels of physical abuse and face multiple forms of discrimination. They are also at an increased risk for suicidal tendencies. Interventions that help transindividuals cope with discrimination and physical victimization simultaneously may be more effective in saving lives.
Barboza, Gia Elise; Dominguez, Silvia; Chance, Elena
We investigated whether being attacked physically due to one's gender identity or expression was associated with suicide risk among trans men and women living in Virginia. The sample consisted of 350 transgender men and women who participated in the Virginia Transgender Health Initiative Survey (THIS). Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to explore the competing outcomes associated with suicidal risk. Thirty-seven percent of trans men and women experienced at least one physical attack since the age of 13. On average, individuals experienced 3.97 (SD = 2.86) physical attacks; among these about half were attributed to one's gender identity or expression (mean = 2.08, SD = 1.96). In the multivariate multinomial regression, compared to those with no risk, being physically attacked increased the odds of both attempting and contemplating suicide regardless of gender attribution. Nevertheless, the relative impact of physical victimization on suicidal behavior was higher among those who were targeted on the basis of their gender identity or expression. Finally, no significant association was found between multiple measures of institutional discrimination and suicide risk once discriminatory and non-discriminatory physical victimization was taken into account. Trans men and women experience high levels of physical abuse and face multiple forms of discrimination. They are also at an increased risk for suicidal tendencies. Interventions that help transindividuals cope with discrimination and physical victimization simultaneously may be more effective in saving lives.
Full Text Available Sex is a major factor influencing best performances and world records. Here the evolution of the difference between men and women's best performances is characterized through the analysis of 82 quantifiable events since the beginning of the Olympic era. For each event in swimming, athletics, track cycling, weightlifting and speed skating the gender gap is fitted to compare male and female records. It is also studied through the best performance of the top 10 performers in each gender for swimming and athletics. A stabilization of the gender gap in world records is observed after 1983, at a mean difference of 10.0% ± 2.94 between men and women for all events. The gender gap ranges from 5.5% (800-m freestyle, swimming to 18.8% (long jump. The mean gap is 10.7% for running performances, 17.5% for jumps, 8.9% for swimming races, 7.0% for speed skating and 8.7% in cycling. The top ten performers' analysis reveals a similar gender gap trend with a stabilization in 1982 at 11.7%, despite the large growth in participation of women from eastern and western countries, that coincided with later- published evidence of state-institutionalized or individual doping. These results suggest that women will not run, jump, swim or ride as fast as men
A third of men had experienced no consequences from their acts, not even feelings of guilt. More commonly there was remorse and worry about consequences, and in a third of cases there had been action against them from their family, that of the victims, or respected community members, and about one in five had been ...
Asserts that men's confusion concerning sexual harassment stems primarily from the difficulty inherent in trying to differentiate between traditional male sexual behavior and sexual harassment. Describes the "5C" model of traditional heterosexual male sexuality (control, conquest, competition, climax, and confusion). Presents approaches for…
Zhang, Xiaofei; Guo, Xitong; Lai, Kee-Hung; Guo, Feng; Li, Chenlei
Mobile health (m-health) services are becoming increasingly popular in healthcare, but research on m-health adoption is rare. This study was designed to obtain a better understanding of m-health adoption intention. We conducted an empirical research of a 481-respondent sample consisting of 44.7% women and 55.3% men and developed a modified theory of reasoned action (TRA) model by incorporating the nonlinearities between attitude and subjective norms and the moderating effect of gender. The results indicate that, based on the study population in China: (1) facilitating conditions, attitude, and subjective norms are significant predictors of m-health adoption intention; (2) the model including the nonlinearities enhances its explanatory ability; (3) males enjoy a higher level of m-health adoption intention compared with females; (4) the modified TRA model can predict men's behavior intention better than that of women; and (5) males have an Edgeworth-Pareto substitutability between attitude and subjective norms in predicting m-health adoption intention. Thus, we found gender differences in m-health adoption from the perspective of social psychology.
Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Dunkle, Kristin; Penn-Kekana, Loveday
South African policy makers are reviewing legislation of prostitution, concerned that criminalisation hampers HIV prevention. They seek to understand the relationship between transactional sex, prostitution, and the nature of the involved men. 1645 randomly-selected adult South African men participated in a household study, disclosing whether they had sex with a woman in prostitution or had had a provider relationship (or sex), participation in crime and violence and completing psychological measures. These became outcomes in multivariable regression models, where the former were exposure variables. 51% of men had had a provider relationship and expected sex in return, 3% had had sex with a woman in prostitution, 15% men had done both of these and 31% neither. Provider role men, and those who had just had sex with a woman in prostitution, were socially conservative and quite violent. Yet the men who had done both (75% of those having sex with a woman in prostitution) were significantly more misogynist, highly scoring on dimensions of psychopathy, more sexually and physically violent to women, and extensively engaged in crime. They had often bullied at school, suggesting that this instrumental, self-seeking masculinity was manifest in childhood. The men who had not engaged in sex for economic exchange expressed a much less violent, more law abiding and gender equitable masculinity; challenging assumptions about the inevitability of intersections of age, poverty, crime and misogyny. Provider role relationships (or sex) are normative for low income men, but not having sex with a woman in prostitution. Men who do the latter operate extensively outside the law and their violence poses a substantial threat to women. Those drafting legislation and policy on the sex industry in South Africa need to distinguish between these two groups to avoid criminalising the normal, and consider measures to protect women.
Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Dunkle, Kristin; Penn-Kekana, Loveday
Background South African policy makers are reviewing legislation of prostitution, concerned that criminalisation hampers HIV prevention. They seek to understand the relationship between transactional sex, prostitution, and the nature of the involved men. Methods 1645 randomly-selected adult South African men participated in a household study, disclosing whether they had sex with a woman in prostitution or had had a provider relationship (or sex), participation in crime and violence and completing psychological measures. These became outcomes in multivariable regression models, where the former were exposure variables. Results 51% of men had had a provider relationship and expected sex in return, 3% had had sex with a woman in prostitution, 15% men had done both of these and 31% neither. Provider role men, and those who had just had sex with a woman in prostitution, were socially conservative and quite violent. Yet the men who had done both (75% of those having sex with a woman in prostitution) were significantly more misogynist, highly scoring on dimensions of psychopathy, more sexually and physically violent to women, and extensively engaged in crime. They had often bullied at school, suggesting that this instrumental, self-seeking masculinity was manifest in childhood. The men who had not engaged in sex for economic exchange expressed a much less violent, more law abiding and gender equitable masculinity; challenging assumptions about the inevitability of intersections of age, poverty, crime and misogyny. Conclusions Provider role relationships (or sex) are normative for low income men, but not having sex with a woman in prostitution. Men who do the latter operate extensively outside the law and their violence poses a substantial threat to women. Those drafting legislation and policy on the sex industry in South Africa need to distinguish between these two groups to avoid criminalising the normal, and consider measures to protect women. PMID:22911711
Estrada, Fernando; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Arciniega, G. Miguel; Tracey, Terence J. G.
Machismo continues to be a defining aspect of Mexican American men that informs a wide array of psychological and behavioral dimensions. Although strides have been made in this area of research, understanding of the role of this construct in the lives of gay men remains incomplete. Our purpose in this study was to gain a deeper understanding of…
Hyatt, Courtland S; Berke, Danielle S; Miller, Joshua D; Zeichner, Amos
Although independent lines of research have identified misogynistic lyrical content and traditional gender role beliefs as reliable predictors of men's female-directed aggression, more research is needed to understand the extent to which these variables may function in synthesis to potentiate aggression. In the current study, men (N = 193), who completed questionnaires relevant to their conformity to masculine norms and level of hostile and benevolent sexism, were exposed to either misogynistic or neutral lyrics before having the opportunity to shock an ostensible female confederate in a bogus reaction time task that, in effect, measured aggression. Results indicated that misogynistic lyrics and hostile sexism significantly predicted both unprovoked and provoked aggression against a female target. Contrary to expectations, moderating effects of gender role beliefs on the relationship between misogynistic lyrics and men's aggression were not found. Implications are discussed in terms of the costs of misogyny in media for women's lives. Aggr. Behav. 43:123-132, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan
We explore the ideology associated with gender equality that despite primary schools and initial teacher education (ITE) institutions doing all they can to recruit men into primary education, a huge gender imbalance still exists. We frame our study around the notions of gender equality and professional responsibility. Using a multi-case study…
Cournoyer, Robert J.; And Others
College-aged (n=88) and middle-aged (n=89) men completed 5 measures that assess gender role conflict and psychological well-being. Results indicate that, compared with college-aged men, middle-aged men were less conflicted about success, power, and competition, but were more conflicted about work and family responsibilities. The discussion focuses…
Seawell, Asani H; Hurt, Tera R; Shirley, Margaret C
This study used focus-group methodology to seek understanding about the unique influence of stress, gender, and culture on type 2 diabetes mellitus (t2dm) prevention and management among Black men. Twenty men from Iowa were recruited from a larger longitudinal study on Black families; each of these men participated in one of three focus groups. Ninety-five percent of the men in the sample were Black and all were either diagnosed with t2dm (n = 10), were prediabetic (n = 1), or had experience with t2dm through family and friends (n = 9). Our results revealed the existence of significant stress and some pessimism with respect to perceived ability to prevent and manage t2dm. The participants made it clear that, while their families are primary sources of support for managing stress, including t2dm, they can also be a source of stress, particularly with respect to parenting. Black men had mixed opinions on their relationships with respect to their health care providers; some had positive, long-standing relationships while others reported little or no relationship with their providers. In response to life stress, Black men reported experiencing inadequate and disrupted sleep as well as consuming too much alcohol at times. Some of the participants reported engaging in physical activity to manage their stress. The study concluded that, as researchers develop t2dm prevention and management programs, they should continue to consider the unique role that stress in its various forms, plays in the lives of Black men. © The Author(s) 2015.
Singh-Manoux, Archana; Guéguen, Alice; Ferrie, Jane; Shipley, Martin; Martikainen, Pekka; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Goldberg, Marcel; Marmot, Michael
We examined gender differences in mortality, morbidity, and the association between the 2. We used health data from 2 studies of middle-aged men and women: the British Whitehall II cohort of employees from 20 civil service departments in London and the 1989 French GAZEL (this acronym refers to the French gas and electric companies) of employees of France's national gas and electricity company. Participants were aged 35 to 55 years when assessed for morbidity and followed up for mortality over 17 years. Male mortality was higher than female mortality in Whitehall II (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28, 1.91) and the GAZEL cohort (HR = 1.99; CI = 1.66, 2.40). Female excess morbidity was observed for some measures in the Whitehall II data and for 1 measure in the GAZEL data. Only self-reported sickness absence in the Whitehall II data was more strongly associated with mortality among men (P = .01). Mortality was lower among women than among men, but morbidity was not consistently higher. The lack of gender differences in the association between morbidity and mortality suggests that this is not a likely explanation for the gender paradox, which refers to higher morbidity but lower mortality among women than among men.
Meyer, Elizabeth J.
This article provides an analysis of teachers' perceptions of and responses to gendered harassment in Canadian secondary schools based on in-depth interviews with six teachers in one urban school district. Gendered harassment includes any behaviour that polices and reinforces traditional heterosexual gender norms such as (hetero)sexual harassment,…
Zunzunegui, M V; Alvarado, B E; Guerra, R; Gómez, J F; Ylli, A; Guralnik, J M
To present the study design and baseline results of the longitudinal International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) on gender differences in physical performance and mobility disability prevalence in five diverse societies. Data are from surveys on random samples of people aged 65-74 years at Canadian (Kingston, Ontario; Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec), Mediterranean (Tirana, Albania) and Latin American sites (Natal, Brazil; Manizales, Colombia) (N=1995). Mobility disability was defined as reporting difficulty in walking 400m or climbing stairs. Activities of daily living (ADL) disability was based on any self-reported difficulty in five mobility-related ADLs. The short physical performance battery (SPPB) was used to assess physical performance. Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate prevalence ratios. Age-adjusted prevalence of low SPPB, mobility disability and ADL disability were higher in women than in men in all sites except for Kingston. After adjustment for education and income, gender differences in SPPB and ADL disability attenuated or disappeared in Saint-Hyacinthe and Manizales but remained large in Tirana and Natal and mobility disability remained more frequent in women than in men at all sites except Kingston. After further adjustment by chronic conditions and depressive symptoms, gender differences in mobility remained large at all sites except Kingston but only in Tirana did women have significantly poorer physical performance than men. Results provide evidence for gender as a risk factor to explain poorer physical function in women and suggest that moving toward gender equality could attenuate the gender gap in physical function in old age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parent, Mike C.; Torrey, Carrie; Michaels, Matthew S.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for more than half of all new cases of HIV infection in the United States. Yet, many MSM are unaware of their HIV serostatus. Consistent with research indicating that gender role conformity impacts health behaviors, this study examined how masculine norms may influence HIV testing among MSM in the United…
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigation of personality disorders and personality traits in men who have gender identity disorder (GID. Identification of personality disorders can be useful for enhancement of the quality of help to the patients. Materials & Methods: This analytical and cross-sectional study was a comparative and case – control research. 40 men with gender identity disorder were selected by convenient sampling from individuals who have been referred to Tehran Navab Safavi welfare center. Also, 40 available individuals who have no any diagnostic criteria about gender identity disorder in DSM-IV-TR and worked in Islamic Azad University (Tehran Sciences and Researches Unit were selected as control group and matched with patients. Personality disorders and those frequencies were evaluated with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II. Data were analyzed using by Chi-square and Independent T tests. Results: The results showed that gender identity disorder patients get higher scores as compared to control group in scales “Dependent” (P=0/038, “Histrionic” (P<0/001, “Antisocial” (P=0/017, “Passive – aggressive” (P=0/007, “Borderline” (P<0/001 and “Paranoid” (P=0/021 and their difference was significant. Conclusion: Generally, the results of this study showed persons who have gender identity disorder also have some symptoms of personality disorders more than normal people.
Schumann, Karina; Ross, Michael
Despite wide acceptance of the stereotype that women apologize more readily than men, there is little systematic evidence to support this stereotype or its supposed bases (e.g., men's fragile egos). We designed two studies to examine whether gender differences in apology behavior exist and, if so, why. In Study 1, participants reported in daily diaries all offenses they committed or experienced and whether an apology had been offered. Women reported offering more apologies than men, but they also reported committing more offenses. There was no gender difference in the proportion of offenses that prompted apologies. This finding suggests that men apologize less frequently than women because they have a higher threshold for what constitutes offensive behavior. In Study 2, we tested this threshold hypothesis by asking participants to evaluate both imaginary and recalled offenses. As predicted, men rated the offenses as less severe than women did. These different ratings of severity predicted both judgments of whether an apology was deserved and actual apology behavior.
Mindry, Deborah L; Knight, Lucia; van Rooyen, Heidi
Various interventions have resulted in increased rates of HIV testing. However, encouraging men to acknowledge their risk for HIV, to test and link to treatment remains a challenge. In this study, we examine men's perspectives on navigating HIV risk in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Qualitative interviews were conducted at four intervals over a three-year time period with a baseline cohort of 126 men and women. We found that men navigated HIV risk in their sexual relationships mainly by monitoring their partner's behaviour. Men expressed concerns about female respectability, invoking discourses on hlonipha rooted in Zulu cultural ideals and Christian ideals about women staying close to home. In the post-apartheid era, these concerns were inflected by anxieties over changing gender norms and the high rates and risks of infection in the region. HIV prevention discourses on behaviour intersected with men's efforts to assert their masculinity through the monitoring and controlling of women's behaviour. The potential negative impacts of this should be addressed. Prevention efforts need to focus on men's vulnerability to infection in terms of their own behaviour as well as the contexts in which they live.
Although intersectionality is now recognized in the context of women's health, men's health, and gender and health, its full implications for research, policy, and practice have not yet been interrogated. This paper investigates, from an intersectionality perspective, the common struggles within each field to confront the complex interplay of factors that shape health inequities. Drawing on developments within intersectionality scholarship and various sources of research and policy evidence (including examples from the field of HIV/AIDS), the paper demonstrates the methodological feasibility of intersectionality and in particular, the wide-ranging benefits of de-centering gender through intersectional analyses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Samantha J Dawson
Full Text Available Research across groups and methods consistently finds a gender difference in patterns of specificity of genital response; however, empirically supported mechanisms to explain this difference are lacking. The information-processing model of sexual arousal posits that automatic and controlled cognitive processes are requisite for the generation of sexual responses. Androphilic women's gender-nonspecific response patterns may be the result of sexually-relevant cues that are common to both preferred and nonpreferred genders capturing attention and initiating an automatic sexual response, whereas men's attentional system may be biased towards the detection and response to sexually-preferred cues only. In the present study, we used eye tracking to assess visual attention to sexually-preferred and nonpreferred cues in a sample of androphilic women and gynephilic men. Results support predictions from the information-processing model regarding gendered processing of sexual stimuli in men and women. Men's initial attention patterns were gender-specific, whereas women's were nonspecific. In contrast, both men and women exhibited gender-specific patterns of controlled attention, although this effect was stronger among men. Finally, measures of attention and self-reported attraction were positively related in both men and women. These findings are discussed in the context of the information-processing model and evolutionary mechanisms that may have evolved to promote gendered attentional systems.
This thesis locates itself in wider developments in gender theory and examinations of the state’s production of gender inequality. It responds to two research problems in existing literature. Firstly, scholars have developed increasingly complex theorisations of the social construction of gender and the state’s role in it. This body of research has shown how gender blindness and gender bias in state policies produce inequality and how gender structures priorities, hierarchies and roles wit...
Phillips, Nicole A; Tannan, Shruti C; Kalliainen, Loree K
Although explicit sex-based discrimination has largely been deemed unacceptable in professional settings, implicit gender bias persists and results in a significant lack of parity in plastic surgery and beyond. Implicit gender bias is the result of a complex interplay of cultural and societal expectations, learned behaviors, and standardized associations. As such, both male and female surgeons are subject to its influence. A review of the literature was conducted, examining theories of gender bias, current manifestations of gender bias in plastic surgery and other fields, and interventions designed to address gender bias. Multiple studies demonstrate persistent gender bias that impacts female physicians at all levels of training. Several institutions have enacted successful interventions to identify and address gender bias. Explicit gender bias has largely disappeared, yet unconscious or implicit gender bias persists. A wide-scale commitment to addressing implicit gender bias in plastic surgery is necessary and overdue. Recommendations include immediate actions that can be undertaken on an individual basis, and changes that should be implemented at a national and international level by leaders in the field.
Wahto, Rachel; Swift, Joshua K
Despite a comparable need, research has indicated that on average men hold more negative attitudes toward psychological help seeking than women. Several researchers have suggested that the gender gap in service use and attitudes could be addressed through efforts to better market psychological services to men; however, a limited number of studies have tested this hypothesis. This study examined whether altering the labels for mental health providers (psychologist or counselor), settings (mental health clinic or counseling center), and treatments (problem or feeling focused) could result in less perceived stigma (social and self) by men. Participants, 165 male college students, were asked to read one of eight randomly assigned vignettes that described a man who was experiencing symptoms of depression and was considering seeking help. The vignettes differed in the labels that were used to describe the help that was being considered. Participants then completed measures assessing the stigma (self and social) associated with the treatment, and their preexisting experience of gender-role conflict and attitudes toward psychological help seeking. In summary, perceived stigma did not depend on the type of label that was used; however, 59% of the variance in attitudes was predicted by self-stigma (uniquely explaining 11%), gender-role conflict (uniquely explaining 10%), and social stigma (uniquely explaining 5%). Specifically, higher levels of gender-role conflict, social stigma, and self-stigma were associated with more negative attitudes toward psychological help seeking. Based on the demographics of the sample, these findings primarily have implications for Caucasian college-educated young adult men. Further limitations with the study and recommendations for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Miller, Diane L; Karakowsky, Leonard
Little research has considered how work team characteristics influence feedback-seeking behavior among team members. The authors' aim in this research was to identify central sources of influence on feedback-seeking behavior in a mixed-gender context. They placed men and women in work groups of varying gender composition. The participants then participated in a gender-biased (perceived as either male-oriented or female-oriented) negotiation exercise. Findings indicated that the gender of the participant, the team's gender composition, and the gender orientation of the task influenced feedback-seeking behavior among team members.
Casey, Erin A; Leek, Cliff; Tolman, Richard M; Allen, Christopher T; Carlson, Juliana M
As engaging men in gender-based violence prevention efforts becomes an increasingly institutionalised component of gender equity work globally, clarity is needed about the strategies that best initiate male-identified individuals' involvement in these efforts. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived relevance and effectiveness of men's engagement strategies from the perspective of men around the world who have organised or attended gender-based violence prevention events. Participants responded to an online survey (available in English, French and Spanish) and rated the effectiveness of 15 discrete engagement strategies derived from earlier qualitative work. Participants also provided suggestions regarding strategies in open-ended comments. Listed strategies cut across the social ecological spectrum and represented both venues in which to reach men, and the content of violence prevention messaging. Results suggest that all strategies, on average, were perceived as effective across regions of the world, with strategies that tailor messaging to topics of particular concern to men (such as fatherhood and healthy relationships) rated most highly. Open-ended comments also surfaced tensions, particularly related to the role of a gender analysis in initial men's engagement efforts. Findings suggest the promise of cross-regional adaptation and information sharing regarding successful approaches to initiating men's anti-violence involvement.
Full Text Available As research in recollection of stimuli with emotional valence indicates, emotions influence memory. Many studies in face and emotional facial expression recognition have focused on age (young and old people and gender-associated (men and women differences. Nevertheless, this kind of studies has produced contradictory results, because of that, it would be necessary to study gender involvement in depth. The main objective of our research consists of analyzing the differences in image recognition using faces with emotional facial expressions between two groups composed by university students aged 18-30. The first group is constituted by men and the second one by women. The results showed statistically significant differences in face corrected recognition (hit rate - false alarm rate: the women demonstrated a better recognition than the men. However, other analyzed variables as time or efficiency do not provide conclusive results. Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between the time used and the efficiency when doing the task was found in the male group. This information reinforces not only the hypothesis of gender difference in face recognition, in favor of women, but also these ones that suggest a different cognitive processing of facial stimuli in both sexes. Finally, we argue the necessity of a greater research related to variables as age or sociocultural level.
McDermott, Ryon C; Lopez, Frederick G
Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence in relationships are key risk factors for IPV perpetration; however, comparatively few studies have examined the social and relational variables related to IPV acceptance attitudes. In the present study, we proposed and tested a structural model examining the combined contributions of adult attachment dimensions (i.e., attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) and masculine gender role stress in the prediction of IPV acceptance attitudes in a large sample of college men (N = 419). We hypothesized that the relationship between attachment insecurity and IPV acceptance attitudes would be partially mediated by men's gender role stress. A partially mediated model produced the best indices of model fit, accounting for 31% of the variance in an IPV acceptance attitudes latent variable. A bootstrapping procedure confirmed the significance of mediation effects. These results suggest that aspects of adult attachment insecurity are associated with tendencies to experience stress from violations of rigidly internalized traditional male role norms, which, in turn, are associated with acceptance of IPV. Findings are further discussed in relation to adult attachment theory (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007), gender role strain theory (Pleck, 1995), and their implications for IPV prevention in college student populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Carothers, Bobbi J; Reis, Harry T
Taxometric methods enable determination of whether the latent structure of a construct is dimensional or taxonic (nonarbitrary categories). Although sex as a biological category is taxonic, psychological gender differences have not been examined in this way. The taxometric methods of mean above minus below a cut, maximum eigenvalue, and latent mode were used to investigate whether gender is taxonic or dimensional. Behavioral measures of stereotyped hobbies and physiological characteristics (physical strength, anthropometric measurements) were examined for validation purposes, and were taxonic by sex. Psychological indicators included sexuality and mating (sexual attitudes and behaviors, mate selectivity, sociosexual orientation), interpersonal orientation (empathy, relational-interdependent self-construal), gender-related dispositions (masculinity, femininity, care orientation, unmitigated communion, fear of success, science inclination, Big Five personality), and intimacy (intimacy prototypes and stages, social provisions, intimacy with best friend). Constructs were with few exceptions dimensional, speaking to Spence's (1993) gender identity theory. Average differences between men and women are not under dispute, but the dimensionality of gender indicates that these differences are inappropriate for diagnosing gender-typical psychological variables on the basis of sex. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Miner, Michael H; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raymond, Nancy; Janssen, Erick; MacDonald, Angus; Coleman, Eli
Hypersexuality has been conceptualized as sexual addiction, compulsivity, and impulsivity, among others, in the absence of strong empirical data in support of any specific conceptualization. To investigate personality factors and behavioral mechanisms that are relevant to hypersexuality in men who have sex with men. A sample of 242 men who have sex with men was recruited from various sites in a moderate-size mid-western city. Participants were assigned to a hypersexuality group or a control group using an interview similar to the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Self-report inventories were administered that measured the broad personality constructs of positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and constraint and more narrow constructs related to sexual behavioral control, behavioral activation, behavioral inhibition, sexual excitation, sexual inhibition, impulsivity, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and sexual behavior. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to determine the relation between these personality and behavioral variables and group membership. A hierarchical logistic regression controlling for age showed a significant positive relation between hypersexuality and negative emotionality and a negative relation with constraint. None of the behavioral mechanism variables entered this equation. However, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis predicting sexual behavioral control indicated that lack of such control was positively related to sexual excitation and sexual inhibition owing to the threat of performance failure and negatively related to sexual inhibition owing to the threat of performance consequences and general behavioral inhibition Hypersexuality was found to be related to two broad personality factors that are characterized by emotional reactivity, risk taking, and impulsivity. The associated lack of sexual behavior control is influenced by sexual
Andy R. Eugene
Full Text Available Recent meta-analyses and publications over the past 15 years have provided evidence showing there are considerable gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol. Throughout this time, there have not been any research articles proposing a gender stratified dose-adjustment resulting in an equivalent total drug exposure. Metoprolol pharmacokinetic data was obtained from a previous publication. Data was modeled using nonlinear mixed effect modeling using the MONOLIX software package to quantify metoprolol concentration–time data. Gender-stratified dosing simulations were conducted to identify equivalent total drug exposure based on a 100 mg dose in adults. Based on the pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations, a 50 mg dose in adult women provides an approximately similar metoprolol drug exposure to a 100 mg dose in adult men.
Fugitt, Jessica L; Ham, Lindsay S; Bridges, Ana J
Alcohol misuse has historically affected men more than women. However, the differences in drinking behaviors across sex have steadily decreased over time and accumulating research suggests that gender role orientation, or culturally scripted gender-specific characteristics, and negative reinforcement drinking motives may better explain risk for alcohol use and related problems than sex. The current study tested a mediational model of the undifferentiated orientation (low masculinity and low femininity), an oft neglected orientation despite evidence that it could carry much weight in drinking behaviors, versus the other three gender role orientations, coping and conformity drinking motives, and hazardous alcohol use. Participants were 426 current drinkers over age 21 (41% men; 77.8% Caucasian; M age = 34.5, range = 21-73) residing across the United States who completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that individuals with an undifferentiated orientation (n = 99), compared to masculine (high masculinity, low femininity; n = 102), feminine (high femininity, low masculinity; n = 113), or androgynous (high masculinity, high femininity; n = 112) orientations, reported higher coping drinking motives, which were positively associated with levels of hazardous alcohol use. Although analyses suggested that undifferentiated individuals reported drinking for conformity motives more often than masculine and androgynous individuals, conformity motives were not associated with increased use. Conclusions/Importance: An undifferentiated gender role orientation may contribute a unique risk for alcohol use and related problems by increasing frequency of drinking to cope, a motive specifically associated with hazardous use trajectories.
Freudberg, Halima; Contractor, Sana; Das, Abhijit; Kemp, Christopher G; Nevin, Paul E; Phadiyal, Ashima; Lal, Jagdish; Rao, Deepa
This paper reports on the results of a process and impact evaluation to assess the effects of a project aiming to engage men in changing gender stereotypes and improving health outcomes for women in villages in Rajasthan, India. We conducted seven focus group discussions with participants in the programme and six in-depth interviews with intervention group leaders. We also conducted 137 pre- and 70 post-intervention surveys to assess participant and community knowledge, attitudes and behaviours surrounding gender, violence and sexuality. We used thematic analysis to identify process and impact themes, and hierarchical mixed linear regression for the primary outcome analysis of survey responses. Post-intervention, significant changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding gender, sexuality and violence were made on the individual level by participants, as well as in the community. Moderate behavioural changes were seen in individuals and in the community. Study findings offer a strong model for prevention programmes working with young men to create a community effect in encouraging gender equality in social norms.
Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.
Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by…
Jun 6, 2016 ... Download the Gender, Livestock and Asset Ownership brief (PDF, 726 KB, available in English only). This document summarizes findings presented in the book “Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets: Bridging the Gender Gap in Eastern and Southern Africa” produced by the International Livestock ...
There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing differences, but also impact the way men and women define themselves and are treated by others. This article reviews evidence on the nature and content of gender stereotypes and considers how these relate to gender differences in important life outcomes. Empirical studies show that gender stereotypes affect the way people attend to, interpret, and remember information about themselves and others. Considering the cognitive and motivational functions of gender stereotypes helps us understand their impact on implicit beliefs and communications about men and women. Knowledge of the literature on this subject can benefit the fair judgment of individuals in situations where gender stereotypes are likely to play a role.
Garawi, F; Devries, K; Thorogood, N; Uauy, R
In most populations the prevalence of obesity is greater in women than in men; however, the magnitude of the difference between the sexes varies significantly by country. We considered the role of gender inequality in explaining these disparities. We undertook an ecological analysis of internationally comparable obesity prevalence data to examine the association between indicators of gender inequality and the differences between men and women in obesity prevalence. Gender inequality was assessed using three measures: the Gender Inequality Index, the Global Gender Gap Index and the Social Institutions and Gender Index. We fitted multiple regression models to examine the association. We found that the prevalence of obesity across countries shows gendered patterning with greater prevalence and greater heterogeneity in women than in men (P<0.001). We also found that two of three measures of gender inequality were significantly associated with the sex differences in obesity prevalence across countries. The patterning of obesity across countries is gendered. However, the association between global measures of gender inequality and the sex gap in obesity is dependent on the measure used. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms that underpin the gendered nature of obesity prevalence.
This paper critically interrogates and re-evaluates the notion that it is somehow difficult being a man in nursing and suggests some ways forward which will allow us to gain a more politically astute purchase on gender, nursing and the socio-political context in which the profession operates. Men appear to be well served by a career in nursing. Despite their lesser numbers they are likely to earn more and be promoted into leadership roles more readily. Yet there is a pervasive sense in the literature on men in nursing that they feel unhappy as a minority in a predominantly female occupation and feel a disjuncture between masculine identity and the nursing role. The genealogy of this idea can be traced to a more extensive literature in the 'men's movement', in sex role theory and masculinity studies which has tended to focus on the putative hurts that men suffer as they are socialized into the male role. This is itself informed by experiences and discourses from therapy, and privileges these kinds of experiences over and above more sober consideration of the respective powers of men and women and the sociopolitical context of the profession. This 'poor me' discourse deflects attention away from the business of tackling material inequalities and enables men to encroach further into the agenda of nursing discussions. Instead, a view of men and women in nursing is proposed which is attentive to the historical and political operations of power and which sees subjective experiences as the effects of power rather than as a starting point for analysis. We must place individual experience coherently and exhaustively in the material environment of social space and time. It is in this way that we can genuinely advance the interest of men and women and build an effective profile for the profession as a whole.
Fleming, Paul J.; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary
This paper examines men’s lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men’s support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming. PMID:25734544
Patrick S Sullivan
Full Text Available The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men have puzzled researchers for decades. Understanding reasons for these disparities requires looking beyond individual-level behavioral risk to a more comprehensive framework.From July 2010-December 2012, 803 men (454 black, 349 white were recruited through venue-based and online sampling; consenting men were provided HIV and STI testing, completed a behavioral survey and a sex partner inventory, and provided place of residence for geocoding. HIV prevalence was higher among black (43% versus white (13% MSM (prevalence ratio (PR 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.5-4.4. Among HIV-positive men, the median CD4 count was significantly lower for black (490 cells/µL than white (577 cells/µL MSM; there was no difference in the HIV RNA viral load by race. Black men were younger, more likely to be bisexual and unemployed, had less educational attainment, and reported fewer male sex partners, fewer unprotected anal sex partners, and less non-injection drug use. Black MSM were significantly more likely than white MSM to have rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea, were more likely to have racially concordant partnerships, more likely to have casual (one-time partners, and less likely to discuss serostatus with partners. The census tracts where black MSM lived had higher rates of poverty and unemployment, and lower median income. They also had lower proportions of male-male households, lower male to female sex ratios, and lower HIV diagnosis rates.Among black and white MSM in Atlanta, disparities in HIV and STI prevalence by race are comparable to those observed nationally. We identified differences between black and white MSM at the individual, dyadic/sexual network, and community levels. The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV prevalence in Atlanta are complex, and will likely require a multilevel framework to understand comprehensively.
Full Text Available An array of empirical research has emerged related to public participation in health research. To date, few studies have explored the particular perspectives of gay and bisexual men taking part in behavioural surveillance research, which includes the donation of saliva swabs to investigate HIV prevalence and rates of undiagnosed HIV. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-nine gay and bisexual men in Scotland who had participated in a bar-based survey. Thematic analysis of men's accounts of their motives for participation and their perceptions of not receiving individual feedback on HIV status suggested a shared understanding of participation in research as a means of contributing to 'community' efforts to prevent the spread of HIV. Most men expressed sophisticated understandings of the purpose of behavioural research and distinguished between this and individual diagnostic testing. Despite calls for feedback on HIV results broadly, for these men feedback on HIV status was not deemed crucial.
Boydell, Nicola; Fergie, Gillian May; McDaid, Lisa Margaret; Hilton, Shona
An array of empirical research has emerged related to public participation in health research. To date, few studies have explored the particular perspectives of gay and bisexual men taking part in behavioural surveillance research, which includes the donation of saliva swabs to investigate HIV prevalence and rates of undiagnosed HIV. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-nine gay and bisexual men in Scotland who had participated in a bar-based survey. Thematic analysis of men's accounts of their motives for participation and their perceptions of not receiving individual feedback on HIV status suggested a shared understanding of participation in research as a means of contributing to 'community' efforts to prevent the spread of HIV. Most men expressed sophisticated understandings of the purpose of behavioural research and distinguished between this and individual diagnostic testing. Despite calls for feedback on HIV results broadly, for these men feedback on HIV status was not deemed crucial.
Bariola, Emily; Lyons, Anthony; Leonard, William
Lesbians and gay men are exposed to unique minority stressors. We examined the health implications of one type of distal minority stressor (victimisation) and one type of proximal minority stressor (sexual identity concealment due to anticipated stigma) among lesbians and gay men. Gender-specific health implications were assessed. Data were collected via an online survey involving an Australian sample of 1,470 gay men and 1,264 lesbians. Survey questions assessed demographics, experiences of different forms of sexual identity-related victimisation and sexual identity concealment in a variety of contexts. Health outcomes included self-reported general health, illicit drug use, frequency of alcohol consumption, smoking status, and weight status. Gay men reported higher rates of victimisation and identity concealment than lesbians. Controlling for demographic differences, experiences of victimisation were associated with poorer self-rated health, illicit drug use, and smoking among both gay men and lesbians. In contrast, identity concealment was linked with poorer health outcomes among lesbians only. Our findings offer new insights into the potential antecedents of the health inequalities that have previously been reported for these populations. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.
Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn
This paper tests the hypotheses that overall wage compression and low female supply relative to demand reduce a country's gender pay gap. Using micro-data for 22 countries over the 1985-94 period, we find that more compressed male wage structures and lower female net supply are both associated with a lower gender pay gap. Since it is likely that labor market institutions are responsible for an important portion of international differences in wage inequality, the inverse relationship between ...
Dawson, Samantha J.; Chivers, Meredith L.
Research across groups and methods consistently finds a gender difference in patterns of specificity of genital response; however, empirically supported mechanisms to explain this difference are lacking. The information-processing model of sexual arousal posits that automatic and controlled cognitive processes are requisite for the generation of sexual responses. Androphilic women’s gender-nonspecific response patterns may be the result of sexually-relevant cues that are common to both preferred and nonpreferred genders capturing attention and initiating an automatic sexual response, whereas men’s attentional system may be biased towards the detection and response to sexually-preferred cues only. In the present study, we used eye tracking to assess visual attention to sexually-preferred and nonpreferred cues in a sample of androphilic women and gynephilic men. Results support predictions from the information-processing model regarding gendered processing of sexual stimuli in men and women. Men’s initial attention patterns were gender-specific, whereas women’s were nonspecific. In contrast, both men and women exhibited gender-specific patterns of controlled attention, although this effect was stronger among men. Finally, measures of attention and self-reported attraction were positively related in both men and women. These findings are discussed in the context of the information-processing model and evolutionary mechanisms that may have evolved to promote gendered attentional systems. PMID:27088358
Samulowitz, Anke; Gremyr, Ida; Eriksson, Erik; Hensing, Gunnel
Despite the large body of research on sex differences in pain, there is a lack of knowledge about the influence of gender in the patient-provider encounter. The purpose of this study was to review literature on gendered norms about men and women with pain and gender bias in the treatment of pain. The second aim was to analyze the results guided by the theoretical concepts of hegemonic masculinity and andronormativity. A literature search of databases was conducted. A total of 77 articles met the inclusion criteria. The included articles were analyzed qualitatively, with an integrative approach. The included studies demonstrated a variety of gendered norms about men's and women's experience and expression of pain, their identity, lifestyle, and coping style. Gender bias in pain treatment was identified, as part of the patient-provider encounter and the professional's treatment decisions. It was discussed how gendered norms are consolidated by hegemonic masculinity and andronormativity. Awareness about gendered norms is important, both in research and clinical practice, in order to counteract gender bias in health care and to support health-care professionals in providing more equitable care that is more capable to meet the need of all patients, men and women.
Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Wong, Sabrina T
Depression, a disorder often thought of as a women's health issue, is underreported in men, and little is known about how heterosexual couples respond when the male partner is depressed. Within the context of men's depression, couples may be challenged to make life adjustments that impact their gender relations. The findings detailed in this article are drawn from an innovative qualitative study of 26 Canadian heterosexual couples (26 men and their 26 women partners) in which the man had a formal diagnosis and/or self-identified as depressed. Participants completed individual, semi structured interviews that focused on exploring how masculinities and femininities intersect to forge particular heterosexual gender relations in the context of men's depression. A social constructionist gender analysis revealed three couple patterns: trading places, business as usual, and edgy tensions. Trading places refers to couples who embodied some atypical masculine and feminine roles to compensate for the men's depression-induced losses (e.g., men as homemakers and women as breadwinners). Women partners in these dyads broke with feminine ideals in how they provided partner support by employing tough love strategies for self-protection and a means of prompting the men's self-management of their depression. Couples involved in business as usual co-constructed men's alignment with masculine workman ideals and women's support of their partner to counter and conceal men's depression induced-deficits. Also described were edgy tensions, where a mismatch of gender expectations fueled resentment and dysfunction that threatened the viability of some relationships. Overall, the limits of women's resilience and care-giving were evident, yet the findings also reveal how men's management of their depression was directly influenced by their partner. Opportunities for couples to assess their relationship dynamics within a broad range of gender relations might support couples' connectedness and
Szameitat, André J; Hamaida, Yasmin; Tulley, Rebecca S; Saylik, Rahmi; Otermans, Pauldy C J
Reports in public media suggest the existence of a stereotype that women are better at multitasking than men. The present online survey aimed at supporting this incidental observation by empirical data. For this, 488 participants from various ethnic backgrounds (US, UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Turkey, and others) filled out a self-developed online-questionnaire. Results showed that overall more than 50% of the participants believed in gender differences in multitasking abilities. Of those who believed in gender differences, a majority of 80% believed that women were better at multitasking. The main reasons for this were believed to be an evolutionary advantage and more multitasking practice in women, mainly due to managing children and household and/or family and job. Findings were consistent across the different countries, thus supporting the existence of a widespread gender stereotype that women are better at multitasking than men. Further questionnaire results provided information about the participants' self-rated own multitasking abilities, and how they conceived multitasking activities such as childcare, phoning while driving, and office work.
André J Szameitat
Full Text Available Reports in public media suggest the existence of a stereotype that women are better at multitasking than men. The present online survey aimed at supporting this incidental observation by empirical data. For this, 488 participants from various ethnic backgrounds (US, UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Turkey, and others filled out a self-developed online-questionnaire. Results showed that overall more than 50% of the participants believed in gender differences in multitasking abilities. Of those who believed in gender differences, a majority of 80% believed that women were better at multitasking. The main reasons for this were believed to be an evolutionary advantage and more multitasking practice in women, mainly due to managing children and household and/or family and job. Findings were consistent across the different countries, thus supporting the existence of a widespread gender stereotype that women are better at multitasking than men. Further questionnaire results provided information about the participants' self-rated own multitasking abilities, and how they conceived multitasking activities such as childcare, phoning while driving, and office work.
Blashill, Aaron J
The current study reviewed relationships between gender roles and (a) eating pathology, (b) body dissatisfaction, and (c) muscle dissatisfaction among men via meta-analysis. Moderators of sexual orientation and type of gender role measure were also investigated. Results revealed the relationship between femininity and eating and body-related variables did not significantly differ from zero. Sexual orientation moderated the relationship between femininity and muscle dissatisfaction (i.e., femininity was negatively related to muscle dissatisfaction for heterosexual but not gay men). Masculinity was negatively associated with eating pathology and body dissatisfaction. Type of masculinity measure moderated the relationship between masculinity and body dissatisfaction (i.e., trait-based measures produced a negative association, multidimensional measures yielded nonsignificant relationships). Type of masculinity measure produced a cross-over interaction when examining muscle dissatisfaction (i.e., trait-based instruments yielded a negative association and multidimensional instruments revealed a positive relationship). Findings highlight the salience of masculinity in men's eating and body concerns. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arias, Ileana; Corso, Phaedra
Differences in prevalence, injury, and utilization of services between female and male victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been noted. However, there are no studies indicating approximate costs of men's IPV victimization. This study explored gender differences in service utilization for physical IPV injuries and average cost per person victimized by an intimate partner of the opposite gender. Significantly more women than men reported physical IPV victimization and related injuries. A greater proportion of women than men reported seeking mental health services and reported more visits on average in response to physical IPV victimization. Women were more likely than men to report using emergency department, inpatient hospital, and physician services, and were more likely than men to take time off from work and from childcare or household duties because of their injuries. The total average per person cost for women experiencing at least one physical IPV victimization was more than twice the average per person cost for men.
Fransen, E.; Plantenga, J.; Vlasblom, J.D.
Despite major improvements in women’s labour market attachment, women still earn considerably less than men. International research shows that the persistence of the gender pay gap may be due to the fact that although the gap in characteristics between men and women is diminishing, changes in the
Withers, Mellissa; Dworkin, Shari L; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Onono, Maricianah; Oyier, Beryl; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Grossman, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J
Gender inequity has been closely linked with unmet need for family planning among women in sub-Saharan Africa but the factors related to male family planning disapproval are not well-understood. This qualitative study explored men's perspectives of gender roles and cultural norms as they pertain to family planning. Twelve small group meetings were held with 106 married men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Shifting gender relations made the definitions of manhood more tenuous than ever. Men's previous identities as sole breadwinners, which gave them significant control over decision-making, were being undermined by women's increasing labour force participation. While many men viewed family planning positively, fears that family planning would lead to more female sexual agency and promiscuity or that male roles would be further jeopardised were widespread and were major deterrents to male family planning approval. By addressing such fears, gender-sensitive programmes could help more men to accept family planning. Increased family planning education for men is needed to dispel misconceptions regarding family planning side-effects. Focusing on the advantages of family planning, namely financial benefits and reduced conflict among couples, could resonate with men. Community leaders, outreach workers and healthcare providers could help shift men's approval of joint decision-making around family size to other reproductive domains, such as family planning use.
Mahalik, James R.; Aldarondo, Etiony; Gilbert-Gokhale, Steven; Shore, Erika
The authors hypothesized that masculine gender role stress would mediate the relationship between insecure attachment and controlling behaviors in a sample of men who batter. To examine this hypothesis, 143 men who were court mandated to attend a batterers' intervention program in a northeastern state completed measures including the Controlling…
Gignac, Monique A M; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Smith, Peter M; Kristman, Vicki; Beaton, Dorcas E; Mustard, Cameron A
Abstract Background With the aging of populations in many countries, workers are expected to remain employed longer but may struggle with the onset of common, chronic conditions like arthritis. To date, few studies have examined workplace policies and practices that could help accommodate individuals with arthritis, and fewer still have used a sex and gender-based approach to explore similarities and differences between women and men. Objectives This study compared the health and work contexts of workers aged ≥50 years to better understand similarities and differences between women and men in accommodation availability, need, use, and unmet needs. Methods A cross-sectional survey of men and women with osteoarthritis (OA), inflammatory arthritis (IA), or both OA and IA was administered online or by telephone and assessed demographics (e.g. age, education), health (e.g. pain, fatigue, workplace activity limitations), work context factors (e.g. job sector, full/part-time work, job control), and workplace accommodations (e.g. health benefits, flexible hours, special equipment/adaptations, modified duties). Sex and gender-based analyses examined similarities and differences between men and women and included descriptive statistics, multivariable multinomial analyses, and nested regression analyses. Results There was a 58.9% response rate and final sample of 463 participants (women, n = 266; men, n = 197; OA = 59.0%; IA/both IA and OA = 23.7%; unsure = 17.3%). Women and men were significantly different in a number of health (e.g. fatigue, health variability, workplace activity limitations) and work context factors (e.g. job sector, part-time work, job stress). However, in other respects, they were similar (e.g. pain, job involving physical demands, size of organization, shift work, union membership, job control). There were no differences between men and women in the availability or use of workplace accommodations. However, women reported significantly more
Sandfort, Theo; Bos, Henny; Knox, Justin; Reddy, Vasu
Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated, and to explore more in-depth how gender nonconformity relates to health. Cook et al. found that feminine men were not more likely to be depressed despite the observation that they were more likely...
Dougherty, Debbie S.
Contributes to scholarship on sexual harassment. Finds that men's "power over" standpoint and the related fear of marginalization clash with women's "power with" standpoint and the related fear of physical harm. Argues that managers and researchers need to understand both standpoints to better understand the dynamics of sexual harassment and how…
Diekman, Amanda B; Steinberg, Mia; Brown, Elizabeth R; Belanger, Aimee L; Clark, Emily K
The goal congruity perspective provides a theoretical framework to understand how motivational processes influence and are influenced by social roles. In particular, we invoke this framework to understand communal goal processes as proximal motivators of decisions to engage in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). STEM fields are not perceived as affording communal opportunities to work with or help others, and understanding these perceived goal affordances can inform knowledge about differences between (a) STEM and other career pathways and (b) women's and men's choices. We review the patterning of gender disparities in STEM that leads to a focus on communal goal congruity (Part I), provide evidence for the foundational logic of the perspective (Part II), and explore the implications for research and policy (Part III). Understanding and transmitting the opportunities for communal goal pursuit within STEM can reap widespread benefits for broadening and deepening participation.
Gaillard, J C; Sanz, Kristinne; Balgos, Benigno C; Dalisay, Soledad Natalia M; Gorman-Murray, Andrew; Smith, Fagalua; Toelupe, Vaito'a
Consideration of gender in the disaster sphere has centred almost exclusively on the vulnerability and capacities of women. This trend stems from a polarised Western understanding of gender as a binary concept of man-woman. Such an approach also mirrors the dominant framing of disasters and disaster risk reduction (DRR), emphasising Western standards and practices to the detriment of local, non-Western identities and experiences. This paper argues that the man-woman dichotomy is an insufficient construct with which to address the gendered dimensions of a disaster as it fails to capture the realities of diverse gender minorities in non-Western contexts. The paper presents case studies from the Philippines, Indonesia, and Samoa, where gender minorities display specific patterns of vulnerability associated with their marginal positions in society, yet, importantly, also possess a wide array of endogenous capacities. Recognition of these differences, needs, skills, and unique resources is essential to moving towards inclusive and gender-sensitive DRR. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.
Smith, David R M; Dolk, F Christiaan K; Smieszek, Timo; Robotham, Julie V; Pouwels, Koen B
OBJECTIVES: To explore the causes of the gender gap in antibiotic prescribing, and to determine whether women are more likely than men to receive an antibiotic prescription per consultation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of routinely collected electronic medical records from The Health
Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Shetty, Shivan; Baker, Elizabeth A; Elder, Keith; Griffith, Derek M
Over the past two decades, there has been growing interest in improving black men's health and the health disparities affecting them. Yet, the health of black men consistently ranks lowest across nearly all groups in the United States. Evidence on the health and social causes of morbidity and mortality among black men has been narrowly concentrated on public health problems (e.g., violence, prostate cancer, and HIV/AIDS) and determinants of health (e.g., education and male gender socialization). This limited focus omits age-specific leading causes of death and other social determinants of health, such as discrimination, segregation, access to health care, employment, and income. This review discusses the leading causes of death for black men and the associated risk factors, as well as identifies gaps in the literature and presents a racialized and gendered framework to guide efforts to address the persistent inequities in health affecting black men.
Torres, Virgilio Mariano Salazar; Goicolea, Isabel; Edin, Kerstin; Ohman, Ann
Traditional forms of masculinity strongly influence men's and women's wellbeing. This study has two aims: (i) to explore notions of various forms of masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in programs addressing sexual health, reproductive health, and/or gender equality and (ii) to find out how these young men perceive their involvement in actions aimed at reducing violence against women (VAW). A qualitative grounded theory study. Data were collected through six focus groups and two in-depth interviews with altogether 62 young men. Our analysis showed that the informants experienced a process of change, labeled 'Expanding your mind', in which we identified four interrelated subcategories: The apprentice, The responsible/respectful man, The proactive peer educator, and 'The feminist man'. The process showed how an increased awareness of gender inequities facilitated the emergence of values (respect and responsibility) and behavior (thoughtful action) that contributed to increase the informant's critical thinking and agency at individual, social, and political levels. The process was influenced by individual and external factors. Multiple progressive masculinities can emerge from programs challenging patriarchy in this Latin American setting. The masculinities identified in this study show a range of attitudes and behaviors; however, all lean toward more equitable gender relations. The results suggest that learning about sexual and reproductive health does not directly imply developing more gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors or a greater willingness to prevent VAW. It is paramount that interventions to challenge machismo in this setting continue and are expanded to reach more young men.
Zmyj, Norbert; Bischof-Köhler, Doris
What is the developmental course of children's gender constancy? Do other cognitive abilities such as time comprehension and false-belief understanding foster gender constancy and the subcomponents gender stability and gender consistency? We examined the development of gender constancy and its relation to time comprehension and false-belief…
Bauermeister, José A; Connochie, Daniel; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Meanley, Steven
Hegemonic masculinities (i.e., sets of socially accepted masculine behaviors and beliefs within a given time and culture) may affect the well-being of sexual minority men, yet quantitative relationships between these masculinities and well-being remain largely unexplored. Using data from a national cross-sectional survey of young sexual minority men ( N = 1,484; ages 18-24 years), the current study examined the relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and subsequent substance use and psychological distress. Over one third of the sample (37.8%) reported their parent(s) or the person(s) who raised them had policed their gender, including the use of disciplinary actions. Using multivariable regression, this study examined the relationship between parental gender policing and psychological well-being and substance use, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and current student status. Gender policing during childhood and adolescence was associated with recent substance use behaviors and psychological distress in multivariable models. A linear association between substance use behaviors and psychological distress and the number of disciplinary actions experienced during childhood and adolescence was also observed. Parents' attempts to police their sons' gender expression were associated with markers of distress among young sexual minority men. The relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and distress among young sexual minority men are discussed.
MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Smith, Sarah; Wyke, Sally
Men are often portrayed - in research studies, 'common-sense' accounts and popular media - as reluctant users of health services. They are said to avoid going to the GP whenever possible, while women are portrayed, in presumed opposition, as consulting more readily, more frequently and with less serious complaints. Such stereotypes may inadvertently encourage doctors to pay greater heed to men's symptoms in 'routine' consultations. Although previous research has challenged this view with evidence, and suggested that links between gender identities and help-seeking are complex and fluid, gender comparative studies remain uncommon, and particularly few studies (either qualitative or quantitative) compare men and women with similar morbidity. We contribute here to gender comparative research on help-seeking by investigating men's and women's accounts of responding to symptoms later diagnosed as lung cancer. A secondary analysis of qualitative interviews with 27 men and 18 women attending Scottish cancer centres revealed striking similarities between men's and women's accounts. Participants were seen as negotiating a complex and delicate balance in constructing their moral integrity as, on the one hand, responsible service users who were conscious of the demands on health care professionals' time, and as patients who did not take undue risks with their health, in the context of an illness for which people are often held culpable, on the other. In accounting for their responses to symptoms, men and women drew equally on culturally-embedded moral frameworks of stoicism and responsible service use. Regardless of gender, the accounts portrayed participants as stoic in response to illness and responsible service users; and as people seeking explanations for bodily changes and taking appropriate and timely action. Our analysis challenges simplistic, 'common-sense' views of gendered help-seeking and highlights that both men and women need support to consult their doctor for
Full Text Available This paper examines the reaction of the man when he sees he is losing power and authority over a woman and it relation with men’s sexist ideology. 83 men participated in the study and were led to believe they were interacting via computer with a woman, and answered a decision-making task about family relationships. All of them were assigned the role of someone with authority and power. In half the cases, the woman accepted the man's decisions, and, in the other half, she did not accept. The results showed that when woman did not accept the decisions of the man, she was perceived more negatively. Moreover, the more hostile sexist participants were, the more they rated negatively their female partner, especially when the woman did not accept their decisions. Hostile sexism acts as a corrective tool against those women who defy the traditionally higher status accorded to men. The valuation that woman receive in their interaction with man is determined by what man feel threatened. These results are of great interest in the field of gender violence, since it is one more step towards explaining why some men use violence to attempt to regain their threatened or lost power.
Full Text Available Programmes involving men convicted of intimate partner violence are subject to a wide range of discussions these days. There are numerous international debates regarding programmes aimed at men convicted of intimate partner violence. Some of the most controversial issues are: a intervention approaches, b the possibility of performing specific treatments according to the offender's characteristics, or c the need to take account of external factors such as institutional coordination or the specifics of the therapeutical process (context, therapeutical alliance, motivation of the convict, and the therapist. The aim of this article is to review the main themes that are the focus of this international debate and weigh their impact on the research and the principal programmes that exist in Spain for men convicted of gender violence. The conclusions show that research in Spain is gradually incorporating the topics identified internationally such as the efficacy of programmes in different contexts, the existence of typologies, motivational aspects, analysis of dropouts, risk factors, cultural aspects, or offenders' addictions problems. Nevertheless, it appears necessary to more closely align the programmes with the characteristics of the aggressor.
Gándara, Fernanda; Silva, Monica
This study seeks to develop a better understanding of the underrepresentation of women in science and engineering by analyzing the gender gaps (a) in the interest in pursuing a science degree and (b) on science achievement. We use national-level college admissions data to examine gender differences and to explore the association between these…
Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii
Assisting transgender individuals is a concern for career development practitioners because there is a lack of knowledge on this topic. The complexity of gender reassignment surgery brings challenges and unique needs to this population, throughout gender transition, and requires career development practitioners to understand these challenges and…
Passalacqua, Sue; Cervantes, Joseph M.
This article examines roles that gender, culture, and spirituality play in elements of therapeutic process. It presents an initial literature review of gender, culture, and spirituality as these factors relate to shaping identities and defining one's behavior. Discussions on how these 3 dimensions influence the level of understanding and effective…
Stromquist, Nelly P.
Under the research radar, and yet highly influential in transformation of practices concerning the social understanding and enactment of gender, are women-led non-governmental organizations (WNGOs). Their continued efforts to reconfigure gender identities and their impact on public policy formation have expanded notions of citizenship and…
Jan 29, 2018 ... Unless these questions are addressed early on, people's experiences with ... Understanding how a person's gender, age, and class can influence ... It also promoted greater equity among workers in primary health centres ...
Terzioglu, Fusun; Kok, Gulsah; Guvenc, Gulten; Ozdemir, Funda; Gonenc, Ilknur Munevver; Hicyilmaz, Basak Demirtas; Sezer, Neslihan Yılmaz
This descriptive study was aimed to evaluate the attitudes of the engaged men and women who are of legal age to marry towards gender roles and acceptance of couple violence, and determine their sexual/reproductive health education needs. It was conducted in two marriage registry offices in Ankara, Turkey. The study sample consisted of 740 participants. Data were collected by using semi-structured form, Gender Roles Attitude Scale and Acceptance of Couple Violence Scale. It was found that the engaged couples had educational needs concerning sexual/reproductive health; socio-demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education, residence, and income level created significant differences in the attitudes related to accepting gender roles and violence; and having an egalitarian attitude towards gender roles decreased the rate of accepting violence between the couples. Results indicate that premarital counseling is a promising strategy to support engaged couples' sexual/reproductive health needs, and increase their awareness about gender based couple violence in communities.
Bryant-Bedell, Keneshia; Waite, Roberta
This paper is a report of a study of how a cohort of African American men recognized and expressed symptoms of depression, and how depression affected their lives. Major depressive disorder has had global financial consequences in the form of healthcare visits, lost work hours, and disruption of family lives. Early recognition of depression and engagement of depressed individuals to promote management and treatment of this disorder is crucial in controlling its impact. African American men are often not included in research exploring factors that limit their engagement in mental health care. A descriptive qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted in 2008 with ten African American men between the ages of 40 and 59 years. All participants self-reported a history of depression. Three central themes were identified: life events, the funk, and the breakdown. Life events were identified as stressors which led the men to experience what they described as the funk, which was later identified as depression. Due to lack of resolution of the funk, a breakdown was experienced. Over time study participants became informed about their condition, and their responses to managing depression varied depending on individual and contextual factors. It is important to approach depression diagnoses from a broad perspective rather than as a limited list of symptoms. Healthcare providers would benefit from taking into account cultural factors, gender and age, examining them carefully in relation to the development of depressive symptoms.
Fleming, Paul J; Silverman, Jay; Ghule, Mohan; Ritter, Julie; Battala, Madhusudana; Velhal, Gajanan; Nair, Saritha; Dasgupta, Anindita; Donta, Balaiah; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita
We assess the effect of CHARM, a gender equity and family planning counseling intervention for husbands in rural India, on men's gender ideology. We used a two-armed cluster randomized control trial design and collected survey data from husbands (n=1081) at baseline, 9 months, and 18 months. We used a continuous measure of support for gender equity and a dichotomous measure of equitable attitudes toward women's role in household decision-making. To assess differences on these outcomes, we used generalized linear mixed models. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, men who received the CHARM intervention were significantly more likely than men in the control group to have equitable attitudes toward household decision-making at 9-months follow-up; there was a non-significant difference between the groups for the measure of support for gender equity. For household decision-making, differences were not sustained at 18-months follow-up. Given the role of husbands' gender ideology in women's contraceptive use, the CHARM intervention represents a promising approach for challenging root causes of women's unmet need for contraception. © 2018 The Population Council, Inc.
Jobson, Geoffrey; Tucker, Andrew; de Swardt, Glenn; Rebe, Kevin; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James; Peters, Remco
Gender identity plays a potentially important role contributing to HIV risk among MSM in South Africa. Where studies have included a focus on gender identity, MSM reporting gender non-conformity have been found to have a higher risk of being HIV positive than other MSM. This article examines HIV risk among gender non-conforming MSM in a sample of 316 MSM in Cape Town, South Africa. Reporting gender non-conformity was associated with higher HIV prevalence and increased HIV risk behaviour. Gender non-conformity was also associated with a higher likelihood of being unemployed and reporting low household incomes. These findings highlight the importance of gender-identity as a factor affecting access to HIV treatment, care, and prevention in South Africa and this is an issue that needs to be addressed in interventions targeting MSM populations.
Mulawa, Marta I; Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Halpern, Carolyn T; Martin, Sandra L; Kajula, Lusajo J; Maman, Suzanne
Male perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in sub-Saharan Africa is widespread. Theory and empirical evidence suggest peer networks may play an important role in shaping IPV perpetration, though research on this topic in the region is limited. We assessed the degree to which peer network gender norms are associated with Tanzanian men's perpetration of IPV and examined whether the social cohesion of peer networks moderates this relationship. Using baseline data from sexually active men (n = 1103) nested within 59 peer networks enrolled in an on-going cluster-randomized HIV and IPV prevention trial, we fit multilevel logistic regression models to examine peer network-level factors associated with past-year physical IPV perpetration. Peer network gender norms were significantly associated with men's risk of perpetrating IPV, even after adjusting for their own attitudes toward gender roles (OR = 1.53 , p = . 04). Peer network social cohesion moderated this relationship (OR = 1.50 , p = . 04); the positive relationship between increasingly inequitable (i.e., traditional) peer network gender norms and men's risk of perpetrating IPV became stronger, as peer network social cohesion increased. Characteristics of the peer network context are associated with men's IPV perpetration and should be targeted in future interventions. While many IPV prevention interventions focus on changing individual attitudes, our findings support a unique approach, focused on transforming the peer context.
Dewaele, Alexis; Van Houtte, Mieke; Vincke, John
The role of visibility management strategies, as an extended measure of outness related to sexual orientation, has been rarely studied with the aim of explaining the experience of external stressors (i.e., experiences of everyday discrimination and perceived sanctioning of cross-gender behavior) and internal stressors (i.e., internalized homonegativity and general mental distress). In this study, we examined gender differences within these relationships. A non-representative sample of 2,378 lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals was recruited. We found that lesbian and bisexual women scored significantly higher on perceived cross-gender sanctioning and general mental distress compared to gay and bisexual men. Multivariate analysis showed that visibility management was significantly related to the experience of internalized homonegativity in both men and women. Visibility management mediated the relationship between experiences of every day discrimination on the one hand and internalized homonegativity and general mental distress on the other. Finally, we found that compared to gay and bisexual men, lesbian and bisexual women who maintained relatively closed visibility management strategies, reported lower scores on internalized homonegativity but higher scores on general mental distress. We found fewer gender differences related to visibility management than expected and those that we did find were relatively small. Flemish lesbian and bisexual women and gay and bisexual men appear to more alike than different.
Zuzana Machová; Lenka Filipová
This paper was written as a part of a research project studying problem of wage determinant measuring and wage discrimination considering different wage requirements of men and women. The wage determinants and gender wage discrimination are analyzed using a probit model. The whole analysis is methodologically based on Mincerâ€™s Wage Regression and Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of gender wage gap. The wage variables include, aside from standard personal characteristics, dummies for institution...
pdf. 191 David F. Burrelli, Women in the Armed Forces (CRS Report No. 92008) ( Washington , DC: Congressional Research Service, 1998), 1, https...IB92008) Washington , DC: Congressional Research Service, 1998. https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=718051. Carreiras, Helena. Gender and the Military: Women ...GENDER INTEGRATION IN THE CAREER FIRE SERVICES: A COMPARATIVE CASE STUDY OF MEN IN NURSING by Anna L. Schermerhorn-Collins March 2017
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A.; Monks, D. Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P.
Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Further...
Fransen , Eva; Plantenga , Janneke; Vlasblom , Jan Dirk
Abstract Despite major improvements in women?s labour market attachment, women still earn considerably less than men. International research shows that the persistence of the gender pay gap may be due to the fact that although the gap in characteristics between men and women is diminishing, changes in the wage structure counteract this change. This article will study whether this `swimming upstream? phenomenon is also playing a role in the rather slow convergence between male and f...
Wells, Jonathan C K; Marphatia, Akanksha A; Cole, Tim J; McCoy, David
Obesity is widely assumed to be associated with economic affluence; it has therefore been assumed to become more common with economic development. However, obesity has also been associated with poverty. These contrary findings highlight the need for an examination of the contribution of social and economic factors to the global distribution of obesity. Males and females may be differently exposed to social and economic inequality, however few studies have considered possible gender differences in the association between socio-economic indices and obesity prevalence. We analysed between-country associations between obesity prevalence and three social or economic indices: per capita gross domestic product (GDP), the Gini index of national wealth inequality, and the gender inequality index (GII). We considered the genders separately, the gender average, and also the gender difference (female excess) in obesity prevalence. Across 68 countries listing sample size, there were 3 obese women for every 2 obese men. Within populations, obesity prevalence in males and females was strongly correlated (r = 0.74), however, only 17% of the female excess prevalence was accounted for by the gender-average prevalence. In both genders, there was a positive association between obesity prevalence and GDP that attenuated at higher GDP levels, with this association weaker in females than males. Adjusting for GDP, both the Gini index and GII were associated with excess female obesity. These analyses highlight significant gender differences in the global distribution of obesity, and a gender difference in the association of obesity prevalence with socio-economic factors. The magnitude of female excess obesity is not constant across populations, and is greater in countries characterised by gender inequality and lower GDP. These findings indicate that improving women's status may be a key area for addressing the global obesity epidemic over the long term, with potential benefits for the
Hoffmann, Holger; Kessler, Henrik; Eppel, Tobias; Rukavina, Stefanie; Traue, Harald C
Two experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect of expression intensity on gender differences in the recognition of facial emotions. The first experiment compared recognition accuracy between female and male participants when emotional faces were shown with full-blown (100% emotional content) or subtle expressiveness (50%). In a second experiment more finely grained analyses were applied in order to measure recognition accuracy as a function of expression intensity (40%-100%). The results show that although women were more accurate than men in recognizing subtle facial displays of emotion, there was no difference between male and female participants when recognizing highly expressive stimuli. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The study aimed to establish females and males primary teachers' understanding of classroom discipline, the strategies that they apply in dealing with misbehaviour and their knowledge and awareness of discipline models. The study applied a mixed method approach, the dominant less dominant format. Both females and ...
... A A A Listen En Español Men Historically, men have not been comfortable discussing issues about their health, particularly conditions like diabetes, depression or sexual dysfunction. This has resulted in shorter ...
Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Ferreira do; Uziel, Anna Paula; Hernández, Jimena de Garay
This article presents results for young men's health based on an intervention-study on gender, sexuality, and health of adolescents and young men in conflict with the law, deprived of their freedom, and subject to socio-educational confinement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The themes addressed included questions on overall health, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health, analyzed from a relational gender perspective and social construction of masculinities. The majority of these young men are black, from low-income communities, with low schooling levels, and ranging in age from 14 to 21 years of age; some of them are fathers. The study showed that these young men have been exposed to police and social violence from a very early age and have been deprived of their freedom due to involvement with the drug traffic, homicides, or episodes of sexual violence. The male and female health professionals that work with them report that the most common health problems are skin conditions, mental disorders, and sexually transmissible infections. Male chauvinism and rigid notions of gender and sexuality are important factors in the views of these young men on health (especially sexual and reproductive). Their discourse takes violence and paternity for granted as important signs in the public demonstration of masculinity. There is an urgent need to include discussions on gender and sexuality in health professionals' training and activities with these young men. It is also necessary to call attention to the strong influence of gender concepts, social group, and sexual orientation in practices, interpersonal relations, and health promotion.
Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.
This study examined masculine gender role stress (MGRS) as a mediator of the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and hostility toward women (HTW). Among a sample of 338 heterosexual men, results indicated that MGRS mediated the relation between adherence to the status and antifemininity norms, but not the toughness norm, and HTW. Adherence to the toughness norm maintained a positive association with HTW. These findings suggest that men's HTW develops via multiple pathways that are associated with different norms of hegemonic masculinity. Implications for the prediction of men's aggression against women are discussed. PMID:21531691
Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J
This study examined masculine gender role stress (MGRS) as a mediator of the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and hostility toward women (HTW). Among a sample of 338 heterosexual men, results indicated that MGRS mediated the relation between adherence to the status and antifemininity norms, but not the toughness norm, and HTW. Adherence to the toughness norm maintained a positive association with HTW. These findings suggest that men's HTW develops via multiple pathways that are associated with different norms of hegemonic masculinity. Implications for the prediction of men's aggression against women are discussed.
Hines, Melissa; Brook, Charles; Conway, Gerard S
We assessed core gender identity, sexual orientation, and recalled childhood gender role behavior in 16 women and 9 men with CAH and in 15 unaffected female and 10 unaffected male relatives, all between the ages of 18 and 44 years. Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) recalled significantly more male-typical play behavior as children than did unaffected women, whereas men with and without CAH did not differ. Women with CAH also reported significantly less satisfaction with the female sex of assignment and less heterosexual interest than did unaffected women. Again, men with CAH did not differ significantly from unaffected men in these respects. Our results for women with CAH are consistent with numerous prior reports indicating that girls with CAH show increased male-typical play behavior. They also support the hypotheses that these women show reduced heterosexual interest and reduced satisfaction with the female sex of assignment. Our results for males are consistent with most prior reports that boys with CAH do not show a general alteration in childhood play behavior. In addition, they provide initial evidence that core gender identity and sexual orientation are unaffected in men with CAH. Finally, among women with CAH, we found that recalled male-typical play in childhood correlated with reduced satisfaction with the female gender and reduced heterosexual interest in adulthood. Although prospective studies are needed, these results suggest that those girls with CAH who show the greatest alterations in childhood play behavior may be the most likely to develop a bisexual or homosexual orientation as adults and to be dissatisfied with the female sex of assignment.
Torres, Virgilio Mariano Salazar; Goicolea, Isabel; Edin, Kerstin; Öhman, Ann
Background Traditional forms of masculinity strongly influence men's and women's wellbeing. Objective This study has two aims: (i) to explore notions of various forms of masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in programs addressing sexual health, reproductive health, and/or gender equality and (ii) to find out how these young men perceive their involvement in actions aimed at reducing violence against women (VAW). Design A qualitative grounded theory study. Data were collected through six focus groups and two in-depth interviews with altogether 62 young men. Results Our analysis showed that the informants experienced a process of change, labeled ‘Expanding your mind’, in which we identified four interrelated subcategories: The apprentice, The responsible/respectful man, The proactive peer educator, and ‘The feminist man’. The process showed how an increased awareness of gender inequities facilitated the emergence of values (respect and responsibility) and behavior (thoughtful action) that contributed to increase the informant's critical thinking and agency at individual, social, and political levels. The process was influenced by individual and external factors. Conclusions Multiple progressive masculinities can emerge from programs challenging patriarchy in this Latin American setting. The masculinities identified in this study show a range of attitudes and behaviors; however, all lean toward more equitable gender relations. The results suggest that learning about sexual and reproductive health does not directly imply developing more gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors or a greater willingness to prevent VAW. It is paramount that interventions to challenge machismo in this setting continue and are expanded to reach more young men. PMID:22870066
Virgilio Mariano Salazar Torres
Full Text Available Background: Traditional forms of masculinity strongly influence men's and women's wellbeing. Objective: This study has two aims: (i to explore notions of various forms of masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in programs addressing sexual health, reproductive health, and/or gender equality and (ii to find out how these young men perceive their involvement in actions aimed at reducing violence against women (VAW. Design: A qualitative grounded theory study. Data were collected through six focus groups and two in-depth interviews with altogether 62 young men. Results: Our analysis showed that the informants experienced a process of change, labeled ‘Expanding your mind’, in which we identified four interrelated subcategories: The apprentice, The responsible/respectful man, The proactive peer educator, and ‘The feminist man’. The process showed how an increased awareness of gender inequities facilitated the emergence of values (respect and responsibility and behavior (thoughtful action that contributed to increase the informant's critical thinking and agency at individual, social, and political levels. The process was influenced by individual and external factors. Conclusions: Multiple progressive masculinities can emerge from programs challenging patriarchy in this Latin American setting. The masculinities identified in this study show a range of attitudes and behaviors; however, all lean toward more equitable gender relations. The results suggest that learning about sexual and reproductive health does not directly imply developing more gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors or a greater willingness to prevent VAW. It is paramount that interventions to challenge machismo in this setting continue and are expanded to reach more young men.
Büning-Fesel, Margareta; Rückert-John, Jana
There are nutritional differences between the sexes: eating behavior in men is often rated as "unhealthy" compared with that in women. Nutrition in men and women is rather more of an expression of social gender roles and expectations than biologically determined. Meat and alcohol, for instance, are regarded as "powerful" foods and thus have masculine connotations. Fruit and vegetables, on the other hand, are considered "weak" and therefore feminine foods. This overlooks the fact that a "typically" female diet is often oriented toward attractiveness and is associated with restricted eating behavior. The so-called "healthier" nutrition of women is also accompanied by greater nutritional knowledge and competence. However, it needs to be questioned whether male family or household members are absolved from responsibility for their own health or whether they are happy to leave this to women because of the socially perceived feminine responsibility for all aspects of nutrition, sustenance and care-giving. The advanced knowledge and competence of women in questions of healthy eating and food preparation compared with men often act as an obstacle to men engaging and actively participating in nutritional issues.Emphasizing the observed gender differences is not expedient in terms of effective communication on nutrition and health and can run the risk of reproducing gender stereotypes and neglecting other more powerful social categories. Alternative strategies consist of focusing more on the "eating person" and following a gender-neutral communication and counseling strategy.
Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse
The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…
Tinkler, Justine Eatenson; Li, Yan E.; Mollborn, Stefanie
In spite of the relative success of equal opportunity laws on women's status in the workplace, we know little about the influence of such legal interventions on people's attitudes and beliefs. This paper focuses, in particular, on how sexual harassment policy affects men's beliefs about the gender hierarchy. We employ an experimental design in…
Backhans, Mona C; Lundberg, Michael; Månsdotter, Anna
This study examines associations between indicators of gender equality and public health. We compare Swedish municipalities on nine indicators in both the private and public sphere, and an additive index, and study the correlations with indicators of morbidity and mortality. The hypothesis that a higher level of gender equality is associated with a convergence of health outcomes (life expectancy, sickness absence) between men and women was supported for equality of part-time employment, managerial positions and economic resources for morbidity, and for temporary parental leave for mortality. Our main finding is that gender equality was generally correlated with poorer health for both men and women. Our conclusions are tentative due to the methodological uncertainties. However, the results suggest an unfortunate trade-off between gender equality as we know it and public health. Sweden may have reached a critical point where further one-sided expansion by women into traditionally male roles, spheres and activities will not lead to positive health effects unless men also significantly alter their behaviour. Negative effects of this unfinished equality might be found both for women, who have become more burdened, and men, who as a group have lost many of their old privileges. We propose that this contention be confronted and discussed by policymakers, researchers and others. Further studies are also needed to corroborate or dispute these findings.
With every Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders that has been published, there has been controversy within controversy; however, what appears to be lacking is the importance of truly understanding what, why, and how the changes impact the community at large. Issues such as homosexuality, the five axial diagnostic system, and transitioning from a medical model to a biopsychosocial model have been hot topics that have led clinicians to challenge the reliability and validity of the manual throughout history. As clinicians and medical professionals, it is important to objectively look at the manual and become educated on how and why these changes exist. With that being said, this commentary aims to challenge the article " Problems with the Sexual Disorders Sections of DSM-5" by Colin A. Ross (2015). The structure of this commentary purposefully mirrors the structure of the commentary that it is challenging.
Sandfort, Theo; Bos, Henny; Knox, Justin; Reddy, Vasu
Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated, and to explore more in-depth how gender nonconformity relates to health. Cook et al. found that feminine men were not more likely to be depressed despite the observation that they were more likely to be discriminated against and that discrimination increased the likelihood of depression. This is in contrast to what studies among gay and bisexual men in Western countries have consistently shown. In the current study, 196 Black South African MSM (ages between 18 and 40; mean age, 26.65 years) were surveyed. Assessments included stressors (identity confusion, internalized homophobia, and sexual orientation-based discrimination) and resilience factors (openness about one’s sexual orientation, social support, and identification with the gay community). We observed that gender-nonconforming men were not more likely to be depressed despite having experienced more discrimination, which was associated with depression. The same relationships were observed when considering anxiety as the mental health outcome. We found an indirect negative effect of gender nonconformity on depression through internalized homophobia, suggesting that, in this population, internalized homophobia masks the effect of discrimination on mental distress. Implications for the sexual minority stress model, used to guide our analyses, are discussed. Further research is needed to entangle the complex relationship between gender nonconformity and mental health among MSM populations. PMID:26067298
Sandfort, Theo; Bos, Henny; Knox, Justin; Reddy, Vasu
Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated, and to explore more in-depth how gender nonconformity relates to health. Cook et al. found that feminine men were not more likely to be depressed despite the observation that they were more likely to be discriminated against and that discrimination increased the likelihood of depression. This is in contrast to what studies among gay and bisexual men in Western countries have consistently shown. In the current study, 196 Black South African MSM (ages between 18 and 40; M age, 26.65 years) were surveyed. Assessments included stressors (identity confusion, internalized homophobia, and sexual orientation-based discrimination) and resilience factors (openness about one's sexual orientation, social support, and identification with the gay community). We observed that gender-nonconforming men were not more likely to be depressed despite having experienced more discrimination, which was associated with depression. The same relationships were observed when considering anxiety as the mental health outcome. We found an indirect negative effect of gender nonconformity on depression through internalized homophobia, suggesting that, in this population, internalized homophobia masks the effect of discrimination on mental distress. Implications for the sexual minority stress model, used to guide our analyses, are discussed. Further research is needed to disentangle the complex relationship between gender nonconformity and mental health among MSM populations.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the Swedish gender equality politics and its influence on the gender equality on the Swedish labour market and within families in period between 1970s and 2000s. Problems such as wage differentials, occupational sex segregation and unequal distribution of paid and unpaid work between the sexes were faced from the beginning of the 20th century up to 1960s. In order to address those issues gender equality politics was launched in 1970s including enacting of the law on separate taxation and law on gender equality. Moreover, a special family politics was launched encouraging men and women to divide childcare and housework equally. On one hand Swedish gender equality politics contributed to the growth of women’s participation in labour market, to minimize wage differentials and it also made sex distribution between the occupations and at the leading positions in companies and institutions more equal. Moreover, this politics led to more equal distribution of unpaid work between men and women at home. On the other hand it must be pointed out that none of these problems has been completely solved. Women’s wages are still generally lower than men’s and women and men tend to work in different sectors. Women still take greater part of parental leave and tend to do the bigger part of unpaid work. Although a significant change in the level of gender equality has been made since 1960s, which can be considered a success of the Swedish gender equality politics, there is still much that needs to be done in order to achieve gender equality both on labour market and in families.
Bingham, Trista A; Harawa, Nina T; Williams, John K
We investigated whether high gender role conflict (GRC; internal conflict with traditional gender-role stereotypes and an individual's perceived need to comply with these roles) is associated with psychological distress and HIV-related risk behaviors in a sample of African American men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). We analyzed baseline data collected from questionnaires completed by 400 MSMW participating in the Men of African American Legacy Empowering Self project in Los Angeles, California, in 2007 to 2010 for associations between participants' GRC and experiences of poor mental health and HIV risk outcomes. MSMW who reported higher levels of GRC than other participants also reported more psychological distress, lower self-esteem, greater internalized homophobia, less HIV knowledge, lower risk reduction skills, less disclosure of same-sex behaviors to others, and more unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse with female partners. Future research should consider how high GRC affects African American MSMW's lives and identify specific approaches to help alleviate the psychological distress and other negative behavioral outcomes associated with internal conflict caused by rigid gender role socialization.
Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.
Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759
Livingston, Beth A; Judge, Timothy A
The present study tested the effect of work-family conflict on emotions and the moderating effects of gender role orientation. On the basis of a multilevel design, the authors found that family-interfering-with- work was positively related to guilt, and gender role orientation interacted with both types of conflict (work-interfering-with-family and family-interfering-with-work) to predict guilt. Specifically, in general, traditional individuals experienced more guilt from family-interfering-with-work, and egalitarian individuals experienced more guilt from work-interfering-with-family. Additionally, a higher level interaction indicated that traditional men tended to experience a stronger relationship between family-interfering-with-work and guilt than did egalitarian men or women of either gender role orientation. 2008 APA
Bunn, Christopher; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Maclean, Alice; Hunt, Kate
In this paper we use a social practice approach to explore men's experience of Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a group-based weight management programme for men that harnesses men's symbolic attachment to professional football clubs to engage them in lifestyle change. FFIT is delivered by community coaches in clubs' stadia and is gender-sensitised in relation to context, content and style of delivery. Using a 'toolkit' of concepts from the work of Bourdieu, Goffman and Durkheim we analysed data from 13 focus group discussions with participants, and fieldwork notes from programme observations to investigate the appeal and success of FFIT, and how it worked to support change. Our analysis builds on our work on the importance of shared symbolic commitment to the football club and being with 'men like me' to understand how the interaction context facilitated 'effervescent' experiences. These experiences encouraged men to make changes to their diet and physical activity, talk about them, practice performing them and implement them in their lives. Thus a social practice approach illuminated the social processes through which lifestyle change was achieved, and we argue that it can deepen and enrich both intervention design and evaluation. © 2016 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.
Madhavan, Sangeetha; Myroniuk, Tyler W; Kuhn, Randall; Collinson, Mark A
Demographers have long been interested in the relationship between living arrangements and gendered outcomes for children in sub-Saharan Africa. Most extant research conflates household structure with composition and has revealed little about the pathways that link these components to gendered outcomes. First, we offer a conceptual approach that differentiates structure from composition with a focus on gendered processes that operate in the household; and second, we demonstrate the value of this approach through an analysis of educational progress for boys and girls in rural South Africa. We use data from the 2002 round of the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Our analytical sample includes 22,997 children aged 6-18 who were neither parents themselves nor lived with a partner or partner's family. We employ ordinary least squares regression models to examine the effects of structure and composition on educational progress of girls and boys. The results suggest that non-nuclear structures are associated with similar negative effects for both boys and girls compared to children growing up in nuclear households. However, the presence of other kin in the absence of one or both parents results in gendered effects favouring boys. The absence of any gendered effects when using a household structure typology suggests that secular changes to attitudes about gender equity trump any specific gendered processes stemming from particular configurations. On the other hand, gendered effects that appear when one or both parents are absent show that traditional gender norms and/or resource constraints continue to favour boys. Despite the wealth of literature on household structure and children's educational outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, the conceptual basis of these effects has not been well articulated. We have shown the value of unpacking household structure to better understand how gender norms and gendered resource allocations impact education.
Full Text Available Background: Demographers have long been interested in the relationship between living arrangements and gendered outcomes for children in sub-Saharan Africa. Most research conflates household structure with composition and has revealed little about the pathways that link these components to gendered outcomes. Objective: We offer a conceptual approach that differentiates structure from composition with a focus on gendered processes that operate in the household in rural South Africa. Methods: We use data from the 2002 round of the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System. Our analytical sample includes 22,997 children aged 6‒18 who were neither parents themselves nor lived with a partner or partner's family. We employ ordinary least squares regression models to examine the effects of structure and composition on educational progress of girls and boys. Results: Non-nuclear structures are associated with similar negative effects for both boys and girls compared to children growing up in nuclear households. However, the presence of other kin in the absence of one or both parents results in gendered effects favouring boys. Conclusions: The absence of any gendered effects when using a household structure typology suggests that secular changes to attitudes about gender equity trump any specific gendered processes stemming from particular configurations. On the other hand, gendered effects that appear when one or both parents are absent show that traditional gender norms and/or resource constraints continue to favour boys. Contribution: We have shown the value of unpacking household structure to better understand how gender norms and gendered resource allocations are linked to an important outcome for children in sub-Saharan Africa.
Marcos Antonio Ferreira do Nascimento
Full Text Available Abstract: This article presents results for young men’s health based on an intervention-study on gender, sexuality, and health of adolescents and young men in conflict with the law, deprived of their freedom, and subject to socio-educational confinement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The themes addressed included questions on overall health, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health, analyzed from a relational gender perspective and social construction of masculinities. The majority of these young men are black, from low-income communities, with low schooling levels, and ranging in age from 14 to 21 years of age; some of them are fathers. The study showed that these young men have been exposed to police and social violence from a very early age and have been deprived of their freedom due to involvement with the drug traffic, homicides, or episodes of sexual violence. The male and female health professionals that work with them report that the most common health problems are skin conditions, mental disorders, and sexually transmissible infections. Male chauvinism and rigid notions of gender and sexuality are important factors in the views of these young men on health (especially sexual and reproductive. Their discourse takes violence and paternity for granted as important signs in the public demonstration of masculinity. There is an urgent need to include discussions on gender and sexuality in health professionals’ training and activities with these young men. It is also necessary to call attention to the strong influence of gender concepts, social group, and sexual orientation in practices, interpersonal relations, and health promotion.
Little is known about the gender-specific mechanisms through which education is associated with weight status in societies that have experienced a rapid rise in their obesity rates. This study extends previous literature by examining how the link between education and weight status operates within the structure of gender relations in South Korea where huge gender differences have been observed in the educational inequalities in weight status. Using the Korean National Health Survey (N = 17,947) conducted in 2008-2012 conditional quantile regression models were estimated to assess the associations between education and body weight distribution. The mean difference in the predicted probabilities of perceiving body image as average was compared by educational attainment for women and men while setting all other covariates at their means. Highly educated women were more likely to utilize their human capital to obtain slender body shape and the relationship was not mediated by economic resources. In contrast, education was positively associated with being overweight and obesity among men, for whom behaviors promoting healthy weight often conflict with a collective ideology at work that strongly supports long work hours and heavy alcohol consumption. Furthermore, Korean men were more likely to under-perceive their body size than Korean women, that is, overweight men tend to consider themselves to be of 'average' weight, regardless of their educational attainment. Current study found that gender inequalities in social status in South Korea operate to affect the relationship between education and weight status among men and women in unique ways. Weight status can be socially patterned by the interplay between education, economic, and behavioral resources within the structure of gender relations.
Kishida, Mariana; Rahman, Qazi
The present study explored whether there were relationships between number of older brothers, handedness, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), and sexual orientation in men. We used data from previous British studies conducted in our laboratory (N = 1,011 heterosexual men and 921 gay men). These men had completed measures of demographic variables, number and sex of siblings, CGN, and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. The results did not replicate the fraternal birth order effect. However, gay men had fewer "other siblings" than heterosexual men (even after controlling for the stopping-rule and family size). In a sub-sample (425 gay men and 478 heterosexual men) with data available on both sibling sex composition and handedness scores, gay men were found to show a significantly greater likelihood of extreme right-handedness and non-right-handedness compared to heterosexual men. There were no significant effects of sibling sex composition in this sub-sample. In a further sub-sample (N = 487) with data available on sibling sex composition, handedness, and CGN, we found that men with feminine scores on CGN were more extremely right-handed and had fewer other-siblings compared to masculine scoring men. Mediation analysis revealed that handedness was associated with sexual orientation directly and also indirectly through the mediating factor of CGN. We were unable to replicate the fraternal birth order effect in our archived dataset but there was evidence for a relationship among handedness, sexual orientation, and CGN. These data help narrow down the number of possible neurodevelopmental pathways leading to variations in male sexual orientation.
Turchik, Jessica A; McLean, Caitlin; Rafie, Samantha; Hoyt, Tim; Rosen, Craig S; Kimerling, Rachel
Research suggests that there may be unique barriers to accessing care among men who have experienced sexual trauma. The primary goal of the current research was to elucidate potential barriers to accessing military sexual trauma (MST)-related care for male veterans. A secondary goal was to explore whether veterans have preferences regarding the gender of clinicians providing MST-related care. Qualitative analyses were used to examine data collected from semistructured interviews conducted with 20 male veterans enrolled in Veterans Health Administration care who reported MST but who had not received any MST-related mental health care. Veterans identified a number of potential barriers, with the majority of reported barriers relating to issues of stigma and gender. Regarding provider gender preferences, veterans were mixed, with 50% preferring a female provider, 25% a male provider, and 25% reporting no gender preference. These preliminary data suggest that stigma, gender, and knowledge-related barriers may exist for men regarding seeking MST-related care. Interventions to address potential barriers, such as outreach interventions and providing gender-specific psychoeducation, may increase access to care for male veterans who report MST. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Kalichman, Seth C; Simbayi, Leickness C; Kaufman, Michelle; Cain, Demetria; Cherry, Chauncey; Jooste, Sean; Mathiti, Vuyisile
This study examined gender attitudes and sexual violence-supportive beliefs (rape myths) in a sample of South African men and women at risk for HIV transmission. Over 40% of women and 16% of men had been sexually assaulted, and more than one in five men openly admitted to having perpetrated sexual assault. Traditional attitudes toward women's social and gender roles, as well as rape myths, were endorsed by a significant minority of both men and women. Multivariate analyses showed that for men, sexual assault history and rape myth acceptance, along with alcohol and other drug use history, were significantly related to cumulative risks for HIV infection. In contrast, although we found that women were at substantial risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI), including HIV, women's risks were only related to lower levels of education and alcohol use history. We speculate that women's risks for STI/HIV are the product of partner characteristics and male-dominated relationships, suggesting the critical importance of intervening with men to reduce women's risks for sexual assault and STI/HIV.
Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F
Theory and research emphasize differences in men's and women's sexual and romantic attitudes, concluding that men have stronger preferences for sexual than romantic stimuli as compared to women. However, most of the research on gender differences have relied on self-reports, which are plagued by problems of social desirability bias. The current study assessed young men's and women's implicit attitudes toward sexual and romantic stimuli to test whether, in fact, men have a stronger preference for sexual over romantic stimuli compared to women. We also assessed associations between implicit and explicit attitudes, as well as sex role ideology and personality. College students (68 men and 114 women) completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) that assessed strengths of associations of sexual and romantic stimuli to both pleasant and unpleasant conditions. Results revealed that both men and women more strongly associated romantic images to the pleasant condition than they associated the sexual images to the pleasant condition. However, as predicted, women had a stronger preference toward romantic versus sexual stimuli compared to men. Our study challenges a common assumption that men prefer sexual over romantic stimuli. The findings indicate that measures of implicit attitudes may tap preferences that are not apparent in studies relying on self-reported (explicit) attitudes.
Seay, Julia; Ranck, Atticus; Weiss, Roy; Salgado, Christopher; Fein, Lydia; Kobetz, Erin
Transgender men are less likely than cisgender women to receive cervical cancer screening. The purpose of the current study was to understand experiences with and preferences for cervical cancer screening among transgender men. Ninety-one transgender men ages 21-63 completed the survey. The survey evaluated experiences with and preferences for screening, including opinions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling as a primary cervical cancer screening. Half (50.5%) of participants did not have Pap smear screening within the past 3 years. The majority (57.1%) of participants preferred HPV self-sampling over provider-collected Pap smear screening. Participants who reported discrimination were more likely to prefer HPV self-sampling (odds ratio = 3.29, 95% confidence interval 1.38-7.84, P = 0.007). Primary HPV testing via HPV self-sampling may improve cervical cancer screening uptake among transgender men. Future work should pilot this innovative cervical cancer screening method within this population.
Moema de Rezende Vergara
Full Text Available In the recent works about Brazilian public understanding of science, gender has been poorly used as an analytical category. This paper has as its main goal to bridge this gap by analyzing a section called ‘Letters for a Lady‘, in the journal O Vulgarizador that sought to teach all about Darwinism to women in the Brazil of the 19th century. So the notion of gender will help us understand the tension between masculinity and femininity in the text written by the literary critic Rangel S. Paio.
Rolison, Jonathan J; Hanoch, Yaniv; Miron-Shatz, Talya
Genetic testing for gene mutations associated with specific cancers provides an opportunity for early detection, surveillance, and intervention (Smith, Cokkinides, & Brawley, 2008). Lifetime risk estimates provided by genetic testing refer to the risk of developing a specific disease within one's lifetime, and evidence suggests that this is important for the medical choices people make, as well as their future family and financial plans. The present studies tested whether adult men understand the lifetime risks of prostate cancer informed by genetic testing. In 2 experiments, adult men were asked to interpret the lifetime risk information provided in statements about risks of prostate cancer. Statement format was manipulated such that the most appropriate interpretation of risk statements referred to an absolute risk of cancer in experiment 1 and a relative risk in experiment 2. Experiment 1 revealed that few men correctly interpreted the lifetime risks of cancer when these refer to an absolute risk of cancer, and numeracy levels positively predicted correct responding. The proportion of correct responses was greatly improved in experiment 2 when the most appropriate interpretation of risk statements referred instead to a relative rather than an absolute risk, and numeracy levels were less involved. Understanding of lifetime risk information is often poor because individuals incorrectly believe that these refer to relative rather than absolute risks of cancer.
Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Fleming, Paul J; Ghule, Mohan; Madhusudana, Battala; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay G; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita
Masculine gender ideologies are thought to underlie alcohol use, intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, and sexual risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We extend on studies in the Indian context by examining the roles of masculine gender ideologies, alcohol use, and IPV on three outcomes of HIV risk (condom use, genital tract infection [GTI] symptoms, and GTI diagnosis). We applied logistic regression models to cross-sectional data of men and their wives in rural Maharashtra, India ( n = 1,080 couples). We found that men with less masculine gender ideologies demonstrated greater odds of condom use (i.e., lower odds no condom use, odds ratio [OR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.93, 0.98]). IPV perpetration was associated with increased odds of reporting ≥1 GTI symptom (adjusted OR [AOR] = 1.56, 95% CI = [1.07, 2.26]) and decreased GTI diagnosis (AOR = 0.28, 95% CI = [0.08, 0.97]). Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with increased odds of reporting ≥1 GTI symptom (AOR = 1.51, 95% CI = [1.01, 2.25]). Our findings have direct implications for men's and women's health in rural India, including targeted GTI diagnosis and treatment, integrated violence prevention in STI clinics, and targeted intervention on masculine gender ideologies.
Bohlin, Anna; Ahlgren, Christina; Hammarstrom, Anne; Gustafsson, Per E
Musculoskeletal pain is a major health problem, especially in women, and is partially determined by psychosocial factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether gender inequality in the couple relationship was related to musculoskeletal pain. Participants (n=721; 364 women and 357 men) were all individuals living in a couple relationship in the Northern Swedish Cohort, a 26-year Swedish cohort study. Self-administered questionnaire data at age 42 years comprised perceived gender inequality in the couple relationship and musculoskeletal pain (in three locations, summarised into one score and median-split), concurrent demographic factors, psychological distress, and previous musculoskeletal pain at age 30 years. Associations were examined using logistic regression. Gender inequality was positively associated with symptoms of musculoskeletal pain in the total sample, remaining significant after addition of possible confounders and of previous musculoskeletal pain. Separate adjustment for concurrent psychological distress attenuated the association but not below significance. The association was present and of comparable strength in both women and men. Gender inequality in the couple relationship might contribute to the experience of musculoskeletal pain in both women and men. The results highlight the potential adverse bodily consequences of living in unequal relationships.
Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Severson, Nicolette; Levine, Ethan; Martínez, Omar
Latino men who have sex with transgender women make up an overlooked sector of the population that requires more attention than is currently given in sexuality and gender studies, particularly in regard to their non-commercial, long-term sexual and romantic relationships with transgender women. Sixty-one sexual histories were selected for this qualitative analysis from a larger study on Latino male bisexuality in the New York City metropolitan area. Findings suggest that participants' sexual and gender scripts with transgender women are strongly regulated by heteronormativity. Furthermore, homonegativity and transphobia often intersect in the lived experiences of men who have sex with transgender women, resulting in relationship conflicts over the control of transgender women's bodies, sexual behaviours and gender performance both in public and in private. Findings also suggest that low relationship conflict is more common among men who have sex with transgender women who exhibit diverse sexual roles (being both insertive and receptive during anal sex), or transgress heteronormative scripts through dialogue of desires and/or by embracing transgender women as human beings and not as hyperfeminised objects of desire. Stigma reduction and alternatives to heteronormative interventions are needed to improve relationship dynamics and potentially positively impact on the sexual health and overall wellbeing of Latino men who have sex with transgender women and their transgender partners.
Lusey, Hendrew; San Sebastian, Miguel; Christianson, Monica; Edin, Kerstin E
While women and girls are made vulnerable by inequitable and violent versions of masculinities, there is increasing evidence that gender equality will not be achieved without partnering with men. The aim of this study was to assess gender-equitable norms and their determinants among church-going young men in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 289 church-going young men, aged 18-24 years, residing in three disadvantaged communes of Kinshasa. Variables included sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes towards gender equality and responses to issues related to the Gender-Equitable Men (GEM) scale. Logistic regression was applied to identify the associations between sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes and the GEM scale. The findings provide evidence of attitudes and beliefs that act as barriers to gender equality. For instance, the majority of church-going young men (83.74%) agreed that a man is the only decision maker in the home and about half (50.87%) of the respondents supported the statement "There are times a woman deserves to be beaten". Similarly, around half of the participants agreed with the idea of men's uncontrollable sex drive (50.87%) and men's toughness (50.17%). Close to half of the participants (44.29%) agreed that it is women's responsibility to prevent pregnancy. These attitudes co-existed with a few gender-equitable norms as 82.70% agreed on the importance of joint decisions concerning family planning. An association between education, certain places of residence, being single or separated, and supportive attitudes towards gender equality was found with higher scores for the GEM. Our study findings indicate that a high proportion of church-going young men do not endorse gender-equitable norms. Therefore, churches urgently need comprehensive gender equality and masculinity policies and programmes to influence young men's attitudes and behaviours. The promotion of gender equality in
Park, Bernadette; Banchefsky, Sarah
Trait stereotypes of men tend to be more fixed and negative than those of women. The current studies test whether stereotypes of men can be shifted through leveraging their social role as fathers. Trait attributes perceived to characterize women and moms were highly redundant, but those of men and dads were less so; moreover, men were perceived more negatively than dads, women, and moms (Study 1). Perceivers for whom the social role father was made salient rated men more similarly to dads, and no less similarly to men, and rated men more positively relative to a control condition (Study 2). Finally, among men, a threat to the category men resulted in greater opposition to benevolent social policies, but not if the social role father was primed (Study 3). Discussion focuses on positive consequences of increasing the psychological connection between men and fatherhood.
Joiner, T E; Schmidt, N B; Singh, D
We examined the interrelationships of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body dissatisfaction, gender, and depressed and eating disordered symptoms cross-sectionally among 131 male and female undergraduates. Based on past findings on physical and mental health, attractiveness, and depressive realism, we predicted that the WHR x Depression x Gender interaction would be significantly related to body dissatisfaction, such that the correspondence between WHR and body dissatisfaction would be more pronounced among depressed than among nondepressed women and men. This hypothesis received support. Implications of our results for work on body dissatisfaction were discussed.
The family and the work place are two arenas of central importance for most adult people. Consequently, one can assume that the level of satisfaction with one’s family life and job may be critical to one’s level of happiness in general. However, there are reasons to believe that there are variations according to gender and gender regime. The general aim of this study is to analyse the relative importance of job satisfaction and satisfaction with family life for happiness among women and men i...
Lassiter, Jonathan Mathias
Religion is one of the most powerful and ubiquitous forces in African American same-gender-loving (SGL) men's lives. Research indicates that it has both positive and negative influences on the health behaviors and outcomes of this population. This paper presents a review of the literature that examines religion as a risk and protective factor for African American SGL men. A strengths-based approach to religion that aims to utilize its protective qualities and weaken its relation to risk is proposed. Finally, recommendations are presented for the use of a strengths-based approach to religion in clinical work and research.
The Swedish gender wage gap decreased substantially from the 1960s until the beginning of the 1980s. At the same time women had been narrowing men in employment experience and education. While women continued to catch up on men the average wage gap remained almost the same as in the 1980s. The catch-up hypothesis was obviously not the sole answer to the wage-gap. The purpose here was to discuss other factors of relevance for the evolution of the average pay gap. Data for the period 1972-2012 ...
Lieberman, Debra L; Tybur, Josh M; Latner, Janet D
Recent research has established a link between disgust sensitivity and stigmatizing reactions to various groups, including obese individuals. However, previous research has overlooked disgust's multiple evolved functions. Here, we investigated whether the link between disgust sensitivity and obesity stigma is specific to pathogen disgust, or whether sexual disgust and moral disgust--two separate functional domains--also relate to negative attitudes toward obese individuals. Additionally, we investigated whether sex differences exist in the manner disgust sensitivity predicts obesity stigma, whether the sexes differ across the subtypes of obesity bias independent of disgust sensitivity, and last, the association between participants' BMI and different subtypes of obesity stigma. In study 1 (N = 92), we established that obesity elicits pathogen, sexual, and moral disgust. In study 2, we investigated the relationship between these types of disgust sensitivity and obesity stigma. Participants (N = 387) reported their level of disgust toward various pathogen, sexual, and moral acts and their attitudes toward obese individuals. For women, but not men, increased pathogen disgust sensitivity predicted more negative attitudes toward obese individuals. Men reported more negative general attitudes toward obese individuals whereas women reported greater fear of becoming obese. The sexes also differed in how their own BMI related to the subtypes of obesity stigma. These findings indicate that pathogen disgust sensitivity plays a role in obesity stigma, specifically for women. Defining the scope of disgust's activation in response to obesity and its relationship with other variables can help identify possible mechanisms for understanding and ultimately alleviating prejudice and discrimination.
Maylor, Elizabeth A; Reimers, Stian; Choi, Jean; Collaer, Marcia L; Peters, Michael; Silverman, Irwin
Despite some evidence of greater age-related deterioration of the brain in males than in females, gender differences in rates of cognitive aging have proved inconsistent. The present study employed web-based methodology to collect data from people aged 20-65 years (109,612 men; 88,509 women). As expected, men outperformed women on tests of mental rotation and line angle judgment, whereas women outperformed men on tests of category fluency and object location memory. Performance on all tests declined with age but significantly more so for men than for women. Heterosexuals of each gender generally outperformed bisexuals and homosexuals on tests where that gender was superior; however, there were no clear interactions between age and sexual orientation for either gender. At least for these particular tests from young adulthood to retirement, age is kinder to women than to men, but treats heterosexuals, bisexuals, and homosexuals just the same.
Schwery, Denise; Hulac, David; Schweinle, Amy
This literature review provides school psychologists with an understanding of the important issues related to the gender gap in mathematics achievement. The extant literature suggests that girls tend to receive lower scores than boys on standardized math tests, but in general these differences tend to be small. However, girls have better classroom…
Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Vennix, J.A.M.; Jacobs, H.A.G.M.; Engen, M.L. van; Engen, M. van
This paper contributes to the understanding of dynamic decision making. Using the faculty gender balancing task, we experimentally test the extent to which participants correctly estimate the inflow needed to balance two unbalanced stocks and how they substantiate their decision. The results show
Kakuru, D.M.; Burg, van der Margreet
Gender inequalities have persisted in Uganda¿s primary education regardless of specific interventions put in place to eliminate them. These include the implementation of Universal Primary Education in 1997. Research was carried out to understand the reasons for the persistence of these inequalities.
To date nothing is known about the attitudes of South Asian men in the UK toward women and domestic violence. Issues related to South Asian men and communities have remained largely under the surface due to religious and cultural sensitivity. The aim of the research is to examine the attitudes of South Asian men in London and the South East of England toward women and their understanding and justification of domestic violence. More specifically, the research explores a range of cultural and r...
Parker, Caroline M; Garcia, Jonathan; Philbin, Morgan M; Wilson, Patrick A; Parker, Richard G; Hirsch, Jennifer S
Black men who have sex with men in the USA face disproportionate incidence rates of HIV. This paper presents findings from an ethnographic study conducted in New York City that explored the structural and socio-cultural factors shaping men's sexual relationships with the goal of furthering understandings of their HIV-related vulnerability. Methods included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 31 Black men who have sex with men (three times each) and 17 key informants. We found that HIV vulnerability is perceived as produced through structural inequalities including economic insecurity, housing instability, and stigma and discrimination. The theoretical concepts of social risk, intersectional stigma, and the social production of space are offered as lenses through which to analyse how structural inequalities shape HIV vulnerability. We found that social risk shaped HIV vulnerability by influencing men's decisions in four domains: 1) where to find sexual partners, 2) where to engage in sexual relationships, 3) what kinds of relationships to seek, and 4) whether to carry and to use condoms. Advancing conceptualisations of social risk, we show that intersectional stigma and the social production of space are key processes through which social risk generates HIV vulnerability among Black men who have sex with men.
Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni
review suggest that young adolescents in different cultural settings commonly endorse norms that perpetuate gender inequalities, and that parents and peers are especially central in shaping such attitudes. Programs to promote equitable gender attitudes thus need to move beyond a focus on individuals to target their interpersonal relationships and wider social environments. Such programs need to start early and be tailored to the unique needs of sub-populations of boys and girls. Longitudinal studies, particularly from low-and middle-income countries, are needed to better understand how gender attitudes unfold in adolescence and to identify the key points for intervention. PMID:27341206
Kågesten, Anna; Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni
settings commonly endorse norms that perpetuate gender inequalities, and that parents and peers are especially central in shaping such attitudes. Programs to promote equitable gender attitudes thus need to move beyond a focus on individuals to target their interpersonal relationships and wider social environments. Such programs need to start early and be tailored to the unique needs of sub-populations of boys and girls. Longitudinal studies, particularly from low-and middle-income countries, are needed to better understand how gender attitudes unfold in adolescence and to identify the key points for intervention.
cultural settings commonly endorse norms that perpetuate gender inequalities, and that parents and peers are especially central in shaping such attitudes. Programs to promote equitable gender attitudes thus need to move beyond a focus on individuals to target their interpersonal relationships and wider social environments. Such programs need to start early and be tailored to the unique needs of sub-populations of boys and girls. Longitudinal studies, particularly from low-and middle-income countries, are needed to better understand how gender attitudes unfold in adolescence and to identify the key points for intervention.
The linking of democracy with gender equality is a generally accepted principle. It is widely recognized that women’s equal participation in decision making is not only a demand for simple justice but can also be seen as a necessary condition for states sustainable development and economic growth. Despite the achievements on the legal fronts at both international and national level, the participation of women in decision making as equal partners with men has not yet been achieved. Despite the...
Sprague, Courtenay; Hatcher, Abigail M; Woollett, Nataly; Sommers, Theresa; Black, Vivian
This qualitative study captured South African female health provider perspectives of intimate partner violence in female patients, gender norms and consequences for patients' health. Findings indicated female patients' health behaviours were predicated on sociocultural norms of submission to men's authority and economic dependence on their partners. Respondents described how men's preferences and health decision-making in clinics affected their patients' health. Adverse gender norms and gender inequalities affected women's opportunities to be healthy, contributing to HIV risk and undermining effective HIV management in this context. Some providers, seeking to deliver a standard of quality healthcare to their female patients, demonstrated a willingness to challenge patriarchal gender relations. Findings enhance understanding of how socially-sanctioned gender norms, intimate partner violence and HIV are synergistic, also reaffirming the need for integrated HIV-intimate partner violence responses in multi-sector national strategic plans. Health providers' intimate knowledge of the lived experiences of female patients with intimate partner violence and/or HIV deepens understanding of how adverse gender norms generate health risks for women in ways that may inform policy and clinical practice in South Africa and other high-HIV prevalence settings.
Full Text Available This research on press communication uses a synchronic perspective concerning eighteen ministers, balanced by gender, in the Renzi government (in 2014, as well as a diachronic perspective concerning women ministers from five governments (from 2006-2014. The governments in 2014 and of 2013 were predominantly center-left, with the participation of center and center-right parties, whereas the previous governments had technical-professional rather than political ministers (in 2011, center-right (in 2008, and center-left (in 2006 ministers. In the synchronic analysis we explored the different ways in which the ministers are named, the relative presence of sexist/non-sexist, agentive/non-agentive, and abstract/concrete language in which they were presented. The first analysis comprised 332 headlines and the second comprised 1,356 headlines; we conducted a numerical and lexicographical analysis on the headlines. The results showed: more coverage for men than for women; gender biases in naming ministers involving a greater number of citations of women with both first and last name, whereas there were a greater number of citations of men with their first name only; the prevalence of sexist language that uses the generic masculine rather than the specific feminine (that is, the grammatical feminization of a typically masculine form in representing women; an increment of the specific feminine in representing women in the last three governments over the previous two; no gender differences in the use of “I” and “We” as markers of agency; more quotations of direct discourse for women than for men; language slightly more abstract than concrete, for both men and women; more positive adjectives for women, and more negative adjectives for men. The results are discussed in relation to the international literature and to the Italian cultural-political context.
In this paper I examine whether the effect of education on mortality for US adults differs by gender. Discrete time logit models were used to analyze a nationally representative dataset (NHANES I) with 12,036 adults who were 25-74-years-old at the baseline survey in 1971-1975, and then re-interviewed three times through 1992. Demographic characteristics, health behaviors and economic status were controlled as potential confounding or mediating factors in the education-mortality relationship. The results showed that education had a comparable effect on mortality for men and women. No statistically significant gender difference was found in all-cause mortality, or mortality by cause of death, among younger persons, and among the elderly. Analysis by marital status, however, suggested that these findings apply only to married men and women. Among the divorced, there was a statistically significant gender difference whereby education had no effect on mortality for men while divorced women evidenced a strong education gradient (seven percent lower odds of dying for each year of schooling). Possible explanations for these patterns are discussed.
Understanding the Relationships between Gender Inequitable Behaviours, Childhood Trauma and Socio-Economic Status in Single and Multiple Perpetrator Rape in Rural South Africa: Structural Equation Modelling.
Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama-Shai, Nwabisa; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin
Interventions to prevent rape perpetration must be designed to address its drivers. This paper seeks to extend understanding of drivers of single and multiple perpetrator rape (referred to here as SPR and MPR respectively) and the relationships between socio-economic status, childhood trauma, peer pressure, other masculine behaviours and rape. 1370 young men aged 15 to 26 were interviewed as part of the randomised controlled trial evaluation of Stepping Stones in the rural Eastern Cape. We used multinomial to compare the characteristics of men who reported rape perpetration at baseline. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine pathways to rape perpetration. 76.1% of young men had never raped, 10.0% had perpetrated SPR and 13.9% MPR. The factors associated with both MPR and SPR (compared to never having raped) were indicators of socio-economic status (SES), childhood trauma, sexual coercion by a woman, drug and alcohol use, peer pressure susceptibility, having had transactional sex, multiple sexual partners and being physically violent towards a partner. The SEM showed the relationship between SES and rape perpetration to be mediated by gender inequitable masculinity. It was complex as there was a direct path indicating that SES correlated with the masculinity variable directly such that men of higher SES had more gender inequitable masculinities, and indirect path mediated by peer pressure resistance indicated that the former pertained so long as men lacked peer pressure resistance. Having a higher SES conveyed greater resistance for some men. There was also a path mediated through childhood trauma, such that men of lower SES were more likely to have a higher childhood trauma exposure and this correlated with a higher likelihood of having the gender inequitable masculinity (with or without the mediating effect of peer pressure resistance). Both higher and lower socio-economic status were associated with raping. Prevention of rape perpetration must
Fleming, Paul J.; Barker, Gary; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew
Despite advances in gender equality, women and girls still face disadvantages and limits on their agency. Men and boys can be key stakeholders and allies to increase women's agency. This paper focuses on examining men's attitudes and behaviors related to gender equality and violence perpetration to better understand how to engage men and boys as. It uses data collected from men and women f...
Holmes, Scott; Flood, Michael
This report examines the role of workplaces, and men in workplaces in particular, in preventing men's violence against women. The report begins by noting that men's violence against women is a widespread social problem which requires urgent action. It highlights the need for preventative measures oriented to changing the social and structural conditions at the root of this violence, including through settings such as workplaces. Men's violence against women is a workplace issue. As well as be...
Dambrun, Michaël; Duarte, Sandra; Guimond, Serge
Arguing from a sociobiological perspective, Sidanius and Pratto (1999) have shown that the male/female difference in social dominance orientation (SDO) is largely invariant across cultural, situational and contextual boundaries. The main objective of this study was to test the validity of Social Dominance Theory (SDT) by contrasting it with a model derived from Social Identity Theory (SIT). More specifically, while SIT predicts that gender identification mediates the effect of gender on SDO, SDT predicts the reverse. According to SDT, the degree to which men and women endorse status legitimizing ideology should determine to what extent they identify with their gender group. Using structural equation modelling, the results provide strong support for the SIT model and no support for SDT predictions. Implications of these results for social dominance theory and its sociobiologically based invariance hypothesis are discussed.
Houle, Janie; Mishara, Brian L; Chagnon, François
Men die by suicide three to four times more often than women in Western countries. The adverse impact of the traditional male gender role as well as men's reluctance to seek help are possible explanations of this gender gap, but these hypotheses have not been well documented empirically. This study compares two groups of men who experienced comparable severely stressful life events during the preceding 12 months: 40 men admitted to hospital emergency following suicide attempts, and 40 men with no history of suicide attempts. Structured interviews were conducted to measure adherence to the traditional male gender role, help seeking behaviour, social support, suicide acceptability and mental health. ANOVAS indicated that attempters are more likely to adhere to the traditional masculine gender role and regression analysis revealed that this relationship persists even when the presence of mental disorders is statistically controlled. Sequential regression analysis support the mediation model and show that the effects of the traditional male gender role on suicidal behavior are mediated through protective and risk factors for suicide, namely mental state, help seeking and social support. The traditional male gender role appears to increase the risk of suicidal behavior in men by undermining their mental state and by inhibiting the protective factors of help seeking and social support. This study underscores the importance of encouraging men to seek help.
Bates, Simon; Donnelly, Robyn; MacPhee, Cait; Sands, David; Birch, Marion; Walet, Niels R
We present the results of a combined study from three UK universities where we investigate the existence and persistence of a performance gender gap in conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. Using the Force Concept Inventory, we find that students at all three universities exhibit a statistically significant gender gap, with males outperforming females. This gap is narrowed but not eliminated after instruction, using a variety of instructional approaches. Furthermore, we find that before instruction the quartile with the lowest performance on the diagnostic instrument comprises a disproportionately high fraction (∼50%) of the total female cohort. The majority of these students remain in the lowest-performing quartile post-instruction. Analysis of responses to individual items shows that male students outperform female students on practically all items on the instrument. Comparing the performance of the same group of students on end-of-course examinations, we find no statistically significant gender gaps. (paper)
Saft, Scott; Ohara, Yumiko
This article describes how Japanese TV programs adopting a consultation framework construct different realities for women and men concerning a specific social phenomenon, namely adultery. To do so, two perspectives, the theory of metaphor promoted by George Lakoff and membership category analysis, are combined toward a discursive analysis which…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish consumption and intake of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a prospective study from northern Sweden showed that high consumption of fish is associated with an increased risk of stroke in men, but not in women. The current study aimed to determine if fish consumption is differently related to lifestyle in men compared with women in northern Sweden. Methods Lifestyle information on 32,782 men and 34,866 women (aged 30–60 years was collected between 1992 and 2006 within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (a health intervention in northern Sweden. Spearman correlations coefficients (Rs were calculated between self-reported consumption of fish and other food items. Lifestyle variables were compared between fish consumption categories. Results Fish consumption was positively associated with other foods considered healthy (e.g., root vegetables, lettuce/cabbage/spinach/broccoli, chicken, and berries; Rs = 0.21-0.30, as well as with other healthy lifestyle factors (e.g., exercise and not smoking and a higher educational level, in both men and women. The only gender difference found, concerned the association between fish consumption and alcohol consumption. Men who were high consumers of fish had a higher intake of all types of alcohol compared with low to moderate fish consumers. For women, this was true only for wine. Conclusions Except for alcohol, the association between fish consumption and healthy lifestyle did not differ between men and women in northern Sweden. It is important to adjust for other lifestyle variables and socioeconomic variables in studies concerning the effect of fish consumption on disease outcome.
Pinciotti, Caitlin M; Orcutt, Holly K
Victims of sexual violence are frequently blamed by friends, family, or legal personnel in the aftermath of an attack, with men attributing greater blame on average than women. Victims' experiences of being blamed may generate a vicious cycle in which they are more likely to be blamed in the future. Moreover, just world beliefs (JWB) have been studied extensively as an underlying cognitive mechanism that predicts greater blame. Studies examining the influence of social support on blame have yet to examine the unique role of JWB on these attributions. The current study examined blame attribution of a fictional rape victim who received either positive, negative, or neutral support from friends and family in a sample of 383 undergraduate men and women. Individually, social support and JWB were both significant predictors of blame, and women were more influenced by social support than men; specifically, gender was a more salient predictor of blame toward the positively supported victim, suggesting that positive support received by friends and family may evoke a domino effect of support from other women. Conditional effects revealed that JWB were most influential on blame when responding to the positively supported victim. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Wall, David; Kristjanson, Linda
Following a diagnosis of, and treatment for prostate cancer, there is an expectation that men will cope with, adjust to and accept the psychosocial impact on their lives and relationships. Yet, there is a limited qualitative world literature investigating the psychosocial experience of prostate cancer, and almost no literature exploring how masculinity mediates in such an experience. This paper will suggest that the experience of prostate cancer, the process by which it is investigated, and the way in which it is understood has been shaped by an essentialist interpretation of gender, exemplified by hegemonic masculinity as the archetypal mechanism of male adaptation. In response to this static and limiting view of masculinity, this paper will offer a reframe of hegemonic masculinity. This reframe, being more aligned with common experience, will portray masculinity as a dynamic and contextual construct, better understood as one of a number of cultural reference points around which each man organises and adopts behaviour. It will be suggested that the extant literature, in being organised around hegemonic masculinity, obfuscates the experience of prostate cancer and acts to render covert any collateral masculinities, public or private, that may also be operating.
Fowler, Stephanie L; Rasinski, Heather M; Geers, Andrew L; Helfer, Suzanne G; France, Christopher R
Prior research has found that sex differences in pain are partially due to individual variations in gender roles. In a laboratory study, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of covert gender role cues can also moderate the extent to which women and men experience pain. Specifically, we varied gender role cues by asking male and female participants to write about instances in which they behaved in a stereotypically feminine, masculine, or neutral manner. Pain and cardiovascular reactivity to the cold pressor task were then assessed. Results revealed that, when primed with femininity, men reported less pain and anxiety from the cold pressor task than women. However, no differences existed between the sexes in the masculine or neutral prime conditions. The results indicate that covert gender cues can alter pain reports. Further, at least in some situations, feminine role cues may be more influential on pain reports than masculine role cues.
de Visser, L; van der Knaap, L J; van de Loo, A J A E; van der Weerd, C M M; Ohl, F; van den Bos, R
Excessive levels of trait anxiety are a risk factor for psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance abuse. High trait anxiety has been associated with altered cognitive functioning, in particular with an attentional bias towards aversive stimuli. Decision-making is a crucial aspect of cognitive functioning that relies on the correct processing and control of emotional stimuli. Interestingly, anxiety and decision-making share underlying neural substrates, involving cortico-limbic pathways, including the amygdala, striatum and medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between trait anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and complex decision-making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, in healthy male and female volunteers. The main focus of this study was the inclusion of gender as a discriminative factor. Indeed, we found distinct gender-specific effects of trait anxiety: in men, both low and high anxiety groups showed impaired decision-making compared to medium anxiety individuals, whereas in women only high anxiety individuals performed poorly. Furthermore, anxiety affected decision-making in men early in the task, i.e. the exploration phase, as opposed to an effect on performance in women during the second part of the test, i.e. the exploitation phase. These findings were related to different profiles of trait anxiety in men and women, and were independent of performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and cortisol levels. Our data show gender-specific effects of trait anxiety on emotional decision-making. We suggest gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety to exist, that differentially affect cognitive functioning. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haferkamp, Nina; Eimler, Sabrina C; Papadakis, Anna-Margarita; Kruck, Jana Vanessa
Psychological research on gender differences in self-presentation has already revealed that women place higher priority on creating a positive self-presentation, while men are less concerned about the image they present in face-to-face (ftf) communication. Nowadays, with the extensive use of new media, self-presentation is no longer so closely tied to ftf situations, but can also take place in the online world. Specifically, social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook or MySpace, offer various features such as profile pictures, groups, and virtual bulletin boards with which users can create elaborated online representations of themselves. What remains open is whether this virtual self-presentation on SNS is subject to gender differences. Based on studies emphasizing gender-related differences in Internet communication and behavior in general, it can be assumed that men and women have different motives regarding their SNS usage as well. A multimethodological study, combining results of an online survey and a content analysis of 106 user profiles, assessed users' diverse motives for participating in SNS in general, and their use of specific profile elements or self-presentation in particular. In this sample of StudiVZ users, women tend to be more likely to use SNS for comparing themselves with others and for searching for information. Men, on the other hand, are more likely to look at other people's profiles to find friends. Moreover, women tend to use group names for their self-presentation and prefer adding portrait photos to their profiles, while men choose full-body shots.
Reisen, Carol A; Brooks, Kelly D; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J; Bianchi, Fernanda T
The current study investigated a methodological question of whether traditional, additive, quantitative data can be used to address intersectional issues, and illustrated such an approach with a sample of 301 HIV-positive, Latino gay men in the United States. Participants were surveyed using A-CASI. Hierarchical logistic set regression investigated the role of sets of variables reflecting demographic characteristics, gender nonconformity, and gay and ethnic discrimination in relation to depression and gay collective identity. Results showed the discrimination set was related to depression and to gay collective identity, as was gender nonconformity. Follow-up logistic regression showed that both types of discrimination were associated with greater depression, but gender nonconformity was not. Gay discrimination and gender nonconformity were positively associated with gay collective identity, whereas ethnic discrimination was negatively associated. Results are discussed in terms of the use of traditional quantitative data as a potential means of understanding intersectional issues, as well as of contributing to knowledge about individuals facing multiple structural inequalities.
Nassif, Jeffrey M.; Pietrzak, William S.
While it is generally recognized that anatomical differences exist between the male and female knee, the literature generally refutes the clinical need for gender-specific total knee prostheses. It has been found that standard, unisex knees perform as well, or better, in women than men. Recently, high-flex knees have become available that mechanically accommodate increased flexion yet no studies have directly compared the outcomes of these devices in men and women to see if gender-based dif...
Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Wolak, Caitlin; Greener, Judith; Tedaldi, Ellen; Nanavati, Aasit; Ruppert, Katey; Gordon, Thomas F
Minority participation in HIV clinical trials research is critical to understanding the impact of medications or behavioral interventions, but little is known about gender differences in perceptions of participation. We surveyed 50 minority HIV+ patients from an urban clinic to assess perceived risks/benefits of clinical trial research participation and used innovative marketing methods to analyze results. Perceptual mapping and vector message-modeling, a method that creates 3-D models representing how groups conceptualize elements, were used to assess how male and female participants could be motivated to participate. Results showed men farther away from participation and more concerned with HIV disclosure and experimentation than women. Men expressed distrust of the medical system, doubted HIV's origin, and knew less about research implementation. Women were closer to participation in both behavior and medical trials and perceived medication issues as more significant, including fear of losing medication stability, medications not working, being in the placebo group, and experiencing side effects. Vector modeling shows that messages would need to focus on different aspects of clinical research for men and women and that interventions aimed at minority HIV+ patients to encourage clinical trial participation would need to be targeted to their unique perceptions. Understanding gender perceptions of HIV clinical research has significant implications for targeting messages to increase minority participation.
Ariza-Sosa, Gladys Rocío; Gaviria, Silvia L; Geldres-García, Denis A; Vargas-Romero, Rosamarina
The training strategies targeted at men so as to reflect on the cultural patterns of patriarchy are an alternative in the promotion of human rights, the prevention of violence towards women and the mainstreaming of gender equality in public policies. With a socio-critical pedagogical approach, we conducted a Training Certification Program in gender equality and gender-sensitive masculinities, for a group of 76 male civil servants and civic leaders in the Colombian city of Medellin, for the purpose of questioning their gender socialization in the patriarchal model, directed towards the development and execution of social, educational or communications projects. The projects proposed by the participants criticize the andro-centric, sexist and discriminatory discourses regarding women that circulate in a manner predominant in their academic, workplace and family ambits, with a gender political commitment and respect for diversity. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Nattrass, Nicoli; Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Seekings, Jeremy; Whiteside, Alan
This article contributes methodologically and substantively to the debate over the importance of poverty, sexual behaviour and circumcision in relation to HIV infection, using panel data on young black men and women in Cape Town, South Africa. Methodological challenges included problems of endogeneity and blunt indicator variables, especially for the measurement of sexual behaviour. Noting these difficulties, we found that the importance of socioeconomic and sexual-behavioural factors differed between men and women. While we found a clear association between the number of years of sexual activity and HIV status among both men and women, we found that past participation in a concurrent sexual partnership increased the odds of HIV infection for men but not women. Women, but not men, who made the transition from school to tertiary education (our key indicator of socioeconomic status) were less likely to be HIV-positive than those who made the transition from school to unemployment. Both poverty and sexual behaviour matter to individuals' HIV risk, but in gendered ways.
Dickinson Skaggs, Jennifer Anne
The number of women being enrolled and retained in engineering programs has steadily decreased since 1999, even with increased efforts and funding of initiatives to counteract this trend. Why are women not persisting or even choosing to pursue engineering? This qualitative research examines how undergraduate female engineering students perceive and negotiate their gender identities to successfully persist in engineering education. Narrative inquiry including semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and data analysis was conducted at a Research I institution. Participants were recruited through purposeful network sampling. Criteria for inclusion include students who have been in the American K-12 educational pipeline at least eight years and are junior or senior level academic standing and academic eligibility. By including male students in the collection of data, perceptions of the issues for women could be seen in context when compared to the perceptions of men in the same engineering discipline. The study focuses on the individual, institutional, and cultural perceptions of gender performativity within a network and the strategies and negotiations employed by undergraduate female engineering students to achieve their educational goals regarding each of these perspectives. Findings reveal female students utilize strategies of camouflage and costume, as well as internal and external support to persist in engineering education. Also, female engineering students are being prepared to only become engineering-students-in-the-making and kept from the larger engineering network, while male students are becoming engineers-in-the-making automatically connected to the larger engineering network based on gender. This lack of association with the network influences female engineering students in their decisions to pursue a career in professional engineering, or to pursue more traditionally gendered careers after graduation. This research is significant in its use
Christian, Mervyn; Safari, Octave; Ramazani, Paul; Burnham, Gilbert; Glass, Nancy
Media and service provider reports of sexual and gender based violence (SGBV) perpetrated against men in armed conflicts have increased. However, response to these reports has been limited, as existing evidence and programs have primarily focused on prevention and response to women and girl survivors of SGBV. This study aims to contribute to the evidence of SGBV experienced by males by advancing our understanding of the definition and characteristics of male SGBV and the overlap of health, social and economic consequences on the male survivor, his family and community in conflict and post-conflict settings. The qualitative study using purposive sampling was conducted from June-August 2010 in the South Kivu province of Eastern DRC, an area that has experienced over a decade of armed conflict. Semi structured individual interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with adult male survivors of SGBV, the survivors' wife and/or friend, health care and service providers, community members and leaders. This study found that SGBV against men, as for women, is multi-dimensional and has significant negative physical, mental, social and economic consequences for the male survivor and his family. SGBV perpetrated against men and boys is likely common within a conflict-affected region but often goes unreported by survivors and others due to cultural and social factors associated with sexual assaults, including survivor shame, fear of retaliation by perpetrators and stigma by community members. All key stakeholders in our study advocated for improvements and programs in several areas: (1) health care services, including capacity to identify survivors and increased access to clinical care and psychosocial support for male survivors; (2) economic development initiatives, including microfinance programs, for men and their families to assist them to regain their productive role in the family; (3) community awareness and education of SGBV against men to reduce stigma and
Lichtenstein, Bronwen; Kay, Emma Sophia; Klinger, Ian; Mutchler, Matt G
HIV disproportionately affects young Black men who have sex with men in the USA, with especially high rates in the Deep South. In this Alabama study, we interviewed 24 pairs of young Black men who have sex with men aged 19-24 and their close friends (n = 48) about sexual scripts, dating men and condom use. Three main themes emerged from the study: the power dynamics of 'top' and 'bottom' sexual positions for condom use; gender stereotyping in the iconic style of the 'I Love Lucy' show of the 1950s; and the sexual dominance of 'trade' men. Gender stereotyping was attributed to the cultural mores of Black families in the South, to the preferences of 'trade' men who exerted sexual and financial control and to internalised stigma relating to being Black, gay and marginalised. The findings suggest that HIV prevention education for young Black men who have sex with men is misguided if gendered power dynamics are ignored, and that funded access to self-protective strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and post-exposure prophylaxis could reduce HIV risk for this severely affected population.
Danielsson, Ulla E; Bengs, Carita; Samuelsson, Eva; Johansson, Eva E
Depression is common among young people. Gender differences in diagnosing depression appear during adolescence. The study aim was to explore the impact of gender on depression in young Swedish men and women. Grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 23 young people aged 17 to 25 years who had been diagnosed with depression. Their narratives were marked by a striving to be normal and disclosed strong gender stereotypes, constructed in interaction with parents, friends, and the media. Gender norms were upheld by feelings of shame, and restricted the acting space of our informants. However, we also found transgressions of these gender norms. Primary health care workers could encourage young men to open up emotionally and communicate their personal distress, and young women to be daring and assertive of their own strengths, so that both genders might gain access to the positive coping strategies practiced respectively by each.
This paper is a critical review of the literature on the issue of how male behavior affects female outcomes in the promotion of gender equality. It employs the family as the main unit of analysis because a large part of gender interactions occurs within this institution. This survey first summarizes recent studies on the distribution of power within the family and identifies several factors ...
Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober
Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…
Huis, I.B. van; Gelfer, J.
After a focus on migrant women’s emancipation (Roggeband & Verloo. Social Policy & Administration, 41(3), 271–288, 2007), migrant men have become a specific target group of culturalized citizenship politics as well. In the Netherlands, men are targeted on a national level as well as on the level of
Person, Dawn; Dawson, Robert; García, Yvonne; Jones, Andrew
This chapter reports on three research studies conducted by the Center for Research on Educational Access and Leadership (C-REAL) at California State University, Fullerton (CSUF) that are designed to help higher education institutions enhance their practices in serving men of color, namely Black and Latino men.
Kavanagh, Shane A; Shelley, Julia M; Stevenson, Christopher
A number of theoretical approaches suggest that gender inequity may give rise to health risks for men. This study undertook a multilevel analysis to ascertain if state-level measures of gender inequity are predictors of men's mortality in the United States. Data for the analysis were taken primarily from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, which is based on a random sample of the non-institutionalised population. The full data set included 174,703 individuals nested within 50 states and had a six-year follow-up for mortality. Gender inequity was measured by nine variables: higher education, reproductive rights, abortion provider access, elected office, management, business ownership, labour force participation, earnings and relative poverty. Covariates at the individual level were age, income, education, race/ethnicity, marital status and employment status. Covariates at the state level were income inequality and per capita gross domestic product. The results of logistic multilevel modelling showed a number of measures of state-level gender inequity were significantly associated with men's mortality. In all of these cases greater gender inequity was associated with an increased mortality risk. In fully adjusted models for all-age adult men the elected office (OR 1.05 95% CI 1.01-1.09), business ownership (OR 1.04 95% CI 1.01-1.08), earnings (OR 1.04 95% CI 1.01-1.08) and relative poverty (OR 1.07 95% CI 1.03-1.10) measures all showed statistically significant effects for each 1 standard deviation increase in the gender inequity z -score. Similar effects were seen for working-age men. In older men (65+ years) only the earnings and relative poverty measures were statistically significant. This study provides evidence that gender inequity may increase men's health risks. The effect sizes while small are large enough across the range of gender inequity identified to have important population health implications.
Zakrisson, Ingrid; Anderzén, Marie; Lenell, Fredrik; Sandelin, Håkan
This study tested predictions regarding ambivalent sexism, previously studied cross-culturally, here "within-culturally", between groups from different organizational settings. Based on three samples (334 adults in general, 744 industrial employees, and 189 high school students), completing a Swedish version of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), the results revealed that men scored higher on hostile and benevolent sexism than women, and high school students scored higher than both adult samples on both forms of sexism. The results generally confirmed the predictions; the gender gap in benevolent sexism decreased as a function of increasing levels of general sexism and the correlation between hostile and benevolent sexism decreased with higher levels of general sexism. In fact, the groups scoring highest on general sexism displayed significant negative correlations indicating a polarized ideology of women among these groups. Implications, both theoretical and practical, derived from these results are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Palmer, Erika; Wilson, Benedicte
Dynamic engineering models have yet to be evaluated in the context of feminist engineering ethics. Decision-making concerning gender in dynamic modeling design is a gender and ethical issue that is important to address regardless of the system in which the dynamic modeling is applied. There are many dynamic modeling tools that operationally include the female population, however, there is an important distinction between females and women; it is the difference between biological sex and the social construct of gender, which is fluid and changes over time and geography. The ethical oversight in failing to represent or misrepresenting gender in model design when it is relevant to the model purpose can have implications for model validity and policy model development. This paper highlights this gender issue in the context of feminist engineering ethics using a dynamic population model. Women are often represented in this type of model only in their biological capacity, while lacking their gender identity. This illustrative example also highlights how language, including the naming of variables and communication with decision-makers, plays a role in this gender issue.
Niven, Hamish; Jose, Hayden; Rawstorne, Patrick; Nathan, Sally
There has been limited research on the experiences of men who have sex with men and transgender women in Timor-Leste. Previous research has suggested a phenomenon by which same-sex-attracted men and transgender women have sexual and intimate relationships with straight-identifying men or mane-forte. Transactional sex has also been reported to be common. This paper, which complements a larger national size estimation among key populations at risk of HIV, further investigates sexual and social identities and roles, including sexual practices, among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Timor-Leste. Fifteen interviews were conducted with a profile of participants from urban and rural settings. Using inductive thematic analysis, we found that gender identity played a significant role in sexual relationships, with mane-forte having power over their sexual partner(s). Transactional sex was also found to be customary. Some participants experienced stigma, discrimination, sexual coercion and violence, while others, such as mane-forte, did not. Our research suggests that gender identity and power are significant in sexual relationships between men who have sex with men and transgender women in Timor-Leste, have implications for HIV prevention efforts and may reflect gender norms within the broader community.
Arístegui, Inés; Radusky, Pablo D; Zalazar, Virginia; Lucas, Mar; Sued, Omar
The stigma related to HIV status, gender identity, and sexual orientation has negative implications for the quality of life of individuals. A qualitative study was conducted to explore the resources that these stigmatized groups recognize as tools to cope with stigma and maintain their psychological well-being. Four focus groups were conducted with gay men and transgender women divided by HIV status. A thematic analysis revealed that individual, interpersonal, and institutional resources are commonly recognized as coping resources. This article discusses the importance of enhancing self-acceptance, social support, and a legal framework that legitimizes these groups as right holders.
Shrestha, Roman; Karki, Pramila; Copenhaver, Michael
Heterosexual sex involving female sex workers (FSWs) is widely documented for its role in facilitating the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV. Critical to such studies, and increasingly considered essential to HIV prevention efforts, is the gender constructs and power dynamics within relationships. However, little efforts have been made, which focus on male clients of FSWs, particularly on the relationship between gender ideologies and men's sexual contact with FSWs, within the Nepali context. The present study aims to fill this critical gap by assessing the prevalence of use of FSWs and its association with STIs/HIV-related risk behaviors and gender ideologies among Nepali men. We used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) 2011. For the purpose of analyses, we included a sample of 4,121 men, aged 15-49 years. During data analyses, we used multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for the following variables: age, region, residence, religion, educational level, wealth index, employment status, and cigarette smoking status. Of the total sample, approximately 5% reported the use of FSWs in their lifetime. In regression models, men who had sex with FSWs were more likely to report a history of STIs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.69-5.43; P < 0.001], not using condom all the time (aOR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.05-2.12; P = 0.010), more than one sexual partner (aOR: 3.75; 95% CI: 2.18-5.23; P < 0.001), and have had early sexual debut (aOR: 2.60; 95% CI: 1.85-3.67; P < 0.001). Respondents reporting the endorsement of violence against wives (aOR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.01-2.84; P = 0.04) and male sexual entitlement (aOR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.21-2.32; P = 0.001) were significantly more likely to report sexual contact with FSWs. Our findings highlight the need to develop and implement specifically tailored interventions toward male clients of FSWs, with a particular emphasis on promoting
Garcia, Jonathan; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Cabello, Robinson; Clark, Jesse L
HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to affect men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru at disproportionately high rates. The ineffectiveness of traditional prevention strategies may be due to the disconnect between health promotion messages and community-level understandings of sexual cultures. We conducted 15 workshops with MSM and TW to develop a community-based sexual health intervention. Intervention development consisted of focus groups and scenic improvisation to identify sexual scripts for an HIV prevention telenovela, or Spanish soap opera. Workshops were stratified by self-reported socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and gender identity: (1) low-income MSM (n = 9); (2) middle/high-income MSM (n = 6); and (3) TW (n = 8). Employing a conceptual model based on sexual scripts and critical consciousness theories, this paper reports on three themes identified during the telenovela-development process as participants sought to "rescript" social and sexual stereotypes associated with HIV-related vulnerability: (1) management of MSM and TW social identities at the intersection of socioeconomic status, sexuality, and gender performance; (2) social constructions of gender and/or sexual role and perceived and actual HIV/STI risk(s) within sexual partnership interactions; and (3) idealized and actual sexual scripts in the negotiation of safer sex practices between MSM/TW and their partners. These findings are key to reframing existing prevention strategies that fail to effectively engage poorly defined "high-risk populations." Leveraging community-based expertise, the results provide an alternative to the static transfer of information through expert-patient interactions in didactic sessions commonly used in HIV prevention interventions among MSM and TW.
Bianchi, Suzanne; Lesnard, Laurent; Nazio, Tiziana; Raley, Sara
Women, who generally do more unpaid and less paid work than men, have greater incentives to stay in marriages than cohabiting unions, which generally carry fewer legal protections for individuals that wish to dissolve their relationship. The extent to which cohabitation is institutionalized, however, is a matter of policy and varies substantially by country. The gender gap in paid and unpaid work between married and cohabiting individuals should be larger in countries where cohabitation is less institutionalized and where those in cohabiting relationships have relatively fewer legal protections should the relationship dissolve, yet few studies have explored this variation. Using time diary data from France, Italy, and the United States, we assess the time men and women devote to paid and unpaid work in cohabiting and married couples. These three countries provide a useful diversity in marital regimes for examining these expectations: France, where cohabitation is most "marriage like" and where partnerships can be registered and carry legal rights; the United States, where cohabitation is common but is short-lived and unstable and where legal protections vary across states; and Italy, where cohabitation is not common and where such unions are not legally acknowledged and less socially approved than in either France or the United States. Cohabitating men's and women's time allocated to market and nonmarket work is generally more similar than married men and women. Our expectations about country differences are only partially borne out by the findings. Greater gender differences in the time allocated to market and nonmarket work are found in Italy relative to either France or the U.S.
Eagly, Alice H; Wood, Wendy
Nature-nurture debates continue to be highly contentious in the psychology of gender despite the common recognition that both types of causal explanations are important. In this article, we provide a historical analysis of the vicissitudes of nature and nurture explanations of sex differences and similarities during the quarter century since the founding of the Association for Psychological Science. We consider how the increasing use of meta-analysis helped to clarify sex difference findings if not the causal explanations for these effects. To illustrate these developments, this article describes socialization and preferences for mates as two important areas of gender research. We also highlight developing research trends that address the interactive processes by which nature and nurture work together in producing sex differences and similarities. Such theorizing holds the promise of better science as well as a more coherent account of the psychology of women and men that should prove to be more influential with the broader public. © The Author(s) 2013.
Rosario Castillo-Mayén; Beatriz Montes-Berges
Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 1...
Earnings are the fundamental determinant of economic welfare for employed individuals, as well as of the potential gain to market employment for those not currently employed. Earnings are important as a social indicator specifically in relation to gender equality. Ten years after the Beijing conference the gender wage gap still exists in the EU labour market. This paper gives a brief review of economic theories and different approaches to explain the wage gap problem and importance of legisla...
Gutman, S A
A set of guidelines to assist men with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to alleviate gender role strain was assessed to determine its effectiveness and acceptability to participants. Four adult male participants with TBI received the intervention (the set of guidelines) for 4 months. The intervention consisted of rebuilding self-identified gendered social roles and activities. Focused interviews and participant observation were used to determine whether gender role strain changed after intervention. The participants reported that the intervention enabled them to (a) enhance their gender role satisfaction through newly rebuilt roles and activities, (b) attain certain long-held personal goals, (c) feel more like members of society, (d) perceive a greater congruency between their internal self-images and external postinjury roles, (e) learn more about personal skills and values as men, (f) feel more comfortable using help-seeking behaviors, (g) feel a sense of shared experience and affinity, (h) feel more understood and accepted, and (i) contribute to others through community member roles. The set of guidelines for alleviating gender role strain was effective in assisting these participants to enhance their gender role satisfaction through rebuilding desired male-gendered social roles and activities. Dating, courtship, extended family member, community member, friend, and mentor-protege roles, lost as a result of TBI, were rebuilt through gender-neutral activities that facilitated a sense of volitional control, competency, and normalcy. Nonetheless, the men continued to lack desired rites of passage leading from male adolescence to adulthood.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine factors influencing e-learning adoption and the moderating role of gender. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM by adding attitude and social interaction. The new construct of social interaction is applied to the South American context. Gender effects on e-learning adoption from educators’ perspectives have seldom been explored. The data collection takes place in three major Brazilian universities. In total, 446 faculty members responded to the questionnaire. Our structural equation modeling reveals that ease of use and perceived usefulness are significant antecedents of attitude, which in turn affects intention. However, unlike the original TAM, perceived usefulness is not a direct driver of intention. In terms of moderation, gender affects three relationships: (1 ease of use –› perceived usefulness; (2 perceived usefulness –› attitude, and (3 intention –› actual behavior. The analysis is carried out in a single country; thus, caution should be taken in generalization of the results. The findings will help academics, educators, and policy makers to better understand the mechanism of e-learning adoption in Brazil.
Shrestha, Roman; Karki, Pramila; Copenhaver, Michael
Heterosexual sex involving female sex workers (FSWs) is widely documented for its role in facilitating the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV. Critical to such studies, and increasingly considered essential to HIV prevention efforts, is the gender constructs and power dynamics within relationships. However, little efforts have been made, which focus on male clients of FSWs, particularly on the relationship between gender ideologies and men’s sexual contact with FSWs, within the Nepali context. The present study aims to fill this critical gap by assessing the prevalence of use of FSWs and its association with STIs/HIV-related risk behaviors and gender ideologies among Nepali men. We used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) 2011. For the purpose of analyses, we included a sample of 4,121 men, aged 15–49 years. During data analyses, we used multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for the following variables: age, region, residence, religion, educational level, wealth index, employment status, and cigarette smoking status. Of the total sample, approximately 5% reported the use of FSWs in their lifetime. In regression models, men who had sex with FSWs were more likely to report a history of STIs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.69–5.43; P < 0.001], not using condom all the time (aOR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.05–2.12; P = 0.010), more than one sexual partner (aOR: 3.75; 95% CI: 2.18–5.23; P < 0.001), and have had early sexual debut (aOR: 2.60; 95% CI: 1.85–3.67; P < 0.001). Respondents reporting the endorsement of violence against wives (aOR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.01–2.84; P = 0.04) and male sexual entitlement (aOR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.21–2.32; P = 0.001) were significantly more likely to report sexual contact with FSWs. Our findings highlight the need to develop and implement specifically tailored interventions toward male clients of FSWs, with a particular emphasis on
Ovseiko, Pavel V; Chapple, Alison; Edmunds, Laurel D; Ziebland, Sue
While in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Australia, higher education and research institutions are widely engaged with the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science to advance gender equality, empirical research on this process and its impact is rare. This study combined two data sets (free- text comments from a survey and qualitative interviews) to explore the range of experiences and perceptions of participation in Athena SWAN in medical science departments of a research-intensive university in Oxford, United Kingdom. The study is based on the secondary analysis of data from two projects: 59 respondents to an anonymous online survey (42 women, 17 men) provided relevant free-text comments and, separately, 37 women participated in face-to-face narrative interviews. Free-text survey comments and narrative interviews were analysed thematically using constant comparison. Both women and men said that participation in Athena SWAN had brought about important structural and cultural changes, including increased support for women's careers, greater appreciation of caring responsibilities, and efforts to challenge discrimination and bias. Many said that these positive changes would not have happened without linkage of Athena SWAN to government research funding, while others thought there were unintended consequences. Concerns about the programme design and implementation included a perception that Athena SWAN has limited ability to address longstanding and entrenched power and pay imbalances, persisting lack of work-life balance in academic medicine, questions about the sustainability of positive changes, belief that achieving the award could become an end in itself, resentment about perceived positive discrimination, and perceptions that further structural and cultural changes were needed in the university and wider society. The findings from this study suggest that Athena SWAN has a positive impact in advancing gender equality, but there may be limits to how much it can
Mellinger, Christopher; Levant, Ronald F
Masculinity has been found to predict the sexual prejudice of heterosexual men against gay men. The present study investigated the role of four variables as moderators of the relationships between two masculinity constructs (endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology and gender role conflict) and sexual prejudice in men. The hypothesized moderators were: direct and indirect friendships with gay men, gender self-esteem, acknowledged same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism. A total of 383 men completed 8 scales plus a demographic questionnaire. Direct friendship strengthened the positive relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice, contrary to hypothesis. This finding could mean that high masculinity ideology scores reduced the likelihood that a man with many gay friends would let go of his prejudice. Direct friendship did not moderate the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice nor did indirect friendship moderate either relationship; however, both forms of friendship predicted prejudice, as hypothesized. Gender self-esteem strengthened the positive relationships between both masculinity variables and sexual prejudice as hypothesized. Same-sex attraction weakened the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice as hypothesized, but contrary to hypothesis did not moderate the relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice. Religious fundamentalism predicted prejudice, but showed no significant moderation. The results were discussed in terms of limitations and suggestions for future research and application. In conclusion, this line of investigation appears promising and should be continued and the present findings can be utilized in anti-prejudice social marketing campaigns and in counseling.
Staffansson Pauli, Karin
Gender Theory started in understanding and explain women's role in society and are also now including men and masculinities, Gender Theory has recently been adapted to family business research. This chapter will briefly introduce Gender Theory and its development, before reviewing how it has been used in family business research. Arguing that the family business context is suitable in studying gender phenomena, the chapter outlines several ways through which Gender Theory could yield new insi...
The literature shows that there are important differences between women and men in the underlying mechanisms of transmission of HIV infection and AIDS, as well as in the social and economic consequences of HIV/AIDS. These stem from sexual behaviour and socially constructed 'gender' differences between women and men in roles and responsibilities. Despite the fact that numerous gender-related sociocultural factors influence HIV/AIDS protective behaviours, little gender specificity is included in HIV prevention among the elderly. In order to close this gap, this study explored gender-related perceptions of risk of HIV infection among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa in Gauteng Province, South Africa. This qualitative study used purposive sampling to conduct three focus group interviews with 22 women and 10 men who were above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that both genders blame each other for the spreading of HIV/AIDS. Male participants displayed the tendency to have multiple partners, whereas females accepted that males are promiscuous. Mixed perceptions about disclosure of HIV status were found. Condom use was a challenge, as men did not know how to introduce it with their wives, and some female participants indicated that men are resistant to using condoms. The elderly men also believed that women will have sex in exchange for money. It is concluded that there is a need for substantial behaviour change among both elderly males and females, which should address gender power relations. More in-depth and extensive research in this area is recommended.
Daniel Costa Lima
Full Text Available Considerando o compromisso do Estado brasileiro de coibir e prevenir a violência contra a mulher, firmado em várias conferências internacionais e tendo em vista a promulgação da Lei 11.340/06 - a Lei Maria da Penha -, este artigo tem como objetivo realizar uma reflexão sobre a incorporação dos homens e da perspectiva de gênero nos esforços de prevenção e atenção à violência contra as mulheres. Apesar do crescente interesse da literatura científica e da intervenção em saúde com o envolvimento dos homens, em especial, no campo dos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos, comparativamente, reflexões e intervenções com homens autores de violência contra a mulher têm recebido bem menos atenção de órgãos governamentais, não-governamentais e pela academia. O artigo apresenta alguns conceitos e dados sobre a violência contra as mulheres e descreve um panorama sobre a conexão entre gênero, saúde e masculinidades; analisa trabalhos que abordam os temas homens e violência contra as mulheres e apresenta algumas ações voltadas à prevenção dessa forma de violência junto à população masculina; e por fim tece algumas considerações finais sobre o tema.Considering the commitment made by the Brazilian Government to restrain and prevent violence against women, signed in various international conferences, and in view of the promulgation of the Law 11.340/06 - Lei Maria da Penha -, this article intends to develop a reflection on the incorporation of men and of the gender perspective in efforts to prevent and attend to violence against women. Despite the increasing interest of scientific literature and health intervention in the involvement of men, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive rights, comparatively, reflections and interventions directed at men who have committed violence against women have received far less attention from governmental and non-governmental institutions, and from the academy. The article
Internalized homophobia is a risk factor for depression among gay men and lesbians. The aim of the study was to test whether the internalized homophobia-depression relation was moderated by gender (stronger among gay men compared with lesbians), age (stronger among younger compared with older gay men and lesbians), and place of residence (stronger among gay men and lesbians who live in rural areas compared with those who live in urban areas). An Australian sample of 311 self-identified gay men and 570 self-identified lesbians, aged 18 to 70 years, completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Results indicated that age and gender did not moderate the internalized homophobia-depressive symptoms relation. Place of residence was a significant moderator for gay men but not lesbians. In contrast to the hypothesis, the internalized homophobia-depression relation was significant only among gay men who resided in urban areas. Those who work with gay men should be particularly aware of the significant relationship between internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men who reside in urban areas.
Despite awareness of the importance of psycho-affective factors in the development of sexual problems, there is a lack of studies exploring the relation of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual compulsivity (SC) to sexual functioning. Because sex differences in SSS and SC have been reported, gender identity (GI; an individual's own experience of his or her gender that is unrelated to the actual biological sex) might act as a moderator in this relation. To understand the role of SSS and SC for men and women's sexual functioning and to explore whether these potential associations are moderated by GI. A population-based cross-sectional online survey targeted 279 individuals (69.2% women, 30.8% men; mean age = 32 years). Validated questionnaires, including the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale, the Sexual Compulsivity Scale, the Female Sexual Function Index, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool, and the International Index of Erectile Function, were applied. Variations in SSS and SC and their association with sexual functioning were investigated using Spearman rank correlation. Moderation analyses were conducted using regression models in which the interaction terms between SSS and GI and between SCS and GI as predictors of sexual functioning were included. A statistically significant correlation between SSS and SC could be detected in men and women (r = 0.41 and 0.33, respectively; P < .001 for the two comparisons). In women, higher levels of SSS were associated with higher levels of desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm and less sexual pain (P < .05 for all comparisons). No moderating effect of GI could be detected. In men, GI was a significant moderator in the relation between SC and erectile function (β = 0.47; P < .001) and between SSS and erectile and ejaculatory function (β = -0.41 and 0.30; P < .001 for the two comparisons). The present study is the first to show a link between SSS and SC and sexual functioning. The results might have important
Beagan, Brenda L; Fredericks, Erin
Gender parity is frequently raised as an equity issue in occupational therapy, with strategies proposed to recruit more men. This article explores whether this is a legitimate equity concern. Most employment is gender segregated; when gender balances change, the field either re-genders feminine or creates gender-segregated internal divisions. Men avoid feminized jobs because they pay less and hold less social status. They are a "step down" for men. In such jobs, men are disproportionately pushed into management positions, with better pay, more prestige, and less hands-on care. Equity issues concern structural barriers to success in particular employment fields. Though they may feel discomfort in a feminized field, men do not face structural barriers in occupational therapy. Broader challenges to traditional gender norms are needed, but there is no evidence that gender parity is an equity concern or that recruitment targeting masculinity would make a difference.
Full Text Available Using a large social media dataset and open-vocabulary methods from computational linguistics, we explored differences in language use across gender, affiliation, and assertiveness. In Study 1, we analyzed topics (groups of semantically similar words across 10 million messages from over 52,000 Facebook users. Most language differed little across gender. However, topics most associated with self-identified female participants included friends, family, and social life, whereas topics most associated with self-identified male participants included swearing, anger, discussion of objects instead of people, and the use of argumentative language. In Study 2, we plotted male- and female-linked language topics along two interpersonal dimensions prevalent in gender research: affiliation and assertiveness. In a sample of over 15,000 Facebook users, we found substantial gender differences in the use of affiliative language and slight differences in assertive language. Language used more by self-identified females was interpersonally warmer, more compassionate, polite, and-contrary to previous findings-slightly more assertive in their language use, whereas language used more by self-identified males was colder, more hostile, and impersonal. Computational linguistic analysis combined with methods to automatically label topics offer means for testing psychological theories unobtrusively at large scale.
Women's advantage in college graduation is evident at all socioeconomic levels and for most racial and ethnic groups. This study examines whether college experiences critical to persistence to graduation, including college major, attendance patterns, social integration, and academic performance, contribute to this gender gap in graduation.…
Tyler, Meagan; Fairbrother, Peter
This paper offers a critical review of the international literature on gender, disaster and rural masculinities. Empirical reference is made to bushfires in Australia, offering new evidence from the State of Victoria. Bushfires loom large in the Australian imagination and there is an increasing amount of research now being conducted in relation to…
Anderson-Martinez, Richard; Vianden, Jörg
This article presents the results of a qualitative exploration of the performance of masculine gender identities in six gay male students enrolled at a master's comprehensive public institution in the Midwest. This article builds on the work of Laker and Davis (2011) and Rankin (2005). The findings indicate participants adapted their gender…
Bruening, Jennifer E.
Critical race scholarship focuses on people of color, women, and the intersection of race and gender. Conversely, sport scholarship has reflected the dominant White male culture. Sport culture ignores the experience of women and people of color, and most specifically ignores women who are people of color. This paper provides an overview of the…
Park, Gregory; Schwartz, H. Andrew; Kern, Margaret L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Kosinski, Michael; Stillwell, David; Ungar, Lyle H.; Seligman, Martin E. P.
Using a large social media dataset and open-vocabulary methods from computational linguistics, we explored differences in language use across gender, affiliation, and assertiveness. In Study 1, we analyzed topics (groups of semantically similar words) across 10 million messages from over 52,000 Facebook users. Most language differed little across gender. However, topics most associated with self-identified female participants included friends, family, and social life, whereas topics most associated with self-identified male participants included swearing, anger, discussion of objects instead of people, and the use of argumentative language. In Study 2, we plotted male- and female-linked language topics along two interpersonal dimensions prevalent in gender research: affiliation and assertiveness. In a sample of over 15,000 Facebook users, we found substantial gender differences in the use of affiliative language and slight differences in assertive language. Language used more by self-identified females was interpersonally warmer, more compassionate, polite, and—contrary to previous findings—slightly more assertive in their language use, whereas language used more by self-identified males was colder, more hostile, and impersonal. Computational linguistic analysis combined with methods to automatically label topics offer means for testing psychological theories unobtrusively at large scale. PMID:27223607
Wester, Stephen R.; Vogel, David L.; Wei, Meifen; McLain, Rodney
Little research exists exploring the intersection of male gender role conflict (GRC), racial identity, and psychological distress. Accordingly, using a sample of 130 self-identified African American male participants, this study explored which aspects of racial identity mediated the relationship between GRC and psychological distress. Results…
Davey, Carla M.; Bishop, John B.
Recent literature suggests that, like midrange eating disorders among college women, male muscle dysmorphia is emerging as a physical as well as a health concern among college men. The authors define the disorder, review diagnostic and etiological considerations, and discuss the added complication of creatine use to self-manage muscle dysmorphic…
Women and men use rural and urban transport for different purposes based on their socially determined roles and responsibilities. Poor rural transport systems limit access to markets, education, and health services for all, but even more so for women and girls. Female mobility is often constrained by heavy domestic work-loads and time spent traveling by foot, carrying heavy loads over roug...
Mcdermott, Ryon C.; Lopez, Frederick G.
Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence…
Full Text Available Background Patriarchy dominates not only the mind-set and behavioural patterns of both males and females in India in general but also has a far-reaching impact on work culture as well as quality of work life. Indians not only suffer the archaic gender patterns but also are burdened with a unique system of caste that discriminates people based on their birth in a particular section of society. The government has made an effort to eradicate the adverse impacts of the caste system by making a unique reservation policy (a form of affirmative action in work and education that tries to promote social justice. Participants and procedure The present research study was conducted to assess the perception of public-sector employees of the diversity climate of their organizations (in terms of the diversity created by the affirmative action and the psychological impact of this perception. Three hundred participants (all employed in public-sector organizations were categorized into four groups, namely General Category Men, Reserved Category Men, General Category Women and Reserved Category Women. Participants in the reserved category were those who had directly benefitted from the affirmative action. All the participants were given questionnaires to assess perceived diversity climate, work-family conflict and alienation from work. Thirty percent of the participants were interviewed with semi-structured open-ended questions. Quantitative data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential (ANOVA statistics. Results The study’s findings revealed that women in the two categories hold contrasting perceptions of their organisations’ diversity climates. While among the four categories General Category Women hold the worst perception, Reserved Category Women hold the best. The former suffer from severe psychological consequences. Qualitative analysis via thematic analysis of individual interviews revealed themes that explain the findings of the study
Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Müller, Stephanie M; López-Zafra, Esther
Recent studies on the malleability of gender stereotypes show that they are flexible, dynamic structures that change with the passage of time. In a study, we examined perceptions about men and women of the past, present, and future in Spain and focused on the influence of an important demographic variable on these perceptions: the population size of people's location of residence. Results showed that people perceived an increase in similarity of men and women from the past to the present and from the present to the future. In less-populated locations, however, men and women were more gender stereotyped and, consequently, still perceived to be further from equality than those in more populated areas. We concluded that the study of dynamic gender stereotypes benefits from extensive research in populations that vary in their demographic characteristics and shows the importance of recent movements in rural areas supporting women's participation in the modernization process.
Black, Alice A. (Jill)
Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34
Full Text Available Orientation: Gender differences in personality have been explored in American and European contexts, but African and specifically South African research in the area is lacking. Research purpose: This study investigated whether there were gender differences in personality and what this might mean for a South African organisational context where personality assessments are frequently employed for decision-making. Motivation: Personality tests are widely used in many fields, including the industrial, organisational and research fields. Due to the impact that these tests have, it is essential that these tests are used in a fair and unbiased manner. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional, non-experimental design was used. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information and the NEO-PI-R was administered to a non-probability, convenience sample of 425 South African university students. The data was examined using ANOVAs and ANCOVAs. Main findings: Significant gender differences were found on Neuroticism, Anxiety, Vulnerability, Depression, Self-consciousness, Extraversion, Warmth, Activity, Assertiveness, Positive emotions, Aesthetics, Feelings, Ideas, Agreeableness, Compliance, Tender-mindedness, Altruism, Modesty, Straightforwardness, Trust, Conscientiousness, Order, Achievement striving and Self-discipline. Practical/managerial implications: The findings indicate differences between men and women are systematic and largely innate and therefore need to be acknowledged when personality tests are used in decision-making. Personality tests also need to be employed constructively to further team-building and diversity. Contribution/value-add: This study adds to the body of research in South Africa on gender as well as on how the NEO personality scales manifest in different race groups.
Fisher, William A; Rosen, Raymond C; Eardley, Ian; Niederberger, Craig; Nadel, Andrea; Kaufman, Joel; Sand, Michael
The aim of Phase II of the Men's Attitudes to Life Events and Sexuality (MALES) Study is to explore PDE5 inhibitor treatment seeking among men with erectile dysfunction (ED). Phase II of the MALES study involved 2,912 men, aged 20-75 years, from 8 countries (U.S., U.K., Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Mexico, and Brazil), who reported ED. Participants were recruited from the MALES Phase I sample  and via booster methods (e.g., physician referral, street interception), and completed self-report questionnaires concerning the characteristics of their ED, their efforts to seek PDE5 inhibitor treatment for their sexual dysfunction, and attitudinal and referent influences that potentially affect treatment-seeking. Statistical analyses focus on identification of correlates of PDE5 inhibitor treatment seeking. PDE5 inhibitor utilization is strongly associated with ED sufferers' assessment of the severity of their sexual dysfunction, with their belief that medication for ED is dangerous, and with their perceptions of whether physicians, other professionals, and spouses or family members are supportive of their seeking treatment. ED sufferers who evaluate their sexual dysfunction as severe, who believe that medication for ED is not dangerous, and who perceive support for treatment seeking from referent others, are more likely to utilize PDE5 inhibitor treatment. Findings indicate that perceived ED severity, beliefs about ED medication, and referent influences are strongly correlated with utilization of PDE5 inhibitor therapy. These findings aid our understanding of factors that may incline men with ED to seek-or to avoid-PDE5 inhibitor therapy for their sexual dysfunction, and provide a basis for clinical and educational interventions to assist men with ED to seek appropriate treatment.
Full Text Available Men are traditionally thought to have more problems in understanding women compared to understanding other men, though evidence supporting this assumption remains sparse. Recently, it has been shown, however, that meńs problems in recognizing women's emotions could be linked to difficulties in extracting the relevant information from the eye region, which remain one of the richest sources of social information for the attribution of mental states to others. To determine possible differences in the neural correlates underlying emotion recognition from female, as compared to male eyes, a modified version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was applied to a sample of 22 participants. We found that men actually had twice as many problems in recognizing emotions from female as compared to male eyes, and that these problems were particularly associated with a lack of activation in limbic regions of the brain (including the hippocampus and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Moreover, men revealed heightened activation of the right amygdala to male stimuli regardless of condition (sex vs. emotion recognition. Thus, our findings highlight the function of the amygdala in the affective component of theory of mind (ToM and in empathy, and provide further evidence that men are substantially less able to infer mental states expressed by women, which may be accompanied by sex-specific differences in amygdala activity.
Schiffer, Boris; Pawliczek, Christina; Müller, Bernhard W; Gizewski, Elke R; Walter, Henrik
Men are traditionally thought to have more problems in understanding women compared to understanding other men, though evidence supporting this assumption remains sparse. Recently, it has been shown, however, that meńs problems in recognizing women's emotions could be linked to difficulties in extracting the relevant information from the eye region, which remain one of the richest sources of social information for the attribution of mental states to others. To determine possible differences in the neural correlates underlying emotion recognition from female, as compared to male eyes, a modified version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was applied to a sample of 22 participants. We found that men actually had twice as many problems in recognizing emotions from female as compared to male eyes, and that these problems were particularly associated with a lack of activation in limbic regions of the brain (including the hippocampus and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex). Moreover, men revealed heightened activation of the right amygdala to male stimuli regardless of condition (sex vs. emotion recognition). Thus, our findings highlight the function of the amygdala in the affective component of theory of mind (ToM) and in empathy, and provide further evidence that men are substantially less able to infer mental states expressed by women, which may be accompanied by sex-specific differences in amygdala activity.
Xu, Xiaohe; Kerley, Kent R.; Sirisunyaluck, Bangon
There is a widespread agreement among gender and family violence investigators that gender and socioeconomic inequalities play key roles in domestic violence against women (DVAW). By integrating the concepts of gender traditionalism and decision-making power into a variety of resource-based theories, this study develops a gender perspective to…
Storer, Heather L.; Casey, Erin A.; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Tolman, Richard M.
© 2015, The Author(s) 2015. Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that “primary prevention” is not a fixed term in the context ...
Byg, Blaire; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Funk, Danielle; James, Bonface; Potter, Jennifer
Syndemic theory posits that epidemics of multiple physical and psychosocial problems co-occur among disadvantaged groups due to adverse social conditions. Although sexual minority populations are often stigmatized and vulnerable to multiple health problems, the syndemic perspective has been underutilized in understanding chronic disease. To assess the potential utility of this perspective in understanding the management of co-occurring HIV and Type 2 diabetes, we used linear regression to examine glycemic control (A1c) among men who have sex with men (MSM) with both HIV and Type 2 diabetes (n = 88). Bivariable linear regression explored potential syndemic correlates of inadequate glycemic control. Compared to those with adequate glycemic control (A1c ≤ 7.5 %), more men with inadequate glycemic control (A1c > 7.5 %) had hypertension (70 vs. 46 %, p = 0.034), high triglycerides (93 vs. 61 %, p = 0.002), depression (67 vs. 39 %, p = 0.018), current substance abuse (15 vs. 2 %, p = 0.014), and detectable levels of HIV (i.e., viral load ≥75 copies per ml blood; 30 vs. 10 %, p = 0.019). In multivariable regression controlling for age, the factors that were independently associated with higher A1c were high triglycerides, substance use, and detectable HIV viral load, suggesting that chronic disease management among MSM is complex and challenging for patients and providers. Findings also suggest that syndemic theory can be a clarifying lens for understanding chronic disease management among sexual minority stigmatized populations. Interventions targeting single conditions may be inadequate when multiple conditions co-occur; thus, research using a syndemic framework may be helpful in identifying intervention strategies that target multiple co-occurring conditions.
McCormack, Mark; Wignall, Liam
This qualitative research examines the influence of pornography consumption on young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Drawing on 35 in-depth interviews with young men from an elite university in the north-eastern United States, we examine how pornography was experienced as a leisure activity to be consumed in free time. Rather than focusing on the potential harms of pornography, we use an inductive analytic approach to explore the broader range of experiences that participants had, since the time they first consumed pornography. We demonstrate that pornography had educational benefits for these young men, related to their sexual desires, emerging sexual identities and for developing new sexual techniques. This study is part of a growing body of research that seeks to develop a holistic understanding of pornography in society, addressing the absence of the lived experience of the consumer in most pornography research.
McCormack, Mark; Wignall, Liam
This qualitative research examines the influence of pornography consumption on young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Drawing on 35 in-depth interviews with young men from an elite university in the north-eastern United States, we examine how pornography was experienced as a leisure activity to be consumed in free time. Rather than focusing on the potential harms of pornography, we use an inductive analytic approach to explore the broader range of experiences that participants had, since the time they first consumed pornography. We demonstrate that pornography had educational benefits for these young men, related to their sexual desires, emerging sexual identities and for developing new sexual techniques. This study is part of a growing body of research that seeks to develop a holistic understanding of pornography in society, addressing the absence of the lived experience of the consumer in most pornography research. PMID:28989197
Schweitzer, S.; Schinagl, C.; Djuras, G.; Frühwirth, M.; Hoschopf, H.; Wagner, F.; Schulz, B.; Nemitz, W.; Grote, V.; Reidl, S.; Pritz, P.; Moser, M.; Wenzl, F. P.
In recent years, LED lighting became an indispensable alternative to conventional lighting systems. Sophisticated solutions offer not only comfortable white light with a good color rendering. They also provide the possibility of changing illuminance and color temperature. Some systems even simulate daylight over the entire day, some including natural variations as due to clouds. Such systems are supposed to support the chronobiological needs of human and to have a positive effect on well-being, performance, sleep-quality and health. Lighting can also be used to support specific aims in a situation, like to improve productivity in activation or to support recreation in relaxation. Research regarding suitable light-settings for such situations and superordinate questions like their influence on well-being and health is still incomplete. We investigated the subjective preferences of men and women regarding light-settings for activation and relaxation. We supplied two rooms and four cubes with light sources that provide the possibility of tuning illuminance, color temperature and deviation from Plackian locus. More than 80 individuals - belonging to four groups differing in gender and age - were asked to imagine activating and recovering situations for which they should adjust suitable and pleasant lighting by tuning the above mentioned light properties. It was shown that there are clear differences in the lighting conditions preferred for these two situations. Also some combined gender- and age-specific differences became apparent.
Yore, Jennifer; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusadana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Saggurti, Niranjan; Balaiah, Donta; Raj, Anita
Globally, 41% of all pregnancies are unintended, increasing risk for unsafe abortion, miscarriage and maternal and child morbidities and mortality. One in four pregnancies in India (3.3 million pregnancies, annually) are unintended; 2/3 of these occur in the context of no modern contraceptive use. In addition, no contraceptive use until desired number and sex composition of children is achieved remains a norm in India. Research shows that globally and in India, the youngest and most newly married wives are least likely to use contraception and most likely to report husband's exclusive family planning decision-making control, suggesting that male engagement and family planning support is important for this group. Thus, the Counseling Husbands to Achieve Reproductive Health and Marital Equity (CHARM) intervention was developed in recognition of the need for more male engagement family planning models that include gender equity counseling and focus on spacing contraception use in rural India. For this study, a multi-session intervention delivered to men but inclusive of their wives was developed and evaluated as a two-armed cluster randomized controlled design study conducted across 50 mapped clusters in rural Maharashtra, India. Eligible rural young husbands and their wives (N = 1081) participated in a three session gender-equity focused family planning program delivered to the men (Sessions 1 and 2) and their wives (Session 3) by village health providers in rural India. Survey assessments were conducted at baseline and 9&18 month follow-ups with eligible men and their wives, and pregnancy tests were obtained from wives at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Additional in-depth understanding of how intervention impact occurred was assessed via in-depth interviews at 18 month follow-up with VHPs and a subsample of couples (n = 50, 2 couples per intervention cluster). Process evaluation was conducted to collect feedback from husbands, wives, and VHPs on program
Friedman, Daniela B; Corwin, Sara J; Dominick, Gregory M; Rose, India D
Prostate cancer (PrCA) is the most diagnosed cancer among men in the United States, especially among African American (AA) men. The purpose of this formative study was to explore the implications of applying Nutbeam's multidimensional health literacy framework to AA men's understanding of PrCA information. Participants were 25 AA men aged 45 and older in South Carolina. Their functional health literacy was assessed using two modified Cloze tests and the Shortened Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA). Men also participated in interviews or focus groups during which they were asked questions about PrCA risk, prevention, and screening. Transcripts were reviewed for recurrent themes and analyzed qualitatively using NVivo7. Mean S-TOFHLA was 28.28 (+/-1.98), implying "adequate" comprehension. Mean Cloze was .71 (+/-.05) for a Grade 8 document and .66 (+/-.04) for a Grade 13 document, also showing "adequate" comprehension. Cloze scores for the Grade 8 resource were lower for participants with less education (P = .047). Despite having satisfactory literacy test scores, results from interviews and focus groups revealed participants' limited understanding and misconceptions about PrCA risk. Many wanted information about screening and family history delivered word-of-mouth by AA women and church pastors as few of them had ever received or actively sought out PrCA resources. Using Nutbeam's framework, gaps in health literacy which were not adequately captured by the validated tools emerged during the interviews and focus groups. Study findings provide important implications for PrCA communication with AA men to correct misperceptions about cancer risk and motivate preventive behaviors.
Shane A. Kavanagh
Full Text Available A number of theoretical approaches suggest that gender inequity may give rise to health risks for men. This study undertook a multilevel analysis to ascertain if state-level measures of gender inequity are predictors of men's mortality in the United States. Data for the analysis were taken primarily from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, which is based on a random sample of the non-institutionalised population. The full data set included 174,703 individuals nested within 50 states and had a six-year follow-up for mortality. Gender inequity was measured by nine variables: higher education, reproductive rights, abortion provider access, elected office, management, business ownership, labour force participation, earnings and relative poverty. Covariates at the individual level were age, income, education, race/ethnicity, marital status and employment status. Covariates at the state level were income inequality and per capita gross domestic product. The results of logistic multilevel modelling showed a number of measures of state-level gender inequity were significantly associated with men's mortality. In all of these cases greater gender inequity was associated with an increased mortality risk. In fully adjusted models for all-age adult men the elected office (OR 1.05 95% CI 1.01–1.09, business ownership (OR 1.04 95% CI 1.01–1.08, earnings (OR 1.04 95% CI 1.01–1.08 and relative poverty (OR 1.07 95% CI 1.03–1.10 measures all showed statistically significant effects for each 1 standard deviation increase in the gender inequity z-score. Similar effects were seen for working-age men. In older men (65+ years only the earnings and relative poverty measures were statistically significant. This study provides evidence that gender inequity may increase men's health risks. The effect sizes while small are large enough across the range of gender inequity identified to have important population health implications.
Divya S. Bhatia
Full Text Available BackgroundThis qualitative study investigated gender power inequalities as they contribute to relationship dynamics and HIV-serostatus disclosure among men and women living with HIV in Durban, South Africa. HIV serodiscordance among men and women within stable partnerships contributes to high HIV incidence in southern Africa, yet disclosure rates remain low. Given the emphasis on prevention for HIV-serodiscordant couples, this research supports the urgent need to explore how best to support couples to recognize that they are part of this priority population and to access appropriate prevention and treatment.MethodsThirty-five in-depth individual interviews were conducted with 15 HIV-positive men and 20 HIV-positive women (not couples receiving care at public-sector clinics near Durban. A structured coding scheme was developed to investigate men’s and women’s attitudes toward HIV-serostatus disclosure and behaviors of sharing (or not sharing HIV serostatus with a partner. Narratives were analyzed for barriers and facilitators of disclosure through the lens of sociocultural gender inequality, focusing on reasons for non-disclosure.ResultsAmong 35 participants: median age was 33 years (men and 30 years (women; average years since HIV diagnosis was 1 (men and 1.5 (women. Four themes related to gender inequality and HIV-serostatus disclosure emerged: (1 Men and women fear disclosing to partners due to concerns about stigma and relationship dissolution, (2 suspicions and mistrust between partners underlies decisions for non-disclosure, (3 unequal, gendered power in relationships causes differential likelihood and safety of disclosure among men and women, and (4 incomplete or implicit disclosure are strategies to navigate disclosure challenges. Findings illustrate HIV-serostatus disclosure as a complex process evolving over time, rather than a one-time event.ConclusionPartner communication about HIV serostatus is infrequent and complicated
Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Isern Fernandez, Virginia; Morales Miranda, Sonia; Jacobson, Jerry O; Mendoza, Suyapa; Paredes, Mayte A; Danaval, Damien C; Mabey, David; Monterroso, Edgar
We conducted a study among HIV-positive men and women in Honduras to describe demographics, HIV risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infection prevalence, and identify correlates of unsafe sex. Participants were recruited from HIV clinics and nongovernmental organizations in Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula, Honduras in a cross-sectional study in 2006. We used audio-assisted computer interviews on demographics; behaviors in the past 12 months, 6 months, and 30 days; and access to care. Assays performed included herpes (HSV-2 Herpes Select), syphilis (rapid plasma reagin [RPR] and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay [TPPA]) serology, and other sexually transmitted infections by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess variables associated with unprotected sex across all partner types in the past 12 months. Of 810 participants, 400 were from Tegucigalpa and 410 from San Pedro Sula; 367 (45%) were men. Mean age was 37 years (interquartile range: 31-43). Consistent condom use for men and women was below 60% for all partner types. In multivariate analysis, unprotected sex was more likely among women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-3.1, P = 0.007), those with HIV diagnoses within the past year (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.7, P = 0.016), those reporting difficulty accessing condoms (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.4-4.7, P = 0.003), and those reporting discrimination (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0, P = 0.016). Programs targeting HIV-positive patients need to address gender-based disparities, improve condom access and use, and help establish a protective legal and policy environment free of stigma and discrimination.
T. Charles Witzel
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing has seen a rapid evolution over the last decade with multiple modalities now in use globally. In recent years HIV self-testing (HIVST has been legalised in the UK paving the way for further expansion of testing. Interventions are delivered in particular social contexts which shape uptake. It is therefore important to understand how novel interventions are likely to be received by their intended users. This study aims to understand how HIVST compliments existing testing strategies considered or adopted by men who have sex with men (MSM. We do this by analysing normative discourses surrounding HIV testing and their perceptions of HIVST’s potential future roles. Methods Six focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with 47 MSM in London, Manchester and Plymouth. One focus group included only MSM who reported higher risk behaviours and one with those who had never tested for HIV. Data were analysed through a thematic framework analysis. Results Three main narratives for testing for HIV were identified: (i testing in response to a specific risk event; (ii as reassurance when there was a small amount of doubt or anxiety related to HIV; and (iii in response to social norms perpetuated through peers, HIV community groups and the medical establishment to test regularly for HIV. HIVST had limited utility for men when testing in response to specific risk events except in the case of significant structural barriers to other testing opportunities. HIVST was considered to have utility when seeking reassurance, and was thought to be very useful when testing to satisfy the needs and expectations of others around regular testing. There was some ambivalence about the incursion of a clinical intervention into the home. Conclusions HIVST following risk events will likely be limited to those for whom existing service provision is insufficient to meet immediate needs based on structural or personal barriers to testing. Obligations
Wilson, Patrick A; Nanin, Jose; Amesty, Silvia; Wallace, Scyatta; Cherenack, Emily M; Fullilove, Robert
HIV is a public health crisis that disproportionately affects Black and Latino men. To understand this crisis, syndemic theory, which takes into account multiple interrelated epidemics, should be used. A syndemic is "two or more afflictions, interacting synergistically, contributing to excess burden of disease in a population." Vulnerability to HIV among Black and Latino men is increased as structural, social, and biological factors interact in the context of social marginalization. In New York City, Black and Latino men experience a syndemic of HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, trauma, incarceration, and poverty; however, current research has yet to fully identify the mechanisms of resilience that may reduce the negative impact of a syndemic or explore the potential adaptive functions of individual-level risk behaviors. To understand HIV risk as part of a syndemic and address HIV prevention in Black and Latino men, we propose the following: (1) the use of complex systems analysis, ethnography, and other mixed-methods approaches to observe changes in relations among social conditions and disease; (2) multidisciplinary and inter-institution collaboration; and (3) involvement of public health practitioners and researchers from diverse and underrepresented backgrounds.
men, mænd, masculinity, maskulinitet, gender, køn, homosexuality, homoseksualitet, modernity, modernitet, postmodernity, postmodernitet......men, mænd, masculinity, maskulinitet, gender, køn, homosexuality, homoseksualitet, modernity, modernitet, postmodernity, postmodernitet...
Tsujimura A, Kiuchi H, Soda T, et al. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study. Sex Med 2017;5:e169–e174.
Castillo, Yenys; Muscarella, Frank; Szuchman, Lenore T.
This study examined college students' perceptions of same-sex harassment as a function of the observer's gender, the initiator's physical attractiveness, and observers' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Ninety-six college students read a scenario portraying a professor's sexual advances toward a student. The Perception of Harassment…
Reid, Julie A.; Miller, Amy Chasteen
This article explores Bolivian schoolteachers' attitudes and practices surrounding gender in the context of a national educational reform law that mandated gender equity. Teacher interviews and primary school classroom observations indicate teachers' discourses and practices reflect a sometimes paradoxical blend of advocacy for gender equality and…
Lange, Alex C.; Moore, Candace M.
In this critical narrative inquiry study, we explored the experience of gay cisgender men in college at the borderlands of social constructionism, critical race theory, and queer theory. Findings included 3 major themes: (a) the salience, tokenization, and centrality of being an "other" in a given space, (b) how performativity varied in…
Redley, Marcus; Banks, Carys; Foody, Karen; Holland, Anthony
Healthcare for men and women with learning disabilities (known internationally as intellectual disabilities) has risen up the political agenda in the United Kingdom, propelled by a report from the charity Mencap. This report has resulted in renewed efforts, set out in "Valuing People Now", to ensure that people with learning disabilities…
Nassif, Jeffrey M; Pietrzak, William S
While it is generally recognized that anatomical differences exist between the male and female knee, the literature generally refutes the clinical need for gender-specific total knee prostheses. It has been found that standard, unisex knees perform as well, or better, in women than men. Recently, high-flex knees have become available that mechanically accommodate increased flexion yet no studies have directly compared the outcomes of these devices in men and women to see if gender-based differences exist. We retrospectively compared the performance of the high-flex Vanguard knee (Biomet, Warsaw, IN) in 716 male and 1,069 female knees. Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 98.5% at 5.6-5.7 years for both genders. After 2 years, mean improvements in Knee Society Knee and Function scores for men and women (50.9 versus 46.3; 26.5 versus 23.1) and corresponding SF-12 Mental and Physical scores (0.2 versus 2.2; 13.7 versus 12.2) were similar with differences not clinically relevant. Postoperative motion gains as a function of preoperative motion level were virtually identical in men and women. This further confirms the suitability of unisex total knee prostheses for both men and women.
Jeffrey M. Nassif
Full Text Available While it is generally recognized that anatomical differences exist between the male and female knee, the literature generally refutes the clinical need for gender-specific total knee prostheses. It has been found that standard, unisex knees perform as well, or better, in women than men. Recently, high-flex knees have become available that mechanically accommodate increased flexion yet no studies have directly compared the outcomes of these devices in men and women to see if gender-based differences exist. We retrospectively compared the performance of the high-flex Vanguard knee (Biomet, Warsaw, IN in 716 male and 1,069 female knees. Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 98.5% at 5.6–5.7 years for both genders. After 2 years, mean improvements in Knee Society Knee and Function scores for men and women (50.9 versus 46.3; 26.5 versus 23.1 and corresponding SF-12 Mental and Physical scores (0.2 versus 2.2; 13.7 versus 12.2 were similar with differences not clinically relevant. Postoperative motion gains as a function of preoperative motion level were virtually identical in men and women. This further confirms the suitability of unisex total knee prostheses for both men and women.
Hanson, Jessica D; McMahon, Tracey R; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete
To examine the impact of gender norms on American Indian (AI) adolescents' sexual health behavior. The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 24 focus groups and 20 key informant interviews. The reasons that AI youth choose to abstain or engage in sexual intercourse and utilize contraception vary based on gender ideologies defined by the adolescent's environment. These include social expectations from family and peers, defined roles within relationships, and gender empowerment gaps. Gender ideology plays a large role in decisions about contraception and sexual activity for AI adolescents, and it is vital to include redefinitions of gender norms within AI teen pregnancy prevention program.
Oana Ancuţa Stângaciu
Full Text Available The actions taken for the promotion of the equality of opportunity between men and women and for eliminating the direct or the indirect discrimination apply to the field of employment as well as to the field of education, health, culture, information and the participation in the decision making process. Starting from one of the objectives of the Strategy for the equality of opportunity, being aware of the real situation of women participation compared to men participation to the economical and social life, this analysis offers a perspective on the equality of opportunity between men and women in the field of employment, seen based on the statistical data. Thus, in order to quantify this phenomenon using methods specific to the statistical analysis, we used the gender pay gap indicator pertaining to the EU member states per total economy, as well as per economical activities, and the research results show that on the EU level there are still significant gender pay gaps.
Wallen, Aaron S; Morris, Michael W; Devine, Beth A; Lu, Jackson G
Women's underperformance in MBA programs has been the subject of recent debate and policy interventions, despite a lack of rigorous evidence documenting when and why it occurs. The current studies document a performance gap, specifying its contours and contributing factors. Two behaviors by female students that may factor into the gap are public conformity and private internalization. We predicted that women conform to the norm associating maleness with technical prowess by minimizing their public assertiveness in class discussions and meetings, but that they do not internalize the norm by reducing private effort. Data from multiple cohorts of a top-ranked MBA program reveal female underperformance occurred in technical subjects (e.g., accounting), but not social subjects (e.g., marketing). As predicted, the gender effect ran not through private effort but through public assertiveness, even controlling for gender differences in interests and aptitudes. These findings support some current policy interventions while casting doubt on others.
Klassen, Benjamin J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Lin, Sally Yue; Edward, Joshua B; Chown, Sarah A; Hogg, Robert S; Moore, David M; Roth, Eric A
Effective rollout of HIV treatment-based prevention such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention has been hampered by poor education, limited acceptability, and stigma among gay men. We undertook a thematic analysis regarding the education sources and acceptability of these New Prevention Technologies (NPTs) using 15 semistructured interviews with gay men in Vancouver, Canada, who were early adopters of NPTs. NPT education was derived from a variety of sources, including the Internet, health care providers, community organizations, sexual partners, and peers; participants also emphasized their own capacities as learners and educators. Acceptable forms of NPT education featured high-quality factual information, personal testimony, and easy access. Stigma was highlighted as a major barrier. For public health, policy makers, and gay communities to optimize the personal and population benefits of NPTs, there is a need for increased community support and dialogue, antistigma efforts, early NPT adopter testimony, and personalized implementation strategies.
Aviv, Abraham; Shay, Jerry; Christensen, Kaare
In this Perspective, we focus on the greater longevity of women as compared with men. We propose that, like aging itself, the longevity gender gap is exceedingly complex and argue that it may arise from sex-related hormonal differences and from somatic cell selection that favors cells more...... resistant to the ravages of time. We discuss the interplay of these factors with telomere biology and oxidative stress and suggest that an explanation for the longevity gender gap may arise from a better understanding of the differences in telomere dynamics between men and women....
O'Byrne, Patrick; Bryan, Alyssa; Hendriks, Andrew; Horvath, Cynthia; Bouchard, Christiane; Etches, Vera
A total of 27 gay and bisexual men were interviewed about how they perceived the criminal prosecution of persons living with HIV who do not disclose their HIV status. The stories that emerged from the interviews raise questions about the nature of the gay community. The findings centre on the participants' descriptions of (1) the heterosexual meta-culture, (2) the locales of gay life, and (3) unsupportive elements in the gay community. Analysis of the interview data situates the gay community as a place of both inclusion and exclusion and as a heterogeneous environment. Copyright© by Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University.
This paper reconsiders the relationships between feminist perspectives and the figurational/process-sociological perspective of Norbert Elias for understanding gender, sport and sport-related activities. The main aim of the article is to respond to Colwell's claim that there are differences between feminist and figurational approaches to…
Cortès-Franch, Imma; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Benach, Joan; Artazcoz, Lucía
The growing demand for labour flexibility has resulted in decreasing employment stability that could be associated with poor mental health status. Few studies have analysed the whole of the work force in considering this association since research on flexible forms of employment traditionally analyses employed and unemployed people separately. The gender division of work, and family characteristics related to employment situation, could modify its association with mental wellbeing. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between a continuum of employment stability and mental health taking into account gender and partner/marital status. We selected 6859 men and 5106 women currently salaried or unemployed from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey. Employment stability was measured through a continuum from the highest stability among employed to lowest probability of finding a stable job among the long-term unemployed. Mental health was measured with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Logistic regression models were fitted for each combination of partner/marital status and gender. In all groups except among married women employment stability was related to poor mental health and a gradient between a continuum of employment stability and mental health status was found. For example, compared with permanent civil servants, married men with temporary contract showed an aOR = 1.58 (95%CI = 1.06-2.35), those working without a contract aOR = 2.15 (95%CI = 1.01-4.57) and aOR = 3.73 (95%CI = 2.43-5.74) and aOR = 5.35 (95%CI = 2.71-10.56) among unemployed of up to two years and more than two years, respectively. Among married and cohabiting people, the associations were stronger among men. Poor mental health status was related to poor employment stability among cohabiting women but not among married ones. The strongest association was observed among separated or divorced people. There is a rise in poor
Okazaki, Shintaro; dos Santos, Luiz Miguel Renda
The objective of this study is to examine factors influencing e-learning adoption and the moderating role of gender. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) by adding attitude and social interaction. The new construct of social interaction is applied to the South American context. Gender effects on e-learning adoption from…
Although many view computers purely as technological tools to be utilized in the classroom and workplace, attention has been drawn to the social differences computers perpetuate, including those of race, class, and gender. This paper focuses on gender and computing by examining recent analyses in regards to content, form, and usage concerns. The…
Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of multivariate analysis of variance and logistic regression in measuring, explaining and evaluating (i gender differences in expressing migration aspirations, and (ii a gender effect on migration motivation of university students in Croatia. The results supported the thesis that migration is a complex gendering process that assumes subjective assessment of the whole set of interrelated motives. According to logistic regression, gender is a significant predictor of migration aspirations among the selected demographic and socio-economic variables. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that gender and migration aspirations in interaction matter when it comes to migration motives, particularly related to the perceived importance of social networks. Females, and especially those who aspire to migrate, assessed these motives as more important than males.
Full Text Available This article examines the dynamics between HIV/Aids gender policy strategies and the socio-political demands on HIV/Aids interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender in HIV/Aids intervention seems inescapable. Nowhere else is this more marked than in the social dimensions of HIV/Aids prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. This has resulted in prevention strategies, which are encumbered by the reality of poverty, gender, access, power and the various debates on behavioural change. The social constructions of gender roles and power relations play a significant role in the region’s HIV /Aids dynamic. To this end, the mainstreaming of gender issues into national political, social and economic agenda and policies has been championed by international development and economic institutions. In developing HIV/Aids intervention policies, gender has also been mainstreamed, especially where epidemiological data show the disparity in infection rates between men and women, where women are seen as more susceptible to infection. The gendered approach to HIV/Aids appears to typecast women as the vulnerable and suffering face of HIV/Aids, while men, as ‘the other’, are generally regarded as the perpetuators and spreaders of the virus. While there is no doubt that women’s vulnerability in this milieu has been proven within known research evidence to exist, the neglect of institutional (social, cultural and economic and historical vulnerabilities of African men’s realities are sometimes overlooked. Recently, greater focus has shifted to curbing infection rates in men based on new scientific evidence that shows that risk of transmission in circumcised men is reduced. The article argues that such movement towards showing areas of men’s vulnerability as a focus in HIV/Aids policy interventions may have the potential to shift the observed burden that current HIV/Aids policy thrusts inadvertently place on African women. The article will put forward an argument for
Storer, Heather L; Casey, Erin A; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L; Tolman, Richard M
Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that "primary prevention" is not a fixed term in the context of VAW and that front-line prevention work challenges rigidly delineated distinctions between levels of prevention. Much can be learned from global organizations' unique and contextualized approaches to the prevention of VAW. © The Author(s) 2015.
Storer, Heather L.; Casey, Erin A.; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Tolman, Richard M.
Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that ‘primary prevention’ is not a fixed term in the context of VAW and that front-line prevention work challenges rigidly delineated distinctions between levels of prevention. Much can be learned from global organizations’ unique and contextualized approaches to the prevention of VAW. PMID:26333283
Loinaz, Ismael; Sánchez, Luis Miguel; Vilella, Andrea
The assessment and treatment of emotional variables is a priority in the rehabilitation of offenders. Although theoretical proposals suggest a clear relationship between violence and self-esteem, attachment, and empathy, the research carried out to date has reached contradictory results due mainly to differences in the measurements used, the reliability of self-reports, or even to problems with the definition of the constructs. The present study analyzed these three variables in a prison sample of sexual offenders ( n = 48) and partner-violent men ( n = 68), using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the Rape Empathy Measure, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Adult Attachment Questionnaire. Results confirmed the low utility of nonspecific empathy, the predominance of high self-esteem, and the difficulty of identifying an insecure attachment. The implications of the use of these variables in the treatment of offenders, and the need to improve the assessment tools, are discussed.
Hinck, Bryan D; Naelitz, Bryan D; Jackson, Brielle; Howard, Mariah; Nowacki, Amy; Modlin, Charles S
African Americans comprise 11 % of living organ donors, yet constitute 34 % of the kidney transplant waiting list. There are many barriers to organ donation among minorities that include decreased awareness of transplantation, cultural mistrust of the medical community, financial concerns, and fear of the transplant operation. This study investigates the societal misconceptions and demographic health factors that correlate with minority participation in organ and tissue donation. A 57 question Health and Wellness survey was designed to assess participants' demographic information, medical history, professional background, and opinions regarding organ transplantation. Participants were also asked to complete Quality Metric's Short Form-8 (SF-8) survey to assess physical health, mental health, and quality-of-life. Three hundred twenty-six surveys were administered to minority men. The majority of men were identified as African American, and 55 % were below the age of 40. Though 44 % of participants were willing to donate, only 27 % were registered as organ and tissue donors. Minorities who held misconceptions about organ donation-including the belief that they were too old or unhealthy to donate, for example-had lower general, physical, and mental health scores than those who did not (p = Minorities aware of the shortage for organs or who know a registered donor, an organ recipient, a dialysis patient, or someone on the waiting list were more willing to donate organs. Improving the general, physical, and mental health of minorities, coupled with an active educational outreach program, could result in a greater percentage of minorities registering and willing to be organ and tissue donors.
Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.
The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment. PMID:18521861
Orupabo, Julia; Kitterød, Ragni Hege
This report presents results from six interviews with people that are responsible for/or negotiate in collective bargaining, and/or participate in the managing of human resources in their company. The questions applied to the interviewees’ own workplace as well as to the Norwegian labour market more generally and captured the interviewees’ viewpoints about women and men’s situation on the labour market, possible gender differences in employees’ competence, productivity, career ambitions and w...
Japan has been experiencing low fertility for many years. In this study, I investigated the relationship between gender role attitudes and fertility intentions among Japanese single men and women of reproductive ages. Utilizing the Longitudinal Survey of Adults in the 21st Century data, 8944 men and 7924 women aged 20-34 years with single, childless status were analyzed. Gender role attitudes were assessed by participants' preferences for the division of labor between a man and a woman: income earning, housework, and childcare. Those who preferred men to earn income and women to perform housework and childcare were considered to have traditional attitudes, whereas those who preferred women and men to share these responsibilities were considered to have egalitarian attitudes. Outcomes were fertility intentions measured by a desire to have children and ideal number of children. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. Egalitarian attitudes about income earning and housework were associated with low fertility intentions (a lesser desire for children) compared to traditional attitudes: adjusted odds ratios were 1.56 [1.36, 1.80] for men and 1.47 [1.26, 1.72] for women with income earning. Men's preference for sharing childcare responsibility was associated with high fertility intentions. Japanese society has not shifted away from the traditional division of labor despite the increase in female labor force participation. Low fertility intentions among Japanese men and women with egalitarian attitudes suggest that institutional support for balancing work and family may be necessary to improve the low fertility trend. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress is a widespread indicator of mental health and mental illness in research and clinical settings. A recurrent finding from epidemiological studies and population surveys is that women report a higher mean level and a higher prevalence of psychological distress than men. These differences may reflect, to some extent, cultural norms associated with the expression of distress in women and men. Assuming that these norms differ across age groups and that they evolve over time, one would expect gender differences in psychological distress to vary over the life-course and over time. The objective of this study was to investigate the construct validity of a psychological distress scale, the K6, across gender in different age groups and over a twelve-year period. Methods This study is based on data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey (C-NPHS. Psychological distress was assessed with the K6, a scale developed by Kessler and his colleagues. Data were examined through multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Increasing levels of measurement and structural invariance across gender were assessed cross-sectionally with data from cycle 1 (n = 13019 of the C-NPHS and longitudinally with cycles 1 (1994-1995, 4 (2000-2001 and 7 (2006-2007. Results Higher levels of measurement and structural invariance across gender were reached only after the constraint of equivalence was relaxed for various parameters of a few items of the K6. Some items had a different pattern of gender non invariance across age groups and over the course of the study. Gender differences in the expression of psychological distress may vary over the lifespan and over a 12-year period without markedly affecting the construct validity of the K6. Conclusions This study confirms the cross-gender construct validity of psychological distress as assessed with the K6 despite differences in the expression of some symptoms in women and in men over
Nelson, Jamie Lindemann
Feminism has fought the trivialization of women's experiences, championed women's security, and insisted on respect for women's choices. In so doing, feminism has developed important perspectives on the complicated connections between what gender means as it plays itself in people's lives, and the inequalities of power and authority that structure much of human experience. Here, I put a few of these perspectives into contact with an issue where the interactions of gender and power are squarely in play: medicine's role in assisting gender transitioning generally and, specifically, the enduring controversy between medicine and many transgender people about the pathologization of transgender and the role of clinicians as gatekeepers to gender-transition interventions. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…
Whaley, Arthur L
The present study examined the effects of gender-matching and racial self-labeling on the paranoid symptoms of African-American men with severe mental illness. It was hypothesized that gender matching would: 1) reduce self-reports of both interpersonal and cultural paranoia in these male participants with severe mental illness, and 2) the gender effect would be strongest among those patients who racially self-label as African-American. One-hundred-twenty-four African-American male psychiatric patients were interviewed by a male or female black psychologist. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted with the Fenigstein Paranoia Scale (FPS) and Cultural Mistrust Inventory (CMI) as dependent variables, and the male gender-matched group (0=no, 1=yes) and racial self-labeling as the independent variables controlling for age; education; never married (0=no, 1=yes); diagnosis of schizophrenia (0=no, 1=yes); need for approval; self-esteem; and the scales of Distrust, Perceived Hostility of Others, and False Beliefs and Perceptions from the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview. There was a significant main effect for male gender-matching on the FPS. Participants in the male gender-matched group scored lower than the other group on the FPS. For the CMI, there was a significant interaction of male gender match by racial self-labeling effect. Participants who were male gender-matched and self-labeled as African-American reported the highest scores on the CMI. The findings provide partial support for the hypotheses. Both gender-matching and racial identity together may be important considerations for black males needing mental health services.
Verdú Delgado, Ana Dolores; Mañas-Viejo, Carmen
This paper explores violence against women in the context of partner relationships, through testimonies of professionals from Social Services in five towns in the province of Alicante (Spain), and also of the psychologists who participate in the coordination and implementation of two intervention programs for inmate aggressors in Valencia and Alicante (Spain). Our analysis focuses on the linkages between gender and certain emotional deficits in men who mistreat women in intimacy. Among these ...
Mead, C.; Horodyskyj, L.; Buxner, S.; Semken, S. C.; Anbar, A. D.
In this study, we explore how data provided by an online learning environment can provide fine-grained behavioral context for the performance gender gap commonly observed in introductory college science courses. Previous studies reported that women earn lower grades than men in such courses, often ascribed to reduced engagement and resilience driven by sociocultural causes, such as stereotype threat. This may be exacerbated in courses graded primarily based on high-stakes exams. Here, we use student data (n = 1121) from Habitable Worlds, an online laboratory science course, to identify behavioral differences between men and women. In Habitable Worlds, students earn points from 30 "trainings," which are scored on completion, and 30 "applications," which are scored on correctness. The lack of high-stakes cumulative exams represents a valuable contrast with typical science courses in which gender gaps have been reported. Our data indicate that a gender gap exists even for these low-stakes assessments. Results of a generalized linear model show that course success among women is much more strongly predicted by training scores than by application scores, while those factors have roughly equal predictive value among men. Predicted success among women is also modulated by the total number of attempts made on questions throughout the course, where more attempts implies lower success (holding other factors constant). This relationship is non-significant for men. Our interpretation of these model results is that obstacles such as stereotype threat represent a tax for women on effort and engagement, such that equivalent effort yields lesser success than for men. Thus, the women who do succeed differ sharply from lower performing women on indicators of effort. Future work should build on this result both as an indicator of conditions under which women are more likely to succeed and as a way to more quickly identify students who may struggle.
Full Text Available Gender relations have become a key dimension in family studies, and understanding gender relations as both determining and resulting from outcome of new family configurations requires the use of specific surveys aimed at the dynamics of couples. Unfortunately, nationally representative surveys of this type are not available for Latin American countries. Nonetheless, the most recent versions of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS include a section called "Women's Status and Empowerment", which can provide information about gender relations as well. This study aims at assessing the construct of gender relations in terms of couples' joint decision-making for all five Brazilian geographical regions. To this end, a step-by-step multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA was applied in order to verify whether this concept can be compared across Brazilian regions. Results show that the DHS items can be used reliably for measuring couples' joint decision-making and that this construct can be meaningfully compared over the regions. These findings will contribute to further demographic and sociological research on gender relations which can use this concept and other indicators provided by the DHS to identify the causal processes related to it.
Pulerwitz, Julie; Hughes, Lindsay; Mehta, Manisha; Kidanu, Aklilu; Verani, Fabio; Tewolde, Samuel
Objectives. We assessed the effects of a community-based project in Ethiopia that worked with young men to promote gender-equitable norms and reductions in intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods. A quasi-experimental design was used to assign young Ethiopian men 15 to 24 years of age (809 participants were surveyed at baseline in 2008) to an intervention involving community engagement (CE) activities in combination with interactive group education (GE) sessions promoting gender-equitable norms and violence prevention, an intervention involving CE activities alone, or a comparison group. Results. Participants in the GE + CE intervention were twice as likely (P gender-equitable norms between the baseline and end-line points. Also, the percentage of GE + CE participants who reported IPV toward their partner in the preceding 6 months decreased from 53% to 38% between baseline and end line, and the percentage in the CE-only group decreased from 60% to 37%; changes were negligible in the comparison group. Conclusions. Promoting gender equity is an important strategy to reduce IPV.
Chung, Woojin; Kim, Roeul
Although Asian societies are remarkably different from Western societies in terms of sociocultural characteristics, little is known about the gender differences in the health effects of marriage and marital satisfaction in Asian countries. Using a randomly sampled dataset from the 2006 East Asian Social Survey comprising 8528 individuals from China, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea, this study performs analyses using a multivariate logistic regression model to predict the probability for a man or a woman to report poor health. Our results differ quite significantly from those of most studies focusing on Western countries. Considering marital satisfaction, there may be no health benefits from marriage for a specific gender in a given country, because the health loss associated with a dissatisfied marriage usually supersedes the health benefits from marriage. Moreover, women may reap greater health benefits from marriage than men. Additionally, those most likely to report poor health are found to be married and dissatisfied men or women, rather than never-married individuals. The present study argues the need to design and carry out a gender- and country-specific social health policy approach to target individuals suffering from poor health, thereby reducing the gender differences in health status.
Ikenwilo, Divine; Heidenreich, Sebastian; Ryan, Mandy; Mankowski, Colette; Nazir, Jameel; Watson, Verity
Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are widely used to quantify individuals' preferences for healthcare. Guidelines recommend the design of DCEs should be informed by qualitative research. However, only a few studies go beyond guidelines by fully presenting qualitative and quantitative research jointly together in a mixed methods approach (MMA). Using an example study about men's preferences for medical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), we demonstrate how qualitative research can complement DCEs to gain a rich understanding of individuals' preferences. We were the first to combine online discussion groups (ODGs) with an online DCE. A thematic analysis of the ODGs and a conceptual map provided insights into men's quality of life (QoL) with LUTS and relevant treatment attitudes. This was used to design the DCE. Men's willingness to pay (WTP) for these attributes was estimated. Findings from ODGs and DCE were compared to understand WTP and preference heterogeneity. Men mostly valued medicine that reduced urgency and night-time frequencies of urination but avoided sexual side effects. We find heterogeneity in the effect of sexual side effects on men's preferences. The ODGs suggest this is because several men may be sexually inactive due to their age, being widowed or having comorbidities. The ODGs also raised concern about men's awareness of LUTS. We argue that the insights gained into men's preferences for treatment and how LUTS affects men's QoL could not have been obtained by either the qualitative research or the DCE alone.
Mariska Esther Kret
Full Text Available Gender differences are an important factor regulating daily interactions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI we show that areas involved in processing social signals are activated differently by threatening signals send from male or female facial and bodily expressions and these activity patterns are different for male and female participants. Male participants pay more attention to the female face as shown by increased amygdala activity. But a host of other areas indicate a selective sensitivity for male observers attending to male bodily expressions (extrastriate body area, superior temporal sulcus, fusiform gyrus, pre-supplementary motor area and premotor cortex. This is the first study investigating gender differences in processing dynamic female and male facial and bodily expressions and it illustrates the importance of gender differences in affective communication.
Sax, Linda J.; Kanny, M. Allison; Jacobs, Jerry A.; Whang, Hannah; Weintraub, Dayna S.; Hroch, Amber
In this paper we examine the level and determinants of entering college students' plans to major in engineering. While the overall level of interest in engineering has fluctuated between 1971 and 2011, a very large gender gap in freshman interest remains. We find that the percent of first-year women who plan to major in engineering is roughly the…
Curran, F. Chris; Kellogg, Ann T.
Disparities in science achievement across race and gender have been well documented in secondary and postsecondary school; however, the science achievement gap in the early years of elementary school remains understudied. We present findings from the recently released Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 that…
Kingdon, Danielle; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.
Internationally, girls outperform boys in overall school performance. The gender gap is particularly large among those in at-risk groups, such as children from families at economic disadvantage. This study modeled the academic trajectories of a low-income sample of boys and girls from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project across the full course…
Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Wanzek, Jeanne; Gatlin, Brandy
We had 3 aims in the present study: (a) to examine the dimensionality of various evaluative approaches to scoring writing samples (e.g., quality, productivity, and curriculum-based measurement [CBM] writing scoring), (b) to investigate unique language and cognitive predictors of the identified dimensions, and (c) to examine gender gap in the…
Green, Michelle T.; And Others
Gender differences in referral for child mental health services were explored through a survey of attitudes among 135 elementary teachers. Teachers were less likely to refer students with good academic performance, and tended to expect girls to transcend internalizing problems through maturation. Externalizing problems were thought to merit…
Hardin, Erin E; Longhurst, Melanie O
Despite robust support for the basic theoretical model of social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) and predictions that, for example, increases (or declines) in self-efficacy would lead to subsequent increases (or declines) in interest, there has been surprisingly little longitudinal research that has directly examined the extent to which members of different groups (e.g., women and men) actually do experience changes in critical social-cognitive variables over time early in their curricula in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Knowing the extent to which such changes occur in typical introductory undergraduate courses is important for targeting interventions to increase persistence of underrepresented groups in STEM. We measured social-cognitive-career-theory-relevant variables near the middle and at the end of the 1st semester of a gateway introductory chemistry course and found that women had lower STEM self-efficacy, coping self-efficacy, and STEM interest than did men, even after controlling for actual course performance. Although there were no detrimental changes across the semester for women or men, men experienced a small but significant increase in their perceived support for pursuing a STEM degree, whereas women did not. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Lindahl, Mats Gunnar
Two important roles of education are to provide students with knowledge for their democratic participation in society and to provide knowledge for a future profession. In science education, students encounter values that may be in conflict with their worldview. Such conflicts may, for example, lead to constructive reflections as well as rejection of scientific knowledge and technology. Students’ ways of reasoning are important starting points for discussing problematic issues and may be crucial for constructive dialogues in the classroom. This study investigates students’ reasoning about conflicting values concerning the human-animal relationship exemplified by the use of genetically modified pigs as organ donors for xenotransplantation. Students’ reasoning is analyzed using Giddens’ concepts of disembedded and embedded practices in parallel with moral philosophical theories in a framework based on human-animal relationships. Thirteen students were interviewed and their stances categorized. Kantian deontological and classical utilitarian ethics were found within the patronage and the partnership models. These students appreciated expert knowledge but those using the partnership model could not accept xenotransplantation if pigs were to be killed. Students using care ethics did not appreciate expert knowledge since it threatened naturalness. The results suggest that stances against the use of scientific knowledge are more problematic than knowledge per se, and that conflicting stances have similarities that present opportunities for understanding and development of students’ argumentation skills for future participation in societal discourse on utilizing expert knowledge. Furthermore it is argued that science education could benefit from a higher awareness of the presence of different morals.
Mereish, Ethan H.; O'Cleirigh, C; Bradford, Judith B.
Research has documented significant relationships between sexual and gender minority stress and higher rates of suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempts) and substance use problems. We examined the potential mediating role of substance use problems on the relationship between sexual and gender minority stress (i.e., victimization based on lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity; LGBT) and suicidality. A non-probability sample of LGBT patients from a community health center (N = 1457) ranged in age 19 to 70 years. Participants reported history of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, and substance use problems, as well as experiences of LGBT-based verbal and physical attacks. Substance use problems were a significant partial mediator between LGBT-based victimization and suicidal ideation and between LGBT-based victimization and suicide attempts for sexual and gender minorities. Nuanced gender differences revealed that substance use problems did not significantly mediate the relationship between victimization and suicide attempts for sexual minority men. Substance use problems may be one insidious pathway that partially mediates the risk effects of sexual and gender minority stress on suicidality. Substances might be a temporary and deleterious coping resource in response to LGBT-based victimization, which have serious effects on suicidal ideation and behaviors. PMID:23535038
Foster, Katherine T; Li, Ningfei; McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Gray, Kevin M
Cannabis continues to rise in popularity as the perception of its harmfulness decreases and evidence of its deleterious developmental effect increases. While internalizing distress and suicide risk have been linked with cannabis use problems [DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUD); DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence] it remains unclear how this association varies over the course of development in treatment-seeking men and women. The current study utilized the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) to conduct a cross-sectional comparison of internalizing distress and suicide risk among men (n=437) and women (n=163) spanning ages 18-50 who met DSM-5 criteria for CUD. Interactions between gender and developmental stage (i.e., late adolescence, early adulthood, and middle adulthood) were observed for suicide risk and anxiety but not depression problems. Specifically, women seeking CUD treatment in late adolescence and middle adulthood exhibited significantly higher rates of anxiety and suicide risk compared to men seeking treatment during the same developmental stages. Internalizing distress and suicide risk did not differ between treatment-seeking men and women in the early adult stage. Overall, results suggest that the structure of risk for CUD may differ in men and women across the lifespan and that women presenting for CUD treatment during late adolescence and middle adulthood may uniquely benefit from intervention designed to address these elevations in anxiety and suicide risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sandfort, T.; Bos, H.; Knox, J.; Reddy, V.
Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated,
Full Text Available Abstract The first world wide symposium on the topic of gender-specific medicine provided the latest research on differences in sex and/or gender in medicine and medical care. The presentations ranged beyond the topic of reproduction to encompass the entire human organism. This report critically reviews three issues that emerged during the Conference: gender mainstreaming, the concept of sex/gender differences and the issue of men's health. It suggests that the interdisciplinary concept of gender-specific medicine has to be mirrored by the integration of social and cultural studies into medical research and practice.
The first world wide symposium on the topic of gender-specific medicine provided the latest research on differences in sex and/or gender in medicine and medical care. The presentations ranged beyond the topic of reproduction to encompass the entire human organism. This report critically reviews three issues that emerged during the Conference: gender mainstreaming, the concept of sex/gender differences and the issue of men's health. It suggests that the interdisciplinary concept of gender-specific medicine has to be mirrored by the integration of social and cultural studies into medical research and practice.
Full Text Available This article examines how emotions are understood, in deeply gendered ways, within gender and clientelism debates in Argentina. By looking at the case study of the voluntary network of neighborhood representatives of Plan Vida, which distributes food aid in the Province of Buenos Aires, I distinguish two ways of conceiving affects in grassroots women’s political participation. While the first one emphasizes the management of the external expression of emotions as part of doing politics, the second one considers affective labour in a given urban territory as fostering connections among actors, creating social capital and allowing the flow of relevant information. The conclusion suggests that the second approach gives greater relevance to the possibilities of agency and transforming relations of domination of these women doing politics at the local level.
Li, Jing; Singh, Chandralekha
We discuss the development of a research-based conceptual multiple-choice survey of magnetism. We also discuss the use of the survey to investigate gender differences in students' difficulties with concepts related to magnetism. We find that while there was no gender difference on the pre-test. However, female students performed significantly worse than male students when the survey was given as a post-test in traditionally taught calculus-based introductory physics courses with similar results in both the regular and honors versions of the course. In the algebra-based courses, the performance of female and male students has no statistical difference on the pre-test or the post-test.
Bauer, Nichole M
Increasing numbers of female candidates are running for Congress in American national elections. Despite the rise in female candidates running for office, women are not significantly increasing their presence in the House and Senate. A much hypothesized influence over the electoral fates of female candidates is the role of gender stereotypes. However, political science scholars have struggled to pinpoint the effect of stereotypes on vote choice, if there is any effect. This essay compares the way social psychology and political science scholars theoretically, conceptually and empirically test for gender stereotype influence over evaluations of female candidates and politicians. Differences emerge in the theoretical assumptions made in the two disciplines, the types of measures used in research, and the empirical tests conducted to demonstrate the presence or absence of stereotypes in evaluations of women. The discussion explores how scholars studying female candidates and politicians can integrate insights from social psychology to clarify the role of stereotypes in candidate evaluation and choice.
Mugo, Peter Mwangi; Sanders, Eduard J.; Mutua, Gaudensia; van der Elst, Elisabeth; Anzala, Omu; Barin, Burc; Bangsberg, David R.; Priddy, Frances H.; Haberer, Jessica E.
A qualitative assessment of Kenyan men who have sex with men taking daily and intermittent oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) found stigma, sex work, mobility, and alcohol impacted adherence. We analyzed quantitative data from the same cohort to explore different definitions of intermittent adherence. Volunteers were randomized to daily emtricitabine/tenofovir or placebo, or intermittent (prescription: Mondays/Fridays/after sex, maximum 1 dose/day) emtricitabine/tenofovir or placebo (2:...
Gizewski, Elke R.; Wanke, Isabel; Forsting, Michael; Krause, Eva; Senf, Wolfgang
Previous studies of gender-specific differences in functional imaging during spatial and language tasks have been inconclusive. Furthermore, among women, such differences may occur during mid-luteal phase compared to the rest of the menstrual cycle. In order to examine further gender differences, functional MRI was performed in 12 male volunteers and 12 female volunteers (in the mid-luteal phase) during mental rotation and verb-generation tests. Two-sample t-tests with uncorrected P values of <0.001 for the specific regions of interest (ROIs) revealed cerebral activation differences in both stimuli. During mental rotation tests, higher levels of activation were noted in the right medial frontal, precentral, and bilateral inferior parietal cortex, while in women this occurred in the right inferior and medial temporal, right superior frontal cortex, and left fusiform gyrus. During verb-generation tests, higher levels of activation in men was found in the left medial temporal and precentral cortex. Our results indicate that differences in cerebral activity during cognitive tasks can be shown between men and women in the mid-luteal phase. Gender differences while performing a mental rotation task were more prominent than during a verb-generation task. (orig.)
Tsujimura, Akira; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Soda, Tetsuji; Takezawa, Kentaro; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Iwasa, Atsushi; Nonomura, Norio; Miyagawa, Yasushi
With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study. Sex Med 2017;5:e169-e174. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available In this article the author deconstructs dominant understandings of two concepts central to feminist analysis itself: gender and woman. Much of post-1960s feminist scholarship has relied on the distinction between “sex” and gender. Although this distinction has served many useful purposes (particularly that of allowing feminists to challenge biological determinism, it has also enabled feminists to preserve a type of dualistic thinking about women's identity. It has allowed feminists to think of differences among women as separable from that which women share. The author argues that this polar framework has enabled feminists to stress the deep differences between women's and men's culture-generated experiences. But, because the polar framework of contemporary society is neither completely stable or hegemonic nor links perfectly male and female experiences with male and female identified bodies, employing it as an unquestioned element of one's analysis also leads to problems. This framework falls to capture the gender deviance of many of us, reinforces cultural stereotypes of the meaning of female and male experience, and acts politically to suppress modes of being that challenge gender dualisms.
Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica
The United States has made a significant effort and investment in STEM education, yet the size and the composition of the STEM workforce continues to fail to meet demand. It is thus important to understand the barriers and factors that influence individual educational and career choices. In this article, we conduct a literature review of the current knowledge surrounding individual and gender differences in STEM educational and career choices, using expectancy-value theory as a guiding framework. The overarching goal of this paper is to provide both a well-defined theoretical framework and complementary empirical evidence for linking specific sociocultural, contextual, biological, and psychological factors to individual and gender differences in STEM interests and choices. Knowledge gained through this review will eventually guide future research and interventions designed to enhance individual motivation and capacity to pursue STEM careers, particularly for females who are interested in STEM but may be constrained by misinformation or stereotypes.
Thompson, Sharon H.; Lougheed, Eric
Although a majority of young adults are members of at least one social networking site, peer reviewed research examining gender differences in social networking communication is sparse. This study examined gender differences in social networking, particularly for Facebook use, among undergraduates. A survey was distributed to 268 college students…
Ryan, Caitlin L.; Patraw, Jasmine M.; Bednar, Maree
This study shares the experiences and outcomes of teaching about gender diversity in an elementary school classroom. It outlines how an urban public school teacher included discussions of transgender and gender-nonconforming people within the curriculum and documents the ways in which her students responded to those lessons. By making discussions…
Sanchez-Nunez, M. Trinidad; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo; Montanes, Juan; Latorre, Jose Miguel
This article attempts to justify gender differences found for the main factors that comprise emotional intelligence from the standpoint of the Mayer and Salovey Skill Model (1997). In order to do so, we carry out a review of the different emotional socialization patterns used by parents on the basis of their children's gender and look into their…
Sonnert, Gerhard; Fox, Mary Frank
Using longitudinal and multi-institutional data, this article takes an innovative approach in its analyses of gender differences in grade point averages (GPA) among undergraduate students in biology, the physical sciences, and engineering over a 16-year period. Assessed are hypotheses about (a) the gender ecology of science/engineering and (b) the…
Jordan, Nickolas Ashford; Luzader, Jordan
Graduation and retention rates for men in higher education are falling while instances of violence against women on campus are rising. This environment has produced a focused effort to stem the tide of violence against women in college and a desire to restore men to previous levels of academic achievement. The authors commend and support these…
Ovseiko, Pavel V.; Chapple, Alison; Edmunds, Laurel D.; Ziebland, Sue
Background While in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Australia, higher education and research institutions are widely engaged with the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science to advance gender equality, empirical research on this process and its impact is rare. This study combined two data sets (free- text comments from a survey and qualitative interviews) to explore the range of experiences and perceptions of participation in Athena SWAN in medical science departments of a research-intensiv...
Caperchione, Cristina M; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kolt, Gregory S; Duncan, Mitch; Ellison, Marcus; George, Emma; Mummery, W Kerry
Little attention has been paid to the physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviors of middle-aged men; thus, the aim of this study was to gather information and gain insight into the PA and nutrition behaviors of these men. Six focus group sessions were undertaken with middle-aged men (N = 30) from regional Australia to explore the challenges and motivations to PA participation and healthy eating. Men had a good understanding of PA and nutrition; however, this was sometimes confounded by inconsistent media messages. Work commitments and family responsibilities were barriers to PA, while poor cooking skills and abilities were barriers to healthy eating. Disease prevention, weight management, and being a good role model were motivators for PA and healthy eating. By understanding what a man wants, PA and nutrition interventions can be designed and delivered to meet the needs of this hard-to-reach population.
... Lifestyle Adult health Understand important health issues for gay men and men who have sex with men — ... Staff All men face certain health risks. However, gay men and men who have sex with men ...
Mikel Otxotorena Fernandez
Full Text Available This paper reviews the experience and actions carried out by Asociación para la Igualdad On:Giz to promote active involvement of men in tackling gender-based violence. On:Giz is a small organisation of women and men committed to gender equality. This is not a usual academic paper, but rather a reflection on two case study examples of how to work with men in confronting gender-based violence and a call to the need of involving them in such actions because achieving women’s and men’s equality is everybody’s work. Este texto da cuenta de las experiencias que se están llevando a cabo desde la Asociación para la Igualdad On:Giz para que los hombres sean parte activa de la solución al problema de la violencia de género. On:Giz es una organización mixta pequeña, con mucho compromiso con la igualdad entre mujeres y hombres. La intencionalidad de este texto no es académica, sino dar a conocer un par de experiencias que sirvan como ejemplo de cómo se puede trabajar también con los hombres contra la violencia de género y de la necesidad de involucrar a estos, ya que la igualdad real entre mujeres y hombres se conseguirá con el trabajo de todas y todos. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2612127
Kulesza, Magdalena; Matsuda, Mauri; Ramirez, Jason J; Werntz, Alexandra J; Teachman, Bethany A; Lindgren, Kristen P
In spite of the significant burden associated with substance use disorders, especially among persons who inject drugs (PWIDs), most affected individuals do not engage with any type of formal or informal treatment. Addiction stigma, which is represented by negative social attitudes toward individuals who use alcohol and/or other drugs, is one of the barriers to care that is poorly understood. The current study: a) assessed implicit (indirect and difficult to consciously control) and explicit (consciously controlled) beliefs about PWIDs among visitors to a public web site; and b) experimentally investigated the effects of ethnicity/race and gender on those implicit and explicit beliefs. N=899 predominantly White (70%) and women (62%) were randomly assigned to one of six target PWIDs conditions: gender (man/woman) x race/ethnicity (White, Black, Latino/a). Participants completed an Implicit Association Test and explicit assessment of addiction stigma. Participants implicitly associated PWIDs (especially Latino/a vs. White PWIDs) with deserving punishment as opposed to help (p=0.003, d=0.31), indicating presence of addiction stigma-related implicit beliefs. However, this bias was not evident on the explicit measure (p=0.89). Gender did not predict differential implicit or explicit addiction stigma (p=0.18). Contrary to explicit egalitarian views towards PWIDs, participants' implicit beliefs were more in line with addiction stigma. If replicated and clearer ties to behavior are established, results suggest the potential importance of identifying conditions under which implicit bias might influence behavior (even despite explicit egalitarian views) and increase the likelihood of discrimination towards PWIDs. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Webb, Stephanie N; Chonody, Jill M; Kavanagh, Phillip S
Research and opinion polls demonstrate that attitudes toward same-gender parent families have been improving in recent years among Western countries; however, the history of oppression toward, and misconceptions about, same-gender parent families continue to be demonstrated in Australian family rights policies. Common misconceptions include the belief that children need both male and female role models, and this could be influencing peoples' support for same-gender family rights and having a wider impact on legislation change. Yet a dearth of research exists exploring a connection between gender role beliefs and support for same-gender family rights using a broad international sample, including Australia. To investigate this connection, a sample (N = 615) from 18 English-speaking countries responded to a series of questions to determine the importance of gender norm beliefs on same-gender family prejudice. Regression analysis demonstrated that people with traditional beliefs about gender norms were more likely to endorse a negative attitude toward same-gender marriage and same-gender parenting. Findings suggest a link between socially prescribed gender norms and prejudice toward same-gender parent families that may be fueling arguments against same-gender family rights policies. The implications of these findings on same-gender parent families and their rights require future investigation.
O'Brien, Kimberly H McManama; Putney, Jennifer M; Hebert, Nicholas W; Falk, Amy M; Aguinaldo, Laika D
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are disproportionately affected by suicide-related thoughts and behaviors relative to their heterosexual and/or non-transgender peers. Theory and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique factors that contribute to this elevated risk, with distinguishable differences among SGM subgroups. Although SGM youth suicide prevention research is in its nascence, initial findings indicate that interventions which focus on family support and acceptance may be beneficial. It is critical that we develop and test tailored interventions for SGM youth at risk for suicide, with specific attention to subgroup differences and reductions in suicide-related thoughts and behaviors as outcomes.
Wagner, K C; Yates, Diane; Walcott, Quentin
This post-hoc analysis discusses a replicable workplace behavior change module called Men and Women As Allies, that was designed and implemented by a team of labor, management and community anti-violence educators at a private sector telecommunications employer. A job site-specific educational seminar linked issues of domestic violence to male bullying and workplace violence. It challenged social stereotypes about gender, taught skills to engage ally peer behavior and provided information on how to seek assistance from union, workplace and external community resources.
Palmer, Matthew A; Brewer, Neil; Horry, Ruth
Prior research has demonstrated a female own-gender bias in face recognition, with females better at recognizing female faces than male faces. We explored the basis for this effect by examining the effect of divided attention during encoding on females' and males' recognition of female and male faces. For female participants, divided attention impaired recognition performance for female faces to a greater extent than male faces in a face recognition paradigm (Study 1; N=113) and an eyewitness identification paradigm (Study 2; N=502). Analysis of remember-know judgments (Study 2) indicated that divided attention at encoding selectively reduced female participants' recollection of female faces at test. For male participants, divided attention selectively reduced recognition performance (and recollection) for male stimuli in Study 2, but had similar effects on recognition of male and female faces in Study 1. Overall, the results suggest that attention at encoding contributes to the female own-gender bias by facilitating the later recollection of female faces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Extending recent research on parental gender preferences in the Nordic countries, this study uses unique register data from Finland and Sweden (1971-1999 that provide us with the opportunity to compare childbearing dynamics and possible underlying sex preferences among natives and national minorities, namely Finnish-born immigrants in Sweden and members of the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland. Moreover, our Swedish data allow us to investigate regional and educational differences in child-sex specific fertility behavior of two-child mothers in 1981-1999. For Finland, we observe a continuous boy preference among the national majority and the Swedish-speaking minority as reflected in higher third-birth rates of mothers of two girls than of mothers of two boys. Evidence of similar preferences is found for Finnish-born migrants in Sweden, where the native-born population appears to have developed a girl preference, though. In all cases, we also observe clear indications of a preference for having at least one child of each sex. Generally speaking, our findings support an interpretation of parental gender preferences as a longstanding cultural phenomenon, related to country of childhood socialization rather than language group. Our analysis of regional and educational differentials in Sweden reveals no evidence which supports diffusion theories of persistence and change in parents' sex preferences for children.
Evidence from five studies focusing on different factors that influence interpretation of different behaviors constituting different forms of sexual harassment and gender harassment is presented. Six factors of influence were studied: (1) physical attractiveness and (2) quality of financial resources of the harasser, (3) gender and (4) attitudes of the harassee, (5) interpreting derogatory versus interpreting "flirtatious" behavior, and (6) interpreting actual harassment versus interpreting i...
Sexual self-schema is a relatively new cognitive term developed to connote the cognitive self-view that is developed through sexual experience, whilst influencing sexual behaviour and attitudes. Originally developed by Andersen and Cyranowski (1994) as a measure of women’s sexual self-view, this construct was subsequently extended for use with men (Andersen et al., 1999). These two initial investigations gave rise to separate measures for women and men, and although the sub-scales of these me...
Ro, Annie; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay; Choi, Kyung-Hee
While many studies have established the relationship between experiences of racism and sexual risk among men of colour who have sex with men, the pathways by which this occurs are underdeveloped. To address this gap, we must better investigate the lived realities of racism in the gay community. In this study, we had the unique opportunity to examine experiences of racism among African American, Asian/Pacific Islander and Latino men who have sex with men living in Los Angeles through focus groups and individual in-depth interviews. We found three themes of racism: exclusion from West Hollywood and the mainstream gay community, sexual rejection based on race/ethnicity and sexual stereotypes. There were differences across the three racial groups in the experiences of each theme, however. We then considered how racism impacted partner selection and found that race played a salient role in determining power differentials within mixed-race partnerships. Finally, we discussed several future areas for research that can better establish pathways between racism and sexual risk.
Ayala, George; Paul, Jay; Choi, Kyung-Hee
While many studies have established the relationship between experiences of racism and sexual risk among men who have sex with men of colour, the pathways by which this occurs are underdeveloped. To address this gap, we must better investigate the lived realities of racism in the gay community. In this study, we had the unique opportunity to examine experiences of racism among African American, Latino and Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men living in Los Angeles through focus groups and individual in-depth interviews. We found three themes of racism: exclusion from West Hollywood and the mainstream gay community, sexual rejection based on race/ethnicity, and sexual stereotypes. There were differences across the three racial groups in the experiences of each theme, however. We then considered how racism impacted partner selection and found that race played a salient role in determining power differentials within mixed-race partnerships. Finally, we discussed several future areas for research that can better establish pathways between racism and sexual risk. PMID:23659363
Full Text Available The Generations and Gender Survey (GGS is one of the two pillars of the Generations and Gender Programme designed to improve understanding of demographic and social development and of the factors that influence these developments. This article describes how the theoretical perspectives applied in the survey, the survey design and the questionnaire are related to this objective. The key features of the survey include panel design, multidisciplinarity, comparability, context-sensitivity, inter-generational and gender relationships. The survey applies the life course approach, focussing on the processes of childbearing, partnership dynamics, home leaving, and retiring. The selection of topics for data collection mainly follows the criterion of theoretically grounded relevance to explaining one or more of the mentioned processes. A large portion of the survey deals with economic aspects of life, such as economic activity, income, and economic well-being; a comparably large section is devoted to values and attitudes. Other domains covered by the survey include gender relationships, household composition and housing, residential mobility, social networks and private transfers, education, health, and public transfers. The third chapter of the article describes the motivations for their inclusion. The GGS questionnaire is designed for a face-to-face interview. It includes the core that each participating country needs to implement in full, and four optional sub-modules on nationality and ethnicity, on previous partners, on intentions of breaking up, and on housing, respectively. The participating countries are encouraged to include also the optional sub-modules to facilitate comparative research on these topics.
de Visser, Richard O; McDonnell, Elizabeth J
Health behaviors are important resources for the development and display of masculine identity. The aim of this mixed-method study was to examine how "masculine capital" is accrued via traditionally masculine behaviors and used to permit nonmasculine behavior. An online survey assessing personal importance of gender identity, gender role stereotypes, and beliefs about the gender of various health behaviors was completed by 731 university students. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 16 of these men and women. Quantitative data showed significant positive associations between perceived masculinity and engagement in a greater number of traditionally masculine health behaviors. Such patterns were clearest among young men and women who endorsed gender role stereotypes and gave greater importance to their own gender identity. Qualitative data supported the quantitative data: participants with more traditional gender role beliefs had more strict beliefs about the masculinity of various health behaviors. When asked about their own experiences, many men described having engaged in traditionally masculine health-related behaviors so as to accrue masculine capital or use it to permit nonmasculine (or feminine) behavior. The novel use of a gender-relations approach in this mixed-method study of young men and women expanded on earlier smaller scale studies of men and masculine capital. The findings add to understanding of the concept of "masculine capital" and suggest how it may aid efforts to better understand and improve young men's health. Young men's concerns about masculinity could be harnessed to encourage healthy "masculine" behavior. However, such approaches may not be effective for men who eschew traditional definitions of masculinity. Furthermore, failure to question socially constructed definitions of gender may reinforce stereotypes that restrict men's and women's opportunities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Kobezda, Tamás; Ghassemi-Nejad, Sheida; Mikecz, Katalin; Glant, Tibor T; Szekanecz, Zoltán
The involvement of autoreactive T cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as in autoimmune animal models of arthritis has been well established; however, unanswered questions, such as the role of joint-homing T cells, remain. Animal models of arthritis are superb experimental tools in demonstrating how T cells trigger joint inflammation, and thus can help to further our knowledge of disease mechanisms and potential therapies. In this Review, we discuss the similarities and differences in T-cell subsets and functions between RA and mouse arthritis models. For example, various T-cell subsets are involved in both human and mouse arthritis, but differences might exist in the cytokine regulation and plasticity of these cells. With regard to joint-homing T cells, an abundance of synovial T cells is present in humans compared with mice. On the other hand, local expansion of type 17 T-helper (TH17) cells is observed in some animal models, but not in RA. Finally, whereas T-cell depletion therapy essentially failed in RA, antibody targeting of T cells can work, at least preventatively, in most arthritis models. Clearly, additional human and animal studies are needed to fill the gap in our understanding of the specific contribution of T-cell subsets to arthritis in mice and men.
Full Text Available This prospective study examines gender-specific psychological risk factors of myocardial infarction. Out of 41,248 participants free of coronary heart disease at baseline, 822 cases of myocardial infarction were identified in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study or the mortality register. The participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Cholesterol, blood pressure, and waist–hip ratio were measured by medical staff. Smoking, diabetes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and history of depressive episode were self-reported. Anhedonic depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D ≥8 was a significant predictor of myocardial infarction in women but not in men. Gender difference in risk estimate based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D was significant ( p < .01. History of depressive episode was a significant predictor of myocardial infarction in men. Symptoms of anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-A ≥8 reduced the risk of having a myocardial infarction.
Full Text Available This contribution presents a part of the results of the research project entitled “Stereotipi di genere, relazioni educative e infanzie” (“Gender stereotypes, educational relationships and childhood" conducted between 2010 and 2012 by a group of researchers from the CSGE (Gender and Education Study Centre of the University of Bologna, funded by the Emilia-Romagna Region. The research aimed to measure the ideas and representations of gender and the gender relations among adults who are educationally significant for preschool children (0-6 years, and to develop widespread reflection on the issue of the stereotyped images of female and male identity that still exist and are transmitted from a very early age. This article particularly focuses on the analysis developed on gender representations in educational services 0-6 years by the professionals working in the centres involved, relating quantitative data with the considerations that emerged from the focus groups, about the female and male in education.
Young, Myles D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Morgan, Philip J
Physical inactivity is a leading contributor to the burden of disease in men. Social-cognitive theories may improve physical activity (PA) interventions by identifying which variables to target to maximize intervention impact. This study tested the utility of Bandura's social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain men's PA during a 3-month weight loss program. Participants were 204 overweight/obese men (M [SD] age = 46.6 [11.3] years; body mass index = 33.1 [3.5] kg/m 2 ). A longitudinal, latent variable structural equation model tested the associations between SCT constructs (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectations, intention, and social support) and self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and examined the total PA variance explained by SCT. After controlling for Time 1 cognitions and behavior, the model fit the data well (χ 2 = 73.9, degrees of freedom = 39, p social support. This study provides some evidence supporting the tenets of SCT when examining PA behavior in overweight and obese men. Future PA and weight loss interventions for men may benefit by targeting self-efficacy and intention, but the utility of targeting social support and outcome expectations requires further examination. © The Author(s) 2015.
Schurink-van't Klooster, Tessa M; Knol, Mirjam J; de Melker, Hester E; van der Sande, Marianne A B
Several studies suggested that vaccines could have non-specific effects on mortality depending on the type of vaccine. Non-specific effects seem to be different in boys and girls. In this study we want to investigate whether there are differences in gender-specific mortality among Dutch children according to the last vaccination received. We tested the hypothesis that the mortality rate ratio for girls versus boys is more favourable for girls following MMR±MenC vaccination (from 14 months of age) compared with the ratio following DTP-IPV vaccination (2-13 months of age). Secondarily, we investigated whether there were gender-specific changes in mortality following booster vaccination at 4 years of age. This observational study included all Dutch children aged 0-11 years from 2000 until 2011. Age groups were classified according to the last vaccination offered. The mortality rates for all natural causes of death were calculated by gender and age group. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were computed using a multivariable Poisson analysis to compare mortality in boys and girls across different age groups. The study population consisted of 6,261,472 children. During the study period, 14,038 children (0.22%) died, 91% of which were attributed to a known natural cause of death. The mortality rate for natural causes was higher among boys than girls in all age groups. Adjusted IRRs for girls compared with boys ranged between 0.81 (95% CI 0.74-0.89) and 0.91 (95% CI 0.77-1.07) over the age groups. The IRR did not significantly differ between all vaccine-related age groups (p=0.723), between children 2-13 months (following DTP-IPV vaccination) and 14 months-3 years (following MMR±MenC vaccination) (p=0.493) and between children 14 months-3 years and 4-8 years old (following DTP-IPV vaccination) (p=0.868). In the Netherlands, a high income country, no differences in gender-specific mortality related to the type of last vaccination received were observed in DTP-IPV- and MMR ± Men
Glick, Sara Nelson; Houston, Ebony; Peterson, James; Kuo, Irene; Magnus, Manya
To develop optimal methods to study sexual health among black young men who have sex with men and transgender women (BYMSM/TW). We conducted a mixed-methods prospective study to identify recruitment and retention strategies for BYMSM/TW (age 16-21) in Washington D.C., and describe HIV risk behaviors and context. Incentivized peer referral was highly productive, and 60% of BYMSM/TW were retained for 3 months. Participants reported high levels of sexual risk, homophobia, racism, and maternal support. BYMSM/TW studies should utilize a combination of peer-based, in-person, and technology-based recruiting strategies. Additional research is needed to leverage mobile technology and social media to enhance retention.
Abara, Winston; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S Melinda; Fairchild, Amanda Jane; Billings, Debbie
Internet sex-seeking is common among young men who have sex with men (MSM). However, research examining its association with risky sexual behaviour has produced mixed findings, possibly due to various operational definitions of internet sex-seeking which fail to account for its multi-dimensionality. This study purposed to: (1) examine if the way internet sex-seeking behaviour is operationalised influences its association with risky sexual behaviour (unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and casual sex) and (2) determine the association of each operational definition with sexual risk. We recruited 263 sexually-experienced young MSM (18-29 years) and operationalised internet sex-seeking behaviour in four ways: (i) ever used the internet to meet other men, (ii) currently own a profile on a website dedicated to meeting other men, (iii) ever physically met a man you initially met online and (iv) ever had sex with a man you met online. Using binomial regression, we examined the association of each operationalisation with UAI and casual sex. Only MSM who reported physically meeting a man they met online and those who ever had sex with a man they met online were more likely to report a history of UAI (pdefinitions in future research and inferences drawn from such research must be interpreted with caution. Findings have important implications for sexual health research and methodology, survey development, sexual health prevention interventions, and evaluating sexual risk among young MSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Most of the students who are taking the author's sport sociology courses can easily identify the problematic ways in which women's athletic events and bodies are covered within the sports sections of newspapers, magazines, Web sites, and television shows. These students are less able to understand how the heterosexual male sporting experience…
Much American popular culture has often been criticized for its negative portrayals of females and its potentially harmful influence on young children. However, there are insufficient studies about American young girls' actual understanding of these female representations. Specifically, the perspectives of young immigrant girls have hardly been…
Youth violence is a topic of increasing global concern. Research has primarily focused on young people's responses to existing definitions of violence in seeking to understand how best to develop violence prevention. Little work has explored how young people themselves define violence and the factors which influence their acceptance, and use, of…
Rosa, Katemari Diogo da
This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the research is geographically localized, the base-line question is clear and mirrors in the researcher's own intellectual development: "How do Black women physicists describe their experiences towards the construction of a scientific identity and the pursuit of a career in physics?" Grounded on a critical race theory perspective, the study uses storytelling to analyze how these women build their identities as scientists and how they have negotiate their multiple identities within different communities in society. Findings show that social integration is a key element for Black women physicists to enter study groups, which enables access to important resources for academic success in STEM. The study has implications for physics education and policymakers. The study reveals the role of the different communities that these women are part of, and the importance of public policies targeted to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science, especially through after-school programs and financial support through higher education.
Full Text Available Thirty years into the HIV&AIDS pandemic, the world is still striving to reduce new HIV infections and halve AIDS related deaths by 2015. However, sub-Saharan Africa still faces the burden of HIV infections as governments and private institutions try out different prevention strategies (UNAIDS 2011. Several scholars have argued that multiple concurrent sexual partnerships (MCSP pose the greatest risk for new HIV infections. Furthermore, research has also linked MCSPs to mobility and migration. This paper draws from the project ‘Sexual identities and HIV&AIDS: an exploration of international university students’ experiences” which employed memory work, photo-voice, drawings and focus group discussions with ten (5male and 5female Post Graduate international students at a South African university. Focussing on the data produced through memory work, I present university students’ lived-experience narratives of mobility and migration in relation to how they perceive MCSPs and HIV risk. The findings show how students construct their gendered and sexual identities in a foreign context and how these constructions intersect with their choices of sexual relationships and HIV risk. I argue from the findings that Higher Education Institutions should be treated as high risk ‘spaces of vulnerability’ and hence health support services and HIV intervention programming policies should be geared towards addressing such vulnerabilities in order to create sustainable teaching and learning environments that allow for all students to explore their full capabilities.
Díaz-Morales, Juan F; Escribano, Cristina
Adolescents in high school suffer from circadian misalignment, undersleeping on weekdays and oversleeping on weekends. Since high schools usually impose early schedules, adolescents suffer from permanent social jetlag (SJL) and thus are a suitable population to study the effects of SJL on both academic and cognitive performance. In this study, 796 adolescents aged 12-16 years reported information about their sleep habits, morningness-eveningness (M-E), cognitive abilities and grade point average (GPA). Time in bed on both weekdays and weekends was not related to cognitive abilities, and only time in bed on weekdays was related to academic achievement. SJL was negatively related to academic achievement, cognitive abilities (except for vocabulary and verbal fluency abilities) and general cognitive ability (g), whereas M-E was slightly positively related to academic achievement and marginally negatively related to inductive reasoning. Results separated by sex/gender indicated that SJL may be more detrimental to girls' performance, as it was negatively related to a greater number of cognitive abilities and GPA.
Phyllis L. Baker
Full Text Available We contribute to the sociology of sport and gender literature with an ethnographic analysis of scholastic wrestling by observing the current climate of masculinity and gender. Our results suggest that it is necessary to understand men and sporting behavior within a broader framework of gender, not just masculinity, because the behavior of high school wrestlers fell along a gender continuum between an orthodox masculinity and femininity. Our exploration of the body, performance, and emotion practices of scholastic wrestlers gives credence to the current critiques of a hegemonic masculinity in men's sports. We show that gender is not dichotomous and that even in the highly masculinized sport of wrestling, feminine behavior by men is evident.
Dolan, Alan; Lomas, Tim; Ghobara, Tarek; Hartshorne, Geraldine
In the UK, nearly half of all cases of infertility involve a 'male-factor'. Yet, little empirical work has explored how men as men negotiate this terrain. Three interrelated concepts; 'hegemonic masculinity', 'embodied masculinity' and the linkages between 'masculinities' and male help-seeking, provide the theoretical framework that guided a qualitative study conducted with 22 men experiencing infertility. The paper explores men's propensity to delay their help-seeking in relation to infertility despite their desire for children. It also demonstrates how, in the context of infertility, the male body can be defined as both a failed entity in itself (unable to father a child) and a subordinated social entity (unable to measure up to hegemonic ideals) that characterises men's masculine identities. The paper also illustrates how men appear willing to accept responsibility for their infertility and adopt aspects of hitherto subordinate masculine practice. This does not, however, constitute the total unravelling of well understood and accepted expressions of masculinity. Finally, the paper demonstrates how infertility is perceived as having the potential to fracture current and even future relationships. Moreover, regardless of how well men measured up to other hegemonic ideals, ultimately they can do little to counteract the threat of other (fertile) men. © 2017 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.
Abbas, Ozan Luay; Karadavut, Ufuk
Cosmetic surgery is no longer just for females. More men are opting for cosmetic procedures, with marked increases seen in both minimally invasive and surgical options over the last decade. Compared to females, relatively little work has specifically focused on factors predicting males' attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Therefore, we evaluated a number of variables that may predict some facet of men's attitudes toward cosmetic surgery according to evidence reported in the literature METHODS: A total of 151 male patients who applied for a surgical or minimally invasive cosmetic surgery procedure (patient group) and 151 healthy male volunteers who do not desire any type of cosmetic procedure (control group) were asked to fill out questionnaires about measures of body image, media exposure (television and magazine), social network site use, masculine gender role stress and religious attitudes. Our findings showed that lower ratings of body image satisfaction, increased time spent watching television, more frequent social network site use and higher degrees of masculine gender role stress were all significant predictors of attitudes toward cosmetic surgery among males. The current study confirmed the importance of body image dissatisfaction as a predictor of the choice to undergo cosmetic procedure. More importantly, a new predictor of cosmetic procedure attitudes was identified, namely masculine gender role stress. Finally, we demonstrated the effects television exposure and social network site use in promoting acceptance of surgical and nonsurgical routes to appearance enhancement. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Wood, Brian M; Marlowe, Frank W
Observations of Hadza men foraging out of camp and sharing food in camp show that men seeking to maximize the flow of calories to their families should pursue large game, and that hunting large game does not pose a collective action problem. These data also show that Hadza men frequently pursued honey, small game, and fruit, and that by doing so, provided a more regular flow of food to their households than would a putative big game specialist. These data support our earlier studies demonstrating that the goal of family provisioning is a robust predictor of Hadza men's behavior. As before, the show-off and costly signaling hypotheses advanced by Hawkes and colleagues fail as both descriptions of and explanations for Hadza men's work.
Tucker, C; Arandi, C Galindo; Bolaños, J Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G; Barrington, C
Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties.
Full Text Available Many scholars have called for an increased focus on positive aspects of sexual health and sexuality. Using a longitudinal design with two assessments, we investigated patterns of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure and self-efficacy to achieve sexual pleasure among 295 young men and women aged 17–25 years attending one Australian university. We also tested whether entitlement and efficacy differed by gender, and hypothesized that entitlement and efficacy would be higher in older participants and those with more sexual experience. A sense of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure increased significantly over the year of the study, whereas, on average, there was no change in self-efficacy over time. At Time 1 (T1, young women reported more entitlement than young men. Age was positively associated with T1 entitlement, and experience with a wider range of partnered sexual behaviors was concurrently associated with more entitlement and efficacy and was also associated with increased entitlement to partner pleasure and increased self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure at T2 relative to T1. A group with the least amount of sexual experience was particularly low in entitlement and efficacy when compared to groups with a history of coital experience. There was no evidence that any association differed between young men and young women. Limitations of the study include a sample of predominantly middle class, Caucasian students at one university and the possibility that students more interested in sex and relationships, and with more sexual experience, chose to participate.
Hewitt-Stubbs, Gillian; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Mastro, Shawna; Boislard, Marie-Aude
Many scholars have called for an increased focus on positive aspects of sexual health and sexuality. Using a longitudinal design with two assessments, we investigated patterns of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure and self-efficacy to achieve sexual pleasure among 295 young men and women aged 17–25 years attending one Australian university. We also tested whether entitlement and efficacy differed by gender, and hypothesized that entitlement and efficacy would be higher in older participants and those with more sexual experience. A sense of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure increased significantly over the year of the study, whereas, on average, there was no change in self-efficacy over time. At Time 1 (T1), young women reported more entitlement than young men. Age was positively associated with T1 entitlement, and experience with a wider range of partnered sexual behaviors was concurrently associated with more entitlement and efficacy and was also associated with increased entitlement to partner pleasure and increased self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure at T2 relative to T1. A group with the least amount of sexual experience was particularly low in entitlement and efficacy when compared to groups with a history of coital experience. There was no evidence that any association differed between young men and young women. Limitations of the study include a sample of predominantly middle class, Caucasian students at one university and the possibility that students more interested in sex and relationships, and with more sexual experience, chose to participate. PMID:26797642
Shek, Yen Ling; McEwen, Marylu K.
This study was conducted using a sample of Asian American male college students (N = 173) from one east coast public, research institution and one west coast public, research institution to explore the relationships of racial identity and gender role conflict with self-esteem. The study employed the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale,…
Mathieson, Kay; Banerjee, Robin
Engagement in peer play is an important factor in young children’s adjustment as they make the transition to school. We evaluated individual differences in peer play within a sample of 58 children aged 4–5 years. Among boys, but not among girls, emotion understanding and verbal ability independently served as positive predictors of interactive peer play and negative predictors of disconnected play. Among girls, but not among boys, interactive peer play and socio-moral reasoning about peer conflict situations independently predicted sociometric most-like nominations. The results provide a foundation for further research on divergence in the early peer play of girls and boys.
Wamoyi, Joyce; Fenwick, Angela; Urassa, Mark; Zaba, Basia; Stones, William
Although transactional sex has been linked to undesirable sexual health outcomes, there is a lack of clarity as to the meaning of the practice, which appears to extend beyond behaviors related to women's economic circumstances. This article explored the perspectives of parents and unmarried young people on motivations for, and beliefs about, transactional sex in rural Tanzania using an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved 17 focus groups and 46 in-depth interviews with young people aged 14-24 years and parents/caregivers. Transactional sex was widely accepted by both parents and young people. Male parents equated sexual exchange to buying meat from a butcher and interpreted women's demand for exchange before sex with personal power. Young men referred to transactional sex as the easiest way to get a woman to satisfy their sexual desires while also proving their masculinity. Young women perceived themselves as lucky to be created women as they could exploit their sexuality for pleasure and material gain. They felt men were stupid for paying for "goods" (vagina) they could not take away. Mothers were in agreement with their daughters. Although young women saw exploitation of the female body in positive terms, they were also aware of the health risks but ascribed these to bad luck. Interventions aimed at tackling transactional sex in the interests of women's empowerment and as a strategy for HIV prevention need to understand the cultural beliefs associated with the practice that may make it thrive despite the known risks.
Mugo, Peter Mwangi; Sanders, Eduard J; Mutua, Gaudensia; van der Elst, Elisabeth; Anzala, Omu; Barin, Burc; Bangsberg, David R; Priddy, Frances H; Haberer, Jessica E
A qualitative assessment of Kenyan men who have sex with men taking daily and intermittent oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) found stigma, sex work, mobility, and alcohol impacted adherence. We analyzed quantitative data from the same cohort to explore different definitions of intermittent adherence. Volunteers were randomized to daily emtricitabine/tenofovir or placebo, or intermittent (prescription: Mondays/Fridays/after sex, maximum 1 dose/day) emtricitabine/tenofovir or placebo (2:1:2:1), and followed for 4 months. By electronic monitoring, median adherence for daily dosing was 80 %. Median adherence for intermittent dosing was 71 % per a "relaxed" definition (accounting for off-prescription dosing) and 40 % per a "strict" definition (limited to the prescription). Factors associated with lower adherence included travel, transactional sex, and longer follow-up; higher adherence was associated with daily dosing and an income. The definition of intermittent dosing strongly affects interpretation of adherence. These findings suggest interventions should address challenges of mobility, sex work, and long-term PrEP.
Wenger, Lisa M; Oliffe, John L
As researchers recognize the value in considering gender dynamics within the cancer experience, a majority of the masculinities work has centered on men with prostate cancer. This focus has positioned prostate cancer as the flagship of men's cancer (and perhaps men's health). There is value in this research. However, as 78% of men experience cancers of a different type, a narrow focus on prostate cancer does not necessarily account for broader intersections of cancer and masculinity. Argued here are the benefits to expanding the focus of research on men's cancer experiences. As researchers consider patterns and diversities among men managing an array of cancers, there is opportunity to broaden understanding of the challenges "cancer" can present for men, disrupt assumptions that the study of men's gendered experience of cancer must be tethered to male sex-specific biology, and enhance the relevance and impact of psychosocial interventions for men living with cancer.
Davidhizar, R; Cramer, C
The leadership characteristics and behaviors of men and women differ. As increasing numbers of women enter positions of leadership, understanding of these differences can increase the quality and productiveness of relationships in the workplace. This article describes the evolution of women in leadership, gender differences in leadership style, and the way gender may affect behaviors in the workplace.
Blomberg, Christoph; Neuber, Nils
Sport is highly relevant in the life of boys and young men. It is not only one of the most common and important leisure activities, but also helps male self-assurance through physical conflicts and competitions as well as through physical proximity and social involvement. At the same time, sport is an ambivalent area that preserves health, but can also be dangerous to it. By considering the development of male identity, the specific possibilities of sport, as well as an overview of the health situation of boys, this article develops starting points for lifestyle-oriented health promotion of boys and young men in the area of exercise, games and sport. In sports, physical practices are learned that can have long-term effects as somatic cultures on health behavior. The work with boys in sports can be health-promoting if opportunities and risks are reflected upon and considered in the didactic planning and execution.
Greifeneder, Rainer; Zelt, Sarah; Seele, Tim; Bottenberg, Konstantin; Alt, Alexander
Handwriting legibility systematically biases evaluations in that highly legible handwriting results in more positive evaluations than less legible handwriting. Because performance assessments in educational contexts are not only based on computerized or multiple choice tests but often include the evaluation of handwritten work samples, understanding the causes of this bias is critical. This research was designed to replicate and extend the legibility bias in two tightly controlled experiments and to explore whether gender-based inferences contribute to its occurrence. A total of 132 students from a German university participated in one pre-test and two independent experiments. Participants were asked to read and evaluate several handwritten essays varying in content quality. Each essay was presented to some participants in highly legible handwriting and to other participants in less legible handwriting. In addition, the assignment of legibility to participant group was reversed from essay to essay, resulting in a mixed-factor design. The legibility bias was replicated in both experiments. Results suggest that gender-based inferences do not account for its occurrence. Rather it appears that fluency from legibility exerts a biasing impact on evaluations of content and author abilities. The legibility bias was shown to be genuine and strong. By refuting a series of alternative explanations, this research contributes to a better understanding of what underlies the legibility bias. The present research may inform those who grade on what to focus and thus help to better allocate cognitive resources when trying to reduce this important source of error. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Thomae, M.; Houston, Diane
Two studies examine preferences for a long-term partner who conforms to traditional or non- traditional gender\\ud roles. The studies both demonstrate a link between benevolent sexism and preference for a traditional partner.\\ud However, Study 1 also demonstrates a strong preference among women for a non-traditional partner. We measured\\ud ambivalent sexist ideologies before introducing participants to either a stereotypically traditional or stereotypically non-traditional character of the opp...
Higgins, Jenny A.; Hoffman, Susie; Dworkin, Shari L.
Most HIV prevention literature portrays women as especially “vulnerable” to HIV infection by way of biological susceptibility and men’s sexual power and privilege. Conversely, heterosexual men are perceived as active transmitters of HIV but not active agents in prevention. Although the women’s vulnerability paradigm was a radical revision of earlier views of women in the epidemic, mounting challenges undermine its current usefulness. This paper reviews the etiology and successes of the paradi...
Usta, Jinan; Farver, JoAnn M; Hamieh, Christine Sylva
This study explored the socialization of Lebanese men's attitudes toward gender equality to understand violence against women in Middle Eastern countries. Two hundred seventy-three men completed a survey, and 73 participated in seven focus groups. Survey results showed that participants' education, parents' expectations for gender-typed behavior, school discipline, and exposure to community violence predicted the men's attitudes toward gender inequality. In focus group discussions, participants expressed that masculinity imposed a taxing role wherein they perceived themselves as "victims" of a traditional culture where norms grant men control and power over women. © The Author(s) 2015.
Batnitzky, Adina K
This article presents data from an in-depth qualitative study of overweight and diabetic women in Morocco, a North African country experiencing a rapid increase in obesity according to national statistics. This case study explores the heterogeneous relationship among health, culture and religion in Morocco by highlighting the relationship between the intricacies of women's everyday lives and their body sizes. My findings suggest that although the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adult women has been documented to have increased in Morocco along with other macroeconomic changes (i.e., increases in urbanization, etc.), "obesity" has yet to be universally medicalized in the Moroccan context. As such women do not generally utilize a medicalized concept of obesity in reference to their larger body sizes. Rather, cultural constructions of "obesity" are understood through cultural understandings of a larger body size, religious beliefs about health and illness, and the nature of women's religious participation. This stands in contrast to dominant accounts about the region that promote an overall veneration of a larger body size for women. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper examines various implementation factors of the European Union’s soft policy in the field of gender equality in Slovenia. We focus on implementation of the principle of the balanced representation of women and men in decision-making processes in the fields of politics, science and the economy, where the proportion of women in top positions remains low. Based on an analysis of EU and Slovenian legislation and interviews with relevant governmental and non-governmental actors at the EU and national levels, it was found that because of the adopted soft law in this area it is the national government, which can select public policy instruments and adapt them to its own aspirations, that is the most important player when it comes to implementation. Pressure from the EU was stronger in the accession negotiations when Slovenia was joining the EU and also when interest groups work together.
Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph
Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition.
Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph
Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition. PMID:27802294
Mahalik, James R; Backus Dagirmanjian, Faedra R
To understand influences on medical help seeking in men from traditionally masculine occupations, semistructured interviews with 12 men employed in manual and industrial labor were conducted. The semistructured interview format explored participant men's understanding and experiences of annual exams and medical help seeking, their own and others' reactions to seeking medical help, and influences on their own care and understanding of what it means to seek medical care. Utilizing consensual qualitative research methodology, five domains emerged: Social norms around medical care, managing threat, getting medical help is gendered, work-related influences, and pragmatic contributors to medical help seeking. Results extended the literature by situating men's understanding of physician visits within a gendered and social context, and highlighting the influence of work and coworkers, where messages are often contradictory and inconsistent about medical help seeking. Future research should examine additional contextual factors influencing men's attitudes toward seeking health care, including race, culture, and sexual orientation, as well as seek to develop and evaluate interventions that promote men's utilization of medical services.
Espinosa, María Paz; Kovářík, Jaromír
This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in “neutral” baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i) the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context; and (ii) gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies. PMID:25926783
Maria Paz eEspinosa
Full Text Available This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in neutral baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context, and (ii gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies.
Tucker, C.; Arandi, C. Galindo; Bolaños, J. Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G.; Barrington, C.
Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236
Simon P S Kibira
Full Text Available About 2.5 million men have voluntarily been circumcised since Uganda started implementing the WHO recommendation to scale up safe male circumcision to reduce HIV transmission. This study sought to understand what influences men's circumcision decisions, their experiences with health education at health facilities and their knowledge of partial HIV risk reduction in Wakiso district.Data were collected in May and June 2015 at five public health facilities in Wakiso District. Twenty-five in-depth interviews were held with adult safe male circumcision clients. Data were analysed using thematic network analysis.Safe male circumcision decisions were mainly influenced by sexual partners, a perceived need to reduce the risk of HIV/STIs, community pressure and other benefits like hygiene. Sexual partners directly requested men to circumcise or indirectly influenced them in varied ways. Health education at facilities mainly focused on the surgical procedure, circumcision benefits especially HIV risk reduction, wound care and time to resumption of sex, with less focus on post-circumcision sexual behaviour. Five men reported no health education. All men reported that circumcision only reduces and does not eliminate HIV risk, and could mention ways it protects, although some extended the benefit to direct protection for women and prevention of other STIs. Five men thought social marketing messages were 'misleading' and feared risk compensation within the community.Participants reported positive community perception about safe male circumcision campaigns, influencing men to seek services and enabling female partners to impact this decision-making process. However, there seemed to be gaps in safe male circumcision health education, although all participants correctly understood that circumcision offers only partial protection from HIV. Standard health education procedures, if followed at health facilities offering safe male circumcision, would ensure all
Kazeem, Aramide; Jensen, Leif; Stokes, C. Shannon
This article presents a research which examines the impact of religion, gender, and parental socioeconomic status on school attendance in Nigeria. Researchers found that both gender and parental socioeconomic status have significant impacts on school attendance. Although gender is an important determinant of school attendance, indicators of…
J Peter Figueroa
Full Text Available This study estimates HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM in Jamaica and explores social determinants of HIV infection among MSM.An island-wide cross-sectional survey of MSM recruited by peer referral and outreach was conducted in 2011. A structured questionnaire was administered and HIV/STI tests done. We compared three groups: MSM who accepted cash for sex within the past 3 months (MSM SW, MSM who did not accept cash for sex (MSM non-SW, and MSM with adverse life events (ever raped, jailed, homeless, victim of violence or low literacy.HIV prevalence among 449 MSM was 31.4%, MSM SW 41.1%, MSM with adverse life events 38.5%, 17 transgender MSM (52.9%, and MSM non-SW without adverse events 21.0%. HIV prevalence increased with age and number of adverse life events (test for trend P < 0.001, as did STI prevalence (P = 0.03. HIV incidence was 6.7 cases/100 person-years (95% CI: 3.74, 12.19. HIV prevalence was highest among MSM reporting high-risk sex; MSM SW who had been raped (65.0%, had a STI (61.2% and who self identified as female (55.6%. Significant risk factors for HIV infection common to all 3 subgroups were participation in both receptive and insertive anal intercourse, high-risk sex, and history of a STI. Perception of no or little risk, always using a condom, and being bisexual were protective.HIV prevalence was high among MSM SW and MSM with adverse life events. Given the characteristics of the sample, HIV prevalence among MSM in Jamaica is probably in the range of 20%. The study illustrates the importance of social vulnerability in driving the HIV epidemic. Programs to empower young MSM, reduce social vulnerability and other structural barriers including stigma and discrimination against MSM are critical to reduce HIV transmission.
Victoria L. Ewing
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study used qualitative methods to investigate the relationship between geographic access and gendered intra-household hierarchies and how these influence treatment-seeking decision-making for childhood fever within the Chikwawa district of Malawi. Previous cross-sectional survey findings in the district indicated that distance from facility and associated costs are important determinants of health facility attendance in the district. This paper uses qualitative data to add depth of understanding to these findings by exploring the relationship between distance from services, anticipated costs and cultural norms of intra-household decision-making, and to identify potential intervention opportunities to reduce challenges experienced by those in remote locations. Qualitative data collection included 12 focus group discussions and 22 critical incident interviews conducted in the local language, with primary caregivers of children who had recently experienced a febrile episode. Results Low geographic accessibility to facilities inhibited care-seeking, sometimes by extending the ‘assessment period’ for a child’s illness episode, and led to delays in seeking formal treatment, particularly when the illness occurred at night. Although carers attempted to avoid incurring costs, cash was often needed for transport and food. Whilst in all communities fathers were normatively responsible for treatment costs, mothers generally had greater access to and control over resources and autonomy in decision-making in the matrilineal and matrilocal communities in the central part of the district, which were also closer to formal facilities. Conclusions This study illustrates the complex interplay between geographic access and gender dynamics in shaping decisions on whether and when formal treatment is sought for febrile children in Chikwawa District. Geographic marginality and cultural norms intersect in remote areas both to increase the
Full Text Available Despite ongoing recommendations to increase male engagement and gender-equity (GE counseling in family planning (FP services, few such programs have been implemented and rigorously evaluated. This study evaluates the impact of CHARM, a three-session GE+FP counseling intervention delivered by male health care providers to married men, alone (sessions 1&2 and with their wives (session 3 in India.A two-armed cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with young married couples (N = 1081 couples recruited from 50 geographic clusters (25 clusters randomized to CHARM and a control condition, respectively in rural Maharashtra, India. Couples were surveyed on demographics, contraceptive behaviors, and intimate partner violence (IPV attitudes and behaviors at baseline and 9 &18-month follow-ups, with pregnancy testing at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Outcome effects on contraceptive use and incident pregnancy, and secondarily, on contraceptive communication and men's IPV attitudes and behaviors, were assessed using logistic generalized linear mixed models. Most men recruited from CHARM communities (91.3% received at least one CHARM intervention session; 52.5% received the couple's session with their wife. Findings document that women from the CHARM condition, relative to controls, were more likely to report contraceptive communication at 9-month follow-up (AOR = 1.77, p = 0.04 and modern contraceptive use at 9 and 18-month follow-ups (AORs = 1.57-1.58, p = 0.05, and they were less likely to report sexual IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.48, p = 0.01. Men in the CHARM condition were less likely than those in the control clusters to report attitudes accepting of sexual IPV at 9-month (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.03 and 18-month (AOR = 0.51, p = 0.004 follow-up, and attitudes accepting of physical IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.02. No significant effect on pregnancy was seen.Findings demonstrate that men can be engaged in FP programming in
Maman, Suzanne; Kajula, Lusajo; Balvanz, Peter; Kilonzo, Mrema; Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina
Gender inequality is at the core of the HIV patterns that are evident in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender-based violence (GBV) and lack of economic opportunity are important structural determinants of HIV risk. We piloted a microfinance and health promotion intervention among social networks of primarily young men in Dar es Salaam. Twenty-two individuals participated in the microfinance component and 30 peer leaders were recruited and trained in the peer health leadership component. We collected and analysed observational data from trainings, monitoring data on loan repayment, and reports of peer conversations to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Eighteen of the loan recipients (82%) paid back their loans, and of these 15 (83%) received a second, larger loan. Among the loan defaulters, one died, one had chronic health problems, and two disappeared, one of whom was imprisoned for theft. The majority of conversations reported by peer health leaders focused on condoms, sexual partner selection, and HIV testing. Few peer leaders reported conversations about GBV. We demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of this innovative HIV and GBV prevention intervention. The lessons learned from this pilot have informed the implementation of a cluster-randomised trial of the microfinance and peer health leadership intervention.
Jennifer C. Guillén
Full Text Available Intimate, romantic spaces are important sites for the examination of self-identification and perceived identification, especially with regard to gender and racial power. In this article I examine how white men in romantic relationships or marriages with Mexican women and residing in Texas, impose “Hispanic” as a racial identity as a discursive tactic that reinforces the hegemonic power of being white and being a man in order to define the situation, impose ideals that distance Mexican partners from being “too ethnic” or “threatening” in order to achieve closer proximity to “honorary whiteness” and acceptability of racial others, and creates a romantic space that is coercive instead of loving and safe. This study thus finds that white men used their hegemony to not only employ imposed Hispanicity, which I define as an institutionally created but culturally and institutionally imposed label, and an action based on the use of direct and indirect coercion and force by others, in this case, white romantic partners, for the purpose of establishing power and determining the situation in which racial definitions are made. Therefore, “Hispanic” becomes an identity that is chosen by others and while participants of Mexican descent do employ agency, the socially imposed conditions and expectations associated with “Hispanic” serve to police the identities, bodies, lives, and actions of people of Latin American descent.
van Hooff, Johanna C; Crawford, Helen; van Vugt, Mark
To examine the time course and automaticity of our attention bias towards attractive opposite sex faces, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 20 males and 20 females while they carried out a covert orienting task. Faces that were high, low or average in attractiveness, were presented in focus of attention, but were unrelated to task goals. Across the entire sample larger P2 amplitudes were found in response to both attractive and unattractive opposite sex faces, presumably reflecting early implicit selective attention to distinctive faces. In male but not female participants this was followed by an increased late slow wave for the attractive faces, signifying heightened processing linked to motivated attention. This latter finding is consistent with sexual strategy theory, which suggests that men and women have evolved to pursue different mating strategies with men being more attentive to cues such as facial beauty. In general, our ERP results suggest that, in addition to threat-related stimuli, other evolutionary-relevant information is also prioritized by our attention systems.
As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of mundane categorization into naturalized stratified groups. Current research shows that this approach allows explanation of gender differences, which appear in many reports but which usually go untheorized, as responses to social inequality. I illustrate applications to research and practice in relation to three areas of old age experiences: financial security, spousal care work, and health. Throughout, I discuss implications of focusing on inequality to enhance our abilities to engage in effective research, practice, and policy for older people, women and men alike. For instance, an understanding of the gender division of labor and workplace discrimination makes clear that financial status in later life cannot be reduced to individual choices concerning paid labor or retirement planning. And understanding that people orient their behaviors to gender ideals allows us to see that men and women perform spousal care in similar and different ways that require varied responses from practitioners; it also reveals contexts in which men engage in positive health behaviors. Finally, I argue that gerontologists interested in facilitating favorable outcomes for old people should consider research and practice that would disrupt, not reinforce, the bases of gender inequalities in later life.
Stroud, George H.
Some African American undergraduate men attending Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) are adversely affected by perception of institutional barriers, such as negative stereotypes, that may exist on campus. The awareness of the possibility of being stereotyped can have a negative impact on a student's academic performance. This phenomenon is…
Palacios, Natalia; Alonso, Alvaro; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
-dependent relationship exists between changing female-to male ratios of smoking and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in worldwide birth cohorts from previously published studies. BACKGROUND: Smoking behavior in industrialized nations has changed dramatically over the second half of the 20th century, with diverging patterns...... in male and female smoking rates. During the same time period, an increase in the female to male ratio in MS incidence has been reported. We examined whether MS incidence in the two genders changed concomitantly with smoking, as would be expected if smoking truly increased MS risk. DESIGN/METHODS: We...... identified relevant studies reporting male and female age-specific incidence of MS throughout the world using within-country birth cohorts as units of observation. For each country and birth cohort, we then estimated the male to female ratio in MS incidence, and correlated these ratios with the corresponding...
Loganathan, Santosh; Murthy, Srinivasa
There are a number of factors that influence stigma in schizophrenia and it is important to understand them to successfully treat the illness. Gender-based stigma and how it is affected by culture is yet to be studied. This study explores gender issues from a socio-cultural perspective related to stigma among people in India suffering from schizophrenia. Stigma experiences were assessed by conducting individual interviews and the narratives were used as a qualitative measure. Men with schizop...
Verdonk, P.; Benschop, Y.W.M.; Haes, H. de; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was ‘gender blind’ by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly, medicine is said to be ‘male biased’ because the largest body of knowledge on health and illness is about men and their health. Thirdly, gender role ...
Alcala-Alezones, Carolina; Sandfort, Theo G M; Serafino, Stephanie; Reddy, Vasu
The label "men who have sex with men" (MSM) is used to categorize a diverse population exclusively on the basis of its sexual behavior. Understanding the diversity that this label comprises is critical for the development of health interventions that effectively reach the various populations subsumed under this label. In this cross-sectional study of South African MSM (N = 480) recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS), we explored differences between men who had sex with both men and women (MSMW) and men who had sex with men exclusively (MSME). We found significant differences between these two groups in terms of sexual attraction, sexual identity, sexual preferences, sexual histories, and current sexual practices. MSMW were more likely to be confused about their same-sex attraction, to experience internalized homophobia, and to have paid for sex in the previous year, while MSME were more gender nonconforming and more likely to have been forced to have sex in the previous year. These findings underscore that the MSM label comprises a diverse population and that exclusive sexual engagement with other men is a critical distinction to take into account in understanding this diversity and fully grasping the lived experiences of men who have sex with men.
Clasen, Thomas F; Hadley, Craig; Yount, Kathryn M; Haardörfer, Regine; Rout, Manaswini; Dasmohapatra, Munmun; Cooper, Hannah LF
Background Research suggests that the lived experience of inadequate sanitation may contribute to poor health outcomes above and beyond pathogen exposure, particularly among women. The goal of this research was to understand women’s lived experiences of sanitation by documenting their urination-related, defecation-related and menstruation-related concerns, to use findings to develop a definition of sanitation insecurity among women in low-income settings and to develop a conceptual model to explain the factors that contribute to their experiences, including potential behavioural and health consequences. Methods We conducted 69 Free-List Interviews and eight focus group discussions in a rural population in Odisha, India to identify women’s sanitation concerns and to build an understanding of sanitation insecurity. Findings We found that women at different life stages in rural Odisha, India have a multitude of unaddressed urination, defecation and menstruation concerns. Concerns fell into four domains: the sociocultural context, the physical environment, the social environment and personal constraints. These varied by season, time of day, life stage and toilet ownership, and were linked with an array of adaptations (ie, suppression, withholding food and water) and consequences (ie, scolding, shame, fear). Our derived definition and conceptual model of sanitation insecurity reflect these four domains. Discussion To sincerely address women’s sanitation needs, our findings indicate that more is needed than facilities that change the physical environment alone. Efforts to enable urinating, defecating and managing menstruation independently, comfortably, safely, hygienically, privately, healthily, with dignity and as needed require transformative approaches that also address the gendered, sociocultural and social environments that impact women despite facility access. This research lays the groundwork for future sanitation studies to validate or refine the proposed
Saint Arnault, Denise M
Gender-based violence (GBV), characterized by the abduction or rape of women and girls to humiliate, intimidate, and traumatize them and their communities, is a profoundly disturbing tactic in international conflict. Long after armed conflict has ended, survivors continue to experience physical injuries, psychological trauma, and social and cultural stigma. Guilt, shame, and continued interpersonal violence can become a normalized part of daily life, significantly challenging the road to healing and recovery. Research about self-disclosure and narrative after GBV has shown that help seeking rates are shockingly low, with estimates ranging from 4-27%. From a feminist and a humanistic perspective, studying trauma history and related help seeking is delicate work that must use interview processes that ensure the survivor can tell her story without revictimization, while also aiming to restore personal mastery, empowerment, and self-understanding. Based on theories about benefits and challenges of the narrative after GBV and trauma, we propose that the Clinical Ethnographic Narrative Interview (CENI) allows researchers and practitioners a safe container to examine the complex interplay between suffering, culture, and help seeking. Using this interview, the interviewer and the participant work as partners to define, compare, and contrast the socio-cultural barriers and facilitators of help seeking. This paper explains the narrative theory and the challenges and benefits of the narrative approach after trauma. Then we provide support for the use of the CENI for an understanding of the help seeking process and facilitating a health-promoting narrative interview for survivors. We then address implications for research, practice, and policy.
Crosby, Richard A; Salazar, Laura F; Yarber, William L; Sanders, Stephanie A; Graham, Cynthia A; Head, Sara; Arno, Janet N
We employed the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model to guide an investigation of correlates for correct condom use among 278 adult (18-35 years old) male clients attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. An anonymous questionnaire aided by a CD-recording of the questions was administered. Linear Structural Relations Program was used to conduct path analyses of the hypothesized IMB model. Parameter estimates showed that while information did not directly affect behavioral skills, it did have a direct (negative) effect on condom use errors. Motivation had a significant direct (positive) effect on behavioral skills and a significant indirect (positive) effect on condom use errors through behavioral skills. Behavioral skills had a direct (negative) effect on condom use errors. Among men attending a public STI clinic, these findings suggest brief, clinic-based, safer sex programs for men who have sex with women should incorporate activities to convey correct condom use information, instill motivation to use condoms correctly, and directly enhance men's behavioral skills for correct use of condoms.
Angelone, D J; Mitchell, Damon; Grossi, Laura
Sexual aggression is a persistent and prevalent issue in the United States, which often results in a number of psychological, emotional, and physical consequences for victims. The current study examined whether the length of relationship between the victim and perpetrator, level of victim resistance, and observers' gender role attitudes play a role in observers' perceptions of an alleged sexual assault. Participants included 297 male college students from a public university in the Northeastern United States. Contrary to hypotheses, there were no significant effects for length of relationship on participants' attributions. Relative to no resistance, verbal and physical strategies by the victim predicted higher levels of victim credibility, perpetrator culpability, and perpetrator guilt, as well as lower levels of victim culpability and perceived victim pleasure. Endorsement of traditional adversarial sex role beliefs and hostile sexist attitudes, as opposed to egalitarian attitudes, were associated with the attribution of less credibility to the victim, perceived victim trauma, perpetrator culpability, perpetrator guilt, and shorter recommended prison sentences, as well as greater victim culpability and perceived victim pleasure. Laypersons' perceptions of sexual assault merit further study, as they are relevant to juror decision making and third party responses to sexual victimization (e.g., peer support for victim) and can contribute to the secondary victimization and recovery of survivors of sexual assault. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available The RCSA is in desperate need of a new way of approaching the Bible. The hermeneutical principles that gave birth to a theological legitimation of apartheid are still active in the theological legitimation of a patriarchal order in the RCSA (Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika. It is as if the RCSA suffers from a theological schizophrenia which bars a critical approach from taking root. The article explores some hermeneutical impediments within the RCSA, illustrated by the 2000 Synod and a declaration published for the advent of Reformation Day in October 2000. Those impediments can be traced back to a seminal article of the 1980s, written by J.C. Coetzee, B.J. de Klerk and L. Floor (“Die hermeneuse van die Skrif met die oog op hedendaagse kerklik-etiese vraagstukke”, and to the influence of Afrikaner civil religion in the reading of the Bible. In the light of these three aspects, the article surveys the problem of imitating the text in terms of its values or characters, since the discussion of the role of women in the church is based on what is said about women in the Bible as a male text. The article concludes with a tentative proposal for an ethics of reading, with regard to the theoretical aspects when discussing gender issues in the Bible.
Jewkes, Rachel; Flood, Michael; Lang, James
Violence perpetrated by and against men and boys is a major public health problem. Although individual men's use of violence differs, engagement of all men and boys in action to prevent violence against women and girls is essential. We discuss why this engagement approach is theoretically important and how prevention interventions have developed from treating men simply as perpetrators of violence against women and girls or as allies of women in its prevention, to approaches that seek to transform the relations, social norms, and systems that sustain gender inequality and violence. We review evidence of intervention effectiveness in the reduction of violence or its risk factors, features commonly seen in more effective interventions, and how strong evidence-based interventions can be developed with more robust use of theory. Future interventions should emphasise work with both men and boys and women and girls to change social norms on gender relations, and need to appropriately accommodate the differences between men and women in the design of programmes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ayman, Roya; Korabik, Karen
For decades, understanding of leadership has been largely based on the results of studies carried out on White men in the United States. We review major theories and models of leadership as they pertain to either gender or culture. We focus on 3 approaches to leadership: trait (including leadership categorization or implicit leadership theory),…
Magadi, Monica Akinyi
Women in sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, which is exacerbated by their role in society and biological vulnerability. The specific objectives of this article are to (i) determine the extent of gender disparity in HIV infection; (ii) examine the role of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) awareness and sexual behaviour factors on the gender disparity and (iii) establish how the gender disparity varies between individuals of different characteristics and across countries. The analysis involves multilevel logistic regression analysis applied to pooled Demographic and Health Surveys data from 20 countries in sub-Saharan Africa conducted during 2003–2008. The findings suggest that women in sub-Saharan Africa have on average a 60% higher risk of HIV infection than their male counterparts. The risk for women is 70% higher than their male counterparts of similar sexual behaviour, suggesting that the observed gender disparity cannot be attributed to sexual behaviour. The results suggest that the risk of HIV infection among women (compared to men) across countries in sub-Saharan Africa is further aggravated among those who are younger, in female-headed households, not in stable unions or marital partnerships or had an earlier sexual debut. PMID:21545443
well as the television reporting in the 1970s on the Majdanek Trials against male and female SS concentration camp guards. The authors ask how and which gender stereotypes influenced the jurisdiction and media reporting, which functions the hereby formulated images of men and women took on in the context of the formation of both German societies, and how they are to be situated on a cultural-historical level. While research on female perpetrators has already been established, a gender-historical method is now considered in the research on Nazi legal proceedings and their perceptions. This research perspective can be thought-provoking for both women’s and men’s history.
Dare, Emily Anna
According to the American Physical Society, women accounted for only 20% of bachelor's degrees in the fields of physics and engineering in 2010. This low percentage is likely related to young girls' K-12 education experiences, particularly their experiences prior to high school, during which time young women's perceptions of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) and STEM careers are formed (Catsambis, 1995; Maltese & Tai, 2011; National Research Council, 2012; Sadler, Sonnert, Hazari, & Tai, 2012; Tai, Liu, Maltese, & Fan, 2006; Scantlebury, 2014; Sikora & Pokropek, 2012). There are no significant gender differences in academic achievement in middle school, yet young women have less positive attitudes towards careers in science than their male peers (Catsambis, 1995; Scantlebury, 2014). This suggests that the low female representation in certain STEM fields is a result of not their abilities, but their perceptions; for fields like physics where negative perceptions persist (Haussler & Hoffman, 2002; Labudde, Herzog, Neuenschander, Violi, & Gerber, 2000), it is clear that middle school is a critical time to intervene. This study examines the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. A theoretical framework based on the literature of girl-friendly and integrated STEM strategies (Baker & Leary, 1995; Halpern et al., 2007; Haussler & Hoffman, 2000, 2002; Labudde et al., 2000; Moore et al., 2014b; Newbill & Cennamo, 2008; Rosser, 2000; Yanowitz, 2004) guided this work to understand how these instructional strategies may influence student's perceptions of physics for both girls and boys. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls' and boys' perceptions about physics and physics-related careers. This convergent parallel mixed-methods study uses a series of student surveys and focus group interviews to identify and understand these similarities and
Gabriel, Naïka C; Sloand, Elizabeth; Gary, Faye; Hassan, Mona; Bertrand, Desiree R; Campbell, Jacquelyn
The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of violence against women (VAW) held by Haitian men to gain a better understanding of why VAW occurs. Women in Haiti have experienced significant violence, both before and following the 2010 earthquake. Fifteen men aged 26 to 47 participated in a focus group. The data revealed three themes: men's beliefs about VAW and its context, factors influencing VAW, and recommended interventions. When approaching VAW, men must be part of the collective effort. Their insights are valuable when planning and implementing interventions to decrease VAW in Haiti and worldwide.
Hopcroft, Rosemary L; McLaughlin, Julie
This study uses data from 23 countries in the World Values Survey and the National Survey of Families and Households and finds that the sex gap in feelings of depression is wider in high gender equity societies even though overall levels of feelings of depression are lower. Using hierarchical logistic modeling, we find that the sex difference in feelings of depression is wider in high gender equity societies because children increase depression for women in high gender equity societies, while they reduce depression for women without paid employment in low gender equity societies. There is little difference in the effect of children on feelings of depression for men across societies. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gur, R.E.; Gur, R.C.
Gender differences have been noted in neurobehavioral studies. The 133xenon inhalation method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can contribute to the understanding of the neural basis of gender differences in brain function. Few studies have examined gender differences in rCBF. In studies of normal subjects, women have higher rates of CBF than men, and this is related to age. Usually by the sixth decade men and women have similar flow rates. Fewer studies on rCBF in schizophrenia have examined sex differences. The pattern of higher flows for females maintains, but its correlates with gender differences in clinical as well as other parameters of brain function remain to be examined
Johansson Eva E
Full Text Available Abstract During the last decades research has reported unmotivated differences in the treatment of women and men in various areas of clinical and academic medicine. There is an ongoing discussion on how to avoid such gender bias. We developed a three-step-theoretical model to understand how gender bias in medicine can occur and be understood. In this paper we present the model and discuss its usefulness in the efforts to avoid gender bias. In the model gender bias is analysed in relation to assumptions concerning difference/sameness and equity/inequity between women and men. Our model illustrates that gender bias in medicine can arise from assuming sameness and/or equity between women and men when there are genuine differences to consider in biology and disease, as well as in life conditions and experiences. However, gender bias can also arise from assuming differences when there are none, when and if dichotomous stereotypes about women and men are understood as valid. This conceptual thinking can be useful for discussing and avoiding gender bias in clinical work, medical education, career opportunities and documents such as research programs and health care policies. Too meet the various forms of gender bias, different facts and measures are needed. Knowledge about biological differences between women and men will not reduce bias caused by gendered stereotypes or by unawareness of health problems and discrimination associated with gender inequity. Such bias reflects unawareness of gendered attitudes and will not change by facts only. We suggest consciousness-rising activities and continuous reflections on gender attitudes among students, teachers, researchers and decision-makers.
Risberg, Gunilla; Johansson, Eva E; Hamberg, Katarina
During the last decades research has reported unmotivated differences in the treatment of women and men in various areas of clinical and academic medicine. There is an ongoing discussion on how to avoid such gender bias. We developed a three-step-theoretical model to understand how gender bias in medicine can occur and be understood. In this paper we present the model and discuss its usefulness in the efforts to avoid gender bias. In the model gender bias is analysed in relation to assumptions concerning difference/sameness and equity/inequity between women and men. Our model illustrates that gender bias in medicine can arise from assuming sameness and/or equity between women and men when there are genuine differences to consider in biology and disease, as well as in life conditions and experiences. However, gender bias can also arise from assuming differences when there are none, when and if dichotomous stereotypes about women and men are understood as valid. This conceptual thinking can be useful for discussing and avoiding gender bias in clinical work, medical education, career opportunities and documents such as research programs and health care policies. Too meet the various forms of gender bias, different facts and measures are needed. Knowledge about biological differences between women and men will not reduce bias caused by gendered stereotypes or by unawareness of health problems and discrimination associated with gender inequity. Such bias reflects unawareness of gendered attitudes and will not change by facts only. We suggest consciousness-rising activities and continuous reflections on gender attitudes among students, teachers, researchers and decision-makers.
Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.
Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was "gender blind" by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly,…
Farvid, Panteá; Braun, Virginia
Heterosexual casual sex is routinely depicted as a physically, socially, and psychologically "risky" practice. This is the case in media accounts, psychological research, and other academic work. In this article, we examine 15 men's and 15 women's talk about casual sex from a discursive psychological stance to achieve two objectives. Firstly, we confirm the categories of risk typically associated with casual sex but expand these to include a domain of risks related to (gendered) identities and representation. Men's talk of risk centered on concerns about sexual performance, whereas women's talk centered on keeping safe from violence and sexual coercion. The notion of a sexual reputation was also identified as a risk and again manifested differently for men and women. While women were concerned about being deemed promiscuous, men displayed concern about the quality of their sexual performance. Secondly, within this talk about risks of casual sex, the participants' identities were identified as "at risk" and requiring careful management within the interview context. This was demonstrated by instances of: keeping masculinity intact in accounts of no erection, negotiating a responsible subject position, and crafting agency in accounts of sexual coercion-in the participants' talk. We argue that casual sex, as situated within dominant discourses of gendered heterosexuality, is a fraught practice for both men and women and subject to the demands of identity representation within co-present interactions.
Objectives: This paper examines one of the most intractable problems of the last 40 years: the difficulty in closing the pay inequality gap. Current wisdom is that the pay gap exists because of men's power to control the workplace, and men's dominant position in society generally. This paper examines an emergent literature on matriarchal power structures and proposes Attraction Theory as a holistic framework. Prior Work: This paper acknowledges a range of feminist literature that examines the...
Full Text Available Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 164 undergraduates (50% women. Taking into account those stereotypes that are still differentially assigned to each gender, this study identifies current gender stereotypes that are independent of sociodemographic characteristics, such as age or sex. In addition, new gender stereotypes emerged recently were gathered, and important changes of stereotypes were emphasized, especially those of feminine stereotypes. According to social role theory, these changes are the consequence of social roles changes. Conclusions highlight that, although part of the results involve progress on the achievement of equality, traditional stereotypic characteristics are still referred to each gender, which perpetuate discrimination.
Baez, Sandra; Flichtentrei, Daniel; Prats, María; Mastandueno, Ricardo; García, Adolfo M.; Cetkovich, Marcelo
Research on sex differences in empathy has revealed mixed findings. Whereas experimental and neuropsychological measures show no consistent sex effect, self-report data consistently indicates greater empathy in women. However, available results mainly come from separate populations with relatively small samples, which may inflate effect sizes and hinder comparability between both empirical corpora. To elucidate the issue, we conducted two large-scale studies. First, we examined whether sex differences emerge in a large population-based sample (n = 10,802) when empathy is measured with an experimental empathy-for-pain paradigm. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between empathy and moral judgment. In the second study, a subsample (n = 334) completed a self-report empathy questionnaire. Results showed some sex differences in the experimental paradigm, but with minuscule effect sizes. Conversely, women did portray themselves as more empathic through self-reports. In addition, utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas were less frequent in women, although these differences also had small effect sizes. These findings suggest that sex differences in empathy are highly driven by the assessment measure. In particular, self-reports may induce biases leading individuals to assume gender-role stereotypes. Awareness of the role of measurement instruments in this field may hone our understanding of the links between empathy, sex differences, and gender roles. PMID:28632770
Full Text Available Research on sex differences in empathy has revealed mixed findings. Whereas experimental and neuropsychological measures show no consistent sex effect, self-report data consistently indicates greater empathy in women. However, available results mainly come from separate populations with relatively small samples, which may inflate effect sizes and hinder comparability between both empirical corpora. To elucidate the issue, we conducted two large-scale studies. First, we examined whether sex differences emerge in a large population-based sample (n = 10,802 when empathy is measured with an experimental empathy-for-pain paradigm. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between empathy and moral judgment. In the second study, a subsample (n = 334 completed a self-report empathy questionnaire. Results showed some sex differences in the experimental paradigm, but with minuscule effect sizes. Conversely, women did portray themselves as more empathic through self-reports. In addition, utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas were less frequent in women, although these differences also had small effect sizes. These findings suggest that sex differences in empathy are highly driven by the assessment measure. In particular, self-reports may induce biases leading individuals to assume gender-role stereotypes. Awareness of the role of measurement instruments in this field may hone our understanding of the links between empathy, sex differences, and gender roles.
Baez, Sandra; Flichtentrei, Daniel; Prats, María; Mastandueno, Ricardo; García, Adolfo M; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Ibáñez, Agustín
Research on sex differences in empathy has revealed mixed findings. Whereas experimental and neuropsychological measures show no consistent sex effect, self-report data consistently indicates greater empathy in women. However, available results mainly come from separate populations with relatively small samples, which may inflate effect sizes and hinder comparability between both empirical corpora. To elucidate the issue, we conducted two large-scale studies. First, we examined whether sex differences emerge in a large population-based sample (n = 10,802) when empathy is measured with an experimental empathy-for-pain paradigm. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between empathy and moral judgment. In the second study, a subsample (n = 334) completed a self-report empathy questionnaire. Results showed some sex differences in the experimental paradigm, but with minuscule effect sizes. Conversely, women did portray themselves as more empathic through self-reports. In addition, utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas were less frequent in women, although these differences also had small effect sizes. These findings suggest that sex differences in empathy are highly driven by the assessment measure. In particular, self-reports may induce biases leading individuals to assume gender-role stereotypes. Awareness of the role of measurement instruments in this field may hone our understanding of the links between empathy, sex differences, and gender roles.