WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding law enforcement

  1. Understanding Law Enforcement Support to National Security Problems and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davies, Jeffrey S

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores law enforcement as an element of national power, defines its contributions, limitations, and challenges, and provides recommendations to maximize interagency competencies and unity...

  2. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  3. Fragile convergence: understanding variation in the enforcement of China's industrial pollution law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, B.; Lo, C.W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Official statistics and independent survey data show that in the last decade China has witnessed a remarkable change in its enforcement of environmental pollution violations, moving toward more formalistic and coercive law enforcement with more enforcement cases as well as higher fines. The data

  4. Employee perceptions of protected area law enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Wynveen; Robert D. Bixler; William E. Hammitt

    2006-01-01

    It is widely accepted that criminal activity negatively impacts visitors? recreation experiences in the nation?s parks and forests (Fletcher 1983). To further understand how law enforcement can effectively manage criminal activity in protected areas, this study was designed to describe law enforcement and non-law enforcement rangers? perceptions of a range of law...

  5. Who Guards the Guards? Understanding Deviance and Corruption of Law Enforcement Officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan BALCIOĞLU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Law enforcement officials must be honest in performing both their judicial and administrative responsibilities and duties within the criminal justice system to maintain public tranquility, social trust and order, and securing the justice. There are, however, different kinds phenomena in which several kinds of deviance from acceptable norms of behavior is existing among the law enforcement professionals. Studies dealing with deviance of law enforcement officials have been limited in the Turkish context. This study, first, categorize the kinds of deviant behavior among the law enforcement officials as pointed out by numerous scientific studies. Etiology of these types of behavior, than, is examined based on the existing literature. First of all, as a kind of white collar crime which observing among deviant behavior of police personal will be categorized according to international literature. Finally, this study brings the general consensus on the preventive measures as applied in several countries on law enforcement officials’ deviant behaviors to the attention of the Turkish reader

  6. Understanding Death Penalty Support and Opposition Among Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Sethuraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a sizable number of studies have gathered information from college students regarding their varying degrees of support for capital punishment, few have explored the underlying rationales behind these students’ death penalty support or opposition. In addition, although criminal justice majors have frequently been used as study participants, little research has sought to explore if law enforcement majors are different in manners for supporting or opposing capital punishment than other criminal justice majors. In the current study, a survey designed to measure reasons for support or opposition to capital punishment was administered to a convenience sample of 135 criminal justice and law enforcement majors at a mid-size Midwestern university. The results indicated that law enforcement majors were not significantly different from criminal justice majors on measures of support or opposition to capital punishment. There were, however, some notable differences found related to the academic standing of the students.

  7. HSIP Law Enforcement Locations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Law Enforcement Locations Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law Enforcement agencies "are publicly...

  8. Conservation Law Enforcement Program Standardization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Stan

    2004-01-01

    The ultimate goal of standardization is to develop a safe and effective program that is recognized within the USAF, DoD, and by other Federal and state law enforcement agencies, and the general public...

  9. Voting over law enforcement: Mission impossible

    OpenAIRE

    İnal , Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Median voter theorem has been used in many economic environments including law enforcement. Assumptions of the median voter theorem, however, are generally violated in lawenforcement models. Moreover, it is impossible to have agents with "opposite equilibrium preferences" over enforcement levels in law enforcement models. These limitations on the use of preferences over law enforcement raises questions about the robustness and validity of law enforcement models.

  10. Optimal enforcement of competition law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motchenkova, E.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the recent theoretical developments in the field of antitrust law enforcement, much still needs to be done in order to prevent collusion and price-fixing in the major indiustries. Although penalties were recently increased considerably and new instruments of cartel deterrence such as

  11. GAMING LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROBLEMS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    and techniques of gaming as they apply to the study of law enforcement problems in general, and to show how gaming may assist in identifying and overcoming some of the major pitfalls in law enforcement planning. (Author)

  12. The corruption process of a law enforcement officer: a paradigm of occupational stress and deviancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, F L; Souryal, S; McCafferty, M A

    1998-01-01

    The public does not want all laws enforced. In the closed society of law enforcement institutions, police discretion, the conspiracy of silence, the lack of an administration with integrity, and susceptible law enforcement officers contribute to the development of corruption from occupational deviance. Corruption in law enforcement agencies may have similar roots in business, law, medicine, and other professions. Understanding the law enforcement corruption paradigm may therefore be helpful in correcting and curbing corruption in other professions.

  13. 76 FR 4369 - Special Law Enforcement Commissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ...This notice announces the online publication of the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission Policy, Rules and Procedures, the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission Protocols and the Interim Domestic Violence Waiver that will be used by the Office of Justice Services following passage of the Tribal Law and Order Act of 2010. The documents are published on the Indian Affairs Web site.

  14. How to Enforce European Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the well known saga of the European Court of Justice’s introduction of direct effect of Council directives on basis of new comprehensive archival research. The expansion of the doctrine of direct effect to include directives was part of a drive of the Legal Service of the Eu......This article explores the well known saga of the European Court of Justice’s introduction of direct effect of Council directives on basis of new comprehensive archival research. The expansion of the doctrine of direct effect to include directives was part of a drive of the Legal Service...... of the European Commission and the ECJ to strengthen the enforcement of European law. This threatened the deeper balance of competences between the European Community and its member states and consequently led to a sharp response from the national parliaments and courts. The force of these responses and the deep...

  15. Law Enforcement School Programs. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Safe Schools Initiative Division, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The school shooting incidents during the decade of the 1990's prompted an increase of law enforcement presence in schools. The School Violence Resource Center (SVRC) at the Criminal Justice Institute (CJI) University of Arkansas System undertook a project to determine what programs law enforcement agencies currently provide in their local schools…

  16. Radiological response training for law enforcement personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maixner, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    A specialized training course for Nevada's law enforcement personnel has been conducted by Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. for the US Department of Energy since February 1981. This course is designed for those persons who are first to arrive at a transportation accident scene. The course provides a basic understanding of radiation protection, the prevention of contamination spread from the accident site, use of radiation detection equipment, and decontamination procedures. The Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office provides the training at no cost to Nevada agencies. Each agency selects its attendees. Details of the course are given

  17. Law Enforcement of Cyber Terorism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ayu Astuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyber terrorism is one of the category of crimes that cross border organized and has been established as an extraordinary crime. This crime is becoming a serious threat to countries in the world. In this regard, the Government's attitude of firmness needed to enforce cyber laws against the freedom development in social media. The development of the immeasurable it in the country of Indonesia required the limitations by doing legal liability over the behavior of law which deviates towards the use of technology tools. Strict law enforcement efforts as a clear attitude to stop actively moving massive terrorism, by enacting the provisions of the law on information and electronic transactions as well as the law of terrorism effectively. How To Cite: Astuti, S. (2015. Law Enforcement of Cyber Terorism in Indonesia. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 157-178. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.82

  18. Anticorruption expertise of law-enforcement acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Polyakov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to substantiate public necessity to define the subject methodological and organizational capabilities of anticorruption expertise of law enforcement acts. Methods universal dialecticmaterialistic method was used to study the needs in anticorruption expertise of law enforcement acts in the mechanism of legal regulation based on it general scientific and special formal legal and comparative legal methods of research used for the definition of subjectmatter of the proposed expertise. Results the value of anticorruption expertise of law enforcement was shown corruption factors and corruption indicators enabling legislation were identified ways of conducting such examinations were proposed. Scientific novelty the article examines the need and the subject proposes methods of a new type of anticorruption expertise. Practical significance the conditions of corruption are defined which are created in law enforcement activities and methods for their detection are proposed. nbsp

  19. 7 CFR 501.14 - Non-Federal law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-Federal law enforcement. 501.14 Section 501.14...-Federal law enforcement. Research Center special policemen may be deputized by State or local law... State or local law enforcement agency, the facilities or services of such State or local law enforcement...

  20. Law enforcement suicide: a national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Robinson, Cynthia F; Shen, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that there is an elevated risk of suicide among workers within law enforcement occupations. The present study examined the proportionate mortality for suicide in law enforcement in comparison to the US working population during 1999, 2003-2004, and 2007, based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Mortality Surveillance data. We analyzed data for all law enforcement occupations and focused on two specific law enforcement occupational categories-detectives/criminal investigators/ police and corrections officers. Suicides were also explored by race, gender and ethnicity. The results of the study showed proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) for suicide were significantly high for all races and sexes combined (all law enforcement--PMR = 169, 95% CI = 150-191, p law enforcement combined category, and a similarly high PMR was found among Hispanic detectives/criminal investigators/police (PMR = 388, p < 0.01, 95% CI = 168-765). There were small numbers of deaths among female and African American officers. The results included significantly increased risk for suicide among detectives/criminal investigators/police and corrections officers, which suggests that additional study could provide better data to inform us for preventive action.

  1. Powerful subjects of tax law enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dementyev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.6The subject. Competence of government bodies and their officials in the sphere of application of the tax law is considered in the article.The purpose of research is to determine the ratio of tax enforcement and application of the tax law, as well as the relationship between the concepts “party of tax enforcement” and “participant of tax legal relations”.Main results and scope of their application. The circle of participants of tax legal relations is broader than the circle of parties of tax law enforcement. The participants of tax legal relations are simultaneously the subjects of tax law, because they realize their tax status when enter into the tax relationships. The tax and customs authorities are the undoubted parties of the tax law enforcement.Although the financial authorities at all levels of government are not mentioned by article 9 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation as participants of tax relations, they are parties of tax enforcement, because they make the agreement for deferment or installment payment of regional and local taxes.Scope of application. Clarification of participants of tax legal relations and determination of their mutual responsibility is essential to effective law enforcement.Conclusion. It was concluded that the scope tax law enforcement is tax proceedings, not administrative proceedings, civil (arbitration proceedings or enforcement proceedings.The application of the tax law is carried out not only in the form of tax relations, but also in relations of other branches of law.

  2. 25 CFR 12.33 - Are Indian country law enforcement officers paid less than other law enforcement officers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are Indian country law enforcement officers paid less than other law enforcement officers? 12.33 Section 12.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Qualifications and Training Requirements § 12.33 Are Indian country law enforcement...

  3. 43 CFR 422.3 - Reclamation law enforcement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement policy. 422.3 Section 422.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS § 422.3 Reclamation law enforcement policy. The law enforcement...

  4. 33 CFR 88.11 - Law enforcement vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.11 Law enforcement vessels. (a) Law enforcement vessels may display a flashing blue light when engaged in direct law enforcement or public safety activities. This... lights. (b) The blue light described in this section may be displayed by law enforcement vessels of the...

  5. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. A law enforcement perspective of electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Ira

    2006-01-01

    In April 2004, the California Attorney General's (AG) office issued a white paper that provided a 'law enforcement perspective of the California energy crisis.' To complete this special issue's coverage, I summarize three aspects of that paper: notably, the deficiencies in market oversight and enforcement that left the deregulated market prone to potential abuse, the principal modus operandi that some market agents used to exploit those deficiencies without fear of retribution, and the AG's 'recommendations for improving enforcement and protecting consumers in deregulated energy markets.'. (author)

  7. A law enforcement perspective of electricity deregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Ira [Warrington College of Business, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7169 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    In April 2004, the California Attorney General's (AG) office issued a white paper that provided a 'law enforcement perspective of the California energy crisis.' To complete this special issue's coverage, I summarize three aspects of that paper: notably, the deficiencies in market oversight and enforcement that left the deregulated market prone to potential abuse, the principal modus operandi that some market agents used to exploit those deficiencies without fear of retribution, and the AG's 'recommendations for improving enforcement and protecting consumers in deregulated energy markets.'. (author)

  8. 25 CFR 11.1003 - Law enforcement officer's duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Law enforcement officer's duties. 11.1003 Section 11.1003 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1003 Law enforcement officer's duties. A law enforcement officer who takes a minor into...

  9. Law enforcement attitudes toward overdose prevention and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Traci C.; Zaller, Nickolas; Palacios, Wilson R.; Bowman, Sarah E.; Ray, Madeline; Heimer, Robert; Case, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Law enforcement is often the first to respond to medical emergencies in the community, including overdose. Due to the nature of their job, officers have also witnessed first-hand the changing demographic of drug users and devastating effects on their community associated with the epidemic of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the United States. Despite this seminal role, little data exist on law enforcement attitudes toward overdose prevention and response. Methods We conducted key informant interviews as part of a 12-week Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) process that aimed to better understand and prevent nonmedical prescription opioid use and overdose deaths in locations in Connecticut and Rhode Island experiencing overdose “outbreaks.” Interviews with 13 law enforcement officials across three study sites were analyzed to uncover themes on overdose prevention and naloxone. Results Findings indicated support for law enforcement involvement in overdose prevention. Hesitancy around naloxone administration by laypersons was evident. Interview themes highlighted officers’ feelings of futility and frustration with their current overdose response options, the lack of accessible local drug treatment, the cycle of addiction, and the pervasiveness of easily accessible prescription opioid medications in their communities. Overdose prevention and response, which for some officers included law enforcement-administered naloxone, were viewed as components of community policing and good police-community relations. Conclusion Emerging trends, such as existing law enforcement medical interventions and Good Samaritan Laws, suggest the need for broader law enforcement engagement around this pressing public health crisis, even in suburban and small town locations, to promote public safety. PMID:24051061

  10. Law enforcement attitudes toward overdose prevention and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Traci C; Zaller, Nickolas; Palacios, Wilson R; Bowman, Sarah E; Ray, Madeline; Heimer, Robert; Case, Patricia

    2013-12-01

    Law enforcement is often the first to respond to medical emergencies in the community, including overdose. Due to the nature of their job, officers have also witnessed first-hand the changing demographic of drug users and devastating effects on their community associated with the epidemic of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the United States. Despite this seminal role, little data exist on law enforcement attitudes toward overdose prevention and response. We conducted key informant interviews as part of a 12-week Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) process that aimed to better understand and prevent nonmedical prescription opioid use and overdose deaths in locations in Connecticut and Rhode Island experiencing overdose "outbreaks." Interviews with 13 law enforcement officials across three study sites were analyzed to uncover themes on overdose prevention and naloxone. Findings indicated support for law enforcement involvement in overdose prevention. Hesitancy around naloxone administration by laypersons was evident. Interview themes highlighted officers' feelings of futility and frustration with their current overdose response options, the lack of accessible local drug treatment, the cycle of addiction, and the pervasiveness of easily accessible prescription opioid medications in their communities. Overdose prevention and response, which for some officers included law enforcement-administered naloxone, were viewed as components of community policing and good police-community relations. Emerging trends, such as existing law enforcement medical interventions and Good Samaritan Laws, suggest the need for broader law enforcement engagement around this pressing public health crisis, even in suburban and small town locations, to promote public safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  12. 49 CFR 1542.217 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1542.217 Section 1542... Law enforcement personnel. (a) Each airport operator must ensure that law enforcement personnel used... the criminal laws of the State and local jurisdictions in which the airport is located— (1) A crime...

  13. 50 CFR 10.22 - Law enforcement offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement offices. 10.22 Section 10... GENERAL PROVISIONS Addresses § 10.22 Law enforcement offices. Service law enforcement offices and their areas of responsibility follow. Mail should be addressed: “Assistant Regional Director, Division of Law...

  14. 32 CFR 634.26 - Traffic law enforcement principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic law enforcement principles. 634.26 Section 634.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... law enforcement principles. (a) Traffic law enforcement should motivate drivers to operate vehicles...

  15. Social Norms and the Enforcement of Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Daron Acemoglu; Matthew O. Jackson

    2014-01-01

    We examine the interplay between social norms and the enforcement of laws. Agents choose a behavior (e.g., tax evasion, production of low-quality products, corruption, substance abuse, etc.) and then are randomly matched with another agent. An agent's payoff decreases with the mismatch between her behavior and her partner's, as well as average behavior in society. A law is an upper bound (cap) on behavior and a law-breaker, when detected, pays a fine and has her behavior forced down to the le...

  16. Fusing Intelligence With Law Enforcement Information: An Analytic Imperative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thornlow, Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    ... and Law Enforcement Communities to fuse and analyze foreign threat intelligence with domestic law enforcement information in a timely fashion to provide adequate indications and warning of such an...

  17. Law Enforcement Strategies for Preventing Rail Trespassing Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Volpe Center has investigated law enforcement methods that have successfully prevented trespassing along the railroad right of way. The types of law enforcement strategies currently being used and procedures followed in the field are documented, ...

  18. Law Enforcement Support Office (LESO) 1999 National Conference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lytle, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The Law Enforcement Support Office (LESO) national conference was a three-day forum to inform and update federal, state and local law enforcement agents, of the DoD role supporting the National Drug Control Strategy...

  19. A Comparison of Military and Law Enforcement Body Armour

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Orr; Ben Schram; Rodney Pope

    2018-01-01

    Law-enforcement officers increasingly wear body armour for protection; wearing body armour is common practice in military populations. Law-enforcement and military occupational demands are vastly different and military-styled body armour may not be suitable for law-enforcement. This study investigated differences between selected military body armour (MBA: 6.4 kg) and law-enforcement body armour (LEBA: 2.1 kg) in impacts on postural sway, vertical jump, agility, a functional movement screen (...

  20. Forensic imaging tools for law enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITHPETER,COLIN L.; SANDISON,DAVID R.; VARGO,TIMOTHY D.

    2000-01-01

    Conventional methods of gathering forensic evidence at crime scenes are encumbered by difficulties that limit local law enforcement efforts to apprehend offenders and bring them to justice. Working with a local law-enforcement agency, Sandia National Laboratories has developed a prototype multispectral imaging system that can speed up the investigative search task and provide additional and more accurate evidence. The system, called the Criminalistics Light-imaging Unit (CLU), has demonstrated the capabilities of locating fluorescing evidence at crime scenes under normal lighting conditions and of imaging other types of evidence, such as untreated fingerprints, by direct white-light reflectance. CLU employs state of the art technology that provides for viewing and recording of the entire search process on videotape. This report describes the work performed by Sandia to design, build, evaluate, and commercialize CLU.

  1. Nuclear forensics in law enforcement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.; Moody, K.J.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Phinney, D.L.; Whipple, R.E.; Haas, J.S.; Alcaraz, A.; Andrews, J.E.; Klunder, G.L.; Russo, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several years, the Livermore Forensic Science Center has conducted analyses of nuclear-related samples in conjunction with domestic and international criminal investigations. Law enforcement officials have sought conventional and nuclear-forensic analyses of questioned specimens that have typically consisted of miscellaneous metal species or actinide salts. The investigated activities have included nuclear smuggling and the proliferation of alleged fissionable materials, nonradioactive hoaxes such as 'Red Mercury', and the interdiction of illegal laboratories engaged in methamphetamine synthesis. (author)

  2. Volunteer Flying Organizations: Law Enforcements Untapped Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    World War II, women in the United States turned manpower into woman power as housewives across the nation took manufacturing jobs building bombers...delineates responsibilities for the entire volunteer organization. Safety -first Flying Culture CHP CHP’s first- class safety program uses the most...civilian pilots to augment law enforcement based aviation operations. This thesis uses recommendations of the Public Safety Aviation Accreditation

  3. Powerful subjects of tax law enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Dementyev

    2017-01-01

    УДК 342.6The subject. Competence of government bodies and their officials in the sphere of application of the tax law is considered in the article.The purpose of research is to determine the ratio of tax enforcement and application of the tax law, as well as the relationship between the concepts “party of tax enforcement” and “participant of tax legal relations”.Main results and scope of their application. The circle of participants of tax legal relations is broader than the circle of parties...

  4. 45 CFR 164.412 - Law enforcement delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement delay. 164.412 Section 164.412 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED... § 164.412 Law enforcement delay. If a law enforcement official states to a covered entity or business...

  5. 49 CFR 1546.211 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1546.211 Section 1546... § 1546.211 Law enforcement personnel. (a) At airports within the United States not governed by part 1542...) When using a screening system required by § 1546.101(a), (b), or (c), provide for law enforcement...

  6. 49 CFR 1544.217 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1544.217 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.217 Law enforcement personnel. (a) The following applies to... for law enforcement personnel meeting the qualifications and standards specified in §§ 1542.215 and...

  7. 32 CFR 634.33 - Training of law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Training of law enforcement personnel. 634.33 Section 634.33 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.33 Training of law enforcement personnel. (a) A...

  8. 32 CFR 806b.8 - Obtaining law enforcement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining law enforcement records. 806b.8 Section 806b.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.8 Obtaining law enforcement records. The Commander, Air...

  9. 20 CFR 401.155 - Law enforcement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Law enforcement purposes. 401.155 Section 401... INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.155 Law enforcement purposes. (a) General. The Privacy Act allows us to disclose information for law enforcement purposes under certain...

  10. 46 CFR 4.03-55 - Law enforcement officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement officer. 4.03-55 Section 4.03-55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-55 Law enforcement officer. Law enforcement officer means a Coast Guard commissioned, warrant or petty officer...

  11. 20 CFR 638.805 - Security and law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and law enforcement. 638.805 Section... and law enforcement. (a) The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines to protect the security of... jurisdiction with the appropriate State and locality with respect to criminal law enforcement as long as a...

  12. 45 CFR 5.68 - Exemption seven: Law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption seven: Law enforcement. 5.68 Section 5... INFORMATION REGULATIONS Reasons for Withholding Some Records § 5.68 Exemption seven: Law enforcement. We are not required to disclose information or records that the government has compiled for law enforcement...

  13. Sex Trafficking, Law Enforcement and Perpetrator Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Burkhalter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In theory, everyone – except for criminals involved in their exploitation - agrees that children must not be in the sex industry and further, that those who prey on them must be prosecuted and punished. Virtually every country in the world has adopted national laws prohibiting the commercial sexual exploitation of children. International law is clear on this point, as well. Yet, when governments – and NGOs working with them – take action to extract children from commercial sex venues, common ground on protecting children from abuse can quickly erode with concerns about the efficacy of police intervention, the possibility of collateral harm to consenting adult sex workers or a decrease in access to HIV-prevention and related health services. The author argues that healing this divide must come through the reform of local police – and that, without the participation of law enforcement, there can be no long-term protection for children vulnerable to trafficking and related exploitation. In this article, human rights practitioner Holly Burkhalter argues that healing this divide must be accomplished through the reform of local police – and that human rights advocates, local governments and others seeking to combat trafficking cannot achieve long-term, sustainable protection for children without the involvement of law enforcement.

  14. 25 CFR 11.909 - Law enforcement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.909 Law enforcement records. (a) Law enforcement records and files... minor's parents or guardian, the presenting officer, or others by order of the children's court. ...

  15. Computational infrastructure for law enforcement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lades, M.; Kunz, C.; Strikos, I.

    1997-02-01

    This project planned to demonstrate the leverage of enhanced computational infrastructure for law enforcement by demonstrating the face recognition capability at LLNL. The project implemented a face finder module extending the segmentation capabilities of the current face recognition so it was capable of processing different image formats and sizes and create the pilot of a network-accessible image database for the demonstration of face recognition capabilities. The project was funded at $40k (2 man-months) for a feasibility study. It investigated several essential components of a networked face recognition system which could help identify, apprehend, and convict criminals.

  16. 21 CFR 1309.26 - Exemption of law enforcement officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of law enforcement officials. 1309.26 Section 1309.26 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Requirements for Registration § 1309.26 Exemption of law enforcement...

  17. 21 CFR 1301.24 - Exemption of law enforcement officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of law enforcement officials. 1301.24 Section 1301.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exceptions to Registration and Fees § 1301.24 Exemption of law enforcement...

  18. Notification: Audit of EPA's Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics and Training's Law Enforcement Availability Pay Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY18-0075, November 30, 2017. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics and Training's (OCEFT's) law enforcement availability pay (LEAP) reporting.

  19. 49 CFR 1542.215 - Law enforcement support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement support. 1542.215 Section 1542.215..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.215 Law... program under § 1542.103(a) or (b) must provide: (1) Law enforcement personnel in the number and manner...

  20. Attitudes of North Carolina law enforcement officers toward syringe decriminalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Corey S.; Johnston, Jill; Zerden, Lisa de Saxe; Clark, Katie; Castillo, Tessie; Childs, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background North Carolina, like much of the U.S. South, is disproportionately affected by HIV and hepatitis. This persistently high disease burden may be driven in part by laws that criminalize the possession and distribution of syringes for illicit drug use. Legal change to decriminalize syringes may reduce infection rates in the state, but is unlikely absent support from law enforcement actors. Methods We analyzed the responses of 350 North Carolina law enforcement officers to a confidential, anonymous survey. The survey instrument collected data regarding self-reported needle-stick injury (NSI), blood borne disease risk perception and attitudes toward syringe decriminalization. Results 82% of respondents reported that contracting HIV was a “big concern” for them. 3.8% of respondents reported ever receiving a job-related NSI, a rate of 36 NSI per 10,000 officer-years. Majorities of respondents reported positive views regarding syringe decriminalization, with approximately 63% agreeing that it would be “good for the community” and 60% agreeing that it would be “good for law enforcement.” Black and female officers were significantly less likely to agree that on-the-job NSI was a “big concern” and significantly more likely to agree that it would be good for law enforcement. Conclusions These findings suggest that many North Carolina LEOs understand the public health benefits of syringe access programs and may be inclined to support syringe decriminalization legislation. Further research is indicated to determine the causes of observed differences in perceptions of bloodborne disease risk and attitudes toward syringe decriminalization by race and sex. PMID:25193720

  1. The law enforcement agencies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aygun, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In Turkey, the law enforcement agencies are gathered into two main authorities. These are as below. 1. Under the Ministry of Interior: General Commander of Gendarmarie; General Directorate of National Police; General Commandery of Coast Guard; 2. Within the Undersecretariat of Customs there are two main service units to combat smuggling. These are: General Directorate of Customs Enforcement (GDCE) and General Directorate of Customs. The responsible areas of these administrations are legally as below: The region of Gendarmarie: It covers rural areas. In that region, Gendarmarie is responsible, inter alia, combating smuggling; The region of police: General Directorate of National Police has performed its tasks, one of which is to combat smuggling in the city areas; The region of Territorial Waters: Coast Guard is related authority in territorial water for, among other things, fighting smuggling. The region of Customs: General Directorate of Customs Enforcement fulfills in these regions as the authority and responsible law enforcement agent. The main difference between GDCE and other law enforcement agencies are: GDCE is the only Administration whose main aim is to struggle against smuggling; Generally, all units conduct their operations in their responsible region, however, if it is necessary, depending on the case, an operation can be performed jointly only in another region in cooperation with the relevant agent. In that context, as far as General Directorate of Customs Enforcement is concerned, fulfilling an operation in other regions is not a legal necessity. Any units of GDCE can seize and do operation all over Turkey by itself, without any regional limitations from legislation. Organizational Structure of the Customs Administration in Turkey - The principle functions of the General Directorate of Customs are: implementation of customs policies, collection of customs taxes, inspection of passengers and goods, also, investigation of smuggling

  2. [The protection of health in law enforcement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Herein the question of health protection/safety and well being in the Law Enforcement is introduced and includes examples of some particular risk conditions that may be multiple and polymorphous. Not only the "traditional" sources are involved in these risks, like chemical, physical and biological agents, but other issues emerge in these "new scenarios" connected to risk factors involving organization and/or psychosocial elements. From this, we may deduce that there is a specific need for all the operators involved in prevention/care in this particular sector to be well versed on the highest possible updated specialized knowledge along with having a complete and thorough mastery of the best practices in Occupational Medicine to face this task in the correct manner:

  3. Enforcement and Effectiveness of Consumer Law in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pauknerová, Monika; Skalská, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2017), s. 243-254 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : consumer law * enforcement * alternative dispute resolution Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  4. Homicides of law enforcement officers responding to domestic disturbance calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kercher, Cassandra; Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Webster, Daniel W

    2013-10-01

    To describe the law enforcement officer (LEO), encounter, perpetrator and victim characteristics of domestic disturbance-related LEO homicides in the USA from 1996 to 2010. Narrative text analysis was conducted on the Federal Bureau of Investigation's annual report 'Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted'. Potential cases were confirmed if the narrative included the term 'domestic disturbance' or a domestic disturbance situation was described. 116 LEOs were killed while responding to domestic disturbance calls. Ninety-five per cent of these homicides were committed with a firearm. Sixty-seven per cent of LEOs were wearing body armour when killed; however, 52% received the fatal wound to the head/neck. Sixty-one per cent of suspects had a criminal history mentioned within the narratives and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) were more likely to be killed by LEOs than suspects involved in other forms of domestic violence. Victims of the domestic disturbance were killed in 21% of the IPV-related LEO homicide cases as opposed to only 5% of other domestic disturbance calls. A firearm was the most common weapon used in the murder of a domestic disturbance victim (86%). This study describes domestic disturbance-related LEO homicides. Future research in this area should further examine the dangers unique to domestic disturbance calls. A longitudinal analysis could provide greater understanding of the injury and mortality risks faced by LEOs, in order to inform homicide prevention among law enforcement.

  5. THE PARADOX OF POSITIVISTIC VIEW AND PROGRESSIVE LAW OF CRIMINAL LAW ENFORCEMENT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krismiyarsi Krismiyarsi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paradox of positivistic view and progressive law in the criminal law enforcement happened because there is a difference among the law enforcement officer’s view and perception.  Our law education from the beginning until now still teaches the students the positivistic view so that after the students becoming law officers in running the law they still use positive law or positivistic view. The positivistic view is often far from the substantive justice and close to the formal justice. In order to functioning the progressive law in law enforcement especially the penal code constraint of positivistic view which rooted inside of the law enforcer’s mind, therefore it is need paradigm change by fixing the law system, law education, ethics and morality of law officers , and increasing religious consciousness.Keywords: paradox, law positivism, progressive law, criminal law enforcement

  6. 25 CFR 11.1103 - Law enforcement officer's duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Law enforcement officer's duties. 11.1103 Section 11.1103 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Minor-in-Need-of-Care Procedure § 11.1103 Law enforcement officer's duties. Upon taking a minor into custody the officer...

  7. Improving Law Enforcement Cross Cultural Competencies through Continued Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereni-Massinger, Christine; Wood, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Over the last thirty years Community Oriented Policing (COP) has spawned advancements in creating community partnerships with law enforcement agencies. Agencies that focus on such partnerships have served to reduce crime and resolve conflict. However, community opinions towards law enforcement have become increasingly negative due to recent civil…

  8. 28 CFR 0.29j - Law enforcement authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law enforcement authority. 0.29j Section 0.29j Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 4-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29j Law enforcement authority. Subject to guidelines promulgated by the Attorney General, Special Agents of the Offic...

  9. 49 CFR 1542.221 - Records of law enforcement response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records of law enforcement response. 1542.221 Section 1542.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.221 Records of law enforcement...

  10. Randomized Trial of Law Enforcement Training on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagardin, Jill; Dixon, Dennis R.; Smith, Marlena N.; Granpeesheh, Doreen

    2012-01-01

    The core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are likely to affect interactions between law enforcement officers and persons with ASD. If law enforcement officers are not trained to identify and appropriately respond to persons with ASD, it is possible that officers may exacerbate a situation, resulting in unnecessary trauma, injury, or…

  11. 36 CFR 1270.50 - Consultation with law enforcement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consultation with law enforcement agencies. 1270.50 Section 1270.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PRESIDENTIAL RECORDS PRESIDENTIAL RECORDS Presidential Records Compiled for Law Enforcement Purposes § 1270.50 Consultation with...

  12. Sharing Powers Within Exclusive Competences: Rethinking EU Antitrust Law Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Although the establishment of competition rules forms part of the EU’s exclusive competences, the application and enforcement of those rules has always been shared consistently between the EU and its Member States.The sharing of enforcement powers is conceptualised traditionally as a delegation of the exercise of exclusively conferred competences. The Court of Justice of the European Union’s case law in the context of EU antitrust law enforcement nevertheless raises profound questions as to t...

  13. Corruption in law enforcement: a paradigm of occupational stress and deviancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, F L; McCafferty, M A

    1998-01-01

    In the closed society of a law enforcement agency, factors such as the conspiracy of silence, authoritarian supervision, and police discretion contribute to corruption. This article describes various types of corrupt behavior by police officers, reports the incidence of corruption in law enforcement agencies, discusses psychiatric conditions that may arise from corruption and also contribute to further corruption, and reviews proposed remedies for corruption. It also suggests that an understanding of corruption in law enforcement might be helpful in understanding, correcting, and preventing corruption in other professions, including medicine.

  14. Lip-reading enhancement for law enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Barry J.; Harvey, Richard; Cox, Stephen J.; Lewis, Colin; Owen, Gari P.

    2006-09-01

    Accurate lip-reading techniques would be of enormous benefit for agencies involved in counter-terrorism and other law-enforcement areas. Unfortunately, there are very few skilled lip-readers, and it is apparently a difficult skill to transmit, so the area is under-resourced. In this paper we investigate the possibility of making the lip-reading task more amenable to a wider range of operators by enhancing lip movements in video sequences using active appearance models. These are generative, parametric models commonly used to track faces in images and video sequences. The parametric nature of the model allows a face in an image to be encoded in terms of a few tens of parameters, while the generative nature allows faces to be re-synthesised using the parameters. The aim of this study is to determine if exaggerating lip-motions in video sequences by amplifying the parameters of the model improves lip-reading ability. We also present results of lip-reading tests undertaken by experienced (but non-expert) adult subjects who claim to use lip-reading in their speech recognition process. The results, which are comparisons of word error-rates on unprocessed and processed video, are mixed. We find that there appears to be the potential to improve the word error rate but, for the method to improve the intelligibility there is need for more sophisticated tracking and visual modelling. Our technique can also act as an expression or visual gesture amplifier and so has applications to animation and the presentation of information via avatars or synthetic humans.

  15. The right to be forgotten – private law enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Private law enforcement of the right to be forgotten should be considered in light of the general characteristics of private law. This highlights advantages and limitations, and underlines the need to explicate the actual interests involved in the right to be forgotten. As case law and real-life

  16. Analysis of Environmental Law Enforcement Mechanism Based on Economic Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongjun; Shao, Haohao; Cai, Xuesen

    2017-11-01

    Strengthening and improving the environmental law enforcement mechanism is an important way to protect the ecological environment. This paper is based on economical principles, we did analysis of the marginal management costs by using Pigou means and the marginal transaction costs by using Coase means vary with the quantity growth of pollutant discharge Enterprises. We analyzed all this information, then we got the conclusion as follows. In the process of strengthening the environmental law enforcement mechanism, firstly, we should fully mobilize all aspects of environmental law enforcement, such as legislative bodies and law enforcement agencies, public welfare organizations, television, newspapers, enterprises, people and so on, they need to form a reasonable and organic structure system; then we should use various management means, such as government regulation, legal sanctions, fines, persuasion and denounce, they also need to form an organic structural system.

  17. Sharing Law Enforcement and Intelligence Information: The Congressional Role

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best Jr., Richard A

    2007-01-01

    Almost all assessments of the attacks of September 11, 2001, have concluded that U.S. intelligence and law enforcement agencies had failed to share information that might have provided advance warning of the plot...

  18. On the Enforcement of Specific Performance in Civil Law Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik; Rose, Caspar

    2003-01-01

    requires actions to beundertaken, and we relate this to costs of enforcement. We arguethat it is administratively costly to run a system of enforcementthat renders specific performance attractive to the aggrieved party,and that the Civil Law countries have (like Common Law countries)chosen not to incur...... these costs of enforcement. This is especiallyclear in the case of Denmark, where specific performance of actionshas been abandoned as a legal remedy.At the normative level, we argue that enforcement costs providesan additional rationale, over and above the rationales of the theoryof efficient breach...

  19. Individual psychological features of law enforcement officers convicted of crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyutykh V.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this topic is caused by a significant number of crimes committed by law enforcement officers and the necessity of active prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the individual psychological characteristics of law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes. The hypothesis was suggested that the main difference of individual psychological characteristics of law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes from individual psychological characteristics of law-abiding law enforcement officers is the difference between the principal values of the person both the main motives of activity adopted by an individual and the structure and the hierarchy of these values. This article describes the progress and results of empirical research conducted on the materials of psychodiagnostic examination of: employees who have been convicted of intentional crimes; law-abiding employees; people entering an internal affairs agency. Test subjects - men 18-46 years old, 90 people. Recommendations for practical psychologist of internal affairs agencies on detection of individual psychological personality features typical for law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes are formulated based on the obtained results.

  20. Road Transportation and Traffic Law Enforcement in Nigeria: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Road Transportation and Traffic Law Enforcement in Nigeria was established in order to reduce the increasing road crashes and fatalities as well as making road users comply with traffic Laws and regulations as a counter measure, which remain as a great challenge in Nigeria. This paper discussed the roles of the Federal ...

  1. 49 CFR 1542.219 - Supplementing law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplementing law enforcement personnel. 1542.219 Section 1542.219 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.219 Supplementing law...

  2. Nonfatal Injuries to Law Enforcement Officers: A Rise in Assaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesman, Hope M; Gwilliam, Melody; Konda, Srinivas; Rojek, Jeff; Marsh, Suzanne

    2018-04-01

    Limited studies exist that describe nonfatal work-related injuries to law enforcement officers. The aim of this study is to provide national estimates and trends of nonfatal injuries to law enforcement officers from 2003 through 2014. Nonfatal injuries were obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Occupational Supplement. Data were obtained for injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments from 2003 to 2014. Nonfatal injury rates were calculated using denominators from the Current Population Survey. Negative binomial regression was used to analyze temporal trends. Data were analyzed in 2016-2017. Between 2003 and 2014, an estimated 669,100 law enforcement officers were treated in U.S. emergency departments for nonfatal injuries. The overall rate of 635 per 10,000 full-time equivalents was three times higher than all other U.S. workers rate (213 per 10,000 full-time equivalents). The three leading injury events were assaults and violent acts (35%), bodily reactions and exertion (15%), and transportation incidents (14%). Injury rates were highest for the youngest officers, aged 21-24 years. Male and female law enforcement officers had similar nonfatal injury rates. Rates for most injuries remained stable; however, rates for assault-related injuries grew among law enforcement officers between 2003 and 2011. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Occupational Supplement data demonstrate a significant upward trend in assault injuries among U.S. law enforcement officers and this warrants further investigation. Police-citizen interactions are dynamic social encounters and evidence-based policing is vital to the health and safety of both police and civilians. The law enforcement community should energize efforts toward the study of how policing tactics impact both officer and citizen injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. 27 CFR 478.134 - Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AMMUNITION Records § 478.134 Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers. (a) Law enforcement officers... complete Form 4473 or Form 5300.35. The law enforcement officer purchasing the firearm may purchase a...) In Federal law enforcement offices, the supervisor in charge of the office to which the Federal...

  4. Qualitative assessment of take-home naloxone program participant and law enforcement interactions in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Andrew; Amlani, Ashraf; Ambrose, Graham; Buxton, Jane A

    2016-05-21

    The British Columbia take-home naloxone (BCTHN) program has been in operation since 2012 and has resulted in the successful reversal of over 581 opioid overdoses. The study aims to explore BCTHN program participant perspectives about the program, barriers to participants contacting emergency services (calling "911") during an overdose, and perspectives of law enforcement officials on naloxone administration by police officers. Two focus groups and four individual interviews were conducted with BCTHN program participants; interviews with two law enforcement officials were also conducted. Qualitative analysis of all transcripts was performed. Positive themes about the BCTHN program from participants included easy to understand training, correcting misperceptions in the community, and positive interactions with emergency services. Potential barriers to contacting emergency services during an overdose include concerns about being arrested for outstanding warrants or for other illegal activities (such as drug possession) and confiscation of kits. Law enforcement officials noted that warrants were complex situational issues, kits would normally not be confiscated, and admitted arrests for drug possession or other activities may not serve the public good in an overdose situation. Law enforcement officials were concerned about legal liability and jurisdictional/authorization issues if naloxone administration privileges were expanded to police. Program participants and law enforcement officials expressed differing perspectives about warrants, kit confiscation, and arrests. Facilitating communication between BCTHN program participants and other stakeholders may address some of the confusion and remove potential barriers to further improving program outcomes. Naloxone administration by law enforcement would require policies to address jurisdiction/authorization and liability issues.

  5. Law enforcement attitudes towards naloxone following opioid overdose training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purviance, Donna; Ray, Bradley; Tracy, Abigail; Southard, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Opioid intoxication and overdoses are life-threatening emergencies requiring rapid treatment. One response to this has been to train law enforcement to detect the signs of an opioid overdose and train them to administer naloxone to reverse the effects. Although not a new concept, few studies have attempted to examine this policy. At 4 different locations in Indiana, law enforcement personnel were trained to detect the signs of an opioid-related overdose and how to administer naloxone to reverse the effects of the overdose. Pre and post surveys were administered at each location (N = 97). To examine changes in attitudes following training, the authors included items from the Opioid Overdose Attitudes Scale (OOAS), which measures respondents' competency, concerns, and readiness to administer naloxone. Among the full sample, naloxone training resulted in significant increases in competency, concerns, and readiness. Examining changes in attitudes by each location revealed that the training had the greatest effect on competency to administer naloxone and in easing concerns that law enforcement personal might have in administering naloxone. This study adds to others in showing that law enforcement personnel are receptive to naloxone training and that the OOAS is able to capture these attitudes. This study advances this literature by examining pre-post changes across multiple locations. As the distribution of naloxone continues to proliferate, this study and the OOAS may be valuable towards the development of an evidence-based training model for law enforcement.

  6. Remote data entry and retrieval for law enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasowsky, Bohdan R.; Capraro, Gerard T.; Berdan, Gerald B.; Capraro, Christopher T.

    1997-02-01

    Law enforcement personnel need to capture and retrieve quality multimedia data in `real time' while in the field. This is not done today, for the most part. Most law enforcement officers gather data on handwritten forms and retrieve data via voice communications or fax. This approach is time consuming, costly, prone to errors, and may require months before some data are entered into a usable law enforcement database. With advances in the computing and communications industries, it is now possible to communicate with anyone using a laptop computer or personal digital assistant (PDA), given a phone line, an RF modem, or cellular capability. Many law enforcement officers have access to laptop computers within their vehicles and can stay in touch with their command center and/or retrieve data from local, state, or federal databases. However, this same capability is not available once they leave the vehicle or if the officer is on a beat, motorcycle, or horseback. This paper investigates the issues and reviews the state of the art for integrating a PDA into the gathering and retrieving of multimedia data for law enforcement.

  7. Personal characteristics of a law enforcement unit of special purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilenko T.G.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study of the personal characteristics of law enforcement officers due to a significant number of crimes of an aggressive nature, committed by employees of internal Affairs bodies, and the need to develop preventive measures. The purpose of this research is to study peculiarities of the manifestation of progressive and inhibiting aggression personality factors in the structure of law enforcement officers, whose activities directly associated with aggression in the performance of official duties. The study involved 149 employees of special forces of law enforcement are male aged 18 to 35 years. Used a wide battery of psychodiagnostic methods aimed at a comprehensive study of the individual respondents. the data Obtained were analyzed using the method of correlation pleiades. According to the results, was discovered a unique picture of the relationship among personality structures and interaction progressive and deterrent aggression factors with the prevalence of progressive on inhibitory factors in the studied structure.

  8. Forensic Speaker Recognition Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Hemant

    2012-01-01

    Forensic Speaker Recognition: Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism is an anthology of the research findings of 35 speaker recognition experts from around the world. The volume provides a multidimensional view of the complex science involved in determining whether a suspect’s voice truly matches forensic speech samples, collected by law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, that are associated with the commission of a terrorist act or other crimes. While addressing such topics as the challenges of forensic case work, handling speech signal degradation, analyzing features of speaker recognition to optimize voice verification system performance, and designing voice applications that meet the practical needs of law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, this material all sounds a common theme: how the rigors of forensic utility are demanding new levels of excellence in all aspects of speaker recognition. The contributors are among the most eminent scientists in speech engineering and signal process...

  9. Medical support for law enforcement-extended operations incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Matthew J; Tang, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    As the complexity and frequency of law enforcement-extended operations incidents continue to increase, so do the opportunities for adverse health and well-being impacts on the responding officers. These types of clinical encounters have not been well characterized nor have the medical response strategies which have been developed to effectively manage these encounters been well described. The purpose of this article is to provide a descriptive epidemiology of the clinical encounters reported during extended law enforcement operations, as well as to describe a best practices approach for their effective management. This study retrospectively examined the clinical encounters of the Maryland State Police (MSP) Tactical Medical Unit (TMU) during law enforcement extended operations incidents lasting 8 or more hours. In addition, a qualitative analysis was performed on clinical data collected by federal law enforcement agencies during their extended operations. Forty-four percent of missions (455/1,047) supported by the MSP TMU lasted 8 or more hours. Twenty-six percent of these missions (117/455) resulted in at least one patient encounter. Nineteen percent of patient chief complaints (45/238) were related to heat illness/ dehydration. Fifteen percent of encounters (36/238) were for musculoskeletal injury/pain. Eight percent of patients (19/238) had nonspecific sick call (minor illness) complaints. The next most common occurring complaints were cold-related injuries, headache, sinus congestion, and wound/laceration, each of which accounted for 7 percent of patients (16/238), respectively. Analysis of federal law enforcement agencies' response to such events yielded similar clinical encounters. A wide range of health problems are reported by extended law enforcement operations personnel. Timely and effective treatment of these problems can help ensure that the broader operations mission is not compromised. An appropriate operational strategy for managing health complaints

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF THE CULTURE OF LAW IN LAW ENFORCEMENT CRIMINAL ACTS IN THE FIELD OF FISHERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Asis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has the potential of marine and fisheries and a good variety of renewable or not renewable, but in the field fishery optimally still hampered with the rampant practice of catching fish illegally or criminal acts in the field of fisheries. The purpose of this writing is to know the influence of the culture of law in law enforcement criminal acts in the field of fisheries. Writing this type of normative research using secondary data, then the data were analyzed qualitatively-normative, examine the way interpret and construct the statement contained in document per-Act. The results showed that the law is strongly influenced by factors such as, among others: values, attitudes, and the community's view of called with cultures of law. Based on legal cultures which may give rise to differences in law enforcement between the communities that one with other communities. The legal culture is linked to the professionalism of law enforcers in the exercise of his duties, and public awareness in adhering to the law itself. Overall attitudes and values and behavior that determine the applicable law on society. Thus, the construction of the legal awareness should be oriented in an effort to promote the values underlying the legislation in question as well as paying attention to the communication of the ruling factor in order for the contents of such laws can be known by the public at large as the target of the rule of law itself. So the culture of the law contains the meaning of the process of internalization of values that are alive and thriving in the community who can serve as a cornerstone in understanding and law enforcement especially in the field of fisheries. Therefore, the fundamental issues should be against the law as already described above should be addressed properly

  11. Understanding scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    Accelerator scaling laws how they can be generated, and how they are used are discussed. A scaling law is a relation between machine parameters and beam parameters. An alternative point of view is that a scaling law is an imposed relation between the equations of motion and the initial conditions. The relation between the parameters is obtained by requiring the beam to be matched. (A beam is said to be matched if the phase-space distribution function is a function of single-particle invariants of the motion.) Because of this restriction, the number of independent parameters describing the system is reduced. Using simple models for bunched- and unbunched-beam situations. Scaling laws are shown to determine the general behavior of beams in accelerators. Such knowledge is useful in design studies for new machines such as high-brightness linacs. The simple model presented shows much of the same behavior as a more detailed RFQ model

  12. Restraint use law enforcement intervention in Latino communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaechter, Judy; Uhlhorn, Susan B

    2011-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for U.S. Latinos aged 1 to 35 years. Restraint use is an effective means of prevention of motor vehicle crash injury. Effective interventions to raise restraint use include the following: legislation, law enforcement, education, and equipment distribution. The effects of law enforcement interventions in Latino immigrant communities are understudied. We measured the community-level effect of a combined intervention that included warnings and citations phase enforcement in Latino communities. We designed and implemented in two of three Latino-majority communities a multicomponent intervention consisting of a community awareness campaign, restraint use education with equipment distribution, and a two-staged law enforcement intervention. Restraint use observations were conducted in all three communities at baseline, after the warnings phase and again after the citations phase of the intervention were completed. The combined intervention of community awareness, education, child passenger restraint distribution, and law enforcement focused on educational traffic stops with incentives and warnings was associated with a significant increase in both driver and child passenger restraint use in one intervention community, but only driver restraint increased to a level of significance in the other intervention community; significant increase was also noted among nonintervention drivers. The citations phase of the intervention did not result in a significant increase in restraint use and was complicated by interruptions due to unlicensed drivers. The combined effort of community awareness, education, equipment distribution and law enforcement intervention that included incentives and warnings may be effective at increasing seat belt use in Latino communities without the need for citations.

  13. Equalizing Military and Civilian Law Enforcement Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    an Active Shooter Lesson 2: Psychology of an Active Shooter Lesson 3: Physiological Stress of a Patrolman Lesson 4: Police Intelligence Fusion...MPs are migratory by nature and by mission, they require professional credentials regarding federal and state laws, the Uniform Code of Military...their preceding MP training or experience – for employment. For instance, the State of Louisiana POST Council stresses the following minimum training

  14. Interactions of Transgender Latina Women with Law Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Galvan, Frank H.; Bazargan, Mohzen

    2012-01-01

    A new report, funded by the Williams Institute, reveals high levels of reported harassment and assault of Latina transgender women by law enforcement agencies and highlights steps that police departments should take to improve relations with the transgender community.    The report, “Interactions of Latina Transgender Women with Law Enforcement” is based on interviews with 220 Latina transgender women from the Los Angeles area. BIENESTAR, a non-profit social service organization comm...

  15. PROGRESSIVE LAW ENFORCEMENT TOWARDS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION IN KOTA KUPANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Efraim Liunima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copyright is creator intellectual wealth so it needs to be protected by the State as a form of responsibility. Responding that problem comes into the world Law Number 28 Year 2014 concerning Copyrights and all violations in UUHC is formulated as delict complaint. Consequence of delict complaint is not all of copyright violations can be asked for the responsibility because law agencies are passive and limited by space and time. Answering that jurisdictional problem then researcher used empirical law research method. The result showed that civil servants investigator (PPNS Kanwil Kemenkumham NTT and also Kupang Kota Police Resort have done progressive step such as appealing, warning, calling, making statement, stocktaking and confiscation whereas the obstacle factor of progressive law enforcement is knowledge, mindset and in the formula of UUHC there is no section which formulate what the step can be done if criminal matters happen so the suggestions given is law enforcement agencies need an explanation about progressive law enforcement and it is better if in UUHC need to be formulated a step which will be taken if criminal matters happen

  16. Law enforcement tools available at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    2000-03-29

    A number of nuclear technologies developed and applied at the Savannah River Site in support of nuclear weapons material production and environmental remediation can be applied to problems in law enforcement. Techniques and equipment for high-sensitivity analyses of samples are available to identify and quantify trace elements and establish origins and histories of forensic evidence removed from crime scenes. While some of theses capabilities are available at local crime laboratories, state-of-the-art equipment and breakthroughs in analytical techniques are continually being developed at DOE laboratories. Extensive experience with the handling of radioactive samples at the DOE labs minimizes the chances of cross-contamination of evidence received from law enforcement. In addition to high-sensitivity analyses, many of the field techniques developed for use in a nuclear facility can assist law enforcement personnel in detecting illicit materials and operations, in retrieving of pertinent evidence and in surveying crime scenes. Some of these tools include chemical sniffers, hand-held detectors, thermal imaging, etc. In addition, mobile laboratories can be deployed to a crime scene to provide field screening of potential evidence. A variety of portable sensors can be deployed on vehicle, aerial, surface or submersible platforms to assist in the location of pertinent evidence or illicit operations. Several specific nuclear technologies available to law enforcement and their potential uses are discussed.

  17. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, Harriet; Takken, Tim; de Groot, Janke; Reneman, Michiel; Peters, Roelof; Vanhees, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report

  18. Communication Error Management in Law Enforcement Interactions : a receiver's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostinga, Miriam; Giebels, Ellen; Taylor, Paul Jonathon

    2018-01-01

    Two experiments explore the effect of law enforcement officers’ communication errors and their response strategies on a suspect’s trust in the officer; established rapport and hostility; and, the amount and quality of information shared. Students were questioned online by an exam board member about

  19. The Role of Law Enforcement in Prevention. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As campuses and communities across the country grapple with problems related to unruly house parties, neighborhood disruptions, and alcohol-fueled "celebratory" incidents, they are developing partnerships with law enforcement agencies to implement strategies to reduce such problems and protect the health and safety of students and residents alike.…

  20. Law Enforcement Use of Threat Assessments to Predict Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tracey Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive multiple case study was to explore what process, policies and procedures, or set of empirically supported norms governed law enforcement officers in a selected county in the southwest region of the United States when threat assessments were conducted on potentially violent subjects threatening mass…

  1. Legal challenges of fighting (against) botnets: a law enforcement perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E Silva, Karine

    Strengthening enforcement of cybercrime law is not a simple question of more legislation. Botnet investigations often intrude in the private sphere of third parties, possibly implicating access to large amounts of data related to innocent individuals and unrelated to the investigated offence. In

  2. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  3. 50 CFR 404.8 - Emergencies and law enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergencies and law enforcement activities. 404.8 Section 404.8 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE);...

  4. 24 CFR 291.520 - Eligible law enforcement officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible law enforcement officers. 291.520 Section 291.520 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED...

  5. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, H.; Takken, T.; Groot, J.F. de; Reneman, M.; Peters, R.; Vanhees, L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report

  6. 28 CFR 29.5 - Notification of law enforcement officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of law enforcement officials. 29.5 Section 29.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT... program and with the conditions under which motor vehicles may be stopped. ...

  7. Law enforcement officers in the USDA forest service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez; Joanne F. Tynon

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports results fiom the first in a series of studies evaluating perceptions of law enforcement officers (LEOs) in the US Forest Service (USFS). It is a follow-up to previous qualitative studies conducted to learn more about crime and violence in national forests and the impacts on recreation visitation and management, and test key characteristics of success...

  8. A Comparison of Military and Law Enforcement Body Armour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Rodney

    2018-01-01

    Law-enforcement officers increasingly wear body armour for protection; wearing body armour is common practice in military populations. Law-enforcement and military occupational demands are vastly different and military-styled body armour may not be suitable for law-enforcement. This study investigated differences between selected military body armour (MBA: 6.4 kg) and law-enforcement body armour (LEBA: 2.1 kg) in impacts on postural sway, vertical jump, agility, a functional movement screen (FMS), task simulations (vehicle exit; victim recovery), and subjective measures. Ten volunteer police officers (six females, four males) were randomly allocated to one of the designs on each of two days. Body armour type did not significantly affect postural sway, vertical jump, vehicle exit and 5 m sprint times, or victim recovery times. Both armour types increased sway velocity and sway-path length in the final five seconds compared to the first 5 s of a balance task. The MBA was associated with significantly slower times to complete the agility task, poorer FMS total scores, and poorer subjective ratings of performance and comfort. The LEBA was perceived as more comfortable and received more positive performance ratings during the agility test and task simulations. The impacts of MBA and LEBA differed significantly and they should not be considered interchangeable. PMID:29443905

  9. A Comparison of Military and Law Enforcement Body Armour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Schram, Ben; Pope, Rodney

    2018-02-14

    Law-enforcement officers increasingly wear body armour for protection; wearing body armour is common practice in military populations. Law-enforcement and military occupational demands are vastly different and military-styled body armour may not be suitable for law-enforcement. This study investigated differences between selected military body armour (MBA: 6.4 kg) and law-enforcement body armour (LEBA: 2.1 kg) in impacts on postural sway, vertical jump, agility, a functional movement screen (FMS), task simulations (vehicle exit; victim recovery), and subjective measures. Ten volunteer police officers (six females, four males) were randomly allocated to one of the designs on each of two days. Body armour type did not significantly affect postural sway, vertical jump, vehicle exit and 5 m sprint times, or victim recovery times. Both armour types increased sway velocity and sway-path length in the final five seconds compared to the first 5 s of a balance task. The MBA was associated with significantly slower times to complete the agility task, poorer FMS total scores, and poorer subjective ratings of performance and comfort. The LEBA was perceived as more comfortable and received more positive performance ratings during the agility test and task simulations. The impacts of MBA and LEBA differed significantly and they should not be considered interchangeable.

  10. A Comparison of Military and Law Enforcement Body Armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Orr

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Law-enforcement officers increasingly wear body armour for protection; wearing body armour is common practice in military populations. Law-enforcement and military occupational demands are vastly different and military-styled body armour may not be suitable for law-enforcement. This study investigated differences between selected military body armour (MBA: 6.4 kg and law-enforcement body armour (LEBA: 2.1 kg in impacts on postural sway, vertical jump, agility, a functional movement screen (FMS, task simulations (vehicle exit; victim recovery, and subjective measures. Ten volunteer police officers (six females, four males were randomly allocated to one of the designs on each of two days. Body armour type did not significantly affect postural sway, vertical jump, vehicle exit and 5 m sprint times, or victim recovery times. Both armour types increased sway velocity and sway-path length in the final five seconds compared to the first 5 s of a balance task. The MBA was associated with significantly slower times to complete the agility task, poorer FMS total scores, and poorer subjective ratings of performance and comfort. The LEBA was perceived as more comfortable and received more positive performance ratings during the agility test and task simulations. The impacts of MBA and LEBA differed significantly and they should not be considered interchangeable.

  11. Law enforcement tools available at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Beals, D.M.; Halverson, J.E.; Villa-Aleman, E.; Hayes, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    A number of nuclear technologies developed and applied at the Savannah River Site in support of nuclear weapons material production and environmental remediation can be applied to problems in law enforcement. Techniques and equipment for high-sensitivity analyses of samples are available to identify and quantify trace elements and establish origins and histories of forensic evidence removed from crime scenes. While some of these capabilities are available at local crime laboratories, state-of-the-art equipment and breakthroughs in analytical techniques are continually being developed at DOE laboratories. Extensive experience with the handling of radioactive samples at the DOE labs minimizes the chances of cross-contamination of evidence received from law enforcement. In addition to high-sensitivity analyses, many of the field techniques developed for use in a nuclear facility can assist law enforcement personnel in detecting illicit materials and operations, in retrieving of pertinent evidence and in surveying crime sciences. Some of these tools include chemical sniffers, hand-held detectors, thermal imaging, etc. In addition, mobile laboratories can be deployed to a crime scene to provide field screening of potential evidence. A variety of portable sensors can be deployed on vehicle, aerial, surface of submersible platforms to assist in the location of pertinent evidence or illicit operations. Several specific nuclear technologies available to law enforcement and their potential uses are discussed. (author)

  12. Post-Crackdown Effectiveness of Field-Based Forest Law Enforcement in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Jan; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Hargrave, Jorge; König, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory enforcement of forest conservation laws is often dismissed as an ineffective approach to reducing tropical forest loss. Yet, effective enforcement is often a precondition for alternative conservation measures, such as payments for environmental services, to achieve desired outcomes. Fair and efficient policies to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) will thus crucially depend on understanding the determinants and requirements of enforcement effectiveness. Among potential REDD candidate countries, Brazil is considered to possess the most advanced deforestation monitoring and enforcement infrastructure. This study explores a unique dataset of over 15 thousand point coordinates of enforcement missions in the Brazilian Amazon during 2009 and 2010, after major reductions of deforestation in the region. We study whether local deforestation patterns have been affected by field-based enforcement and to what extent these effects vary across administrative boundaries. Spatial matching and regression techniques are applied at different spatial resolutions. We find that field-based enforcement operations have not been universally effective in deterring deforestation during our observation period. Inspections have been most effective in reducing large-scale deforestation in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, where average conservation effects were 4.0 and 9.9 hectares per inspection, respectively. Despite regional and actor-specific heterogeneity in inspection effectiveness, field-based law enforcement is highly cost-effective on average and might be enhanced by closer collaboration between national and state-level authorities. PMID:25875656

  13. Commercial-vehicle enforcement: a guide for law-enforcement managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the document is to provide a resource for law enforcement agencies to evaluate their programs, and to promote the uniform application of concepts already shown to be effective in other jurisdictions, which identify and address commercial-vehicle traffic safety needs

  14. 25 CFR 12.36 - Does other law enforcement training count?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does other law enforcement training count? 12.36 Section 12.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Qualifications and Training Requirements § 12.36 Does other law enforcement training count? All requests for evaluation of equivalent...

  15. 25 CFR 12.41 - Who keeps statistics for Indian country law enforcement activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who keeps statistics for Indian country law enforcement activities? 12.41 Section 12.41 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Records and Information § 12.41 Who keeps statistics for Indian country law enforcement activities? The Director...

  16. Developing Safe Schools Partnerships with Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiak, John

    2009-01-01

    Safe schools are the concern of communities throughout the world. If a school is safe, and if children feel safe, students "are better able to learn. But what are the steps to make" this happen? First, it is important to understand the problem: What are the threats to school safety? These include crime-related behaviors that find their way to…

  17. Review of Canine Deaths While in Service in US Civilian Law Enforcement (2002-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojsih, Sarah E; Baker, Janice L; Les, Clifford M; Bir, Cynthia A

    2014-01-01

    Working dogs have been proven effective in multiple military and law enforcement applications. Similar to their human counterparts, understanding mortality while still in service can help improve treatment of injuries, and improve equipment and training, to potentially reduce deaths. This is a retrospective study to characterize mortality of working dogs used in civilian law enforcement. Reported causes of death were gathered from two working dog and law enforcement officer memorial websites. Of the 867 civilian law enforcement dogs reported to these memorial websites from 2002 to 2012 with reported causes of death while in service, the deaths of 318 were categorized as traumatic. The leading reported causes of traumatic death or euthanasia include trauma as a result of a vehicle strike, 25.8% (n=82); heatstroke, 24.8% (n=79); and penetrating ballistic trauma, 23.0% (n=73). Although the information gathered was from online sources, this study casts some light on the risks that civilian law enforcement dogs undergo as part of the tasks to which they are assigned. These data underscore the need for a comprehensive database for this specialized population of working dogs to provide the robust, reliable data needed to develop prevention and treatment strategies for this valuable resource. 2014.

  18. A Quantitative Examination Whether Education Mitigates Stress Levels among Law Enforcement Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metts, Gary A.

    2012-01-01

    Stress is damaging if it is continual, overwhelming. and prolonged. Law enforcement officers face stressful events daily. A relationship exists between stress levels and the physical and psychological effects to the human body. Although there is a general understanding of the damage stress can do physically and psychologically, many elements that…

  19. Don't Shoot the Messenger: Public Relations for Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This communication project provides an overview of public relations as seen through the communication arts. It is specifically focused to give law enforcement officers a general review of the practice of public relations, communication basics, and an understanding of the media. This course also provides the facilitator with multiple tools for…

  20. General considerations on the enforcement (application of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlingher Remus Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Law is a system of norms developed and/or recognized by the state as norms guiding human behaviour according to the values of that particular society, establishing rights and obligations, principles and definitions, structures and relationships of social organization and activity that must be obeyed and which, when necessary, are insured by the coercive force of the state. Thus, the development of this system of norms is not an end in itself, but is intended to regulate all social relations, guide human behaviours and achieve the aims of the law. The enforcement of law is the process of translating legal rules into practice, through which the subjects of law obey and execute legal norms, and state authorities apply them, depending on their competence. The enforcement of law depends on a number of factors that shape law, such as its natural framework of existence, the historical context and the ethnic and national particularities of that community’s development, the economic factor or framework, the framework and particularities of the political system, the cultural-ideological framework or factor, the international framework or factor, etc.

  1. Internal Security Cooperation under Functional Expectations: Initial Law Enforcement Europeanization - Case of Finland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Loik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Law enforcement cooperation as a central part of the EU internal security policy to combat cross-border organised crime and terrorism needs to be more effective by adopting specific provisions and tools. This paper argues that functional expectations require removal of barriers and construction of a common security area, but sometimes better cooperation in practice does not fit, as Europeanization of law enforcement still lacks understanding of objectives, values and principles for improving international trust, consensus, sincere cooperation and effective national coordination. The level of Europeanization of law enforcement could be evaluated as based on the level of implementation of the EU provisions on police cooperation related to practical enforcement, factors promoting or hindering law enforcement and changes in discursive practices due to EU provisions and professional socialisation processes. Some aspects of observed inertia characterizes the slow process of transition or tendencies for absorption in which resilience meets the necessary degree of flexibility allowing for some mutual learning and cooperation, but the result is expectedly a form of accommodation of needful policy requirements in the lack of substantial change perspective.

  2. Spatio-temporal optimal law enforcement using Stackelberg games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naja, R.; Mouawad, N.; Ghandour, A.

    2017-01-01

    Every year, road accidents claim the lives of around 1.2 million worldwide (USDOT-NHTSA,2012). Deploying speed traps helps bounding vehicles speed and reducing collisions. Nevertheless, deterministic speed traps deployment in both spatial and temporal domains, allow drivers to learn and anticipate covered areas. In thispaper, we present a novel framework that provides randomized speed traps deployment schedule. It uses game theory in order to model drivers and law enforcers behavior. In this context, Stackelberg security game is used to derive best strategies to deploy. The game optimal solution maximizes law enforcer utility. This research work aims to optimize the deployment of speed traps on Lebanese highways according to the accidents probability input data. This work complements the near real time accident map provided by the Lebanese National Council for Scientific Research and designs an optimal speed trap map targeting Lebanese highways.(author)

  3. Would Enforcing Competition Law Compromise Industry Policy Objectives?

    OpenAIRE

    Evenett, Simon J.

    2005-01-01

    One recurring concern in the debate over the efficacy of enacting competition laws in developing countries is that its enforcement may compromise important industrial policy goals. This concern has been raised in regional fora and in multilateral organizations such as the World Trade Organization, where officials have considered the pros and cons of including competition provisions in international trade agreements. However, the concern is broader and often national debates over the merits of...

  4. 32 CFR 635.15 - Release of law enforcement information furnished by foreign governments or international...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Release of law enforcement information furnished by foreign governments or international organizations. 635.15 Section 635.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Release of...

  5. 5 CFR 551.541 - Employees engaged in fire protection activities or law enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... activities or law enforcement activities. 551.541 Section 551.541 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... activities or law enforcement activities. (a) An employee engaged in fire protection activities or law enforcement activities (as described in §§ 551.215 and 551.216, respectively) who receives compensation for...

  6. A Descriptive Analysis of Care Provided by Law Enforcement Prior to EMS Arrival in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Aaron B; Core, S Brent; Lohse, Christine M; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    2018-04-01

    Study Objectives Law enforcement is increasingly viewed as a key component in the out-of-hospital chain of survival, with expanded roles in cardiac arrest, narcotic overdose, and traumatic bleeding. Little is known about the nature of care provided by law enforcement prior to the arrival of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) assets. The purpose of the current study was to perform a descriptive analysis of events reported to a national EMS database. This study was a descriptive analysis of the 2014 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) public release research data set, containing EMS emergency response data from 41 states. Code E09_02 1200 specifically identifies care provided by law enforcement prior to EMS arrival. A total of 25,835,729 unique events were reported. Of events in which pre-arrival care was documented, 2.0% received prior aid by law enforcement. Patients receiving law enforcement care prior to EMS arrival were more likely to be younger (52.8 [SD=23.3] years versus 58.7 [SD=23.3] years), male (54.8% versus 46.7%), and white (80.3% versus 77.5%). Basic Life Support (BLS) EMS response was twice as likely in patients receiving prior aid by law enforcement. Multiple-casualty incidents were five times more likely with prior aid by law enforcement. Compared with prior aid by other services, law enforcement pre-arrival care was more likely with motor vehicle accidents, firearm assaults, knife assaults, blunt assaults, and drug overdoses, and less likely at falls and childbirths. Cardiac arrest was significantly more common in patients receiving prior aid by law enforcement (16.5% versus 2.6%). Tourniquet application and naloxone administration were more common in the law enforcement prior aid group. Where noted, law enforcement pre-arrival care occurs in 2.0% of EMS patient encounters. The majority of cases involve cardiac arrest, motor vehicle accidents, and assaults. Better understanding of the nature of law enforcement care is

  7. Law Enforcement and Emergency Medicine: An Ethical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eileen F; Moskop, John C; Geiderman, Joel M; Iserson, Kenneth V; Marco, Catherine A; Derse, Arthur R

    2016-11-01

    Emergency physicians frequently interact with law enforcement officers and patients in their custody. As always, the emergency physician's primary professional responsibility is to promote patient welfare, and his or her first duty is to the patient. Emergency physicians should treat criminals, suspects, and prisoners with the same respect and attention they afford other patients while ensuring the safety of staff, visitors, and other patients. Respect for patient privacy and protection of confidentiality are of paramount importance to the patient-physician relationship. Simultaneously, emergency physicians should attempt to accommodate law enforcement personnel in a professional manner, enlisting their aid when necessary. Often this relates to the emergency physician's socially imposed duties, governed by state laws, to report infectious diseases, suspicion of abuse or neglect, and threats of harm. It is the emergency physician's duty to maintain patient confidentiality while complying with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations and state law. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. OSINT from a UK perspective: considerations from the law enforcement and military domains

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Douglas; Gibson, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Both law enforcement and the military have incorporated the use of open source intelligence (OSINT) into their daily operations. Whilst there are observable similarities in how these organisations employ OSINT there are also differences between military and policing approaches towards the understanding of open source information and the goals for the intelligence gathered from it. In particular, we focus on evaluating potential similarities and differences between understandings and approache...

  9. 43 CFR 422.9 - Reclamation law enforcement contracts and cooperative agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement contracts and... PROJECTS Program Requirements § 422.9 Reclamation law enforcement contracts and cooperative agreements. (a... Federal laws. (b) Each contract and cooperative agreement authorizing the exercise of Reclamation law...

  10. 49 CFR 801.57 - Records compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records compiled for law enforcement purposes. 801... compiled for law enforcement purposes. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(7), any records compiled for law or..., would disclose investigative procedures and practices, or would endanger the life or security of law...

  11. Principles of subsidiarity and proporcionality in tax law enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject. The principles of subsidiarity proportionality, which serve as the basic principles fordetermining the competence of integration associations, are considered in the article.Aim. The aim of this paper is to analyse the place and the importance of Member States’ obligationsderiving from the EU legal order in order to address the relationships between EU lawand national tax law, as well as to analyse the practice of using of principles of subsidiarity andproportionality by the highest courts of the Russian Federation as a federal state.Methodology. The author uses methods of theoretical analysis, particularly the theory ofintegrative legal consciousness, as well as legal methods, including formal legal method andcomparative law.Results, scope. The exercise of power by the European Union in the areas of shared competencemust respect the principle of subsidiarity. The founding Treaties make clear thatsubsidiarity is a legal enforceable legal principle. However. the case law of the EuropeanCourt of Justice reveals that the enforcement of subsidiarity as a judicial principle has beenineffective.The article examines cross-border loss relief for group companies in the context of EuropeanUnion law and considers how this has affected Member States such as the UK. Thecase law of the Court of Justice is then analysed in an attempt to assess whether some ofthe principles set out in these legislative initiatives found their way to Member State lawsthrough the Court's jurisprudence. Following this, the judicial and legislative response tothe Marks & Spencer judgment in the UK are critically assessed.The practical suggestions are looking at developing EU compatible tax principles to be appliedto cross-border taxation within the EU.Having considered the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality in the context of interactionbetween integration and national tax law, the author suggests directions for improvingthe practice of integration tax law. The

  12. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Wittink

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report normative absolute and relative VO2peak values of a sample of law enforcement officers in the Netherlands. Material and Methods: The peak rate of oxygen consumption (ml×kg–1×min–1 was measured using a maximal incremental bicycle test in 1530 subjects, including 1068 male and 461 female police officers. Validity of the prediction equations for groups was assessed by comparing predicted VO2peak with measured VO2peak using paired t-tests. For individual differences limits of agreement (LoA were calculated. Equations were considered valid for individuals when the difference between measured and predicted VO2peak did not exceed ±1 metabolic equivalent (MET in 95% of individuals. Results: None of the equations met the validity criterion of 95% of individuals having ±1 MET difference or less than the measured value. Limits of agreement (LoAs were large in all predictions. At the individual level, none of the equations were valid predictors of VO2peak (ml×kg–1×min–1. Normative values for Dutch law enforcement officers were presented. Conclusions: Substantial differences between measured and predicted VO2peak (ml×kg–1×min–1 were found. Most tested equations were invalid predictors of VO2peak at group level and all were invalid at individual levels.

  13. Forensic drug intelligence: an important tool in law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseiva, Pierrre; Ioset, Sylvain; Anglada, Frédéric; Gasté, Laëtitia; Ribaux, Olivier; Margot, Pierre; Gallusser, Alain; Biedermann, Alex; Specht, Yves; Ottinger, Edmond

    2007-04-11

    Organised criminality is a great concern for national/international security. The demonstration of complex crimes is increasingly dependant on knowledge distributed within law-enforcement agencies and scientific disciplines. This separation of knowledge creates difficulties in reconstructing and prosecuting such crimes. Basic interdisciplinary research in drug intelligence combined with crime analysis, forensic intelligence, and traditional law enforcement investigation is leading to important advances in crime investigation support. Laboratory results constitute one highly dependable source of information that is both reliable and testable. Their operational use can support investigation and even provide undetected connections or organisation of structure. The foremost difficulties encountered by drug analysts are not principally of a chemical or analytical nature, but methodologies to extract parameters or features that are deemed to be crucial for handling and contextualising drug profiling data. An organised memory has been developed in order to provide accurate, timely, useful and meaningful information for linking spatially and temporally distinct events on a national and international level (including cross-border phenomena). Literature has already pointed out that forensic case data are amenable for use in an intelligence perspective if data and knowledge of specialised actors are appropriately organised, shared and processed. As a particular form of forensic case data, the authors' research focuses on parameters obtained through the systematic physical and chemical profiling of samples of illicit drugs. The procedure is used to infer and characterise links between samples that originate from the same and different seizures. The discussion will not, however, focus on how samples are actually analysed and compared as substantial literature on this topic already exists. Rather, attention is primarily drawn to an active and close collaboration between

  14. The Expanded Application of Forensic Science and Law Enforcement Methodologies in Army Counterintelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    enforcement (LE) capabilities during the investigation of criminal offenses has become commonplace in the U.S. criminal justice system . These... system , and FORENSICS AND LAW ENFORCEMENT IN ARMY COUNTERINTELLIGENCE 22 would likely need to go to their local Army CID or military police...THE EXPANDED APPLICATION OF FORENSIC SCIENCE AND LAW ENFORCEMENT METHODOLOGIES IN ARMY COUNTERINTELLIGENCE A RESEARCH PROJECT

  15. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  16. The effect of enforcing some direct tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding to the role of tax in the economy as the most stable and constant source of income and also due to the fact that there was no success in achieving fiscal goals by the government during its economic and developmental programs, paying attention to and making effort in this domain is regarded as a necessity in any country. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of enforcing Article 181 of Direct Tax Law on extent of taxpayers’ satisfaction, increase of trust, increase of tax compliance or decrease of tax evasion in Isfahan, Iran. The present study consists of a main hypothesis and four sub-hypotheses. Data were collected from 100 companies regarding their performance during 200 years. Article 181 of Direct Tax Code was implemented upon these companies over the period 2006-2011. Hypotheses of the study were evaluated. The results of the study, in survey and post-event pivot, showed that enforcing Article 181 of Direct Tax Law in Isfahan was effective. However, its effect was not significant regarding increase of taxpayers’ familiarity and acquaintance with Tax Office and its functions in Isfahan; it increased tax compliance, decreased tax evasion by the taxpayers, increased taxpayers’ satisfaction and helped them trust on Tax Office and its performance.

  17. LiveWall Operational Evaluation: Seattle Law Enforcement Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Stein, Steven L.

    2013-10-01

    The LiveWall concept envisioned as an outgrowth of the Precision Information Environment (PIE) project allows communications between separate groups using interactive video, audio, and a shared desktop environment; this allows everyone to participate and collaborate in real time, regardless of location. The LiveWall concept provides a virtual window to other locations, where all parties can interact and collaboratively work with each other. This functionality is intended to improve multi-site coordination amongst emergency operations centers (EOC), field operations sites and across organizations and jurisdictions to accommodate communications during routine and emergency events. For the initial LiveWall operational evaluation PNNL partnered with the Seattle Police Department (SPD). This partnership allowed for the creation of an excellent LiveWall test bed specific to law enforcement. This partnership made it possible to test the LiveWall concept with scenarios involving the many facets of the law enforcement work done by SPD. PNNL and SPD agreed that integrating the systems into operations for a real event would be the best test of the technology and give SPD staff greater visibility into the functionality and benefits offered by the LiveWall concept.

  18. 28 CFR 513.20 - Release of information to law enforcement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of information to law enforcement agencies. 513.20 Section 513.20 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESS TO RECORDS Release of Information to Law Enforcement Agencies § 513.20 Release of information to law...

  19. 34 CFR 99.8 - What provisions apply to records of a law enforcement unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What provisions apply to records of a law enforcement unit? 99.8 Section 99.8 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education FAMILY EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PRIVACY General § 99.8 What provisions apply to records of a law enforcement unit? (a)(1) Law enforcement unit means any individual,...

  20. Law enforcement officers' perception of rape and rape victims: a multimethod study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennicke, Annelise; Anderson, Delaney; Oehme, Karen; Kennedy, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In a study to assess law enforcement officers' perceptions of rape and rape victims, researchers asked 149 law enforcement officers to respond to surveys which included a definition of rape measure, an unfounded rape claims measure, and the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Revised (RMA-R) measure. Although most officers scored low on the RMA-R--indicating that they did not adhere to myths about rape--most officers also responded with incomplete definitions of rape and inaccurate estimates of the number of false rape claims. Multivariate analyses indicated that officers' open-ended responses did not predict their scores on the RMA-R scale. It is argued that the RMA-R alone does not accurately measure officers' understanding of rape. Officers need ongoing training on the legal elements of the crime, the necessity of sensitivity with victims, and research-based statistics on the prevalence of rape.

  1. Enforcing conservation laws in nonequilibrium cluster perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramsch, Christian; Potthoff, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Using the recently introduced time-local formulation of the nonequilibrium cluster perturbation theory (CPT), we construct a generalization of the approach such that macroscopic conservation laws are respected. This is achieved by exploiting the freedom for the choice of the starting point of the all-order perturbation theory in the intercluster hopping. The proposed conserving CPT is a self-consistent propagation scheme which respects the conservation of energy, particle number, and spin, which treats short-range correlations exactly up to the linear scale of the cluster, and which represents a mean-field-like approach on length scales beyond the cluster size. Using Green's functions, conservation laws are formulated as local constraints on the local spin-dependent particle and the doublon density. We consider them as conditional equations to self-consistently fix the time-dependent intracluster one-particle parameters. Thanks to the intrinsic causality of the CPT, this can be set up as a step-by-step time propagation scheme with a computational effort scaling linearly with the maximum propagation time and exponentially in the cluster size. As a proof of concept, we consider the dynamics of the two-dimensional, particle-hole-symmetric Hubbard model following a weak interaction quench by simply employing two-site clusters only. Conservation laws are satisfied by construction. We demonstrate that enforcing them has strong impact on the dynamics. While the doublon density is strongly oscillating within plain CPT, a monotonic relaxation is observed within the conserving CPT.

  2. Strategies for the Integration of Medical and Health Representation within Law Enforcement Intelligence Fusion Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrissey, James F

    2007-01-01

    Terrorism-related intelligence gathering, analysis and information dissemination would be improved and enhanced by including a medical and health element in law enforcement intelligence fusion centers...

  3. Law enforcement officer versus non-law enforcement officer status as a longitudinal predictor of traditional and emerging cardiovascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Bruce R; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Hoekstra, T.

    Objective: To determine whether law enforcement officer (LEO) status and perceived stress are longitudinal predictors of traditional and inflammatory cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Method: Linear hierarchical regression was employed to investigate the longitudinal (more than 7 years) relationship

  4. Mobile technology aids law enforcement in identifying forgeries in record management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2010-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, OUT OF THE CLASSROOM Download the paper: Arizona Law Enforcement Mobile Identification Technology for Law Enforcement” As the technology program manager with the Arizona Criminal Justice Commission, Bill Kalaf is using his time at...

  5. Assessing the efficiency of priorities for traffic law enforcement in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Sogge, Céline Vallet; Lager, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    attributable to them; and (3) an optimal level of enforcement is selected, i.e. the marginal benefits of enforcement in terms of preventing accidents equal the marginal costs of enforcement. The efficiency of current traffic law enforcement in Norway is assessed in terms of these criteria. It is found......This paper assesses the efficiency of priorities for traffic law enforcement in Norway. Priorities are regarded as efficient if: (1) enforcement ensures a sufficient level of deterrence to keep down the rate of violations; (2) selection of target violations for enforcement is based on the risk...... low. Cost-benefit analyses show that substantially increasing the amount of police enforcement is cost-effective....

  6. 21 CFR 201.125 - Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 201.125 Section 201.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 201.125 Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A drug subject to § 201...

  7. 21 CFR 801.125 - Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 801.125 Section 801.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Directions for Use § 801.125 Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A...

  8. 20 CFR 402.105 - Exemption seven for withholding records: Law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... enforcement purposes. The records may apply to actual or potential violations of either criminal or civil laws..., has been compiled by a law enforcement authority conducting a criminal investigation, or by an agency... as well as to physical violence. [62 FR 4154, Jan. 29, 1997. Redesignated at 63 FR 35132, June 29...

  9. Recruiting & Retaining Women: A Self-Assessment Guide for Law Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Penny E.

    This document presents information, guidelines, and resource materials to help law enforcement administrators address issues related to recruiting and retaining women in law enforcement. Its 14 chapters contain the following sections: statement of the problem; legal issues; possible solutions, model policies, and practices; expert assistance,…

  10. 43 CFR 422.6 - Responsibilities of the Chief Law Enforcement Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of the Chief Law Enforcement Officer. 422.6 Section 422.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS Responsibilities § 422.6 Responsibilities of...

  11. 12 CFR 503.2 - Exemptions of records containing investigatory material compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemptions of records containing investigatory material compiled for law enforcement purposes. 503.2 Section 503.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY ACT § 503.2 Exemptions of records containing investigatory material compiled for law enforcement...

  12. THE USE OF ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING IN CORRECTIONS AND LAW ENFORCEMENT,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reviews the reasons, methods, accomplishments and goals of the use of electronic data processing in the fields of correction and law enforcement . Suggest...statistical and case history data in building a sounder theoretical base in the field of law enforcement . (Author)

  13. 21 CFR 20.64 - Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes. 20.64 Section 20.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.64 Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes. (a) Records or...

  14. Three Essays on Law Enforcement and Emergency Response Information Sharing and Collaboration: An Insider Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treglia, Joseph V.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation identifies what may be done to overcome barriers to information sharing among federal, tribal, state, and local law enforcement agencies and emergency responders. Social, technical, and policy factors related to information sharing and collaboration in the law enforcement and emergency response communities are examined. This…

  15. 43 CFR 422.7 - Authorization to perform law enforcement duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorization to perform law enforcement duties. 422.7 Section 422.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS Program Requirements § 422.7 Authorization to perfor...

  16. 75 FR 53731 - Delegation From the Secretary of Certain Certification Functions in Maritime Law Enforcement to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Delegation of Authority 332] Delegation From the Secretary of Certain Certification Functions in Maritime Law Enforcement to the Assistant Secretary for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs By virtue of the authority vested in the Secretary of State, including the authority of section 1 of the State Department...

  17. 43 CFR 422.5 - Responsibilities of the Law Enforcement Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of the Law Enforcement Administrator. 422.5 Section 422.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS Responsibilities § 422.5 Responsibilities of...

  18. Future Law Enforcement Officers and Social Workers: Perceptions of Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Elizabeth C.; Carlan, Philip E.; Nored, Lisa S.

    2010-01-01

    This study compares perceptions of domestic violence for college students planning to work in law enforcement with students aspiring to careers in social work and non-law-enforcement criminal justice (N = 491). The study involves students attending four public universities across one Southern state who completed a survey (spring of 2006) measuring…

  19. Problems of Soviet procedural law enforcement in 1930s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kodintsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 340.158The subject. Features of the organization of justice and the quality of procedural law enforcement in the USSR in the 1930s.The purpose. The determination of historical patterns of judicial enforcement in the USSR in the 1930s and the identification of the causes of the ineffectiveness of the proceedings in this period.Methodology. The author uses historical legal method, formal legal interpretation of statutes, the method of analysis of judicial statistics.Results, scope of application. After the criminal law campaigns of the early 1930s the judg-ment in the Soviet Union was in a disturbed condition. The Soviet civil process was almost absolutely eliminated. Tens thousands materials of court cases were lost throughout the Union every year. The courts were extremely busy.The courts used accusatory approach. The petitions of the accused were almost never solved. Prisoners were not handed copies of the indictments.During the terror of the old evils of the judicial system worsened, the destruction of the judicial process began. The timeframe for completing cases increased. Almost half of criminal cases in case of complaint (appeal has been revised by the higher courts. The courts again applied the simplified procedure.At the end of the 1930s the procedural regulation of the judicial work was the duty of People's Commissariat of Justice of the USSR and of the Supreme Court of the USSR. USSR Supreme Court continued to take decisions in litigation in the plenums. The Boards of Su-preme Court examines cases influencing law of practice.The quality of judgment by the Supreme Courts of the Republics of Soviet Union in the late 1930s did not change significantly in comparison with the previous period. This was due to constant staff turnover and low level of qualification of judges. The Supreme Courts of the Republics had no Plenum, so they could influence law of practice by the rulings of of the Boards. These rulings were extremely ignorant

  20. One Hand Washes Another : Informal Ties Between Organized Criminal Groups and Law-Enforcement Agencies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Konnov

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the forms, contents and peculiarities of the existing informal ties between members of organized criminal groups and representatives of law-enforcement agencies in the Tatarstan Republic of Russia. Particular attention is paid to the origins of informal ties; ways how these relations are established, maintained, and utilized by both parts; causes of corruption in the law-enforcement agencies and the possibilities to understand it. The main conclusions are based on the results of ninety-six in-depth interviews with the law-enforcement officers, businessmen, members of organized criminal groups, and journalists conducted in main cities and towns of the Tatarstan Republic under support of the Transnational Crime and Corruption Centre at American University.

  1. Leveraging State And Local Law Enforcement Maritime Homeland Security Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    recreation, national defense, and tourism . To understand the maritime homeland security efforts put into place after 9/11 better, a study of the practices...fire service venturing beyond its fire suppression or emergency medical services role and asserted the value of having firefighters better integrated...national defense, and tourism , so too must be the approach to maritime homeland security. This research examined only the role of state and local law

  2. College law enforcement and security department responses to alcohol-related incidents: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Debra H; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Winters, Ken C; Toomey, Traci L

    2014-08-01

    Campus police and security personnel are often the first to respond to alcohol-related incidents on campus. The purpose of this study is to examine how campus law enforcement and security respond to alcohol-related incidents, and how consequences and communication differ based on characteristics of the incident. Directors of campus police/security from 343 colleges across the United States completed a survey regarding usual practice following serious, underage, and less serious alcohol incidents on and off campus. Campus law enforcement and security most commonly reported contacting campus officials. A minority reported issuing citations and referring students to the health center. Enforcement actions were more commonly reported for serious and underage incidents than for less serious incidents. Large (vs. small) colleges, public (vs. private) colleges, and those located in small (vs. large) towns more consistently reported taking actions against drinkers. Understanding how campus police and security respond to alcohol-related incidents is essential for reducing alcohol-related problems on college campuses. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Labor Law Enforcement in California, 1970-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Bar-Cohen, Limor; Carrillo, Deana Milam

    2002-01-01

    This chapter examines the record of two state agencies within the California Department of Industrial Relations, the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement (DLSE) and the California Occupational Safety and Health Program (Cal/OSHA), over the 1970-2000 period. Although the data available on the performance of these agencies are severely limited - in most cases consisting only of enforcement activity measures, without any valid measures of enforcement outcomes, it is possible to draw some conc...

  4. Future law enforcement officers and social workers: perceptions of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Elizabeth C; Carlan, Philip E; Nored, Lisa S

    2010-08-01

    This study compares perceptions of domestic violence for college students planning to work in law enforcement with students aspiring to careers in social work and non-law-enforcement criminal justice (N = 491). The study involves students attending four public universities across one Southern state who completed a survey (spring of 2006) measuring whether various scenarios were (1) related to domestic violence, and (2) worthy of being reported to law enforcement. Findings indicate that all student groups (law enforcement, non-law-enforcement criminal justice, and social work) tended to identify the various scenarios as domestic violence (and worthy of being reported) regardless of the person's sexual orientation, violence severity, and offender's or victim's gender. However, law enforcement students are less sensitive to domestic violence when compared with social work and non-law enforcement criminal justice students. Findings reveal that (1) graduate students, (2) female students, and (3) White students (compared with African American students in general) attending majority White universities were more likely to identify domestic violence and its worthiness of being reported.The data in this study indicate that criminal justice programs produce graduates who are reasonably sensitive toward the importance of appropriate domestic violence response but could still improve using the techniques employed within social work programs.

  5. Cross-sectional study of road accidents and related law enforcement efficiency for 10 countries: A gap coherence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urie, Yohan; Velaga, Nagendra R; Maji, Avijit

    2016-10-02

    Road crashes are considered as the eighth leading causes of death. There is a wide disparity in crash severity and law enforcement efficiency among low-, medium-, and high-income countries. It would be helpful to review the crash severity trends in these countries, identify the vulnerable road users, and understand the law enforcement effectiveness in devising efficient road safety improvement strategies. The crash severity, fatality rate among various age groups, and law enforcement strategies of 10 countries representing low-income (i.e., India and Morocco), medium-income (i.e. Argentina, South Korea, and Greece), and high-income (i.e., Australia, Canada, France, the UK, and the United States) are studied and compared for a period of 5 years (i.e., 2008 to 2012). The critical parameters affecting road safety are identified and correlated with education, culture, and basic compliance with traffic safety laws. In the process, possible road safety improvement strategies are identified for low-income countries. The number of registered vehicles shows an increasing trend for low-income countries as do the crash rate and crash severity. Compliance related to seat belt and helmet laws is high in high-income countries. In addition, recent seat belt- and helmet-related safety programs in middle-income countries helped to curb fatalities. Noncompliance with safety laws in low-income countries is attributed to education, culture, and inefficient law enforcement. Efficient law enforcement and effective safety education taking into account cultural diversity are the key aspects to reduce traffic-related injuries and fatalities in low-income countries like India.

  6. LAW ENFORCEMENT PREPAREDNESS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INDONESIA’S LAW ON JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Krisnawati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Paradigmatic changes stipulated in Law Number 11 of 2012 on Juvenile Justice System, including regulations concerning restorative justice and diversion require the competency and skills of the law enforcement officers. This research identifies measures that have been taken and the existing barriers in preparing for the implementation of this Law. The research demonstrates that the readiness of the investigators and child prosecutors are merely limited to the outreach of Law Number 11 of 2012, whilst knowledge of the court judges only covers the draft Law. The number of officers receiving outreach is limited and should be increased. Negative perception on the officers due to the risk of a bribery accusation is feared to hamper the implementation of diversion regulation based on a restorative justice. Perubahan paradigmatik yang termuat dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 11 Tahun 2012 tentang Sistem Peradilan Pidana Anak, termasuk diantaranya ketentuan mengenai keadilan restoratif dan diversi, memerlukan kompetensi dan keahlian aparat penegak hukum. Penelitian ini mengidentifikasi langkah yang telah dilakukan dan kendala persiapan implementasi Undang-Undang tersebut. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa kesiapan penyidik dan penuntut umum anak masih terbatas pada partisipasi sosialisasi Undang-Undang Nomor 11 Tahun 2012, sedangkan hakim anak memiliki pengetahuan hanya pada Rancangan Undang-Undang. Jumlah aparat yang menerima sosialisasi Undang-Undangmasih terbatas dan perlu ditingkatkan jumlahnya. Pandangan negatif terhadap aparat karena bisa menimbulkan dugaan suap dikhawatirkan menjadi penghambat diterapkannya ketentuan diversi dengan pendekatan keadilan restoratif.

  7. A Case for Criminal Enforcement of Federal Environmental Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-19

    enforcement scheme can actually contribute to improper disposal. Szasz , Corporations. Organized Crime. and the Disposal of Hazardous Waste: An...the Syndicate Control Mystiaue, 1 Nat’l Envtl. Enforcement J. 3 (Dec. 1986). 150. See Szasz , supra note 79. 151. United States v. MacDonald & Watson

  8. [Assessment of psychological conditions for the use of firearms in law enforcement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardell Molas, Jordi; Martí Agustí, Gabriel; Solé i Sanosa, M Angels

    2014-03-01

    To handle firearms safely, an individual needs to be in sound psychological conditions. This point is especially relevant in law enforcement, given that this group is likely to experience situations where there is a reasonably severe risk to life, physical integrity and that of third parties. These conditions cause high levels of stress and become a significant source of psychological strain. The assessment of these psychological conditions in law enforcement must stay ahead of this strain and should act preventively, establishing surveillance that is the product of a consensus between the needs of professionals and organizations. This evaluation should be conducted by technical specialists who understand and know the occupational reality of these professionals. A good assessment methodology starts with the need to discover the basic areas that need exploring, the ideal procedure for assessing these issues and the criteria that determine the aptitude (or lack thereof) for handling firearms. Once these goals have been established, we can be assured that the assessment will follow a set of principles that will give it homogeneity, effectiveness and efficiency. This type of assessment will help accomplish the mission that these security professionals are entrusted to by law, which is to protect the free exercise of rights and freedoms and ensure citizen safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. 5 CFR 551.216 - Law enforcement activities and 7(k) coverage for FLSA pay and exemption determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Law enforcement activities and 7(k... ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.216 Law enforcement activities and 7(k) coverage for FLSA pay and... section 7(k) of the Act apply to certain categories of law enforcement employees based on appropriate...

  10. Retail price as an outcome measure for the effectiveness of drug law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, David A; Ritter, Alison

    2010-09-01

    One outcome measure of law enforcement effectiveness is the reduction in drug consumption which occurs as a result of law enforcement interventions. A theoretical relationship between drug consumption and retail price has promoted the use of retail price as a surrogate measure for consumption. In the current article, retail price is examined as a potential outcome measure for the effectiveness of law enforcement. The predictions regarding the relationship between law enforcement intensity and price are only partially supported by research. Explanations for the disconnect between the drug law enforcement activity and retail price include: rapid adaptation by market players, enforcement swamping, assumptions of rational actors, short-run versus long-run effects, structure of the illicit market, simultaneous changes that affect price in perverse ways, the role of violence in markets, and data limitations. Researchers who use retail price as an outcome measure need to take into account the complex relationship between drug law enforcement interventions and the retail price of illicit drugs. Viable outcome measures which can be used as complements to retail price are worth investigation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. LEXICAL FEATURES OF THE MODERN ENGLISH DISCOURSE OF THE LAW ENFORCEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teneneva Irina Vitalyevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study of terminological units and discourse formulas which constitute the lexical basis of the discourse of the English law enforcement system. Due to the current expanding cooperation of Russian law enforcement units with their foreign partners the area addressed is of great interest to those involved in teaching foreign languages for specific purposes at law faculties and schools, yet has not received an adequate treatment to this point. The article reveals an interdisciplinary character of the law enforcement terminology, which accounts for numerous transterms used in it. The study identifies the reasons for the integration of the law enforcement terminology with other terminological systems and also names the main sources of transterms. Other highly productive methods of concept nomination in the area include syntactic and morphosyntactic term formation. This enriches the law enforcement terminology with multicomponent terms and their abbreviated and elliptical variants. The analysis of discourse formulas suggests syntactic heterogeneity of these structures, their stylistic neutrality, monosemy and semantic transparency. This layer of the law enforcement discourse is also characterized by information compression by means of abbreviations and digital encoding. The results of the research can be applied in English textbook and translation dictionary designing.

  12. Android-based E-Traffic law enforcement system in Surakarta City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Setiono

    2018-03-01

    The urban advancement is always overpowered by the increasing number of vehicles as the need for movement of people and goods. This can lead to traffic problems if there is no effort on the implementation of traffic management and engineering, and traffic law enforcement. In this case, the Government of Surakarta City has implemented various policies and regulations related to traffic management and engineering in order to run traffic in an orderly, safe and comfortable manner according to the applicable law. However, conditions in the field shows that traffic violations still occurred frequently due to the weakness of traffic law enforcement in terms of human resources and the system. In this connection, a tool is needed to support traffic law enforcement, especially in relation to the reporting system of traffic violations. This study aims to develop an Android-based traffic violations reporting application (E-Traffic Law Enforcement) as part of the traffic law enforcement system in Surakarta City. The Android-apps records the location and time of the traffic violations incident along with the visual evidence of the infringement. This information will be connected to the database system to detect offenders and to do the traffic law enforcement process.

  13. The Spectrum of Cyber Conflict from Hacking to Information Warfare: What is Law Enforcement's Role?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adkins, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    ... of future cyber attacks, The main problem is distinguishing the type of intrusion or attack and developing the mechanisms to appropriately respond whether by law enforcement or military action, This paper...

  14. Evaluation of Personal Chemical Vapor Protection for Patrol and Tactical Law Enforcement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fedele, Paul D; Lake, William L; Arca, Victor J; Marshall, Stephen M; Mitchell, David B

    2002-01-01

    ... functions in law enforcement. Various Level C, impermeable and charcoal impregnated, vapor-absorptive, air-permeable protective clothing ensembles, worn with the MSA Millenium respiratory protective mask/butyl hood, and seven-mil...

  15. Government Expectations and the Role of Law Enforcement in a Biological Incident

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demme, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    ...) that include responsibilities for law enforcement. Yet, police officers are unaccustomed to working with biological agents or responding to biological incidents, and have little if any experience in this area...

  16. The Exercise of Responsible Command in the Enforcement of International Criminal Law: A New Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reardon, Warren A

    1997-01-01

    The following article argues that the current regime for the enforcement of international criminal law against alleged war criminals fails to live up to its promises, largely because system participants lack (or refuse to gain...

  17. The California Law Enforcement Community’s Intelligence-Led Policing Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    intelligence product used for sound decision making , strategic targeting, and more efficient resource allocation, whereas lack of clarity and the...providing law enforcement executives with actionable intelligence products for sound decision making , strategic targeting, and efficient resource

  18. 43 CFR 422.8 - Requirements for law enforcement functions and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and clear lines of authority and communication. This organizational structure must apply both within... PROJECTS Program Requirements § 422.8 Requirements for law enforcement functions and programs. The...

  19. 78 FR 21826 - Defense Support of Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... enforcement officials with respect to audits and investigations conducted, supervised, monitored, or initiated... that are undertaken primarily for a military or foreign affairs purpose. (B) Audits and investigations... acting as undercover agents, informants, investigators, or interrogators. (7) Forensic investigations or...

  20. Harm reduction and law enforcement in Vietnam: influences on street policing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardine Melissa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and rationale The HIV epidemic in Vietnam has from its start been concentrated among injecting drug users. Vietnam instituted the 2006 HIV/AIDS Law which includes comprehensive harm reduction measures, but these are unevenly accepted and inadequately implemented. Ward police are a major determinant of risk for IDUs, required to participate in drug control practices (especially meeting quotas for detention centres which impede support for harm reduction. We studied influences on ward level police regarding harm reduction in Hanoi to learn how to better target education and structural change. Methods After document review, we interviewed informants from government, NGOs, INGOs, multilateral agencies, and police, using semi-structured guides. Topics covered included perceptions of harm reduction and the police role in drug law enforcement, and harm reduction training and advocacy among police. Results Police perceive conflicting responsibilities, but overwhelmingly see their responsibility as enforcing drug laws, identifying and knowing drug users, and selecting those for compulsory detention. Harm reduction training was very patchy, ward police not being seen as important to it; and understanding of harm reduction was limited, tending to reflect drug control priorities. Justification for methadone was as much crime prevention as HIV prevention. Competing pressures on ward police create much anxiety, with performance measures based around drug control; recourse to detention resolves competing pressures more safely. There is much recognition of the importance of discretion, and much use of it to maintain good social order. Policy dissemination approaches within the law enforcement sector were inconsistent, with little communication about harm reduction programs or approaches, and an unfounded assumption that training at senior levels would naturally reach to the street. Discussion Ward police have not been systematically included

  1. Harm reduction and law enforcement in Vietnam: influences on street policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background and rationale The HIV epidemic in Vietnam has from its start been concentrated among injecting drug users. Vietnam instituted the 2006 HIV/AIDS Law which includes comprehensive harm reduction measures, but these are unevenly accepted and inadequately implemented. Ward police are a major determinant of risk for IDUs, required to participate in drug control practices (especially meeting quotas for detention centres) which impede support for harm reduction. We studied influences on ward level police regarding harm reduction in Hanoi to learn how to better target education and structural change. Methods After document review, we interviewed informants from government, NGOs, INGOs, multilateral agencies, and police, using semi-structured guides. Topics covered included perceptions of harm reduction and the police role in drug law enforcement, and harm reduction training and advocacy among police. Results Police perceive conflicting responsibilities, but overwhelmingly see their responsibility as enforcing drug laws, identifying and knowing drug users, and selecting those for compulsory detention. Harm reduction training was very patchy, ward police not being seen as important to it; and understanding of harm reduction was limited, tending to reflect drug control priorities. Justification for methadone was as much crime prevention as HIV prevention. Competing pressures on ward police create much anxiety, with performance measures based around drug control; recourse to detention resolves competing pressures more safely. There is much recognition of the importance of discretion, and much use of it to maintain good social order. Policy dissemination approaches within the law enforcement sector were inconsistent, with little communication about harm reduction programs or approaches, and an unfounded assumption that training at senior levels would naturally reach to the street. Discussion Ward police have not been systematically included in harm reduction advocacy

  2. [Chemical, physical and biological risks in law enforcement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Andrea; Grana, Mario; Vicentini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Chemical, physical and biological risks among public safety and security forces. Law enforcement personnel, involved in routine tasks and in emergency situations, are exposed to numerous and several occupational hazards (chemical, physical and biological) whith likely health and security consequences. These risks are particularly high when the organization and preparation are inadequate, there is a lacking or insufficient coordination, information, education and communication and safety and personal protective equipment are inadequate or insufficient. Despite the objective difficulties, caused by the actual special needs related to the service performed or the organizational peculiarities, the risk identification and assessment is essential for worker health and safety of personnel, as provided for by Legislative Decree no. 81/2008. Chemical risks include airborne pollutants due to vehicular traffic (carbon monoxide, ultrafine particles, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, lead), toxic gases generated by combustion process following fires (aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, dioxins and furans, biphenyls, formaldehyde, metals and cyanides), substances emitted in case of chemical accidents (solvents, pesticides, toxic gases, caustics), drugs (methylamphetamine), riot control agents and self-defence spray, lead at firing ranges, and several materials and reagents used in forensic laboratory. The physical hazards are often caused by activities that induce biomechanical overload aid the onset of musculoskeletal disorders, the use of visual display terminals and work environments that may expose to heat stress and discomfort, high and low pressure, noise, vibrations, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The main biological risks are blood-borne diseases (viral hepatitis, AIDS), airborne diseases (eg, tuberculosis, meningitis, SARS, anthrax), MRSA, and vector-borne diseases. Many of these risk factors are unavoidable or are not

  3. Ethics On The Fly: Toward A Drone - Specific Code Of Conduct For Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202- 4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget... documentary evidence of ethical frameworks for UAS currently in use by law enforcement. A comparative policy analysis is then performed to identify...Using the case study method, this thesis considered documentary evidence of ethical frameworks for UAS currently in use by law enforcement. A

  4. Examining law enforcement officer job satisfaction and burnout through the lens of empowerment theory

    OpenAIRE

    Biggs, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory cross-sectional study examined the organizational factors that influence law enforcement officers’ perception of job stress and perception of job satisfaction. The extant literature is replete with the finding that organizational factors (job context) rather than the aspects of providing police service (job content) cause law enforcement officers the largest amount of stress and job dissatisfaction. However, the literature also shows that the exact organizational factors that...

  5. Comparing child protective investigation performance between law enforcement agencies and child welfare agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Neil; Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Gustafson, Mara; Armstrong, Mary; McNeish, Roxann; Vargo, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the comparative effectiveness of using law enforcement agencies for child protective investigation (CPI), in contrast with the traditional approach of CPI conducted by the public child welfare agency. The analysis uses 2006-2007 data from a natural experiment conducted in Florida to show modest differences in performance and cost-efficiency between the two approaches to CPI. These findings may have implications for other states considering outsourcing CPI to law enforcement.

  6. 31 CFR Appendix K to Subpart C of... - Federal Law Enforcement Training Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Law Enforcement Training Center K Appendix K to Subpart C of Part 1 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Privacy Act Pt. 1, Subpt. C, App. K Appendix K to Subpart C of Part 1—Federal Law Enforcement Training Center 1. In...

  7. 31 CFR Appendix K to Subpart A of... - Federal Law Enforcement Training Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Law Enforcement Training Center K Appendix K to Subpart A of Part 1 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Freedom of Information Act Pt. 1, Subpt. A, App. K Appendix K to Subpart A of Part 1—Federal Law Enforcement Training...

  8. Application of mobile digital communications in law enforcement, an introductory planning guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, R. L.; Abraham, J. E.; Leflang, W. G.; Kennedy, R. D.; Wilson, J. H.; Gurfield, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A set of planning guidelines for the application of digital communications techniques to law enforcement use is presented. Some essential characteristics of digital techniques and their applications are outlined, as are some principles of system analysis, evaluation, and planning. Requirements analysis, system concept design, implementation planning, and performance and cost modeling are described and demonstrated with respect to this application problem. Information on law enforcement digital communications systems and equipment and a list of vendor sources are given in appendices.

  9. State and local law enforcement agency efforts to prevent sales to obviously intoxicated patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Toomey, Traci L; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons are illegal and may lead to public health issues such as traffic crashes and violence. Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been made to reduce alcohol sales to underage persons but less attention has been given to the issue of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Studies have found a high likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons (i.e., overservice), but little is known about efforts by enforcement agencies to reduce these sales. We conducted a survey of statewide alcohol enforcement agencies and local law enforcement agencies across the US to assess their strategies for enforcing laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons at licensed alcohol establishments. We randomly sampled 1,631 local agencies (1,082 participated), and surveyed all 49 statewide agencies that conduct alcohol enforcement. Sales to obviously intoxicated patrons were reported to be somewhat or very common in their jurisdiction by 55 % of local agencies and 90 % of state agencies. Twenty percent of local and 60 % of state agencies reported conducting enforcement efforts to reduce sales to obviously intoxicated patrons in the past year. Among these agencies, fewer than half used specific enforcement strategies on at least a monthly basis to prevent overservice of alcohol. Among local agencies, enforcement efforts were more common among agencies that had a full-time officer specifically assigned to carry out alcohol enforcement efforts. Enforcement of laws prohibiting alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons is an underutilized strategy to reduce alcohol-related problems, especially among local law enforcement agencies.

  10. Factors influencing law enforcement decisions to adopt an evidence-based robbery prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, A; Casteel, C; Chronister, T; Nocera, M; Vladutiu, C J; Peek-Asa, C

    2013-12-01

    Homicide is the leading cause of workplace death among small retail and service businesses in the United States. Evidence-based programs have been shown to reduce robbery and robbery-related crimes in small retail businesses; however, reaching small businesses with programs has been difficult. As small businesses typically have no corporate backing or trade affiliation, police departments have been identified as potential vehicles for program dissemination. A national sample of 300 law enforcement agencies was surveyed to identify facilitators and barriers to adoption and sustainability of an evidence-based program. The questionnaire was developed using behavioral theory concepts and administered via telephone. Preliminary findings suggest the primary facilitators to program adoption included organizational capacity factors such as staff buy-in, dedicated personnel and financial support. Competing responsibilities was the primary barrier identified by agencies. Agency size and program complexity were identified as potential predictors of program adoption. Identifying agency and program-specific characteristics that influence program adoption by law enforcement agencies will be valuable for marketing programs to agencies that have the infrastructure to support and sustain program dissemination. Understanding these factors will optimize the reach of evidence-based strategies to small businesses.

  11. Targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth: results from a national survey of local law enforcement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Erickson, Darin J

    2015-06-01

    We investigated what local enforcement agencies are doing to target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth; what types of enforcement activities are being conducted to target adult providers; and factors that encourage enforcement activities that target adult providers. We surveyed 1,056 local law enforcement agencies in the US and measured whether or not the agency conducted enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. We also measured whether certain agency and jurisdiction characteristics were associated with enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Less than half (42%) of local enforcement agencies conducted enforcement efforts targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Agencies that conducted the enforcement activities targeting adult providers were significantly more likely to have a full time officer specific to alcohol enforcement, a division specific to alcohol enforcement, a social host law, and to perceive underage drinking was very common. Results suggest that targeting social providers (i.e., adults over 21 years of age) will require greater law enforcement resources, implementation of underage drinking laws (e.g., social host policies), and changing perceptions among law enforcement regarding underage drinking. Future studies are needed to identify the most effective enforcement efforts and to examine how enforcement efforts are prospectively linked to alcohol consumption.

  12. 25 CFR 12.1 - Who is responsible for the Bureau of Indian Affairs law enforcement function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is responsible for the Bureau of Indian Affairs law enforcement function? 12.1 Section 12.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Responsibilities § 12.1 Who is responsible for the Bureau of Indian Affairs law enforcement function? Th...

  13. Effective Enforcement of Consumer Law in Europe: Synchronizing Private, Public, and Collective Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem); M.B.M. Loos (Marco)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we argue that there is a need for collective enforcement of consumer law in Europe. We evaluate a number of legal instruments that already have been developed to this end in European law and domestic legal systems. Furthermore, we make suggestions for further policy

  14. The Influence of Higher Education on Law Enforcement Entry Level Examination Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprota, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Entry into a career in law enforcement is most often dependent upon the aspiring candidate's relative success on a competitive, written, multiple-choice examination. In the state of New Jersey, as in many states, civil service laws preclude consideration of formal educational attainment when establishing the ordinal, eligibles lists for law…

  15. Chronicle of administrative law enforcement in the energy market. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Leeuwen, E.W.T.M.; De Rijke, M.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa), the Netherlands Consumer Authority (CA) also regulates the energy market in the area of consumer rights. Both organizations will merge into the Consumer and Market Authority (ACM). This article provides an overview of the powers of the NMA and CA in relation to law enforcement as shaped by the various laws and law amendments. By means of settlement practices and the administration of justice, an overview is given of the main developments in law enforcement. In this first part, attention is paid to the enforcement instruments of both regulators and one instrument is examined in more detail: the injunction. Part two addresses the order for penalty payment, the civil penalty and the modification and revocation of licenses and exemptions. [nl

  16. Legitimacy of the Restorative Justice Principle in the Context of Criminal Law Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sukardi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews the essence of the restorative justice principle as an approach in the settlement of criminal cases, and it aims to provide an overview of the construction of the restorative justice principle in criminal law enforcement. The outcomes of the research indicate that the restorative justice principle has been subject to frequent study in its understanding as an alternative criminal case settlement method, by way of positioning outside the criminal judiciary system. As it turns out in practice, however, it has certain weaknesses, particularly in view of the accountability and legitimacy aspects of its establishment. Therefore, there is a need for a scientific investigation process for the purpose of determining the status of parties involved in a case, as well as for positioning the case concerned. Based on such view, the restorative justice principle appears to be the ideal approach to be applied in the criminal judiciary system.

  17. Building on mental health training for law enforcement: strengthening community partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jorien; Ahalt, Cyrus; Hagar, Randall; Arroyo, William

    2017-09-11

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the current state of law enforcement training related to the high number of interactions with persons with mental illness, and to recommend next steps in preparing law enforcement to effectively meet this challenge. Design/methodology/approach The authors reviewed the current literature on relevant law enforcement training programs, focusing primarily on crisis intervention team (CIT) training, and used the case example of California to identify opportunities to improve and enhance law enforcement preparedness for the challenge of responding to persons with mental illness. Findings Broad-based community partnerships working together to develop programs that meet the local needs of both those with mental illness and law enforcement, the availability of mental health treatment centers with no-refusal policies, and a coordinating person or agency to effectively liaise among stakeholders are critical enhancements to CIT training. Originality/value As increasing attention is paid to adverse interactions between police and vulnerable populations, this paper identifies policies that would build on existing training programs to improve police responses to persons with mental illness.

  18. Relationships Among Stress Measures, Risk Factors, and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Law Enforcement Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Sandra L.; Downing, Nancy R.; Franke, Warren D.; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Alasagheirin, Mohammad H.

    2011-01-01

    Law enforcement officers suffer higher morbidity and mortality rates from all causes than the general population. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for a significant portion of the excess illness, with a reported prevalence as high as 1.7 times that of the general population. To determine which occupational hazards cause this increased risk and morbidity, it is imperative to study law enforcement officers before they retire. The long-range goal of our research is to reduce the incidence of CVD-related illness and death among aging law enforcement officers. The purpose of the present study was to measure pro- and anti-atherogenic inflammatory markers in blood samples from law enforcement officers (n = 71) and determine what types of occupation-related stress correlate with differences in these markers. For each outcome variable of interest, we developed separate regression models. Two groups of potential predictors were examined for inclusion in the models. Selected measures of stress were examined for inclusion in the models, in addition to general covariates, such as gender, ethnicity, years in law enforcement, and body mass index. Our results revealed statistically significant relationships between several physiologic variables and measures of stress. PMID:21362637

  19. Examining the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters among people who inject drugs after implementation of Mexico's drug policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Tommi L; Beletsky, Leo; Arredondo, Jaime; Werb, Daniel; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly

    2015-04-01

    In 2009, Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use in order to refocus law enforcement resources on drug dealers and traffickers. This study examines the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters reported by people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico to identify concentrated areas of policing activity after implementation of the new drug policy. Mapping the physical location of law enforcement encounters provided by PWID (n = 461) recruited through targeted sampling, we identified hotspots of extra-judicial encounters (e.g., physical/sexual abuse, syringe confiscation, and money extortion by law enforcement) and routine authorized encounters (e.g., being arrested or stopped but not arrested) using point density maps and the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic calculated at the neighborhood-level. Approximately half of the participants encountered law enforcement more than once in a calendar year and nearly one third of these encounters did not result in arrest but involved harassment or abuse by law enforcement. Statistically significant hotspots of law enforcement encounters were identified in a limited number of neighborhoods located in areas with known drug markets. At the local-level, law enforcement activities continue to target drug users despite a national drug policy that emphasizes drug treatment diversion rather than punitive enforcement. There is a need for law enforcement training and improved monitoring of policing tactics to better align policing with public health goals.

  20. Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in the Law of Iran and England: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasat Pour Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in the Law of Iran and England: A Comparative Study. There are a lot of similarities and commonalities between the legal system of Iran and England in the field of recognition and enforcement of the foreign judgments including public discipline and conflicting judgments. Public discipline in England Law is more specific than that of Iran. Being a civil case of the judgment, impossibility of recognition, enforcement of tax and criminal judgments are among the similarities of the two systems. On the other hand, reciprocity, precise of the foreign court, and the jurisdiction governing the nature of the claim are among instances which are different in Iran and England legal systems on the recognizing of the enforcement of foreign judgments.

  1. An Initial evaluation of law enforcement overdose training in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Cory D; Zaller, Nickolas; Macmadu, Alexandria; Green, Traci C

    2016-05-01

    To assess initial change in knowledge, self-efficacy, and anticipated behaviors among Rhode Island law enforcement officers on drug overdose response and prevention. Law enforcement officers (N=316) voluntarily completed a pre-post evaluation immediately before and after taking part in overdose prevention and response trainings. Assessment items included measures of knowledge (Brief Overdose Recognition and Response Assessment (BORRA)), self-efficacy, attitudes toward drugs and overdose prevention, awareness of the Good Samaritan Law, and open-ended items pertaining to overdose knowledge and response behaviors. Non-parametric tests measured within-group and between-group differences. Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests evaluated changes in BORRA scores and self-efficacy items. McNemar's tests assessed changes regarding the Good Samaritan law and open-ended items. Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests measured post-training change in attitudes. Law enforcement officers demonstrated statistically significant improvements in self-efficacy (identifying signs of opioid overdose, naloxone indication, counseling witnesses in overdose prevention, and referring witnesses for more information), overdose identification knowledge (BORRA mean increased from 7.00 to 10.39), naloxone administration knowledge (BORRA mean increased from 10.15 to 12.59), Good Samaritan Law awareness (17.9% increase after training), and anticipated behaviors in response to future observed overdose (65.7% changed from passive to active response post training). Harm reduction programs can provide law enforcement officers with the knowledge and skills necessary to intervene and reduce overdose mortality. Given the statistically significant improvements in self-efficacy, attitudinal changes, and Good Samaritan law awareness, law enforcement officers are more prepared to actively interact with drug users during a drug-involved emergency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. 29 CFR 553.211 - Law enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... includes physical training, self-defense, firearm proficiency, criminal and civil law principles... parking violations and issuing appropriate warnings or appearance notices, (7) Wage and hour compliance officers, (8) Equal employment opportunity compliance officers, (9) Tax compliance officers, (10) Coal...

  3. Law enforcement access to personal data originally collected by private parties : Missing data subjects’ safeguards in Directive 2016/680?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasserand, Catherine

    Access by law enforcement authorities to personal data initially collected by private parties for commercial or operational purposes is very common, as shown by the transparency reports of new technology companies on law enforcement requests. From a data protection perspective, the scenario of law

  4. 25 CFR 12.31 - Are there any minimum employment standards for Indian country law enforcement personnel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are there any minimum employment standards for Indian country law enforcement personnel? 12.31 Section 12.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Qualifications and Training Requirements § 12.31 Are there any minimum employment standards...

  5. 25 CFR 12.2 - What is the role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Director of Law Enforcement Services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The Director publishes these policies and standards in law enforcement manuals and handbooks. The... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Director... Bureau of Indian Affairs Director of Law Enforcement Services? The Director of the Office of Law...

  6. Horizontal aspects of the decentralisation of EU-competition law enforcement.

    OpenAIRE

    Brammer, Silke

    2008-01-01

    Introduction 1 CHAPTER 1: Overview of the Decentralised Enforcement of EC Competition Law 3 I. Background to the reform – History of the reform process, principal objectives and main criticism of the reform proposal 3 A. The previous enforcement system – Overview, justification, drawbacks 4 1. Regulation 17 4 2. Major deficiencies of the centralised system under Regulation 17 6 B. The reform 9 1. Main objectives of the reform 9 2. Development of the reform process 10...

  7. Discrimination against Law Enforcement Officers on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: 2000 to 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad; Hasenbush, Amira; Mallory, Christy

    2013-01-01

    Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) people in law enforcement face pervasive discrimination. The new report updates a 2009 report on discrimination in public employment, which found that over 40 percent of the reported cases of discrimination occurred against law enforcement and corrections department personnel.  This updated report reviews evidence of discrimination against 95 law enforcement and corrections employees since 2000. Key findings include: ...

  8. Primed for death: Law enforcement-citizen homicides, social media, and retaliatory violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bejan

    Full Text Available We examine whether retaliatory violence exists between law enforcement and citizens while controlling for any social media contagion effect related to prior fatal encounters. Analyzed using a trivariate dynamic structural vector-autoregressive model, daily time-series data over a 21-month period captured the frequencies of police killed in the line of duty, police deadly use of force incidents, and social media coverage. The results support a significant retaliatory violence effect against minorities by police, yet there is no evidence of retaliatory violence against law enforcement officers by minorities. Also, social media coverage of the Black Lives Matter movement increases the risk of fatal victimization to both law enforcement officers and minorities. Possible explanations for these results are based in rational choice and terror management theories.

  9. Primed for death: Law enforcement-citizen homicides, social media, and retaliatory violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Vladimir; Hickman, Matthew; Parkin, William S; Pozo, Veronica F

    2018-01-01

    We examine whether retaliatory violence exists between law enforcement and citizens while controlling for any social media contagion effect related to prior fatal encounters. Analyzed using a trivariate dynamic structural vector-autoregressive model, daily time-series data over a 21-month period captured the frequencies of police killed in the line of duty, police deadly use of force incidents, and social media coverage. The results support a significant retaliatory violence effect against minorities by police, yet there is no evidence of retaliatory violence against law enforcement officers by minorities. Also, social media coverage of the Black Lives Matter movement increases the risk of fatal victimization to both law enforcement officers and minorities. Possible explanations for these results are based in rational choice and terror management theories.

  10. Technical Review of Law Enforcement Standards and Guides Relative to Incident Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Salter, R.; Stanton, J. R.; Fisher, D.

    2009-03-24

    In an effort to locate potential law enforcement-related standards that support incident management, a team from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contacted representatives from the National Institute of Standards-Office of Law Enforcement Standards (NIST-OLES), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Secret Service, ASTM International committees that have a law enforcement focus, and a variety of individuals from local and regional law enforcement organizations. Discussions were held with various state and local law enforcement organizations. The NIJ has published several specific equipment-related law enforcement standards that were included in the review, but it appears that law enforcement program and process-type standards are developed principally by organizations that operate at the state and local level. Input is provided from state regulations and codes and from external non-government organizations (NGOs) that provide national standards. The standards that are adopted from external organizations or developed independently by state authorities are available for use by local law enforcement agencies on a voluntary basis. The extent to which they are used depends on the respective jurisdictions involved. In some instances, use of state and local disseminated standards is mandatory, but in most cases, use is voluntary. Usually, the extent to which these standards are used appears to depend on whether or not jurisdictions receive certification from a “governing” entity due to their use and compliance with the standards. In some cases, these certification-based standards are used in principal but without certification or other compliance monitoring. In general, these standards appear to be routinely used for qualification, selection for employment, and training. In these standards, the term “Peace Officer” is frequently used to refer to law enforcement personnel. This technical review of national law

  11. Primed for death: Law enforcement-citizen homicides, social media, and retaliatory violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Vladimir; Hickman, Matthew; Pozo, Veronica F.

    2018-01-01

    We examine whether retaliatory violence exists between law enforcement and citizens while controlling for any social media contagion effect related to prior fatal encounters. Analyzed using a trivariate dynamic structural vector-autoregressive model, daily time-series data over a 21-month period captured the frequencies of police killed in the line of duty, police deadly use of force incidents, and social media coverage. The results support a significant retaliatory violence effect against minorities by police, yet there is no evidence of retaliatory violence against law enforcement officers by minorities. Also, social media coverage of the Black Lives Matter movement increases the risk of fatal victimization to both law enforcement officers and minorities. Possible explanations for these results are based in rational choice and terror management theories. PMID:29320548

  12. Thermal-work strain in law enforcement personnel during chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, M; Karis, A J; Tharion, W J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thermal safety standards for the use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) ensembles have been established for various US occupations, but not for law enforcement personnel. Objectives: We examined thermal strain levels of 30 male US law enforcement personnel who participated in CBRN field training in Arizona, Florida, and Massachusetts. Methods: Physiological responses were examined using unobtrusive heart rate (HR) monitors and a simple thermoregulatory model to predict core temperature (Tc) using HR and environment. Results: Thermal strain levels varied by environments, activity levels, and type of CBRN ensemble. Arizona and Florida volunteers working in hot-dry and hot-humid environment indicated high heat strain (predicted max Tc>38.5°C). The cool environment of Massachusetts reduced thermal strain although thermal strains were occasionally moderate. Conclusions: The non-invasive method of using physiological monitoring and thermoregulatory modeling could improve law enforcement mission to reduce the risk of heat illness or injury. PMID:24999847

  13. Prehospital chemical restraint of a noncommunicative autistic minor by law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jeffrey D; Nystrom, Paul C; Calvo, Darryl V; Berris, Marc S; Norlin, Jeffrey F; Clinton, Joseph E

    2012-01-01

    When responders are dealing with an agitated patient in the field, safety for all involved may sometimes only be accomplished with physical or chemical restraints. While experiences using chemical restraint in the prehospital setting are found in the medical literature, the use of this by law enforcement as a first-response restraint has not previously been described. We report a case of successful law enforcement-administered sedation of a noncommunicative, autistic, and violent minor using intramuscular droperidol and diphenhydramine. Although this case has some unique characteristics that allowed chemical restraint to be given by the law enforcement agency, it calls attention to some specific prehospital issues that need to be addressed when dealing with autistic patients with extreme agitation.

  14. Assessing the Effectiveness of Competition Law Enforcement Policy in Relation to Cartels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Mändmaa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high fines for cartel infringements it is claimed that the current competition law enforcement lacks deterrent effect for the avoidance of cartel infringements and is procedurally fragile. This article analyses the current competition law enforcement policy in relation to cartels. More specifically, the article assesses the effectiveness of the policy in deterring the formation of cartels and pursuing the goals of competition law by analysing the theory of deterrence, case law, procedural norms, imposed fines and academic literature. The main conclusions are that wrong targets are aimed at under the deterrence principle, the proceedings are of a criminal law nature and require a separation of powers, and that the current level of fines does not pose a threat on the economy and continually fail to deter price-fixing.

  15. Law enforcement duties and sudden cardiac death among police officers in United States: case distribution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Vasileia; Farioli, Andrea; Korre, Maria; Sato, Sho; Dahabreh, Issa J; Kales, Stefanos N

    2014-11-18

    To assess the association between risk of sudden cardiac death and stressful law enforcement duties compared with routine/non-emergency duties. Case distribution study (case series with survey information on referent exposures). United States law enforcement. Summaries of deaths of over 4500 US police officers provided by the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund and the Officer Down Memorial Page from 1984 to 2010. Observed and expected sudden cardiac death counts and relative risks for sudden cardiac death events during specific strenuous duties versus routine/non-emergency activities. Independent estimates of the proportion of time that police officers spend across various law enforcement duties obtained from surveys of police chiefs and front line officers. Impact of varying exposure assessments, covariates, and missing cases in sensitivity and stability analyses. 441 sudden cardiac deaths were observed during the study period. Sudden cardiac death was associated with restraints/altercations (25%, n=108), physical training (20%, n=88), pursuits of suspects (12%, n=53), medical/rescue operations (8%, n=34), routine duties (23%, n=101), and other activities (11%, n=57). Compared with routine/non-emergency activities, the risk of sudden cardiac death was 34-69 times higher during restraints/altercations, 32-51 times higher during pursuits, 20-23 times higher during physical training, and 6-9 times higher during medical/rescue operations. Results were robust to all sensitivity and stability analyses. Stressful law enforcement duties are associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death that is markedly higher than the risk during routine/non-emergency duties. Restraints/altercations and pursuits are associated with the greatest risk. Our findings have public health implications and suggest that primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention efforts are needed among law enforcement officers. © Varvarigou et al 2014.

  16. 287(g): Cross-Delegating State and Local Law Enforcement Officers with Federal Immigration Authority - Homeland Security Remedy or Rue?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lines, Jonathan L

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the federal government's shortcomings in thwarting illegal immigration, state and local law enforcement agencies are now largely shouldering the problem of criminal activity associated...

  17. Technology-facilitated Organized Abuse: An Examination of Law Enforcement Arrest Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Wolak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at cases of organized abuse (that is, two or more offenders working in concert and having two or more victims, not solely familial reported by law enforcement respondents during the three waves of the National Juvenile Online Victimization (NJOV Study (n=29. The NJOV Study collected data from a national US sample of law enforcement agencies about technology-facilitated crimes ending in arrest at three time points: mid-2000 to mid-2001, 2005 and 2009. The paper reports on the prevalence of technology-facilitated organized abuse ending in arrest, contexts of cases and characteristics of offenders and victims. 

  18. 76 FR 27355 - Law Enforcement Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Selection and Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...In an effort to obtain comments from interested parties, the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice (NIJ) will make available, to the general public, the ``Law Enforcement Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Selection and Application Guide.'' The opportunity to provide comments on these documents is open to industry technical representatives, law enforcement agencies and organizations, research, development and scientific communities, and all other stakeholders and interested parties. Those individuals wishing to obtain and provide comments on the draft documents under consideration are directed to the following Web site: http:// www.justnet.org.

  19. Image of а head of law-enforcement body on micro level (empirical experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Perednya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article determines image of the head of law-enforcement body. Subjects and objects of image are described. Inhomogenuity of image is cleared up. Method of examination is shortly micro level described. It is talking about image, which is formed in mind of members of team of law-enforcement body, who are subordinated to object of image. State-of-the-art is illustrated, according to received data. Hypothesis about negative image of the head in mind of subordinates is disproved. It is shown contradiction of images in collective mind and social mind.

  20. 75 FR 78269 - Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System (VDMERS) Standard for Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ...In an effort to obtain comments from interested parties, the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice (NIJ) will make available to the general public the draft ``Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Standard for Law Enforcement.'' The opportunity to provide comments on this voluntary standard is open to industry technical representatives, law enforcement agencies and organizations, research, development and scientific communities, and all other stakeholders and interested parties. Those individuals wishing to obtain and provide comments on the draft standard under consideration are directed to the following Web site: http://www.justnet.org.

  1. LAW ENFORCEMENT ON TAXATION THROUGH NON LITIGATION MECHANISM (AN ALTERNATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Muttaqin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Attorney General can discontinue the investigation to the default tax obligor together with the imposition of four times of outstanding fines. That are raises the issues concerning the nature of the crimes of the tax obligor. This happens because with the payment of the tax debt, the loss suffered by the state as the element of crime, the crimes seemed to be inexistence. This research was an empirical-juridical one. The aim of the research was to find a model of legal enforcement in tax matters without the court involvement. Jaksa Agung dapat menghentikan penyidikan terhadap wajib pajak apabila wajib pajak tersebut membayar pajak yang terutang beserta denda 4 (empat kali jumlah pajak yang tidak/kurang dibayar. Hal tersebut menimbulkan persoalan mengenai akibat hukumnya terhadap sifat perbuatan pidana yang dilakukan wajib pajak mengingat dengan pelunasan pajak tersebut, kerugian negara sebagai unsur tindak pidana tidak terjadi. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian yuridis empiris dengan tujuan menemukan model penegakan hukum di bidang pajak tanpa melalui proses pengadilan.

  2. The Ne Bis in Idem Principle in the Enforcement of EU Competition Law

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The current EU competition law enforcement regime was created by Regulation 1/2003 which entered into force on 1 May 2004. In essence, the system is based on a decentralised model where the European Commission and national competition authorities have parallel competences to apply EU competition provisions. National competition authorities and courts are obliged to apply Articles 101 and 102 TFEU whenever they apply national competition law to anti-competitive conduct which may affect trade b...

  3. Internal and international commercial arbitration as a private form of law enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kurochkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.918The subject. The issues of the arbitration’s place in the civil justice system as well as its place in a whole system of social governance in the scope of Russian arbitration reform.The purpose of the article is to provide a comprehensive analysis of internal and international commercial arbitration as a peculiar form of private law enforcement, as well as to present a doctrinal description of the arbitration’s role in law enforcement system and its managerial impact mechanism.Methodology. Research of general functions of law enforcement in social governance. Essential features of arbitration and basic foundations of civil litigation also have been compared.The results and the scope of its application. The results are both doctrinal and practical. Domestic and international commercial arbitration can be considered as a peculiar form of managerial impact, as a subsystem of civil justice subordinated to general patterns of the social governance. Arbitration is a special, private on its origin, form of managerial impact, whereas arbitration tribunal is an independent nongovernmental element of the social governance system. Despite the fact of its private origin arbitration is in full measure a law enforcement activity. Theoretical comparison of arbitration’s substance with civil litigation became a convincing proof of the existence of public elements in a private segment of civil justice system.Conclusions. Application of law by arbitration tribunals, both domestic and international, has the imperious character. Arbitration is a legal activity, private on its origin and to a great extent public by its essence. It embraces the expansion of general legal directions on individual social relationships by means of making arbitral awards which are law enforcement acts of individual character.

  4. The efficiency of private enforcement of publik law claims in Estonia. Riiginõuete sissenõudmise efektiivsus Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrek Saar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Estonia, since 2001 the function of the enforcement of public law claims, such as fines or taxes, has been transferred to freelance bailiffs. The intention was to create profit motives for private enforcers to increase the effectiveness of the enforcement system. In this paper it is shown that the remuneration scheme for bailiffs that is currently applied tends to lead to inefficiently low level of enforced public law claims. Through quantitative calculations it is illustrated that there might exist alternatives that significantly increase the economic efficiency of the enforcement system.

  5. Investigator's Guide to Missing Child Cases. For Law-Enforcement Officers Locating Missing Children. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, John C.

    This booklet provides guidance to law enforcement officers investigating missing children cases, whether through parental kidnappings, abductions by strangers, runaway or "throwaway" cases, and those in which the circumstances are unknown. The guide describes, step-by-step, the investigative process required for each of the four types of missing…

  6. Federal Law Enforcement in Bi-National Perspective: The United States FBI and the Mexican PFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    de Ciencias Penales INCLE International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement IT information technology LISSSTE Ley del Instituto de Seguridad y...Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Penales—INACIPE).195 However, if the video on Youtube.com is an indication of the seriousness with which ministerial

  7. 31 CFR 103.100 - Information sharing between Federal law enforcement agencies and financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist... money laundering—(1) In general. A law enforcement agency investigating terrorist activity or money... suspected based on credible evidence of engaging in, terrorist activity or money laundering; include enough...

  8. Crash Injury Management for Traffic Law Enforcement Officers; Emergency Medical Services; Course Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleven, Arlene M.

    The course guide has been prepared to aid in planning and conducting a training program in emergency medical care for first responders to traffic accidents (expected to be patrolling law enforcement officers). This document contains a detailed description of the training program; suggestions for course planning including class size, scheduling…

  9. The Spies We Trust: Third Party Service Providers and Law Enforcement Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soghoian, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Telecommunications carriers and service providers now play an essential role in facilitating modern surveillance by law enforcement agencies. The police merely select the individuals to be monitored, while the actual surveillance is performed by third parties: often the same email providers, search engines and telephone companies to whom consumers…

  10. Comparing Child Protective Investigation Performance between Law Enforcement Agencies and Child Welfare Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Neil; Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Gustafson, Mara; Armstrong, Mary; McNeish, Roxann; Vargo, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the comparative effectiveness of using law enforcement agencies for child protective investigation (CPI), in contrast with the traditional approach of CPI conducted by the public child welfare agency. The analysis uses 2006-2007 data from a natural experiment conducted in Florida to show modest differences in performance and…

  11. Preparing the National Capital Region to Conduct a Multijurisdictional and Interdisciplinary Law Enforcement Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    stalk the weak and defenseless? What if a Mumbai-style terrorist attack were to occur? Is the NCR law enforcement (LE) community prepared to...task forces for street level crimes (e.g., gangs , drugs, firearms), they rarely work together on investigations that would require dozens, or even

  12. Automatic analysis of online image data for law enforcement agencies by concept detection and instance search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.H.T. de; Bouma, H.; Kruithof, M.C.; Haar, F.B. ter; Fischer, N.M.; Hagendoorn, L.K.; Joosten, B.; Raaijmakers, S.

    2017-01-01

    The information available on-line and off-line, from open as well as from private sources, is growing at an exponential rate and places an increasing demand on the limited resources of Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs). The absence of appropriate tools and techniques to collect, process, and analyze

  13. 8 CFR 1003.47 - Identity, law enforcement, or security investigations or examinations relating to applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identity, law enforcement, or security investigations or examinations relating to applications for immigration relief, protection, or restriction on removal. 1003.47 Section 1003.47 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS...

  14. The relationship between the forensic nurse in the emergency department and law enforcement officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, Georgia A

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the need for a collaborative relationship between the advanced practice forensic nurse in the emergency department and critical care settings with law enforcement officials. The relationship is necessary when working with victims and/or perpetrators in the context of the 27 categories of forensic patients.

  15. The Art of Perception: Museums Breaking Ground in Law Enforcement Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The Art of Perception is a professional development program that uses the analysis of works of art to help participants re-examine their responsibilities in various agencies of law enforcement, refresh their sense of inquiry, and reinvigorate the language they use to communicate on the job. "The Art of Perception: Museums Breaking Ground in Law…

  16. Secondary harm mitigation: A more humanitarian framework for international drug law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Jarrett; McLay, Miki; McCulloch, Jude

    2017-08-01

    This article introduces the concept of 'secondary harm mitigation' as a framework for improving the humanitarian credentials of international drug law enforcement agencies. The concept is rooted in a critical analysis of the compatibility of the harm reduction philosophy with Australia's international drug law enforcement practices. On a utilitarian level, the net benefits of international drug law enforcement are determined to be, at best inconclusive, arguably counterproductive and in most cases, incalculable. On a humanitarian level, international drug law enforcement is also determined to be problematic from a criminological standpoint because it generates secondary harms and it is indifferent to the vulnerability of individuals who participate in illicit drug trafficking. Accordingly, the article concludes that a philosophy of harm reduction grounded in the public health perspective is inadequate for mitigating secondary harms arising from Australia's efforts to combat international illicit drug trafficking. A tentative list of secondary harm mitigation principles is presented and the article argues that secondary harm mitigation should replace supply reduction as a core tenet of Australia's National Drug Strategy. The article also concludes that secondary harm mitigation may provide a viable framework for stimulating a productive dialogue between those who advocate prohibition and those who call for decriminalisation at the global level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 36 CFR 902.57 - Investigatory files compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investigatory files compiled for law enforcement purposes. 902.57 Section 902.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Exemptions From Public Access to Corporation Records § 902.57 Investigatory files compiled...

  18. Learning Styles of Law Enforcement Officers: Does Police Work Affect How Officers Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study utilized the VARK learning style preference assessment instrument to examine how full-time sworn law enforcement officers learn and attempted to identify a predominant learning style preference among the participants. The primary question was: Which is the dominant learning style preference of full-time sworn law…

  19. 36 CFR 1256.58 - Information related to law enforcement investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information related to law enforcement investigations. 1256.58 Section 1256.58 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE ACCESS TO RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS General Restrictions § 1256.58...

  20. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.221 Carriage... custody of an armed law enforcement officer aboard an aircraft for which screening is required unless, in...

  1. Integration of Environmental Education and Environmental Law Enforcement for Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovornkijprasert, Sravoot; Rawang, Wee

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to establish an integrated model of environmental education (EE) and environmental law enforcement (ELE) to improve the efficiency of functional competency for police officers in Bangkok Metropolitan Police Division 9 (MBP Div. 9). The research design was mixed methods of quantitative and qualitative approaches…

  2. Effects of Virtual Reality on the Cognitive Memory and Handgun Accuracy Development of Law Enforcement Neophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of virtual reality training on the development of cognitive memory and handgun accuracy by law enforcement neophytes. One hundred and six academy students from 6 different academy classes were divided into two groups, experimental and control. The experimental group was exposed to virtual…

  3. Study of the Military Intelligence Support to Domestic Law Enforcement in Counterdrug and Counterterrorism Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Comitatus Act, and the resulting societal reactions.8 This work examined how federal troops deployed to enforce the law in industrial, social and...by Carnegie Mellon University, Institute for Software Research International, and the Center for Computational Analysis of Social and Organizational...triangulation purposes.52 Director Barton stated that information collected should be reposed into agency databases, as information collected, processed

  4. Effectiveness Of Implementation Of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) In The Environmental Law Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Irwansyah; Gianto; Andi Syahwia

    2016-01-01

    Development in Indonesia refers to the concept of sustainable development (sustainable development ) and responsibility for the environment . Companies have a social responsibility to social and environmental consequences of environmental damage that caused . Implementation of corporate social responsibility ( Cooperate Social Responsibility ) is an important part in the framework part of the enforcement of environmental law . Implementation of CSR growing rapidly , including in Indonesia . T...

  5. The Role of Law Enforcement in Schools: The Virginia Experience--A Practitioner Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Although there has been little academic research on the impact of placing police officers in schools, this practice has grown substantially in response to school shootings and other violent crimes in schools. With a standardized training program since 1999, the state of Virginia has law enforcement officers working in approximately 88 percent of…

  6. Adult Educators' Perceptions of Their Organization Promoting Learning Practices and Culture: A Caribbean Law Enforcement Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne; Closson, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations, whether private or public, invest extensively in training and development. Such investment in training and development does not guarantee that the organization is perceived as a learning organization. This study examined law enforcement adult educators' (training facilitators') perceptions of their organization promoting…

  7. Luxury in ancient Rome: scope, timing and enforcement of sumptuary laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Plisecka, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Between 182 BC and 18 BC, Roman lawmakers enacted a series of sumptuary laws regulating banquets (including the number of guests and the consumption of specific foods). Moreover, enforcement was hardly successful and these regulations were reiterated over time. Traditional explanations based on

  8. Luxury in ancient Rome: an economic analysis of the scope, timing and enforcement of sumptuary laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Plisecka, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Between 182 BC and 18 BC, Roman lawmakers enacted a series of sumptuary laws regulating banquets (including the number of guests and the consumption of specific foods). Enforcement was hardly successful and these regulations had to be reiterated over time. Traditional explanations based on morals,

  9. Luxury in ancient Rome: scope, timing and enforcement of sumptuary laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Plisecka, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Between 182 BC and 18 BC, Roman lawmakers enacted a series of sumptuary laws regulating banquet expenditures. These regulations included a maximum for the number of guests and restrictions on specific foods; moreover, they were reiterated over time but were rarely enforced. Traditional explanations

  10. Crime in woods: role of law enforcement officers in national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne F. Tynon; Deborah J. Chavez; Joshua W. R. Baur

    2010-01-01

    This first nationwide study of US Forest Service (USFS) law enforcement officers (LEOs) examined respondents’ roles in the USFS, what they perceived as their highest work priority, and what their relationship with the rest of the USFS should be. Results show that LEOs believe they have a high priority for protecting forest users and they believe that National Forest...

  11. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations ...

  12. Creating a Learning Organization for State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement to Combat Violent Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    investigate blind spots and signals of unexpected events. 2. Combine scenario thinking and explorations of organizational purpose. 3. Develop...communication, collaboration, strategic thinking , learning organizations, law enforcement partners 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 103 16. PRICE CODE 17... THINKING ............................................................................30 E. SCENARIO PLANNING

  13. 34 CFR 300.535 - Referral to and action by law enforcement and judicial authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children Discipline Procedures § 300.535 Referral to and action by law enforcement and... education and disciplinary records of the child are transmitted for consideration by the appropriate...

  14. Kalaban: Young drug users' engagements with law enforcement in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasco, Gideon

    2018-02-01

    A violent 'war on drugs' continues to be waged in the Philippines, even as the use of drugs - particular methamphetamine - continues to rise. Furnishing contextual background to the current situation, this paper explores how long-running law enforcement approaches in the Philippines might be viewed by those in their receiving end by presenting findings of an ethnography among marginalized young men. Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among 20 young men throughout a 12-month period of participant-observation from December 2011 to September 2013. Young people make use of various 'tactics' to keep using drugs and evade law enforcement, even as drug use itself is a tactic in their everyday lives. A sense of hypocrisy and injustice, borne of their own experiences, informs their view of law enforcers, whom they call kalaban (enemy). They feel they are being unfairly targeted, but in their view, this danger is just part of the perils of their everyday lives. Young men's resort to various tactics speaks of an agency that is often ignored in public discourses. Their 'lay assessments of risks' and experience-based perceptions of law enforcement raises questions about the efficacy of fear-based anti-drug campaigns. Overall, the study offers an ethnographic argument against the punitive methods being employed by the Philippines, and for measures that reframe the relationship between police and young drug users - from hostility to trust. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Can draconian law enforcement solve the South African Road Safety crisis?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mohammed, SO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Traffic law enforcement has been defined as the area of activity aimed at controlling road user behaviour by preventive, persuasive and punitive measures in order to effect the safe and efficient movement of traffic. The Department of Transport...

  16. Exploring the Role of the Internet in Juvenile Prostitution Cases Coming to the Attention of Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Melissa; Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Ji, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory analysis examines the role of the Internet in juvenile prostitution cases coming to the attention of law enforcement. The National Juvenile Prostitution Study (N-JPS) collected information from a national sample of law enforcement agencies about the characteristics of juvenile prostitution cases. In comparison to non-Internet…

  17. 28 CFR 81.4 - Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.4 Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency. Where a report of child abuse received by a designated agency that is not a law enforcement agency involves allegations of sexual abuse...

  18. Perceptions of a Learning Organization and Factors within the Work Environment That Influence Transfer of Training in Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine law enforcement officers' perception of factors within the workplace that influence transfer of training and their perception of the organization being a learning organization. The study actually had three parts. First, it intended to investigate the perception of law enforcement officers regarding…

  19. Rules of Engagement as Survival Consciousness: Gay Male Law Enforcement Officers' Experiential Learning in a Masculinized Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2015-01-01

    Gay men face decisions associated with disclosure, the process of coming out as gay, when and if to disclose, and how much information. These decisions carry more weight in masculinized industries such as law enforcement. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to critically explore gay male law enforcement officers' experiences working in…

  20. Effect of drug law enforcement on drug market violence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Rowell, Greg; Guyatt, Gordon; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2011-03-01

    Violence is amongst the primary concerns of communities around the world and research has demonstrated links between violence and the illicit drug trade, particularly in urban settings. Given the growing emphasis on evidence-based policy-making, and the ongoing severe drug market violence in Mexico and other settings, we conducted a systematic review to examine the impacts of drug law enforcement on drug market violence. We conducted a systematic review using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Specifically, we undertook a search of English language electronic databases (Academic Search Complete, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts, Social Service Abstracts, PAIS International and Lexis-Nexis), the Internet (Google, Google Scholar), and article reference lists, from database inception to January 24, 2011. Overall, 15 studies were identified that evaluated the impact of drug law enforcement on drug market violence, including 11 (73%) longitudinal analyses using linear regression, 2 (13%) mathematical drug market models, and 2 (13%) qualitative studies. Fourteen (93%) studies reported an adverse impact of drug law enforcement on levels of violence. Ten of the 11 (91%) studies employing longitudinal qualitative analyses found a significant association between drug law enforcement and drug market violence. Our findings suggest that increasing drug law enforcement is unlikely to reduce drug market violence. Instead, the existing evidence base suggests that gun violence and high homicide rates may be an inevitable consequence of drug prohibition and that disrupting drug markets can paradoxically increase violence. In this context, and since drug prohibition has not meaningfully reduced drug supply, alternative regulatory models will be required if drug supply and drug market violence are to be meaningfully reduced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Does law enforcement awareness affect motorcycle helmet use? evidence from urban cities in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Ponboon, Sattrawut; Boontob, Nuttapong; Aniwattakulchai, Pakorn; Samranjit, Supattra

    2013-09-01

    Although helmet use has been compulsory for motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thailand since the enactment of the Helmet Act in 1994, recent surveys show that the prevalence of helmet usage remains low, particularly among passengers. This paper has sought to explore motorcyclists' awareness of helmet law enforcement in Thailand and examine whether it affects their helmet use behaviour. A total of 2,429 drivers and 1,328 passengers in urban cities nationwide were interviewed in 2009, and the data were analysed using a multivariate ordered logit regression technique. About 60% of the drivers and only 28% of the passengers reported that they always wore a motorcycle helmet. Apart from basic demographics (i.e. age and gender) and riding frequency, our analysis reveals that the awareness of helmet law enforcement was among the contributing factors influencing the use of motorcycle helmets in Thailand. Regardless of riding position, the prevalence of helmet use tended to be greater among those frequently observing the police's checkpoints for helmet wearing and those perceiving the high risk of being caught for non-helmet use. However, the use of helmets appeared to be lower among drivers who perceived the checkpoints to take place at the same times and locations, which were likely predicted. For motorcycle passengers, it was found that the low prevalence of helmet use was potentially attributable to the absence of knowledge on the compulsory helmet law for passengers and the perception that the law was not enforced by the police. Thus, if motorcycle helmet use in Thailand is to be increased, considerable efforts need to be given to increasing the perceived risk of apprehension for non-helmet use (e.g. more police presence and random scheduling of enforcement activities), improving the awareness of the existing helmet law for passengers, and ensuring that helmet wearing by passengers is more strictly enforced.

  2. Algorithmic tools for data-oriented law enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cocx, Tim Kristian

    2009-01-01

    The increase in capabilities of information technology of the last decade has led to a large increase in the creation of raw data. Data mining, a form of computer guided, statistical data analysis, attempts to draw knowledge from these sources that is usable, human understandable and was previously

  3. HIV, Sex Work, and Law Enforcement in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tingting; Csete, Joanne

    2017-12-01

    HIV prevalence in China is low in the general population but higher among certain key affected populations, including sex workers. Providing and purchasing sexual services are administrative offenses. Police engage in humiliating and repressive practices against sex workers. A study reported here based on the experience of over 500 sex workers highlights that the human rights abuses that sex workers face at the hands of the police directly undermine the country's HIV response toward sex workers. An important element of this phenomenon is the police's use of condoms as evidence of sex work, which impedes sex workers' possession and use of condoms. Whereas in some countries, sex worker collectives have helped empower sex workers to stand up to the police and safeguard their use of condoms, restrictions on civil society in China make such a strategy impossible. Removing sex work and related activities as offenses under the law in China, however politically difficult it might be, would ease this situation. Short of that, improving the coordination among and strategic harmony of public health and police roles and authorities would be useful.

  4. The integration of law and integrality of the legislation as necessary conditions for the success of law enforcement in interstate integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Baburin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 341.1+342.2Subject. The article substantiates the need for a special system of legislation for any project of international integration. Only such system, being integral, may, firstly, become the basis for the formation of an integrative law of this integration project, and secondly, have a supranational constitutionality, giving the ability to individual enforcement.Purpose. The purpose of this paper is the design of the constitutional-legal mechanisms of international integration in the scope of an integrative understanding of law and law enforcement.Methodology. The author uses methods of theoretical analysis, particularly the theory of integrative legal consciousness, as well as legal methods, including formal legal method and comparative law.Results, scope of application. The author points out that the formation of a single legal space in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, as well as in Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Community before, is a development of constitutional law of supranational level, not of international law. The integration of law and integrality of the legislation are prerequisite for the success of the interstate Eurasian integration.Integration of law means the completeness of its internal structure, implies the indissoluble inner coherence of the law, its wholeness, unity. Coherent legal norms, embodied in legislation, can only create the phenomenon of law. The law should be understood as a metasystem, supersystem, it accumulates all socially significant systems and integrates the values of the law itself, its principles, values, other social regulators and regulated spheres of social relations. Attempts to apply the concept of "integration", but to abandon the notion of "integrality" are unreasonable, this terminological dichotomy is just a word game.If we talk about law, it is more appropriate to talk about it’s iintegrity, but if we talk about legislation, emerging to accelerate and deepen integration

  5. The state of enforcement of the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards Due to Radioisotopes, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In recent years, the uses of radioisotopes and radiation generators have advanced remarkably in Japan. The establishments utilizing them are on rapid increase in industries, medicine, research and education. Furthermore, since the types of usage are more diversified, the kinds of radioisotopes and their quantities are also increasing. In this connection, The Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards Due to Radioisotopes, etc. has been in force for about twenty years. Under the current situation in this field, importance of the administration concerning enforcement of The Law is ever rising. In the Science and Technology Agency, in view of the occurrence of accidents in certain enterprises, starting in fiscal 1974, various measures have been taken. As the state of enforcement of The Law, the following matters are presented; the establishments using, selling and disposing of radioisotopes, etc. up to fiscal 1977 (in tables); and variety of governmental measures taken by the Agency. (Mori, K.)

  6. Effectiveness Of Implementation Of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR In The Environmental Law Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwansyah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development in Indonesia refers to the concept of sustainable development (sustainable development and responsibility for the environment . Companies have a social responsibility to social and environmental consequences of environmental damage that caused . Implementation of corporate social responsibility ( Cooperate Social Responsibility is an important part in the framework part of the enforcement of environmental law . Implementation of CSR growing rapidly , including in Indonesia . Through Law No. 40 Year 2007 regarding Limited Liability Company , specifically in Article 74, in response to the action of the business world to social and environmental causes damages to society . But in application / CSR implementation will be undertaken by the company is not maximized with implications for the enforcement of environmental law.

  7. Improving coordinated responses for victims of intimate partner violence: law enforcement compliance with state-mandated intimate partner violence documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerulli, Catherine; Edwardsen, Elizabeth A; Hall, Dale; Chan, Ko Ling; Conner, Kenneth R

    2015-07-01

    New York State law mandates specific intimate partner violence (IPV) documentation under all circumstances meeting the enumerated relationship and crime criteria at the scene of a domestic dispute. Law enforcement compliance with this mandate is unknown. We reviewed law enforcement completion rates of Domestic Violence Incident Reports (DVIRs) and assessed correlations with individual or legal factors. Law enforcement officers filed DVIRs in 54% of the cases (n = 191), more often when injury occurred (p < .01) and the defendant had prior court contact (p < .05). The discussion explores policy implications and potential means to rectify the gap between mandated processes and implementation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Strong gun laws are not enough: the need for improved enforcement of secondhand gun transfer laws in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Anthony A; Hureau, David M

    2015-10-01

    Research suggests that an overwhelming majority of crime guns were transferred by private sellers before recovery by law enforcement. Unfortunately, most states do not regulate these transactions. This study examines whether analyses of state-level private transfer data could be used to develop interventions to reduce the supply of handguns to violent criminals. Traced Boston crime handguns first sold at Massachusetts license dealers were matched to state secondhand gun transfer data. Logistic regression and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the characteristics of recovered crime guns and in-state primary and secondary market transaction patterns. For crime handguns with records of secondary market transactions in Massachusetts, many rapidly move from private transfer to recovery by the police. Unfortunately, important transaction data on the in-state sources of nearly 63% of recovered handguns were not readily available to law enforcement agencies. Data on private transfers of guns could be used to prevent violent injuries by reducing criminal access. However, the passage of strong private transfer gun laws needs to be accompanied by investments in the vigorous enforcement of reporting requirements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Law Enforcement of Journalism Profession in The Context of Press Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ayu Astuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Law No. 40 of 1999 on Press is a manifestation of respect for the legal protection of press workers . Press in their role contributes to the intellectual level of the nation, through the information submitted in news publications, as well as bringing stipulated by the 1945 Constitution of Republic of Indonesia on freedom of thought and speech as Human Rights. However, in carrying out their journalistic duties, the Press should have responsibilities in the news process, and must not violate the ethics of his profession. Press that violates profession intentionally or unintentionally in the writing and publication of news in the public sphere, will still do the law enforcement process for any misuse of the meaning of freedom of speech and thought that harm others. Enforcement of this law, in line with the revocation of the right of immunity of profession issued by the Constitutional Court, which means the Press as a Professional must do the job with the precautionary principle, not by carelessness due to the trapped arrogance of jobs, and injuring other people's human rights, even doing work profession with not commendable behavior. How To Cite: Astuti, S. (2014. The Law Enforcement of Journalism Profession in The Context of Press Freedom. Rechtsidee, 1(2, 175-190. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i2.97

  10. Questioning the Moral Understanding of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavčnik Marijan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary content-related framework we are bound to are the basic human rights as established in the constitution. These basic rights may change and develop, yet as the heritage of our political and legal culture, they possess such a solid core meaning that only a “dogmatic sceptic” (G. Radbruch can doubt it. In societies with plural values, the moral values expressed by the basic human rights are the most solid moral basis of law. The moral understanding of law is necessarily accompanied by a moral criticism of law. Such criticism is often not pleasing to the authorities, but it cannot be avoided if one wants to live up to our responsibility towards nature, society and future generations. A lawyer who is not interested in these issues and only sticks to the letter of the law acts in a fossilized manner and does not enrich the life that the law is intended for. Legal thought should always have its meaning, as Smole’s Antigone would say.

  11. Law Enforcement Against Fighting Group By Native In West Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irna Indira Ratih

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental research conducted by looking at the phenomenon of group fights and how ethnocentrism and conflict influence each other indigenous ethnic groups in West Papua. This study used descriptive qualitative method, through field studies (in-depth interviews and literature study. The results showed that with a low level of understanding of the history of the conflict supported ever experienced by the perpetrators of communication, there is a trend of negative information transformation process to be effective. So as to absorb the negative information, aspects of ethnocentrism group members appear. The emergence of these aspects lead to the awareness and solidarity groups to join forces in-group. Other findings also showed that the factors causing conflict among indigenous ethnic groups in West Papua can be summarized in two points, namely; The first tendency puts another group at a level lower social interaction, and the second is the attempt appointment of existence itself by an ethnic group seeking recognition coupled behavior (respect from inside and outside the group by scapegoating other groups. In the indigenous ethnic group communication, attitude and behavior aspects play a role in the formation of a negative message, based on the main factors. The tendency of formation of the group because of its frequency along the occurring hereditary. Related conflict and ethnocentrism, can be drawn that the results of the analysis found the substance also major causal relationship. Where, a communal conflict can result from the manifestation of ethnocentrism aspects into forms of behavior conflict. In contrast with the presence of conflict can also strengthen or weaken ethnocentrism.

  12. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  13. INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONALIZATION OF TAX LAW ON RUSSIAN TAX LAW ENFORCEMENT IN THE AREA OF CORPORATE TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject. The influence of internationalization of tax law on Russian tax law enforcement in the area of corporate taxation is considered in the article.The purpose of the paper is to analyze influence of internationalization of tax law on Russian tax law enforcement in the area of corporate taxation.Methodology. The author uses methods of theoretical analysis, particularly the theory of integrative legal consciousness, as well as legal methods, including formal legal method and methods of comparative law.Results, scope of application. The development of Russian tax legislation is influenced by acts of international organizations, primarily the Action Plan aimed at combating base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS.Trends of regulation of corporate taxation in relationships with participation of a foreign element are considered in the article. The main issues of realization of norms in the area of corporate direct taxation are brought into light, and namely, taxation of royalties, intra-group expenses, thin capitalization rules and transfer pricing. Tax agreements concluded by the Russian Federation do not contain special rules aimed at combating abuses (in contrast, for example, from European anti-avoidance rules.In recent years Russian tax law introduced institutions that had been established and applied in the tax law of foreign countries. These processes are moving forward and are characterized by frequent changes of legislation, which indicates that the concept of deoffshorization and implementation of the BEPS plan is not always elaborated at the stage of adoption of bills.Conclusions. The author comes to the conclusion that the most relevant and most controversial issues are taxation of payment of royalties, debt financing and intra-group expenses. The practice of applying the CFC rules is just starts forming. In addition, there is a tendency to increase the quality and quantity of information sources used by tax authorities to collect

  14. The role of law enforcement in schools: the Virginia experience--a practitioner report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Although there has been little academic research on the impact of placing police officers in schools, this practice has grown substantially in response to school shootings and other violent crimes in schools. With a standardized training program since 1999, the state of Virginia has law enforcement officers working in approximately 88 percent of Virginia's 631 secondary schools. Based on this experience, the state training coordinator describes how police officers should be selected and prepared to work as school resource officers. The success of school-based law enforcement requires careful selection and specialized training of officers who can adapt to the school culture and work collaboratively with school authorities. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  15. The integrated nature of the method of psychological portraying in law enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals peculiarities of using the method of psychological portraying in law enforcement, shows the current practice of using psychological knowledge in solving crimes, reveals an integration relationship of other Sciences with psychology with the use of the method of psychological portraying the disclosure of crimes. The article presents a comprehensive approach to the psychological profile of an unknown offender. Psychological portraying of an unknown offender is regarded as a form of analytical work in solving crimes, which integrate information and knowledge from various Sciences such as forensics, criminology, detective work, psychiatry, sexology, victimology, etc. Psychological science (information of its various branches is a fundamental element that helps to explain, interpret and describe the behavior of the offender and the victim to resolve the problems of law enforcement.

  16. The linkage between secondary victimization by law enforcement and rape case outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that almost half of rape victims are treated by law enforcement in ways that they experience as upsetting (termed secondary victimization). However, it remains unknown why some victims have negative experiences with law enforcement and others do not. The purpose of this study is to explore victims' experiences with secondary victimization by detectives, comparing how these experiences vary in cases that were ultimately prosecuted by the criminal justice system to those that were not prosecuted. A total of 20 rape victims are interviewed within one county. The study uses grounded theory qualitative analysis, which showed that participants whose cases were eventually prosecuted described the detectives' treatment toward them considerably different than participants with nonprosecuted cases. The study findings further show that victims with cases that were not prosecuted primarily described their detectives as engaging in secondary victimization behaviors and that victims with cases that were ultimately prosecuted primarily described their detectives as responding compassionately toward them.

  17. Predicting law enforcement officer job performance with the Personality Assessment Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowmaster, Sara E; Morey, Leslie C

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the descriptive and predictive characteristics of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) in a sample of 85 law enforcement officer candidates. Descriptive results indicate that mean PAI full-scale and subscale scores are consistently lower than normative community sample scores, with some exceptions noted typically associated with defensive responding. Predictive validity was examined by relating PAI full-scale and subscale scores to supervisor ratings in the areas of job performance, integrity problems, and abuse of disability status. Modest correlations were observed for all domains; however, predictive validity was moderated by defensive response style, with greater predictive validity observed among less defensive responders. These results suggest that the PAI's full scales and subscales are able to predict law enforcement officers' performance, but their utility is appreciably improved when taken in the context of indicators of defensive responding.

  18. 76 FR 70470 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Law Enforcement Officer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...This notice announces that the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has forwarded the Information Collection Request (ICR), Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control number 1652-0034, abstracted below to OMB for review and approval of an extension of the currently approved collection under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA). The ICR describes the nature of the information collection and its expected burden. TSA published a Federal Register notice, with a 60-day comment period soliciting comments, of the following collection of information on August 10, 2011, 76 FR 49504. The collection involves TSA gathering information from Territorial, Tribal, Federal, municipal, county, state, and authorized railroad law enforcement agencies who have requested the Law Enforcement Officer (LEO) Flying Armed training course.

  19. 75 FR 22162 - Draft NIJ Duty Holster Retention Standard for Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...In an effort to obtain comments from interested parties, the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice will make available to the general public two draft documents: (1) A draft standard entitled, ``NIJ Duty Holster Retention Standard for Law Enforcement'' and (2) a draft companion document entitled, ``NIJ Duty Holster Retention Certification Program Requirements.'' The opportunity to provide comments on these two documents is open to industry technical representatives, law enforcement agencies and organizations, research, development and scientific communities, and all other stakeholders and interested parties. Those individuals wishing to obtain and provide comments on the draft documents under consideration are directed to the following Web site: http://www.justnet.org.

  20. A LOOK INSIDE COOPERATION BETWEEN PROSECUTORS AND LAW ENFORCEMENT DURING CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dževad Mahmutović

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with crime scene investigation as a measure of inquiry, conceptually and substantially, subjects of investigation, as well as their mutual relations. The analysis of the existing legal framework suggests that the current Criminal Procedure Code of Bosnia and Herzegovina offers the appropriate basis for the cooperation between prosecutors and law enforcement. However, previous practice indicates certain shortcomings in the cooperation and coordination between prosecutors and law enforcement. With this paper, the authors wanted to examine the opinions of direct actors on this matter. The results show that they are satisfied with the legal regulation of their mutual relations during investigations, and they express positive opinions in terms of their cooperation. Of course, the possibility of improving that cooperation is also noted, and the methods of achieving it should be identified in further research.

  1. Do law enforcement interactions reduce the initiation of injection drug use? An investigation in three North American settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J S; Garfein, R S; Hayashi, K; Milloy, M J; DeBeck, K; Sun, S; Jain, S; Strathdee, S A; Werb, D

    2018-01-01

    The prevention of drug injecting is often cited as a justification for the deployment of law enforcement and for the continuation of drug criminalization policies. We sought to characterize the impact of law enforcement interactions on the risk that people who inject drugs (PWID) report assisting others with injection initiation in three North American countries. Cross-sectional data from PWID participating in cohort studies in three cities (San Diego, USA; Tijuana, Mexico; Vancouver, Canada) were pooled (August 2014-December 2016). The dependent variable was defined as recently (i.e., past six months) providing injection initiation assistance; the primary independent variable was the frequency of recent law enforcement interactions, defined categorically (0 vs. 1 vs. 2-5 vs. ≥6). We employed multivariable logistic regression analyses to assess this relationship while controlling for potential confounders. Among 2122 participants, 87 (4.1%) reported recently providing injection initiation assistance, and 802 (37.8%) reported recent law enforcement interactions. Reporting either one or more than five recent interactions with law enforcement was not significantly associated with injection initiation assistance. Reporting 2-5 law enforcement interactions was associated with initiation assistance (Adjusted Odds Ratio=1.74, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.01-3.02). Reporting interactions with law enforcement was not associated with a reduced likelihood that PWID reported initiating others into injection drug use. Instead, we identified a positive association between reporting law enforcement interactions and injection initiation assistance among PWID in multiple settings. These findings raise concerns regarding the effectiveness of drug law enforcement to deter injection drug use initiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preempting Mass Murder: Improving Law Enforcement Risk Assessments of Persons with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    have been on the rise for nearly a decade. This thesis found that persons with serious mental illness perpetrated a. statistically significant number...thesis found that persons with serious mental illness perpetrated a statistically significant number of these events. Currently, law enforcement...Police Training and Specialized Approaches to Respond to People with Mental Illnesses,” Crime and Delinquency 49, no. 1 (January 2003): 52–61. 9

  3. Use of force by law enforcement: an evaluation of safetyand injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strote, Jared; Verzemnieks, Erik; Walsh, Mimi; Hutson, H Range

    2010-11-01

    Little is known about the frequency and types of injuries sustained from law enforcement use of force (UOF). The purpose of this study was to examine injury patterns and subject conditions after law enforcement UOF under real-life conditions. A retrospective cohort design was used to examine every UOF by a single police department from January through December, 2006. Data were collected from law enforcement UOF forms as well as medical records and included conditions surrounding the UOF, medical histories, and data from emergency department (ED) evaluations and hospital admissions. Of 888 individuals subjected to force during the study period, 86.9% were men and the average body mass index was 25.8. Ages ranged from 10 to 77 years; juveniles comprised 5.6%. Of the types of force used by police, 73.7% were blows with arms or legs; 15.9% were Taser, 4.6% were capsicum spray, 1.7% were K-9, 0.7% were impact weapons, and 0.2% were firearms. Of the 630 (70.9%) with medical records, 78.7% had a substance abuse or psychiatric history. ED evaluations occurred for 187 (21.1% of) incidents. When laboratory workup occurred, 75.5% had positive urine toxicology and 45.9% had positive ethanol levels. Admission occurred in 15.5% (29) of ED presentations (3.3% of all subjects); of these, 9 (31.0%) were for UOF-related injury. Two subjects in the study died: one as a result of firearm injury and one by suicide after UOF; both were declared dead on scene. Significant injuries related to law enforcement UOF in one city were rare and the only deaths were related to firearm use. A large percentage of those subjected to UOF had diagnoses of substance abuse and/or psychiatric conditions, and most hospital admissions were for problems unrelated to the UOF.

  4. Finding solid ground: law enforcement, key populations and their health and rights in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, Andrew; Howell, Simon; Müller, Alexandra; Katumba, Munyaradzi; Langen, Bram; Artz, Lillian; Marks, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Sex workers, people who use drugs, men who have sex with men, women who have sex with women and transgender people in South Africa frequently experience high levels of stigma, abuse and discrimination. Evidence suggests that such abuse is sometimes committed by police officers, meaning that those charged with protection are perpetrators. This reinforces cycles of violence, increases the risk of HIV infection, undermines HIV prevention and treatment interventions and violates the constitutional prescriptions that the police are mandated to protect. This paper explores how relationship building can create positive outcomes while taking into account the challenges associated with reforming police strategies in relation to key populations, and vice versa. We argue that relationships between law enforcement agencies and key populations need to be re-examined and reconstituted to enable appropriate responses and services. The antagonistic positioning, "othering" and blame assignment frequently seen in interactions between law enforcement officials and key populations can negatively influence both, albeit for different reasons. In addressing these concerns, we argue that mediation based on consensual dialogue is required, and can be harnessed through a process that highlights points of familiarity that are often shared, but not understood, by both parties. Rather than laying blame, we argue that substantive changes need to be owned and executed by all role-players, informed by a common language that is cognisant of differing perspectives. Relational approaches can be used to identify programmes that align goals that are part of law enforcement, human rights and public health despite not always being seen as such. Law enforcement champions and representatives of key populations need to be identified and supported to promote interventions that are mutually reinforcing, and address perceived differences by highlighting commonality. Creating opportunities to share experiences

  5. Government Expectations and the Role of Law Enforcement in a Biological Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    wholesale opposition and resistance to quarantine orders. During a crisis, the public will likely look to the government, including law enforcement, for...clarity of sight. He described it as leaving him feeling “ helpless - with or without it (the mask)”. Additionally, the majority of officers who were...priority – ensure the safety of their family, whether an adult spouse, a child(ren), or elderly parents. The consensus was that, “I need to make sure they

  6. Responding to Catastrophe via Law Enforcement Deployment Teams: A Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    emergency medicine, canine -handling, firefighting, law enforcement, hazardous material handling, communications and logistics.128 The team’s purpose...were unavailable due to vacation, injury or other reasons. Maintenance of records, training and availability of canines were also problems.153 The...federalism is maintained under this approach, debate has raged as to its continued effectiveness. Kettl points out that while Arlington and New York

  7. The impact of body armor on physical performance of law enforcement personnel: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Tomes, Colin; Orr, Robin Marc; Pope, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    Background The law enforcement officer profession requires performance of arduous occupational tasks while carrying an external load, consisting of, at minimum, a chest rig, a communication system, weaponry, handcuffs, personal protective equipment and a torch. The aim of this systematic review of the literature was to identify and critically appraise the methodological quality of published studies that have investigated the impacts of body armour on task performance and to synthesize and rep...

  8. Automatic analysis of online image data for law enforcement agencies by concept detection and instance search

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Maaike H. T.; Bouma, Henri; Kruithof, Maarten C.; ter Haar, Frank B.; Fischer, Noëlle M.; Hagendoorn, Laurens K.; Joosten, Bart; Raaijmakers, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    The information available on-line and off-line, from open as well as from private sources, is growing at an exponential rate and places an increasing demand on the limited resources of Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs). The absence of appropriate tools and techniques to collect, process, and analyze the volumes of complex and heterogeneous data has created a severe information overload. If a solution is not found, the impact on law enforcement will be dramatic, e.g. because important evidence is missed or the investigation time is too long. Furthermore, there is an uneven level of capabilities to deal with the large volumes of complex and heterogeneous data that come from multiple open and private sources at national level across the EU, which hinders cooperation and information sharing. Consequently, there is a pertinent need to develop tools, systems and processes which expedite online investigations. In this paper, we describe a suite of analysis tools to identify and localize generic concepts, instances of objects and logos in images, which constitutes a significant portion of everyday law enforcement data. We describe how incremental learning based on only a few examples and large-scale indexing are addressed in both concept detection and instance search. Our search technology allows querying of the database by visual examples and by keywords. Our tools are packaged in a Docker container to guarantee easy deployment on a system and our tools exploit possibilities provided by open source toolboxes, contributing to the technical autonomy of LEAs.

  9. Law enforcement and the long gun: do we need a new face in the fight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Mark

    2013-11-01

    The threat of rifles in the hands of criminals is now well recognized within law enforcement. Current emergency response systems are not equipped to operate in this combat-like environment. Growing statistics indicate that of the peace officers that were killed in the line of duty in the United States nearly half died by gunfire evidence. As Emergency Medical Services ("EMS") training and standards evolve, the lessons learned from the Tactical Combat Casualty Care doctrine should be incorporated to improve the safety and outcomes of injured law enforcement officers. Statistics show that deaths by gunfire have the highest average percentage of all officer deaths. Although new weapons, armor, and tactics are continually evolving to meet the challenge of officer safety, in the past decade, little has changed in how our EMS system responds to a critically wounded officer. Combat data from the US military leads us to believe that to save a wounded officer, emergency care must start immediately, regardless of the ongoing gun battle. It is time for the emergency medical system to evolve to meet the critical needs of today's law enforcement environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effective use of unmanned aerial vehicles for local law enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasque, Leighton

    This qualitative study was done to interview local law enforcement in Murfreesboro, Tennessee to determine if unmanned aerial vehicles could increase the safety of policy officers. Many police officers face dangerous scenarios on a daily basis; however, officers must also perform non-criminal related responsibilities that could put them in hazardous situations. UAVs have multiple capabilities that can decrease the number of hazards in an emergency situation whether it is environmental, traffic related, criminal activity, or investigations. Officers were interviewed to find whether or not unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) could be useful manpower on the police force. The study was also used to find whether or not officers foresee UAVs being used in law enforcement. The study revealed that UAVs could be used to add useful manpower to law enforcement based on the capabilities a UAV may have. Police officers cannot confirm whether or not they would be able to use a UAV until further research is conducted to examine the relation of costs to usage.

  11. Research Market Gap in Law Enforcement Technology: Lessons from Czech Security Research Funding Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Moravec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While security research funding schemes are nothing new to the EU (Horizon 2020 and FP7, or to several Member States, their priorities and procedures are usually decided administratively or shaped by advisory groups of varying membership. Only recently did the EU shift its focus to the role of end users in security research programmes, seeking their input in order to maximise the utility of funded solutions. Such a hint to limited usefulness of some industrial solutions is not exactly inconspicuous. This paper discusses the gap between the stated needs of law enforcement agencies in terms of R&D funding and the grant project applications in the area of law enforcement. It aims to define and describe the gap, and consequently the market opportunities, between the supply and demand sides represented by industry-driven grant project applications and end-user-formulated calls. The study is based on empirical data from two Czech security research funding programmes that have been running since 2010 and should deliver their results by 2015. It seeks to contribute some preliminary observations about the structure of both end user needs and industry capabilities in such a particular area as law enforcement technology.

  12. New environmental criminal law, effects and enforcement in practice; Neues Umweltstrafrecht und betriebliche Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knopp, L.

    1994-11-20

    Since the November 1, 1994 a more comprehensive and clearly tighter environmental criminal law is in force. With the amendment of the law defects and gaps of the previous environmental criminal administrative offence law are to be closed in order to imporve also the efficient flight against behaviour or measures which are detrimental or harmful to the environment. The author explains the most important new regulations and shows the effects of the enforcement of the law in practice. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit 1.11.1994 gilt ein erweitertes und deutlich verschaerftes Umweltstrafrecht. Mit der Gesetzesnovelle sollen Luecken und Maengel des bislang geltenden Umweltstraf- und Ordnungswidrigkeitenrechts beseitigt werden, um damit zugleich eine wirksamere Bekaempfung umweltschaedlicher und umweltgefaehrlicher Handlungen zu verbessern. Der Autor gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die wichtigsten Neuregelungen und zeigt die Auswirkungen fuer die betriebliche Praxis auf. (orig.)

  13. Understanding Gauss’s law using spreadsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William H.

    2013-09-01

    Some of the results from the electrostatics portion of introductory physics are particularly difficult for students to understand and/or believe. For students who have yet to take vector calculus, Gauss’s law is far from obvious and may seem more difficult than Coulomb’s. When these same students are told that the minimum potential energy for charges added to a conductor is realized when all charges are on the surface, they may have a hard time believing that the energy would not be lowered if just one of those charges were moved from the surface to the interior of a conductor. Investigating these ideas using Coulomb’s law and/or the formula for the potential energy of a system of discrete charges might be tempting, but as the number of charges climbs past a few the calculations become tedious. A spreadsheet enables students to perform these for a hundred or more charges and confirm the familiar results.

  14. Defining the Crime of Enforced Disappearance in Conformity with International Criminal Law: a New Frontier for Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Raisul Islam Sourav

    2015-01-01

    Enforced disappearance is regarded as a state-sponsored heinous international crime and has recently emerged as a wide-spread issue in Bangladesh. The political opposition is currently the main target of forced disappearances, though apolitical citizens have also been targeted. Most of the incidents are unsolved and law enforcement agencies have repeatedly denied their involvement. Internationally, the UN Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance was opened for ...

  15. The meaning of the legislative definition of concept "Law-enforcement agencies" for the qualify of threat or violence according to employee of law-enforcement agency

    OpenAIRE

    Возьний, Володимир Іванович; Тернопільський національний економічний університет

    2014-01-01

    The problems of concept «Law-enforcement agencies» are considered in the article, positions of research workers are resulted. Criminal and legal description of object and victims of corpus delict is given «Threat orviolence according to the worker of law-enforcement agency". В статье рассмотрены проблемы понятия "правоохранительные органы", приведены позициинаучных работников. Дана уголовно-правовая характеристика объекта и потерпевших состава преступления "Угроза или насилие относительно ...

  16. The Integration of Virtual Public-Private Partnerships into Local Law Enforcement to Achieve Enhanced Intelligence-Led Policing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simeone, Jr, Matthew J

    2007-01-01

    .... Virtual public-private partnerships (VP3s) offer local law enforcement agencies an effective and efficient way to leverage a vast and resourceful private sector for the purpose of enhancing ILP...

  17. 20 CFR 10.740 - In what situations will OWCP automatically presume that a law enforcement officer is covered by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... authority to assist a Federal law enforcement authority in the protection of the President of the United... will be extended. (b) Coverage for officers of the U.S. Park Police and those officers of the Uniformed...

  18. The Integration of Virtual Public-Private Partnerships into Local Law Enforcement to Achieve Enhanced Intelligence-Led Policing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simeone, Jr, Matthew J

    2007-01-01

    In light of the recent emergence of fusion centers and centralized intelligence units, and the move to develop intelligence capacity within local law enforcement agencies in the United States, intelligence-led policing (ILP...

  19. LAW ENFORCEMENT TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP: LESSONS TO DATE FROM THE NORTHWEST TECHNOLOGY DESK AND THE NORTHWEST FADE PILOTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Curtis L.; Kreyling, Sean J.

    2011-04-01

    The goal of this report is to provide insight into the information technology needs of law enforcement based on first hand observations as an embedded and active participant over the course of two plus years. This report is intended as a preliminary roadmap for technology and project investment that will benefit the entire law enforcement community nationwide. Some recommendations are immediate and have more of an engineering flavor, while others are longer term and will require research and development to solve.

  20. Police Enforcement Policy and Programmes on European Roads (PEPPER). Deliverable 4a: Good practice in data, data collection and data use for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. Bernhoft, I.M. Erke, A. Ewert, U. Kallberg, V.-P. & Skladana, P.

    2008-01-01

    This report is the Deliverable of task 4.3a of the PEPPER project. It describes the good practice requirements regarding data, data collection and data use for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement (TLE). The aim is that, eventually, individual police forces/countries put the identified

  1. 25 CFR 12.62 - Who decides what uniform an Indian country law enforcement officer can wear and who pays for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who decides what uniform an Indian country law... what uniform an Indian country law enforcement officer can wear and who pays for it? Each local law... provide uniforms and related equipment to officers in lieu of this payment. All law enforcement officers...

  2. Law Enforcement of Consumer Protection for Safe Food Packaging in The Decisions of Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiryani, F.; Herwastoeti; Najih, M.; Haris, A.

    2017-04-01

    The right to a safe food is a human rights protected by the 1945 Constitution and legislation, including the Health Act, the Consumer Protection Act and Food Act. The law governing the rights and obligations of consumers; rights, obligations and responsibilities of businesses, as well as prohibitions and sanctions for businesses that violate. Food consumers aggrieved can file a non-litigation legal action and / or litigation. Non-litigation legal efforts made through negotiation or mediation or through Consumer Dispute Resolution Body (BPSK). The litigation efforts made by filing a lawsuit for damages to the court and / or reporting the case to the criminal law enforcement. This study specifically examines the enforcement of criminal law in the judgment as a safeguard against food consumers. Sanctions provisions setting a strategic role in an effort to make the protection of consumers of food. Patterns general formulation of the maximum penalty in the third Act is not appropriate because it too gives flexibility for the judge to make a decision as low to the Defendant. Facts on society, business agent has a dominant and strong position compared with consumers of food. These favorable conditions business agent position and vice versa less give legal protection to the Consumer Food. Preferably the pattern formulation penalty of criminal acts in the field of food using a specific minimum and maximum public.

  3. Reflections on the Maintenance Obligations from the Perspective of the European Law Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela LUPŞAN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As stated, maintaining and developing an area of freedom, security and justice by the European Union, within which it is ensured the free movement of persons, requires the adoption of, among others, the measures relating to judicial cooperation in civil matters which have cross-border implications. These measures are designed to promote the compatibility of the rules applicable in the Member States concerning the conflict of laws and of jurisdiction. Based on the mobility of persons within the European Union, from the desire to protect both debtors of the maintenance, most often children, and the interest to favor a proper administration of justice within the European Union, there were adopted a number of community instruments relating to maintenance, which has provisions on conflicts of jurisdiction, conflict of laws, recognition and enforceability, enforcement of judgments, judicial assistance and cooperation between central authorities. In the first part of the study we analyzed the rules of jurisdiction according to which it is established the jurisdiction of the court hearing a claim for maintenance, when maintenance obligations arise from a family relationship, parentage, marriage or affinity. In the second part of the study, we limited the analysis to the choice of law applicable on in the case of the obligation between parents and their children.

  4. FaceIt: face recognition from static and live video for law enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atick, Joseph J.; Griffin, Paul M.; Redlich, A. N.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in image and pattern recognition technology- -especially face recognition--are leading to the development of a new generation of information systems of great value to the law enforcement community. With these systems it is now possible to pool and manage vast amounts of biometric intelligence such as face and finger print records and conduct computerized searches on them. We review one of the enabling technologies underlying these systems: the FaceIt face recognition engine; and discuss three applications that illustrate its benefits as a problem-solving technology and an efficient and cost effective investigative tool.

  5. Culture of Fear and Control in Costa Rica (I). Crime Statistics and Law Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Huhn, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Costa Rican talk of crime is fundamentally based on the assumption that crime rates have increased significantly in recent years and that there is today a vast and alarming amount of crime. On the basis of this assumption, fear of crime, the call for the “iron fist,” and drastic law enforcement actions are continually increasing. While crime statistics are the logical basis for the hypothesis on the far-reaching extent of delinquency, they are used in a problematic way in the talk of crim...

  6. The culture of fear and control in Costa Rica (I): Crime statistics and law enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Huhn, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Costa Rican talk of crime is fundamentally based on the assumption that crime rates have increased significantly in recent years and that there is today a vast and alarming amount of crime. On the basis of this assumption, fear of crime, the call for the 'iron fist', and drastic law enforcement actions are continually increasing. While crime statistics are the logical basis for the hypothesis on the far-reaching extent of delinquency, they are used in a problematic way in the talk of crim...

  7. Police Training to Align Law Enforcement and HIV Prevention: Preliminary Evidence From the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Alpna; Moreau, Bruce; Kumar, Pratima; Weiss-Laxer, Nomi; Heimer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Having identified gaps in implementation of Rhode Island's syringe access law and police occupational safety education, public health and police professionals developed police training to boost legal knowledge, improve syringe access attitudes, and address needlestick injuries. Baseline data (94 officers) confirmed anxiety about needlestick injuries, poor legal knowledge, and occupational risk overestimation. Before training, respondents believed that syringe access promotes drug use (51%), increases likelihood of police needlestick injuries (58%), and fails to reduce epidemics (38%). Pretraining to posttraining evaluation suggested significant shifts in legal and occupational safety knowledge; changes in attitudes toward syringe access were promising. Training that combines occupational safety with syringe access content can help align law enforcement with public health goals. Additional research is needed to assess street-level effect and to inform intervention tailoring. PMID:21940924

  8. Injuries sustained during contact with law enforcement: An analysis from US trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Morgan; Inaba, Kenji; Cho, Jayun; Tatum, James M; Barmparas, Galinos; Strumwasser, Aaron; Grabo, Daniel; Bir, Cynthia; Eastman, Alexander; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2017-12-01

    Injuries sustained by civilians from interaction with police are a polarizing contemporary sociopolitical issue. Few comprehensive studies have been published using national hospital-based data. The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiology of these injuries to better understand this mechanism of injury. Patients entered into the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) (January 2007 to December 2012) with E-codes E970.0 to E976.0 (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification), identifying injuries associated with law enforcement in the course of legal action, were enrolled. Patients' demographics, injury characteristics, procedures, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Patients injured by other civilians (E960.0-E968.0) were used for comparison. Of 4,146,428 patients in the NTDB, 7,203 (0.17%) were injured during interaction with police. The numbers of patients in consecutive study years were 858, 1,103, 1,148, 1,274, 1,316, and 1,504. The incidence of these injuries was stable over time (0.17-0.18%) (p = 0.129). Patients had a median age of 31 years (range, 0-108), and 94.3% were male. Median injury severity score was 9 (interquartile range [IQR], 4-17). The most common mechanism of injury was gunshot wound (44%).Patients were white, 43%; black, 30%; Hispanic, 17%; Asian, 1%; and Other, 9%. As a proportion of the total race-specific NTDB trauma population, there was an average of 1.13 white patients, 2.71 Hispanic patients, and 3.83 black patients per 1,000. Mechanism, injury severity score, and outcomes did not vary by race. Compared to patients injured by civilians, patients injured by police are more likely to be white (43% vs 25%, p < 0.001) and injured by gunshot wounds (44% vs 32%, p < 0.001). Based on data from trauma centers across the United States, the rate of injuries sustained during interactions with police has been stable over time. Gunshot wounds are the most common mechanism of injury. Proportionally, black

  9. Effects of Energy Beverage Consumption on Pistol Aiming Steadiness in Law Enforcement Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Taylor P; Jacobson, Bert H; Sellers, John H; Estrada, Carlos A

    2017-09-01

    Monaghan, TP, Jacobson, BH, Sellers, JH, and Estrada, CA. Effects of energy beverage consumption on pistol aiming steadiness in law enforcement officers. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2557-2561, 2017-The popularity of energy drinks (EDs)/shots (ESs) has grown steadily over the years resulting in billions of dollars of sales annually. Energy drink marketing focuses on the improved performance and alertness and a reduction in fatigue. Although caffeine comprises one of the ingredients, it is not fully known how the combination of the many remaining active ingredients affects physical performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercially available ES on pistol aiming steadiness. Subjects (N = 10) consisted of accredited police officers in the Midwest. A randomized, blinded, crossover design was used to evaluate the pistol aiming steadiness after the consumption of an ES or placebo. Pistol aiming steadiness was measured using a hole/stylus steadiness tester and laser attached to a training pistol before and 30 minutes after ES or placebo consumption. Analysis revealed that the ES significantly (p ≤ 0.05) impaired pistol steadiness, whereas the placebo yielded no significant difference in aiming steadiness. Based on these results, it was concluded that the consumption of an ES could compromise aiming accuracy and shot placement, thereby jeopardizing the health and welfare of law enforcement personnel.

  10. The regulations for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce the ''Law for the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes'' and the Enforcement Order for the ''Law concerning the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes''. The Regulation includes the definitions of terms, applications for the permission of the use of radioisotopes, standards on usage, obligation of measurement, persons in charge of radiation, etc. Terms are explained, such as persons engaging in radiation works, persons who enter at any time the control areas, radiation facilities, maximum permissible exposure dose, cumulative dose, maximum permissible cumulative dose, maximum permissible concentration in the air, maximum permissible concentration in water and maximum permissible surface density. The applications for permission in written forms are required for the use, sale and abandonment of radioisotopes. Radioisotopes or the apparatuses for generating radiation shall be used in the using facilities. The measurement of radiation dose rate, particle flux density and contamination due to radioisotopes shall be made with radiation-measuring instruments. At least one person shall be chosen as the chief radiation-handling person in each factory, establishment, selling office or abandoning establishment by a user, a trademan or a person engaged in abandonment of radioisotopes. The forms for the application for permission, etc. are attached. (Okada, K.)

  11. Empirical analysis of the types of destructiveness of law enforcement officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlokazov K.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The variety of existing scientific concepts of the problem of personality destructiveness is shown. The character of such general conclusions does not facilitate the cognition and prediction of destructive phenomena. The author proves the necessity to develop psychological theory of destructiveness which methodologically unites well-known but separate phenomena of psychological life of an individual. The fundamental propositions of this theory are argued: destructiveness is an active behaviour; it is aimed at perceived goal and formed on the basis of need perceived by an individual. The following features of destructiveness are distinguished: individual typological, regulatory, value characteristics of personality; peculiarities of person’s attitude to significant aspects of life – to the self, society and professional activity. The author proposes his own method of destructiveness diagnostics aimed at describing destructive and constructive components of social and professional activity of a person. Diagnostics indicators are the following: typological preconditions of destructiveness; features of regulation of activity and relations; value characteristics of individuals related to destructiveness. Indicators, describing the level of personal disadaptation, are provided. Personality destructiveness indicators of 211 law enforcement officers (93 % – males, mean age – 34 were analyzed, which allowed to group and describe psychological characteristics of 4 types of destructiveness. They are: socially alienated – 31 % of respondents, socially destructive – 29 %, asocially destructive – 23 %, asocially alienated – 17 %. This typology allows to generalize psychological preconditions of destructive and constructive behaviour of law enforcement officers. The author proposes further analyzing the provisions of conception of personality destructiveness.

  12. Delivery dilemmas: How drug cryptomarket users identify and seek to reduce their risk of detection by law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Judith; Askew, Rebecca

    2017-03-01

    Cryptomarkets represent an important drug market innovation by bringing buyers and sellers of illegal drugs together in a 'hidden' yet public online marketplace. We ask: How do cryptomarket drug sellers and buyers perceive the risks of detection and arrest, and attempt to limit them? We analyse selected texts produced by vendors operating on the first major drug cryptomarket, Silk Road (N=600) alongside data extracted from the marketplace discussion forum that include buyer perspectives. We apply Fader's (2016) framework for understanding how drug dealers operating 'offline' attempt to reduce the risk of detection and arrest: visibility reduction, charge reduction and risk distribution. We characterize drug transactions on cryptomarkets as 'stretched' across time, virtual and physical space, and handlers, changing the location and nature of risks faced by cryptomarket users. The key locations of risk of detection and arrest by law enforcement were found in 'offline' activities of cryptomarket vendors (packaging and delivery drop-offs) and buyers (receiving deliveries). Strategies in response involved either creating or disrupting routine activities in line with a non-offending identity. Use of encrypted communication was seen as 'good practice' but often not employed. 'Drop shipping' allowed some Silk Road vendors to sell illegal drugs without the necessity of handling them. Silk Road participants neither viewed themselves as immune to, nor passively accepting of, the risk of detection and arrest. Rational choice theorists have viewed offending decisions as constrained by limited access to relevant information. Cryptomarkets as 'illicit capital' sharing communities provide expanded and low-cost access to information enabling drug market participants to make more accurate assessments of the risk of apprehension. The abundance of drug market intelligence available to those on both sides of the law may function to speed up innovation in illegal drug markets, as well

  13. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Law Enforcement Officers on Rabies and Animal Control Issues in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straily, A; Trevino-Garrison, I

    2017-03-01

    Rabies is a deadly zoonoses endemic in the United States, including Kansas. Animal control programmes that emphasize vaccination of dogs and cats, removal of stray animals and enforcement of licensure programmes have historically been essential in reducing the risk of rabies exposures to humans (Beran, 1991). Kansas does not mandate the use of animal control officers [ACOs] and in areas where there is no designated animal control officer, law enforcement officers [LEOs] are required to fill that role. Little is known about LEOs' knowledge of rabies, their current practices in responding to animal-related calls or if they receive any specialized training to perform the duties of an ACO. A web-based, voluntary and anonymous survey was sent to law enforcement officers in Kansas in January 2014. The survey included questions about animal control practices and a self-assessment of rabies knowledge. The response rate was 16.2%. All respondents indicated LEOs will respond to animal-related calls, even if there was an ACO available in their department or jurisdiction. A majority of respondents indicated they had not received training on safe animal handling (62.9%, 61/97) or zoonoses prevention (85.6%, 83/97), even though a strong majority considered such training important (89.7% and 79.4%, respectively). Most respondents (>80%) were able to correctly identify animals capable of transmitting rabies but were less aware of how rabies was transmitted or the severity of rabies in humans. Our results demonstrate that Kansas LEOs perform animal control duties, many without the proper training, even though most consider such training to be important to be able to perform their duties safely. Training on safe animal handling and zoonoses prevention should be provided to all LEOs in Kansas to enable them to safely execute their duties and provide timely and accurate information to citizens regarding rabies prevention. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Cooperation between law enforcement officers and forensic specialists. Diagnosis and possible improvements - a Lithuanian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malewski, Henryk; Kurapka, Vidmantas Egidijus; Matulienė, Snieguolnė; Navickienė, Žaneta

    The article investigates the characteristics and forms of cooperation between criminal investigation officers* and forensic laboratory specialists in pre-trial proceedings, as well as practical problems in such cooperation. Recently there have been a number of particularly heated debates about the relationship between determining a person possessing special knowledge and his/her status in pre-trial proceedings. Other discussed aspects include cooperation between entities involved in pre-trial proceedings in international contexts. A less intensive (albeit equally important) discussion relates to the form and characteristics of cooperation between criminal investigation officers on the one hand and specialists and experts on the other in investigating criminal acts. Bearing in mind the high practical importance and the existing differences in scholarly approaches to these issues, the current study concentrates on the forms and content of cooperation between law enforcement officers and specialists (experts) from forensic laboratories, as well as on problems resulting from such cooperation and directions for improvement. The first part of the article presents selected views on the definition of a person possessing special knowledge currently used in Lithuania** and in a number of other states. In the authors' opinion, unification (harmonization) of various notions (definitions), terms and statuses of an expert, a specialist and special knowledge should be one of the objectives in implementing the vision of the joint European forensic science area 2020. Achieving this objective requires a comprehensive analysis of standards in law and management in using special knowledge of each state***. The second part, supported by empirical study results, discusses practical problems of cooperation between a law enforcement officer and a specialist (expert), analyzes three basic forms of their cooperation and presents the content of those forms: activities at the crime scene

  15. LAW ENFORCEMENT OF THE BANDUNG REGIONAL REGULATIONS ON THE ORDERLINESS, CLEANLINESS, AND THE BEAUTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesmil Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Number of sidewalk vendors in Bandung has reached 11,000 with no decline in growth according to the survey conducted by Indonesian University of Education/ Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (UPI in collaboration with Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Daerah (Bappeda or regional development planning agency Bandung. Sidewalk vendor is one of the main contributors to the dirtiness and traffic congestion in Bandung. Bandung has passed a Regional Regulation Numbered 3 and 5 about Cleanliness, Orderliness and the Beauty to prevent and to build the  sidewalk vendors. However, lack of legal awareness and law enforcement may constrain the effectiveness of the regulation. Those regulations are particularly Bandung Regional Regulation Numbered 4/ 2011 concerning sidewalk vendors in which imposing high fine sanction not only for the seller but also for the buyer to prevent them from violating those regulations. To analyze the the compliance level of society and the effectiveness of fine sanction for the violation of regulations, this research used juridical normative approach and comparative method by comparing the regulation in Bandung with other Regional regulations related to sidewalk vendors in other cities in Indonesia such as in Surakarta and Surabaya. This research found that the law enforcement to the violation of sidewalk vendors regulation in Bandung city is not optimum due to lack of awareness to obey the law. The criminal sanction such as fine and forced fees are not able to prevent the violation of sidewalk vendors regulations. This research suggest that The Regional government of Bandung City: (1 needs to find a right model to keep sidewalk vendors in order by looking at the characteristics of the society and its social culture; (2 needs to search for a way to increase society’s compliance to any policies made by the government; and (3 needs to revise the current regulation

  16. Understanding First Law of Thermodynamics through Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Ladage, Savita; Pradhan, H. C.

    2018-01-01

    The first law of thermodynamics involves several types of energies and many studies have shown that students lack awareness of them. They have difficulties in applying the law to different thermodynamic processes. These observations were confirmed in our pilot studies, carried out with students from undergraduate colleges across the whole of…

  17. Police Enforcement Policy and Programmes on European Roads (PEPPER). Workpackage WP4 `Good Practices in Traffic Enforcement', Working paper 24: Good practice in data and data collection for monitoring and evaluating traffic law enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van Bernhoft, I.M. Erke, A. Ewert, U. Kallberg, V.-P. & Skladana, P.

    2007-01-01

    This working paper describes the good practice requirements regarding data and data collection for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement (TLE). The aim is at, eventually, individual police forces/countries put the identified ’good practice’ data into a European TLE monitoring database

  18. Examining the Spatial Distribution of Law Enforcement Encounters among People Who Inject Drugs after Implementation of Mexico’s Drug Policy Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Tommi L.; Beletsky, Leo; Arredondo, Jaime; Werb, Daniel; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use in order to refocus law enforcement resources on drug dealers and traffickers. This study examines the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters reported by people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico to identify concentrated areas of policing activity after implementation of the new drug policy. Mapping the physical location of law enforcement encounters provided by PWID (n = 461) ...

  19. Utilization of Local Law Enforcement Aerial Resources in Consequence Management (CM) Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, Piotr T.; Malchow, Russell L.

    2013-03-12

    During the past decade the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was instrumental in enhancing the nation’s ability to detect and prevent a radiological or nuclear attack in the highest risk cities. Under the DHS Securing the Cities initiative, nearly 13,000 personnel in the New York City region have been trained in preventive radiological and nuclear detection operations, and nearly 8,500 pieces of radiological detection equipment have been funded. As part of the preventive radiological/nuclear detection (PRND) mission, several cities have received funding to purchase commercial aerial radiation detection systems. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Aerial Measuring System (AMS) program started providing Mobile Aerial Radiological Surveillance (MARS) training to such assets, resulting in over 150 HAZMAT teams’ officers and pilots from 10 law enforcement organizations and fire departments being trained in the aerial radiation detection. From the beginning, the MARS training course covered both the PRND and consequence management (CM) missions. Even if the law enforcement main focus is PRND, their aerial assets can be utilized in the collection of initial radiation data for post-event radiological CM response. Based on over 50 years of AMS operational experience and information collected during MARS training, this presentation will focus on the concepts of CM response using aerial assets as well as utilizing law enforcement/fire department aerial assets in CM. Also discussed will be the need for establishing closer relationships between local jurisdictions’ aerial radiation detection capabilities and state and local radiation control program directors, radiological health department managers, etc. During radiological events these individuals may become primary experts/advisers to Incident Commanders for radiological emergency response, especially in the early stages of a response. The knowledge of the existence

  20. The regulation for enforcing the law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The regulation is set up under the provisions of the law concerning the indemnification for atomic energy damages, to enforce them. An atomic energy business enterpriser who intends to get the approval of indemnification measures specified under the law shall file an application to the General Director of the Science Technology Agency, attaching particular documents and writing the following matters: his name and address; the kinds of operation of reactors; the names and addresses of works or places of business where reactors are operated; the thermal output of reactors; the kinds and quantities of nuclear fuel materials processed or employed; the kinds and quantities of nuclear fuel materials or contaminated materials to be transported; the kinds and quantities of nuclear fuel materials or contaminated materials to be disposed; beginning dates and expected ending dates of the operation of reactors; and other items stipulated concerning liability insurance and indemnification contracts. The negotiable securities qualified to be trusted include government bonds; municipal bonds; bonds issued by particular legal persons; bonds issued by banks, Central Cooperative Bank for Agriculture and Forestry, or Bank for Commerce and Industrial Cooperatives, and secured debentures under the secured debenture trust law. The recovering of trusted securities and identification cards are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  1. Automatic helmet-wearing detection for law enforcement using CCTV cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonghabut, P.; Kumphong, J.; Satiennam, T.; Ung-arunyawee, R.; Leelapatra, W.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research is to develop an application for enforcing helmet wearing using CCTV cameras. The developed application aims to help law enforcement by police, and eventually resulting in changing risk behaviours and consequently reducing the number of accidents and its severity. Conceptually, the application software implemented using C++ language and OpenCV library uses two different angle of view CCTV cameras. Video frames recorded by the wide-angle CCTV camera are used to detect motorcyclists. If any motorcyclist without helmet is found, then the zoomed (narrow-angle) CCTV is activated to capture image of the violating motorcyclist and the motorcycle license plate in real time. Captured images are managed by database implemented using MySQL for ticket issuing. The results show that the developed program is able to detect 81% of motorcyclists on various motorcycle types during daytime and night-time. The validation results reveal that the program achieves 74% accuracy in detecting the motorcyclist without helmet.

  2. Hybrid Multidimensional Relational and Link Analytical Knowledge Discovery for Law Enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Gillen, David S.; Burke, John S.; Critchlow, Terence J.; Damante, Matt; Fernandes, Robert

    2008-08-01

    The challenges facing the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) require not only multi-dimensional, but also multi-scale data analysis. In particular, the ability to seamlessly move from summary information, such as trends, into detailed analysis of individual entities, while critical for law enforcement, typically requires manually transferring information among multiple tools. Such time-consuming and error prone processes significantly hamper the analysts' ability to quickly explore data and identify threats. As part of a DHS Science and Technology effort, we have been developing and deploying for Immigration and Customs Enforcement the CubeLink system integrating information between relational data cubes and link analytical semantic graphs. In this paper we describe CubeLink in terms of the underlying components, their integration, and the formal mapping from multidimensional data analysis into link analysis. In so doing, we provide a formal basis for one particular form of automatic schema-ontology mapping from OLAP data cubes to semantic graphs databases, and point the way towards future ``intelligent'' OLAP data cubes equipped with meta-data about their dimensional typing.

  3. The recovery of online drug markets following law enforcement and other disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buskirk, Joe; Bruno, Raimondo; Dobbins, Timothy; Breen, Courtney; Burns, Lucinda; Naicker, Sundresan; Roxburgh, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    Online drug markets operating on the 'darknet' ('cryptomarkets') facilitate the trade of illicit substances at an international level. The present study assessed the longitudinal impact on cryptomarket trading of two major disruptions: a large international law enforcement operation, 'Operation Onymous'; and the closure of the largest cryptomarket, Evolution. Almost 1150 weekly snapshots of a total of 39 cryptomarkets were collected between October 2013 and November 2015. Data were collapsed by month and the number of unique vendor aliases operating across markets was assessed using interrupted time series regression. Following both Operation Onymous and the closure of Evolution, significant drops of 627 (p=0.014) and 910 vendors (pmarkets appear resilient to disruption long-term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Collateral Consequences and Effectiveness of Sex Offender Registration and Notification: Law Enforcement Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubellis, Michelle A; Walfield, Scott M; Harris, Andrew J

    2018-03-01

    A growing body of research has examined the collateral effects of sex offender registration and notification (SORN), particularly those related to offenders' social and economic reintegration into society. Although studies have examined public, offender, treatment provider, and other criminal justice perspectives on SORN's collateral impacts, few have elicited the views of law enforcement (LE) professionals who have contact with registered offenders. This study presents results from a mixed method study examining LE perspectives on collateral consequences and effectiveness of SORN. Results indicate that, although overall LE concern regarding collateral impacts is limited, those who are most engaged in SORN-related duties are significantly more likely to indicate such concern, and also more likely to believe that SORN was an effective public safety tool. Importantly, respondents in states with larger registries expressed greater concern over collateral consequences, and less belief in SORN's public safety efficacy. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  5. The SHIELD (Safety & Health Improvement: Enhancing Law Enforcement Departments Study: Feasibility and Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Stephen Kuehl

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This randomized prospective trial aimed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a team-based worksite health and safety intervention for law enforcement personnel. Four-hundred and eight subjects were enrolled and half were randomized to meet participants met for weekly, peer-led sessions delivered from a scripted team-based health and safety curriculum. Curriculum addressed: exercise, nutrition, stress, sleep, body weight, injury, and other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours such as smoking and heavy alcohol use. Health and safety questionnaires administered before and after the intervention found significant improvements for increased fruit and vegetable consumption, overall healthy eating, increased sleep quantity and sleep quality, and reduced personal stress.

  6. Law enforcement-applied tourniquets: a case series of life-saving interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, David W; Robertson, Joshua; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Although the epidemiology of civilian trauma is distinct from that encountered in combat, in both settings, extremity hemorrhage remains a major preventable cause of potential mortality. The current paper describes the largest case series in the literature in which police officers arriving prior to emergency medical services applied commercially available field tourniquets to civilian victims of violent trauma. Although all 3 patients with vascular injury arrived at the receiving emergency department in extremis, they were successfully resuscitated and survived to discharge without major morbidity. While this outcome is likely multifactorial and highlights the exceptional care delivered by the modern trauma system, tourniquet application appears to have kept critically injured patients alive long enough to reach definitive trauma care. No patient had a tourniquet-related complication. This case series suggests that law enforcement officers can effectively identify indications for tourniquets and rapidly apply such life-saving interventions.

  7. The Impact of Groupement des Cartes Bancaires on Competition Law Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Fattori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Groupement des Cartes bancaires represents a key judgment for competition enforcement, as it provides helpful clarification on the notion of “restriction by object” and on the judicial standard of review of Commission decisions. As of the first aspect, the ruling limited the restrictions by object to those which by their very nature and on the basis of the experience reveal a sufficient degree of harm to competition. On the standard required to the Court in reviewing competition decisions, the ECJ underlines the necessity of carrying out a full review, specifying that the presence of economic issues should not dispense the Court with an in-depth review of the law and the facts. The principles expressed in the judgment could have a great impact also at national level, where it could provide useful guidance both to Italian competition authority and to the Administrative Courts.

  8. Mobile, portable lightweight wireless video recording solutions for homeland security, defense, and law enforcement applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy, Matt; Goldburt, Tim; Carapezza, Edward M.

    2015-05-01

    It is desirable for executive officers of law enforcement agencies and other executive officers in homeland security and defense, as well as first responders, to have some basic information about the latest trend on mobile, portable lightweight wireless video recording solutions available on the market. This paper reviews and discusses a number of studies on the use and effectiveness of wireless video recording solutions. It provides insights into the features of wearable video recording devices that offer excellent applications for the category of security agencies listed in this paper. It also provides answers to key questions such as: how to determine the type of video recording solutions most suitable for the needs of your agency, the essential features to look for when selecting a device for your video needs, and the privacy issues involved with wearable video recording devices.

  9. Safety and injury profile of conducted electrical weapons used by law enforcement officers against criminal suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William P; Hauda, William E; Heck, Joseph J; Graham, Derrel D; Martin, Brian P; Winslow, James E

    2009-04-01

    Conducted electrical weapons such as the Taser are commonly used by law enforcement agencies. The safety of these weapons has been the subject of scrutiny and controversy; previous controlled studies in animals and healthy humans may not accurately reflect the risks of conducted electrical weapons used in actual conditions. We seek to determine the safety and injury profile of conducted electrical weapons used against criminal suspects in a field setting. This prospective, multicenter, observational trial tracked a consecutive case series of all conducted electrical weapon uses against criminal suspects at 6 US law enforcement agencies. Mandatory review of each conducted electrical weapon use incorporated physician review of police and medical records. Injuries were classified as mild, moderate, or severe according to a priori definitions. The primary outcome was a composite of moderate and severe injuries, termed significant injuries. Conducted electrical weapons were used against 1,201 subjects during 36 months. One thousand one hundred twenty-five subjects (94%) were men; the median age was 30 years (range 13 to 80 years). Mild or no injuries were observed after conducted electrical weapon use in 1,198 subjects (99.75%; 95% confidence interval 99.3% to 99.9%). Of mild injuries, 83% were superficial puncture wounds from conducted electrical weapon probes. Significant injuries occurred in 3 subjects (0.25%; 95% confidence interval 0.07% to 0.7%), including 2 intracranial injuries from falls and 1 case of rhabdomyolysis. Two subjects died in police custody; medical examiners did not find conducted electrical weapon use to be causal or contributory in either case. To our knowledge, these findings represent the first large, independent, multicenter study of conducted electrical weapon injury epidemiology and suggest that more than 99% of subjects do not experience significant injuries after conducted electrical weapon use.

  10. The impact of body armor on physical performance of law enforcement personnel: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, Colin; Orr, Robin Marc; Pope, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    The law enforcement officer profession requires performance of arduous occupational tasks while carrying an external load, consisting of, at minimum, a chest rig, a communication system, weaponry, handcuffs, personal protective equipment and a torch. The aim of this systematic review of the literature was to identify and critically appraise the methodological quality of published studies that have investigated the impacts of body armour on task performance and to synthesize and report key findings from these studies to inform law enforcement organizations. Several literature databases (Medline, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, EMBAS) were searched using key search words and terms to identify appropriate studies. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were critically evaluated using the Downs and Black protocol with inter-rater agreement determined by Cohen's Kappa. Sixteen articles were retained for evaluation with a mean Downs and Black score of 73.2 ± 6.8% (k = 0.841). Based on the research quality and findings across the included studies, this review determined that while effects of body armour on marksmanship and physiological responses have not yet been adequately ascertained, body armour does have significant physical performance and biomechanical impacts on the wearer, including: a) increased ratings of perceived exertion and increased time to complete functional tasks, b) decreased work capability (indicated by deterioration in fitness test scores), c) decreased balance and stability, and d) increased ground reaction forces. Given the physical performance and biomechanical impacts on the wearer, body armour should be carefully selected, with consideration of the physical fitness of the wearers and the degree to which the armour systems can be ergonomically optimized for the specific population in question.

  11. Speaker identification for the improvement of the security communication between law enforcement units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovarek, Jaromir; Partila, Pavol

    2017-05-01

    This article discusses the speaker identification for the improvement of the security communication between law enforcement units. The main task of this research was to develop the text-independent speaker identification system which can be used for real-time recognition. This system is designed for identification in the open set. It means that the unknown speaker can be anyone. Communication itself is secured, but we have to check the authorization of the communication parties. We have to decide if the unknown speaker is the authorized for the given action. The calls are recorded by IP telephony server and then these recordings are evaluate using classification If the system evaluates that the speaker is not authorized, it sends a warning message to the administrator. This message can detect, for example a stolen phone or other unusual situation. The administrator then performs the appropriate actions. Our novel proposal system uses multilayer neural network for classification and it consists of three layers (input layer, hidden layer, and output layer). A number of neurons in input layer corresponds with the length of speech features. Output layer then represents classified speakers. Artificial Neural Network classifies speech signal frame by frame, but the final decision is done over the complete record. This rule substantially increases accuracy of the classification. Input data for the neural network are a thirteen Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, which describe the behavior of the vocal tract. These parameters are the most used for speaker recognition. Parameters for training, testing and validation were extracted from recordings of authorized users. Recording conditions for training data correspond with the real traffic of the system (sampling frequency, bit rate). The main benefit of the research is the system developed for text-independent speaker identification which is applied to secure communication between law enforcement units.

  12. Understanding first law of thermodynamics through activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Ladage, Savita; Pradhan, H. C.

    2018-03-01

    The first law of thermodynamics involves several types of energies and many studies have shown that students lack awareness of them. They have difficulties in applying the law to different thermodynamic processes. These observations were confirmed in our pilot studies, carried out with students from undergraduate colleges across the whole of India. We, then, decided to develop an activity-based module to address students’ conceptual difficulties in this area. In particular, we took up the cases of both adiabatic and isothermal compression of an ideal gas. We tested, through a two-group pre and post test design, the effectiveness of the module.

  13. Trade restrictions as a means of enforcing compliance with international environmental law. Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, W.

    1996-01-01

    The contribution reviews primarily Art. 4 of the Montreal Protocol and its efficiency for enforcing compliance with obligations under international environmental law and discusses aspects of possible conflicts with GATT law. (CB)

  14. The regulations for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are wholly revised under the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes and the provisions of the order for enforcing the law. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: employee engaged in radiation work; person regularly entering into the controlled area; the maximum permissible exposure dose; accumulative dose; the maximum permissible accumulative dose; the maximum permissible concentration in the air; the maximum permissible concentration under water; the maximum permissible surface density. The application for permission of the uses shall be made according to the form attached and include as appendix following documents: copy of register of the applicant legal person; plane drawings of the works or the enterprise and their surroundings in reduced scales and with directions, centering on facilities in use, of storage and disposal, etc. The report of the uses shall list name and address of the user, object and method of the uses, and include as annex copy of register of the user legal person and papers explaining the expected date of beginning and the period of the uses, etc. Standards of the uses, refilling, storage, transport and disposal are in detail stipulated. Specified measures shall be taken for measurement, prevention of radiation hazards, finding out of persons injured by radiation and others. (Okada, K.)

  15. Propaganda techniques in law enforcement practice: experience of the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stukanov V.G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of public administration is stated – influencing the public consciousness to form values and world view, attitude of the people towards rules of law and public authorities. Propaganda is an effective means of organizing such influence. It’s proved that propaganda is a specially organized process of presenting information aimed at the assimilation of declared by the state system of moral and legal norms and values as well as social and political views by the public consciousness. Propaganda is a means of state ideology, therefore it includes value attitude to the historical, political, social and economic processes; evaluation of historical development models and the balance of political forces; attitude to legally protected values, state authorities and law enforcement agencies, criminal behaviour. The following subjects of propaganda are recognized: state, public authorities, mass media, civil society actors (political parties, trade unions, public and religious associations and foundations, national diasporas, etc.. Their information and communication activities meet the national interests declared officially. The objects of propaganda are public consciousness, the system of spiritual values, worldviews, social and political views and attitudes, as well as the historical memory of the people. The state is the source of propaganda views and ideas. It acts as methodologist of propaganda activities, developing the concept of propaganda on the basis of state ideology, and ensuring its implementation through executive and administrative authorities, political, public and other institutions. The state creates the mechanism and appropriate conditions for propaganda influence, using administrative, economic, personnel and other resources.

  16. The regulation for enforcing the law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce the ''Law concerning the indemnification of nuclear damage''. Atomic energy enterprises who want to get the approval in connection with the Law shall file the applications to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency, in which the name and the address of the applicant, kinds of the operation of nuclear reactors, the name and the address of the factory or the establishment concerning the operation of nuclear reactors, the thermal output of the reactors, the kinds and quantities of nuclear fuel materials or the things contaminated by such materials to be transported, and the time of starting and the expected time of ending the operation of the reactors, etc. To such applications, shall be attached actually surveyed maps indicating the area of the factory or the establishment concerning the operation of the reactors and the documents certifying the conclusion of obligatory insurances and indemnification contracts, etc. The securities which can be deposited and recovering of such securities are prescribed. (Okada, K.)

  17. Challenge of emerging technologies: balancing the needs of law enforcement against the duty to protect individual rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingerfelt, James A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses three emerging technologies which will revolutionize the business operations of law enforcement: databases and search engines; biometric identification systems; and electronic surveillance and tracking devices. Unfortunately, these technologies may also lead to a serious ethical conflict for law enforcement. The tools will make it easier than ever to accomplish the core business of policing: crime prevention; investigation; and intelligence gathering. The same tools, used improperly, will also lead to routine intrusions on personal privacy. These technologies have been and are being developed for the private sector, the military and the intelligence community. The vendors are now aggressively marketing them to law enforcement and criminal justice agencies. The law enforcement community has embraced the technology, but without considering the long term impact. In the past, the police have abused wiretaps and other early surveillance technology. As a result, a sinister perception about police surveillance practices persists and a cumbersome bureaucracy has been imposed to control their use. Developing and establishing policies governing the use of emerging technologies can prevent these mistakes from being repeated. This paper recommends that criminal justice practitioners begin a discussion now, in advance of these technologies becoming commercially available, with a view to defining clear guidelines for their proper use.

  18. 8 CFR 212.14 - Parole determinations for alien witnesses and informants for whom a law enforcement authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parole determinations for alien witnesses and informants for whom a law enforcement authority (âLEAâ) will request S classification. 212.14 Section 212.14 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY REQUIREMENTS: NONIMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS; ADMISSIO...

  19. 8 CFR 1212.14 - Parole determinations for alien witnesses and informants for whom a law enforcement authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parole determinations for alien witnesses and informants for whom a law enforcement authority (âLEAâ) will request S classification. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY REQUIREMENTS:...

  20. 41 CFR 301-70.600 - What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to threatened law enforcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to threatened law enforcement/investigative employees? 301-70.600 Section 301-70.600 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY...

  1. National Institute of Justice (NIJ): improving the effectiveness of law enforcement via homeland security technology improvements (Keynote Address)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John S.

    2005-05-01

    Law enforcement agencies play a key role in protecting the nation from and responding to terrorist attacks. Preventing terrorism and promoting the nation"s security is the Department of Justice"s number one strategic priority. This is reflected in its technology development efforts, as well as its operational focus. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the national focal point for the research, development, test and evaluation of technology for law enforcement. In addition to its responsibilities in supporting day-to-day criminal justice needs in areas such as less lethal weapons and forensic science, NIJ also provides critical support for counter-terrorism capacity improvements in state and local law enforcement in several areas. The most important of these areas are bomb response, concealed weapons detection, communications and information technology, which together offer the greatest potential benefit with respect to improving the ability to law enforcement agencies to respond to all types of crime including terrorist acts. NIJ coordinates its activities with several other key federal partners, including the Department of Homeland Security"s Science and Technology Directorate, the Technical Support Working Group, and the Department of Defense.

  2. 5 CFR 842.810 - Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... officer for retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington... § 842.810 Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police... Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) police officers employed as members of the MWAA police force as of...

  3. Social Media Integration into State-Operated Fusion Centers and Local Law Enforcement: Potential Uses and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited SOCIAL MEDIA...DATE December 2010 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Social Media Integration into State-Operated Fusion...technologies, particularly social media, within fusion centers and local law enforcement entities could enable a more expedient exchange of information among

  4. Investigation methodology for information-driven horizontal fiscal supervision : A Dutch approach to improving effective law enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, T.M.; Engers, van T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The article focuses on how the Dutch Tax Administration and other tax administrations can deploy their resources efficiently and assure the quality of law enforcement. It says that the Tax Administration is seeking to new forms of co-operation with people to build trust, confidenceconfidence, and

  5. Child Molesters: A Behavioral Analysis. For Law-Enforcement Officers Investigating Cases of Child Sexual Exploitation. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Kenneth V.

    This booklet provides a behavioral analysis of child molesters. The terms child molesters and pedophiles are defined and distinctions are drawn between the two. The second section develops a law enforcement typology differing from those of mental health professionals, focusing on pre-arrest behavior or pre-identification behavior of child…

  6. Law enforcement staff perceptions of illegal hunting and wildlife conservation in the Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.; Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Mango, L.; Jakarasi, J.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, pressure from the illegal harvesting of wildlife is a recurrent issue for protected area management. In order to ensure the effective conservation of wildlife resources, law enforcement has been identified as one of the most important components of protected area management. Our study

  7. 76 FR 71417 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Law Enforcement Agencies (LEA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ...; Computer Matching Program (SSA/ Law Enforcement Agencies (LEA)) Match Number 5001 AGENCY: Social Security... protections for such persons. The Privacy Act, as amended, regulates the use of computer matching by Federal... accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended by the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of...

  8. Should Cops Be Spies? Evaluating the Collection and Sharing of National Security Intelligence by State, Local and Tribal Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    criminal activity, while state, local and tribal law enforcement provide the local-area expertise. A side benefit of this symbiotic relationship is all...intelligence was focused primarily on geopolitical rivalries” (pp. 41–42). Now that al-Qa’ida, through its surrogates and franchisees —as well as through its

  9. Measuring Black men's police-based discrimination experiences: Development and validation of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Devin; Bowleg, Lisa; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Tschann, Jeanne M; Agans, Robert P; Malebranche, David J

    2017-04-01

    Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men's perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale. In Study 1, we used thematic analysis on transcripts of individual qualitative interviews with 90 Black men to assess key themes and concepts and develop quantitative items. In Study 2, we used 2 focus groups comprised of 5 Black men each (n = 10), intensive cognitive interviewing with a separate sample of Black men (n = 15), and piloting with another sample of Black men (n = 13) to assess the ecological validity of the quantitative items. For Study 3, we analyzed data from a sample of 633 Black men between the ages of 18 and 65 to test the factor structure of the PLE, as we all as its concurrent validity and convergent/discriminant validity. Qualitative analyses and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 5-item, 1-factor measure appropriately represented respondents' experiences of police/law enforcement discrimination. As hypothesized, the PLE was positively associated with measures of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Preliminary evidence suggests that the PLE is a reliable and valid measure of Black men's experiences of discrimination with police/law enforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Defining the Crime of Enforced Disappearance in Conformity with International Criminal Law: a New Frontier for Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Raisul Islam Sourav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enforced disappearance is regarded as a state-sponsored heinous international crime and has recently emerged as a wide-spread issue in Bangladesh. The political opposition is currently the main target of forced disappearances, though apolitical citizens have also been targeted. Most of the incidents are unsolved and law enforcement agencies have repeatedly denied their involvement. Internationally, the UN Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance was opened for signature in 2007 and entered into force in 2010. The convention’s purpose is to criminalise enforced disappearances across the world and state parties are under an obligation to take necessary actions to stop their occurrence. Despite the cruel reality of forced disappearances in Bangladesh, no law has of yet been adopted to bring national criminal law in line with the convention. The right to life is nevertheless one of the key fundamental rights guaranteed under the Bangladeshi constitution which may be relevant in this context.  Forced disappearances have a disastrous impact on victim’s family as well as important societal implications. Bangladesh should, in this author’s opinion, ratify the convention and must reform national legislation to bring to an end state-sponsored crime. The scope of the issue may otherwise have tremendous consequences for the whole nation.

  11. Private or Public Law Enforcement? The Case of Digital Piracy Policies with Non-monitored Illegal Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Éric Darmon; Thomas Le Texier

    2014-01-01

    In the case of digital piracy should rights be publicly or privately enforced? The emergence of large-scale anti-piracy laws and the existence of non-monitored illegal channels raise important issues for the design of digital anti-piracy policies. In this paper, we study the impact of these two enforcement settings (public vs. private) in the presence of an illegal non-monitored outside option for users. Taking account of market outcomes, we show that in both cases, the optimal strategies of ...

  12. Killing Barney Fife: Law Enforcements Socially Constructed Perception of Violence and its Influence on Police Militarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Ethnic Group Membership and Community Efficacy,” Crime & Delinquency 49, no. 4 (October 1, 2003): 2, doi:10.1177/0011128703254418. 164 Randall Monger...and Community Efficacy.” Crime & Delinquency 49, no. 4 (October 1, 2003): 564–80. doi:10.1177/00111 28703254418. Doyle, Charles, and Jennifer Elsea...militarization reform without a clear understanding of the issue could negatively impact law enforcement’s ability to respond to emerging threats from

  13. Assessing the concordance between illicit drug laws on the books and drug law enforcement: Comparison of three states on the continuum from "decriminalised" to "punitive".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belackova, Vendula; Ritter, Alison; Shanahan, Marian; Hughes, Caitlin E

    2017-03-01

    Variations in drug laws, as well as variations in enforcement practice, exist across jurisdictions. This study explored the feasibility of categorising drug laws "on the books" in terms of their punitiveness, and the extent of their concordance with "laws in practice" in a cross-national comparison. "Law on the books", classified with respect to both cannabis and other drug offences in the Czech Republic, NSW (AU) and Florida (USA) were analysed in order to establish an ordinal relationship between the three states. Indicators to assess the "laws in practice" covered both police (arrests) and court (sentencing) activity between 2002 and 2013. Parametric and non-parametric tests of equality of means, tests of stationarity and correlation analysis were used to examine the concordance between the ordinal categorisation of "laws on the books" and "laws in practice", as well as trends over time. The Czech Republic had the most lenient drug laws; Florida had the most punitive and NSW was in-between. Examining the indicators of "laws in practice", we found that the population adjusted number of individuals sentenced to prison ranked across the three states was concordant with categorisation of "laws on the books", but the average sentence length and percentage of court cases sentenced to prison were not. Also, the de jure decriminalisation of drug possession in the Czech Republic yielded a far greater share of administrative offenses than the de facto decriminalisation of cannabis use / possession in NSW. Finally, the mean value of most "laws in practice" indicators changed significantly over time although the "laws on the books" didn't change. While some indicators of "laws in practice" were concordant with the ordinal categorisation of drug laws, several indicators of "laws in practice" appeared to operate independently from the drug laws as stated. This has significant implications for drug policy analysis and means that research should not assume they are

  14. Firearm Prevalence and Homicides of Law Enforcement Officers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Molly M.; Dominici, Francesca; Hemenway, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In the United States, state firearm ownership has been correlated with homicide rates. More than 90% of homicides of law enforcement officers (LEOs) are committed with firearms. We examined the relationship between state firearm ownership rates and LEO occupational homicide rates. Methods. We obtained the number LEOs killed from 1996 to 2010 from a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) database. We calculated homicide rates per state as the number of officers killed per number of LEOs per state, obtained from another FBI database. We obtained the mean household firearm ownership for each state from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Results. Using Poisson regression and controlling for factors known to affect homicide rates, we associated firearm ownership with the homicide rates for LEOs (incidence rate ratio = 1.044; P = .005); our results were supported by cross-sectional and longitudinal sensitivity analyses. LEO homicide rates were 3 times higher in states with high firearm ownership compared with states with low firearm ownership. Conclusions. High public gun ownership is a risk for occupational mortality for LEOs in the United States. States could consider methods for reducing firearm ownership as a way to reduce occupational deaths of LEOs. PMID:26270316

  15. Variations in adrenal hormones in law enforcement servicemen during a mission to local armed conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Victorovich Koubassov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we reported changes in the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and cortisol secretion in blood samples from law enforcement personnel during the mission to local armed conflict region. In the present study, we demonstrate those changes collectively with additional data on changes in the adrenaline and noradrenaline in the urine samples of the same individuals. The study was conducted on 48 male officers who were deployed to an army conflict teritory for a duration of 4 months.At the onset of the mission, there was a modestincreasein all hormones corresponding to the general adaptation syndrome theory. As the mission started, significant increases were observed in the mean levels of the hormonal parameters in both serum and urine at different time points as compared to those before the mission. At first week of deployment, a sharp increase in the secretory activity of medulla and cortical adrenal gland was found and at the termination of the mission a dysfunction of hypophysis-adrenal gland regulation system was identified. These findings might lead to disturbances in interhormonal relationships and causedecreased stress tolerance in the relevant individals.

  16. Law enforcers recognition level emerging threats based on physical appearance and behavior signs the enemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Radzievskiy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: examine the effectiveness of the training method of differential approach to the choice of means of influence on the action of law enforcers opponent with different levels of aggressiveness. Material : the experiment involved 15 students of the Kyiv National Academy of Internal Affairs and the 15 employees of the State Guard of Ukraine. Results : presented curriculum for special physical and tactical training. The program details the conceptual apparatus of THREATS and DANGERS manifestations of different levels of aggressiveness opponent (case analysis of its motor behavior. The study participants underwent 7 day course focused training. The basis of the course is an advanced theoretical base. The base is aimed at developing knowledge and skills of employees in determining the level of danger. Including threats from testing and modeling episodes of extreme situations the options cadets. Conclusions : In the simulated collision situations with aggressive opponent to the students significantly improved the adequacy of the response to the threat of execution time and within the legal grounds. Recognition was determined by the level of aggressiveness manifest manners enemy, his emotions, motivation, motor behavior, positional arrangement for 2 - 3 seconds. The program contributed to the development of qualities: attention, orientation, perception, motor lead.

  17. Microcantilever technology for law enforcement and anti-terrorism applications: chemical, biological, and explosive material detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. D.; Rogers, B.; Whitten, R.

    2005-05-01

    The remarkable sensitivity, compactness, low cost, low power-consumption, scalability, and versatility of microcantilever sensors make this technology among the most promising solutions for detection of chemical and biological agents, as well as explosives. The University of Nevada, Reno, and Nevada Nanotech Systems, Inc (NNTS) are currently developing a microcantilever-based detection system that will measure trace concentrations of explosives, toxic chemicals, and biological agents in air. A baseline sensor unit design that includes the sensor array, electronics, power supply and air handling has been created and preliminary demonstrations of the microcantilever platform have been conducted. The envisioned device would measure about two cubic inches, run on a small watch battery and cost a few hundred dollars. The device could be operated by untrained law enforcement personnel. Microcantilever-based devices could be used to "sniff out" illegal and/or hazardous chemical and biological agents in high traffic public areas, or be packaged as a compact, low-power system used to monitor cargo in shipping containers. Among the best detectors for such applications at present is the dog, an animal which is expensive, requires significant training and can only be made to work for limited time periods. The public is already accustomed to explosives and metal detection systems in airports and other public venues, making the integration of the proposed device into such security protocols straightforward.

  18. Respiratory and cardiovascular response during electronic control device (ECD exposure in law enforcement trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. VanMeenen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Law enforcement represents a large population of workers who may be exposed to electronic control devices (ECDs. Little is known about the potential effect of exposure to these devices on respiration or cardiovascular response during current discharge. Methods: Participants (N=23 were trainees exposed to 5 seconds of an ECD (Taser X26® as a component of training. Trainees were asked to volitionally inhale during exposure. Respiratory recordings involved a continuous waveform recorded throughout the session including during the exposure period. Heart rate was calculated from a continuous pulse oximetry recording. Results: The exposure period resulted in the cessation of normal breathing patterns in all participants and in particular a decrease in inspiratory activity. No significant changes in heart rate during ECD exposure were found. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine breathing patterns during ECD exposure with the resolution to detect changes over this discrete period of time. In contrast to reports suggesting respiration is unaffected by ECDs, present evidence suggests that voluntary inspiration is severely compromised. There is no evidence of cardiac disruption during ECD exposure.

  19. Seattle's Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD): Program effects on recidivism outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan E; Lonczak, Heather S; Clifasefi, Seema L

    2017-10-01

    Drug users and dealers frequently cycle through the criminal justice system in what is sometimes referred to as a "revolving door." Arrest, incarceration and prosecution have not deterred this recidivism. Seattle's Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) program was established to divert these individuals to case management and supportive services instead of jail and prosecution. A nonrandomized controlled evaluation was conducted to examine LEAD effects on criminal recidivism (i.e., arrests, criminal charges). The sample included 318 people suspected of low-level drug and prostitution activity in downtown Seattle: 203 received LEAD, and 115 experienced the system-as-usual control condition. Analyses were conducted using logistic generalized estimating equation models over both the shorter term (i.e., six months prior and subsequent to evaluation entry) and longer term (i.e., two years prior to the LEAD start date through July 2014). Compared to controls, LEAD participants had 60% lower odds of arrest during the six months subsequent to evaluation entry; and both a 58% lower odds of arrest and 39% lower odds of being charged with a felony over the longer term. These statistically significant differences in arrests and felony charges for LEAD versus control participants indicated positive effects of the LEAD program on recidivism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Managing Law Enforcement Presence in the Emergency Department: Highlighting the Need for New Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahouni, Morsal R; Liscord, Emory; Mowafi, Hani

    2015-10-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) is the portal of entry to the health care system for a large percentage of patients. This is especially true for victims and perpetrators of interpersonal violence. Frequently, law enforcement personnel (LEP) accompany patients to the ED or seek access to patients during their ED stay or subsequent hospitalization. The time-sensitive nature of both emergency care and criminal investigation motivates both health care personnel and LEP, and can lead to potential conflicts of interest regarding access to patients in the ED. We hope to examine the relationship among patients, providers, and LEP in the ED, and the potential impact these interactions have on patient care. This article presents a review of the relevant literature and policy consideration as well as provides guidance on the development of such policies for EDs. Hospitals, EDs, and trauma resuscitation rooms are highly regulated environments, but LEP largely fall outside the ethical and institutional guidelines of health care institutions. Many potential areas of conflict exist when LEP are present in the ED that can have detrimental effects on patient care, provider liability, and LEP efficacy. Patients' perceptions of collaboration between ED personnel and LEP can compromise emergency patient care. There is a need for hospital policies to govern interactions among patients, emergency health care providers, and LEP in the ED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The enforcement regulation for the law for radiation technicians engaging in medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The ordinance is set up under the provisions of the law concerning radiation and x-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment, to enforce it. An application for the license of such a technician shall be filed according to the form prescribed, attached with a copy or an abstract of the census register of the applicant and a medical certificate of a doctor concerning whether the applicant is an insane, deaf or blind person, or a case of epidemic. The membership registration of such a technician shall include the number and date of the registration, the prefecture of his legal domicile, name birth date and sex distinction, the year and month of his success in the examination for such technicains, the items concerning the cancellation of the license or the suspension of the business, etc. The subjects of the examination for such technicians are physics, radiological physics, electrical engineering, chemistry, general basic medical science, radiological biology, photographing technology, treatment technics and others. An application for the examination for such technicians shall be filed to the Minister of Health and Welfare, attached with a personal history, a study certificate or a diploma of graduation, a photograph of the applicant and other specified documents. (Kubozono, M.)

  2. Firearm Prevalence and Homicides of Law Enforcement Officers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Simmons, Molly M; Dominici, Francesca; Hemenway, David

    2015-10-01

    In the United States, state firearm ownership has been correlated with homicide rates. More than 90% of homicides of law enforcement officers (LEOs) are committed with firearms. We examined the relationship between state firearm ownership rates and LEO occupational homicide rates. We obtained the number LEOs killed from 1996 to 2010 from a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) database. We calculated homicide rates per state as the number of officers killed per number of LEOs per state, obtained from another FBI database. We obtained the mean household firearm ownership for each state from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Using Poisson regression and controlling for factors known to affect homicide rates, we associated firearm ownership with the homicide rates for LEOs (incidence rate ratio = 1.044; P = .005); our results were supported by cross-sectional and longitudinal sensitivity analyses. LEO homicide rates were 3 times higher in states with high firearm ownership compared with states with low firearm ownership. High public gun ownership is a risk for occupational mortality for LEOs in the United States. States could consider methods for reducing firearm ownership as a way to reduce occupational deaths of LEOs.

  3. Factors Influencing the Capacity of Anticorruption Law Enforcement Bodies in South East European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor ALISTAR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a regional perspective regarding the independence of judiciary system, based on the magistrates’ perception. Taking into consideration that the independence of judiciary is a concept which has to be not only guaranteed by constitutional and statutory provisions, but mostly perceived as a functional reality, the present article analyses the factors which influence the capacity to act efficiently of the judicial structures in South East European countries. The article is presenting ones of explanation for low capacity to fight corruption in this region of Europe. The analyse is built on a sociological survey conducted in nine countries from the standpoint of the hierarchical relationships and of the guarantees of operational and professional independence, legislative framework, resources as well as the relationship between justice and the society. The data used in this articles provided by the study “Integrity and resistance to corruption of the law enforcement bodies in South East European countries”. The concluding remarks are based on questionnaires sent out to judges and prosecutors and emphasis cultural, managerial and functional aspects of judicial system, exposed by magistrates themself.

  4. 25 CFR 12.55 - Are there any limits on how much force an officer can use when performing law enforcement duties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are there any limits on how much force an officer can use when performing law enforcement duties? 12.55 Section 12.55 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Conduct § 12.55 Are there any limits on how much force an officer can use when...

  5. The Paradox of Fiction and Terrorism’s Overshadowing of Organised Crime as a Law Enforcement Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Prunckun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In light of criticism by political commentators and law enforcement experts about counterterrorism overshadowing the investigation of other forms of serious crime—in particular, organised crime—this study explored whether the use of intelligence-led policing would be better directed towards all serious crime, rather than prioritising terrorism. An expert jury comprising twelve subject/practitioner specialists were surveyed. The study used a purposive sampling technique to gauge the jury’s views on the current policy priorities, with the options being counterterrorism to serious crime, and the value of intelligence in policing regarding these offences. The findings, though not conclusive, provide compelling support for the hypotheses. That is, the results of a decision-tree analysis showed that intelligence-led law enforcement could provide approximately 2.1 times the utility over the current approach.

  6. Exploring the role of the internet in juvenile prostitution cases coming to the attention of law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Melissa; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ji, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory analysis examines the role of the Internet in juvenile prostitution cases coming to the attention of law enforcement. The National Juvenile Prostitution Study (N-JPS) collected information from a national sample of law enforcement agencies about the characteristics of juvenile prostitution cases. In comparison to non-Internet juvenile prostitution cases, Internet juvenile prostitution cases involved younger juveniles and police were more likely to treat juveniles as victims rather than offenders. In addition, these cases were significantly more likely to involve a family or acquaintance exploiter. This analysis suggests that the role of the Internet may impact legal and social service response to juveniles involved in prostitution. In addition, it highlights the need for interventions that acknowledge the vulnerabilities of youth involved in this type of commercial sexual exploitation.

  7. A Paradigm Shift in Law Enforcement Training in the Bahamas: Teacher-Centered to Learner-Centered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining whether the learning preference of law enforcement officers in the Bahamas was either pedagogical (teacher-centered or andragogical (student-centered. Law enforcement personnel in a Bahamian police department were administered the Student Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ developed by Christian (1982. One hundred and sixty-eight individuals completed the SOQ. Chi square statistics were calculated on the variables of educational level and gender. The preferred learning orientation was primarily andragogical; those with higher education levels tended to have a higher andragogical orientation. There were no differences by gender. As a result of the findings, a three-step approach is proposed to transition the training environment from one that is teacher-centered to one that is learner-centered

  8. Exposure to Violence During Ferguson Protests: Mental Health Effects for Law Enforcement and Community Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galovski, Tara E; Peterson, Zoë D; Beagley, Marin C; Strasshofer, David R; Held, Philip; Fletcher, Thomas D

    2016-08-01

    There is little information available on the mental health effects of exposure to shared community violence such as the August 2014 violence that occurred in Ferguson, Missouri. This study sought to examine the relationship between proximity to community violence and mental health in both community members and police officers. We recruited 565 adults (community, n = 304, and police, n = 261) exposed to the violence in Ferguson to complete measures of proximity to violence, posttraumatic stress, depression, and anger. Using structural equation modeling, we assessed aspects of proximity to violence-connectedness, direct exposure, fear from exposure, media exposure, reactions to media, and life interruption-as correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, and anger. The final model yielded (n = 432), χ(2) (d = 12) = 7.4, p = .830; comparative fit index = 1.0, root mean square error of approximation = 0 [0, .04]. All aspects of proximity except direct exposure were associated with mental health outcomes. There was no moderation as a function of community versus police. Race moderated the relationship between life interruptions and negative outcomes; interruption was related to distress for White, but not Black community members. Based on group comparisons, community members reported more symptoms of PTSD and depression than law enforcement (ηp (2) = .06 and .02, respectively). Black community members reported more PTSD and depression than White community members (ηp (2) = .05 and .02, respectively). Overall, distress was high, and mental health interventions are likely indicated for some individuals exposed to the Ferguson events. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. [Evaluation methods in the work/stress correlations in law enforcement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavital, Nicola; Garbarino, Sergio; Siegrist, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Stress in police: assessment methods. Police work is unanimously considered stressful. Prevention of stress in police is of the utmost importance, as a distressed officer could be hazardous for third parties. There is scientific evidence that the relationship between occupational stressors and their psychological and physical consequences can be described by Karasek's demand-control-support (DCS) model and the effort / reward imbalance (ERI) model of Siegrist. This study summarizes the results of surveys conducted using the DCS and ERI questionnaires.on police officers from the VI Mobile Unit of Genoa who were engaged in public order management at the G8 summit in L'Aquila in 2009. In spite of the high alert due to expected threats to public order during the G8 meeting, police officers were not affected by "distress". When the policemen were compared to other categories of workers, their stress levels were in the lowest range. In most cases, the personality profile of these workers did not differ substantially from that of the general population. There was an association between personality and stress response. The levels of perceived stress were significantly associated with absence from work. The prevalence of mental disorders in police officers was significantly lower than that of the general population. Occupational stress was associated with indicators of depression, anxiety and burnout. The DCS and ERI models yielded complementary results and proved to be effective in assessing the effects of stress in law enforcement. The extent of perceived stress does not directly depend on external events, but on the way in which these are handled: routine work may be more stressful than a single critical event. Special police forces are particularly resilient to stress, partly due to the characteristics and personality of individual officers, but mainly on account of their training. Occupational stress is associated with a lower level of psychological well-being and an

  10. Advanced shortwave infrared and Raman hyperspectral sensors for homeland security and law enforcement operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueva, Oksana; Nelson, Matthew P.; Gardner, Charles W.; Gomer, Nathaniel R.

    2015-05-01

    Proliferation of chemical and explosive threats as well as illicit drugs continues to be an escalating danger to civilian and military personnel. Conventional means of detecting and identifying hazardous materials often require the use of reagents and/or physical sampling, which is a time-consuming, costly and often dangerous process. Stand-off detection allows the operator to detect threat residues from a safer distance minimizing danger to people and equipment. Current fielded technologies for standoff detection of chemical and explosive threats are challenged by low area search rates, poor targeting efficiency, lack of sensitivity and specificity or use of costly and potentially unsafe equipment such as lasers. A demand exists for stand-off systems that are fast, safe, reliable and user-friendly. To address this need, ChemImage Sensor Systems™ (CISS) has developed reagent-less, non-contact, non-destructive sensors for the real-time detection of hazardous materials based on widefield shortwave infrared (SWIR) and Raman hyperspectral imaging (HSI). Hyperspectral imaging enables automated target detection displayed in the form of image making result analysis intuitive and user-friendly. Application of the CISS' SWIR-HSI and Raman sensing technologies to Homeland Security and Law Enforcement for standoff detection of homemade explosives and illicit drugs and their precursors in vehicle and personnel checkpoints is discussed. Sensing technologies include a portable, robot-mounted and standalone variants of the technology. Test data is shown that supports the use of SWIR and Raman HSI for explosive and drug screening at checkpoints as well as screening for explosives and drugs at suspected clandestine manufacturing facilities.

  11. Diagnostic overview of the illegal trade in primates and law enforcement in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanee, Noga; Mendoza, A Patricia; Shanee, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Peru has one of the richest primate faunas of any country. The illegal trade in wild primates is one of the largest threats to this fauna in Peru. We characterize the illegal trade in primates through empirical and ethnographic data. We collected data from traffic routes and centers throughout Peru and evaluate current efforts to combat this traffic. Based on our findings from 2,070 instances of wildlife crime involving 6,872 primates, we estimate the domestic trade in primates for pets and bushmeat in Peru in the hundreds of thousands per year, with the larger bodied Atelidae facing the highest direct consequences. We found that government authorities lack sufficient staff, capacity, resources, infrastructure, and protocols to efficiently combat illegal trade in primates. Also, the complicated legal framework and lack of cooperation and antagonism with the public further limit these efforts. Wildlife authorities in Peru are able to confiscate only a fraction of primates traded and mostly intervene in cases of private pet owners rather than traffickers. We estimate that the current rate of illegal trade in primates is comparable to levels of trade prior to the 1973 ban on primates' exportation. The combination of direct observations on primate trade and ethnographic data allows a comprehensive look at primate trade in Peru. We call upon decision makers and international funders to channel their efforts toward "on the ground" actions such as increasing the ability of the authorities to act, giving them "in action" training in law enforcement and establishing strict control measures against corruption. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22516, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Stimulating and Enhancing Partnerships Between Transplant Professionals and Law Enforcement: Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Alexander Morgan; Muller, Elmi; Erlich, Gilad; John, Manoj; Bienstock, Ric Esther; McCarren, Mark; Palmer, Robin; Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Siegel, Dina; Yankov, Jordan

    2016-02-01

    To help combat trafficking in human beings for organ removal (THBOR), transplant professionals need to do more than carry out careful, multidisciplinary screening of potential living donors; they also need to communicate and collaborate with law enforcement professionals. This will involve transplant professionals educating investigators and prosecutors about transplant practices and in turn learning about THBOR and how it is prosecuted. Cases of illegal organ transplantation need to be detected at different levels. First, the victims of the crime itself need to be identified, especially when they present themselves for screening. Physicians have a collective responsibility to prevent exploitation of people, including THBOR victims. The second level involves the more difficult matter of making reports that involve transplant tourists who have returned home after receipt of an organ and need follow-up care. Besides counseling patients prospectively about the legal as well as medical risks in receiving a vended organ in a foreign transplant center, physicians treating such patients could have an obligation to report what has happened, if the government has established a mechanism that either allows reporting THBOR that does not include the identity of the patient or that treats patients as victims provided they cooperate in investigation and prosecution of the persons responsible for obtaining or implanting the organs. The third level of cooperation involves transplant professionals who participate in THBOR. Professional societies need to undertake programs to make physicians and nurses aware that their responsibility to protect their professions' reputation includes identifying members of their professions who depart from professional ethics. Doing so allows the local professional societies and state boards to discipline such violators. All 3 of these functions would be facilitated by the creation by an international body such as World Health Organization of a

  13. Stimulating and Enhancing Partnerships Between Transplant Professionals and Law Enforcement: Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Alexander Morgan; Muller, Elmi; Erlich, Gilad; John, Manoj; Bienstock, Ric Esther; McCarren, Mark; Palmer, Robin; Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Siegel, Dina; Yankov, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To help combat trafficking in human beings for organ removal (THBOR), transplant professionals need to do more than carry out careful, multidisciplinary screening of potential living donors; they also need to communicate and collaborate with law enforcement professionals. This will involve transplant professionals educating investigators and prosecutors about transplant practices and in turn learning about THBOR and how it is prosecuted. Cases of illegal organ transplantation need to be detected at different levels. First, the victims of the crime itself need to be identified, especially when they present themselves for screening. Physicians have a collective responsibility to prevent exploitation of people, including THBOR victims. The second level involves the more difficult matter of making reports that involve transplant tourists who have returned home after receipt of an organ and need follow-up care. Besides counseling patients prospectively about the legal as well as medical risks in receiving a vended organ in a foreign transplant center, physicians treating such patients could have an obligation to report what has happened, if the government has established a mechanism that either allows reporting THBOR that does not include the identity of the patient or that treats patients as victims provided they cooperate in investigation and prosecution of the persons responsible for obtaining or implanting the organs. The third level of cooperation involves transplant professionals who participate in THBOR. Professional societies need to undertake programs to make physicians and nurses aware that their responsibility to protect their professions' reputation includes identifying members of their professions who depart from professional ethics. Doing so allows the local professional societies and state boards to discipline such violators. All 3 of these functions would be facilitated by the creation by an international body such as World Health Organization

  14. Enforcing Competition Rules in South Africa: Thieves at the Dinner ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Describing and analyzing competition law in South Africa, this book promotes a deeper understanding of the development of this foundational economic law within its specific national, social and economic context. Enforcing Competition Rules in South Africa draws strongly on case law and enforcement ...

  15. Public and Private Enforcement of European Private Law in the Financial Services Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, Olha O.

    2015-01-01

    Particularly in the wake of the global financial crisis, ensuring effective enforcement of the rules governing the relationship between financial institutions and their (potential) clients ranks high on the EU political agenda. Traditionally, such rules were enforced by civil courts at the

  16. Evaluation of Bulgarian needs for security of radioactive sources and training of law enforcement personnel through border exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    The creation and implementation of an adequate legal framework is important for eastern European countries in the field of combating organized crime, especially the illicit trafficking of radioactive materials, in these countries' efforts towards joining the European Union by adopting many legislative, economic and political frameworks for the combating of terrorism. The Republic of Bulgaria, as a PECO country in the phase of pre-adhesion to the European Union, is preparing its legislation and law enforcement institutions to meet the new challenges and tasks of the process of joining the European Union. One of the best ways to combat illicit trafficking is collaboration between neighbouring countries through connections between similar law enforcement bodies. The Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy in Bulgaria and the Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre in Turkey participated in a joint border exercise at the Kapi Kule checkpoint which provided a unique opportunity for law enforcement institutions and scientific experts to respond jointly in a simulated border incident with real nuclear materials. (author)

  17. Factors that influence attitude and enforcement of the smoke-free law in Turkey: a survey of hospitality venue owners and employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aherrera, Angela; Çarkoğlu, Asli; Hayran, Mutlu; Ergör, Gül; Eirüder, Toker; Kaplan, Bekir; Susan, Jolie; Zheng, Laura; Cohen, Joanna E; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-09-01

    In 2009, Turkey extended the smoke-free legislation to hospitality venues. Compliance, however, remains low in some hospitality venues. We identified characteristics associated with knowledge of health effects that can be prevented by the smoke-free law, the attitude towards and enforcement of the law. In 2014, we conducted 400 interviews with hospitality venue owners and employees in 7 cities in Turkey. The venues were identified based on a random sampling strategy in a previous phase of the study. Over one-third (37.3%) of hospitality owners and employees had adequate knowledge of the health effects from secondhand smoke (SHS), 71.3% had a positive attitude towards the law and 19.5% had personally enforced the law. Participants who worked 70 hours or more per week were more likely to have a positive attitude towards the law. Older individuals, women, participants working in bars/nightclubs, venue owners receiving fines for non-compliance and current smokers were less likely to have a positive attitude towards the law. Participants working in traditional coffee houses, former smokers, and participants with a high school education or greater were more likely to enforce the law. Smokers who quit or reduced smoking because of the law were more likely to enforce the law compared with those who were not influenced by the law. Although the attitude towards the law was positive, interventions are needed to increase knowledge on the health effects of SHS and facilitate enforcement of the law, particularly among subgroups less likely to have a positive attitude and enforce the law. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Grounds for refusal of enforcement of foreign commercial arbital awards in GCC states law

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Enazi, Mohamed Saud

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London This thesis posed the question whether foreign arbitral awards are enforced in accordance with the demands of the New York Convention in the UAE and Bahrain and moreover whether the conditions for enforcement compel the conclusion that these two nations are enforcement-friendly in the same manner as leading arbitral nations such as the UK, France, Hong-Kong and NYC. On the basis of l...

  19. Effectiveness of media and enforcement campaigns in increasing seat belt usage rates in a state with a secondary seat belt law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Vinod; Nambisan, Shashi S; Singh, Ashok K; Pearl, Traci

    2009-08-01

    In 2005, in terms of seat belt usage rates, Nevada ranked third nationally and first among states with secondary seat belt use enforcement laws in the United States. An effective combination of a media-based education and enforcement campaign helped in this regard. The objective of this article is to document the effectiveness of enforcement and media-based education and outreach campaigns on the seat belt usage rates in Nevada, a state with a secondary seat belt usage law. Observational data on seat belt usage and passenger fatality data are used to evaluate the effectiveness of enforcement campaigns and media-based education and outreach campaigns. Data based on observations of about 40,000 vehicles in each of the years 2003 to 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analyses show that a significant increase in seat belt usage rates among both drivers and passengers for both genders resulted from the accompanying the media and enforcement campaigns. The results from this study indicate that effective and well-planned media/enforcement campaigns can have a significant impact on seat belt usage rates even in a state where the enforcement of seat belt laws can only be as a secondary violation. They validate and expand on findings from other efforts documented in the literature. These results demonstrate that, if coordinated properly, media and enforcement campaigns work very effectively in increasing seat belt usage rates even in states with secondary seat belt laws.

  20. Countermeasures in the field of human factors in relation, to pedestrian behaviour, regulations, and law enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    Existing measures and theoretical studies on pedestrian behavior, regulations, and enforcement are reviewed. Specific consideration is given to: types of crossings; traffic signal effectiveness; bridges and subways; traffic training areas for children; characteristic movements of pedestrian

  1. The diversity of the EU approach to law enforcement: Towards a coherent model inspired by a law and economics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Faure (Michael); F. Weber (Franziska)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractTraditionally in the division of labor between the European level and the Member States it was, roughly, the European legislature that set the norms and the Member States that took care of enforcing these norms. In various policy areas, an implementation deficit has been observed, which

  2. Chronicle of administrative law enforcement in the energy market. Part 2; Kroniek bestuursrechtelijke handhaving op de energiemarkt. Deel 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Leeuwen, E.W.T.M. [Juridische Dienst, Nederlandse Mededingingsautoriteit NMa, Den Haag (Netherlands); De Rijke, M. [Bird and Bird LLP, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    In addition to the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa), the Netherlands Consumer Authority (CA) also regulates the energy market in the area of consumer rights. Both organizations will merge into the Consumer and Market Authority (ACM). This article provides an overview of the powers of the NMA and CA in relation to law enforcement as shaped by the various laws and law amendments. By means of settlement practices and the administration of justice, an overview is given of the main developments in law enforcement. In part 1, attention was paid to the enforcement instruments of both regulators with one instrument examined in more detail: the injunction. Part two addresses the order for penalty payment, the civil penalty and the modification and revocation of licenses and exemptions [Dutch] Naast de Nederlandse Mededingingsautoriteit (NMa) houdt ook de Consumentenautoriteit (CA) toezicht op de energiemarkt, voor zover het de belangen van consumenten betreft. Beide zullen per 1 januari 2013 opgaan in een nieuwe toezichthouder: de Autoriteit Consument en Markt (ACM). In dit artikel wordt een overzicht gegeven van de bevoegdheden NMa en CA met betrekking tot handhaving, zoals die door verschillende wetten en wetswijzigingen vorm hebben gekregen. Verder worden aan de hand van de beschikkingenpraktijk en de rechtspraak de belangrijkste ontwikkelingen en lijnen in de handhaving inzichtelijk gemaakt. In het tweede deel werd aandacht besteed aan het handhavingsinstrumentarium van beide toezichthouders en wordt ingegaan op 1 van de instrumenten: de bindende aanwijzing. In dit tweede deel zullen de last onder dwangsom, de bestuurlijke boete en de wijziging en intrekking van vergunningen en ontheffingen aan de orde komen.

  3. Understanding Gauss's Law Using Spreadsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the results from the electrostatics portion of introductory physics are particularly difficult for students to understand and/or believe. For students who have yet to take vector calculus, Gauss's law is far from obvious and may seem more difficult than Coulomb's. When these same students are told that the minimum potential…

  4. A safe haven for the injured? Urban trauma care at the intersection of healthcare, law enforcement, and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Sara F; Richmond, Therese S; Holena, Daniel N; Kaufman, Elinore J

    2018-02-01

    Patients with traumatic injuries often interact with police before and during hospitalization, particularly when their injuries are due to violence. People of color are at highest risk for violent injuries and have the poorest outcomes after injury. The purpose of this study was to describe how injured, Black patients perceived their interactions with police and what these perceptions reveal about police involvement within trauma care systems. We combined data from two qualitative studies to achieve this aim. The first was ethnographic fieldwork that followed Black trauma patients in the hospital through the physical and emotional aftermath of their injuries. The second was a qualitative, descriptive study of how patients experienced trauma resuscitation in the emergency department (ED). Both studies were conducted between 2012 and 2015 at the Trauma Center at Penn, an academic medical center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. The present study includes data from 24 adult, Black participants undergoing treatment for injury. We reanalyzed all interview data related to law enforcement encounters from the scene of injury through inpatient hospitalization and coded data using a constant comparative technique from grounded theory. Participants described law enforcement encounters at the scene of injury and during transport to the hospital, in the ED, and over the course of inpatient care. Injured participants valued police officers' involvement when they perceived that officers provided safety at the scene, speed of transport to the hospital, or support and information after injury. Injured participants also found police questioning to be stressful and, at times, disrespectful or conflicting with clinical care. Communities, trauma centers, and professional societies have the opportunity to enact policies that standardize law enforcement access in trauma centers and balance patients' health, privacy, and legal rights with public safety needs. Copyright

  5. Russian space meets western business practices: Understanding the law in the petroleum sector in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Goes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the relationship between the private international oil company (IOC Royal Dutch Shell and Russia as an oil producing and oil exporting state during a period when oil prices were moving towards unforeseen heights (2005-2007. By examining this dynamic relationship, this study aims to contribute to an understanding of Russia’s discursive and culturally produced history. The history of a state-oil company interaction has shown that the use of legal instruments is a good indicator to determine the nature of the relationship between oil-producing states and IOCs – a relationship that often has been characterized by periods of cooperation or conflict.At the centre of inquiry is how the oil major understands the law in Russia, and in particular the enforcement of the country’s formal written rules during legal conflicts over the development of the Sakhalin-II oil and gas fields (in which Shell until December 2006 controlled a majority stake. After identifying the violations of formal laws, I conclude that Shell understands that the formal rules of the game are subordinate to the unwritten laws of energy politics and in particular the informal demands of contemporary Russian society. The article also illustrates that oil-producing states have the upper hand in conflicts over the development of oil and gas resources.

  6. 77 FR 64819 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Office of Law Enforcement/Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ...This notice announces that the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has forwarded the new Information Collection Request (ICR) abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA). The ICR describes the nature of the information collection and its expected burden. TSA published a Federal Register notice, with a 60-day comment period soliciting comments, of the following collection of information on June 20, 2012, 77 FR 37062. The collection involves the reimbursement of expenses incurred by airport operators for the provision of law enforcement officers (LEOs) to support airport security checkpoint screening.

  7. 75 FR 78268 - Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ...In an effort to obtain comments from interested parties, the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice (NIJ) will make available to the general public the draft ``NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement, Corrections, and Public Safety.'' The opportunity to provide comments on this document is open to industry technical representatives, criminal justice agencies and organizations, research, development and scientific communities, and all other stakeholders and interested parties. Those individuals wishing to obtain and provide comments on the draft document under consideration are directed to the following Web site: http://www.justnet.org.

  8. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Secretion Changes among the Law Enforcement Personnel during the Mission to the Areas of Armed Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Koubassov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol changes among law enforcement personnel during mission to the areas of armed conflicts were studied. At the beginning of the mission an increase of all hormones was detected, which corresponded to basic points of general adaptation syndrome theory. A further investigation revealed an imbalance of hormonal secretions in the hypophysis-adrenal system. Such an imbalance can lead to disregulation of interhormonal relations and can be a factor in decreasing the organism’s stress resistance.

  9. On How to Strengthen the Network Police's Law Enforcement Capacity Building%论如何加强网络警察执法能力建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of the network so that the network has become a necessity of life, there have been a large number of the corresponding network illegal was that cybercrime. Internet police as a new kind of police in recent years, with the main duties and responsibilities in the daily management of the network against cyber crimes. Due to the rapid development of the network, people familiar with the network, especially law enforcement personnel not only un-derstands technology but also the police service network are scarce, the overall capacity of the network of police enfor-cement has also been severely affected. From the law enforcement capacity of the network status of the police, law en-forcement capacity to analyze the causes weakening, and then put forward reasonable suggestions in team building, per-sonnel training, professional ethics.%网络的迅猛发展使网络成为人们生活的必需品,相应也出现了大量的网络违法为以至于网络犯罪。网络警察作为我国近年来的新兴警种,在网络日常管理和打击网络违法犯罪中具有主要的职务责任。由于网络的快速发展,熟悉网络的人才特别是既懂网络技术又有警务业务的执法人员稀缺,网络警察的整体的执法能力也受到严重的影响。本文从网络警察的执法能力的现状,分析执法能力削弱的成因,进而提出在团队建设、人才培养、职业道德方面提出相应的合理建议。

  10. Tax Law Enforcement Sebagai Upaya Optimalisasi Penerimaan Pajak Negara Ditinjau Melalui Tingkat Kepatuhan Wajib Pajak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Martian Fajar

    2016-03-01

    mengalami peningkatan. Selama kurun waktu tersebut, 105 kasus telah dinyatakan lengkap oleh kejaksaan (P-21 dan 85 di antaranya telah divonis di pengadilan dengan total putusan denda pidana berkisar Rp. 4,36 triliun. Pada tahun 2008 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 10.682.099, pada tahun 2009 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 15.911.576, pada tahun 2010 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 19.112.590, pada tahun 2011 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 22.319.073, dan pada tahun 2012 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 24.812.569. Dapat diketahui bahwa jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar pada setiap tahunnya mengalami kenaikan. Selama 4 tahun terakhir (2010-2013 terjadi peningkatan jumlah penyampaian SPT Tahunan PPh walaupun secara persentase rasio kepatuhan terjadi penurunan di tahun 2011 dan 2012 dibandingkan dengan tahun 2010. Realisasi penerimaan pajak masih jauh dari optimal. Dalam hal ini pemerintah perlu melakukan kontrol yang memadai dalam pemerataan terhadap daerah dan seluruh lapisan masyarakat demi meningkatkan dan menggali potensi pajak yang seharusnya masih dapat diterima oleh masyarakat   Kata Kunci :    Tax Law Enforcement, Kepatuhan Wajib Pajak, Penerimaan Pajak

  11. Error-Avoidance Theory: Sniper Employment for Military and Civilian Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    carnage that was in progress. Huberty had shot and killed innocent people both inside and outside the fast food restaurant. The atmosphere in this...enforcement officers and decisions of the McDonald’s franchise under severe scrutiny, the media painted a negative picture of them both, implying that

  12. Enforcing consumer rights through ADR at the detriment of consumer law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, M.B.M.

    2016-01-01

    Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is seen by the European legislator as a key instrument for the enforcement of consumer rights. To further ADR, the EU has adopted the ADR Directive, which was to be implemented by the Member States by 9 July 2015. This article shows that the Directive has

  13. Abusing Loopholes in the Legal System - Efficiency Considerations of Differentiated Law Enforcement Approaches in Misleading Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Weber (Franziska)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Misleading advertisements, such as for ring tones, being a typical example of an unfair commercial practice have over the past years caused substantial harm to European consumers and society. This is particularly so because in many cases the enforcement response given

  14. Law enforcement and the project of descent of the symbolic order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldacy Rachid Coutinho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the registration of the symbolic force of the law, regardless the verification of their effectiveness. The labor law reveals in his regulatory frameworks the correlation of forces of capital and labor in society and thus is exemplary for establishing the existence of laws that have no effect in changing the reality. The recognition that the state creates laws that are not observed and that it is not intended to be fulfilled, does not put away the presence of the authority by violence that establish a symbolic order.

  15. Synthetic Cannabinoid and Mitragynine Exposure of Law Enforcement Agents During the Raid of an Illegal Laboratory - Nevada, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, Loren; Ramsey, Jessica G; Wen, Anita; Gerona, Roy

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), commonly known by the street name "Spice," are designer drugs of abuse that mimic the psychoactive effects of marijuana. Intentional SC use has resulted in multiple toxicities (1,2), but little is known about occupational SC exposure. After a federal agency's law enforcement personnel in Nevada reported irritability and feeling "high" after raiding illegal SC laboratories and processing seized SCs, a request for a health hazard evaluation was made by the agency to CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 2014 to evaluate agents' occupational SC exposures. After making the request for a health hazard evaluation, federal agents conducted a raid of an illegal SC laboratory, with assistance from local law enforcement and Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) personnel and with NIOSH investigators observing from a distance. After the raid, agents collected and processed material evidence. NIOSH investigators tested agents' urine for SC levels before and after the raid and measured SCs in the air and on surfaces after the raid. DEA determined that AB-PINACA (an SC compound) and mitragynine (a plant material with opium-like effects, also known as "kratom") were present in the illegal laboratory. AB-PINACA, its metabolites, and mitragynine were not detected in agents' urine before the raid; however, one or more of these substances was found in the urine of six of nine agents after the raid and processing of the SC evidence. AB-PINACA was detected in one surface wipe sample from the SC laboratory; none was detected in the air in the laboratory or in the offices of the law enforcement agency where the materials were processed after the raid. No policies were in place regarding work practices and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during raids and evidence processing. To protect agents from SC exposures, NIOSH recommended that the agency require agents to wear a minimum level of PPE (e.g., protective gloves

  16. The Application of Chinese High-Spatial Remote Sensing Satellite Image in Land Law Enforcement Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Yang, R.

    2018-04-01

    Chinese high -resolution (HR) remote sensing satellites have made huge leap in the past decade. Commercial satellite datasets, such as GF-1, GF-2 and ZY-3 images, the panchromatic images (PAN) resolution of them are 2 m, 1 m and 2.1 m and the multispectral images (MS) resolution are 8 m, 4 m, 5.8 m respectively have been emerged in recent years. Chinese HR satellite imagery has been free downloaded for public welfare purposes using. Local government began to employ more professional technician to improve traditional land management technology. This paper focused on analysing the actual requirements of the applications in government land law enforcement in Guangxi Autonomous Region. 66 counties in Guangxi Autonomous Region were selected for illegal land utilization spot extraction with fusion Chinese HR images. The procedure contains: A. Defines illegal land utilization spot type. B. Data collection, GF-1, GF-2, and ZY-3 datasets were acquired in the first half year of 2016 and other auxiliary data were collected in 2015. C. Batch process, HR images were collected for batch preprocessing through ENVI/IDL tool. D. Illegal land utilization spot extraction by visual interpretation. E. Obtaining attribute data with ArcGIS Geoprocessor (GP) model. F. Thematic mapping and surveying. Through analysing 42 counties results, law enforcement officials found 1092 illegal land using spots and 16 suspicious illegal mining spots. The results show that Chinese HR satellite images have great potential for feature information extraction and the processing procedure appears robust.

  17. Black and blue: Exploring racial bias and law enforcement in the killings of unarmed black male civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alison V; Hall, Erika V; Perry, Jamie L

    2016-04-01

    In late 2014, a series of highly publicized police killings of unarmed Black male civilians in the United States prompted large-scale social turmoil. In the current review, we dissect the psychological antecedents of these killings and explain how the nature of police work may attract officers with distinct characteristics that may make them especially well-primed for negative interactions with Black male civilians. We use media reports to contextualize the precipitating events of the social unrest as we ground our explanations in theory and empirical research from social psychology and industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology. To isolate some of the key mechanisms at play, we disentangle racial bias (e.g., stereotyping processes) from common characteristics of law enforcement agents (e.g., social dominance orientation), while also addressing the interaction between racial bias and policing. By separating the moving parts of the phenomenon, we provide a more fine-grained analysis of the factors that may have contributed to the killings. In doing so, we endeavor to more effectively identify and develop solutions to eradicate excessive use of force during interactions between "Black" (unarmed Black male civilians) and "Blue" (law enforcement). (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Department of Energy (DOE) transportation system for nuclear materials and the role of state law enforcement agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.M.; Hoover, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy has been assigned the responsibility for the safe and secure movement of strategic quantities of government-owned special nuclear material as well as classified material. To accomplish this mission, a transportation system has been developed which takes advantage of advanced technology and other features to reduce vulnerability to terrorists. The system consists of a careful balance of specially-trained personnel, procedures and sophisticated equipment. These, in combination, generally allow the system to be self-sufficient. However, should the need arise, DOE will request assistance from state law enforcement agencies. The primary contact for assistance is the state police or highway patrol. DOE, with the assistance of Sandia Laboratories, has surveyed state police agencies throughout the nation. A data base has been created which includes the results of these surveys and a numerical description of DOE transportation routes. This data base, along with a ''Response'' model developed by Sandia Laboratories, allows projections of officer availability to be made for all of DOE's routes. This paper will describe the DOE Transportation System, the role of state law enforcement agencies in support of the system, the nationwide state policy survey, and the operation of the response computer model

  19. Tobacco outlet density, retailer cigarette sales without ID checks and enforcement of underage tobacco laws: associations with youths' cigarette smoking and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B; Mair, Christina

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the relationships of tobacco outlet density, cigarette sales without ID checks and local enforcement of underage tobacco laws with youth's life-time cigarette smoking, perceived availability of tobacco and perceived enforcement of underage tobacco laws and changes over time. The study involved: (a) three annual telephone surveys, (b) two annual purchase surveys in 2000 tobacco outlets and (c) interviews with key informants from local law enforcement agencies. Analyses were multi-level models (city, individual, time). A sample of 50 mid-sized non-contiguous cities in California, USA. A total of 1478 youths (aged 13-16 at wave 1, 52.2% male); 1061 participated in all waves. Measures at the individual level included life-time cigarette smoking, perceived availability and perceived enforcement. City-level measures included tobacco outlet density, cigarette sales without ID checks and compliance checks. Outlet density was associated positively with life-time smoking [OR = 1.12, P Sales rate without checking IDs was related to greater perceived availability (β = 0.01, P sales without ID checks and enforcement levels may influence beliefs about access to cigarettes and enforcement of underage tobacco sales laws. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Terrorism and information sharing between the intelligence and law enforcement communities in the US and the Netherlands: emergency criminal law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. E. Vervaele

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence sharing between intelligence and police services with a view to preventing and combating terrorism is high on the political agenda in Brussels and The Hague. The Netherlands is one of the few countries in the EU where this topic is subject of political scrutiny. It also led to controversial case law. Recently, Justice Minister Donner has used an expedited procedure to submit a legislative proposal concerning shielded witnesses. This Bill raises many questions, that concern, amongst others, the discretion of intelligence services to determine which information will be provided for use in criminal proceedings and the relationship between this discretionary power and the connected legal duty of secrecy on the one hand and the rights of the defence to test and question that information on the other. Furthermore, questions raise regarding the evidentiary quality of this information. The proposed rules also influence the legitimacy of criminal law and the position of the criminal courts. What effect does the paradigm of security-orientated thinking have on the historical connection between criminal law and the rule of law? This issue is also addressed in this article.

  1. The order for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes, and the former ordinance No. 14, 1958, is hereby totally amended. Radioisotopes under the law are the isotopes which emit radiation, and of which the concentration exceeds the levels defined by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency, their compounds or the substances containing these compounds, excluding those defined in the atomic energy act and other particular laws. The apparatuses fitted with radioisotopes under the law are electron capture detectors for gas chromatography. The radiation emitting installations under the law are cyclotron, synchrotron, synchro-cyclotron, linear accelerator, betatron, Van de Graaff accelerator, Cockcroft-Walton's accelerator, etc. The permission of usage under the law shall be obtained for each works or enterprise. Persons who intend to get the permission shall file the application for them attaching the documents describing expected period of usage and other papers specified by the Director General. The total quantity of radioisotopes sealed tightly for each works or enterprise under the law shall be 100 milli-curie. The design of apparatus for the prevention of radiation injuries, the capacities of storage facilities regularly inspected, the period of regular inspection, the confirmation of transport and disposal and fees to be paid, etc. are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  2. SINE DIE SUSPENSION OF LAW ENFORCEMENT - REASON FOR THE CESSATION OF ITS EXISTENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Arsenie-Scarlat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The successive suspensions of aid payments from 2011 and to date, as provided by the framework Law 284/2010- Annex ,7 for uniform pay, amended, section 3, have caused serious damage to property observance, as guaranteed by Art. 1 of Protocol no. 1, additional to the European Convention on Human Rights. ”Invoking the country's economic and financial situation by the legislator, in order to restrict the exercise of a fundamental right springing from a law that is still in force, is not sufficient, but that restriction must meet all the requirements specified in Art. 53 of the Constituti on”. The rules that have the effect of "sine die" suspending the rights of former employees, now retired, restrict and limit forcedly their rights guaranteed by law and cannot be considered democratic measures, as long as successive suspensions can affect the very existence of the law. Research methods used: direct documenting through case studies from personal law practice and not only, as well as from primary and secondary bibliographic documentation. Results and implications of the study: the impact of these rules that defer the payment of aids to former employees is significant, in that they bring material losses, but also that it violates the constitutional principle of the rule of law. Sue petitions pending lawsuit in courts have been formulated, whereby admitting the application of these rights and compelling former employers to pay the ”aids” given by the law, and largely the courts upheld these claims.

  3. Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding and Model of Understanding about Newton's Laws of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul; Devecioglu, Yasemin

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the level of student teachers' understandings of Newton's laws of motion and relating these levels to identify student teachers' models of understanding. An achievement test composed of two parts comprising 12 open ended questions was constructed and given to 45 pre-service classroom teachers. The first part…

  4. Arrests for child pornography production: data at two time points from a national sample of U.S. law enforcement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Jones, Lisa M

    2011-08-01

    This study collected information on arrests for child pornography (CP) production at two points (2000-2001 and 2006) from a national sample of more than 2,500 law enforcement agencies. In addition to providing descriptive data about an understudied crime, the authors examined whether trends in arrests suggested increasing CP production, shifts in victim populations, and challenges to law enforcement. Arrests for CP production more than doubled from an estimated 402 in 2000-2001 to an estimated 859 in 2006. Findings suggest the increase was related to increased law enforcement activity rather than to growth in the population of CP producers. Adolescent victims increased, but there was no increase in the proportion of arrest cases involving very young victims or violent images. Producers distributed images in 23% of arrest cases, a proportion that did not change over time. This suggests that much CP production may be primarily for private use. Proactive law enforcement operations increased, as did other features consistent with a robust law enforcement response.

  5. A test bed for investigating and evaluating the use of biometric-encoded driver licenses and their impact on law enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Richard A.; Hludik, Frank; Crowley, Todd A.; Vidacic, Dragan; Stetson, Barrett; Nadel, Lawrence D.; Nichols, Linda J.; Harris, Carol

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a collaborative effort between the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and the Mitretek Systems (MTS) Center for Criminal Justice Technology (CCJT). Mitretek conducted an investigation into the impact of anticipated biometrically encoded driver licenses (DLs) on law enforcement. As part of this activity, Mitretek teamed with UNH to leverage the results of UNH's Project54 and develop a pilot Driver License Interoperability Test Bed to explore both implementation and operational aspects associated with reading and authenticating biometrically encoded DLs in law enforcement scenarios. The test bed enables the exploration of new methods, techniques (both hardware and software), and standards in a structured fashion. Spearheaded by the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and the International Committee for Information Technology Standards Technical Group M1 (INCITS-M1) initiatives, standards involving both DLs and biometrics, respectively, are evolving at a rapid pace. In order to ensure that the proposed standards will provide for interstate interoperability and proper functionality for the law enforcement community, it is critical to investigate the implementation and deployment issues surrounding biometrically encoded DLs. The test bed described in this paper addresses this and will provide valuable feedback to the standards organizations, the states, and law enforcement officials with respect to implementation and functional issues that are exposed through exploration of actual test systems. The knowledge gained was incorporated into a report prepared by MTS to describe the anticipated impact of biometrically encoded DLs on law enforcement practice.

  6. 43 CFR 422.10 - Requirements for authorizing officers to exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... domestic violence, preventing him/her from possessing a firearm in compliance with section 658 of Public... orientation session developed by Reclamation to become familiar with Federal laws and procedures and with all...

  7. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The enforcement order provides for grants concerning the arrangement of various public facilities in the areas surrounding a power generating facility; the public facilities in the arrangement for which the grants are given include communication, recreation activities, environmental sanitation, culture, medicine, etc. The prefectural governor concerned submits his plan for the arrangement to the Government, which then decides on the grants. Then, the grants are given to local governments concerned. The sums of the grants are determined on the basis of the output, construction cost of the nuclear power facility. (Mori, K.)

  8. Analysis of the psychometric characteristics of the experimental psychological methods for examination of the law enforcement officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Omelyanovich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. As a number of local documents requires continuous improvement of psychodiagnostic work, one of the main activities of the Internal Affairs Agencies psychiatric service is an active clinical examination, the timely detection of law enforcement officers employees with neuropsychological instability, tendency to aggression and other forms of deviant behavior. Methods. The aim of the study was the selection of additional experimental psychological techniques to conduct psychological examinations of law enforcement officers.  As on objective of a study evaluation of reliability, validity and discriminative level of psychological tests has been chosen. The object of study was a group of the randomly selected representatives of almost all the major police professions, consisting of 348 respondents of the male gender in the age from 21 to 48 years old. Given the fact that the screening psychological evaluation of law enforcement officers during periodic psychiatric examinations is usually carried out under time constraints and the urgency to form an opinion immediately after the end of testing, nonprojective psychological techniques have been chosen for testing. These techniques, according to the scientific literature, proved their effectiveness and, in addition, are characterized by a small volume of questions and simplicity (largely - the dichotomous scales. Moreover, it does not require a lot of time to handle them: a methodology «Aggressive behavior» (E. P Ilyin, P. O. Kovalev, 2001, the test «Аnxiety-Rigidity- Extravertebral» (D. Moudsli, 2002, the test «IPC-Fragebogen» (H. Levenson, 1986, the test is «MS PTSD» (NM Keane, 2001. Results. Tests reliability was investigated by determining the consistency of their results by calculating the L. Cronbach’s coefficient α and Guttman method of splitting in half; discriminative level was determined by calculating the ratio; construct validity was investigated by the exploratory

  9. Gender-associated analysis of high-risk groups for mental health problems in law-enforcement officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Omelyanovich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mental disorders prevention in specific professional groups is impossible without scientifically substantiated allocation of groups with increased neuropsychiatric and psychosomatic disorders risk. This fact indicates the need to study the gender, age and professional characteristics in law enforcement workers who already have problems with psychological adaptation. Methods and materials. The study involved 1630 law enforcement officers (1,301 men and 329 women who were evaluated with the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R. As the statistical methods were used the partial regression calculation coefficient η2, cohort calculation risk measures, φ*-total Fischer transformation method, and single-factor dispersion Fisher's analysis. Results. According to gender characteristics, the problems with psychological adaptation in men were significantly less pronounced than in women (φ*=1.79; p=0.37. These data were confirmed by the cohort calculation and risk measures results: men – 0.261, women – 0.349 (the psychological disadaptation risk in women was 1.3 times higher than men. There weren’t any statistically significant age differences between the representatives of both gender groups with psychological adaptation disturbances and healthy ones (φ* ≤1.19; p≥0.1. Among patients who suffered from psychosomatic diseases, were men over the age of 35 (φ* ≥2.28; p≤0.0001 and women over 26 years old (φ*= 2.16; p=0.014 prevailed. There were significantly fewer people among men with psychosomatic illnesses with 4-9 years of professional working experience than in a healthy group. On the contrary, there were significantly more patients in a law enforcement workers group with 10-15 years working experience than in the healthy one (φ*>1.73; p<0.0001. Conclusion. The risk of mental health problems in female police officers is much higher than in men. Disadaptation development is not related to the age and length of working

  10. The order for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The radioactive isotopes stipulated in Item 2, Article 2 of the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radisotopes (hereinafter referred to as the Law) are the isotopes emitting radiation, their compounds, and those containing these isotopes or compounds. The radiation-generating apparatuses in Item 3, Article 2 of the Law are cyclotron, synchrotron, synchrocyclotron, linear accelerator, betatron, Van de Graaff accelerator, Cockcroft Walton accelerator, the apparatuses generating radiation by accelerating charged particles, which are designated by the Director of the Science and Technology Agency as necessary for preventing radiation injuries. Those who want to use, sell or dispose of radioactive isotopes should file applications for approval or notices with required documents. The approval should be obtained for each factory or place of business. The amount of completely sealed radioactive isotopes specified by the cabinet order stipulated in Item 1, Article 3-2 of the Law is 100 m curie per factory or place of business. Those who are going to change the approved items of the use, sale or disposal of radioactive isotopes should file applications. The amount of radioactive isotopes specified by the cabinet order stipulated in Item 5, Article 10 of the Law is 10 curies. Controlled areas, facilities for using, refilling, and storing isotopes, refilling and disposing wastes should meet the stipulated standards. (Rikitake, Y.)

  11. The order for enforcing the law on indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The states to be specified by the cabinet order stipulated in Item 2, Article 3 to the Law on Indemmity Agreement for Compensation of Nuclear Damage (hereinafter referred to as the Law) are the states meeting the following requirements. There are no violation of the stipulations according to the specified articles of the Law for the Regulation of Nuclear Source Materials, Nuclear Fuel Materials and Reactors, no damage of the facilities provided for the operation of reactors and others, and no natural calamity or no action of third parties which become the causes for the occurrence of nuclear damage. The nuclear damage to be specified according to the cabinet order stipulated in No. 5, Article 3 of the Law is the one caused by tidal waves. The indemnification rate stipulated in Article 6 of the Law to be decided by the cabinet order is 5/10000 (and 2.5/10000 regarding the indemnification contract with universities or colleges). Atomic energy entrepreneurs should notify the specified items to the Government with reference to the indemnification contracts concerning the operation of reactors, fabrication, reprocessing, use and transportation of nuclear fuel materials or matters contaminated by nuclear fuel materials

  12. ENFORCED DISAPPEARANCE OF PERSONS UNDER INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW: THE CASE “GUERRILHA DO ARAGUAIA” IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Pires Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The case “Guerrilha do Araguaia” is well known in Brazil in the view of the disappearances of opponents to the military regime occurred between 1972 and 1974, in the region known as Araguaia. Despite the efforts made by the families of the victims to seek responsibility and redress, few progress has been done. In 1995, Brazil recognized its responsibilities for the deaths and established a Commission to provide compensation to the families of the victims. The Amnesty Law prevented the State to initiate the criminal proceedings related to the responsibilities of those involved in the disappearances, torture and killings. On December 2010, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights decided that Brazil is responsible for the enforced disappearances in the Araguaia's region and, following its previous jurisprudence, determined that the State initiate adequate investigation and criminal proceedings related to the facts that amount to crimes against the humanity. In the view of the determination of criminal responsibilities on the “Guerrilha do Araguaia”'s case, this article will examine the grounds of criminal liability of the alleged offenders under the international criminal law as well as under the Brazilian domestic law, analysing the limitations that arise from both jurisdictions.

  13. A Descriptive Analysis of Tactical Casualty Care Interventions Performed by Law Enforcement Personnel in the State of Wisconsin, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Chad M; Cook, Christopher; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    2017-06-01

    Introduction Based upon military experience, law enforcement has developed guidelines for medical care during high-threat conditions. The purpose of the current study was to provide a descriptive analysis of reported outcomes of law enforcement medical interventions. This was a descriptive analysis of a convenience sample of cases submitted to the Wisconsin Tactical Medicine Initiative (Wisconsin USA), after the provision of successful patient care, between January 2010 and December 2015. The study was reviewed by the Mayo Foundation Institutional Review Board (Rochester, Minnesota USA) and deemed exempt. Nineteen agencies submitted information during the study period. Of the 56 episodes of care reported, four (7.1%) cases involved care provided to injured officers while 52 (92.9%) involved care to injured civilians, including suspects. In at least two cases, on-going threats existed during the provision of medical care to an injured civilian. Law enforcement rendered care prior to Emergency Medical Services (EMS) arrival in all but two cases. The current case series demonstrates the life-saving potential for law enforcement personnel trained and equipped under current Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC)/ Committee on Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (C-TECC) tactical casualty care guidelines. Although originally developed to save the lives of wounded combat personnel, in the civilian sector, the training appears more likely to save victims rather than law enforcement personnel. Stiles CM , Cook C , Sztajnkrycer MD . A descriptive analysis of tactical casualty care interventions performed by law enforcement personnel in the State of Wisconsin, 2010-2015. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):284-288.

  14. State of enforcement of the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radio-isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    In view of the recent advance of radiation utilization in many fields, the situation as of the end of fiscal 1976 under the law is described. The statistics on the number of enterprises concerning radioisotope usage, sales and waste-treatment are first given. Then, the measures taken by the Science and Technology Agency to improve radiation hazard prevention are explained, and cooperation with other governmental offices, efforts by the enterprises, steps taken for the enterprises of nondestructive testing, hospitals, universities, etc., and restudy on the law are described. (Mori, K.)

  15. Massachusetts State Police Special Tactical Operations Team User Focus Group Report - Law Enforcement Advanced Protection (LEAP) Duty Uniforms, Integrated Head Protection, Chemical/Biological Protection and Human Systems Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creighton, II, Thomas E; Hibbard, Bradley; Doherty, Stephen; McManus, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    ...) from representatives within the law enforcement community. This focus group consisted exclusively of personnel assigned to the Massachusetts State Police Special Tactical Operations (STOP) Team...

  16. The Association Between Law Enforcement Encounters and Syringe Sharing Among IDUs on Skid Row: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Freeman, Rebecca; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.

    2013-01-01

    The legal environment is one factor that influences injection drug users' (IDUs) risk for HIV and other bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis C virus (HCV). We examined the association between law enforcement encounters (i.e., arrests and citations) and receptive syringe sharing among IDUs in the context of an intensified policing effort. We conducted a mixed methods analysis of 30 qualitative and 187 quantitative interviews with IDUs accessing services at a Los Angeles, CA syringe exchange program from 2008 to 2009. Qualitative findings illustrate concerns related to visibility, drug withdrawal, and previous history of arrest/incarceration. In quantitative analysis, the number of citations received, current homelessness, and perceiving that being arrested would be a “big problem” were independently associated with recent syringe sharing. Findings illustrate some of the unintended public health consequences associated with intensified street-level policing, including risk for HIV and HCV transmission. PMID:23620243

  17. The order for enforcing the law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The cabinet ordinance is established under the law concerning the indemnification for atomic energy damages. The matters stipulated by the ordinance in the law include the following matters: the operation of reactors; the processing of nuclear fuel materials, such as uranium 235, specified uranium and its compounds, plutonium and its compounds, etc.; reprocessing; the employment of such nuclear fuel materials; the transportation, storage and disposal of such materials, particular spent fuels and the things contaminated by nuclear fuel materials, which occur according to the operation of reactors and other practices above mentioned. The amounts of indemnification are respectively 10 billion yen for the operation of reactors whose thermal outputs are more than 10,000 kilowatts and reprocessing, 2 billion yen for the operation of reactors whose thermal outputs are more than 100 kilowatts and less than 10,000 kilowatts and the transportation of spent fuel accompanying the operation of reactors or reprocessing, 200 million yen for the operation of reactors whose thermal outputs are less than 100 kilowatts, and the processing and employment of nuclear fuel materials, the transportation of nuclear fuel materials accompanying the operation of reactors, and the processing, reprocessing and employment of nuclear fuel materials. The payment of casualty indemnification includes that according to the provisions of the government official casualty indemnification law and that due to official causes under the provisions of the seamen insurance law. (Okada, K.)

  18. Impact of Implementing a Primary Enforcement Seat Belt Law in Florida : A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    On June 30, 2009, Florida implemented a primary seat belt law. The State was already engaged in a Rural : Demonstration Program (RDP) to increase belt usage in rural areas in the northern part of the State and participated : regularly in annual Click...

  19. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the redevelopment of the surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Persons who install power generating facilities under the law include general electric power enterprises and wholesale electric power enterprises defined under the electric enterprises act and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of these facilities defined under the law is 350,000 kilo-watts output for atomic and thermal power generating facilities, 10,000 kilo-watts output for the facilities utilizing geothermal energy, 100,000 kilo-watts output for facilities whose main fuel is coal, and 1,000 kilo-watts output for hydraulic power generating facilities, etc. The facilities closely related to atomic power generation include the reprocessing and examination facilities of fuel materials spent in atomic power reactors, the reactors installed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for studying on the safety of atomic power reactors, the experimental fast reactors and the uranium enrichment facilities established by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The public facilities in this rule are those for communication, sport and recreation, environment hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Governors of prefectures who intend to get approval under the law shall file redevelopment plans to the competent minister through the Minister of the International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  20. Protocol: mixed-methods study to evaluate implementation, enforcement, and outcomes of U.S. state laws intended to curb high-risk opioid prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Caleb Alexander, G; Barry, Colleen L; Bicket, Mark C; Rutkow, Lainie

    2018-02-26

    The U.S. opioid epidemic has been driven by the high volume of opioids prescribed by healthcare providers. U.S. states have recently enacted four types of laws designed to curb high-risk prescribing practices, such as high-dose and long-term opioid prescribing, associated with opioid-related mortality: (1) mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) enrollment laws, which require prescribers to enroll in their state's PDMP, an electronic database of patients' controlled substance prescriptions, (2) mandatory PDMP query laws, which require prescribers to query the PDMP prior to prescribing an opioid, (3) opioid prescribing cap laws, which limit the dose and/or duration of opioid prescriptions, and (4) pill mill laws, which strictly regulate pain clinics to prevent nonmedical opioid prescribing. Some pain experts have expressed concern that these laws could negatively affect pain management among patients with chronic non-cancer pain. This paper describes the protocol for a mixed-methods study analyzing the independent effects of these four types of laws on opioid prescribing patterns and chronic non-cancer pain treatment, accounting for variation in implementation and enforcement of laws across states. Many states have enacted multiple opioid prescribing laws at or around the same time. To overcome this issue, our study focuses on 18 treatment states that each enacted a single law of interest, and no other potentially confounding laws, over a 4-year period (2 years pre-/post-law). Qualitative interviews with key leaders in each of the 18 treatment states will characterize the timing, scope, and strength of each state law's implementation and enforcement. This information will inform the design and interpretation of synthetic control models analyzing the effects of each of the two types of laws on two sets of outcomes: measures of (1) high-risk opioid prescribing and (2) non-opioid treatments for chronic non-cancer pain. Study of mandatory PDMP enrollment

  1. Reducing stigma in healthcare and law enforcement: a novel approach to service provision for street level sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, Kate; Delahunty-Pike, Alannah; O'Shea, Tim

    2015-04-09

    Providing services for street level sex workers requires a multidisciplinary approach, addressing both health and safety concerns typical of their age and gender and those that arise specific to their line of work. Despite being a diverse population, studies have identified some specific health needs for sex workers including addictions treatment, mental health. Additionally, studies have shown a higher risk of physical and sexual assault for this population. The Persons at Risk program (PAR) in London, Ontario, Canada was started in 2005 to address the specific needs of street level sex workers by using a harm-reduction model for policing and healthcare provision. This qualitative study evaluated this model of care in terms of improving access to healthcare and essential police services for street level sex workers. A total of 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted with current and former female street level sex workers enrolled in the PAR program. In addition, 3 semi-structured interviews were conducted with health and law enforcement professionals. The research team then analyzed and coded the transcripts using qualitative description to identify key themes in the data. Results indicated that participants represent a vulnerable population with increased safety concerns and healthcare needs relating to addictions, mental health and infectious disease. Despite this, participants reported avoiding healthcare workers and police officers in the past because of fear of stigma or repercussions. All participants identified the harm reduction approach of the PAR program as being essential to their continued engagement with the program. Other important aspects included flexible hours, the location of the clinic, streamlined access to mental health and addictions treatment and the female gender of the police and healthcare worker. The PAR program provides sex workers access to much needed primary healthcare that is flexible and without judgment. In addition, they are

  2. Law Enforcement Agency Defibrillation (LEA-D): proceedings of the National Center for Early Defibrillation Police AED Issues Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosesso, Vincent N; Newman, Mary M; Ornato, Joseph P; Paris, Paul M; Andersen, Leon; Brinsfield, Kathryn; Dunnavant, Gregory R; Frederick, Jay; Groh, William J; Johnston, Steven; Lerner, E Brooke; Murphy, George P; Myerburg, Robert J; Rosenberg, Donald G; Savino, Mitchell; Sayre, Michael R; Sciammarella, Joseph; Schoen, Valerie; Vargo, Philip; van Alem, Anouk; White, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    Why does LEA-D intervention seem to work in some systems but not others? Panelists agreed that some factors that delay rapid access to treatment, such as long travel distances in rural areas, may represent insurmountable barriers. Other factors, however, may be addressed more readily. These include: absence of a medical response culture, discomfort with the role of medical intervention, insecurity with the use of medical devices, a lack of proactive medical direction, infrequent refresher training, and dependence on EMS intervention. Panelists agreed that successful LEA-D programs possess ten key attributes (Table 6). In the end, the goal remains "early" defibrillation, not "police" defibrillation. It does not matter whether the rescuer wears a blue uniform--or any uniform, for that matter--so long as the defibrillator reaches the victim quickly. If LEA personnel routinely arrive at medical emergencies after other emergency responders or after 8 minutes have elapsed from the time of collapse, an LEA-D program will be unlikely to provide added value. Similarly, if police frequently arrive first, but the department is unwilling or unable to cultivate the attributes of successful LEA-D programs, efforts to improve survival may not be realized. In most communities, however, LEA-D programs have tremendous lifesaving potential and are well worth the investment of time and resources. Law enforcement agencies considering adoption of AED programs should review the frequency with which police arrive first at medical emergencies and LEA response intervals to determine whether AED programs might help improve survival in their communities. It is time for law enforcement agency defibrillation to become the rule, not the exception.

  3. Occupational Homicides of Law Enforcement Officers, 2003-2013: Data From the National Violent Death Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Janet M; Fowler, Katherine A; Betz, Carter J; Baumgardner, Jason L

    2016-11-01

    Law enforcement officers (LEOs) in the U.S. are at an increased risk for homicide. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of homicides of LEOs in 17 U.S. states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System. This active surveillance system uses data from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, and law enforcement reports. This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze National Violent Death Reporting System data for 2003-2013. Deaths of LEOs feloniously killed in the line of duty were selected for analysis. LEO homicides and the circumstances preceding or occurring during the incident were characterized. Analyses were conducted October 2015-June 2016. A total of 128 officer homicides from 121 incidents were identified. Most (93.7%) LEO victims were male, 60.9% were aged 30-49 years (average age, 40.9 years). Approximately 21.9% of LEOs were killed during an ambush, and 19.5% were killed during traffic stops or pursuits. Of the 14.1% of LEOs killed responding to domestic disturbances, most disturbances were intimate partner violence related. More than half (57.0%) of homicides were precipitated by another crime, and of these, 71.2% involved crimes in progress. Most suspects were male. Ninety-one percent of homicides of LEOs were committed with a firearm. This information is critical to help describe encounter situations faced by LEOs. The results of this study can be used to help educate and train LEOs on hazards, inform prevention efforts designed to promote LEO safety, and prevent homicide among this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Bridging a historical gap: can changes in perceptions of law enforcement and social deterrence accelerate the prevention of drunk driving in low and middle-income countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Pechansky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The dangers of driving while under the influence of alcohol/drugs (DWI have been well established. Many countries have successfully reduced the incidence of DWI through effective law enforcement. We aim to explore the links between how law enforcement is perceived in cultures with different socioeconomic indicators. Our hypothesis is that social norms around definitions of what constitutes “right” vs. “deviant” behavior related to DWI directly contribute to the mode and success of law enforcement. Methods: Road safety professionals from six countries with different levels of DWI rates and enforcement strategies were interviewed regarding the expected local response to a case vignette. Sociodemographic, mortality, and economic indicators for each of these countries were extracted from different sources. Results: The professionals interviewed described a continuum ranging from unequivocal enforcement and punishment (Australia and Norway to inconsistent enforcement and punishment with the presence of many legal loopholes (Mexico and Brazil. For the six countries, no apparent correlation was identified purely between alcohol consumption and road traffic mortality. However, there seems to be a correlation between the time period of initial DWI legislation and current gross national income, perceptions of local safety, satisfaction with the local environment, and trust in the national government. Higher levels of these scores are seen in nations in which DWI laws were implemented prior to the 1960s. Conclusion: Better performing countries seem to have achieved a level of societal agreement that DWI is deviant, generating social stigma against DWI that allows legislation to be enforced. Lessons learned from these countries could help developing countries reduce morbidity and mortality associated with DWI.

  5. Bridging a historical gap: can changes in perceptions of law enforcement and social deterrence accelerate the prevention of drunk driving in low and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechansky, Flavio; Chandran, Aruna; Sousa, Tanara

    2016-01-01

    The dangers of driving while under the influence of alcohol/drugs (DWI) have been well established. Many countries have successfully reduced the incidence of DWI through effective law enforcement. We aim to explore the links between how law enforcement is perceived in cultures with different socioeconomic indicators. Our hypothesis is that social norms around definitions of what constitutes "right" vs. "deviant" behavior related to DWI directly contribute to the mode and success of law enforcement. Road safety professionals from six countries with different levels of DWI rates and enforcement strategies were interviewed regarding the expected local response to a case vignette. Sociodemographic, mortality, and economic indicators for each of these countries were extracted from different sources. The professionals interviewed described a continuum ranging from unequivocal enforcement and punishment (Australia and Norway) to inconsistent enforcement and punishment with the presence of many legal loopholes (Mexico and Brazil). For the six countries, no apparent correlation was identified purely between alcohol consumption and road traffic mortality. However, there seems to be a correlation between the time period of initial DWI legislation and current gross national income, perceptions of local safety, satisfaction with the local environment, and trust in the national government. Higher levels of these scores are seen in nations in which DWI laws were implemented prior to the 1960s. Better performing countries seem to have achieved a level of societal agreement that DWI is deviant, generating social stigma against DWI that allows legislation to be enforced. Lessons learned from these countries could help developing countries reduce morbidity and mortality associated with DWI.

  6. Lodhi 5 Properties Investments CC v FirstRand Bank Limited [2015] 3 All SA 32 (SCA and the Enforcement of Islamic Banking Law in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maphuti David Tuba

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available On 22 May 2015, the Supreme Court of Appeal (SCA handed down a judgment in the matter of Lodhi 5 Properties Investments CC v FirstRand Bank Limited [2015] 3 All SA 32 (SCA. This judgement considered whether the prohibition against the charging of interest on a loan in terms of Islamic law (Sharia law may be a defence for a claim for mora interest in terms of a loan agreement. This note critically discusses the judgment in the light of the approach adopted by the SCA with regard to addressing a dispute arising from a contract that has Islamic law as a governing law. As this is the first case to come before the SCA in South Africa, this note critically analyses how the court discussed the principles of Islamic law as applicable to the dispute between the parties. In particular, it questions the court's assertion that a claim for mora interest has nothing to do with and is not affected by the Sharia law's prohibition against payment of interest on a loan debt. It also looks at the SCA's approach (as a common law court with regard to the enforcement of the principles of Islamic banking law. The judgment raises important issues regarding the enforceability of Islamic finance law and therefore merits discussion in the context of the continuing growth and expansion of Islamic banking and finance law in South Africa.

  7. Tomorrow’s Handgun: Ensuring the Right Gun for All Military Law Enforcement Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY TOMORROW’S HANDGUN: ENSURING THE RIGHT GUN FOR ALL MILITARY LAW... gun manufacturers carefully design and deliver products to meet the needs of their potential owners. Additionally, many professionals require...fields make up some of the largest populations of gun owners, in the United States, and handgun manufacturers support them with specifically designed

  8. Diseases of worker in a peruvian company law enforcement safety and health at work

    OpenAIRE

    Henry L. Allpas Gómez; Oswaldo Rodriguez Ramos; Jackelynne L. Lezama Rojas; Omar Raraz Vida

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the most common diseases, according the workplace. Material and Methods: The research was descriptive, prospective, exploratory and cross-sectional. It was made at a factory in Lima, which was in the process of application to the law Safety and Health at Work. According to the selection criteria, 121 workers were admitted, which took part of the medical examination, and a file card for medical occupational data was applied. The descriptive statistical analys...

  9. The order for enforcing the law on indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The cabinet ordinance is established under the provisions of the law concerning atomic energy damage indemnification contract. The damage indemnifications in this law cover the occasions when there is not the cause for atomic energy damages due to the violation of the specified provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors, the failures of operation facilities for reactors and natural calamity or the deed of a third party. The rate of indemnification fees is stipulated at 5/10,000. An enterpriser of atomic energy business shall inform the following matters to the government concerning the indemnification contracts. The objects of operation of reactors; the types, thermal output and number of reactors; the names and addresses of works or places of business where reactors are set up; the locations, structures and equipments of reactor facilities; beginning dates and expected ending dates of the operation on reactors; the kinds and estimated quantities of use in a year of nuclear fuel materials employed for reactors; the methods of disposal of spent fuels and the matters concerning liability insurance contracts. The matters to be reported to the government are specified respectively for the indemnification contracts for the processing, reprocessing, use, transport and disposal of nuclear fuel materials. The payment of indemnification fees and indemnities, the cancellation of indemnification contracts and the fines for default are particularly defined. (Okada, K.)

  10. Who actually receives cell phone use while driving citations and how much are these laws enforced among states? A descriptive, cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudisill, Toni M; Zhu, Motao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives While numerous cell phone use while driving laws have been passed among states, little information exists regarding who gets cited for these traffic infractions and how much these laws are enforced at the state-level within the USA. Design Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Setting 14 states and the District of Columbia. Participants Those receiving cell phone use while driving citations within included states from 2007 to 2013. Primary outcome Demographic characteristics of cited...

  11. Issues of qualification of bribe giving and mediation in bribery in the modern law-enforcement practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr S. Sentsov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the problems existing in the modern law enforcement practice related to the implementation of criminallegal norms stipulated in Article 291 and 2911 of the Russian Criminal Code hereinafter CC of RF to offer the authorsrsquo proposals for their solution including the improvement of these norms and their implementation practices in order to strengthen the bribery counteraction. Methods along with the general dialectic method of scientific cognition other general scientific methods were used induction deduction analysis and synthesis as well as specific scientific formallegal comparative legal sociological content analysis methods. Results on the basis of a critical analysis of the current edition of the regulations as stipulated in Articles 291 and 2911 of the Russian Criminal Code and the modern practice of their application solutions are proposed to several complex problems arising in the classification of these crimes. In particular it is proposed to change the disposition of part 1 of Article 2911 of the Criminal Code deleting the indication of the bribe size. Thenbspnecessity is shown to change part 5 of Article 2921 of the Russian Criminal Code reducing the maximal penalty. Scientific novelty in the work on the basis of the analysis of modern law enforcement practice typical mistakes are considered made by investigators and the courts in applying Article 291 and 2911 of the CC of RF and with this in mind suggestions and recommendations are proposed aimed at improving the efficiency of criminallegal impact on the mentioned crimes. Practical significance the opinions and findings of the authors formulated in the article can be useful in lawmaking activity in preparing relevant draft laws on amendments and additions in the CC of RF when adjusting individual interpretations contained in the decisions decrees of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation as well as in the activities of legal practitioners especially in the

  12. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Order is based on the prescriptions of the Law for the Arrangement of Surrounding Areas of Power Generating Facilities. Those establishing power generating facilities are general and wholesale electric enterprisers provided for by the Electricity Enterprises Act as well as the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The generating capacity is specified as 350,000 kilowatts for nuclear and steam power generating facilities, 150,000 kilowatts for those set up by the Corporation, 100,000 kilowatts for those using coal as main fuel, and 10,000 kilowatts for water power generation and geothermal plants. The facilities closely connected to nuclear power generation include the reprocessing facilities and test and examination facilities for nuclear fuel materials used for power-generating nuclear reactors, reactors used for the research on the safety of power generating reactors, and experimental reactors for fast breeder reactors. The public facilities consist of communication facilities, and the facilities for sports and recreations, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Prefectural governors ought to file the arrangement plans to the competent minister through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission prescribed by the Law. The subsidy is not granted to the expenses of the enterprises undertaken by the nation or those enterprises, a part of the expenses of which is borne or subsidized by the nation. (Okada, K.)

  13. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The order is defined under the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Establishers of power generating facilities shall be hereunder general electric enterprisers, wholesale electric enterprisers and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of power generating facilities provided by the order is 350,000 kilo-watts for atomic and steam power generation and 5,000 kilo-watts for hydroelectric power. Equipment closely related to atomic power generation shall include facilities for reprocessing and examination of nuclear fuel materials spent for power generating reactors, reactors used for research of the safety of power generating reactors, experimental fast breeding reactors and experimental uranium enrichment facilities. Requisites for the extent of industrial accumulation are that the area belongs to those self-governing bodies whose industrial accumulation is more than the 8th degree. Public facilities specified are those for communication, sports or recreation, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting and heat supplying, etc. Governors of the prefectures shall file arrangement programs to the Minister in charge through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission stipulated by the law. Subsidies shall not be paid to those enterprises which are executed by the government or a part of the expenses is born or supported by it. (Okada, K.)

  14. Towards a National Gang Strategy: A Meta-Policy Analysis of Leadership, Learning, and Organizational Change within the Law Enforcement Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Maurice V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the process of change within law enforcement, focusing on the leadership, learning, and organizational change required to reduce crime, violence, and social disruption caused by criminal street gangs. The study tests the viability, results, and implications of a new policing model, the trans-jurisdictional task force, through…

  15. 41 CFR 102-36.365 - May we transfer or donate canines that have been used in the performance of law enforcement duties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May we transfer or donate canines that have been used in the performance of law enforcement duties? 102-36.365 Section 102-36.365 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL...

  16. An Examination of the Presence of Andragogy in Paramilitary Law Enforcement Recruit Academies on the Eastern Seaboard of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    Law enforcement officers are entrusted with the most sacred of responsibilities, that of protecting and serving the community, safeguarding their property, and protecting the innocent from those who wish to do them harm or cause disorder. In preparation for this challenge, every police officer must undergo and successfully complete a police…

  17. Enforcement of mandatory third party access based on antitrust law; Zwangsdurchleitung mittels Kartellrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markert, K. [Bundeskartellamt, Berlin (Germany). 8. Beschlussabteilung

    1998-04-01

    Access of third parties to power transmission systems which up to now is governed in Germany by ownership rights will not run smoothly in future, although the general policy decision ended the dispute about the if, however leaving open aspects of the how. The problems arising in designing the how are currently displayed to the public by the disputes about conditions and model solutions reported from the telecommunications area, where deregulation is ahead of the developments in the energy sector. Obviously, the contention point is not technical feasibility of third party access, but the economic aspects and the conditions offered to competing suppliers depending on access to a transmission network. Hence it can be expected that there will be conflicts of interest that will have to be decided. The legal basis for conflict management is outlined in the recent amendment to the EnWG (German energy industry act), and jurisdiction will primarily rely on paragraph 6 of the act, referring to antitrust review. The contribution here gives an outline of the legal framework conditions governing enforcement of third party access to transmission systems in the future deregulated energy market. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Oeffnung bisher geschlossener Netze fuer Drittwettbewerber verlaeuft auch dann, wenn ueber das `Ob` kein Streit mehr besteht, nicht konfliktfrei. Dies wird zur Zeit dem deutschen Publikum im Bereich der Telekommunikation mit fast taeglich neuen Varianten vorgefuehrt. Es geht dabei offensichtlich nicht um die technische Machbarkeit der Drittnutzung, sondern um die wirtschaftlichen Konditionen fuer Konkurrenten, die fuer ihr Leistungsangebot auf den Zugang zum Netz angewiesen sind. Konflikte ueber die Bedingungen dieses Zugangs sind daher vorprogrammiert, und es stellt sich die Frage, nach welchen Regeln und durch welche Gremien oder Institutionen solche Konflikte entschieden werden sollen. Der Beitrag umreisst die rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen, die im neuen En

  18. The regulation for enforcing the law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The atomic energy entrepreneurs wishing to obtain the approval according to Item 1, Article 7 of the Law Concerning Indemnification of Nuclear Damage should file application (one original and one duplicate) describing the following items to the Director of the Science and Technology Agency: (1) in case of taking indemnification measures including the conclusion of responsibility insurance contracts and indemnification contracts, the particulars of the contracts including the sum of money involved, (2) in case of taking indemnification measures including deposit, the particulars of the deposit including the sum of money involved, and (3) in case of taking loss indemnification measures including the conclusion of responsibility insurance contracts and indemnification contracts or other measures than deposit, the particulars of such measures. (Rikitake, Y.)

  19. Biometrics and Policing: A Protocol for Multichannel Sensor Data Collection and Exploratory Analysis of Contextualized Psychophysiological Response During Law Enforcement Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furberg, Robert D; Taniguchi, Travis; Aagaard, Brian; Ortiz, Alexa M; Hegarty-Craver, Meghan; Gilchrist, Kristin H; Ridenour, Ty A

    2017-03-17

    Stress experienced by law enforcement officers is often extreme and is in many ways unique among professions. Although past research on officer stress is informative, it is limited, and most studies measure stress using self-report questionnaires or observational studies that have limited generalizability. We know of no research studies that have attempted to track direct physiological stress responses in high fidelity, especially within an operational police setting. The outcome of this project will have an impact on both practitioners and policing researchers. To do so, we will establish a capacity to obtain complex, multisensor data; process complex datasets; and establish the methods needed to conduct idiopathic clinical trials on behavioral interventions in similar contexts. The objective of this pilot study is to demonstrate the practicality and utility of wrist-worn biometric sensor-based research in a law enforcement agency. We will use nonprobability convenience-based sampling to recruit 2-3 participants from the police department in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Data collection was conducted in 2016. We will analyze data in early 2017 and disseminate our results via peer reviewed publications in late 2017. We developed the Biometrics & Policing Demonstration project to provide a proof of concept on collecting biometric data in a law enforcement setting. This effort will enable us to (1) address the regulatory approvals needed to collect data, including human participant considerations, (2) demonstrate the ability to use biometric tracking technology in a policing setting, (3) link biometric data to law enforcement data, and (4) explore project results for law enforcement policy and training. ©Robert D Furberg, Travis Taniguchi, Brian Aagaard, Alexa M Ortiz, Meghan Hegarty-Craver, Kristin H Gilchrist, Ty A Ridenour. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 17.03.2017.

  20. Measuring Black Men’s Police-Based Discrimination Experiences: Development and Validation of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Devin; Bowleg, Lisa; del Río-González, Ana Maria; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Agans, Robert; Malebranche, David J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men’s perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) scale. Methods In Study 1, we employed thematic analysis on transcripts of individual qualitative interviews with 90 Black men to assess key themes and concepts and develop quantitative items. In Study 2, we used 2 focus groups comprised of 5 Black men each (n=10), intensive cognitive interviewing with a separate sample of Black men (n=15), and piloting with another sample of Black men (n=13) to assess the ecological validity of the quantitative items. For study 3, we analyzed data from a sample of 633 Black men between the ages of 18 and 65 to test the factor structure of the PLE, as we all as its concurrent validity and convergent/discriminant validity. Results Qualitative analyses and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 5-item, 1-factor measure appropriately represented respondents’ experiences of police/law enforcement discrimination. As hypothesized, the PLE was positively associated with measures of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Preliminary evidence suggests that the PLE is a reliable and valid measure of Black men’s experiences of discrimination with police/law enforcement. PMID:28080104

  1. THE POSITION OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION BY CORPORATE : The Legal Studies of Implementation Paradigm Polluter Pay Principle in Environmental Law Enforcement in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Priyanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development activities is one of the government's efforts in order to realize a fairness and prosperous for the society. The natural resources management through the business activities carried out by the corporation, became one of the important factors in the success of national development. One of the impacts of development activities on the environment is the environmental pollution because of the utilization of natural resources. The pollution has caused a decrease in the quality of human life and other living creatures. Differences paradigm or way people view the polluter pays principle and the position of the responsibility of States to discredit the corporation still there is a difference of view and understanding. It is see from the practice of application of the Social and Environmental Responsibility (TJSL, which seems to have been removing corporate responsibility and involvement allocationof State budget revenue and expenditure of the State to penangulangan pollution, which performed by the corporation. This has led to uncertainty in the law enforcement environment in Indonesia. This study aimed to describe the problem from the legal aspect and theory in relation to the position of state responsibility and corporate environmental pollution in the environmental legal system. This study uses normative juridical approach, through the method of approach to legislation, the conceptual approach, and an analytical approach. The scope of this normative juridical research includes the study of the principles and theory of law. Paradigm reform of the principles of pollution should be change or reform based on theory of law, whereby the position and extent of responsibility of states and corporations definitely be regulated in the Indonesia environmental legal system.

  2. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP) aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam) chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important steps. However, a much higher

  3. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mukta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important

  4. Diseases of worker in a peruvian company law enforcement safety and health at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry L. Allpas Gómez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the most common diseases, according the workplace. Material and Methods: The research was descriptive, prospective, exploratory and cross-sectional. It was made at a factory in Lima, which was in the process of application to the law Safety and Health at Work. According to the selection criteria, 121 workers were admitted, which took part of the medical examination, and a file card for medical occupational data was applied. The descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, and respective frequencies of 95 % was performed and a level of significance (p<0.05. The statistical package SPSS and Microsoft Excel were used. Results: The population of study was divided into two occupational areas: workers and administrative staff. The average age was 37.48 years and males represented 83.5%. The most frequent pathological characteristics were: Dyslipidemia (66.9% Hypertriglyceridemia, Hypercholesterolemia 64.5%, 37.2% uncorrected refractive error, 36.8% mild hearing loss and 57% overweight. According to the work area: manual workers showed a higher frequency of hearing problems, dyslipidemia, obesity and high blood pressure (HTA. The administrative staff had greater effects of dyslipidemia, uncorrected refractive error, Grade -I obesity and overweight. Conclusions: The most frequent occupational diseases in the two areas according to the group I: refractive errors and hearing loss. In group II: dyslipidemia and overweight.

  5. The order for enforcing the law on indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report shows the Cabinet Order No.46 of March 6, 1962. The Order consists of eleven Articles. The provisions under Article 1 and Article 2 specify requirements for conforming to the Law concerning Contract for Compensation and Indemnity for Nuclear Energy Loss. The provisions under Article 3 provide for the compensation premium rate (5/10,000). Data to be reported to the government are given under Article 4. Such data include purpose, type and thermal output of the reactor; location and structure of the nuclear reactor facilities; arrangements in the nuclear reactor facilities; plan for operation of the nuclear reactor; type and yearly amount of nuclear fuel substances used; method for disposal of spent fuel; matters concerning contract for liability insurance; location, structure, etc. of processing facilities, reprocessing facilities and waste disposal facilities; route and method for transporting materials contaminated with nuclear source materials or nuclear fuel substances; etc. Managers of nuclear energy business should pay the security money every year, which goes to the national treasury. (Nogami, K.)

  6. Regaining The Trust Of The American Public: A Law Enforcement Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Coombs , Ongoing Crisis Communication , 1st ed. (Los Angeles: SAGE, 2015). 5 to stimulate a crisis , help it develop traction, and cause it to become a...Leadership 6, no. 2 (2016), doi:10.18666/jnel-2016-v6-i2-6996. 21 Coombs , Ongoing Crisis Communication . 22 Ibid, 157. 23 Ibid. 24 Ibid. 25 Ibid...According to leading reputation management expert W. Timothy Coombs , understanding the role of communication during a crisis is essential to protecting

  7. Effectiveness of enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws and associated factors – Exploratory empirical analysis using a bivariate ordered probit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behram Wali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary traffic safety research comprises little information on quantifying the simultaneous association between drink driving and speeding among fatally injured drivers. Potential correlation between driver's drink driving and speeding behavior poses a substantial methodological concern which needs investigation. This study therefore focused on investigating the simultaneous impact of socioeconomic factors, fatalities, vehicle ownership, health services and highway agency road safety policies on enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws. The effectiveness of enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws has been investigated through development of bivariate ordered probit model using data extricated from WHO's global status report on road safety in 2013. The consistent and intuitive parameter estimates along with statistically significant correlation between response outcomes validates the statistical supremacy of bivariate ordered probit model. The results revealed that fatalities per thousand registered vehicles, hospital beds per hundred thousand population and road safety policies are associated with a likely medium or high effectiveness of enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws, respectively. Also, the model encapsulates the effect of several other agency related variables and socio-economic status on the response outcomes. Marginal effects are reported for analyzing the impact of such factors on intermediate categories of response outcomes. The results of this study are expected to provide necessary insights to elemental enforcement programs. Also, marginal effects of explanatory variables may provide useful directions for formulating effective policy countermeasures for overcoming driver's speeding and drink driving behavior.

  8. The enforcement regulation for the law for radiation and x-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce the ''Law for radiation and X-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment''. Applications for the license of radiation and X-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment shall be filed, attached with a copy or an abstract of the census register of the applicant and a medical certificate by a doctor of whether the applicant is an insane, a deaf, a dumb or a blind person or a person caught by an infectious disease or not. In the register of such technicians, the number and the date of registration, the names of the prefectures where the technicians are legally domiciled, their names and the date of birth, the year and month of passing the examination, the matters concerning withdrawal of the license or suspension of the practice must be written. The date and the place of the examination for such technicians shall be published beforehand on the official gazette. The examinations for such radiation and X-ray technicians are made on the subjects, such as physics, electrical engineering, chemistry, elementary medical science, radiology, photographing technique, medical treatment technique and control technique. (Okada, K.)

  9. Development and Applications of Portable Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Emergency Responders, the Military, and Law-Enforcement Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Pauline E; Dobson, Gareth S; Reffner, John A

    2016-05-01

    Portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) systems are being deployed for field use, and are designed with this goal in mind. Performance characteristics of instruments that are successful in the field are different from those of equivalent technologies that are successful in a laboratory setting. These field-portable systems are extending the capabilities of the field user, providing investigative leads and confirmatory identifications in real time. Many different types of users benefit from the availability of this technology including emergency responders, the military, and law-enforcement organizations. This manuscript describes performance characteristics that are important for field-portable instruments, especially field-portable GC-MS systems, and demonstrates the value of this equipment to the disciplines of explosives investigations, fire investigations, and counterfeit-drug detection. This paper describes the current state of portable GC-MS technology, including a review of the development of portable GC-MS, as well as a demonstration of the value of this capability using different examples. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. The enforcement regulation for the law for radiation and x-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The ordinance is set up under the provisions of the law concerning radiation and X-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment, to enforce it. An application for the license of such a technician shall be filed according to the form prescribed, attached with a copy or an abstract of the census register of the applicant and a medical certificate of a doctor concerning whether the applicant is an insane, deaf or blind person, or a case of epidemic. The membership registration of such a technician shall include the number and date of the registration, the prefecture of his legal domicile, name, birth date and sex distinction, the year and month of his success in the examination for such technicains, the items concerning the cancellation of the license or the suspension of the business, etc. The subjects of the examination for such technicians are physics, radiological physics, electrical engineering, chemistry, general basic medical science, radiological biology, photographing technology, treatment technics and others. An application for the examination for such technicians shall be filed to the Minister of Health and Welfare, attached with a personal history, a study certificate or a diploma of graduation, a photograph of the applicant and other specified documents. (Okada, K.)

  11. Kevlar® as a Potential Accident Radiation Dosimeter for First Responders, Law Enforcement and Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyukha, Alexander; Trompier, François; Benevides, Luis A

    2016-08-01

    Today the armed forces and law enforcement personnel wear body armor, helmets, and flak jackets composed substantially of Kevlar® fiber to prevent bodily injury or death resulting from physical, ballistic, stab, and slash attacks. Therefore, there is a high probability that during a radiation accident or its aftermath, the Kevlar®-composed body armor will be irradiated. Preliminary study with samples of Kevlar® foundation fabric obtained from body armor used by the U.S. Marine Corps has shown that all samples evaluated demonstrated an EPR signal, and this signal increased with radiation dose. Based on these results, the authors predict that, with individual calibration, exposure at dose above 1 Gy can be reliably detected in Kevlar® samples obtained from body armor. As a result of these measurements, a post-event reconstruction of exposure dose can be obtained by taking various samples throughout the armor body and helmet worn by the same irradiated individual. The doses can be used to create a whole-body dose map that would be of vital importance in a case of a partial body or heterogeneous exposure.

  12. Proactive Spatiotemporal Resource Allocation and Predictive Visual Analytics for Community Policing and Law Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abish; Maciejewski, Ross; Towers, Sherry; McCullough, Sean; Ebert, David S

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present a visual analytics approach that provides decision makers with a proactive and predictive environment in order to assist them in making effective resource allocation and deployment decisions. The challenges involved with such predictive analytics processes include end-users' understanding, and the application of the underlying statistical algorithms at the right spatiotemporal granularity levels so that good prediction estimates can be established. In our approach, we provide analysts with a suite of natural scale templates and methods that enable them to focus and drill down to appropriate geospatial and temporal resolution levels. Our forecasting technique is based on the Seasonal Trend decomposition based on Loess (STL) method, which we apply in a spatiotemporal visual analytics context to provide analysts with predicted levels of future activity. We also present a novel kernel density estimation technique we have developed, in which the prediction process is influenced by the spatial correlation of recent incidents at nearby locations. We demonstrate our techniques by applying our methodology to Criminal, Traffic and Civil (CTC) incident datasets.

  13. Stray dog and cat laws and enforcement in Czech Republic and in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Voslářvá

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing numbers of stray dogs and cats have posed serious public-health, socioeconomic, political and animal-welfare problems in many EU countries. Stray animal population control is a complex issue and there are no easy solutions. Recognising the importance of the issue the European Commission has, since 2007, actively contributed to the elaboration of the first global welfare standards for the control of dog populations in the framework of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE. Problem-solving approaches vary in different countries as there is no common European Community legislation dealing with stray animal control. In this paper the authors describe the characteristics of the stray dog and cat problem in general and focus on existing European legislation. A comparative overview of policies and measures in place in the Czech Republic and in Italy is made to observe the differences between the two countries and understand the different needs in each, considering their historical and social differences (i.e. a post-communist eastern country vs a western country and founder member of what is now the European Union.

  14. What the Hell Do We Do Now? A Policy Options Analysis of State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement Participation in Immigration Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    enforcement is efficient from a logistical standpoint (dismissing valuation judgments of the policy)—resources are available elsewhere. Resources and...New York, Crown Business, 2012), 160–161. 247. Sonu Munshi, “Mesa Revises Immigration Status Policy,” East Valley Tribune July 2, 2008, http...municipalcodeofchicago?f=templates$fn=default.htm$3.0$vid=amleg al:chicago_il. Munshi, Sonu. “Mesa Revises Immigration Status Policy.” East Valley

  15. Supreme Court Position Regarding the Implementation of International Law Crimes of the Past in Spain: a Legal Analysis after Reports of the un Working Group on Enforced Disappearance, the Committee on Enforced Disappearances and the un Special Rapporteur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Chinchón Álvarez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Along with the undeniable importance of the case, the judgment of the Spanish Supreme Court in the trial against Judge Baltasar Garzón accused of prevarication, having declared itself competent to investigate complaints for crimes committed during the Civil War and the Franco’s regime, it has had a determining significance: from then to now, the doctrine of the High Court has been almost literally followed by the remaining Spanish courts against any complaint concerning to crimes com- mitted before the last transition to democracy in Spain. This state of affairs has been repeatedly criticized by various bodies of the United Nations, expressly by the three that have visited Spain more recently: The UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, the Committee on Enforced Disappearances and the UN Special Rapporteur on the Promotion of Truth, Justice, Reparation and Guarantees of Non-Repetition. In this contribution will be presented and analysed transcendent positions defended by the Supreme Court regarding the application of international law to the past crimes in Spain and especially its configuration as crimes against humanity, the legal assessment about the enforced disappearance, and the validity and application of the 1977 Amnesty Law.

  16. A Descriptive Analysis of Occupational Fatalities Due to Felonious Assault Among U.S. Law Enforcement Officers During Tactical Incidents, 1996-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Moriah S; Hartman, Tyler M; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    Little is known about occupational fatalities among tactical officers. A greater understanding of such injuries is needed to improve officer safety. The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive analysis of line-of-duty deaths secondary to felonious assault during tactical incidents. Retrospective analysis was performed of open-source de-identified Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reporting Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA) data inclusive of the years 1996-2014. Officers were included if the fatal injury occurred during operations by a Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) team, fugitive task force, narcotics task force, or if the LEOKA narrative described the event as a tactical situation. Of 1,012 officer deaths during the study period, 57 (5.6%) involved tactical officers. On average (± standard deviation), victim officers were 37.3 ± 7.8 years of age at the time of death, with 11.7 ± 6.6 years of law enforcement experience. High-risk warrant service accounted for 63.2% of fatalities. A single officer was killed in 91.2% of incidents; 49.1% of cases involved injuries to other officers. The majority of officers (59.6%) killed were the first officer(s) to enter the scene. The most commonly identified cause of death was head trauma (n = 28). Chest trauma accounted for 14 deaths; 10 (71.4%) sustained an entry wound via the ballistic vest armhole. Where recorded, 52.0% of officers died within the first hour of injury. The provision or nature of buddy care, tactical emergency medical services (EMS) care, or conventional EMS care was rarely noted. Tactical officer deaths most commonly occur during high-risk warrant service, and most often involve the first officer(s) to enter a scene, suggesting an opportunity for improved operational tactics. The frequency of fatal axillary penetration suggests the opportunity for ballistic protection redesign. Information is lacking regarding on-scene care, limiting the ability to determine

  17. Is law enforcement of drug-impaired driving cost-efficient? An explorative study of a methodology for cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisten, Knut; Houwing, Sjoerd; Mathijssen, M P M René; Akhtar, Juned

    2013-03-01

    Road users driving under the influence of psychoactive substances may be at much higher relative risk (RR) in road traffic than the average driver. Legislation banning blood alcohol concentrations above certain threshold levels combined with roadside breath-testing of alcohol have been in lieu for decades in many countries, but new legislation and testing of drivers for drug use have recently been implemented in some countries. In this article we present a methodology for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of increased law enforcement of roadside drug screening. This is an analysis of the profitability for society, where costs of control are weighed against the reduction in injuries expected from fewer drugged drivers on the roads. We specify assumptions regarding costs and the effect of the specificity of the drug screening device, and quantify a deterrence effect related to sensitivity of the device yielding the benefit estimates. Three European countries with different current enforcement levels were studied, yielding benefit-cost ratios in the approximate range of 0.5-5 for a tripling of current levels of enforcement, with costs of about 4000 EUR per convicted and in the range of 1.5 and 13 million EUR per prevented fatality. The applied methodology for CBA has involved a simplistic behavioural response to enforcement increase and control efficiency. Although this methodology should be developed further, it is clearly indicated that the cost-efficiency of increased law enforcement of drug driving offences is dependent on the baseline situation of drug-use in traffic and on the current level of enforcement, as well as the RR and prevalence of drugs in road traffic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of dram shop liability and enhanced overservice law enforcement initiatives on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms: Two community guide systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Veda; Hahn, Robert A; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci L; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Zometa, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Dram shop liability holds the owner or server(s) at a bar, restaurant, or other location where a patron, adult or underage, consumed his or her last alcoholic beverage responsible for harms subsequently inflicted by the patron on others. Liability in a state can be established by case law or statute. Overservice laws prohibit the sale of alcoholic beverages to intoxicated patrons drinking in on-premises retail alcohol outlets (i.e., premises where the alcohol is consumed where purchased); enhanced enforcement of these laws is intended to ensure compliance by premises personnel. Both of these interventions are ultimately designed to promote responsible beverage service by reducing sales to intoxicated patrons, underage youth, or both. This review assesses the effectiveness of dram shop liability and the enhanced enforcement of overservice laws for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Studies assessing alcohol-related harms in states adopting dram shop laws were evaluated, as were studies assessing alcohol-related harms in regions with enhanced overservice enforcement. Methods previously developed for systematic reviews for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used. Eleven studies assessed the association of state dram shop liability with various outcomes, including all-cause motor vehicle crash deaths, alcohol-related motor vehicle crash deaths (the most common outcome assessed in the studies reviewed), alcohol consumption, and other alcohol-related harms. There was a median reduction of 6.4% (range of values 3.7% to 11.3% reduction) in alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities associated with the presence of dram shop liability in jurisdictions where premises are licensed. Other alcohol-related outcomes also showed a reduction. Only two studies assessed the effects of enhanced enforcement initiatives on alcohol-related outcomes; findings were inconsistent, some indicating benefit and others none. According to Community Guide rules

  19. A baseline understanding of state laws governing e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdet, C K; Chriqui, J F; Chaloupka, F J

    2014-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been available for purchase in the USA since 2007, and have grown rapidly in popularity. Currently, there are no federal restrictions on e-cigarettes; therefore, any regulations are under the purview of state and/or local governments. This study examines state laws governing e-cigarettes through youth access restrictions, smoke-free air requirements and/or excise taxation. Codified statutory and administrative laws, attorney general opinions, executive orders, and revenue notices and rulings effective as of 15 November 2013 for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, were compiled using Boolean searches in Lexis-Nexis and Westlaw. All laws were analysed by two study authors to determine the presence and components of relevant provisions. Two categories of laws were identified; (1) explicit e-cigarette laws and (2) laws focused on tobacco-derived and/or nicotine-containing products. Thirty-four states' laws address e-cigarettes either explicitly or as part of language applying to tobacco-derived or nicotine-containing products. Laws explicitly addressing e-cigarettes primarily focus on youth access (22 states) or smoke-free air (12 states); only Minnesota imposes an excise tax on e-cigarettes. Similarly, tobacco-derived or nicotine-containing products are primarily regulated through youth access restrictions (6 states), smoke-free air laws (5 states), or excise taxation (2 states). In the current absence of federal law governing e-cigarettes, more than one-half of the states have taken the initiative to regulate these products. The opportunity exists for the remaining states to incorporate e-cigarette-related restrictions into their pre-existing tobacco control laws. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. 15 CFR 922.103 - Management and enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions of any grant or cooperative agreement. NOAA may act to deputize enforcement agents of the American Samoa Government (ASG) to enforce the regulations in this subpart in accordance with existing law. If NOAA chooses to exercise this provision, a memorandum of understanding shall be executed between NOAA...

  1. Indicators of success for smart law enforcement in protected areas: A case study for Russian Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hötte, Michiel H H; Kolodin, Igor A; Bereznuk, Sergei L; Slaght, Jonathan C; Kerley, Linda L; Soutyrina, Svetlana V; Salkina, Galina P; Zaumyslova, Olga Y; Stokes, Emma J; Miquelle, Dale G

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable conservation resources have been committed to develop and use law enforcement monitoring and management tools such as SMART, measures of success are ill-defined and, to date, few reports detail results post-implementation. Here, we present 4 case studies from protected areas with Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in Russia, in which indicators of success were defined and evaluated at each. The ultimate goal was an increase in tiger numbers to 1 individual/100 km(2) at each site. We predicted that improvements in law enforcement effectiveness would be followed by increases in prey numbers and, subsequently, tiger numbers. We used short-term and long-term indicators of success, including: (i) patrol team effort and effectiveness; (ii) catch per unit effort indicators (to measure reductions in threats); and (iii) changes in target species numbers. In addition to implementing a monitoring system, we focused on improving law enforcement management using an adaptive management process. Over 4 years, we noted clear increases in patrol effort and a partial reduction in threats. Although we did not detect clear trends in ungulate numbers, tiger populations remained stable or increased, suggesting that poaching of tigers may be more limiting than prey depletion. Increased effectiveness is needed before a clear reduction in threats can be noted, and more time is needed before detecting responses in target populations. Nonetheless, delineation of concrete goals and indicators of success provide a means of evaluating progress and weaknesses. Such monitoring should be a central component of law enforcement strategies for protected areas. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. From Support to Pressure: The Dynamics of Social and Governmental Influences on Environmental Law Enforcement in Guangzhou City, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, B.; Fryxell, G.E.; Lo, C.W.H.; Wang, W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how changes in governmental and social influences affect environmental enforcement in Guangzhou city, China, between 2000 and 2006. The paper finds that a form of "decentered regulation" has developed. Regulatory enforcement is no longer the sole affair of the government and the

  3. Is There Any Evidence on the Existence of an Environmental Taxation Kuznets Curve? The Case of European Countries under Their Rule of Law Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Castiglione

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives new insights into the environmental taxation policy, demonstrating the existence of an inverse U-shaped relationship between environmental taxation and income in European countries. Our findings reveal this relationship to be influenced by enforcement of the rule of law, which contributes to shifting the turning point on the curve to lower income levels. We show that former transition economies have not reached the turning point due to weak institutions. To achieve the goal of sustainable development, the European Environment Agency’s Environmental Taxation Reform, proposing to shift taxation from “goods” to “bads”, should be accompanied by effective enforcement or the rule of law. The heterogeneity found between market-based and former transition European countries demonstrates the existence of problems at the EU-level in the coordination of environmental policies and enforcing the rule of law. In addition, the analysis of the determinants of environmental taxation points to the importance of factors related to consumption and production, governance, environmental quality, oil price shocks and the shift of environmental policy in European countries.

  4. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  5. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  6. Polonium-210: the challenges in advising the law enforcement community during the investigation into the death of Alexander Litvinenko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The death of Alexander Litvinenko in November 2006 delivered unique challenges for the radiological protection of emergency responders. The need to identify a cause of death and investigate a potential crime balanced against the need for the radiological safety of both the investigator staff and protection of the public led to a number of situations requiring unique solutions. Polonium 210 is a naturally occurring radioactive substance that appears as part of the uranium-235 decay series. It has a 138 day half-life with a specific activity of 1.66 x 10 14 Bq/g. It is considered for radiological purposes as an alpha emitter though it does have a low probability ( 4 Bq and ingestion of 6.7 x 10 3 Bq meaning that physical quantities of less than 1 μg are lethal. The first blood and urine samples from Mr Litvinenko were analysed by the author and his team who identified a 803 keV peak from gamma spectral analysis. After discussions with medical staff and the Senior Investigation Officer, an additional sample was taken to permit the completion of more detailed analytical techniques specifically for polonium-210. Using liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry on the additional urine sample led to an estimated body burden within 10% of the final assessed intake from post-mortem samples. The investigation raised the following challenges to the author and Law Enforcement Personnel: a) Tracing the movement of the victim and his associates to; piece together a potential point and route of intake; and identify potential contamination areas requiring public protection measures by health agencies; b) Collection of evidence in a contaminated environment; c) Processing of contaminated forensics samples; d) Undertaking a post-mortem in a mortuary not designed for the processing of radiologically contaminated personnel; e) Identifying routes for obtaining polonium-210 including a review of historical papers from the UK, US and Russian early nuclear weapon

  7. Maximising Organisational Information Sharing and Effective Intelligence Analysis in Critical Data Sets. A case study on the information science needs of the Norwegian criminal intelligence and law enforcement community

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelmsen, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    Organisational information sharing has become more and more important as the amount of information grows. In order to accomplish the most effective and efficient sharing of information, analysis of the information needs and the organisation needs are vital. This dissertation focuses on the information needs sourced through the critical data sets of law enforcement organisations; specifically the Norwegian criminal intelligence and law enforcement community represented by the Na...

  8. Family secrets: Law and understandings of openness in everyday relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Uncovering old or historical family secrets has become an enjoyable pastime yet in contemporary families the keeping of secrets, especially those relating to reproduction and paternity, is seen increasingly as undesirable. This article explores these issues and the growing tendency for family law and policy to favour exposing genetic truths seeing this form of scientific veracity as crucial to child welfare and equality. The article explores the changing contexts of family secrets (using data...

  9. Quantifying underreporting of law-enforcement-related deaths in United States vital statistics and news-media-based data sources: A capture-recapture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Justin M; Gruskin, Sofia; Coull, Brent A; Krieger, Nancy

    2017-10-01

    Prior research suggests that United States governmental sources documenting the number of law-enforcement-related deaths (i.e., fatalities due to injuries inflicted by law enforcement officers) undercount these incidents. The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), administered by the federal government and based on state death certificate data, identifies such deaths by assigning them diagnostic codes corresponding to "legal intervention" in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10). Newer, nongovernmental databases track law-enforcement-related deaths by compiling news media reports and provide an opportunity to assess the magnitude and determinants of suspected NVSS underreporting. Our a priori hypotheses were that underreporting by the NVSS would exceed that by the news media sources, and that underreporting rates would be higher for decedents of color versus white, decedents in lower versus higher income counties, decedents killed by non-firearm (e.g., Taser) versus firearm mechanisms, and deaths recorded by a medical examiner versus coroner. We created a new US-wide dataset by matching cases reported in a nongovernmental, news-media-based dataset produced by the newspaper The Guardian, The Counted, to identifiable NVSS mortality records for 2015. We conducted 2 main analyses for this cross-sectional study: (1) an estimate of the total number of deaths and the proportion unreported by each source using capture-recapture analysis and (2) an assessment of correlates of underreporting of law-enforcement-related deaths (demographic characteristics of the decedent, mechanism of death, death investigator type [medical examiner versus coroner], county median income, and county urbanicity) in the NVSS using multilevel logistic regression. We estimated that the total number of law-enforcement-related deaths in 2015 was 1,166 (95% CI: 1,153, 1,184). There were 599 deaths reported in The Counted only, 36 reported in the NVSS

  10. Initial progress in the recording of crime scene simulations using 3D laser structured light imagery techniques for law enforcement and forensic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Bruce R.; Monson, Keith L.

    1998-03-01

    Representation of crime scenes as virtual reality 3D computer displays promises to become a useful and important tool for law enforcement evaluation and analysis, forensic identification and pathological study and archival presentation during court proceedings. Use of these methods for assessment of evidentiary materials demands complete accuracy of reproduction of the original scene, both in data collection and in its eventual virtual reality representation. The recording of spatially accurate information as soon as possible after first arrival of law enforcement personnel is advantageous for unstable or hazardous crime scenes and reduces the possibility that either inadvertent measurement error or deliberate falsification may occur or be alleged concerning processing of a scene. Detailed measurements and multimedia archiving of critical surface topographical details in a calibrated, uniform, consistent and standardized quantitative 3D coordinate method are needed. These methods would afford professional personnel in initial contact with a crime scene the means for remote, non-contacting, immediate, thorough and unequivocal documentation of the contents of the scene. Measurements of the relative and absolute global positions of object sand victims, and their dispositions within the scene before their relocation and detailed examination, could be made. Resolution must be sufficient to map both small and large objects. Equipment must be able to map regions at varied resolution as collected from different perspectives. Progress is presented in devising methods for collecting and archiving 3D spatial numerical data from crime scenes, sufficient for law enforcement needs, by remote laser structured light and video imagery. Two types of simulation studies were done. One study evaluated the potential of 3D topographic mapping and 3D telepresence using a robotic platform for explosive ordnance disassembly. The second study involved using the laser mapping system on a

  11. Constitutionality of enforcement of claims by private enforcement agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodiroga Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this paper is legal status of private enforcement agents in Serbia. The 2011 Serbian Law on Enforcement and Security has introduced private enforcement agents as legal professionals in charge mainly for carrying out of the enforcement. Special enforcement procedure for collection of utilities and similar claims has become exclusive competence of private enforcement agents. Since enforcement procedure has always been regarded as a set of coercive measures against enforcement debtor, it became questionable whether this coercion could be exercised by private enforcement agents. It has been argued by legal scholars that enforcement of civil judgments and other enforcement deeds belongs only to the state authority. The author tackles this issue from the standpoint of decisions of constitutional courts and jurisprudence of European Court of Human Rights.

  12. Uncommon Law: Understanding and Quantifying the Sovereign Citizen Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Hurley,” YouTube video, 1:23, posted by “gatsby,” April 16, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k1DqdbX4AK0. 149 Manuel Ramos, “2 charged in attempt...funnymoney23_1_bank-of-america-kissimmee- cruz . 150 Vik Jolly, “O.C. tax preparer pleads guilty to placing false liens,” Orange County Register, June 7...of ‘Sacrifices.’” Southern Poverty Law Center, June 9, 2014. Ramos, Manuel . “2 charged in attempt to con $214 million from bank.” Orlando Sentinel

  13. Europol’s Cybercrime Centre (EC3), its Agreements with Third Parties and the Growing Role of Law Enforcement on the European Security Scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendius, Trine Thygesen

    2015-01-01

    The European Cyber Crime Centre, EC3, established under the umbrella of Europol, started operations on January 1 2013. It is to act as the focal point in the fight against cybercrime in the European Union. Using a “shared, cross-community approach” the EC3 is concluding partnerships with member...... states, European agencies, international partners and the private sector. This article describes the coming about of EC3 and its efforts to address cybercrime. Furthermore, the article is an attempt to assess the growing role of the European law enforcement community on the European security scene...

  14. Health, alcohol and EU law: understanding the impact of European single market law on alcohol policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberg, Ben; Anderson, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Many professionals in the alcohol field see the role of the the European Court of Justice (ECJ) as negative for health. This review examines ECJ and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) case law in the context of two broader debates: firstly the extension of European Union (EU) law into alcohol policy (the 'juridification' of alcohol policy), and secondly the extent to which alcohol policy is an example of the dominance of 'negative integration' (the removal of trade-distorting policy) over 'positive integration' (the creation of European alcohol policies). A comprehensive review of all ECJ/EFTA Court cases on alcohol, with interpretation aided by a secondary review on alcohol and EU law and the broader health and trade field. From looking at taxation, minimum pricing, advertising and monopoly policies, the extension of the scope of the these courts over alcohol policy is unquestionable. However, the ECJ and EFTA Court have been prepared to prioritize health over trade concerns when considering alcohol policies, providing certain conditions have been met. While a partial juridification of alcohol policy has led to the negative integration of alcohol policies, this effect is not as strong as sometimes thought; EU law is more health friendly than it is perceived to be, and its impact on levels of alcohol-related harm appears low. Nevertheless, lessons emerge for policymakers concerned about the legality of alcohol policies under EU law. More generally, those concerned with alcohol and health should pay close attention to developments in EU law given their importance for public health policy on alcohol.

  15. Traffic law enforcement by non-police bodies. The "Escape" Project, Deliverable 4. Project funded by the European Commission under the Transport RTD Programme of the 4th Framework Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidstra, J. Goldenbeld, C. Gelau, C. Mäkinen, T. Jayet, M.-C. & Evers, C.

    2000-01-01

    To ensure some minimal standard for traffic system operation and safety, a system of traffic laws and regulations is necessary. Enforcement of these traffic laws is believed to influence driving behaviour through a mechanism of deterrence: the threat of legal punishment should convince road users to

  16. HIV risk among MSM in Senegal: a qualitative rapid assessment of the impact of enforcing laws that criminalize same sex practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Poteat

    Full Text Available Men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk for HIV in Senegal, with a prevalence of 21.5%. In December 2008, nine male HIV prevention workers were imprisoned for "acts against nature" prohibited by Senegalese law. This qualitative study assessed the impact of these arrests on HIV prevention efforts. A purposive sample of MSM in six regions of Senegal was recruited by network referral. 26 in-depth interviews (IDIs and 6 focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted in July-August 2009. 14 key informants were also interviewed. All participants reported pervasive fear and hiding among MSM as a result of the December 2008 arrests and publicity. Service providers suspended HIV prevention work with MSM out of fear for their own safety. Those who continued to provide services noticed a sharp decline in MSM participation. An effective response to the HIV epidemic in Senegal should include active work to decrease enforcement of this law.

  17. Law Enforcement and Gun Retailers as Partners for Safely Storing Guns to Prevent Suicide: A Study in 8 Mountain West States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Carol W; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Brandspigel, Sara; Betz, Marian; Tung, Gregory; Novins, Douglas; Agans, Robert

    2017-11-01

    To examine the extent to which law enforcement agencies (LEAs) and gun retailers are willing to offer voluntary, temporary storage as a part of an overall suicide prevention effort. We invited all LEAs and gun retailers in 8 US states to respond to questionnaires asking about their willingness to offer temporary gun storage and their recommendations to gun owners about safe storage. We collected data in 2016 from 448 LEAs and 95 retailers (response rates of 53% and 25%, respectively). Three quarters of LEAs (74.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 72.1, 77.5) indicated they already provided temporary storage compared with 47.6% (95% CI = 39.2, 56.0) of retailers. LEAs were most willing to provide storage when a gun owner was concerned about the mental health of a family member. Retailers were more receptive than were LEAs to providing storage when visitors were coming or for people wanting storage while traveling. Both groups recommended locking devices within the home, but LEAs were slightly more favorable to storing guns away from the home. Law enforcement agencies and gun retailers are important resources for families concerned about suicide.

  18. Who actually receives cell phone use while driving citations and how much are these laws enforced among states? A descriptive, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudisill, Toni M; Zhu, Motao

    2016-06-14

    While numerous cell phone use while driving laws have been passed among states, little information exists regarding who gets cited for these traffic infractions and how much these laws are enforced at the state-level within the USA. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. 14 states and the District of Columbia. Those receiving cell phone use while driving citations within included states from 2007 to 2013. Demographic characteristics of cited drivers were assessed. Rates of infractions per 100 000 licensed in-state drivers per year for various cell phone use while driving violations were calculated. Drivers were cited for hand-held use violations (n=2.5 million) more than texting (n=14 682) or young driver all cell phone bans (n=342). Among states that provided data for all traffic violations, cell phone use while driving citations comprised 1% of all written citations. Regardless of ban type, males (68.2%) were cited more frequently than females. Drivers 25-64 years of age (90.8%) were more likely to be cited for hand-held phone use. The average yearly rate of infractions per 100 000 licensed in-state drivers from 2010-2013 was 5.8 for texting bans, 2607 for hand-held bans, and 9954 for any traffic violation. Among cited drivers, age and sex differences existed by the type of ban violated. State-level enforcement appeared sparse. Due to the potential serious consequences of cell phone use while driving in the USA, more enforcement and targeted public safety campaigns are likely needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. An examination of aviation accidents in the context of a conflict of interests between law enforcement, insurers, commissions for aircraft accident investigations and other entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz BALCERZAK

    2017-06-01

    , resulting in possible or actual damage to persons or property, or damage that seriously compromises the level of aviation safety. All employees in the aviation sector, regardless of their function, have safety-related duties, which are crucial to the security of the entire civil aviation system. The safety of this system requires that as many events that have or may have an impact on security in aviation are reported voluntarily and without delay in order to conduct appropriate analyses and increase the level of safety. “Just Culture” is the basic premise of the effective functioning of event reporting required for all aviation organizations in order to maintain and enhance safety levels. As safety management is based on data, it is necessary to introduce appropriate procedures, which allow for obtaining information, not only about the events that have already occurred, but also about any other events that could potentially cause hazardous conditions. All the procedures and rules of operation relating to the policy of “Just Culture” should be constructed, so that they not only comply with the provisions of applicable law, but are also rational and understandable among all stakeholders, while ensuring a certain level of comfort and confidentiality to those reporting events that affect airline safety. Changes in the existing legal system should be established in cooperation with all concerned institutions: law enforcement, including the courts and public prosecution bodies, insurers aviation, the aircraft accident investigation commission and other entities. Is it possible to reconcile the interests of so-called “Just Culture” in the aviation industry with the requirements of the above-mentioned institutions and traders involved in the implementation of air transport and the exploration of the effects of aerial surveys? The answers to this and similar questions will be fully addressed in this article.

  20. Cultural Competence Training for Law Enforcement Responding to Domestic Violence Emergencies With the Deaf and Hard of Hearing: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Alina; Deardorff, Julianna

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate a training workshop for law enforcement as first responders for the purpose of increasing officers' cultural competency in working with Deaf and hard-of-hearing people (Deaf/HH) during domestic violence (DV) emergencies. This evaluation assesses the efficacy of a 2-hour training workshop for law enforcement. Thirty-four participants completed questionnaires at pre- and postintervention to assess participants' (1) satisfaction with training; (2) skills in responding to Deaf/HH individual(s) in a DV emergency; (3) attitudes toward the Deaf/HH, including bias recognition, self-assessment of cultural competency, and perceived self-efficacy; and (4) knowledge of communication. Focus groups (FGs) were also conducted (n = 6 for FG1, n = 13 for FG2). SPSS software was used to analyze survey data; principal components analysis was conducted on the survey instruments. There were significant differences between pre- and posttests for several targeted outcomes, including knowledge and perceived self-efficacy. Both survey and FG results demonstrated that participants gained cultural competency skills as indicated by changes in attitudes toward the Deaf/HH, both in DV emergencies and in large-scale emergencies. Significant differences were evident between pre and posttest results in terms of knowledge and perceived self-efficacy. Nonetheless, survey participants demonstrated a lack of knowledge about policy and the law. Survey findings also suggest that while a onetime training can improve the perceived self-efficacy of participants, shifting attitudes about the capabilities of the Deaf/HH may require different training strategies. FG participants demonstrated a greater awareness of the complexity of working with this population in a DV emergency. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  1. 287(g): Cross-Delegating State and Local Law Enforcement Officers with Federal Immigration Authority - Homeland Security Remedy or Rue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    illegal foreign nationals have killed over 43,000 Americans on U.S. soil since 9/11.28 The website “immigrationshumancost.org” is dedicated to the...enforcement officers face as they work in areas with a high ratio of Latino residents. How they must walk on proverbial eggshells to avoid even the...trailblazer in instituting programs to foster exactly what the 9/11 commission advocated to decrease opportunities for foreign strikes on U.S. soil . As

  2. The enforcement order for the law for radiation and x-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The enforcement order provides for the medical radiation technicians and medical X-ray technicians according to the established for them. The applicants for the license thereof must present their applications, together with the necessary documents, to the Government (or the prefectural government). The contents are as follows: application for license; to be entered in the register (with the items of the license); alteration of the registered items (the immediate corrective action, to the Government); elimination of the technicians from the register (to the Government); alteration of the license (the corrective action, to the Government); application for reissue of the license (to the Government); notification concerning the administrative measures. (Mori, K.)

  3. Regulatory Enforcement and Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    1999-01-01

    This study of municipal enforcement of agro-environmental regulations in Denmark provides an empirical understanding of how enforcement affects compliance. A key contribution is sorting out the relative influence of inspectors' different styles of enforcement and choices made by enforcement...... agencies. The latter are shown to be more important in bringing about compliance than are inspectors' enforcement styles. Municipal agencies are shown to increase compliance through the use of third parties, more frequent inspection, and setting priorities for inspection of major items. The findings about...

  4. What Do Transgender Women’s Experiences Tell Us about Law? Towards an Understanding of Law as Legal Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esen Ezgi Tascioglu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on ethnographic study conducted in Istanbul, this thesis investigates the effects of law and legal operations on transgender women’s sex work and daily lives, and seeks to disentangle the multidimensional ways through which they and their conduct are governmentalized by law in Turkey. The first part of the thesis discusses the legal dynamics surrounding transgender sex work and delineates how transgender women are expulsed from regulated sex work by the interaction of the socially produced desire around their bodies and law. Led to work outside the regulated sex trade, transgender women navigate spaces which are regulated in an ambivalent manner yet which have the net effect of drawing transgender women into street sex work. The second part shows that these legal practices on sex work do not apply to all sex workers but to nearly all transgender women, depriving them from their most basic rights. Overall my analysis demonstrates that transgender women find themselves in a multitude of legal and institutional practices that are borne out of the interaction of their social contexts, their bodily performances and legal texts and their application, and that this is done through various regulatory agents. I argue that such an examination demonstrates law’s multiplicity and heterogeneity against the unitary and sovereigntist understandings of law which prevail in popular discourse as well as scholarly and activist thinking in Turkey and abroad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1730260

  5. Research and in situ conservation of owl monkeys enhances environmental law enforcement at the Colombian-Peruvian border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Angela M; Peck, Mika R

    2014-07-01

    This study reports on impacts of illegal trade in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae, A. vociferans) for the biomedical research market in the Colombian-Peruvian Amazonian border. Through freedom of information requests and interviews with hunters we found that 912 owl monkeys, including A. nancymaae captured in Peru, were trapped over a 3-month period in 2012 to supply a malaria research facility based in Leticia, Colombia, which had trapping permits for the use of only 800 A. vociferans annually yet experimentation took place using A. nancymaae. High levels of extraction in Peru have had population-level impacts with significantly lower densities of Aotus spp. (3-24 individuals/km(2)) compared to Colombian sites with low hunting pressure (26-44 individuals/km(2)). Post-experimental release of this species in Colombian territory has created a new distribution whose status and impacts on resident populations of A. vociferans remain unknown. The trapping method has also had environmental impact, with loss of over 65,000 trees (including sleeping sites), annually. As Aotus species are registered under the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II, international trade requires official permission and evidence that extraction does not impact wild populations. However, no official records exist and CITES legislation has failed, due principally to a lack of appropriate monitoring by national authorities responsible for compliance. Of further concern is that we had previously documented and reported the illegal trade to the appropriate governmental authorities yet still no action was taken-as demonstrated by the continuing trade in 2013. Enforcement eventually occurred when a non-governmental organization initiated legal action against organizations responsible. A successful second instance ruling by the Colombian State's Council in 2013 revoked trapping permits. Using the trade in owl monkeys as a case study we consider

  6. Trends in Deaths Involving Heroin and Synthetic Opioids Excluding Methadone, and Law Enforcement Drug Product Reports, by Census Region - United States, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Julie K; Gladden, R Matthew; Seth, Puja

    2017-09-01

    Opioid overdose deaths quadrupled from 8,050 in 1999 to 33,091 in 2015 and accounted for 63% of drug overdose deaths in the United States in 2015. During 2010-2015, heroin overdose deaths quadrupled from 3,036 to 12,989 (1). Sharp increases in the supply of heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) are likely contributing to increased deaths (2-6). CDC examined trends in unintentional and undetermined deaths involving heroin or synthetic opioids excluding methadone (i.e., synthetic opioids)* by the four U.S. Census regions during 2006-2015. Drug exhibits (i.e., drug products) obtained by law enforcement and reported to the Drug Enforcement Administration's (DEA's) National Forensic Laboratory Information System (NFLIS) that tested positive for heroin or fentanyl (i.e., drug reports) also were examined. All U.S. Census regions experienced substantial increases in deaths involving heroin from 2006 to 2015. Since 2010, the South and West experienced increases in heroin drug reports, whereas the Northeast and Midwest experienced steady increases during 2006-2015. † In the Northeast, Midwest, and South, deaths involving synthetic opioids and fentanyl drug reports increased considerably after 2013. These broad changes in the U.S. illicit drug market highlight the urgent need to track illicit drugs and enhance public health interventions targeting persons using or at high risk for using heroin or IMF.

  7. Detection of elder abuse: Exploring the potential use of the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index© by law enforcement in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkurina, Elina; Lange, Brittany C L; Lama, Sonam D; Burk-Leaver, Erin; Yaffe, Mark J; Monin, Joan K; Humphries, Debbie

    2018-01-01

    There are no known instruments to aid law enforcement officers in the assessment of elder abuse (EA), despite officers' contact with older adults. This study aimed to identify: 1) officers' perceptions and knowledge of EA, 2) barriers in detecting EA in the field, 3) characteristics officers value in a detection tool, and to explore 4) the potential for officers to use the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI)©. Data was collected from 69 Connecticut officers who confirmed that barriers to effectively detecting EA included a lack of EA detection instruments, as well as a lack of training on warning signs and risk factors. Officers indicated that the important elements of a desirable tool for helping to detect EA included ease of use, clear instructions, and information on follow-up resources. Approximately 80% of respondents could see themselves using the EASI © in the field, and a modified version has been developed for this purpose.

  8. Concerning major items in government ordinance requiring modification of part of enforcement regulation for law relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report describes major items planned to be incorporated into the enforcement regulations for laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The modifications have become necessary for the nation to conclude a nuclear material protection treaty with other countries. The modification include the definitions of 'special nuclear fuel substances' and 'special nuclear fuel substances' and 'special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection'. The modifications require that protective measures be taken when handling and transporting special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances requires approval from the Prime Minister or Transport Minister. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection should be conducted after notifying the prefectural Public Safety Commission. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection requires the conclusion of arrangements among responsible persons and approval of them from the Prime Minister. (N.K.)

  9. Handbook - TRACE-ing human trafficking : Handbook for policy makers, law enforcement agencies and civil society organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny; Pijnenburg, Annick

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is one of the largest criminal enterprises in the world. It is a multi-billiondollar crime of global scale. This is because human trafficking as a criminal enterprise continues to evolve as a high profit-low risk business for perpetrators and challenges policy makers, law

  10. Geographic approaches to quantifying the risk environment: a focus on syringe exchange program site access and drug-related law enforcement activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Hannah LF; Bossak, Brian; Tempalski, Barbara; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the “risk environment” – defined as the “space … [where] factors exogenous to the individual interact to increase the chances of HIV transmission” – draws together the disciplines of public health and geography. Researchers have increasingly turned to geographic methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment that are both structural and spatial (e.g., local poverty rates). The scientific power of the intersection between public health and geography, however, has yet to be fully mined. In particular, research on the risk environment has rarely applied geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) or of drug-related law enforcement activities, despite the fact that these interventions are widely conceptualized as structural and spatial in nature and are two of the most well-established dimensions of the risk environment. To strengthen research on the risk environment, this paper presents a way of using geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of (1) access to SEP sites and (2) exposure to drug-related arrests, and then applies these methods to one setting (New York City). NYC-based results identified substantial cross-neighbourhood variation in SEP site access and in exposure to drug-related arrest rates (even within the subset of neighbourhoods nominally experiencing the same drug-related police strategy). These geographic measures – grounded as they are in conceptualizations of SEPs and drug-related law enforcement strategies – can help develop new arenas of inquiry regarding the impact of these two dimensions of the risk environment on injectors’ health, including exploring whether and how neighbourhood-level access to SEP sites and exposure to drug-related arrests shape a range of outcomes among local injectors. PMID:18963907

  11. PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SCHOOL LDB1: taking responsibility on law enforcement 10.639/03 and 11.645/08.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. César Lins Rodrigues

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article backwards in its target the quarrel on the paper of the Pertaining to school Physical Education in the application of laws 10.639/03 and 11.645/08. Questionings on the “reasons” of the direction of a supposed obligation to the areas of Artistic Education and Brazilian Literature and History in detriment of the area of the Physical Education cover all the extension of the text, looking for, by means of forceful arguments, to search a reflection deeper regarding what, for however, it is judged to be a gap left for the law. Aspects as the relations ethnic-racial, construction of what it is personal in girls and boys not-whites, breach of the hegemonic speeches, politics of whiten in the periods daily pay and after-abolitionist and multicultural resume, all in the pertaining to school scope also are submitted, by means of developed provocative reflections throughout the writings. Key-words: Laws 10.639/03 and 11.645/08; School Physical Education; Relations Ethnic-Racial; Multicultural Curriculum.

  12. Prohibited Possessors and the Law: How Inmates in Los Angeles Jails Understand Firearm and Ammunition Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Barragan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Using data from 140 interviews with individuals detained in the Los Angeles County Jail system, this article examines what gun offenders know about gun and ammunition regulation in California. Though most respondents had a consistent, albeit general, understanding of the regulations limiting gun acquisition and possession, analysis suggests that their understanding of ammunition restrictions was more limited. Our sample’s awareness of firearms law is especially important to consider given that they are the very population targeted by firearms regulations and prohibitions at the local, state, and federal level. By examining what detained offenders know about firearms laws, we can better theorize about individual gaps in legal knowledge and the realistic expectations for how understanding of the law can affect behavior.

  13. The Impact of Psychological Science on Policing in the United States: Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and Effective Law Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Tom R; Goff, Phillip Atiba; MacCoun, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    The May 2015 release of the report of the President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing highlighted a fundamental change in the issues dominating discussions about policing in America. That change has moved discussions away from a focus on what is legal or effective in crime control and toward a concern for how the actions of the police influence public trust and confidence in the police. This shift in discourse has been motivated by two factors-first, the recognition by public officials that increases in the professionalism of the police and dramatic declines in the rate of crime have not led to increases in police legitimacy, and second, greater awareness of the limits of the dominant coercive model of policing and of the benefits of an alternative and more consensual model based on public trust and confidence in the police and legal system. Psychological research has played an important role in legitimating this change in the way policymakers think about policing by demonstrating that perceived legitimacy shapes a set of law-related behaviors as well as or better than concerns about the risk of punishment. Those behaviors include compliance with the law and cooperation with legal authorities. These findings demonstrate that legal authorities gain by a focus on legitimacy. Psychological research has further contributed by articulating and demonstrating empirical support for a central role of procedural justice in shaping legitimacy, providing legal authorities with a clear road map of strategies for creating and maintaining public trust. Given evidence of the benefits of legitimacy and a set of guidelines concerning its antecedents, policymakers have increasingly focused on the question of public trust when considering issues in policing. The acceptance of a legitimacy-based consensual model of police authority building on theories and research studies originating within psychology illustrates how psychology can contribute to the development of evidence

  14. The current state of Contract Law in Australia and why it is important for rural managers to understand it

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Farmers are business managers and as such they must understand the law or they are likely to fall foul of it. This especially applies to contract law, with which they deal constantly. Contract law is made up of the common law – as the courts have decided it – and statute law- as the state and federal parliaments have enacted statutes which modify the common law. The most important and most recent of the latter is the new Australian Consumer Law.

  15. Cootie Genetics: Simulating Mendel's Experiments to Understand the Laws of Inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Katelyn; Anderson, Nadja

    2014-01-01

    "Cootie Genetics" is a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that enables students to learn the Mendelian laws of inheritance and gain an understanding of genetics principles and terminology. The activity begins with two true-breeding Cooties of the same species that exhibit five observable trait differences. Students observe the retention or…

  16. Examining the influence of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws (EUDL) program on alcohol-related outcomes in five communities surrounding Air Force bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Christopher; Barlas, Frances; Szoc, Ronald Z; Prabhakaran, Jyothsna; Cambridge, Milton H

    2012-04-01

    In 2006, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) awarded discretionary grants to five communities as part of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws (EUDL) initiative to implement an environmental strategy approach to reduce drinking and associated misconducts among Air Force members. The evaluation design was a within-site, pre-test/post-test intervention comparison of baseline data to out-year data. Four of the five communities had significant decreases in one or more of the outcomes of interest from pre-test to post-test. Two communities (Great Falls, MT and Tucson, AZ) had a significant decline in the compliance check failure rate of local establishments that sell alcohol. One community (Great Falls, MT) had a significant decline in arrests for possession of alcohol by a minor. Four communities (Great Falls, MT; Tucson, AZ; Phoenix, AZ; Honolulu, HI) had a significant decline in DUI/DWI arrests. These findings build on results reported in an earlier article which provided evidence to suggest that the EUDL program had an influence on self-reported drinking behaviors in three of the five communities. These two articles, in combination, provide evidence to suggest for the first time that community-level programs using an environmental strategy approach can be successful in targeting military members. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG): a collaboration of scientists, law enforcement officials, and regulators working to combat nuclear terrorism and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-10-25

    Founded in 1996 upon the initiative of the “Group of 8” governments (G8), the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an ad hoc organization of official Nuclear Forensics practitioners (scientists, law enforcement, and regulators) that can be called upon to provide technical assistance to the global community in the event of a seizure of nuclear or radiological materials. The ITWG is supported by and is affiliated with nearly 40 countries and international partner organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), EURATOM, INTERPOL, EUROPOL, and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) (Figure 1). Besides providing a network of nuclear forensics laboratories that are able to assist the global community during a nuclear smuggling event, the ITWG is also committed to the advancement of the science of nuclear forensic analysis, largely through participation in periodic table top and Collaborative Materials Exercises (CMXs). Exercise scenarios use “real world” samples with realistic forensics investigation time constraints and reporting requirements. These exercises are designed to promote best practices in the field and test, evaluate, and improve new technical capabilities, methods and techniques in order to advance the science of nuclear forensics. Past efforts to advance nuclear forensic science have also included scenarios that asked laboratories to adapt conventional forensics methods (e.g. DNA, fingerprints, tool marks, and document comparisons) for collecting and preserving evidence comingled with radioactive materials.

  18. Comparative analysis of the 1-mile run test evaluation formulae: assessment of aerobic capacity in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayihan, Gürhan; Özkan, Ali; Köklü, Yusuf; Eyuboğlu, Ender; Akça, Firat; Koz, Mitat; Ersöz, Gülfem

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare values of aerobic performance in the 1-mile run test (1-MRT) using different formulae. Aerobic capacities of 351 male volunteers working for the Turkish National Police within the age range of 20-23 years were evaluated by the 1-MRT and the 20-metre shuttle run (20-MST). VO2max values were estimated by the prediction equations developed by George et al. (1993), Cureton et al. (1995) and Kline et al. (1987) for the 1-MRT and by Leger and Lambert (1982) for the 20-MST. The difference between the results of the different formulae was significant (p = 0.000). The correlation coefficient between the estimated VO2max using Cureton's equation, George's equation, Kline's equation and the 20-MST were 0.691 (p compares the use of 3 different formulae to estimate VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years for the first time and reports the most accurate formula to use when evaluating aerobic capacities of large numbers of healthy individuals.

  19. Five palaeobiological laws needed to understand the evolution of the living biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Charles R

    2017-05-23

    The foundations of several disciplines can be expressed as simple quantitative laws, for example, Newton's laws or the laws of thermodynamics. Here I present five laws derived from fossil data that describe the relationships among species extinction and longevity, species richness, origination rates, extinction rates and diversification. These statements of our palaeobiological knowledge constitute a dimension largely hidden from view when studying the living biota, which are nonetheless crucial to the study of evolution and ecology even for groups with poor or non-existent fossil records. These laws encapsulate: the critical fact of extinction; that species are typically geologically short-lived, and thus that the number of extinct species typically dwarfs the number of living species; that extinction and origination rates typically have similar magnitudes; and, that significant extinction makes it difficult to infer much about a clade's early history or its current diversity dynamics from the living biota alone. Although important strides are being made to integrate these core palaeontological findings into our analysis of the living biota, this knowledge needs to be incorporated more widely if we are to understand their evolutionary dynamics.

  20. A system dynamics approach to the study of Colombian coca cultivation and the counter-intuitive consequence of law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, Sebastian; Dyner, Isaac

    2014-03-01

    A large-scale expansion of the Colombian coca cultivation is one of the most revealing signs of a structural change in the illegal cocaine market in the Andean region. From being a modest and domestic production, in the space of five years Colombian coca cultivation supplied a competitive market, capable of substituting almost completely the foreign sources of supply. The purpose of this work is to explore the role and potential of system dynamics (SD) as a modeling methodology to better understand the consequences of drug policy. As a case study, this work tests the hypothesis that the outbreak of Colombian coca cultivations is a consequence of the take down of large cartels, leading to the surge of small drug-trafficking firms called "cartelitos." Using an SD model, and elements from the economic theory of the criminal firm, our work shows how the formation of these small firms might significantly contribute to the configuring of a more competitive domestic coca industry (and hence to a more efficient crime industry). We conclude that SD seems an appropriate dynamic modeling-based approach to address policy issues regarding drug markets. The methodology takes into account the dynamic nature of drug markets and their multi-dimensional responses to policy interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.