WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding language change

  1. Understanding Language Change: Phonetics, Phonology and Child Language Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Volk, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Language change is a phenomenon that has fascinated scholars for centuries. As a science, linguistic theory has evolved considerably during the 20th century, but the overall puzzle of language change still remains unsolved...

  2. Spoken Language Understanding Software for Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Alam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a preliminary, work-in-progress Spoken Language Understanding Software (SLUS with tailored feedback options, which uses interactive spoken language interface to teach Iraqi Arabic and culture to second language learners. The SLUS analyzes input speech by the second language learner and grades for correct pronunciation in terms of supra-segmental and rudimentary segmental errors such as missing consonants. We evaluated this software on training data with the help of two native speakers, and found that the software recorded an accuracy of around 70% in law and order domain. For future work, we plan to develop similar systems for multiple languages.

  3. Flexibility in embodied language understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel M Willems

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Do people use sensori-motor cortices to understand language? Here we review neurocognitive studies of language comprehension in healthy adults and evaluate their possible contributions to theories of language in the brain. We start by sketching the minimal predictions that an embodied theory of language understanding makes for empirical research, and then survey studies that have been offered as evidence for embodied semantic representations. We explore four debated issues: first, does activation of sensori-motor cortices during action language understanding imply that action semantics relies on mirror neurons? Second, what is the evidence that activity in sensori-motor cortices plays a functional role in understanding language? Third, to what extent do responses in perceptual and motor areas depend on the linguistic and extra-linguistic context? And finally, can embodied theories accommodate language about abstract concepts? Based on the available evidence, we conclude that sensori-motor cortices are activated during a variety of language comprehension tasks, for both concrete and abstract language. Yet, this activity depends on the context in which perception and action words are encountered. Although modality-specific cortical activity is not a sine qua non of language processing even for language about perception and action, sensori-motor regions of the brain appear to make functional contributions to the construction of meaning, and should therefore be incorporated into models of the neurocognitive architecture of language.

  4. Language Games and Musical Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Arbo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wittgenstein has often explored language games that have to do with musical objects of different sizes (phrases, themes, formal sections or entire works. These games can refer to a technical language or to common parlance and correspond to different targets. One of these coincides with the intention to suggest a way of conceiving musical understanding. His model takes the form of the invitation to "hear (something as (something": typically, to hear a musical passage as an introduction or as a conclusion or in a certain tonality. However one may ask to what extent or in what terms (literal or metaphorical these procedures, and usually the intervention of language games, is requested by our common ways of understanding music. This article shows through the use of some examples that aspectual perception inherent to musical understanding does not require language games as a necessary condition (although in many cases the link between them seems very strong, in contradiction with the thesis of an essential linguistic character of music. At a basic level, it seems more appropriate to insist on the notion of a game: to understand music means to enter into the orbit of "music games" which show an autonomous functioning. Language games have, however, an important function when we develop this comprehension in the light of the criteria of judgment that substantiate the manner in which music is incorporated in and operates within specific forms of life.

  5. Socialization, Language, and Scenic Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling; Weber, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    is based on a transformation of the "scenic understanding" from a clinical to a text interpretation, which seeks to understand collective unconscious meaning in text, and is presented with an illustration of the interpretation procedure from social research. Then follows a brief systematic account of key......»Sozialisation, Sprache und szenisches Verstehen. Alfred Lorenzers Beitrag zu einer psychosozialen Methodologie«. The article is a guided tour to Alfred Lorenzer's proposal for an "in-depth hermeneutic" cultural analysis methodology which was launched in an environment with an almost complete split...... between social sciences and psychology/psychoanalysis. It presents the background in his materialist socialization theory, which combines a social reinterpretation of the core insights in classical psychoanalysis – the unconscious, the drives – with a theory of language acquisition. His methodology...

  6. Understanding of Foreign Language Learning of Generation Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozavli, Ebubekir

    2016-01-01

    Different generations are constituted depending on social changes and they are designed sociologically as traditional, baby boomer, X, Y and Z. Many studies have been reported on understanding of foreign language learning generation Y. This study aims to realise the gap in and contribute to the research on language learning understanding of…

  7. Understanding climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellous, J.L.; Gautier, C.; Andre, J.C.; Balstad, R.; Boucher, O.; Brasseur, G.; Chahine, M.T.; Chanin, M.L.; Ciais, P.; Corell, W.; Duplessy, J.C.; Hourcade, J.C.; Jouzel, J.; Kaufman, Y.J.; Laval, K.; Le Treut, H.; Minster, J.F.; Moore, B. III; Morel, P.; Rasool, S.I.; Remy, F.; Smith, R.C.; Somerville, R.C.J.; Wood, E.F.; Wood, H.; Wunsch, C.

    2007-01-01

    Climatic change is gaining ground and with no doubt is stimulated by human activities. It is therefore urgent to better understand its nature, importance and potential impacts. The chapters of this book have been written by US and French experts of the global warming question. After a description of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, GIEC in French) consensus, they present the past and present researches on each of the main component of the climate system, on the question of climatic change impacts and on the possible answers. The conclusion summarizes the results of each chapter. Content: presentation of the IPCC; greenhouse effect, radiation balance and clouds; atmospheric aerosols and climatic change; global water cycle and climate; influence of climatic change on the continental hydrologic cycle; ocean and climate; ice and climate; global carbon cycle; about some impacts of climatic change on Europe and the Atlantic Ocean; interaction between atmospheric chemistry and climate; climate and society, the human dimension. (J.S.)

  8. Culture Understanding in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    In the course of foreign language teaching, the priority should always be given to increase international understanding by enabling the students to enter into the life, thought, and literature of people who speak another language. The objective may vary from one period to another, but it should long be present in the thinking of our minds. The…

  9. Theoretical approaches to natural language understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the following: Computational Linguistics, Artificial Intelligence, Linguistics, Philosophy, and Cognitive Science and the current state of natural language understanding. Three topics form the focus for discussion; these topics include aspects of grammars, aspects of semantics/pragmatics, and knowledge representation.

  10. Gender Issues in Language Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on recent work in variationist sociolinguistics, sociology of language and linguistic anthropology, focuses on new approaches to explaining gender differentiated patterns of sound change and language shift, the success or failure of planned linguistic reforms, and changes in the social evaluation of gendered speech styles. (Author/VWL)

  11. UNDERSTANDING INFORMAL CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Griffin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amid much recent American work on the problem of informal constitutional change, this article stakes out a distinctive position. I argue that theories of constitutional change in the US must address the question of the relationship between the “small c” and “big C” Constitution and treat seriously the possibility of conflict between them. I stress the unavoidable role the text of the Constitution and structural doctrines of federalism and separation of powers play in this relationship and thus in constitutional change, both formal and informal. I therefore counsel against theories that rely solely on a practice-based approach or analogies between “small c” constitutional developments and British or Commonwealth traditions of the “unwritten” constitution and constitutional “conventions.” The alternative I advocate is to approach constitutional change from a historicist perspective that focuses attention on state building and the creation of new institutional capacities. This approach will allow us to make progress by highlighting that there can be multiple constitutional orders in a given historical era, thus accounting for the conflictual nature of contemporary constitutional development in the US.

  12. Understanding Grammars through Diachronic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madariaga, Nerea

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I will vindicate the importance of syntactic change for the study of synchronic stages of natural languages, according to the following outline. First, I will analyze the relationship between the diachrony and synchrony of grammars, introducing some basic concepts: the notions of I-language/E-language, the role of Chomsky's (2005) three factors in language change, and some assumptions about language acquisition. I will briefly describe the different approaches to syntactic change adopted in generative accounts, as well as their assumptions and implications (Lightfoot, 1999, 2006; van Gelderen, 2004; Biberauer et al., 2010; Roberts, 2012). Finally, I will illustrate the convenience of introducing the diachronic dimension into the study of at least certain synchronic phenomena with the help of a practical example: variation in object case marking of several verbs in Modern Russian, namely, the verbs denoting avoidance and the verbs slušat'sja “obey” and dožidat'sja “expect,” which show two object case-marking patterns, genitive case in standard varieties and accusative case in colloquial varieties. To do so, I will review previous descriptive and/or functionalist accounts on this or equivalent phenomena (Jakobson, 1984 [1936]; Clancy, 2006; Nesset and Kuznetsova, 2015a,b). Then, I will present a formal—but just synchronic—account, applying Sigurðsson (2011) hypothesis on the expression of morphological case to this phenomenon. Finally, I will show that a formal account including the diachronic dimension is superior (i.e., more explanative) than purely synchronic accounts. PMID:28824474

  13. Language understanding and vocabulary of early cochlear implanted children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, L; Busch, GW; Sandahl, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with the level of language understanding, the level of receptive and active vocabulary, and to estimate effect-related odds ratios for cochlear implanted children's language level.......The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with the level of language understanding, the level of receptive and active vocabulary, and to estimate effect-related odds ratios for cochlear implanted children's language level....

  14. Computer modelling as a tool for understanding language evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Bart; Gontier, N; VanBendegem, JP; Aerts, D

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the uses of computer models in studying the evolution of language. Language is a complex dynamic system that can be studied at the level of the individual and at the level of the population. Much of the dynamics of language evolution and language change occur because of the

  15. Changing Livelihoods, Language Use and Language Shift amongst Basarwa of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafela, Lily

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the historical relationship between the languages of Basarwa of Botswana and Setswana, in order to understand the dynamics underpinning their appropriation of the Setswana language, as they adjust to their changing livelihoods. The study contributes towards the promotion of a better understanding and awareness of the issues of…

  16. Progress in Understanding Adolescent Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Victoria L.; Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This prologue introduces a clinical forum on adolescent language disorders, a topic that has long been of interest to school-based speech-language pathologists/therapists. Method: A rationale for the clinical forum is provided, and the content is contrasted with a previous forum on the same topic that was published nearly 20 years ago.…

  17. Indian Language Document Analysis and Understanding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    character recognition in different Indian languages, pre- and post-processing techniques tai- lored for Indian languages and user-friendly interfaces for better utilisation of the output of document analysis systems, all need attention from Indian scientists working in Image Pro- cessing and Pattern Recognition. It is with this ...

  18. What's So Hard about Understanding Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Walter; And Others

    A discussion of the application of artificial intelligence to natural language processing looks at several problems in language comprehension, involving semantic ambiguity, anaphoric reference, and metonymy. Examples of these problems are cited, and the importance of the computational approach in analyzing them is explained. The approach applies…

  19. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT): Practical Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuyoshi; Kleinsasser, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a study that documented the views and practices of communicative language teaching (CLT) by Japanese second language inservice teachers. Uses multiple data sources including interviews, observations, and surveys to report on how teachers define CLT and implement it in their classrooms. (Author/VWL)

  20. Researching language teaching: Understanding practice through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, to engage critically with practice, SLA research must be situated in its institutional, social and cultural settings. We argue that situated research into classroom interaction provides second language teachers with opportunities to theorize and improve practice. (S/ern Af Linguistics & Applied Language Stud: 2001 ...

  1. Identity, Language Learning, and Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Bonny; Toohey, Kelleen

    2011-01-01

    In this review article on identity, language learning, and social change, we argue that contemporary poststructuralist theories of language, identity, and power offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching, and have been of considerable interest in our field. We first review poststructuralist theories of language, subjectivity, and…

  2. The Value of Bilingualism in Pupils' Understanding of Scientific Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsey, John; Turner, Sheila

    1999-01-01

    Argues that, although some bilingual pupils may be at a disadvantage in understanding scientific language, there may be some circumstances where being bilingual is an advantage in understanding scientific language. Presents evidence of circumstances where being bilingual was an advantage and circumstances where it was a disadvantage in…

  3. Understanding beyond language: perceiving meaning in reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Scott

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to develop a counter-argument to the contention that meaning is bound by language. Locating itself within the realist ontology of language developed by Saint Anselm of Canterbury, it will be argued that language comprises representations of entities perceived both extra to the perceiver and through introspection. Thus, a language game cannot be a closed system in the sense that by its very existence representations of extralinguistic being are contained therein. If truth is defined as that which is the case, the task of the perceiver becomes apprehension of being beheld without the cloud imposed by symbols: representations are not what they represent, instead they serve as windows onto a view of what is. Following exploration of psychological studies on contemplation, it is argued that it is in desymbolised moments of attentive awareness of being that meaning, unfiltered by the representativeness of language (and indeed, other symbolic systems, can arise. It will be proposed that in contemplative traditions, being is not reduced in perception, and the moment of meaning comes to the fore in the engagement and encounter with being.

  4. Mobility and language change in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monka, Malene

    ), whereas in Tinglev, informants’ language has not changed at all. In order to explain how the language change of the non-mobile affect the language change of the mobile informants one needs qualitative analysis that gives attention not only to geographical, social and mental mobility but also to place......Mobility and language change in Denmark This paper demonstrates how mobility affects language change in real time and reports on the results of my PhD-thesis. In the thesis I made a real time panel study in three towns in distinct dialect areas in Denmark and examined language change in 23 speakers...... recorded in 1978 to 2010. The results emphasize the advantages of approaching mobility from different angles when investigating patterns of language change. The present paper focuses on six geographically and socially mobile informants. At the time of the early recordings, the three towns were in different...

  5. Understanding and Representing Natural Language Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Pragmatics , in press. Collins, A. and M. R. Quillian, "Experiments on Semantic Memory and Language Comprehension," in L. W. Gregg (Ed.), Cognition in Learning...ed Anaphora in Basque," ProceedingA of the 8th Anniil -cet in of the Berjkeley Ljnuisti,._; $ocietZ, Berkeley, CA, 1982. (2) Azkarate, M., D. Far

  6. Indian Language Document Analysis and Understanding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    authoritative manner outlining all the issues involved. The next two papers deal with com- plete systems designed for processing printed text documents in a single language. The paper by Chaudhuri, Pal and Mitra, which is also an invited contribution, describes a system for recognition of printed Oriya script. The paper by ...

  7. Teachers' understanding of the communicative language teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Department of Basic Education insists that English as a First additional Language be taught using the Communicative Approach. The use of the approach has been spelt out in the national curriculum statement. However, the Communicative Approach takes many different forms as dictated by the competences being ...

  8. Researching language teaching: Understanding practice through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we argue that second language acquisition (SLA) research and theory have a significant role to play in teacher education, especially at the masters level. The danger of overly practical approaches is that they cannot challenge current practice in ways that are both critical and rigorous. However, to engage ...

  9. Using a Foreign Language Changes Our Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Sayuri; Costa, Albert; Foucart, Alice; Keysar, Boaz

    2016-11-01

    A growing literature demonstrates that using a foreign language affects choice. This is surprising because if people understand their options, choice should be language independent. Here, we review the impact of using a foreign language on risk, inference, and morality, and discuss potential explanations, including reduced emotion, psychological distance, and increased deliberation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Statistical-Physics Approach to Language Acquisition and Language Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandro, Marzio; Collet, Pierre; Galves, Antonio; Galves, Charlotte

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain why Statistical Physics can help understanding two related linguistic questions. The first question is how to model first language acquisition by a child. The second question is how language change proceeds in time. Our approach is based on a Gibbsian model for the interface between syntax and prosody. We also present a simulated annealing model of language acquisition, which extends the Triggering Learning Algorithm recently introduced in the linguistic literature.

  11. Individual differences in children's emotion understanding: Effects of age and language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; Lawson, J.: Harris, P.; Rosnay, M. de

    2003-01-01

    Over the last two decades, it has been established that children's emotion understanding changes as they develop. Recent studies have also begun to address individual differences in children's emotion understanding. The first goal of this study was to examine the development of these individual...... differences across a wide age range with a test assessing nine different components of emotion understanding. The second goal was to examine the relation between language ability and individual differences in emotion understanding. Eighty children ranging in age from 4 to 11 years were tested. Children...... displayed a clear improvement with age in both their emotion understanding and language ability. In each age group, there were clear individual differences in emotion understanding and language ability. Age and language ability together explained 72% of emotion understanding variance; 20% of this variance...

  12. Figurative Idiomatic Language: Strategies and Difficulties of Understanding English Idioms

    OpenAIRE

    Nisreen Al-Khawaldeh; Abdullah Jaradat; Husam Al-momani; Baker Bani-Khair

    2016-01-01

    Learning idioms which is considered a very essential part of learning and using language (Sridhar and Karunakaran, 2013) has recently attracted a great attention of English learning researchers particularly the assessment of how well Asian language learners acquire and use idioms in communication (Tran, 2013). Understanding and using them fluently could be viewed as a sign towards language proficiency as they could be an effective way to give students better conditions to enhance their commun...

  13. Understanding Foreign Language Learning Strategies: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragant, Elsa; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Victori, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims to contribute to our understanding of the underlying dimensions of language learning strategies in foreign language contexts. The study analyzes alternative factor structures underlying a recently developed instrument (Tragant and Victori, 2012) and it includes the age factor in the examination of its construct validity. The…

  14. Mobility and language change in real time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monka, Malene

    Diachronic studies of the interrelationship between mobility and language change leave us with some unanswered questions of causation. The most important question is whether language change is caused by mobility, or if mobile informants mark themselves linguistically different than their non......-mobile peers prior to being geographically and socially mobile (e.g. Andersson & Thelander 1994). In the presentation I discuss this question by presenting a real time panel-study of language change in 23 speakers from three municipalities in distinct dialect areas in Denmark. The language change of six mobile...

  15. Explaining Change in Language: A Cybersemiotic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Danesi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest conundrums in semiotics and linguistics is explaining why change occurs in communication systems. The descriptive apparatus of how change occurs has been developed in great detail since at least the nineteenth century, but a viable explanatory framework of why it occurs in the first place still seems to be clouded in vagueness. So far, only the so-called Principle of Least Effort has come forward to provide a suggestive psychobiological framework for understanding change in communication codes such as language. Extensive work in using this model has shown many fascinating things about language structure and how it evolves. However, the many findings need an integrative framework for shedding light on any generalities implicit in them. This paper argues that a new approach to the study of codes, called cybersemiotics, can be used to great advantage for assessing theoretical frameworks and notions such as the Principle of Least Effort. Amalgamating cybernetic and biosemiotic notions, this new science provides analysts with valuable insights on the raison d’être of phenomena such as linguistic change.

  16. Figurative Idiomatic Language: Strategies and Difficulties of Understanding English Idioms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Al-Khawaldeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning idioms which is considered a very essential part of learning and using language (Sridhar and Karunakaran, 2013 has recently attracted a great attention of English learning researchers particularly the assessment of how well Asian language learners acquire and use idioms in communication (Tran, 2013. Understanding and using them fluently could be viewed as a sign towards language proficiency as they could be an effective way to give students better conditions to enhance their communication skills in the daily context (Beloussova, 2015. Investigating how idiomatic expressions are dealt with and processed in a second language or foreign language is an issue worth examining further since it may give language teachers a better idea of some of the strategies language learners use in order to interpret figurative language. Despite their importance, learning and using English idioms by Arab EFL learners have not been investigated extensively, and no research has been conducted on Jordanian students’ idiomatic competency. Thus, the researcher decided to work on these un-tackled issues in the Jordanian context. Most idioms-based investigations are the difficulties Jordanians learners of English face when translating them into Arabic (Hussein, Khanji, and Makhzoumi, 2000; Bataineh and Bataineh, 2002; Alrishan and Smadi, 2015. The analysis of the test showed students’ very poor idiomatic competence; particularly a very limited awareness of the most frequently used idioms despite their overwhelming desire to learn them. Data analysis of the questionnaire revealed the strategies students use and the problems they face in understanding and learning idioms.

  17. The Language of Information Literacy: Do Students Understand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Gayle; Cadena, Cara; Bravender, Patricia; Kierkus, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    To effectively access and use the resources of the academic library and to become information-literate, students must understand the language of information literacy. This study analyzes undergraduate students' understanding of fourteen commonly used information-literacy terms. It was found that some of the terms least understood by students are…

  18. Intercomprehension - When Everyone Speaks Their Own Language and Understands Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pirih Svetina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercomprehension is a communication practice where two persons speak their mother tongue and are able to understand each other without being taught the language of their adressee. It is a usual practice between languages that belong to the same linguistic family, for example Slavic, Romance or Germanic languages. In the article, the authors present the notion of intercomprehension as an alternative to communication in English as a lingua franca. That kind of communication was known among Scandinavians, whereas the first teaching method was developped for Romance languages (EuRomCom at the beginning of the 21st century. Today, more methods exist including German and Slavic languages. In the article, the authors are enumerating some of them and also give a short outline of existing practices.

  19. Language experience changes subsequent learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. PMID:23200510

  20. Language experience changes subsequent learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-02-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. SUBTLE: Situation Understanding Bot through Language and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-06

    2009) use a combinatorial categorial grammar (CCG) parser with a pre-specified map - ping between words or phrases and the matching branch- ing...agents communicating via rich language remain an open challenge. Toward this end, the central goal of the SUBTLE MURI project was to develop an...3451 Walnut Street , Suite P-221 Philadelphia, PA 19104 -6205 31-Aug-2014 ABSTRACT Final Report: SUBTLE: Situation Understanding Bot through Language

  2. The Art of Observation: Understanding Pattern Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Christopher Alexander's book, The Timeless Way of Building, is probably the most beautiful book on the notion of quality in observation and design that I have been reading since Robert Pirsig's (1974 Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. It was published in 1979, when Alexander was a professor of architecture at the University of California, Berkeley, where I was at that time studying. Although I was aware of some of Alexander's famous articles such as "A city is not a tree" (Alexander, 1965, the book (Alexander, 1979 never quite made it to the top of my reading list. This remained so until recently, when I met a software developer who enthusiastically talked to me on a book he was currently reading, about the importance of understanding design patterns. He was talking about the very book I had failed to read during my Berkeley years and which, as I now discovered, has since become a cult book among computer programmers and information scientists, as well as in other fields of research. I decided it was time to read the book.

  3. Radioactivity made understandable. A common language presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traebert, E.

    2007-01-01

    The word ''radioactivity'' has something scary about it; it makes us think of something intangable, creeping dangers, the mysterious ticking of Geiger counters, reactor disasters, dirty bombs, nuclear contamination and destruction. True: Whole landscapes were made uninhabitable by accidents involving radioactive material such as Windscale, Sellafield and Chernobyl and others that were kept largely secret from the public. While to some they brought premature death, for the great majority of the world population their effects have so far been insignificant. By contrast, how little known is the fact that natural radioactivity has been around since human beginnings and that the cells of the human body have always been equipped to repair damage from radioactive radiation or other causes provided such damage does not occur too frequently. Elmar Traebert presents the physics underlying radioactivity without resorting to formulas and explains in an easily understandable manner the different types of radiation, their measurement and sources (in medicine, power plants, and weapons technology) and how they should be handled. He describes nuclear power plants and the safety problems they involve, sunburn, radiation therapy, uranium ammunition and uranium mining. Whoever knows about these things can more early cope with his own fears and maybe allay some of them. He can also see through statements made by different interest groups with regard to radioactive material and duly form his own opinion

  4. Early human communication helps in understanding language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenti Boero, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    Building a theory on extant species, as Ackermann et al. do, is a useful contribution to the field of language evolution. Here, I add another living model that might be of interest: human language ontogeny in the first year of life. A better knowledge of this phase might help in understanding two more topics among the "several building blocks of a comprehensive theory of the evolution of spoken language" indicated in their conclusion by Ackermann et al., that is, the foundation of the co-evolution of linguistic motor skills with the auditory skills underlying speech perception, and the possible phylogenetic interactions of protospeech production with referential capabilities.

  5. Language Evolution: A Changing Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corballis, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    From ancient times, religion and philosophy have regarded language as a faculty bestowed uniquely and suddenly on our own species, primarily as a mode of thought with communication as a byproduct. This view persists among some scientists and linguists and is counter to the theory of evolution, which implies that the evolution of complex structures is incremental. I argue here that language derives from mental processes with gradual evolutionary trajectories, including the generative capacities to travel mentally in time and space and into the minds of others. What may be distinctive in humans is the means to communicate these mental experiences along with knowledge gained from them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Emergence of Hybrid Grammars: language contact and change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboh, E.O.

    2015-01-01

    Children are extremely gifted in acquiring their native languages, but languages nevertheless change over time. Why does this paradox exist? In this study of creole languages, Enoch Aboh addresses this question, arguing that language acquisition requires contact between different linguistic

  7. A paradigmatic approach to language and language change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøsler, Lene

    2011-01-01

    The present contribution develops responses to the papers of Rosenbach, cHilpert, and Traugott and Trousdale found in this volume, with focus on the following topics: synchronic gradience and gradual language change, reanalysis and analogy, both especially with respect to the grammaticalization...

  8. Moving to understanding and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Deborah

    2010-05-01

    Creating an environment of inclusion for a culturally diverse nursing workforce is complex. The demographic shift in the country forecasted for over a decade has arrived. Today programs set up to recruit and retain multicultural and multilingual nursing staff are important organizational priorities. Employers want to build responsive and welcoming workplaces in which all feel engaged. This requires several things. Leaders must oversee system changes stimulated by a workforce similar to newly emerging cultural groups in their areas of service. The need exists for managers to possess non-ethnocentric management skills and are competent to take charge of teams motivated by a broad range of culture based values and beliefs. Diversity training, mentoring of staff and leadership development are benchmarks of an organization at the "tipping point" of change related to employing a diverse workforce.

  9. Understanding Culture and Influencing Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    difference to significantly change the society from a collectivist to individualist culture.42 Pakistan scores fourteen which indicates a strongly...Pakistan which possess strong uncertainty avoidance scores (70) and low individualistic scores (14) - and are collectivists - rules and laws are...score lower than fifty indicating a more collectivist society. This helps the strategic leader to appreciate the importance class and culture play on

  10. Spoken Language Understanding Systems for Extracting Semantic Information from Speech

    CERN Document Server

    Tur, Gokhan

    2011-01-01

    Spoken language understanding (SLU) is an emerging field in between speech and language processing, investigating human/ machine and human/ human communication by leveraging technologies from signal processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence. SLU systems are designed to extract the meaning from speech utterances and its applications are vast, from voice search in mobile devices to meeting summarization, attracting interest from both commercial and academic sectors. Both human/machine and human/human communications can benefit from the application of SLU, usin

  11. Medical problem and document model for natural language understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meystre, Stephanie; Haug, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    We are developing tools to help maintain a complete, accurate and timely problem list within a general purpose Electronic Medical Record system. As a part of this project, we have designed a system to automatically retrieve medical problems from free-text documents. Here we describe an information model based on XML (eXtensible Markup Language) and compliant with the CDA (Clinical Document Architecture). This model is used to ease the exchange of clinical data between the Natural Language Understanding application that retrieves potential problems from narrative document, and the problem list management application.

  12. Languages of Grief: a model for understanding the expressions of the bereaved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corless, Inge B.; Limbo, Rana; Bousso, Regina Szylit; Wrenn, Robert L.; Head, David; Lickiss, Norelle; Wass, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an overview of the key features of the expressions of grief. Grief is a response to loss or anticipated loss. Although universal, its oral and nonverbal expression varies across cultures and individuals. Loss is produced by an event perceived to be negative to varying degrees by the individuals involved and has the potential to trigger long-term changes in a person's cognitions and relationships. The languages used by the bereaved to express grief differ from the language used by professionals, creating dissonance between the two. Data were obtained from English language Medline and CINAHL databases, from professional and personal experiences, interviews with experts, and exploration of cemetery memorials. Blog websites and social networks provided additional materials for further refinement of the model. Content analysis of the materials and agreement by the authors as to the themes resulted in the development of the model. To bridge the gap between professional language and that used by the bereaved, a Languages of Grief model was developed consisting of four Modes of Expression, four Types of Language, plus three Contingent Factors. The Languages of Grief provides a framework for comprehending the grief of the individual, contributing to clinical understanding, and fruitful exploration by professionals in better understanding the use of languages by the bereaved. Attention to the Modes of Expression, Types of Language, and Contingent Factors provides the professional with a richer understanding of the grieving individual, a step in providing appropriate support to the bereaved. The Languages of Grief provides a framework for application to discrete occurrences with the goal of understanding grief from the perspective of the bereaved. PMID:25750773

  13. Slovene-English Language Contact and Language Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Šabec

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on Slovene - English language contact and the potential language change resulting from it. Both the immigrant context (the U.S. and Canada and Slovenia, where direct and indirect language contact can be observed respectively, are examined from two perspectives: social on the one hand and linguistic on the other. In the case of Slovene Americans and Canadians the emphasis is on language maintenance and shift, and on the relationship between mother tongue preservation and ethnic awareness. The linguistic section examines different types of bilingual discourse (borrowing, code switching, showing how the Slovene inflectional system in particular is being increasingly generalized, simplified and reduced, and how Slovene word order is gradually beginning to resemble that of English. In the case of Slovenia we are witnessing an unprecedented surge in the influence of English on Slovene, especially in the media (both classic and electronic, advertising, science, and the language of the young. This influence will be discussed on a number of levels, such as lexical, syntactic and intercultural, and illustrated by relevant examples.

  14. Linguistics: evolution and language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire

    2015-01-05

    Linguists have long identified sound changes that occur in parallel. Now novel research shows how Bayesian modeling can capture complex concerted changes, revealing how evolution of sounds proceeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Climate change and the language of human security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe language of ‘human security’ arose in the 1990s, including from UN work on ‘human development’. What contributions can it make, if any, to the understanding and especially the valuation of and response to the impacts of climate change? How does it compare and relate to other

  16. Climate change 101 : understanding and responding to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    To inform the climate change dialogue, the Pew Center on Global Climate Change and the Pew Center on the States have developed a series of brief reports entitled Climate Change 101: Understanding and Responding to Global Climate Change. These reports...

  17. Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes a single word changes everything. In his groundbreaking book "Choice Words", Peter Johnston demonstrated how the things teachers say (and don't say) have surprising consequences for the literate lives of students. Now, in "Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives", Peter shows how the words teachers choose affect the worlds students…

  18. Understanding the Language Demands on Science Students from an Integrated Science and Language Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Lay Hoon; Clarke, David John; Hart, Christina Eugene

    2014-04-01

    This case study of a science lesson, on the topic thermal expansion, examines the language demands on students from an integrated science and language perspective. The data were generated during a sequence of 9 lessons on the topic of 'States of Matter' in a Grade 7 classroom (12-13 years old students). We identify the language demands by comparing students' writings with the scientific account of expansion that the teacher intended the students to learn. The comparison involved both content analysis and lexicogrammatical (LG) analysis. The framework of Systemic Functional Linguistics was adopted for the LG analysis. Our analysis reveals differences in the meaning and the way LG resources were employed between the students' writings and the scientific account. From these differences, we found the notion of condition-of-use for LG resources to be a significant aspect of the language that students need to appropriate in order to employ the language of school science appropriately. This notion potentially provides a means by which teachers could concurrently address the conceptual and representational demands of science learning. Finally, we reflect on how the complementary use of content analysis and LG analysis provides a way for integrating the science and language perspectives in order to understand the demands of learning science through language.

  19. Imitation, sign language skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil eHolmer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU model (Rönnberg et al., 2013 pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1 we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2. Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at the T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills

  20. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into

  1. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  2. Language barriers and understanding of hospital discharge instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karliner, Leah S; Auerbach, Andrew; Nápoles, Anna; Schillinger, Dean; Nickleach, Dana; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2012-04-01

    Effective communication at hospital discharge is necessary for an optimal transition and to avoid adverse events. We investigated the association of a language barrier with patient understanding of discharge instructions. Spanish-speaking, Chinese-speaking, and English-speaking patients admitted to 2 urban hospitals between 2005 and 2008, comparing patient understanding of follow-up appointment type, and medication category and purpose between limited English-proficient (LEP) and English-proficient patients. Of the 308 patients, 203 were LEP. Rates of understanding were low overall for follow-up appointment type (56%) and the 3 medication outcomes (category 48%, purpose 55%, both 41%). In unadjusted analysis, LEP patients were less likely than English-proficient patients to know appointment type (50% vs. 66%; P=0.01), medication category (45% vs. 54%; P=0.05), and medication category and purpose combined (38% vs. 47%; P=0.04), but equally likely to know medication purpose alone. These results persisted in the adjusted models for medication outcomes: LEP patients had lower odds of understanding medication category (odds ratio 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.95); and category/purpose (odds ratio 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.89). Understanding of appointment type and medications after discharge was low, with LEP patients demonstrating worse understanding of medications. System interventions to improve communication at hospital discharge for all patients, and especially those with LEP, are needed.

  3. A paradigmatic approach to language and language change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøsler, Lene

    2011-01-01

    The present contribution develops responses to the papers of Rosenbach, cHilpert, and Traugott and Trousdale found in this volume, with focus on the following topics: synchronic gradience and gradual language change, reanalysis and analogy, both especially with respect to the grammaticalization o......, the term ‘construction’ loses its explanatory power, but it is useful to distinguish between the level of the individual lexical verb and the level of grammar. The term ‘construction’ will be employed here only in the latter sense...

  4. A Bakhtinian Understanding of Social Constructivism in Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Yüksel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that there is not a single school of thought that is called social constructivism, and ideas and assumptions from various disciplines in different fields are being incorporated into the social constructivist understanding. In this paper, a Bakhtinian perspective of social constructivism on education and language learning is discussed and studies that have explored Bakhtinian concepts in education have been reviewed. It is recommended that examining the structure of social interaction in the classroom based on the Bakhtinian concepts discussed (i.e., dialogism, monologism, recitation can help us see the classrooms from a different perspective and provide insights that are not available from other perspectives.

  5. Language Travel or Language Tourism: Have Educational Trips Changed So Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This article points out the changes in organization, students and language learning that language trips, as contrasted with educational trips (of which language trips are a subgroup) have gone through in the last years. The article emphasizes the need to differentiate between language trips and language tourism based on issues of additional…

  6. Pragmatics in language change and lexical creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This essay examines language change and linguistic creativity as revealed by remodelling, especially as a source for euphemisms and euphemistic dysphemisms and as a function of verbal play. Within the scope of this essay, there are predominantly two ways in which novel terms and expressions are created leading to language change: formally through remodelling and semantically through figurative language. Consider some of the words for nakedness. There is the orthophemistic term nude, from Latin nudus, often used of photographic or painted representations of naked women and, much more rarely, of a naked man-hence the marked term male nude. Whether a nude is artistic or pornographic depends on the viewer belief. A colloquial Australian euphemism for being in the nude is in the nuddie. Other euphemisms include as nature intended, in one's birthday suit, in the altogether, and in the buff (⇐buff[alo] leather, buff skin transferred to humans). Being naked is captured by the dysphemism bare-arsed and the more euphemistic butt / buck naked in which buck ⇐ butt. The orthophemistic term stark naked and the connected colloquial euphemism starkers also arose by replacing a final /t/ with a /k/: stark ⇐ start "tail, arse". Nudists like to go about in the open air without clothes on and, being as nature intended when in natural surroundings, are euphemistically called naturists. Such expressions display folk-culture in a remarkable inventiveness of metaphor and figurative language sourced in the perceived characteristics of whatever is being talked about. For instance, terms for tabooed objects and events provide ready-made material for the dysphemistic language of curses, insults, epithets, and expletives. The essay shows that X-phemisms (orthophemisms and/or euphemisms and/or dysphemisms) are motivated by a speaker/writer's want to be seen to take a certain stance by upgrading, downgrading, obfuscating, and deceiving; and they extensively manifest indulgence in

  7. Crowdsourcing Language Change with Smartphone Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Leemann

    Full Text Available Crowdsourcing linguistic phenomena with smartphone applications is relatively new. In linguistics, apps have predominantly been developed to create pronunciation dictionaries, to train acoustic models, and to archive endangered languages. This paper presents the first account of how apps can be used to collect data suitable for documenting language change: we created an app, Dialäkt Äpp (DÄ, which predicts users' dialects. For 16 linguistic variables, users select a dialectal variant from a drop-down menu. DÄ then geographically locates the user's dialect by suggesting a list of communes where dialect variants most similar to their choices are used. Underlying this prediction are 16 maps from the historical Linguistic Atlas of German-speaking Switzerland, which documents the linguistic situation around 1950. Where users disagree with the prediction, they can indicate what they consider to be their dialect's location. With this information, the 16 variables can be assessed for language change. Thanks to the playfulness of its functionality, DÄ has reached many users; our linguistic analyses are based on data from nearly 60,000 speakers. Results reveal a relative stability for phonetic variables, while lexical and morphological variables seem more prone to change. Crowdsourcing large amounts of dialect data with smartphone apps has the potential to complement existing data collection techniques and to provide evidence that traditional methods cannot, with normal resources, hope to gather. Nonetheless, it is important to emphasize a range of methodological caveats, including sparse knowledge of users' linguistic backgrounds (users only indicate age, sex and users' self-declaration of their dialect. These are discussed and evaluated in detail here. Findings remain intriguing nevertheless: as a means of quality control, we report that traditional dialectological methods have revealed trends similar to those found by the app. This underlines the

  8. Crowdsourcing Language Change with Smartphone Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemann, Adrian; Kolly, Marie-José; Purves, Ross; Britain, David; Glaser, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing linguistic phenomena with smartphone applications is relatively new. In linguistics, apps have predominantly been developed to create pronunciation dictionaries, to train acoustic models, and to archive endangered languages. This paper presents the first account of how apps can be used to collect data suitable for documenting language change: we created an app, Dialäkt Äpp (DÄ), which predicts users' dialects. For 16 linguistic variables, users select a dialectal variant from a drop-down menu. DÄ then geographically locates the user's dialect by suggesting a list of communes where dialect variants most similar to their choices are used. Underlying this prediction are 16 maps from the historical Linguistic Atlas of German-speaking Switzerland, which documents the linguistic situation around 1950. Where users disagree with the prediction, they can indicate what they consider to be their dialect's location. With this information, the 16 variables can be assessed for language change. Thanks to the playfulness of its functionality, DÄ has reached many users; our linguistic analyses are based on data from nearly 60,000 speakers. Results reveal a relative stability for phonetic variables, while lexical and morphological variables seem more prone to change. Crowdsourcing large amounts of dialect data with smartphone apps has the potential to complement existing data collection techniques and to provide evidence that traditional methods cannot, with normal resources, hope to gather. Nonetheless, it is important to emphasize a range of methodological caveats, including sparse knowledge of users' linguistic backgrounds (users only indicate age, sex) and users' self-declaration of their dialect. These are discussed and evaluated in detail here. Findings remain intriguing nevertheless: as a means of quality control, we report that traditional dialectological methods have revealed trends similar to those found by the app. This underlines the validity of the

  9. Crowdsourcing Language Change with Smartphone Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemann, Adrian; Kolly, Marie-José; Purves, Ross; Britain, David; Glaser, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing linguistic phenomena with smartphone applications is relatively new. In linguistics, apps have predominantly been developed to create pronunciation dictionaries, to train acoustic models, and to archive endangered languages. This paper presents the first account of how apps can be used to collect data suitable for documenting language change: we created an app, Dialäkt Äpp (DÄ), which predicts users’ dialects. For 16 linguistic variables, users select a dialectal variant from a drop-down menu. DÄ then geographically locates the user’s dialect by suggesting a list of communes where dialect variants most similar to their choices are used. Underlying this prediction are 16 maps from the historical Linguistic Atlas of German-speaking Switzerland, which documents the linguistic situation around 1950. Where users disagree with the prediction, they can indicate what they consider to be their dialect’s location. With this information, the 16 variables can be assessed for language change. Thanks to the playfulness of its functionality, DÄ has reached many users; our linguistic analyses are based on data from nearly 60,000 speakers. Results reveal a relative stability for phonetic variables, while lexical and morphological variables seem more prone to change. Crowdsourcing large amounts of dialect data with smartphone apps has the potential to complement existing data collection techniques and to provide evidence that traditional methods cannot, with normal resources, hope to gather. Nonetheless, it is important to emphasize a range of methodological caveats, including sparse knowledge of users’ linguistic backgrounds (users only indicate age, sex) and users’ self-declaration of their dialect. These are discussed and evaluated in detail here. Findings remain intriguing nevertheless: as a means of quality control, we report that traditional dialectological methods have revealed trends similar to those found by the app. This underlines the validity

  10. Languages in a global world learning for better cultural understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Jessica; Hinton, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or countries, are more successful than others at teaching languages. The book comprises chapters by different authors on the subject of language learning. There are chapters on the role of motivation; the way that languages, cultures and identities are interc

  11. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States Relates to Desire Language and Emotion Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between mother mental state language and child desire language and emotion understanding in 15--24-month-olds. At both times point, mothers described pictures to their infants and mother talk was coded for mental and nonmental state language. Children were administered 2 emotion understanding tasks and their mental…

  12. Patient involvement and language barriers: Problems of agreement or understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmark, Anne Marie Dalby; Svennevig, Jan; Gerwing, Jennifer; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to explicate efforts for realizing patient-centeredness (PCC) and involvement (SDM) in a difficult decision-making situation. It investigates what communicative strategies a physician used and the immediate, observable consequences for patient participation. From a corpus of videotaped hospital encounters, one case in which the physician and patient used Norwegian as lingua franca was selected for analysis using conversation analysis (CA). Secondary data were measures of PCC and SDM. Though the physician did extensive interactional work to secure the patient's understanding and acceptance of a treatment recommendation, his persistent attempts did not succeed in generating the patient's participation. In ratings of PCC and SDM, this case scored well above average. Despite the fact that this encounter displays some of the 'best actual practice' of PCC and SDM within the corpus, our analysis of the interaction shows why the strategies were insufficient in the context of a language barrier and possible disagreement. When facing problems of understanding, agreement and participation in treatment decision-making, relatively good patient centered skills may not suffice. Knowledge about the interactional realization of key activities is needed for developing training targeted at overcoming such challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Languages in a Global World: Learning for Better Cultural Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Bruno Della, Ed.; Scott, Jessica, Ed.; Hinton, Christina, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or…

  14. Using Movies in Language Classrooms as Means of Understanding Cultural Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin, Nafi

    2013-01-01

    In a globalised world with different languages and cultures, learning foreign languages is a necessity for ensuring international communication and understanding. Considering the fact that language and culture are inseparable, learning a language also involves learning the associated culture. The close interdependency between culture and language can be used to contribute to social cohesion and stability, in areas where cultural bias, political and religious hostility is prevalent. Therefore,...

  15. Language change: Glimpses from the phonology of overseas French

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like all social institutions, human languages “live, change and die." There are specific factors that cause the transformation and or decay of a language. The present essay focuses on the factors of language change and how far such factors can be said to apply to the development of overseas French, that is, the French ...

  16. The complexity of language change: The case of Ancient Hebrew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article develops a theory of language change and diffusion in the light of new developments in contemporary linguistics on the themes of language evolution and the rise of linguistic complexity. The core assumptions of this article are, first, the fact that a language inevitably changes and diffuses over time and, second, ...

  17. Understanding the Role of Academic Language on Conceptual Understanding in an Introductory Materials Science and Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jacquelyn

    Students may use the technical engineering terms without knowing what these words mean. This creates a language barrier in engineering that influences student learning. Previous research has been conducted to characterize the difference between colloquial and scientific language. Since this research had not yet been applied explicitly to engineering, conclusions from the area of science education were used instead. Various researchers outlined strategies for helping students acquire scientific language. However, few examined and quantified the relationship it had on student learning. A systemic functional linguistics framework was adopted for this dissertation which is a framework that has not previously been used in engineering education research. This study investigated how engineering language proficiency influenced conceptual understanding of introductory materials science and engineering concepts. To answer the research questions about engineering language proficiency, a convenience sample of forty-one undergraduate students in an introductory materials science and engineering course was used. All data collected was integrated with the course. Measures included the Materials Concept Inventory, a written engineering design task, and group observations. Both systemic functional linguistics and mental models frameworks were utilized to interpret data and guide analysis. A series of regression analyses were conducted to determine if engineering language proficiency predicts group engineering term use, if conceptual understanding predicts group engineering term use, and if conceptual understanding predicts engineering language proficiency. Engineering academic language proficiency was found to be strongly linked to conceptual understanding in the context of introductory materials engineering courses. As the semester progressed, this relationship became even stronger. The more engineering concepts students are expected to learn, the more important it is that they

  18. Areas Recruited during Action Understanding Are Not Modulated by Auditory or Sign Language Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuxing; Chen, Quanjing; Lingnau, Angelika; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2016-01-01

    The observation of other people's actions recruits a network of areas including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG). These regions have been shown to be activated through both visual and auditory inputs. Intriguingly, previous studies found no engagement of IFG and IPL for deaf participants during non-linguistic action observation, leading to the proposal that auditory experience or sign language usage might shape the functionality of these areas. To understand which variables induce plastic changes in areas recruited during the processing of other people's actions, we examined the effects of tasks (action understanding and passive viewing) and effectors (arm actions vs. leg actions), as well as sign language experience in a group of 12 congenitally deaf signers and 13 hearing participants. In Experiment 1, we found a stronger activation during an action recognition task in comparison to a low-level visual control task in IFG, IPL and pMTG in both deaf signers and hearing individuals, but no effect of auditory or sign language experience. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of the first experiment using a passive viewing task. Together, our results provide robust evidence demonstrating that the response obtained in IFG, IPL, and pMTG during action recognition and passive viewing is not affected by auditory or sign language experience, adding further support for the supra-modal nature of these regions.

  19. Understanding Patchy Landscape Dynamics: Towards a Landscape Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucherel, Cédric; Boudon, Frédéric; Houet, Thomas; Castets, Mathieu; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Patchy landscapes driven by human decisions and/or natural forces are still a challenge to be understood and modelled. No attempt has been made up to now to describe them by a coherent framework and to formalize landscape changing rules. Overcoming this lacuna was our first objective here, and this was largely based on the notion of Rewriting Systems, also called Formal Grammars. We used complicated scenarios of agricultural dynamics to model landscapes and to write their corresponding driving rule equations. Our second objective was to illustrate the relevance of this landscape language concept for landscape modelling through various grassland managements, with the final aim to assess their respective impacts on biological conservation. For this purpose, we made the assumptions that a higher grassland appearance frequency and higher land cover connectivity are favourable to species conservation. Ecological results revealed that dairy and beef livestock production systems are more favourable to wild species than is hog farming, although in different ways. Methodological results allowed us to efficiently model and formalize these landscape dynamics. This study demonstrates the applicability of the Rewriting System framework to the modelling of agricultural landscapes and, hopefully, to other patchy landscapes. The newly defined grammar is able to explain changes that are neither necessarily local nor Markovian, and opens a way to analytical modelling of landscape dynamics. PMID:23049935

  20. Using Movies in Language Classrooms as Means of Understanding Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafi Yalcin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised world with different languages and cultures, learning foreign languages is a necessity for ensuring international communication and understanding. Considering the fact that language and culture are inseparable, learning a language also involves learning the associated culture. The close interdependency between culture and language can be used to contribute to social cohesion and stability, in areas where cultural bias, political and religious hostility is prevalent. Therefore, language teaching practices can be used to eradicate stereotypes and to promote intercultural understanding, universally shared values, which will serve to the peaceful coexistence of different people in the world. Movies chosen appropriately for this purpose, with a rich source of cultural events and varying patterns of human behaviors, seem to be an appropriate tool to enhance the understanding of cultural diversity. This study describes the rationale, ways and activities of using movies in language classrooms as a means of developing the understanding for cultural diversity.

  1. Understanding Controversies in Urban Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Nina; Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the controversies that exist in urban climate change adaptation and how these controversies influence the role of homeowners in urban adaptation planning. A concrete SUDS project in a housing cooperative in Copenhagen has been used as a case study thereby investigating...... the multiple understandings “Sustainable Urban Drainages System’s” (SUDS). Several different perspectives are identified with regard to what are and what will become the main climate problems in the urban environment as well as what are considered to be the best responses to these problems. Building...... on the actor-network inspired theory of “urban green assemblages” we argue that at least three different assemblages can be identified in urban climate change adaptation. Each assemblage frames problems and responses differently, and thereby assigns different types of roles to homeowners. As climate change...

  2. Understanding Risk for Reading Difficulties in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kimberly A.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the preschool language and early literacy skills of kindergarten good and poor readers, and to determine the extent to which these skills predict reading status. Method: Participants were 136 children with language impairment enrolled in early childhood special education classrooms.…

  3. Understanding the Relationship between Language Proficiency, Language Impairment and Rehabilitation: Evidence from a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Swathi; Iakupova, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to address the relationship between language proficiency, language impairment and rehabilitation in bilingual Russian-English individuals with aphasia. As a first step, we examined two Russian-English patients' pre-stroke language proficiency using a detailed and comprehensive language use and history questionnaire and…

  4. Understanding the Nature of Learners' Out-of-Class Language Learning Experience with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Hu, Xiao; Lyu, Boning

    2018-01-01

    Out-of-class learning with technology comprises an essential context of second language development. Understanding the nature of out-of-class language learning with technology is the initial step towards safeguarding its quality. This study examined the types of learning experiences that language learners engaged in outside the classroom and the…

  5. Understanding language awareness in the first language teaching in Slovenia as a “traditional monocultural“ society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel Jerca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the didactics of the Slovenian language as the first language the term language awareness is related primarily to the identity function of standard language as the most important element of the national and cultural awareness, while the conception of language awareness, based on the functional linguistics, has been put forward only in the last decade. Therefore, the main issue is how to understand language and linguistic cultural awareness in a society which is traditionally considered “culturally monolithic”, and how they should be dealt with in the first language teaching. In attempt to find the answer, first main features of both the language and linguistic cultural awareness are presented: their levels, components and emphasized language functions. It is evident that a person’s linguistic activity and his/her linguistic identification are inseparable. Because of this, the development of language and cultural awareness in the context of two models of first language teaching is discussed later on. In the model aimed at the development of functional communicative competence they are developed optionally and unrelated to each other. Only the model which aims at critical communicative competence allows developing them closely related to each other and to critical thinking.

  6. Understanding the DSM-5: stasis and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rachel

    2018-03-01

    This paper aims to understand the DSM-5 through situating it within the context of the historical development of the DSM series. When one looks at the sets of diagnostic criteria, the DSM-5 is strikingly similar to the DSM-IV. I argue that at this level the DSM has become 'locked-in' and difficult to change. At the same time, at the structural, or conceptual, level there have been radical changes, for example in the definition of 'mental disorder', in the role of theory and of values, and in the abandonment of the multiaxial approach to diagnosis. The way that the DSM-5 was constructed means that the overall conceptual framework of the classification only barely constrains the sets of diagnostic criteria it contains.

  7. Sign language: its history and contribution to the understanding of the biological nature of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Robert J

    2005-05-01

    The development of conceptualization of a biological basis of language during the 20th century has come about, in part, through the appreciation of the central nervous system's ability to utilize varied sensory inputs, and particularly vision, to develop language. Sign language has been a part of the linguistic experience from prehistory to the present day. Data suggest that human language may have originated as a visual language and became primarily auditory with the later development of our voice/speech tract. Sign language may be categorized into two types. The first is used by individuals who have auditory/oral language and the signs are used for special situations, such as communication in a monastery in which there is a vow of silence. The second is used by those who do not have access to auditory/oral language, namely the deaf. The history of the two forms of sign language and the development of the concept of the biological basis of language are reviewed from the fourth century BC to the present day. Sign languages of the deaf have been recognized since at least the fourth century BC. The codification of a monastic sign language occurred in the seventh to eighth centuries AD. Probable synergy between the two forms of sign language occurred in the 16th century. Among other developments, the Abbey de L'Epée introduced, in the 18th century, an oral syntax, French, into a sign language based upon indigenous signs of the deaf and newly created signs. During the 19th century, the concept of a "critical" period for the acquisition of language developed; this was an important stimulus for the exploration of the biological basis of language. The introduction of techniques, e.g. evoked potentials and functional MRI, during the 20th century allowed study of the brain functions associated with language.

  8. Understanding Resistance to Climate Change Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Maureen

    2014-12-01

    Fifty years after the emergence of warnings over the effects of the environmental impacts of industrialization and other conditions of a planet subjugated by humans, we are still entertaining discussions about the existence of the phenomena of climate change. Worse still, we have not checked the behaviors and conditions that exacerbate the rate of environmental destruction. Older people, particularly those who are economically vulnerable, are among those most at risk in disasters, including events resulting from climate change. By applying the "epistemologies of ignorance" outlined by Nancy Tuana, I attempt to understand the rooted ignorance that prevents acceptance of the environmental impact of human kind's unrepentant misuse of the world's natural resources and the refusal to curb the excesses that have lead to environmental damage that has had, and that will continue to have, dire consequences on the planet and for the most vulnerable denizens of Earth. Far from being a pessimistic project of abjection and despair, this article proposes that an examination of climate change denial can provide guidance for the development of a better counter-narrative. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. [Women's body language during the post-partum period: language understanding based on the work of Maurice Merleau-Ponty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machineski, Gicelle Galvan; Schneider, Jacó Fernando; Bastos, Carmen Célia Barradas Correia

    2006-09-01

    This study aimed understanding the woman's language during the post-partum period as to her perceptions of her body language. This study was based in the work of Maurice Merleau-Pont. Ten women living in Cascavel, State of Parand, Brazil, were interviewed from February to May 2005. This study allowed the understanding of the meaning that the woman gives to her existence in the post childbirth period. This study may support training of health professionals in terms of understanding how women experience the post-partum period, thereby allowing better care of these patients.

  10. Understanding Written Corrective Feedback in Second-Language Grammar Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jason Paul; Wulf, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Written Corrective Feedback (WCF) is used extensively in second-language (L2) writing classrooms despite controversy over its effectiveness. This study examines indirect WCF, an instructional procedure that flags L2 students' errors with editing symbols that guide their corrections. WCF practitioners assume that this guidance will lead to…

  11. Unpacking the Right to Plain and Understandable Language in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measures aimed at procedural fairness address conduct during the bargaining process and generally aim at ensuring transparency. Transparency in relation to the terms of a contract relates to whether the terms of the contract terms accessible, in clear language, well-structured, and cross-referenced, with prominence being ...

  12. Frances: A Tool for Understanding Computer Architecture and Assembly Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, Tyler; Pokorny, Kian L.; Rajan, Hridesh

    2012-01-01

    Students in all areas of computing require knowledge of the computing device including software implementation at the machine level. Several courses in computer science curricula address these low-level details such as computer architecture and assembly languages. For such courses, there are advantages to studying real architectures instead of…

  13. Understanding the Heritage Language Student: Proficiency and Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Given the ever-growing number of Spanish heritage learners in both universities and colleges, the need has continued to grow for the development of placement exams that accurately measure language ability, are simple to evaluate, and are easy to administer to large numbers of students. This article analyzes the implementation of a placement exam…

  14. SOUTH AFRICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: CHANGING POLICIES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa have been affected by the policies of apartheid, and its educational and linguistic consequences, in a .... teaching strategies, and more recently of the perception that a signed language is a manual form ... of color and on the basis of the (former) official spoken languages designated by the apartheid education ...

  15. On Not Understanding Extraordinary Language in the Buddhist Tantra of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Payne

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The question motivating this essay is how tantric Buddhist practitioners in Japan understood language such as to believe that mantra, dhāraṇī, and related forms are efficacious. “Extraordinary language” is introduced as a cover term for these several similar language uses found in tantric Buddhist practices in Japan. The essay proceeds to a critical examination of Anglo-American philosophy of language to determine whether the concepts, categories, and concerns of that field can contribute to the analysis and understanding of extraordinary language. However, that philosophy of language does not contribute to this analysis, as it is constrained by its continuing focus on its founding concepts, dating particularly from the work of Frege. Comparing it to Indic thought regarding language reveals a distinct mismatch, further indicating the limiting character of the philosophy of language. The analysis then turns to examine two other explanations of tantric language use found in religious studies literature: magical language and performative language. These also, however, prove to be unhelpful. While the essay is primarily critical, one candidate for future constructive study is historical pragmatics, as suggested by Ronald Davidson. The central place of extraordinary language indicates that Indic reflections on the nature of language informed tantric Buddhist practice in Japan and are not simply cultural baggage.

  16. Understanding Pervasive Language Impairment in Young Children: Exploring Patterns in Narrative Language and Functional Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Anna Jeddeloh

    2013-01-01

    Research has identified language impairment as a pervasive disability (Bishop & Edmundson, 1987; Greenhalgh & Strong, 2001). Classroom communication behaviors have a role in the maintenance of special education eligibility and functional communication difficulties for young children with language impairment. This paper reviews the…

  17. Measuring and Comparing Academic Language Development and Conceptual Understanding via Science Notebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Margarita; Tong, Fuhui; Irby, Beverly J.; Lara-Alecio, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this quantitative study measured and compared the academic language development and conceptual understanding of fifth-grade economically disadvantaged English language learners (ELL), former ELLs, and native English-speaking (ES) students as reflected in their science notebook scores. Using an instrument they developed, the authors…

  18. The Meta Language of Accounting: What's the Level of Students' Understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Raymond J.; O'Callaghan, Susanne; Walker, John P.; Williams, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Students rely on rote knowledge to learn accounting concepts. However, this approach does not allow them to understanding the meta language of accounting. Meta language is simply the concepts and terms that are used in a profession and are easily understood by its users. Terms such as equity, assets, and balance sheet are part of the accounting…

  19. Natural Language Understanding Systems Within the A. I. Paradigm: A Survey and Some Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Yorick

    The paper surveys the major projects on the understanding of natural language that fall within what may now be called the artificial intelligence paradigm of natural language systems. Some space is devoted to arguing that the paradigm is now a reality and different in significant respects from the generative paradigm of present-day linguistics.…

  20. Directly Comparing Computer and Human Performance in Language Understanding and Visual Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva L.; And Others

    Evaluation models are being developed for assessing artificial intelligence (AI) systems in terms of similar performance by groups of people. Natural language understanding and vision systems are the areas of concentration. In simplest terms, the goal is to norm a given natural language system's performance on a sample of people. The specific…

  1. Simulating the Effects of Cross-Generational Cultural Transmission on Language Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    Language evolves in a socio-cultural environment. Apart from biological evolution and individual learning, cultural transmission also casts important influence on many aspects of language evolution. In this paper, based on the lexicon-syntax coevolution model, we extend the acquisition framework in our previous work to examine the roles of three forms of cultural transmission spanning the offspring, parent, and grandparent generations in language change. These transmissions are: those between the parent and offspring generations (PO), those within the offspring generation (OO), and those between the grandparent and offspring generations (GO). The simulation results of the considered model and relevant analyses illustrate not only the necessity of PO and OO transmissions for language change, thus echoing our previous findings, but also the importance of GO transmission, a form of cross-generational cultural transmission, on preserving the mutual understandability of the communal language across generations of individuals.

  2. Understanding of subordinate clauses in the language of dysphasic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Emilija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of peculiarities of syntactic development, as an element of language structure on the grammatical level of children suffering from developmental dysphasia, after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years. Syntactic level at younger school age was studied by assessing language competence in the accomplishment of communicative sentence with subordinate clause. The research was performed on the samples of children at school age in regular primary schools in Belgrade. The sample comprised 160 respondents who were divided in two groups: target and comparative. The target group consisted of 60 respondents (children suffering from developmental dysphasia after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years, and the comparative group consisted of 100 respondents from regular primary school "Gavrilo Princip" in Zemun. Research results show that grammatical development of children suffering from developmental dysphasia takes place at a considerably slower rate and entails substantially more difficulties in accomplishing predication in subordinate clauses. This paper discusses the consequences which the difficulties in grammatical development can have on school achievement.

  3. Understanding Early Educators' Readiness to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shira M.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the fields of humanistic psychology, counseling, organizational change, and implementation science have been asking a question that is at the heart of today's early care and education quality improvement efforts: When it comes to changing one's behavior, what makes a person ready to change? Although the concept of readiness to…

  4. Understanding foreign language teachers' practical knowledge: What's the role of prior language learning experience?

    OpenAIRE

    Arıoğul, Sibel

    2007-01-01

    Teachers’ practical knowledge is considered as teachers’ general knowledge, beliefs and thinking (Borg, 2003) which can be traced in teachers’ practices (Connelly & Clandinin, 1988) and shaped by various background sources (Borg, 2003; Grossman, 1990; Meijer, Verloop, and Beijard, 1999). This paper initially discusses how language teachers are influenced by three background sources: teachers’ prior language learning experiences, prior teaching experience, and professional coursework in pr...

  5. Seeking Synthesis: The Integrative Problem in Understanding Language and Its Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T; Schoenemann, P Thomas

    2016-04-01

    We discuss two problems for a general scientific understanding of language, sequences and synergies: how language is an intricately sequenced behavior and how language is manifested as a multidimensionally structured behavior. Though both are central in our understanding, we observe that the former tends to be studied more than the latter. We consider very general conditions that hold in human brain evolution and its computational implications, and identify multimodal and multiscale organization as two key characteristics of emerging cognitive function in our species. This suggests that human brains, and cognitive function specifically, became more adept at integrating diverse information sources and operating at multiple levels for linguistic performance. We argue that framing language evolution, learning, and use in terms of synergies suggests new research questions, and it may be a fruitful direction for new developments in theory and modeling of language as an integrated system. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Removing obstacles for African American English-speaking children through greater understanding of language difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Conner, Tracy; Jackson, Janice E

    2013-01-01

    Language difference among speakers of African American English (AAE) has often been considered language deficit, based on a lack of understanding about the AAE variety. Following Labov (1972), Wolfram (1969), Green (2002, 2011), and others, we define AAE as a complex rule-governed linguistic system and briefly discuss language structures that it shares with general American English (GAE) and others that are unique to AAE. We suggest ways in which mistaken ideas about the language variety add to children's difficulties in learning the mainstream dialect and, in effect, deny them the benefits of their educational programs. We propose that a linguistically informed approach that highlights correspondences between AAE and the mainstream dialect and trains students and teachers to understand language varieties at a metalinguistic level creates environments that support the academic achievement of AAE-speaking students. Finally, we present 3 program types that are recommended for helping students achieve the skills they need to be successful in multiple linguistic environments.

  7. Exemplary, New Teachers' Perspectives on Teaching Second-Language Learners and Developing Academic Language: An Embodied Understanding of Practice Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Maria-Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, longitudinal study examines the perspectives on professional development of a group of exemplary, new secondary teachers of English Language Arts and Spanish (n = 4). This study explores the teachers' development through the lens of the "embodied understanding of practice" (EUP), a novel theoretical framework of…

  8. It's Rather like Learning a Language: Development of talk and conceptual understanding in mechanics lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincke, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Although a broad literature exists concerning the development of conceptual understanding of force and other topics within mechanics, little is known about the role and development of students' talk about the subject. The paper presents an in-depth investigation of students' talk whilst being introduced to the concept of force. The main research goal was to investigate and understand how students develop an understanding of the concept of force and how they use and understand the term 'force'. Therefore, we make relation to the research field of students' preconceptions and the field of second language learning. Two classes of students (N = 47) were videotaped during a time period of nine lessons, each transcribed and analysed using a category system. Additional data were obtained via written tasks, logs kept by the students, and tests. The detailed analysis of the talk and the results of the tests indicate that students face difficulties in using the term 'force' scientifically similar to those in a foreign language instruction. Vygotsky already recognised a relationship between learning in science and learning a language. In this paper, important aspects of this relationship are discussed based upon empirical data. We conclude that in some respects it might be useful to make reference to the research related to language learning when thinking about improving science education. In particular, according to Selinker's concept of interlanguage describing language-learning processes within language instruction, the language used by the students during physics lessons can be viewed as a 'scientific interlanguage'.

  9. Global Environmental change: Understanding the Human Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrisette, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    This book is from the National Research Council's Committee on the Human dimensions of Global Change. The object is to examine what is known about human dimensions of global environmental change, identify the major immediate needs for knowledge, and recommend a strategy over the next 5-10 years. Case studies are used in human causes of global change. issues related to theory, methods, and data are covered, as well as institutional needs for interdicipinary approaches

  10. Grammatical gender in Norwegian: Language acquisition and language change

    OpenAIRE

    Rodina, Yulia; Westergaard, Marit

    2015-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript version. Published version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1470542714000245 Based on data from two experimental studies, this paper investigates the production of gender in a Norwegian dialect (Tromsø) by several groups of child and adult speakers. The findings show that gender is late acquired (around age 7) and, furthermore, that there are considerable differences between the groups, indicating an ongoing historical change that involves ...

  11. Global environmental change: local perceptions, understandings, and explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Pyhälä

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental change (GEC is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC - particularly in small-scale societies - and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management based on individual perceptions. We carried out a systematic literature review that aims to provide an exhaustive state-of-the-art of the degree to and manner in which the study of local perceptions of change are being addressed in GEC research. We reviewed 126 articles found in peer-reviewed journals (between 1998 and 2014 that address local perceptions of GEC. We used three particular lenses of analysis that are known to influence local perceptions, namely (i cognition, (ii culture and knowledge, and (iii possibilities for adaptation.We present our findings on the geographical distribution of the current research, the most common changes reported, perceived drivers and impacts of change, and local explanations and evaluations of change and impacts. Overall, we found the studies to be geographically biased, lacking methodological reporting, mostly theory based with little primary data, and lacking of indepth analysis of the psychological and ontological influences in perception and implications for adaptation. We provide recommendations for future GEC research and propose the development of a "meta-language" around adaptation, perception, and mediation to encourage a greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity around these phenomena across multiple scales, and improved codesign and facilitation of locally relevant adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  12. Belief Reasoning and Emotion Understanding in Balanced Bilingual and Language-Dominant Mexican American Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Amy A; Gasquoine, Philip G

    2016-01-01

    Belief reasoning and emotion understanding were measured among 102 Mexican American bilingual children ranging from 4 to 7 years old. All children were tested in English and Spanish after ensuring minimum comprehension in each language. Belief reasoning was assessed using 2 false and 1 true belief tasks. Emotion understanding was measured using subtests from the Test for Emotion Comprehension. The influence of family background variables of yearly income, parental education level, and number of siblings on combined Spanish and English vocabulary, belief reasoning, and emotion understanding was assessed by regression analyses. Age and emotion understanding predicted belief reasoning. Vocabulary and belief reasoning predicted emotion understanding. When the sample was divided into language-dominant and balanced bilingual groups on the basis of language proficiency difference scores, there were no significant differences on belief reasoning or emotion understanding. Language groups were demographically similar with regard to child age, parental educational level, and family income. Results suggest Mexican American language-dominant and balanced bilinguals develop belief reasoning and emotion understanding similarly.

  13. Understanding Transfer as Personal Change: Concerns, Intentions, and Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeani C.

    2013-01-01

    Adult education is about change. Change in knowledge and understanding. Change in attitudes and beliefs. Change in skills and behaviors. The transfer that adult educators and learners often want to achieve is that change. In situations where transfer equals change, models of change can be useful to describe, support, and predict transfer. This…

  14. Research in Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    of RUS 157 157 160 161 SECTION 9. THE PRAGMATICS OF NON-ANAPHORIC NOUN PHRASES 9.1 Introduction 163 9.2 Setting the Stage: Previous views on... ANAPHORA , ELLIPSIS, DISCOURSE,... MRL DATA BASE TRANSLATOR DBMS COMMAND GENERATOR DBMS COMMANDS FIG. 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE IRUS SYSTEM 146...understanding system (such as semantics, pragmatics , and a dialogue expert) can be used to improve the performance of the parser. The production of the

  15. Muscle changes in aging: understanding sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siparsky, Patrick N; Kirkendall, Donald T; Garrett, William E

    2014-01-01

    Muscle physiology in the aging athlete is complex. Sarcopenia, the age-related decrease in lean muscle mass, can alter activity level and affect quality of life. This review addresses the microscopic and macroscopic changes in muscle with age, recognizes contributing factors including nutrition and changes in hormone levels, and identifies potential pharmacologic agents in clinical trial that may aid in the battle of this complex, costly, and disabling problem. Level 5.

  16. A basic form-language for shape-changing interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Vallgårda, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a basic form language for shape- changing forms that work independently of materials and contexts of use. This form language is meant to inform design practice and therefore it is essential that it is easily graspable and available. Instead of relying on post analyses and...... of the language in three ways: through using it in practice both as generative for our designs, as means to communicate with external collaborators, and finally we demonstrate its analytical power through analyzing three shape-changing interfaces made by others....

  17. Paleoclimates: Understanding climate change past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    The field of paleoclimatology relies on physical, chemical, and biological proxies of past climate changes that have been preserved in natural archives such as glacial ice, tree rings, sediments, corals, and speleothems. Paleoclimate archives obtained through field investigations, ocean sediment coring expeditions, ice sheet coring programs, and other projects allow scientists to reconstruct climate change over much of earth's history. When combined with computer model simulations, paleoclimatic reconstructions are used to test hypotheses about the causes of climatic change, such as greenhouse gases, solar variability, earth's orbital variations, and hydrological, oceanic, and tectonic processes. This book is a comprehensive, state-of-the art synthesis of paleoclimate research covering all geological timescales, emphasizing topics that shed light on modern trends in the earth's climate. Thomas M. Cronin discusses recent discoveries about past periods of global warmth, changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, abrupt climate and sea-level change, natural temperature variability, and other topics directly relevant to controversies over the causes and impacts of climate change. This text is geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in geology, geography, biology, glaciology, oceanography, atmospheric sciences, and climate modeling, fields that contribute to paleoclimatology. This volume can also serve as a reference for those requiring a general background on natural climate variability.

  18. Language changes in bilingual individuals with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, Becca L; Dow, Rebecca M; Lamers, Carolien; Woods, Robert T

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) in those who are bilingual is becoming increasingly prevalent in modern society, yet little is known about the impact of AD on the bilingual's two languages. To gather information from the available literature on AD and bilingual individuals. The first author searched three electronic databases for relevant articles and retrieved 186 articles. Nine articles met the inclusion criteria and were selected for this review. Various research methods employed in assessing language changes in bilingual individuals with AD were captured. Preliminary findings suggest that both controls and bilingual individuals with Alzheimer's disease (BIAD) were more able on language-related tasks in their dominant language compared with their non-dominant language. The current literature would suggest that both languages in bilingual individuals are equally affected by AD; however, there is room to explore preliminary data on the fact that the non-dominant language, and indeed the dominant language, is more sensitive to AD. More robust, clinically relevant research designs that test current theoretical frameworks are needed to inform the development of appropriate assessments, diagnosis and person-centred care for bilingual individuals with AD. © 2015 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  19. Neuroplasticity as a function of second language learning: anatomical changes in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Legault, Jennifer; Litcofsky, Kaitlyn A

    2014-09-01

    The brain has an extraordinary ability to functionally and physically change or reconfigure its structure in response to environmental stimulus, cognitive demand, or behavioral experience. This property, known as neuroplasticity, has been examined extensively in many domains. But how does neuroplasticity occur in the brain as a function of an individual's experience with a second language? It is not until recently that we have gained some understanding of this question by examining the anatomical changes as well as functional neural patterns that are induced by the learning and use of multiple languages. In this article we review emerging evidence regarding how structural neuroplasticity occurs in the brain as a result of one's bilingual experience. Our review aims at identifying the processes and mechanisms that drive experience-dependent anatomical changes, and integrating structural imaging evidence with current knowledge of functional neural plasticity of language and other cognitive skills. The evidence reviewed so far portrays a picture that is highly consistent with structural neuroplasticity observed for other domains: second language experience-induced brain changes, including increased gray matter (GM) density and white matter (WM) integrity, can be found in children, young adults, and the elderly; can occur rapidly with short-term language learning or training; and are sensitive to age, age of acquisition, proficiency or performance level, language-specific characteristics, and individual differences. We conclude with a theoretical perspective on neuroplasticity in language and bilingualism, and point to future directions for research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Unpacking the Right to plain and understandable Language in the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N Stoop

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 came into effect on 1 April 2011. The purpose of this Act is, among other things, to promote fairness, openness and respectable business practice between the suppliers of goods or services and the consumers of such good and services. In consumer protection legislation fairness is usually approached from two directions, namely substantive and procedural fairness. Measures aimed at procedural fairness address conduct during the bargaining process and generally aim at ensuring transparency. Transparency in relation to the terms of a contract relates to whether the terms of the contract terms accessible, in clear language, well-structured, and cross-referenced, with prominence being given to terms that are detrimental to the consumer or because they grant important rights. One measure in the Act aimed at addressing procedural fairness is the right to plain and understandable language. The consumer’s right to being given information in plain and understandable language, as it is expressed in section 22, is embedded under the umbrella right of information and disclosure in the Act. Section 22 requires that notices, documents or visual representations that are required in terms of the Act or other law are to be provided in plain and understandable language as well as in the prescribed form, where such a prescription exists. In the analysis of the concept “plain and understandable language” the following aspects are considered in this article: the development of plain language measures in Australia and the United Kingdom; the structure and purpose of section 22; the documents that must be in plain language; the definition of plain language; the use of official languages in consumer contracts; and plain language guidelines (based on the law of the states of Pennsylvania and Connecticut in the United States of America.

  1. Language between Bodies: A Cognitive Approach to Understanding Linguistic Politeness in American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes an answer to the primary question of how the American Sign Language (ASL) community in the United States conceptualizes (im)politeness and its related notions. It begins with a review of evolving theoretical issues in research on (im)politeness and related methodological problems with studying (im)politeness in natural…

  2. Language, Discourse and Teaching the Language Arts: The Development of Imaginative Self-Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoc-Jones, Geoff

    2005-01-01

    Paul Ricoeur asks that we conceive of the imagination less in terms of visual images than in terms of language. He develops this idea as part of the hermeneutic work of interpreting literary texts and posits that the world disclosed by the literary work provides a space for the imaginative consideration of new possibilities for the self. I…

  3. Experience-Dependent Brain Development as a Key to Understanding the Language System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Gert

    2016-04-01

    An influential view of the nature of the language system is that of an evolved biological system in which a set of rules is combined with a lexicon that contains the words of the language together with a representation of their context. Alternative views, usually based on connectionist modeling, attempt to explain the structure of language on the basis of complex associative processes. Here, I put forward a third view that stresses experience-dependent structural development of the brain circuits supporting language as a core principle of the organization of the language system. In this view, embodied in a recent neuroconstructivist neural network of past tense development and processing, initial domain-general predispositions enable the development of functionally specialized brain structures through interactions between experience-dependent brain development and statistical learning in a structured environment. Together, these processes shape a biological adult language system that appears to separate into distinct mechanism for processing rules and exceptions, whereas in reality those subsystems co-develop and interact closely. This view puts experience-dependent brain development in response to a specific language environment at the heart of understanding not only language development but adult language processing as well. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Diachronic syntax and language change: The case of Qumran Hebrew

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to outline a constrained theory of language change and diffusion. Earlier views on syntactic change will be presented and evaluated. It will be shown that the shortcomings in conceptualisation and method which have given rise to misconceptions of syntactic change lie in the failure to utilise a ...

  5. Global Environmental Change : Understanding the Human Dimensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stern, Paul C; Druckman, Daniel; Young, Oran R; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences; Stern, Paul C; Druckman, Daniel

    ... on the Human Dimensions of Global Change Commission on the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files ...

  6. Understanding change: Wildfire in Larimer County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Patricia A. Champ

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire activity continues to plague communities in the American West. Three causes are often identified as key contributors to the wildfire problem: accumulated fuels on public lands due to a history of suppressing wildfires; climate change; and an influx of residents into fire prone areas referred to as the wildland-urban interface (WUI). The latter of these...

  7. Understanding change: Wildfire in Boulder County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Patricia A. Champ; Amy L. Telligman

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire activity continues to plague communities in the American West. Three causes are often identified as key contributors to the wildfire problem: accumulated fuels on public lands due to a history of suppressing wildfires; climate change; and an influx of residents into fire prone areas referred to as the wildland-urban interface (WUI). The latter of these...

  8. Understanding milling induced changes: Some results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    size refinement, milling has received wide acceptability due to its potential to drive the changes at ambient conditions which are either not possible or require vigorous condi- tions in conventional processing routes.1–3 For example, while unfavourable decom- position steps restrict the high temperature chemical reactions ...

  9. Understanding milling induced changes: Some results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Milling is identified as one of the robust processing routes for synthesizing a variety of materials. Commonly applied to the materials in solid state, the most noticeable change with milling is the reduction in the particle size, generally to nanoscale. In addition to size refinement, milling has received wide acceptability due to its ...

  10. Global environmental change: understanding the human dimensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stern, Paul C; Young, Oran R; Druckman, Daniel

    ... on the Human Dimensions of Global Change Commission on the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files ...

  11. Exploring elementary students’ understanding of energy and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin BOYLAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available As environmental changes become a significant societal issue, elementary science curriculaneed to develop students’ understanding about the key concepts of energy and climate change.For teachers, developing quality learning experiences involves establishing what theirstudents’ prior understanding about energy and climate change are. A survey was developed toexplore what elementary students know and understand about renewable and non-renewablesources of energy and their relationship to climate change issues. The findings from thissurvey are reported in this paper.

  12. Understanding a Resistance to Change: A Challenge for Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruth, Gail D.; Caruth, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Change is inevitable. Today more than ever the pace of change is accelerating. Where there is organizational change there will be resistance to this change. To deal with the resistance effectively university administrators must understand the nature and causes of resistance to change. Only by dealing effectively with resistance to change can…

  13. Communicative Language Teaching: Changing Students’ Speaking Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Bayu Saputra

    2015-04-01

    This article points out the results of the study attempting to solve the speaking problem faced by students in one of the Higher School of Teacher Training and Education (STKIP in Central Lampung. For the purpose of the topic, 30 fellow students were selected as the subject. Research method was Classroom Action Research with Kemmis and Taggart model. It was conducted for about four cycles. According to the results of speaking test, findings showed that using Communicative Language Teaching (CLT had positive meaningful effect on improving students’ speaking skill. To sum up, CLT is an effective method to teach speaking to the subject.

  14. Examining Language To Capture Scientific Understandings: The Case of the Water Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelas, Maria; Pappas, Christine; Barry, Anne; O'Neill, Amy

    2001-01-01

    Presents units that address states of matter and changes of states of matter linked with the water cycle and integrates literacy and science. Discusses the language in science books. Lists characteristics of good science inquiry units. (Contains 11 references.) (ASK)

  15. Climate changes - To understand and to react

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this report recalls the definition of the greenhouse effect, comments the climate past variations, outlines that climate changes are already here and that greenhouse effect has a human origin, and discusses the expected impacts during the 21. century. The second part presents the basis of international action in the struggle against climate change, outlines the necessity to strengthen this international action, describes the role of Europe in international negotiations on climate, outlines the need of an international agreement on climate, proposes an overview of the French climate policy (national and local actions), and outlines that some political responses do not match with sustainable development (nuclear energy, agro-fuels, carbon capture and storage, shale gas and oil). The third part indicates how one can compute his own impact on climate, and presents some collective and citizen innovative initiatives in the fields of agriculture and food, of energy, of transports and mobility, and of wastes

  16. Economic Approaches to Understanding Change in Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh; Stutzer, Alois

    2014-01-01

    Are people condemned to an inherent level of experienced happiness? A review of the economic research on subjective well-being gives reason to the assessment that happiness can change. First, empirical findings clearly indicate that people are not indifferent to adverse living conditions when reporting their subjective well-being as observed for limited freedom of choice, low levels of democratization, unemployment, low income, etc. Second, considering people's adaptation to life events and (...

  17. The influence of language and socioeconomic status on children's understanding of false belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, Marilyn; Diesendruck, Gil; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse; Akar, Didar

    2003-07-01

    Study 1 investigated whether differences in the lexical explicitness with which languages express false belief influence children's performance on standard false belief tasks. Preschoolers speaking languages with explicit terms (Turkish and Puerto Rican Spanish) were compared with preschoolers speaking languages without explicit terms (Brazilian Portuguese and English) on questions assessing false belief understanding either specifically (the think question) or more generally (the look for question). Lexical explicitness influenced responses to the think question only. Study 2 replicated Study 1 with groups of both speakers differing in socioeconomic status (SES). A local effect of explicitness was found again as well as a more general influence of SES. The findings are discussed with regard to possible relations among language, SES, and understanding of mind.

  18. The Race To Understand A Changing Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Piers J.

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's climate is changing rapidly. In some respects, the rate of change is outpacing the predictions of only a few years ago. The challenge to Earth Science is to put forward credible projections of possible future climates so that the public and policy makers can make science-based decisions about energy development strategies. Models, observations and experiments all play strong roles in improving knowledge and increasing confidence in our predictions. The models have progressed from simple, coarse-resolution descriptions of atmospheric dynamics and physics only twenty years ago, to full-up Earth System models (ESMs) that include complete descriptions of the oceans and cryosphere. It has been convincingly argued that such complexity - the construction of realistic "toy" Earth's - is necessary to address the complex processes involved in climate change, including not only the physical atmosphere, oceans and cryosphere, but also the carbon cycle - both its natural and anthropogenic components - and the biosphere. Observations, particularly satellite observations, have more or less kept pace with the demands of the modelers, being able to observe progressively more and different facets of the Earth system, but the global satellite fleet is in need of an overhaul very soon. Lastly, field experiments and process studies confront the models with facts and allow us to develop more sophisticated and accurate satellite data algorithms. The challenges facing our relatively small Earth and planetary science communities are considerable and the stakes are significant. The stakeholders, now numbering 7 billion but soon to be 10 billion, will be relying on our results and capabilitie's to guide them into the future.

  19. Aware Computing in Spatial Language Understanding Guided by Cognitively Inspired Knowledge Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Yokota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental image directed semantic theory (MIDST has proposed an omnisensory mental image model and its description language Lmd. This language is designed to represent and compute human intuitive knowledge of space and can provide multimedia expressions with intermediate semantic descriptions in predicate logic. It is hypothesized that such knowledge and semantic descriptions are controlled by human attention toward the world and therefore subjective to each human individual. This paper describes Lmd expression of human subjective knowledge of space and its application to aware computing in cross-media operation between linguistic and pictorial expressions as spatial language understanding.

  20. Lecturers' Views of Curriculum Change at English Language Teaching Departments in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uztosun, Mehmet Sercan; Troudi, Salah

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to understand lecturers' views about the effectiveness of curriculum change procedures taking place in 2006 at the English language teacher education departments of Turkish universities. The study collected both quantitative and qualitative data through an open-ended questionnaire completed by 27 lecturers working at fifteen…

  1. Functional connectivity changes in the language network during stroke recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Veena A; Young, Brittany M; La, Christian; Reiter, Peter; Nadkarni, Tanvi N; Song, Jie; Vergun, Svyatoslav; Addepally, Naga Saranya; Mylavarapu, Krishna; Swartz, Jennifer L; Jensen, Matthew B; Chacon, Marcus R; Sattin, Justin A; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2015-02-01

    Several neuroimaging studies have examined language reorganization in stroke patients with aphasia. However, few studies have examined language reorganization in stroke patients without aphasia. Here, we investigated functional connectivity (FC) changes after stroke in the language network using resting-state fMRI and performance on a verbal fluency (VF) task in patients without clinically documented language deficits. Early-stage ischemic stroke patients (N = 26) (average 5 days from onset), 14 of whom were tested at a later stage (average 4.5 months from onset), 26 age-matched healthy control subjects (HCs), and 12 patients with cerebrovascular risk factors (patients at risk, PR) participated in this study. We examined FC of the language network with 23 seed regions based on a previous study. We evaluated patients' behavioral performance on a VF task and correlation between brain resting-state FC (rsFC) and behavior. Compared to HCs, early stroke patients showed significantly decreased rsFC in the language network but no difference with respect to PR. Early stroke patients showed significant differences in performance on the VF task compared to HCs but not PR. Late-stage patients compared to HCs and PR showed no differences in brain rsFC in the language network and significantly stronger connections compared to early-stage patients. Behavioral differences persisted in the late stage compared to HCs. Change in specific connection strengths correlated with changes in behavior from early to late stage. These results show decreased rsFC in the language network and verbal fluency deficits in early stroke patients without clinically documented language deficits.

  2. UNDERSTANDING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE: A Challenge for Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Gail D. CARUTH; Donald L. CARUTH

    2013-01-01

    Change is inevitable. Today more than ever the pace of change is accelerating. Where there is organizational change there will be resistance to this change. To deal with the resistance effectively university administrators must understand the nature and causes of resistance to change. Only by dealing effectively with resistance to change can organizational change be implemented successfully. This paper explores organizational change and the challenge it poses for universities. Because univers...

  3. Exploring Elementary Students' Understanding of Energy and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Colin

    2008-01-01

    As environmental changes become a significant societal issue, elementary science curricula need to develop students' understanding about the key concepts of energy and climate change. For teachers, developing quality learning experiences involves establishing what their students' prior understanding about energy and climate change are. A survey…

  4. Assessing Elementary Science Methods Students' Understanding about Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Julie L.; Lindgren, Joan; Bleicher, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change, referred to as climate change in this paper, has become an important planetary issue, and given that K-12 students have numerous alternative conceptions or lack of prior knowledge, it is critical that teachers have an understanding of the fundamental science underlying climate change. Teachers need to understand the natural…

  5. Dialogue: Interactive Alignment and Its Implications for Language Learning and Language Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, Simon; Pickering, Martin J.

    This chapter discusses language processing during conversation. In particular, it considers why taking part in a conversation is more straightforward than speaking or listening in isolation. We argue that conversation is easy because speakers and listeners automatically align with each other at different linguistic levels (e.g., sound, grammar, meaning) which leads to alignment at the level of interpretation. This alignment process is reflected in the repetitiveness of dialogue at different levels and occurs both on the basis of local mechanisms of priming and more global mechanisms of routinization. We argue that the latter process may tell us something about both acquisition of language and historical processes of language change.

  6. Germanic heritage languages in North America: Acquisition, attrition and change

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Janne Bondi; Salmons, Joseph C.; Westergaard, Marit; Anderssen, Merete; Arnbjörnsdóttir, Birna; Allen, Brent; Pierce, Marc; Boas, Hans C.; Roesch, Karen; Brown, Joshua R.; Putnam, Michael; Åfarli, Tor A.; Newman, Zelda Kahan; Annear, Lucas; Speth, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents new empirical findings about Germanic heritage varieties spoken in North America: Dutch, German, Pennsylvania Dutch, Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, West Frisian and Yiddish, and varieties of English spoken both by heritage speakers and in communities after language shift. The volume focuses on three critical issues underlying the notion of ‘heritage language’: acquisition, attrition and change. The book offers theoretically-informed discussions of heritage language processe...

  7. Public understanding of climate change in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elke U; Stern, Paul C

    2011-01-01

    This article considers scientific and public understandings of climate change and addresses the following question: Why is it that while scientific evidence has accumulated to document global climate change and scientific opinion has solidified about its existence and causes, U.S. public opinion has not and has instead become more polarized? Our review supports a constructivist account of human judgment. Public understanding is affected by the inherent difficulty of understanding climate change, the mismatch between people's usual modes of understanding and the task, and, particularly in the United States, a continuing societal struggle to shape the frames and mental models people use to understand the phenomena. We conclude by discussing ways in which psychology can help to improve public understanding of climate change and link a better understanding to action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Changes in language services use by US pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Kuo, Dennis Z; Flores, Glenn; O'Connor, Karen; Minkovitz, Cynthia S

    2013-08-01

    Access to appropriate language services is critical for ensuring patient safety and reducing the impact of language barriers. This study compared language services use by US pediatricians in 2004 and 2010 and examined variation in use in 2010 by pediatrician, practice, and state characteristics. We used data from 2 national surveys of pediatricians (2004: n = 698; 2010: n = 683). Analysis was limited to postresidency pediatricians with patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). Pediatricians reported use of ≥ 1 communication methods with LEP patients: bilingual family member, staff, physician, formal interpreter (professional, telephone), and primary-language written materials. Bivariate analyses examined 2004 to 2010 changes in methods used, and 2010 use by characteristics of pediatricians (age, sex, ethnicity), practices (type, location, patient demographics), and states (LEP population, Latino population growth, Medicaid/Children's Health Insurance Program language services reimbursement). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine adjusted odds of use of each method. Most pediatricians reported using family members to communicate with LEP patients and families, but there was a decrease from 2004 to 2010 (69.6%, 57.1%, P use (professional and/or telephone) in 2010 (55.8%) than in 2004 (49.7%, P use (28.2%, 37.8%, P use versus those in nonreimbursing states (odds ratio 2.34; 95% confidence interval 1.24-4.40). US pediatricians' use of appropriate language services has only modestly improved since 2004. Expanding language services reimbursement may increase formal interpreter use.

  9. Secondary School Students' Conceptual Understanding of Physical and Chemical Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.; Twumasi, A. K.; Aryeetey, C.; Sam, A.; Adukpo, G.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have shown an interest in understanding students' own ideas about basic chemical principles and guiding them through innovative ways to gain conceptual understanding where necessary. This research was a case study designed to assess 50 first year high school students' conceptual understanding about changes in matter,…

  10. Projects for calculus the language of change

    CERN Document Server

    Stroyan, Keith D

    1999-01-01

    Projects for Calculus is designed to add depth and meaning to any calculus course. The fifty-two projects presented in this text offer the opportunity to expand the use and understanding of mathematics. The wide range of topics will appeal to both instructors and students. Shorter, less demanding projects can be managed by the independent learner, while more involved, in-depth projects may be used for group learning. Each task draws on special mathematical topics and applications from subjects including medicine, engineering, economics, ecology, physics, and biology.Subjects including:* Medicine* Engineering* Economics* Ecology* Physics* Biology

  11. Emerging from English as a Foreign Language to English as an International Language within a Changing Global Context: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaglini, Gale W.

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study eight international scholars and practitioners of English were interviewed in order to understand their viewpoints about how English language teaching is evolving from a role of English as a Foreign Language to one of English as an International Language in this contemporary world in which there are more nonnative…

  12. Language of textbooks in narrative subjects: Understanding words in the seventh grade of primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarević Emilija; Šefer Jasmina

    2009-01-01

    Hermetic textbook language poses a significant problem in education of the young in our country. The goal of this paper is to point out to the complexity of vocabulary in textbooks, which contributes to students' lack of understanding of what they are reading. Since we established that textbooks in narrative subjects - history, geography and biology - are mostly used during studying and that students mark them as especially difficult for understanding, the subject of this research is precisel...

  13. How School Staff Understand the Relationship between Problem Behaviours and Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Janet; Cowell, Naina; Gersch, Irvine

    2018-01-01

    This exploratory study adopted a mixed methods methodology, a critical realist ontological stance and a constructionist epistemological position to consider how special educational needs coordinators and pastoral managers in mainstream high schools understand the relationship between problem behaviours and language development. Semi-structured…

  14. General Chemistry Students' Conceptual Understanding and Language Fluency: Acid-Base Neutralization and Conductometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine college general chemistry students' conceptual understanding and language fluency in the context of the topic of acids and bases. 115 students worked in groups of 2-4 to complete an activity on conductometry, where they were given a scenario in which a titration of sodium hydroxide solution and dilute…

  15. Diffusion of Language Change: Accommodation to a Moving Target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maegaard, Marie; Jensen, Torben Juel; Kristiansen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    Copenhagen, even to the extent that reversal of changes spreads from Copenhagen. Furthermore, the attitudes reflected in the speaker evaluation experiment support the theory that language change is motivated by social psychological factors. Finally, it is argued that it is worthwhile considering......The paper focuses on motivations for the spread of new features within a speech community, and on the trajectories the changes follow during diffusion. One set of data represents language use, and here focus is on two changes which have been going on in Danish over the past 40 years, one...... grammatical and one phonetic. The other set of data are results from a nationwide speaker evaluation experiment which tests the subconscious attitudes to different types of speech among the youth in five different places covering Denmark from east to west. Results show that changes spread centrifugally from...

  16. Health Behavior Change Challenge: Understanding Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Claire F.

    2011-01-01

    This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful health behavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…

  17. Language Education and Institutional Change in a Madrid Multilingual School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Milans, Miguel; Patiño-Santos, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the institutional transformations of language-in-education programmes in Madrid, linked to wider socio-economic processes of change. Drawing on a research team's ethnographic revisit, we explore how wider processes are impacting everyday discursive practices in the Bridging Class (BC) programme, first implemented in 2003 to…

  18. Why Multilingual Matters : Alternative Change Agents in Language Education Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küeppers, Almut; Yagmur, K.

    Languages are powerful tools for change and have ceased to be only national symbols. In this focus paper, the overall question to be tackled is why and how the multilingual paradigm challenges nation-states and its institutions with a special focus on the domain of state education. While the former

  19. Resistance to change in language teaching: some African case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conviction with which teachers justify their traditional styles of teaching suggests that they do not teach without deliberation. This presentation looks in some detail at two investigations that serve as case studies for this phenomenon. Is resistance to change in language teaching unique to the African continent? It appears ...

  20. White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U

    2012-08-01

    Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes

  1. Child language and parent discipline mediate the relation between family income and false belief understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Virginia; Logan, Jessica A R; Blosser, Daniel F; Duffy, Kaylin

    2017-06-01

    Achieving false belief understanding is an important cognitive milestone that allows children to understand that thoughts and reality can differ. Researchers have found that low-income children score significantly lower than middle-income children on false belief understanding but have not examined why this difference exists. We hypothesized that children's language and parent discipline mediate the income-false belief relation. Participants were 174 3- to 6-year-olds. False belief understanding was significantly correlated with family income, children's vocabulary, parents' self-reported discussion of children's behavior, discussion of emotions, and power assertion. Family income had a significant indirect effect on false belief understanding through children's vocabulary and parent discipline when examined independently, but only through children's vocabulary when using parallel multiple mediation. This study contributes to our knowledge of individual differences in false belief understanding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. UNDERSTANDING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE: A Challenge for Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail D. CARUTH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Change is inevitable. Today more than ever the pace of change is accelerating. Where there is organizational change there will be resistance to this change. To deal with the resistance effectively university administrators must understand the nature and causes of resistance to change. Only by dealing effectively with resistance to change can organizational change be implemented successfully. This paper explores organizational change and the challenge it poses for universities. Because universities are slow to change due to maintaining a balance of tradition and change successful implementation of change will continue to be a challenge both now and in the future. The challenge of change is real but the task is not impossible. Historically, universities have met the challenges that faced them; they must be prepared to confront this challenge too.

  3. Students of Today Changing English Language Studies of Yesterday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Vodopija-Krstanović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, concern has been expressed as to whether English Language Studies are in tune with the wider social, political, technological and economic trends, and the latest developments in applied linguistics and English language education. In line with these views, the aim of this study is to explore – by means of interviews with 25 English majors from the University of Rijeka – the students’ expectations with respect to the skills and competencies (to be developed in their course of English studies, their relevance to the job market, as well as the teaching approaches and methods used to reach these learning outcomes. By comparing and contrasting the emerging educational trends triggered by the Bologna Process with primary data collected in our interviews, we focus on the implications that our results might have in terms of introducing changes to traditional English Language Studies educational paradigms.

  4. From Multilingualism to Bilingualism: Changes in Language Use, Language Value, and Social Mobility among Engdewu Speakers in the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerine Hicks, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    On the island of Santa Cruz in the Solomon Islands, the Engdewu language is facing imminent language shift because of the increasing use of the lingua franca Solomon Islands Pijin in the community. In this article, I argue that this language shift is occurring because of changes to the social structure in Baemawz, one of the villages where Engdewu…

  5. Present and Future Languages – How Innovation Has Changed Us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Luís Au-Yong-Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the growth in usage of online social networks, such as Facebook, YouTube, Instagram and Snapchat, which rely on videos and images (such as photos to relay information between connections, new intuitive languages, though not yet formally recognized, have emerged. We also herein give the example of a new language we have created – the Business Narrative Modelling Language (BNML – which communicates business perspectives based on pictorial representations, supported by the narrative. Currently, the concept of language is linked to the use of words. We foresee that such a definition of language will have to change to include other structured forms of communication, resorting and relying on graphics, also. We give examples of BNML representations, with regards to two case studies we have performed, based on face-to-face interviews and company visits. At ExpressGlass technology plays an important role, while at Yazaki Saltano a remarkable team effort between Toyota suppliers is made evident, to create innovation.

  6. Australian Secondary School Students' Understanding of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Carson, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated 438 Year 10 students (15 and 16 years old) from Western Australian schools, on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and climate change, and the sources of their information. Results showed that most students have an understanding of how the greenhouse effect works, however, many students merge the processes of the…

  7. Brief Motivational Interviewing and Normative Feedback for Adolescents: Change Language and Alcohol Use Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jordan P; Houck, Jon M; Rowell, Lauren N; Benson, Jennifer G; Smith, Douglas C

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of adolescent change language on substance use treatment outcomes and even fewer have examined how adolescents respond to normative feedback. The purpose of this study was to understand the influence normative feedback has on adolescent change language and subsequent alcohol and cannabis use 3months later. We examined how percent change talk (PCT) was associated with subsequent alcohol and drug use outcomes. Adolescents (N=48) were randomly assigned to receive brief motivational interviewing (MI) or MI plus normative feedback (NF). Audio recordings were coded with high interrater reliability. Adolescents with high PCT who received MI+NF had significantly fewer days of alcohol and binge drinking at follow up. There were no differences between groups on cannabis use or treatment engagement. Findings indicate that NF may be useful for adolescents with higher amount of change talk during sessions and may be detrimental for individuals with higher sustain talk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Selected Translated Abstracts of Chinese-Language Climate Change Publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.; Burtis, M.D.

    1999-05-01

    This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions. In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  9. Public Understanding of Climate Change in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elke U.; Stern, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers scientific and public understandings of climate change and addresses the following question: Why is it that while scientific evidence has accumulated to document global climate change and scientific opinion has solidified about its existence and causes, U.S. public opinion has not and has instead become more polarized? Our…

  10. Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2010

    2010-01-01

    From the oceans to continental heartlands, human activities have altered the physical characteristics of Earth's surface. With Earth's population projected to peak at 8 to 12 billion people by 2050 and the additional stress of climate change, it is more important than ever to understand how and where these changes are happening. Innovation in the…

  11. Predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years in the EDEN mother–child cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Peyre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the factors predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years.Methods. By using longitudinal data concerning 1002 children from the EDEN study, linear regression was used to predict 3-year language performance from 2-year language performance and the risk factors associated with language delays. Logistic regressions were performed to examine two change trajectories: children who fall below the 10th percentile of language skills between 2 and 3 years (declining trajectory, and those who rose above the 10th percentile (resilient trajectory.Results. The final linear model accounted for 43% of the variance in 3-year language scores, with 2-year language scores accounting for 22%. Exposure to alcohol during pregnancy, earlier birth term, lower level of parental education and lower frequency of maternal stimulation were associated with the declining trajectory. Breastfeeding was associated with the resilient trajectory.Conclusions. This study provides a better understanding of the natural history of early language delays by identifying biological and social factors that predict changes in language skills between the ages of 2 and 3 years.

  12. Understanding Middle School Students' Difficulties in Explaining Density Differences from a Language Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Lay Hoon; Clarke, David; Hart, Christina

    2015-09-01

    This study examines how a class of Grade 7 students employed linguistic resources to explain density differences. Drawing from the same data-set as a previous study by, we take a language perspective to investigate the challenges students face in learning the concept of density. Our study thus complements previous research on learning about density which has mostly focussed on the conceptual challenges. The data consist of transcripts of lessons on density and students' written assignments. Using selected analytical categories from the Systemic Functional Linguistics framework, we first examined students' use of linguistic resources in their written reports of a practical activity. We then compared the language employed by the students with the instructional language, identifying possible links. Our analysis identified specific aspects of language that the students need to appropriate in order to express an understanding of density that aligns with a scientific perspective. The findings from this study illuminate ways by which teachers could assist students in overcoming the linguistic challenges in explaining density differences, which complement those made by existing studies that focus on conceptual challenges.

  13. Understanding the Conceptual and Language Challenges Encountered by Grade 4 Students When Writing Scientific Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Lay Hoon

    2016-06-01

    This study is an attempt to examine the use of linguistic resources by primary science students so as to understand the conceptual and language demands encountered by them when constructing written explanations. The students' written explanations and the instructional language (whole-class discussion and textbook) employed over the topic, the life cycle of plants, in four grade 4 classrooms (age 10) taught by three teachers constitute the data for this study. Students' written explanations were subjected to a combination of content and linguistic analysis. The linguistic analysis was conducted using selected analytical tools from the systemic functional linguistics framework. A diversity of linguistic resources and meanings were identified from the students' explanations, which reveal the extent to which the students were able to employ linguistic resources to construct written scientific explanations and the challenges involved. Both content and linguistic analyses also illuminate patterns of language use that are significant for realising scientific meanings. Finally, a comparison is made in the use of linguistic resources between the students' explanations and the instructional language to highlight possible links. This comparison reveals that the teachers' expectations of the students' written explanations were seldom reflected in their oral questioning or made explicit during the instruction. The findings of this study suggest that a focus on conceptual development is not sufficient in itself to foster students' ability to construct explanations. Pedagogical implications involving the support needed by primary students to construct scientific explanations are discussed.

  14. An empirical perspective for understanding climate change impacts in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, Paul; Bigalke, Moritz; Büntgen, Ulf; Colombaroli, Daniele; Conedera, Marco; Feller, Urs; Frank, David; Fuhrer, Jürg; Grosjean, Martin; Heiri, Oliver; Luterbacher, Jürg; Mestrot, Adrien; Rigling, Andreas; Rössler, Ole; Rohr, Christian; Rutishauser, This; Schwikowski, Margit; Stampfli, Andreas; Szidat, Sönke; Theurillat, Jean-Paul; Weingartner, Rolf; Wilcke, Wolfgan; Tinner, Willy

    2018-01-01

    Planning for the future requires a detailed understanding of how climate change affects a wide range of systems at spatial scales that are relevant to humans. Understanding of climate change impacts can be gained from observational and reconstruction approaches and from numerical models that apply existing knowledge to climate change scenarios. Although modeling approaches are prominent in climate change assessments, observations and reconstructions provide insights that cannot be derived from simulations alone, especially at local to regional scales where climate adaptation policies are implemented. Here, we review the wealth of understanding that emerged from observations and reconstructions of ongoing and past climate change impacts in Switzerland, with wider applicability in Europe. We draw examples from hydrological, alpine, forest, and agricultural systems, which are of paramount societal importance, and are projected to undergo important changes by the end of this century. For each system, we review existing model-based projections, present what is known from observations, and discuss how empirical evidence may help improve future projections. A particular focus is given to better understanding thresholds, tipping points and feedbacks that may operate on different time scales. Observational approaches provide the grounding in evidence that is needed to develop local to regional climate adaptation strategies. Our review demonstrates that observational approaches should ideally have a synergistic relationship with modeling in identifying inconsistencies in projections as well as avenues for improvement. They are critical for uncovering unexpected relationships between climate and agricultural, natural, and hydrological systems that will be important to society in the future.

  15. Understanding and managing organizational change: implications for public health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jon M

    2010-01-01

    Managing organizational change has become a significant responsibility of managers. Managing the change process within public health organizations is important because appropriately and systematically managing change is linked to improved organizational performance. However, change is difficult and the change process poses formidable challenges for managers. Managers themselves face increased pressure to respond to environmental influences and provide the necessary leadership to their organizations in the change process. In fact, managing organizational change has become a key competency for healthcare managers. This article addresses the important topic of organizational change in public health organizations. It provides a conceptual foundation for understanding organizational change and its relationship to healthcare organizational performance, and then discusses the types and nature of change, using some examples and evidence from those organizations that have successfully managed change. A framework for guiding public health managers in the change management process is provided. The article concludes with suggested management competencies to establish a change-oriented organization with the culture and capacity for change.

  16. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language - a meta-language - for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and feedback-giving. Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore students' perception of teachers' feedback given on their texts in two genres, and to suggest how writing training and feedback-giving could become more efficient. Sample: In this study were included 44 degree project students in biology and molecular biology, and 21 supervising teachers at a Swedish university. Design and methods: The study concerned students' writing about their degree projects in two genres: scientific writing and popular science writing. The data consisted of documented teacher feedback on the students' popular science texts. It also included students' and teachers' answers to questionnaires about writing and feedback. All data were collected during the spring of 2012. Teachers' feedback, actual and recalled - by students and teachers, respectively - was analysed and compared using the so-called Canons of rhetoric. Results: While the teachers recalled the given feedback as mainly positive, most students recalled only negative feedback. According to the teachers, suggested improvements concerned firstly the content, and secondly the structure of the text. In contrast, the students mentioned language style first, followed by content. Conclusions: The disagreement between students and teachers regarding how and what feedback was given on the students texts confirm the need of improved strategies for writing training and feedback-giving in science education. We suggest that the rhetorical meta-language might play a crucial role in overcoming the difficulties observed in this study. We also discuss how training of writing skills may contribute to

  17. Language changes coincide with motor and fMRI changes following upper extremity motor therapy for hemiparesis: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnish, Stacy; Meinzer, Marcus; Trinastic, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, David; Page, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    To formally assess changes in language, affected UE movement, and motor functional activation changes via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following participation in motor therapy without any accompanying language intervention. Pre-post case series. Five subjects with stroke exhibiting chronic, stable UE hemiparesis. The upper extremity section of the Fugl-Meyer (FM), the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), administered during performance of an affected UE motor task. All subjects were administered six weeks of repetitive task specific training (RTP), performed for approximately 2.5 hours per day, split into two sessions. For the first four weeks of the intervention period, RTP was administered every weekday, whereas, for the subsequent two weeks, RTP was administered 3 days/week. Epidural cortical stimulation was co-administered with the RTP via an electrode array and implanted pulse generator. For all sessions, one subject worked with a single therapist. Four weeks before and four weeks after the intervention period, all subjects were administered the FM, WAB, and fMRI. Three of the subjects exhibited clinically significant language changes on the WAB. These individuals exhibited the largest motor changes as measured by the FM. Functional MRI revealed distinct motor activation patterns in these subjects, characterized by more strongly right lateralized focal BOLD activity or a shift in activation toward the right hemisphere. Language changes appear to co-occur with motor changes after UE RTP. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of these findings may lead to more efficient and synergistic rehabilitative therapy delivery.

  18. Instructional games: Scientific language use, concept understanding, and attitudinal development of middle school learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongillo, Geraldine

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the influence of instructional games on middle school learners' use of scientific language, concept understanding, and attitude toward learning science. The rationale for this study stemmed from the lack of research concerning the value of play as an instructional strategy for older learners. Specifically, the study focused on the ways in which 6 average ability 7th grade students demonstrated scientific language and concept use during gameplay. The data were collected for this 6-week study in a southern New Jersey suburban middle school and included audio recordings of the 5 games observed in class, written documents (e.g., student created game questions, self-evaluation forms, pre- and post-assessments, and the final quiz) interviews, and researcher field notes. Data were coded and interpreted borrowing from the framework for scientific literacy developed by Bybee (1997). Based on the findings, the framework was modified to reflect the level of scientific understanding demonstrated by the participants and categorized as: Unacquainted, Nominal, Functional, and Conceptual. Major findings suggested that the participants predominantly achieved the Functional level of scientific literacy (i.e., the ability to adequately and appropriately use scientific language in both written and oral discourse) during games. Further, it was discovered that the participants achieved the Conceptual level of scientific literacy during gameplay. Through games participants were afforded the opportunity to use common, everyday language to explore concepts, promoted through peer collaboration. In games the participants used common language to build understandings that exceeded Nominal or token use of the technical vocabulary and concepts. Additionally, the participants reported through interviews and self-evaluation forms that their attitude (patterns included: Motivation, Interest, Fun, Relief from Boredom, and an Alternate Learning

  19. The Changes in Experienced Teachers' Understanding towards Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersozlu, Alpay; Cayci, Dilara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the views of experienced teachers related to the changes in their understanding of classroom management in general terms until today. In this study according to the information given by teachers, it is expected to contribute to the discussions about the development of classroom management, which is a key to…

  20. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    Constructs a teaching strategy to facilitate conceptual change in freshman students' understanding of electrochemistry. Provides students with the correct response along with alternative responses (teaching experiments), producing a conflicting situation that is conducive to an equilibration of their cognitive structures. Concludes that the…

  1. Understanding and Representing Changing Work Structures and Practices through Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Stacey M. B.

    2018-01-01

    Courses: Organizational Communication, Advanced Organizational Communication, Organizing Work, Management/Organizational History. Objectives: This activity will help students to understand major shifts in the organization of work and creatively represent changing work structures and practices. An optional follow-up assignment is included. A…

  2. Promoting Conceptual Change in First Year Students' Understanding of Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor

    2010-01-01

    We constructed the PDEODE (Predict-Discuss-Explain-Observe-Discuss-Explain) teaching strategy, a variant of the classical POE (Predict-Observe-Explain) activity, to promote conceptual change, and investigated its effectiveness on student understanding of the evaporation concept. The sample consisted of 52 first year students in a primary science…

  3. Language of textbooks in narrative subjects: Understanding words in the seventh grade of primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Emilija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hermetic textbook language poses a significant problem in education of the young in our country. The goal of this paper is to point out to the complexity of vocabulary in textbooks, which contributes to students' lack of understanding of what they are reading. Since we established that textbooks in narrative subjects - history, geography and biology - are mostly used during studying and that students mark them as especially difficult for understanding, the subject of this research is precisely the analysis of words which seventh-grade students from primary school state as unfamiliar on a randomly selected, but balanced in terms of length, textbook text of those subjects. The results of frequency analysis indicate that there are a lot of unfamiliar expert words, and frequently the same number, or even more, of common Serbian words in textbook texts, especially in history. Approximately the same or even larger number of unfamiliar words occurs in familiar texts when compared to unfamiliar, which indicates that the previous usage of texts does not contribute to their understanding. Based on correlation analysis referring to the number of unfamiliar words, frequency of textbook usage, perception of difficulty of the text in textbook, general and the achievement in the particular subject, it was determined that unfamiliar words are not only mentioned by students with low grades, although they do it more often, nor that only these students are the ones complaining how difficult textbooks are to them. Based on regression analysis, the number of unfamiliar words, especially in the history textbook, even figures as a predictor of success, which seems contradictory and can be interpreted differently. The results point out to the fact that inaccessibility of textbook language mostly does not guide the students to learn new words, but causes revolt and thus disables the development of language, scientific concepts and acquiring professional terminology

  4. Functional connectivity changes in second language vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi Saidi, Ladan; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélani; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana-Inés

    2013-01-01

    Functional connectivity changes in the language network (Price, 2010), and in a control network involved in second language (L2) processing (Abutalebi & Green, 2007) were examined in a group of Persian (L1) speakers learning French (L2) words. Measures of network integration that characterize the global integrative state of a network (Marrelec, Bellec et al., 2008) were gathered, in the shallow and consolidation phases of L2 vocabulary learning. Functional connectivity remained unchanged across learning phases for L1, whereas total, between- and within-network integration levels decreased as proficiency for L2 increased. The results of this study provide the first functional connectivity evidence regarding the dynamic role of the language processing and cognitive control networks in L2 learning (Abutalebi, Cappa, & Perani, 2005; Altarriba & Heredia, 2008; Leonard et al., 2011; Parker-Jones et al., 2011). Thus, increased proficiency results in a higher degree of automaticity and lower cognitive effort (Segalowitz & Hulstijn, 2005). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Teaching Cultural Taboos and Taboo Language for Intercultural Awareness and Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Rata

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to show that language can support social and intercultural competence of both students and teachers: one of the ways to do it is teaching cultural taboos and taboo language for intercultural awareness and understanding. The current state of the art in the field points to an increasing interest in the teaching of taboos. The material we analysed consisted in 238 offensive, vulgar and obscene English words that both students and teachers should know to attain social and intercultural competence. The method used is the descriptive one. The degree of novelty is rather high in our cultural area. Results show that there are 134 offensive (slang words and expressions (referring to the country of origin or to an ethnic group, to sex and sex-related issues (sexual orientation, to race, etc., 75 vulgar words and expressions (referring to sex and sex-related issues, to body parts, to people, etc., and 29 obscene words and expressions (referring to body secretions, to sex and sex-related issues, to people, etc.. There seems to be no research limitations given the lexicographic sources that we used. The implications of teaching cultural taboos and taboo language at tertiary level concern both the students and teachers and the organisation they belong to. The paper is original and relevant given the process of globalisation.

  6. Communication Access for Deaf People in Healthcare Settings: Understanding the Work of American Sign Language Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Andrea M; Swabey, Laurie

    Despite federal laws that mandate equal access and communication in all healthcare settings for deaf people, consistent provision of quality interpreting in healthcare settings is still not a reality, as recognized by deaf people and American Sign Language (ASL)-English interpreters. The purpose of this study was to better understand the work of ASL interpreters employed in healthcare settings, which can then inform on training and credentialing of interpreters, with the ultimate aim of improving the quality of healthcare and communication access for deaf people. Based on job analysis, researchers designed an online survey with 167 task statements representing 44 categories. American Sign Language interpreters (N = 339) rated the importance of, and frequency with which they performed, each of the 167 tasks. Categories with the highest average importance ratings included language and interpreting, situation assessment, ethical and professional decision making, manage the discourse, monitor, manage and/or coordinate appointments. Categories with the highest average frequency ratings included the following: dress appropriately, adapt to a variety of physical settings and locations, adapt to working with variety of providers in variety of roles, deal with uncertain and unpredictable work situations, and demonstrate cultural adaptability. To achieve health equity for the deaf community, the training and credentialing of interpreters needs to be systematically addressed.

  7. Understanding Disorder Within Variation: Production of English Grammatical Forms by English Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D; Anaya, Jissel B; Nieto, Ricardo; Lugo-Neris, Mirza J; Baron, Alisa

    2018-04-05

    This study examines English performance on a set of 11 grammatical forms in Spanish-English bilingual, school-age children in order to understand how item difficulty of grammatical constructions helps correctly classify language impairment (LI) from expected variability in second language acquisition when taking into account linguistic experience and exposure. Three hundred seventy-eight children's scores on the Bilingual English-Spanish Assessment-Middle Extension (Peña, Bedore, Gutiérrez-Clellen, Iglesias, & Goldstein, 2008) morphosyntax cloze task were analyzed by bilingual experience groups (high Spanish experience, balanced English-Spanish experience, high English experience, ability (typically developing [TD] vs. LI), and grammatical form. Classification accuracy was calculated for the forms that best differentiated TD and LI groups. Children with LI scored lower than TD children across all bilingual experience groups. There were differences by grammatical form across bilingual experience and ability groups. Children from high English experience and balanced English-Spanish experience groups could be accurately classified on the basis of all the English grammatical forms tested except for prepositions. For bilinguals with high Spanish experience, it was possible to rule out LI on the basis of grammatical production but not rule in LI. It is possible to accurately identify LI in English language learners once they use English 40% of the time or more. However, for children with high Spanish experience, more information about development and patterns of impairment is needed to positively identify LI.

  8. The Ease of Language Understanding (ELU model: theoretical, empirical, and clinical advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerker eRönnberg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is important for online language processing during conversation. We use it to maintain relevant information, to inhibit or ignore irrelevant information, and to attend to conversation selectively. Working memory helps us to keep track of and actively participate in conversation, including taking turns and following the gist. This paper examines the Ease of Language Understanding model (i.e., the ELU model, Rönnberg, 2003; Rönnberg et al., 2008 in light of new behavioral and neural findings concerning the role of working memory capacity (WMC in uni-modal and bimodal language processing. The new ELU model is a meaning prediction system that depends on phonological and semantic interactions in rapid implicit and slower explicit processing mechanisms that both depend on WMC albeit in different ways. A revised ELU model is proposed based on findings that address the relationship between WMC and (a early attention processes in listening to speech, (b signal processing in hearing aids and its effects on short-term memory, (c inhibition of speech maskers and its effect on episodic long-term memory, (d the effects of hearing impairment on episodic and semantic long-term memory, and finally, (e listening effort. New predictions and clinical implications are outlined. Comparisons with other WMC and speech perception models are made.

  9. Understanding Global Change: Frameworks and Models for Teaching Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; Mitchell, K.; Zoehfeld, K.; Oshry, A.; Menicucci, A. J.; White, L. D.; Marshall, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    The scientific and education communities must impart to teachers, students, and the public an understanding of how the various factors that drive climate and global change operate, and why the rates and magnitudes of these changes related to human perturbation of Earth system processes today are cause for deep concern. Even though effective educational modules explaining components of the Earth and climate system exist, interdisciplinary learning tools are necessary to conceptually link the causes and consequences of global changes. To address this issue, the Understanding Global Change Project at the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) at UC Berkeley developed an interdisciplinary framework that organizes global change topics into three categories: (1) causes of climate change, both human and non-human (e.g., burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, Earth's tilt and orbit), (2) Earth system processes that shape the way the Earth works (e.g., Earth's energy budget, water cycle), and (3) the measurable changes in the Earth system (e.g., temperature, precipitation, ocean acidification). To facilitate student learning about the Earth as a dynamic, interacting system, a website will provide visualizations of Earth system models and written descriptions of how each framework topic is conceptually linked to other components of the framework. These visualizations and textual summarizations of relationships and feedbacks in the Earth system are a unique and crucial contribution to science communication and education, informed by a team of interdisciplinary scientists and educators. The system models are also mechanisms by which scientists can communicate how their own work informs our understanding of the Earth system. Educators can provide context and relevancy for authentic datasets and concurrently can assess student understanding of the interconnectedness of global change phenomena. The UGC resources will be available through a web-based platform and

  10. Conclusions, synthesis, and future directions: understanding sources of population change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Flint, Paul L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Eadie, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The material in this volume reflects the burgeoning interest in sea ducks, both as study species with compelling and unique ecological attributes and as taxa of conservation concern. In this review, we provide perspective on the current state of sea duck knowledge by highlighting key findings in the preceding chapters that are of particular value for understanding or influencing population change. We also introduce a conceptual model that characterizes links among topics covered by individual chapters and places them in the context of demographic responses. Finally, we offer recommendations for areas of future research that we suggest will have importance for understanding and managing sea duck population dynamics.

  11. The Difficulties of English as a Foreign Language (EFL Learners in Understanding Pragmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pragmatics is the study of the relation of signs to interpreters. For English foreign language (EFL learners, the knowledge and comprehensible input of pragmatics is much needed. This paper is based on research project. The writer did the research survey by giving some respondents questionnaire. The respondent is some students from UAD, which is taken randomly. Besides using open questionnaire, the writer also got the data from in depth interview with some EFL learners, the native speaker who teaches English, and also did literature review from some books. The result of the research then gives some evidences that EFL learners difficulties in understanding the English pragmatics occurs in 1 greeting, 2 apologizing, 3 complimenting, and 4 thanking. The factors that promotes EFL learners’ difficulties in understanding because 1 the different culture and values between native speaker and learners; 2 habit that the usually use in their daily life.

  12. Brain-based origins of change language: a beginning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Yezhuvath, Uma; Houck, Jon M; Filbey, Francesca M

    2014-12-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a promising treatment for heavy drinking. Client change talk (CT), a critical component of MI, has been associated with differential brain activation. The goal of this study was to begin to deconstruct how and why CT may affect the brain. Specifically, we sought to determine whether simply repeating statements in favor of change would cause differential brain activation, or whether client statements must be spontaneously generated within a therapeutic milieu in order to influence brain activation. We therefore examined blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response following two types of client language (CT; and sustain talk, ST) across two conditions: (1) Self-Generated: CT and ST were elicited during an MI session vs. (2) Experimenter-Selected: a pre-established list of CT and ST was provided to the individual in the absence of an MI session. Across both conditions, participants' CT and ST were visually and aurally presented during fMRI. We enrolled 39 recent binge drinkers (41% male; M age=19.9; n=18 in Self-Generated group; n=21 in Experimenter-Selected group). We found that both types of client language (CT and ST) elicited greater BOLD activation in the Self-Generated vs. the Experimenter-Selected group in the left inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula and superior temporal gyri (p≤0.001). These findings indicate that the nature of client language matters. It appears that it is not just the words themselves, but the origin (naturally generated within a therapeutic session) that influences brain-based effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Socialization, Language, and Scenic Understanding. Alfred Lorenzer's Contribution to a Psycho-societal Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Salling Olesen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is a guided tour to Alfred LORENZER's proposal for an "in-depth hermeneutic" cultural analysis methodology which was launched in an environment with an almost complete split between social sciences and psychology/psychoanalysis. It presents the background in his materialist socialization theory, which combines a social reinterpretation of the core insights in classical psychoanalysis—the unconscious, the drives—with a theory of language acquisition. His methodology is based on a transformation of the "scenic understanding" from a clinical to a text interpretation, which seeks to understand collective unconscious meaning in text, and is presented with an illustration of the interpretation procedure from social research. Then follows a brief systematic account of key concepts and ideas—interaction forms, engrams, experience, symbolization, language game, utopian imagination—with an outlook to the social theory connections to the Frankfurt School. The practical interpretation procedure in a LORENZER-based psycho-societal research is briefly summarized, emphasizing the role of the researcher subjects in discovering socially unconscious meaning in social interaction. Finally an outlook to contemporary epistemological issues. LORENZER's approach to theorize and research the subject as a socially produced entity appears as a psycho-societal alternative to mainstream social constructivism. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1203229

  14. Promoting Intercultural Understanding among School Students through an English Language Based Reading Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian intercultural society is typified by three major ethnic groups mainly Malays, Chinese and Indians.  Although education system is the best tool for these three major ethnic groups to work together, contemporary research reveals that there is still lack of intercultural embedding education context and national schools are seen as breeding grounds of racial polarisation.  In Malaysian context, there is a gap in research that focuses on the design of a proper intercultural reading framework for national integration and such initiatives are viable through schools.  The main objective of this conceptual paper is to introduce the English Language Intercultural Reading Programme (ELIRP in secondary schools to promote intercultural understanding among secondary school students.  The proposed framework will facilitate the acquisition of intercultural inputs without being constrained by ideological, political, or psychological demands.  This article will focus on elucidating how ELIRP could affect cognitive (knowledge and behavioural transformations to intercultural perceptions harboured by selected Form 4 students of 20 national schools in Malaysia. Keywords: behavior, knowledge, intercultural reading framework, intercultural understanding, English Language Intercultural Reading Programme, secondary school students

  15. Understanding the Role of Academic Language on Conceptual Understanding in an Introductory Materials Science and Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    Students may use the technical engineering terms without knowing what these words mean. This creates a language barrier in engineering that influences student learning. Previous research has been conducted to characterize the difference between colloquial and scientific language. Since this research had not yet been applied explicitly to…

  16. Advancing Our Understanding of the Link between Statistical Learning and Language Acquisition: The Need for Longitudinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Joanne; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss

    2012-01-01

    Mastery of language can be a struggle for some children. Amongst those that succeed in achieving this feat there is variability in proficiency. Cognitive scientists remain intrigued by this variation. A now substantial body of research suggests that language acquisition is underpinned by a child's capacity for statistical learning (SL). Moreover, a growing body of research has demonstrated that variability in SL is associated with variability in language proficiency. Yet, there is a striking lack of longitudinal data. To date, there has been no comprehensive investigation of whether a capacity for SL in young children is, in fact, associated with language proficiency in subsequent years. Here we review key studies that have led to the need for this longitudinal research. Advancing the language acquisition debate via longitudinal research has the potential to transform our understanding of typical development as well as disorders such as autism, specific language impairment, and dyslexia.

  17. Understanding global climate change scenarios through bioclimate stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soteriades, A. D.; Murray-Rust, D.; Trabucco, A.; Metzger, M. J.

    2017-08-01

    Despite progress in impact modelling, communicating and understanding the implications of climatic change projections is challenging due to inherent complexity and a cascade of uncertainty. In this letter, we present an alternative representation of global climate change projections based on shifts in 125 multivariate strata characterized by relatively homogeneous climate. These strata form climate analogues that help in the interpretation of climate change impacts. A Random Forests classifier was calculated and applied to 63 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate scenarios at 5 arcmin resolution. Results demonstrate how shifting bioclimate strata can summarize future environmental changes and form a middle ground, conveniently integrating current knowledge of climate change impact with the interpretation advantages of categorical data but with a level of detail that resembles a continuous surface at global and regional scales. Both the agreement in major change and differences between climate change projections are visually combined, facilitating the interpretation of complex uncertainty. By making the data and the classifier available we provide a climate service that helps facilitate communication and provide new insight into the consequences of climate change.

  18. Computational simulation to understand vision changes during prolonged weightlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William C

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model of whole body and cerebral hemodynamics is a useful tool for investigating visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP), a recently described condition associated with space flight. VIIP involves loss of visual acuity, anatomical changes to the eye, and, usually, elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Loss of visual acuity is a significant threat to astronaut health and performance. It is therefore important to understand the pathogenesis of VIIP. Some of the experimental measurements that could lead to better understanding of the pathophysiology are impossible or infeasible on orbit. A computational implementation of a mathematical model of hypothetical pathophysiological processes is therefore valuable. Such a model is developed, and is used to investigate how changes in vascular compliance or pressure can influence intraocular or intracranial pressure.

  19. Towards more eclectic understandings of energy demand and change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Louise; Quitzau, Maj-Britt

    2017-01-01

    Progressive planning interventions can be characterized as actively seeking to reconfigure bundles of practices. This represents a different strategy for creating momentum for change (in energy demand) compared to prevailing interventions with emphasis on regulation and information. In this article......, we explore theoretical understandings of practices and translations as a means to illustrate how certain engagements with strategic work aimed at reconfiguring bundles of practices enable a different approach to establishing momentum for change through planning interventions. We illustrate how...... on the identification of hidden potentials in prevailing practice architectures. Presented through storytelling, we discuss why an eclectic theoretical interpretation of new forms of planning interventions is important in order to understand and bridge the gap between theoretical insight and planners’ or practitioners...

  20. Guidelines for Nonsexist Language in APA Journals: Publication Manual Change Sheet 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 1977

    1977-01-01

    This second change sheet for its publication manual states the American Psychologist Association's policy on sexist language in its journals offers some general principles for journal authors to consider, and suggests some ways to avoid sexist language. (Author)

  1. Patterns of Change: Transitions in Hmong Textile Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Craig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Hmong life, women produced complex textiles as markers of clan identity and cultural values. Paj ntaub (flower cloth, created by embroidery, appliqué, reverse appliqué, and indigo batik (among the Blue or Green Hmong, were primary transmitters of Hmong culture from one generation to the next over centuries. Clothing, funeral and courtship cloths, baby carriers and hats were designed with traditionally geometric, abstract patterns Hmong could understand as a shared visual language within an oral culture.This photo essay introduces the author’s twenty-five year fascination with paj ntaub and documents a trip to Laos and northern Thailand in November/December 2009 to discover whether story cloths were being produced in Hmong villages in Laos or if story cloths remain a product of refugees only. The researcher also hoped tolearn whether traditional Hmong clothing is still produced and worn in the Laos, to observe how Hmong textiles are made and consumed for a tourist market, and to discover possible sources for the dramatic shift in paj ntaub visual language from symbolic abstraction to pictorial representation.

  2. Foreign-Language Instruction: Some Understanding in the Reform of Materials of Instruction for Teaching Foreign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese Education, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Guidelines for the development of teaching materials that reflect the realities of the Three Great Revolutionary Movements are presented. It is recommended that materials be in conformity with the language laws and advantageous to training for the basic mastery of language. (SM)

  3. Changes in research on language barriers in health care since 2003: A cross-sectional review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwei, Rebecca J; Del Pozo, Sam; Agger-Gupta, Niels; Alvarado-Little, Wilma; Bagchi, Ann; Chen, Alice Hm; Diamond, Lisa; Gany, Francesca; Wong, Doreena; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how to mitigate language barriers is becoming increasingly important for health care providers around the world. Language barriers adversely affect patients in their access to health services; comprehension and adherence; quality of care; and patient and provider satisfaction. In 2003, the United States (US) government made a major change in national policy guidance that significantly affected limited English proficient patients' ability to access language services. The objectives of this paper are to describe the state of the language barriers literature inside and outside the US since 2003 and to compare the research that was conducted before and after a national policy change occurred in the US. We hypothesize that language barrier research would increase inside and outside the US but that the increase in research would be larger inside the US in response to this national policy change. We reviewed the research literature on language barriers in health care and conducted a cross sectional analysis by tabulating frequencies for geographic location, language group, methodology, research focus and specialty and compared the literature before and after 2003. Our sample included 136 studies prior to 2003 and 426 studies from 2003 to 2010. In the 2003-2010 time period there was a new interest in studying the providers' perspective instead of or in addition to the patients' perspective. The methods remained similar between periods with greater than 60% of studies being descriptive and 12% being interventions. There was an increase in research on language barriers inside and outside the US and we believe this was larger due to the change in the national policy. We suggest that researchers worldwide should move away from simply documenting the existence of language barriers and should begin to focus their research on documenting how language concordant care influences patient outcomes, providing evidence for interventions that mitigate language barriers

  4. The essential interactions between understanding climate variability and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelin, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Global change is sometimes perceived as a field separate from other aspects of atmospheric and oceanic sciences. Despite the long history of communication between the scientific communities studying global change and those studying interannual variability and weather, increasing specialization and conflicting societal demands on the fields can put these interactions at risk. At the same time, current trajectories for greenhouse gas emissions imply substantial adaptation to climate change will be necessary. Instead of simply projecting effects to be avoided, the field is increasingly being asked to provide regional-level information for specific adaptation strategies—with associated requirements for increased precision on projections. For extreme events, challenges include validating models for rare events, especially for events that are unprecedented in the historical record. These factors will be illustrated with examples of information transfer to climate change from work on fundamental climate processes aimed originally at timescales from hours to interannual. Work to understand the effects that control probability distributions of moisture, temperature and precipitation in historical weather can yield new factors to examine for the changes in the extremes of these distributions under climate change. Surprisingly simple process models can give insights into the behavior of vastly more complex climate models. Observation systems and model ensembles aimed at weather and interannual variations prove valuable for global change and vice versa. Work on teleconnections in the climate system, such as the remote impacts of El Niño, is informing analysis of projected regional rainfall change over California. Young scientists need to prepare to work across the full spectrum of climate variability and change, and to communicate their findings, as they and our society head for future that is more interesting than optimal.

  5. Understanding white matter integrity stability for bilinguals on language status and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummine, Jacqueline; Boliek, Carol A

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have described overall white matter integrity in bilinguals but have not related structural neural pathways to language functions. The current study examined white matter integrity and its relationship to reading skill in monolingual English and bilingual Chinese-English speakers. Eleven monolingual speakers (mean age 28.5 years) and 13 bilingual speakers (mean age 24.2 years; English as a second language was acquired post 5 years of age) participated. Behavioural response times and accuracy rates to name regular and exception words were recorded. Participants were then scanned using a standardized DTI protocol. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity values were derived from a voxelwise statistical analysis for comparisons between participant groups. Tests for relationships between response time and FA were also conducted. Our results show minimal regions of higher FA for monolinguals when compared to bilinguals and no regions of higher FA for bilinguals when compared to monolinguals, which indicates that white matter integrity may not stabilize in bilinguals until late adulthood. We do show several regions where an increase in FA is associated with faster response times. Interestingly, the FA-response time relationship varies between groups and between word types, which may reflect an increased processing demand for retrieval of difficult words (e.g., exception words). These results provide some support for the interference control and reduced frequency hypotheses outlined by Jones et al. (Cerebr Cortex 22:892-902, 2012). The current findings advance our understanding of the underlying cortical networks associated with language status and reading skill in monolingual and bilingual adults.

  6. Contributions of the Study of Japanese as a Second language to our General Understanding of Second Language Acquisition and the Definition of Second Language Acquisition Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Shigenori

    2003-01-01

    Reviews three books on the acquisition of Japanese as a second language: "Second Language Acquisition Process in the Classroom" by A.S. Ohta;"The Acquisition of Grammar by Learners of Japanese" (English translation of title), by H. Noda, K. Sakoda, K. Shibuya, and N. Kobayashi; and "The Acquisition of Japanese as a Second Language," B. K. Kanno,…

  7. Middle School Students' Understandings About Anthropogenic Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    they discussed the validation of their beliefs. That is, we argue that the unit, and the emphases contained within the unit, resulted in the "epistemic scaffolding" of their ideas, to the extent that they shifted from arguing from anecdotes to arguing based on other types of data, especially from line graphs. Additionally, we found that students' understandings of climate change were tied to their ontological constructions of the subject matter, i.e., many perceived climate change as just another environmentally sensitive issue such as littering and pollution, and were therefore limited in their ability to understand anthropogenic climate change in the vast and robust sense meant by current scientific consensus. Given these known difficulties, it is critical to explore further research of this sort in order to better understand what students are actually thinking, and how that thinking is prone to change, modification, or not. Subsequently, K-12 strategies might be better designed, if that is indeed a priority of US/Western society.

  8. Dual processing and discourse space: Exploring fifth grade students' language, reasoning, and understanding through writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol

    The purpose of this study was to explore the development of students' understanding through writing while immersed in an environment where there was a strong emphasis on a language-based argument inquiry approach. Additionally, this study explored students' spoken discourse to gain a better understanding of what role(s) talking plays in the development of understanding through writing. Finally, the study proposed a new concept of Discourse Space, which enabled researchers to improve their understanding of the characteristics of the development of student cognition through writing, and of the roles talking plays in cognitive development through writing. This study was guided by the research question: What patterns of the development of fifth grade students' cognition over time emerge in their private and public negotiations under a teacher who is ranked as a low-level implementer of the SWH approach? This question was divided into two sub-questions: (a) Throughout a unit, Ecosystems, what patterns emerge regarding the development of six fifth grade students' understanding through writing, and b) What patterns of the development of Discourse Space emerge through talking in three different contexts. In order to answer these questions, this qualitative research employed a generic qualitative study. Twenty-one fifth grade students participated in this study, and six students were purposefully selected through which to further investigate the development of an understanding of science through private negotiation while immersed in a language-based argument inquiry approach. Major data sources included students' writing samples, informal conversations with the teacher, researcher's field notes, and classroom videos. Additionally, the teacher's modified RTOP scores and semi-structured interviews were used to deepen the contextual understanding of the learning environment and the teacher's instructional performance. The data analysis was conducted by utilizing discourse

  9. Modeling second language change using skill retention theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, Samuel R.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Loss of foreign language proficiency is a major concern for the Department of Defense (DoD). Despite significant expenditures to develop and sustain foreign language skills in the armed forces, the DoD has not been able to create a sufficient pool of qualified linguists. Many theories and hypotheses about the learning of foreign languages are not based on cognitive processes and lack the ability to explain how and why foreign language ...

  10. Semantically-based priors and nuanced knowledge core for Big Data, Social AI, and language understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsher, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Noise-resistant and nuanced, COGBASE makes 10 million pieces of commonsense data and a host of novel reasoning algorithms available via a family of semantically-driven prior probability distributions. Machine learning, Big Data, natural language understanding/processing, and social AI can draw on COGBASE to determine lexical semantics, infer goals and interests, simulate emotion and affect, calculate document gists and topic models, and link commonsense knowledge to domain models and social, spatial, cultural, and psychological data. COGBASE is especially ideal for social Big Data, which tends to involve highly implicit contexts, cognitive artifacts, difficult-to-parse texts, and deep domain knowledge dependencies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding of the korean awareness through the culture and language. From a point of view of comparative linguistics in Korean and Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Cheol Yun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign students that travel to Korea to study the Korean language and culture as part of their professional formation they usually face out work adaptation problems whenever they get a job at the Korean companies and most of them try to change to another job in just two or three years. Within this investigation work and through comparative linguistics, the Korean conscience is analysed emphasizing on the basic differences and similarities of the Spanish language and the Korean language expression ways, linguistically wise, it is easy to distinguish differences between both languages also the way each language society expresses by its own, such matter may give as a result a possible cultural clash, yet similarities between these two cultures exists, giving prove in this way of similar thinking processes, and thanks to this similarity Mexicans could grant a good Korean society adaptation also to ensure successful cooperation and international exchange on any other field relationships such as cultural relationship between both countries. As conclusion learning a foreign language involves understand native speakers’ way of thinking and conscience.

  12. Lexical Variation and Change in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Rentelis, Ramas; Woll, Bencie; Cormier, Kearsy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a corpus-based study investigating lexical variation in BSL. An earlier study investigating variation in BSL numeral signs found that younger signers were using a decreasing variety of regionally distinct variants, suggesting that levelling may be taking place. Here, we report findings from a larger investigation looking at regional lexical variants for colours, countries, numbers and UK placenames elicited as part of the BSL Corpus Project. Age, school location and language background were significant predictors of lexical variation, with younger signers using a more levelled variety. This change appears to be happening faster in particular sub-groups of the deaf community (e.g., signers from hearing families). Also, we find that for the names of some UK cities, signers from outside the region use a different sign than those who live in the region. PMID:24759673

  13. Recent Changes in Turkey's Language Legislation. Mercator Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Ozlem Eraydin

    This paper focuses on Turkish language policy. Seven sections look at the following: (1) "Historical Background to Turkish Language Policy," (between the 10th and 20th centuries, the status of the Turkish language did not increase in line with the political and military power of the Turkish State, and as Turkey became more multilingual…

  14. Engaging the Discourse of International Language Recognition through ISO 639-3 Signed Language Change Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic ideologies that are left unquestioned and unexplored, especially as reflected and produced in marginalized language communities, can contribute to inequality made real in decisions about languages and the people who use them. One of the primary bodies of knowledge guiding international language policy is the International Organization…

  15. At the mercy of strategies: the role of motor representations in language understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eTomasino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Classical cognitive theories hold that word representations in the brain are abstract and amodal, and are independent of the objects’ sensorimotor properties they refer to. An alternative hypothesis emphasises the importance of bodily processes in cognition: the representation of a concept appears to be crucially dependent upon perceptual-motor processes that relate to it. Thus, understanding action-related words would rely upon the same motor structures that also support the execution of the same actions. In this context, motor simulation represents a key component. Our approach is to draw parallels between the literature on mental rotation and the literature on action verb/sentence processing. Here we will discuss recent studies on mental imagery, mental rotation, and language that clearly demonstrate how motor simulation is neither automatic nor necessary to language understanding. These studies have shown that motor representations can or cannot be activated depending on the type of strategy the participants adopt to perform tasks involving motor phrases. On the one hand, participants may imagine the movement with the body parts used to carry out the actions described by the verbs (i.e., motor strategy; on the other, individuals may solve the task without simulating the corresponding movements (i.e., visual strategy. While it is not surprising that the motor strategy is at work when participants process action-related verbs, it is however striking that sensorimotor activation has been reported also for imageable concrete words with no motor content, for non-words with regular phonology, for pseudo-verb stimuli, and also for negations. Based on the extant literature, we will argue that implicit motor imagery is not uniquely used when a body-related stimulus is encountered, and that it is not the type of stimulus that automatically triggers the motor simulation but the type of strategy. Finally, we will also comment on the view that

  16. Designing Graphs that Promote Both Risk Understanding and Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okan, Yasmina; Stone, Eric R; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2017-10-03

    Graphs show promise for improving communications about different types of risks, including health risks, financial risks, and climate risks. However, graph designs that are effective at meeting one important risk communication goal (promoting risk-avoidant behaviors) can at the same time compromise another key goal (improving risk understanding). We developed and tested simple bar graphs aimed at accomplishing these two goals simultaneously. We manipulated two design features in graphs, namely, whether graphs depicted the number of people affected by a risk and those at risk of harm ("foreground+background") versus only those affected ("foreground-only"), and the presence versus absence of simple numerical labels above bars. Foreground-only displays were associated with larger risk perceptions and risk-avoidant behavior (i.e., willingness to take a drug for heart attack prevention) than foreground+background displays, regardless of the presence of labels. Foreground-only graphs also hindered risk understanding when labels were not present. However, the presence of labels significantly improved understanding, eliminating the detrimental effect of foreground-only displays. Labels also led to more positive user evaluations of the graphs, but did not affect risk-avoidant behavior. Using process modeling we identified mediators (risk perceptions, understanding, user evaluations) that explained the effect of display type on risk-avoidant behavior. Our findings contribute new evidence to the graph design literature: unlike what was previously feared, we demonstrate that it is possible to design foreground-only graphs that promote intentions for behavior change without a detrimental effect on risk understanding. Implications for the design of graphical risk communications and decision support are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Understanding Recent Mass Balance Changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderVeen, Cornelius

    2003-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to better understand the current transfer of mass between the Greenland Ice Sheet, the world's oceans and the atmosphere, and to identify processes controlling the rate of this transfer, to be able to predict with greater confidence future contributions to global sea level rise. During the first year of this project, we focused on establishing longer-term records of change of selected outlet glaciers, reevaluation of mass input to the ice sheet and analysis of climate records derived from ice cores, and modeling meltwater production and runoff from the margins of the ice sheet.

  18. Changes in Affective Profiles of Postsecondary Students in Lower-Level Foreign Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo-Brown, Kimi

    2013-01-01

    Recent surveys and research on second language (L2)/foreign language acquisition help explain the challenges that postsecondary students in lower-level foreign language (FL) courses may experience. The present study extends this line of research by examining changes in students' affective profiles in a two-year Japanese program (n = 382) at an…

  19. Understanding the school 'climate': secondary school children and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Susan; Bernier, Sandrine; Blanchet, Aymeric; Derkenne, Chantal; Clement, Florence; Petitjean, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study analyzes the production, circulation and reception of messages on climate change in secondary schools in France. The objective is to understand how political and educational policy initiatives influence the ways in which schools contribute to creating youngsters' perceptions and opinions about climate change. In order to study the conditions of production and reception of information about climate change, a survey was conducted in four French secondary schools, in the 'Bas Rhin' and 'Nord' departments, and local political actors in each department were interviewed. The cross disciplinary analytical and methodological approach uses the tools of sociological inquiry, information science, and political science: questionnaires and interviews were conducted with members of the educational and governmental communities of each school and department, semiotic and discursive analyses of corpuses of documents were carried out, in order to characterize documents used by students and teachers at school or in more informal contexts; the nature and extent of the relations between the political contexts and school directives and programs were also discussed. This interdisciplinary approach, combining sociological, communicational, and political methods, was chosen in response to the hypothesis that three types of variables (social, communicational and political) contribute to the structuring and production of messages about climate change in schools. This report offers a contextualized overview of activities developed within the four secondary schools to help sensitize children to the risks associated with climate change. A study of the networks of individuals (teachers, staff, members of associations, etc.) created in and around the school environment is presented. The degree of involvement of these actors in climate change programs is analyzed, as it is related to their motives and objectives, to the school discipline taught, and to the position

  20. Public opinion and change in language. On the history of the atomic energy discourse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, M.

    1994-01-01

    The representation of the atomic energy controversy as a linguistic and social process of development reveals the discrepancy between linguistic consciousness and the actual change in language which proves to be the unintentional result of manifold influences and intentions. A vivid, exciting description is given of political language culture in the Federal Republic of Germany. The role of technical languages in the public controversy is discussed, and numerous errors committed by scientific language criticism are disclosed. (orig.) [de

  1. Typologically robust statistical machine translation : Understanding and exploiting differences and similarities between languages in machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daiber, J.

    2018-01-01

    Machine translation systems often incorporate modeling assumptions motivated by properties of the language pairs they initially target. When such systems are applied to language families with considerably different properties, translation quality can deteriorate. Phrase-based machine translation

  2. How does language change as a lexical network? An investigation based on written Chinese word co-occurrence networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heng; Chen, Xinying

    2018-01-01

    Language is a complex adaptive system, but how does it change? For investigating this process, four diachronic Chinese word co-occurrence networks have been built based on texts that were written during the last 2,000 years. By comparing the network indicators that are associated with the hierarchical features in language networks, we learn that the hierarchy of Chinese lexical networks has indeed evolved over time at three different levels. The connections of words at the micro level are continually weakening; the number of words in the meso-level communities has increased significantly; and the network is expanding at the macro level. This means that more and more words tend to be connected to medium-central words and form different communities. Meanwhile, fewer high-central words link these communities into a highly efficient small-world network. Understanding this process may be crucial for understanding the increasing structural complexity of the language system. PMID:29489837

  3. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Climate Change and the Chemistry Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versprille, Ashley N.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    While much is known about secondary students' perspectives of climate change, rather less is known about undergraduate students' perspectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. Findings that emerged from the analysis of the 24 interviews indicate that…

  4. Language Educators' Understanding of Authenticity in Teaching and Its Impacts on Their Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanzadeh, Akram

    2017-01-01

    This grounded theory study explored the conceptualization of authenticity in language education. The participants were 30 Iranian English language educators, who were studied as adult learners. The findings revealed that authenticity was conceptualized by language educators as a social and reflective practice under the influence of the…

  5. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...

  6. Can pictures speak a thousand words in understanding climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, P.

    2017-12-01

    Pictures are able to engage, inspire and educate people in a way that the spoken or written word cannot, and with 21st Century technology we now have even more ways to present images. Researchers and campaigners working in climate change have used the power of images to great effect, bringing the issue of a warming planet into stark relief through iconic scenes such as the forlorn polar bear adrift on an iceberg. Whilst undeniably successful, this image has now become passé and invisible necessitating the scientific community to identify new ways to engage and educate the general public. This paper reports on a new high resolution visualisation app that has been developed by the European Space Agency to illustrate the change over time of a number of climate variables. Data, collected via satellite Earth observations, have been rendered into visually stunning animations that can be interrogated in a number of ways to allow the user to understand the spatial and temporal changes of that variable. But is it enough? Can it ever be that all that glisters really is gold?

  7. Papers of the CWRA climate change symposium : understanding climate change impacts on Manitoba's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This symposium provided an opportunity for discussions on climate change issues with particular reference to the impacts on Manitoba's water resources. The presentations addressed issues of importance to governments, scientists, academics, managers, consultants and the general public. Topics of discussion ranged from climate change impacts on water quality, wetlands, hydropower, fisheries and drought, to adaptation to climate change. Recent advances in global and regional climate modelling were highlighted along with paleo-environmental indicators of climate change. The objective was to provide a better understanding of the science of climate change. The conference featured 16 presentations of which 1 was indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  8. A Cultural Communities Approach to Understanding Head Start Teachers' Beliefs about Language Use with Dual Language Learners: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Sarah; Guerra, Alison Wishard

    2015-01-01

    The school-readiness gap for Latino dual language learners in the United States has been well documented, despite a strong research base highlighting effective strategies and practices for supporting their academic success. However, current educational practices reflect the hegemonic discourse that, because the United States is an English-speaking…

  9. Understanding How Reverse Engineers Make Sense of Programs from Assembly Language Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    disagreements. If codes had weak interrater reliability (0.4 or below), the categories would be removed or changed and the data was recoded. Disagreement and re... weaknesses in software to exploit organizational dependencies and lack of understanding of low-level technologies. Better trained Air Force personnel...Technical report, Department of Computer Science, University of Auckland , 1997. 51. Conrad F., Blair J., and Tracy E. “Verbal reports are data! A theoretical

  10. Understanding the Role of Teaching Materials in a Beginners’ Level English as a Foreign Language Course: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Jesús Cruz Rondón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning a foreign language may be a challenge for most people due to differences in the form and structure between one’s mother tongue and a new one. However, there are some tools that facilitate the teaching and learning of a foreign language, for instance, new applications for digital devices, video blogs, educational platforms, and teaching materials. Therefore, this case study aims at understanding the role of teaching materials among beginners’ level students learning English as a foreign language. After conducting five non-participant classroom observations and nine semi-structured interviews, we found that the way the teacher implemented a pedagogical intervention by integrating the four language skills, promoting interactive learning through the use of online resources, and using the course book led to a global English teaching and learning process.

  11. Critical discourse analysis: understanding change in maternity services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Meredith; Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne

    2012-02-01

    This paper provides an example of the use of critical discourse analysis (CDA) in the area of maternity care policy and describes the process of CDA as an effective research method for understanding the influences of change in the context of Australian maternity services. CDA is a methodological approach that examines how discourse is formed and given power, as a result of how power is used, who uses it and the context within which this usage takes place. The application of CDA is described in this study for the purpose of examining key-stakeholder use of knowledge and power for the purpose of influencing the direction of the maternity services reform. The CDA theoretical framework guided discourse identification and analysis of the purpose behind the discourse through examination of power relationships between key stakeholders. The use of a theoretical lens in the form of neoliberalism to supplement the theoretical framework facilitated the exposure of forces intrinsic to the maternity care context driving change. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Towards a Better Understanding of Climate Change Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryndís Arndal Woods

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of environmental economics literature applies non-cooperative game theory to examine the stability of International Environmental Agreements. Recently, a new trend has emerged in the literature whereby scholars use modified economic approaches to better account for ‘reality’ as such. This article builds upon the work of Hugh Ward, Frank Grundig and Ethan Zorick who conducted a mixed-method analysis to create a model of international climate change negotiations which could explain why policy change has been minimal in this issue area. The purpose of this article is to further develop the mixed-method approach in order to gain a better understanding of international climate change negotiations. Using the progression of the 2011 Durban negotiation session as our raw data, we demonstrate the usefulness of conducting qualitative and quantitative analyses simultaneously to best represent reality. Content and discourse analyses are applied to the Durban negotiations to identify the properties of the underlying game. The results are applied to the future of the negotiations in order to identify trends which need to be addressed to reach more progressive outcomes in the future. The main results of the qualitative analyses of the Durban negotiations included that players had modest expectations at the outset of the negotiations, which influenced the issues they addressed. The quantitative analysis demonstrated that players achieved a high degree of success at Durban; all players achieved their desired outcomes on at least half of the issues they addressed. Finally, the mixed-method approach identified important trends from the negotiations, most importantly the cracks exposed within the BASIC bloc and the role of the ‘middle ground’ alliance.

  13. Understanding dynamic changes in live cell adhesion with neutron reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Ann

    Understanding the structure and functionality of biological systems on a nanometer-resolution and short temporal scales is important for solving complex biological problems, developing innovative treatment, and advancing the design of highly functionalized biomimetic materials. For example, adhesion of cells to an underlying substrate plays a crucial role in physiology and disease development, and has been investigated with great interest for several decades. In the talk, we would like to highlight recent advances in utilizing neutron scattering to study bio-related structures in dynamic conditions (e . g . under the shear flow) including in-situ investigations of the interfacial properties of living cells. The strength of neutron reflectometry is its non-pertubative nature, the ability to probe buried interfaces with nanometer resolution and its sensitivity to light elements like hydrogen and carbon. That allows us to study details of cell - substrate interfaces that are not accessible with any other standard techniques. We studied the adhesion of human brain tumor cells (U251) to quartz substrates and their responses to the external mechanical forces. Such cells are isolated within the central nervous system which makes them difficult to reach with conventional therapies and therefore making them highly invasive. Our results reveal changes in the thickness and composition of the adhesion layer (a layer between the cell lipid membrane and the quartz substrate), largely composed of hyaluronic acid and associated proteoglycans, when the cells were subjected to shear stress. Further studies will allow us to determine more conditions triggering changes in the composition of the bio-material in the adhesion layer. This, in turn, can help to identify changes that correlate with tumor invasiveness, which can have significant medical impact for the development of targeted anti-invasive therapies.

  14. The Role of Cultural Understanding and Language Training in Unconventional Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beleaga, Constantin

    2004-01-01

    .... After examining some situations in which United States and British forces carried out counterinsurgency operations, the author reveals that ground troops with foreign-language skills and cultural...

  15. Understanding Spanish-Language Response in a National Health Communication Survey: Implications for Health Communication Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, A Susana; Willis, Gordon; Rutten, Lila Finney

    2017-05-01

    Spanish-speaking Latinos account for 13% of the U.S. population yet are chronically under-represented in national surveys; additionally, the response quality suffers from low literacy rates and translation challenges. These are the same issues that health communicators face when understanding how best to communicate important health information to Latinos. The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) offers a unique opportunity to understand the health communication landscape and information needs of the U.S. We describe the challenges in recruiting Spanish-speaking HINTS respondents and strategies used to improve rates and quality of responses among Spanish-speaking Latinos. Cognitive interviewing techniques helped to better understand how Spanish-speaking Latinos were interpreting the survey questions, and the extent to which these interpretations matched English-speaking respondents' interpretations. Some Spanish-speaking respondents had difficulty with the questions because of a lack of access to health care. Additionally, Spanish-speaking respondents had a particularly hard time answering questions that were presented in a grid format. We describe the cognitive interview process, and consider the impact of format changes on Spanish-speaking people's responses and response quality. We discuss challenges that remain in understanding health information needs of non-English-speakers.

  16. Understanding and Improving Ocean Mixing Parameterizations for modeling Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. M.; Fells, J.; Clarke, J.; Cheng, Y.; Canuto, V.; Dubovikov, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate is vital. Earth is only habitable due to the atmosphere&oceans' distribution of energy. Our Greenhouse Gas emissions shift overall the balance between absorbed and emitted radiation causing Global Warming. How much of these emissions are stored in the ocean vs. entering the atmosphere to cause warming and how the extra heat is distributed depends on atmosphere&ocean dynamics, which we must understand to know risks of both progressive Climate Change and Climate Variability which affect us all in many ways including extreme weather, floods, droughts, sea-level rise and ecosystem disruption. Citizens must be informed to make decisions such as "business as usual" vs. mitigating emissions to avert catastrophe. Simulations of Climate Change provide needed knowledge but in turn need reliable parameterizations of key physical processes, including ocean mixing, which greatly impacts transport&storage of heat and dissolved CO2. The turbulence group at NASA-GISS seeks to use physical theory to improve parameterizations of ocean mixing, including smallscale convective, shear driven, double diffusive, internal wave and tidal driven vertical mixing, as well as mixing by submesoscale eddies, and lateral mixing along isopycnals by mesoscale eddies. Medgar Evers undergraduates aid NASA research while learning climate science and developing computer&math skills. We write our own programs in MATLAB and FORTRAN to visualize and process output of ocean simulations including producing statistics to help judge impacts of different parameterizations on fidelity in reproducing realistic temperatures&salinities, diffusivities and turbulent power. The results can help upgrade the parameterizations. Students are introduced to complex system modeling and gain deeper appreciation of climate science and programming skills, while furthering climate science. We are incorporating climate projects into the Medgar Evers college curriculum. The PI is both a member of the turbulence group at

  17. Resistance to change in language teaching: some African case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shaalukeni, 2000; Tesfamariam, 2000) have investigated how teachers manage to retain old styles of language teaching in the face of new approaches that have been introduced by the education authorities that employ them. The conviction with ...

  18. Awareness of Language Use in Conceptualization: A Study of Children's Understanding of Movement and Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerblom, Annika; Anderberg, Elsie; Alvegard, Christer; Svensson, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    In this article the role of children's awareness of the function of language use is examined in an empirical, qualitative investigation. Forty children of six and 10 years old were asked to make sense of a science problem in special dialogue setting where they were encouraged to reflect on their own language use. The article concerns the interplay…

  19. How Can Comorbidity with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Aid Understanding of Language and Speech Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Mueller, Kathyrn L.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a background for the topic of comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and spoken and written language and speech disorders that extends through this issue of "Topics in Language Disorders." Comorbidity is common within developmental disorders and may be explained by many possible reasons. Some of these can be…

  20. Feeling the Difference in the Languages Classroom: Explorations of Teacher Understanding of Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helga; Nicolson, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the fourth stage of their research into diversity in the languages classroom, focusing specifically on the teacher perspective in planning for and managing diversity in adult student groups. The article discusses findings from a day with experienced Open University language teachers working together on lesson…

  1. Understanding L2 French Teaching Strategies in a Non-Target Language Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peijian; Yuan, Rui; Teng, Lin

    2015-01-01

    This research explored the congruence and disparity between teachers' and students' attitudes towards French as a second language (L2) teaching strategies in a non-target language classroom context in the USA. The findings suggest students' and teachers' attitudes towards the direct and indirect teaching strategies were generally consistent, but…

  2. Surmounting the Tower of Babel: Monolingual and bilingual 2-year-olds' understanding of the nature of foreign language words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Chen, Ke Heng; Xu, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Languages function as independent and distinct conventional systems, and so each language uses different words to label the same objects. This study investigated whether 2-year-old children recognize that speakers of their native language and speakers of a foreign language do not share the same knowledge. Two groups of children unfamiliar with Mandarin were tested: monolingual English-learning children (n=24) and bilingual children learning English and another language (n=24). An English speaker taught children the novel label fep. On English mutual exclusivity trials, the speaker asked for the referent of a novel label (wug) in the presence of the fep and a novel object. Both monolingual and bilingual children disambiguated the reference of the novel word using a mutual exclusivity strategy, choosing the novel object rather than the fep. On similar trials with a Mandarin speaker, children were asked to find the referent of a novel Mandarin label kuò. Monolinguals again chose the novel object rather than the object with the English label fep, even though the Mandarin speaker had no access to conventional English words. Bilinguals did not respond systematically to the Mandarin speaker, suggesting that they had enhanced understanding of the Mandarin speaker's ignorance of English words. The results indicate that monolingual children initially expect words to be conventionally shared across all speakers-native and foreign. Early bilingual experience facilitates children's discovery of the nature of foreign language words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clouds and Climate Change. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts. Global Change Instruction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    The Global Change Instruction Program was designed by college professors to fill a need for interdisciplinary materials on the emerging science of global change. This instructional module introduces the basic features and classifications of clouds and cloud cover, and explains how clouds form, what they are made of, what roles they play in…

  4. Understanding, identifying and supporting speech, language and communication needs in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Shona

    2013-12-01

    Communication is a fundamental life skill and acts as the foundation on which many other areas of development are based. Any child who is not developing their speech, language and communication skills in the expected way is considered to have speech, language and communication needs (SLCN). These range from children with delayed speech and language development, whose difficulties will resolve with the correct intervention, to children with long term, persistent difficulties in one or more areas of their speech, language and communication development. Speech, language and communication is a skill central to other areas of development, meaning the impacts of SLCN can be significant. These impacts can be minimised by ensuring early identification and support for those children and young people who are presenting with SLCN.

  5. Exploring the Relationships between Independent Listening and Listening-Reading-Writing Tasks in Chinese Language Testing: Toward a Better Understanding of the Construct Underlying Integrated Writing Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinhua; Li, Xueyan; Yu, Guoxing; Cheong, Choo Mui; Liao, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Integrated assessment tasks have been increasingly used in language tests, but the underlying constructs of integrated tasks remain elusive. This study aimed to improve understanding of the construct of integrated writing tasks in Chinese Language examinations in Hong Kong by looking at the language competences measured in the…

  6. Structural brain changes linked to delayed first language acquisition in congenitally deaf individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénicaud, Sidonie; Klein, Denise; Zatorre, Robert J; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Hyde, Krista; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2013-02-01

    Early language experience is essential for the development of a high level of linguistic proficiency in adulthood and in a recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) experiment, we showed that a delayed acquisition of a first language results in changes in the functional organization of the adult brain (Mayberry et al., 2011). The present study extends the question to explore if delayed acquisition of a first language also modulates the structural development of the brain. To this end, we carried out anatomical MRI in the same group of congenitally deaf individuals who varied in the age of acquisition of a first language, American Sign Language -ASL (Mayberry et al., 2011) and used a neuroanatomical technique, Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM), to explore changes in gray and white matter concentrations across the brain related to the age of first language acquisition. The results show that delayed acquisition of a first language is associated with changes in tissue concentration in the occipital cortex close to the area that has been found to show functional recruitment during language processing in these deaf individuals with a late age of acquisition. These findings suggest that a lack of early language experience affects not only the functional but also the anatomical organization of the brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The proper treatment of language acquisition and change in a population setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyogi, Partha; Berwick, Robert C

    2009-06-23

    Language acquisition maps linguistic experience, primary linguistic data (PLD), onto linguistic knowledge, a grammar. Classically, computational models of language acquisition assume a single target grammar and one PLD source, the central question being whether the target grammar can be acquired from the PLD. However, real-world learners confront populations with variation, i.e., multiple target grammars and PLDs. Removing this idealization has inspired a new class of population-based language acquisition models. This paper contrasts 2 such models. In the first, iterated learning (IL), each learner receives PLD from one target grammar but different learners can have different targets. In the second, social learning (SL), each learner receives PLD from possibly multiple targets, e.g., from 2 parents. We demonstrate that these 2 models have radically different evolutionary consequences. The IL model is dynamically deficient in 2 key respects. First, the IL model admits only linear dynamics and so cannot describe phase transitions, attested rapid changes in languages over time. Second, the IL model cannot properly describe the stability of languages over time. In contrast, the SL model leads to nonlinear dynamics, bifurcations, and possibly multiple equilibria and so suffices to model both the case of stable language populations, mixtures of more than 1 language, as well as rapid language change. The 2 models also make distinct, empirically testable predictions about language change. Using historical data, we show that the SL model more faithfully replicates the dynamics of the evolution of Middle English.

  8. The interactional management of ‘language difficulties’ at work – L2 strategies for responding to explicit inquiries about understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranekjær, Louise

    2017-01-01

    ) of how employers in internship interviews orient to internship candidates as members of the category ‘second language speaker’, this paper examines the strategies employed by second languages speakers for refuting suspected language difficulties. Inspired by the training method CARM (Stokoe, 2011; 2013...... communication by illuminating not only the interactional trajectories of inquiries about understanding but also the interactional resources available to second language speakers of effectively ensuring intersubjectivity....

  9. Changes in Immigrant Individuals' Language Attitudes through Contact with Catalan: The Mirror Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortès-Colomé, Montserrat; Barrieras, Mònica; Comellas, Pere

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study based on the change in language attitudes experienced by some allochthonous individuals through contact with the sociolinguistic situation in Catalonia. Previous studies have suggested that in some cases, contact with Catalan--a minority language with a valued identity--acts as a stimulus for some…

  10. A Peak at Death: Assessing Continuity and Change in an Underdocumented Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Robin

    1996-01-01

    Assesses phonological continuity and change in the last stage of the moribund dialect called "Negerhollands" in the Danish West Indies (DWI). The article contrasts earlier and current views of this dialect, sketches language contact in the DWI, examines the last speaker's language history and vowel systems, and assesses variation in a…

  11. A Study on Change in the Attitude of Students Towards English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, C. Vijaya; Soundiraraj, S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to find out whether there is any change in the attitude of students towards English Language Learning (ELL) when they come for college education after completing the school education. The transformation in the attitude of students from school to college was examined in terms of marks, interest towards English language,…

  12. Dynamics in intention to stay and changes in language proficiency of recent migrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, P.G.; Lubbers, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on consequences of changes in intention to stay for Dutch language proficiency of recent migrants. It is anticipated that migrants who decide at a later instance to stay longer in the Netherlands have made less language investments and therefore have a lower proficiency than

  13. Societal Change and the Growing Divide between Knowing and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, David

    2011-01-01

    Social and economic changes affect children indirectly, through the modifications they engender in parental behavior. No-fault divorce laws, for example, made divorce easier and led to a substantial increase in the number of separated families. In contrast to social and economic change, technological change can impact children directly without…

  14. Understanding Resistance to Change: The Jefferson Company Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Anne H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a four-character role-play exercise designed to show how employee and management resistance to change can hinder the implementation of an organizational change effort. The Jefferson Company is an old-line printing firm with new partners that must change its technology, equipment, and operating procedures in the face of increased…

  15. Dynamic changes in network activations characterize early learning of a natural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Patterson, Dianne; Dailey, Natalie S; Kyle, R Almyrde; Fridriksson, Julius

    2014-09-01

    Those who are initially exposed to an unfamiliar language have difficulty separating running speech into individual words, but over time will recognize both words and the grammatical structure of the language. Behavioral studies have used artificial languages to demonstrate that humans are sensitive to distributional information in language input, and can use this information to discover the structure of that language. This is done without direct instruction and learning occurs over the course of minutes rather than days or months. Moreover, learners may attend to different aspects of the language input as their own learning progresses. Here, we examine processing associated with the early stages of exposure to a natural language, using fMRI. Listeners were exposed to an unfamiliar language (Icelandic) while undergoing four consecutive fMRI scans. The Icelandic stimuli were constrained in ways known to produce rapid learning of aspects of language structure. After approximately 4 min of exposure to the Icelandic stimuli, participants began to differentiate between correct and incorrect sentences at above chance levels, with significant improvement between the first and last scan. An independent component analysis of the imaging data revealed four task-related components, two of which were associated with behavioral performance early in the experiment, and two with performance later in the experiment. This outcome suggests dynamic changes occur in the recruitment of neural resources even within the initial period of exposure to an unfamiliar natural language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effects of Shona Language Change on Monolingual Lexicography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    globalization, is causing both linguistic and orthographic evolution, a shift that is evidenced by the inadequacies of the Shona orthography. What is important, however, is that monolingual lexicographers, together with both speakers and planners of the language, should constantly revise and broaden the alphabet.

  17. Implementing the recent curricular changes to English language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... concerning the teaching of English to younger students, as well as their general opinions on English language education. The results indicate divided opinions toward the requirement for English instruction, although the administrators' attitudes toward facilitating English teaching in their schools were generally positive.

  18. Sociolinguistic aspects of language change in kabiye-french code ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the influence of French on Kabiye in Togo and specifically the phenomenon of code-switching among students in Kara. Since French is the official language of education and the government, nearly all educated Kabiye are bilingual in French and Kabiye. My observation of the Kabiye community in Kara ...

  19. Understanding the real risks of changing employee benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jon; St Amour, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    In an environment of constant change, corporations are looking to alter employee benefits programs to make them more responsive to employee and business needs. A complete risk assessment process is the key to preparing for changes to employee benefits programs by providing employers with an analysis of cost savings against the potential negative ramifications of change. This article outlines the steps involved in a complete review of risk assessment. It then discusses how employers can develop successful change management communication strategies if, after conducting a risk assessment, employers decide to move forward with alterations to their employee benefits programs.

  20. Is the (unreal tail wagging the (real dog? Understanding the construct of language proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Gamaroff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines concepts often used in debates on language proficiency and proficiency testing. It argues that the notion of "reality", when used by contrast with the "constructed" world of the test, is naive. Such "reality" is also "constructed" in words. This insight opens up important questions in language testing. Hierdie artikel ondersoek begrippe wat dikwels in debatte oor taalvaardigheid en taalvaardigheidstoetsing gebruik word Daar word geredeneer dat die begrip "werklikheid" naief is wanneer dit as kontrasterende be grip teenoor die "gekonstrueerde" wereld van die toets gebruik word Hierdie "werklikheid" word ook in woorde ''gekonstrueer". Belangrike vrae met be trekking tot taaltoetsing word deur hierdie insig aan die orde gestel.

  1. You must be lying because I don't understand you: Language proficiency and lie detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Elizabeth; Leach, Amy-May

    2016-12-01

    We examined the impact of interviewees' language proficiencies on observers' lie detection performance. Observers (N = 132) were randomly assigned to make deception judgments about interviewees (N = 56) from Four proficiency groups (i.e., native, advanced, intermediate, and beginner English speakers). Discrimination between lie- and truth-tellers was poorest when observers judged beginner English speakers compared to interviewees from any other proficiency group. Observers were also less likely to exhibit a truth-bias toward nonnative than native English speakers. These results suggest that interviewing individuals in their nonnative languages can create inequalities in the justice system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Understanding Climate Change and Manifestation of its Driven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the nature and manifestation of climate change driven impacts on the agrarian districts of Kongwa and Bahi in the semi arid areas of Dodoma region in Tanzania. A Survey of 398 households in the study area was undertaken to elicit information on the nature and manifestation of climate change driven ...

  3. From theory to practice: Understanding transformational change in NAMAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mersmann, Florian; Olsen, Karen Holm; Wehnert, Timon

    and transformational change, exploring their possible applicability to NAMAs. The theoretical approaches are the basis to propose hypotheses for the dynamics, indicators and success factors that foster transformational change, which is necessary to assess whether a NAMA intervention has been or can be transformational...

  4. Understanding the causes of architecture changes using OSS mailing lists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, Wei; Liang, Peng; Tang, Anthony; Van Vliet, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The causes of architecture changes can tell about why architecture changes, and this knowledge can be captured to prevent architecture knowledge vaporization and architecture degeneration. But the causes are not always known, especially in open source software (OSS) development. This makes it very

  5. Language intervention at schools: changing orientations within the South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alant, E

    1989-01-01

    The role of the speech therapist in the school has changed drastically over the last decade. The reasons for these changes originate from a growing realisation of the importance of contextualising intervention within a particular community. This article aims at providing an analysis of the present school population in South Africa with specific reference to the Black schools as a basis for discussion on the role of the speech and language therapist within this context. The problems of second language learning and teaching are highlighted and the role of the language therapist as a consultant within the Black school system is emphasized.

  6. Understanding How Participation in Education Changes Mothers' Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jessica F.; Morris, Pamela A.

    2015-01-01

    This research explores whether low-income mothers' participation in education influences a constellation of different parenting practices that are related to young children's academic outcomes. Importantly, understanding whether maternal participation in education influences mothers' parenting practices can illuminate a pathway by which increases…

  7. How Information Visualization Systems Change Users' Understandings of Complex Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendoerfer, Kenneth Robert

    2009-01-01

    User-centered evaluations of information systems often focus on the usability of the system rather its usefulness. This study examined how a using an interactive knowledge-domain visualization (KDV) system affected users' understanding of a domain. Interactive KDVs allow users to create graphical representations of domains that depict important…

  8. Understanding English Language Variation in U.S. Schools. Multicultural Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charity Hudley, Anne H.; Mallinson, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In today's culturally diverse classrooms, students possess and use many culturally, ethnically, and regionally diverse English language varieties that may differ from standardized English. This book helps classroom teachers become attuned to these differences and offers practical strategies to support student achievement while fostering positive…

  9. Using Focus Group Methodology to Understand International Students' Academic Language Needs: A Comparison of Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Flaitz, Jeffra

    2005-01-01

    Assessing students' language needs is the indispensable first step in EAP (English for Academic Purposes) curriculum development. In this article, we report a portion of the results from a needs assessment study whose ultimate purpose was to inform curriculum development in EAP contexts. We used the focus group methodology to examine learner needs…

  10. Understanding Students with Immigration Backgrounds: A German Case of Students' Language and Identity in Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchereau Bauer, Eurydice; Guerrero, Beatriz; Hornberg, Sabine; Bos, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    In this article we propose that teaching/learning is a process that involves world knowledge, identity, and future construction of oneself. The goal of this qualitative research paper is to document the experiences of 2 fourth-grade students with immigration backgrounds in Germany. Using a poststructuralist approach to language and identity, we…

  11. Speech perception and reading: two parallel modes of understanding language and implications for acquiring literacy naturally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Dominic W

    2012-01-01

    I review 2 seminal research reports published in this journal during its second decade more than a century ago. Given psychology's subdisciplines, they would not normally be reviewed together because one involves reading and the other speech perception. The small amount of interaction between these domains might have limited research and theoretical progress. In fact, the 2 early research reports revealed common processes involved in these 2 forms of language processing. Their illustration of the role of Wundt's apperceptive process in reading and speech perception anticipated descriptions of contemporary theories of pattern recognition, such as the fuzzy logical model of perception. Based on the commonalities between reading and listening, one can question why they have been viewed so differently. It is commonly believed that learning to read requires formal instruction and schooling, whereas spoken language is acquired from birth onward through natural interactions with people who talk. Most researchers and educators believe that spoken language is acquired naturally from birth onward and even prenatally. Learning to read, on the other hand, is not possible until the child has acquired spoken language, reaches school age, and receives formal instruction. If an appropriate form of written text is made available early in a child's life, however, the current hypothesis is that reading will also be learned inductively and emerge naturally, with no significant negative consequences. If this proposal is true, it should soon be possible to create an interactive system, Technology Assisted Reading Acquisition, to allow children to acquire literacy naturally.

  12. Understanding the Academic Procrastination Attitude of Language Learners in Turkish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekleyen, Nilüfer

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of academic procrastination has long been the subject of attention among researchers. However, there is still a paucity of studies examining language learners since most of the studies focus on similar participants such as psychology students. The present study was conducted among students trying to learn English in the first year…

  13. Age Effects in Second Language Learning: Stepping Stones toward Better Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKeyser, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of age of acquisition on ultimate attainment in second language learning has been a controversial topic for years. After providing a very brief overview of the ideas that are at the core of the controversy, I discuss the two main reasons why these issues are so controversial: conceptual misunderstandings and methodological difficulties.…

  14. Language complexity during read-alouds and kindergartners' vocabulary and symbolic understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascareño Lara, Mayra; Snow, Catherine E.; Deunk, Marjolein I.; Bosker, Roel J.

    2016-01-01

    We explored links between complexity of teacher-child verbal interaction and child language and literacy outcomes in fifteen whole-class read-aloud sessions in Chilean kindergarten classrooms serving children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. We coded teacher and child turns for function

  15. Revealing Shifts and Diversity in Understandings of Self Access Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, John L.; Brown, Howard G.; Fujimoto-Adamson, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    This study has traced the growth of a new facility intended to promote independent language study in a Japanese university. The study traces this Self Access Learning Center (SALC) from its inception through the first two years of its development. It has revealed how key qualitative insights from an archive of semi-structured interviews,…

  16. Bilingual education, metalinguistic awareness, and the understanding of an unknown language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Kuile, H.; Veldhuis, M.; van Veen, S.C.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of schools offer bilingual programs, where lessons are taught in more than one language. Several theories state that bilinguals have greater metalinguistic awareness than monolinguals. We investigated whether this greater metalinguistic awareness is also related to an increased

  17. Towards a Better Understanding of Academic Acculturation: Second Language Students in Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liying; Fox, Janna

    2008-01-01

    The aggressive internationalization of Canadian universities and increased immigration to Canada over the past 20 years have resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of second language (L2) students in Canadian universities. However, little is known about the factors that influence academic acculturation of L2 students or about the role of…

  18. When the Second Language Takes the Lead: Neurocognitive Processing Changes in the First Language of Adult Attriters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, Kristina; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Although research on multilingualism has revealed continued neuroplasticity for language-learning beyond what was previously expected, it remains controversial whether and to what extent a second language (L2) acquired in adulthood may induce changes in the neurocognitive processing of a first language (L1). First language (L1) attrition in adulthood offers new insight on neuroplasticity and the factors that modulate neurocognitive responses to language. To date, investigations of the neurocognitive correlates of L1 attrition and of factors influencing these mechanisms are still scarce. Moreover, most event-related-potential (ERP) studies of second language processing have focused on L1 influence on the L2, while cross-linguistic influence in the reverse direction has been underexplored. Using ERPs, we examined the real-time processing of Italian relative-clauses in 24 Italian-English adult migrants with predominant use of English since immigration and reporting attrition of their native-Italian (Attriters), compared to 30 non-attriting monolinguals in Italy (Controls). Our results showed that Attriters differed from Controls in their acceptability judgment ratings and ERP responses when relative clause constructions were ungrammatical in English, though grammatical in Italian. Controls' ERP responses to unpreferred sentence constructions were consistent with garden path effects typically observed in the literature for these complex sentences. In contrast, due to L2-English influence, Attriters were less sensitive to semantic cues than to word-order preferences, and processed permissible Italian sentences as outright morphosyntactic violations. Key factors modulating processing differences within Attriters were the degree of maintained L1 exposure, length of residence in the L2 environment and L2 proficiency - with higher levels of L2 immersion and proficiency associated with increased L2 influence on the L1. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that

  19. Receptive Audiences for Climate Change Education: Understanding Attitudes and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L. D.; Luebke, J. F.; Clayton, S.; Saunders, C. D.; Matiasek, J.; Grajal, A.

    2012-12-01

    Much effort has been devoted to finding ways to explain climate change to uninterested audiences and encourage mitigation behaviors among dismissive audiences. Most approaches have focused on conveying information about climate change processes or threats. Here we report the results of a national survey designed to characterize the readiness of zoo and aquarium visitors to engage with the issue of climate change. Two survey forms, one focused primarily on attitudes (N=3,594) and another on behaviors (N=3,588), were administered concurrently in summer 2011 at 15 Association of Zoos and Aquariums accredited institutions. The attitudes survey used Global Warming's Six Americas segmentation protocols (climatechangecommunication.org) to compare climate change attitudes of zoo and aquarium visitors with the American public (Leiserowitz et al., 2011). Our results reveal that visitors are receptive audiences for climate change education and want to do more to address climate change. Even these favorable audiences, however, perceive barriers to engaging in the issue, signifying the importance of meeting the learning needs of those who acknowledge anthropogenic climate change, and not only of climate change 'deniers.' While 39% of the general public is 'concerned' or 'alarmed' about global warming, 64% of zoo and aquarium visitors fall into these two "Six Americas" segments. Visitors also differ from the national sample in key attitudinal characteristics related to global warming. For example, nearly two-thirds believe human actions are related to global warming, versus less than one-half of the general public; and approximately 60% think global warming will harm them personally, moderately or a great deal, versus less than 30% of the general public. Moreover, 69% of visitors would like to do more to address climate change. Despite zoo and aquarium visitors' awareness of climate change and motivation to address it, survey results indicate they experience barriers to

  20. ``We also wanted to learn'': Narratives of change from adults literate in African languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudell, Joel; Cheffy, Ian

    2017-10-01

    This article discusses the impact of literacy programmes on those who learned to read and write in their own African languages. It draws on adult learners' reflections on the significance of literacy and numeracy in their everyday lives as evidenced in interviews conducted in 2014 and 2015 in rural sites in five African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Cameroon, Burkina Faso and Ghana. The research approach was influenced by the Most Significant Change (MSC) method of monitoring and evaluation, which collects and examines narratives that reveal beneficiaries' perceptions of change related to a given programme. This study emulates this approach in that it seeks to learn about perceived changes attributed to literacy acquisition from the perspectives of the beneficiaries, without imposing pre-established indicators. In the rural adult learners' view, literacy enabled lifelong learning outcomes that rivalled the results of primary schooling. Literacy programme graduates demonstrated extensive ongoing learning after they learned to read, write and calculate, consequently acquiring new literacy practices and new understandings of themselves. Even though many of those interviewed had been unable to attend school, they viewed the practices of reading and writing that they developed outside of school as equivalent to the practices of adults who had been educated in primary school.

  1. Understanding Farmer Perspectives on Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Lois Wright; Hobbs, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is vulnerable to climate change and a source of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Farmers face pressures to adjust agricultural systems to make them more resilient in the face of increasingly variable weather (adaptation) and reduce GHG production (mitigation). This research examines relationships between Iowa farmers’ trust in environmental or agricultural interest groups as sources of climate information, climate change beliefs, perceived climate risks to agriculture, and support for adaptation and mitigation responses. Results indicate that beliefs varied with trust, and beliefs in turn had a significant direct effect on perceived risks from climate change. Support for adaptation varied with perceived risks, while attitudes toward GHG reduction (mitigation) were associated predominantly with variation in beliefs. Most farmers were supportive of adaptation responses, but few endorsed GHG reduction, suggesting that outreach should focus on interventions that have adaptive and mitigative properties (e.g., reduced tillage, improved fertilizer management). PMID:25983336

  2. Urban Change: Understanding how expansion and densification relate to demographic change and their implications for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, D.; Jones, B.; Liu, Z.; Nghiem, S. V.; Pesaresi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization is the most demographic significant trend of the 21st century particularly in Asia. Characterizing it in a spatial context is difficult given the moderate resolution data provided by traditional sources of demographic data. Previous work on Saigon has shown by using these data together that much more about the correlates and potential consequences of change in the form and expansion of urban change can be learned than with a single data source alone. In this paper, we expand our analysis to two other much different urban and socioeconomic settings: Dhaka and Beijing. Particularly, where the demographic and socioeconomic indicators of change are too infrequent to capture annual change, use of satellites in combination with demographic data may be especially useful for capturing change in exurban and periurban areas, or in smaller cities within larger urban agglomerations. Using spatial regression techniques, we estimate statistical relationships between remotely sensed data sets to assess the ability demographic changes to predict urban changes as detected by two different satellite measures of change 2000-2010 in Dhaka, Saigon, and Beijing. We then predict socioeconomic outcomes associated with emissions and vulnerability proxies. We use two much different types of satellite data -- the Dense Sample Method (DSM) analysis of the NASA scatterometer data and new built-up area data from the Global Human Settlement Layer of the JRC - which respectively proxy for increases in building heights (vertical expansion) and impervious surface-type changes (horizontal expansion). These different data products help us to better understand the evolution of the built environment and urban form, while the underlying demographic data provide information regarding composition of urban population change, at different levels of economic development, built-upness, and population density. Combining these types of data yields important, high resolution spatial information that

  3. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  4. Local understanding of forest conservation in land use change dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaleh, Muhammad Adha; Guth, Miriam Karen; Rahman, Syed Ajijur

    2016-01-01

    Forest (SEPPSF), Malaysia. Nine in-depth interviews were conducted with Orang Asli Jakun living in SEPPSF using open-ended questions. Local communities have positive perspectives toward the forest conservation program, despite massive environmental changes in their living landscape. This study suggests...

  5. Understanding the dynamic changes in India's peri-urban regions ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They are also regions where there are resource constraints, and where access to services such as water, energy, transport, and housing is becoming increasingly fragmented as a result of land use change (e.g. the development of gated communities and special economic zones). Such unplanned growth, along with ...

  6. An Accessible Approach to Understanding Entropy and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip

    2018-01-01

    This article challenges the notion that entropy is something to be avoided. A line of argument is presented that is accessible to those not having specialist knowledge and that offers a new perspective to those more familiar with the concept. It shows that temperature is better understood by addressing entropy. Entropy change diagrams are…

  7. How we understand mathematics conceptual integration in the language of mathematical description

    CERN Document Server

    Woźny, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    This volume examines mathematics as a product of the human mind and analyzes the language of "pure mathematics" from various advanced-level sources. Through analysis of the foundational texts of mathematics, it is demonstrated that math is a complex literary creation, containing objects, actors, actions, projection, prediction, planning, explanation, evaluation, roles, image schemas, metonymy, conceptual blending, and, of course, (natural) language. The book follows the narrative of mathematics in a typical order of presentation for a standard university-level algebra course, beginning with analysis of set theory and mappings and continuing along a path of increasing complexity. At each stage, primary concepts, axioms, definitions, and proofs will be examined in an effort to unfold the tell-tale traces of the basic human cognitive patterns of story and conceptual blending. This book will be of interest to mathematicians, teachers of mathematics, cognitive scientists, cognitive linguists, and anyone interested...

  8. Changing currents: a strategy for understanding and predicting the changing ocean circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, Harry L; Robinson, Carol; Griffiths, Gwyn

    2012-12-13

    Within the context of UK marine science, we project a strategy for ocean circulation research over the next 20 years. We recommend a focus on three types of research: (i) sustained observations of the varying and evolving ocean circulation, (ii) careful analysis and interpretation of the observed climate changes for comparison with climate model projections, and (iii) the design and execution of focused field experiments to understand ocean processes that are not resolved in coupled climate models so as to be able to embed these processes realistically in the models. Within UK-sustained observations, we emphasize smart, cost-effective design of the observational network to extract maximum information from limited field resources. We encourage the incorporation of new sensors and new energy sources within the operational environment of UK-sustained observational programmes to bridge the gap that normally separates laboratory prototype from operational instrument. For interpreting the climate-change records obtained through a variety of national and international sustained observational programmes, creative and dedicated UK scientists should lead efforts to extract the meaningful signals and patterns of climate change and to interpret them so as to project future changes. For the process studies, individual scientists will need to work together in team environments to combine observational and process modelling results into effective improvements in the coupled climate models that will lead to more accurate climate predictions.

  9. Understanding the Changes in Global Crop Yields Through Changes in Climate and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Ehsan; Devineni, Naresh; Khanbilvardi, Reza M.; Kogan, Felix

    2018-03-01

    During the last few decades, the global agricultural production has risen and technology enhancement is still contributing to yield growth. However, population growth, water crisis, deforestation, and climate change threaten the global food security. An understanding of the variables that caused past changes in crop yields can help improve future crop prediction models. In this article, we present a comprehensive global analysis of the changes in the crop yields and how they relate to different large-scale and regional climate variables, climate change variables and technology in a unified framework. A new multilevel model for yield prediction at the country level is developed and demonstrated. The structural relationships between average yield and climate attributes as well as trends are estimated simultaneously. All countries are modeled in a single multilevel model with partial pooling to automatically group and reduce estimation uncertainties. El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO), Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), geopotential height anomalies (GPH), historical carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and country-based time series of GDP per capita as an approximation of technology measurement are used as predictors to estimate annual agricultural crop yields for each country from 1961 to 2013. Results indicate that these variables can explain the variability in historical crop yields for most of the countries and the model performs well under out-of-sample verifications. While some countries were not generally affected by climatic factors, PDSI and GPH acted both positively and negatively in different regions for crop yields in many countries.

  10. Understanding the Relationship between Latino Students' Preferred Learning Styles and Their Language Spoken at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Torres, Sonia Enid

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between Latino students' learning styles and their language spoken at home. Results of the study indicated that students who spoke Spanish at home had higher means in the Active Experimentation modality of learning (M = 31.38, SD = 5.70) than students who spoke English (M = 28.08,…

  11. Research and Development in Natural Language Understanding as Part of the Strategic Computing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The First Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications , pages 13-18. IEEE Computer Society, December, 1984. S"[121 Sager, N. The String Parser...Language Access. In The First Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications , pages 19-24. IEEE Computer Society, December, 1984. [18] Stallard...of The First Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications . IEEE Computer Society, Denver, Colorado, December, 1984. [71 Scha. R.J.H. English

  12. Human Computer Collaboration at the Edge: Enhancing Collective Situation Understanding with Controlled Natural Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-06

    has conceptually noted lim- itations of COPs [26]; our research empirically illustrates the tradeoffs with a COP even if all users have a shared goal...in group size and dynamics. To further assess the effects of a COP on information quality and quantity, we plan to run a conceptual replication of the...2] T. Kuhn, “A survey and classification of controlled natural languages,” Computational Linguistics , vol. 40, pp. 121–170, 2014. [3] E. Cambria

  13. Training Of Manual Actions Improves Language Understanding of Semantically-Related Action Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eLocatelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual knowledge accessed by language may involve the re-activation of the associated primary sensory-motor processes. Whether these embodied representations are indeed constitutive to conceptual knowledge is hotly debated, particularly since direct evidence that sensory-motor expertise can improve conceptual processing is scarce.In this study, we sought for this crucial piece of evidence, by training naive healthy subjects to perform complex manual actions and by measuring, before and after training, their performance in a semantic language task. 19 participants engaged in 3 weeks of motor training. Each participant was trained in 3 complex manual actions (e.g. origami. Before and after the training period, each subject underwent a series of manual dexterity tests and a semantic language task. The latter consisted of a sentence-picture semantic congruency judgment task, with 6 target congruent sentence-picture pairs (semantically related to the trained manual actions, 6 non-target congruent pairs (semantically unrelated, and 12 filler incongruent pairs.Manual action training induced a significant improvement in all manual dexterity tests, demonstrating the successful acquisition of sensory-motor expertise. In the semantic language task, the reaction times to both target and non-target congruent sentence-image pairs decreased after action training, indicating a more efficient conceptual-semantic processing. Noteworthy, the reaction times for target pairs decreased more than those for non-target pairs, as indicated by the 2x2 interaction. These results were confirmed when controlling for the potential bias of increased frequency of use of target lexical items during manual training.The results of the present study suggest that sensory-motor expertise gained by training of specific manual actions can lead to an improvement of cognitive-linguistic skills related to the specific conceptual-semantic domain associated to the trained actions.

  14. Language matters: towards an understanding of silence and humour in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Lorelei

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the state of the science regarding language matters in medical education, with particular attention to two informal language practices: silence and humour. Silence and humour pervade clinical training settings, although we rarely attend explicitly to them. This paper considers the treatment of these topics in our field to date and introduces a selection of the scholarship on silence and humour from other fields, including philosophy, sociology, anthropology, linguistics and rhetoric. Particular attention is paid to distilling the theoretical and methodological possibilities for an elaborated research agenda around silence and humour in medical education. These two language practices assume a variety of forms and serve a range of social functions. Episodes of silence and humour are intimately tied to their relational and institutional contexts. Power often figures centrally, although not predictably. A rich theoretical and methodological basis exists on which to elaborate a research agenda around silence and humour in medical education. Such research promises to reveal more fully the contributions of silence and humour to socialisation in clinical training settings. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  15. Exploring the Relationships Between Independent Listening and Listening-Reading-Writing Tasks in Chinese Language Testing:Toward a Better Understanding of the Construct Underlying Integrated Writing Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xinhua; Li, Xueyan; Yu, Guoxing; Cheong, Choo Mui; Liao, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Integrated assessment tasks have been increasingly used in language tests, but the underlying constructs of integrated tasks remain elusive. This study aimed to improve understanding of the construct of integrated writing tasks in Chinese Language examinations in Hong Kong by looking at the language competences measured in the Listening-Reading-Writing Task and how they relate to the outcome of the Independent Listening Task. The performance of 226 native Chinese Secondary Five students on bo...

  16. Co-Occurrence of Language and Behavioural Change in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Harris

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the co-occurrence of language and behavioural impairment in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD spectrum pathology. Methods: Eighty-one dementia patients with pathological confirmation of FTLD were identified. Anonymized clinical records from patients' first assessment were rated for language and behavioural features from frontotemporal dementia consensus criteria, primary progressive aphasia (PPA criteria and 1998 FTLD criteria. Results: Over 90% of patients with FTLD pathology exhibited a combination of at least one behavioural and one language feature. Changes in language, in particular, were commonly accompanied by behavioural change. Notably, the majority of patients who displayed language features characteristic of semantic variant PPA exhibited ‘early perseverative, stereotyped or compulsive/ritualistic behaviour'. Moreover, ‘executive/generation deficits with relative sparing of memory and visuospatial functions' occurred in most patients with core features of non-fluent variant PPA. Conclusion: Behavioural and language symptoms frequently co-occur in patients with FTLD pathology. Current classifications, which separate behavioural and language syndromes, do not reflect this co-occurrence.

  17. Dual language profiles of Latino children of immigrants: Stability and change over the early school years

    Science.gov (United States)

    COLLINS, BRIAN A.; O'CONNOR, ERIN E.; SUÁREZ-OROZCO, CAROLA; NIETO-CASTAÑON, ALFONSO; TOPPELBERG, CLAUDIO O.

    2013-01-01

    Dual language children enter school with varying levels of proficiencies in their first and second language. This study of Latino children of immigrants (N = 163) analyzes their dual language profiles at kindergarten and second grade, derived from the direct assessment of Spanish and English proficiencies (Woodcock Language Proficiency Batteries–Revised). Children were grouped based on the similarity of language profiles (competent profiles, such as dual proficient, Spanish proficient, and English proficient; and low-performing profiles, including borderline proficient and limited proficient). At kindergarten, the majority of children (63%) demonstrated a low-performing profile; by second grade, however, the majority of children (64%) had competent profiles. Change and stability of language profiles over time of individual children were then analyzed. Of concern, are children who continued to demonstrate a low-performing, high-risk profile. Factors in the linguistic environments at school and home, as well as other family and child factors associated with dual language profiles and change/stability over time were examined, with a particular focus on the persistently low-performing profile groups. PMID:24825925

  18. Evolution of Brain and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenemann, P. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of language and the evolution of the brain are tightly interlinked. Language evolution represents a special kind of adaptation, in part because language is a complex behavior (as opposed to a physical feature) but also because changes are adaptive only to the extent that they increase either one's understanding of others, or one's…

  19. Language and therapeutic change: a speech acts analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Lucia; Aristegui, Roberto; Krause, Mariane; Strasser, Katherine; Tomicic, Alemka; Valdes, Nelson; Altimir, Carolina; Ramirez, Ivonne; De La Parra, Guillermo; Dagnino, Paula; Echavarri, Orietta; Vilches, Oriana; Ben-Dov, Perla

    2008-05-01

    Drawing on the speech acts theory, a linguistic pattern was identified that could be expected to be associated to therapeutic change, characterized by being uttered in the first person singular and present indicative, and by being self-referential in its propositional content. The frequency of the pattern was examined among verbalizations defined as change moments in three therapies with different theoretical orientation. Results show that the majority of change moments have the specified pattern, and that this pattern is significantly more frequent in change moments than in random non-change-related verbalizations, and so, it does not pertain to therapeutic conversation in general. Implications are discussed concerning the possibility of using the linguistic pattern as an additional and complementary criterion in the identification of moments of change in the therapeutic process.

  20. What changes in neural oscillations can reveal about developmental cognitive neuroscience: language development as a case in point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Mandy J; Abel, Alyson D

    2013-10-01

    EEG is a primary method for studying temporally precise neuronal processes across the lifespan. Most of this work focuses on event related potentials (ERPs); however, using time-locked time frequency analysis to decompose the EEG signal can identify and distinguish multiple changes in brain oscillations underlying cognition (Bastiaansen et al., 2010). Further this measure is thought to reflect changes in inter-neuronal communication more directly than ERPs (Nunez and Srinivasan, 2006). Although time frequency has elucidated cognitive processes in adults, applying it to cognitive development is still rare. Here, we review the basics of neuronal oscillations, some of what they reveal about adult cognitive function, and what little is known relating to children. We focus on language because it develops early and engages complex cortical networks. Additionally, because time frequency analysis of the EEG related to adult language comprehension has been incredibly informative, using similar methods with children will shed new light on current theories of language development and increase our understanding of how neural processes change over the lifespan. Our goal is to emphasize the power of this methodology and encourage its use throughout developmental cognitive neuroscience. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Procedures as a Representation for Data in a Computer Program for Understanding Natural Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Terry

    This paper describes a system for the computer understanding of English. The system answers questions, executes commands, and accepts information in normal English dialogue. It uses semantic information and context to understand discourse and to disambiguate sentences. It combines a complete syntactic analysis of each sentence with a heuristic…

  2. NOTE FOR EDITOR: Understanding Resistance To Change: A Challenge For Universities

    OpenAIRE

    CARUTH, Gail D.; CARUTH, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Change is inevitable. Today more than ever the pace of change is accelerating. Where there is organizational change there will be resistance to this change. To deal with the resistance effectively university administrators must understand the nature and causes of resistance to change. Only by dealing effectively with resistance to change can organizational change be implemented successfully. This paper explores organizational change and the challenge it poses for universities. Because univers...

  3. NOTE FOR EDITOR: Understanding Resistance To Change: A Challenge For Universities

    OpenAIRE

    CARUTH, Gail D.; CARUTH, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Change is inevitable. Today more than ever the pace of change is accelerating. Where there is organizational change there will be resistance to this change. To deal with the resistance effectively university administrators must understand the nature and causes of resistance to change. Only by dealing effectively with resistance to change can organizational change be implemented successfully. This paper explores organizational change and the challenge it poses for universities. Because univers...

  4. Sixth-Grade Students' Progress in Understanding the Mechanisms of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintainer, Tammie; Linn, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Developing solutions for complex issues such as global climate change requires an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This study reports on the impact of a technology-enhanced unit designed to improve understanding of global climate change, its mechanisms, and their relationship to everyday energy use. Global Climate Change, implemented in…

  5. Understanding change and continuity in residential energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Practice theory has recently emerged within consumer studies as a promising approach that shifts focus from the individual consumer towards the collective aspects of consumption and from spectacular and conspicuous dimensions of consumption towards routine and mundane aspects of consumption...... of material consumer goods in practice theory. Case studies on household energy consumption are used as an empirical basis for these discussions. Looking at household energy consumption through the theoretical lens of practice theory necessitates discussion on whether energy consumption should be viewed....... Practice theory is, however, not a commonly agreed upon theory but more like an approach or a turn within contemporary social theory. When using practice theory in consumer studies, there are thus several conditions that need further clarification. The focus in this article is on how change and continuity...

  6. Perceived Changes in the English Language Ability of Freshmen at a University in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, James

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates possible changes in students' English language ability by means of a questionnaire administered to 18 experienced university teachers. The questionnaire measures changes in six domains: grammar, reading, listening, speaking, writing, and attitudes. The results of the questionnaire indicate that over the last decade a…

  7. Climate Change and TESOL: Language, Literacies, and the Creation of Eco-Ethical Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulah, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This article calls on the field of TESOL to respond to the planet's growing climatic and ecological crisis, conceptualizing climate change beyond just standards-based language and content curriculum. Climate change is also "cultural" and "religious," and thus warrants broader consideration in TESOL. Drawing on theories of value…

  8. Language Change in the Wake of Empire: Syriac in Its Greco-Roman Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Aaron Michael

    2013-01-01

    Greek-Aramaic bilingualism was wide-spread throughout Late Antique Syria and Mesopotamia. Among the various Aramaic dialects, Syriac underwent a particularly intense and prolonged period of contact with Greek. This contact led to changes in both languages. The present study provides a new analysis of contact-induced changes in Syriac due to Greek,…

  9. LANGUAGE AND SOCIO-CULTURAL CHANGE IN EJAGHAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    among the Bali people of the North West Province is faithfully and studiously re- flected in the Mungaka ... cultural context which is a necessary ingredient for the study of linguistic change has always been taken for ... "because changes in one aspect of culture would inevitably result, sooner or later, in all other apsects.".

  10. Teaching Climate Change Using System Models: An Understanding Global Change Project Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; Stuhlsatz, M.; Bracey, Z. B.; Marshall, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Teaching and learning about historical and anthropogenic climate change in the classroom requires integrating instructional resources that address physical, chemical, and biological processes. The Understanding Global Change (UGC) framework and system models developed at the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) provide visualizations of the relationships and feedbacks between Earth system processes, and the consequences of anthropogenic activities on global climate. This schema provides a mechanism for developing pedagogic narratives that are known to support comprehension and retention of information and relationships. We designed a nine-day instructional unit for middle and high school students that includes a sequence of hands-on, inquiry-based, data rich activities combined with conceptual modeling exercises intended to foster students' development of systems thinking and their understanding of human influences on Earth system processes. The pilot unit, Sea Level Rise in the San Francisco Bay Area, addresses the human causes and consequences of sea level rise and related Earth system processes (i.e., the water cycle and greenhouse effect). Most of the content is not Bay Area specific, and could be used to explore sea level rise in any coastal region. Students completed pre and post assessments, which included questions about the connectedness of components of the Earth system and probed their attitudes towards participating in environmental stewardship activities. Students sequentially drew models representing the content explored in the activities and wrote short descriptions of their system diagrams that were collected by teachers for analysis. We also randomly assigned classes to engage in a very short additional intervention that asked students to think about the role that humans play in the Earth system and to draw themselves into the models. The study will determine if these students have higher stewardship scores and more frequently

  11. Sustainable urban water management: understanding and fostering champions of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A C

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights and discusses ten characteristic attributes of emergent leaders (also known as 'champions') who worked as influential change agents within publicly managed, Australian water agencies to encourage more sustainable forms of urban water management. These attributes relate to: the 'openness to experience' personality characteristic; career mobility and work history demographics; personal and position power; strategic social networks; the culture of their organisations; and five distinguishing leadership behaviours (e.g. persisting under adversity). Guided by the findings of an international literature review, the author conducted a multiple case study involving six water agencies. This research identified attributes of these leaders that were typically strong and/or distinguishing compared to relevant control groups, as well as influential contextual factors. While it is widely acknowledged that these leaders play a critical role in the delivery of sustainable urban water management, there has been a paucity of context-sensitive research involving them. The research project highlighted in this paper is a response to this situation and has led to the development of a suite of 39 practical, evidence-based strategies to build leadership capacity throughout water agencies. Such capacity is one of the elements needed to drive the transition to more 'water sensitive cities'.

  12. Learning to Get It Right: Understanding Change Processes in Professional Development for Teachers of English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Daniel Sung-Yeol; Morrison, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    A professional development program for US teachers in the state of Oregon was the context in which this study took place. This five-year hybrid (online and face-to-face) program assisted experienced teachers to adapt their practice to meet the needs of language minority and immigrant students. The positive changes in teacher perceptions and…

  13. From Bearing Witness to Art Exhibitions to Inspiring the Understanding of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, D.

    2016-12-01

    I intend to demonstrate how artists such as myself can influence the public discourse on climate change. I believe aesthetically compelling visualizations can transcend data and language. I will speak specifically to how I communicate scientific research to diverse populations. I have much to share since first speaking in 2012 on the Panel "Communication of Science through Art: Raison d'Etre for Interdisciplinary Communication". I then illustrated how I utilized visual cues such as archival evidence in the form of repeats, geological charts of recessional lines, graphs, symbols and Landsat maps in my large scale paintings and photographs and inspired learning. I continue to develop visual strategies delivering information on an emotional/non-verbal level. Now 4 years later, I've added the most dramatic layer to my creative process: bearing witness. I've been to the three largest ice fields in the world: Greenland, Antarctica and Argentina's Patagonia, observing the unprecedented pace of glacial melt. Those expeditions feed my practice, leading to exhibitions that begin a dialog with an audience not initially interested in science. In the past 5 years my work has appeared in 6 solo and 19 group exhibits all devoted to the environment. I make myself present in universities, museums and galleries to explain what the images are about. I require universities to include a public component: an all-college lecture or panel where the geography/environmental/sociology/geology departments participate with broad student involvement. I believe that such endeavors are worthwhile and can be models for further efforts to educate an unsuspecting audience. Artists can bridge the gap communicating to a public of art appreciators, nonscientists - how easy it is to understand geology and global warming. I believe we can even inspire attitudinal change. Aside from personal examples I will include other artists and exhibition venues contributing to this phenomenon.

  14. H.M.’s Personal Crossword Puzzles: Understanding Memory and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotko, Brian G.; Rubin, David C.; Tupler, Larry A.

    2011-01-01

    The amnesic patient H.M. has been solving crossword puzzles nearly all of his life. Here, we analyzed the linguistic content of 277 of H.M.’s crossword-puzzle solutions. H.M. did not have any unusual difficulties with the orthographic and grammatical components inherent to the puzzles. He exhibited few spelling errors, responded with appropriate parts of speech, and provided answers that were, at times, more convincing to observers than those supplied by the answer keys. These results suggest that H.M.’s lexical word-retrieval skills remain fluid despite his profound anterograde amnesia. Once acquired, the maintenance of written language comprehension and production does not seem to require intact medial temporal lobe structures. PMID:18286414

  15. Speech-language pathology students' self-reports on voice training: easier to understand or to do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhe, Christina; Hartelius, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the subjective ratings of the course 'Training of the student's own voice and speech', from a student-centred perspective. A questionnaire was completed after each of the six individual sessions. Six speech and language pathology (SLP) students rated how they perceived the practical exercises in terms of doing and understanding. The results showed that five of the six participants rated the exercises as significantly easier to understand than to do. The exercises were also rated as easier to do over time. Results are interpreted within in a theoretical framework of approaches to learning. The findings support the importance of both the physical and reflective aspects of the voice training process.

  16. Squeezing through the Now-or-Never bottleneck: Reconnecting language processing, acquisition, change, and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick; Christiansen, Morten H

    2016-01-01

    If human language must be squeezed through a narrow cognitive bottleneck, what are the implications for language processing, acquisition, change, and structure? In our target article, we suggested that the implications are far-reaching and form the basis of an integrated account of many apparently unconnected aspects of language and language processing, as well as suggesting revision of many existing theoretical accounts. With some exceptions, commentators were generally supportive both of the existence of the bottleneck and its potential implications. Many commentators suggested additional theoretical and linguistic nuances and extensions, links with prior work, and relevant computational and neuroscientific considerations; some argued for related but distinct viewpoints; a few, though, felt traditional perspectives were being abandoned too readily. Our response attempts to build on the many suggestions raised by the commentators and to engage constructively with challenges to our approach.

  17. Language Variation and Change in the Australian Curriculum English: Integrating Sub-Strands through a Pedagogy of Metalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Linda-Dianne; Exley, Beryl

    2016-01-01

    The Language Strand of the Australian Curriculum: English (Australian Curriculum, Assessment & Reporting Authority (ACARA), 2016b) includes the sub-strand of "Language Variation and Change". This sub-strand is a marked space for discovery and discussion of the history and politics of language use. As such, this sub-strand points to…

  18. Telecollaboration in Foreign Language Curricula: A Case Study on Intercultural Understanding in Video Communication Exchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kroon, Linda; Jauregi Ondarra, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/276318102; ten Thije, J.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10391515X

    2015-01-01

    The development of intercultural communicative competence is increasingly important in this globalised and highly digitalised world. This implies the adequate understanding of otherness, which entails a myriad of complex cognitive competences, skills and behaviour. The TILA project aims to study how

  19. Understanding Scientific Methodology in the Historical and Experimental Sciences via Language Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodick, Jeff; Argamon, Shlomo; Chase, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A key focus of current science education reforms involves developing inquiry-based learning materials. However, without an understanding of how working scientists actually "do" science, such learning materials cannot be properly developed. Until now, research on scientific reasoning has focused on cognitive studies of individual scientific fields.…

  20. A Phenomenographic Study of the Ways of Understanding Conditional and Repetition Structures in Computer Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks, Gregory Warren

    2010-01-01

    Computers have become an integral part of how engineers complete their work, allowing them to collect and analyze data, model potential solutions and aiding in production through automation and robotics. In addition, computers are essential elements of the products themselves, from tennis shoes to construction materials. An understanding of how…

  1. Studying language change using price equation and Pólya-urn dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Tamariz, Mónica; Jäger, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Language change takes place primarily via diffusion of linguistic variants in a population of individuals. Identifying selective pressures on this process is important not only to construe and predict changes, but also to inform theories of evolutionary dynamics of socio-cultural factors. In this paper, we advocate the Price equation from evolutionary biology and the Pólya-urn dynamics from contagion studies as efficient ways to discover selective pressures. Using the Price equation to process the simulation results of a computer model that follows the Pólya-urn dynamics, we analyze theoretically a variety of factors that could affect language change, including variant prestige, transmission error, individual influence and preference, and social structure. Among these factors, variant prestige is identified as the sole selective pressure, whereas others help modulate the degree of diffusion only if variant prestige is involved. This multidisciplinary study discerns the primary and complementary roles of linguistic, individual learning, and socio-cultural factors in language change, and offers insight into empirical studies of language change.

  2. Cultural and climatic changes shape the evolutionary history of the Uralic languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkola, T; Vesakoski, O; Korhonen, K; Lehtinen, J; Syrjänen, K; Wahlberg, N

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative phylogenetic methods have been used to study the evolutionary relationships and divergence times of biological species, and recently, these have also been applied to linguistic data to elucidate the evolutionary history of language families. In biology, the factors driving macroevolutionary processes are assumed to be either mainly biotic (the Red Queen model) or mainly abiotic (the Court Jester model) or a combination of both. The applicability of these models is assumed to depend on the temporal and spatial scale observed as biotic factors act on species divergence faster and in smaller spatial scale than the abiotic factors. Here, we used the Uralic language family to investigate whether both 'biotic' interactions (i.e. cultural interactions) and abiotic changes (i.e. climatic fluctuations) are also connected to language diversification. We estimated the times of divergence using Bayesian phylogenetics with a relaxed-clock method and related our results to climatic, historical and archaeological information. Our timing results paralleled the previous linguistic studies but suggested a later divergence of Finno-Ugric, Finnic and Saami languages. Some of the divergences co-occurred with climatic fluctuation and some with cultural interaction and migrations of populations. Thus, we suggest that both 'biotic' and abiotic factors contribute either directly or indirectly to the diversification of languages and that both models can be applied when studying language evolution. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Why I work in the field of Language Variation and Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejná, Michaela

    2018-01-01

    This perspective introduces the reader to what it is that a linguist working within the field of language variation and change does. I first outline what the goals of the field are. Next, I provide examples from my own work that illustrate what a researcher in my field may investigate and how. I...

  4. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: I, Surface energy budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. (comp.)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning the surface energy budget as it relates to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included, to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  5. Selected Translated Abstracts of Russian-Language Climate-Change Publications, I. Surface Energy Budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravina, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning the surface energy budget as it relates to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included, to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  6. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information--World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  7. The (Un)Changing Role of Mandarin Chinese in Language Education in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cheung-Shing Samuel; Yuen-Fan, Lomita Wong

    1996-01-01

    Explains how the education system in Hong Kong has helped to shape Hong Kong's past diglossia and how the country is preparing to face the changes inherent in the new political context in which Putonghua will be another element. Reports on the status and use of Cantonese and Putonghua (the national language of the People's Republic of China). (33…

  8. Changes to English as an Additional Language Writers' Research Articles: From Spoken to Written Register

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyalan, Aylin; Mumford, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The process of writing journal articles is increasingly being seen as a collaborative process, especially where the authors are English as an Additional Language (EAL) academics. This study examines the changes made in terms of register to EAL writers' journal articles by a native-speaker writing centre advisor at a private university in Turkey.…

  9. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications, III aerosols: Issue 164

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Ssivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    This report presents abstracts in Russian and translated into English of important Russian-language literature concerning aerosols as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  10. Managing Change in English Language Teaching through a Journey of Learning: A Case Study from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Wang

    2010-01-01

    In the last two years, English language teaching at the level of basic education in China has been changing very fast due to the new Standard Curriculum. The paper takes a school in the northwest of China as an example, illustrating the process of implementing the Curriculum, summarizing the work the school has done, the problems encountered and…

  11. What's in a name? Commonalities and differences in public understanding of "climate change" and "global warming"

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmarsh, Lorraine E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from a survey of public understanding of climate change and global warming amongst residents in the south of England. Whereas much previous research has relied on survey checklists to measure public understanding of climate change, this study employed a more qualitative approach to reveal participants' unprompted conceptions of climate change and global warming. Overall, the findings show a tendency for the public to dissociate themselves from the causes, impact...

  12. The Influence of Arabic Language Learning on Understanding of Islamic Legal Sciences--A Study in the Sultan Idris Education University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhirtani, Nahla A. K.

    2018-01-01

    The most important in Islamic Legal Sciences is Arabic Language, because of its necessity for Muslims to understand the Islamic Legal Provisions in Qur'an and Hadith which are in Arabic and informed by Arabs, thus, to understand these sciences it is a must to learn Arabic to discern the meanings and benefits of Islamic Texts and Provisions. So…

  13. Validation of the Danish-language psychological well-being-post-traumatic changes questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Peter; Sternhagen Nielsen, Anni Brit; Andersen, Soren Bo

    2016-01-01

    The Psychological Well-Being–Post-Traumatic Changes Questionnaire (PWB-PTCQ) is an 18-item self-report measure for assessing perceived changes in psychological well-being following traumatic events. The aim of the study was to translate, adapt, and test a Danish-language version of the questionna......The Psychological Well-Being–Post-Traumatic Changes Questionnaire (PWB-PTCQ) is an 18-item self-report measure for assessing perceived changes in psychological well-being following traumatic events. The aim of the study was to translate, adapt, and test a Danish-language version...... of the questionnaire and to compare the measure with the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). The PWB-PTCQ, the PTGI, and scales measuring psychological distress were administered to 290 soldiers a mean of 8 months after they returned from deployment. The psychometric properties of the PWB-PTCQ were satisfactory...

  14. Changing Arctic ecosystems--research to understand and project changes in marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiselman, Joy; DeGange, Anthony R.; Oakley, Karen; Derksen, Dirk; Whalen, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems and their wildlife communities are not static; they change and evolve over time due to numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors. A period of rapid change is occurring in the Arctic for which our current understanding of potential ecosystem and wildlife responses is limited. Changes to the physical environment include warming temperatures, diminishing sea ice, increasing coastal erosion, deteriorating permafrost, and changing water regimes. These changes influence biological communities and the ways in which human communities interact with them. Through the new initiative Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strives to (1) understand the potential suite of wildlife population responses to these physical changes to inform key resource management decisions such as those related to the Endangered Species Act, and (2) provide unique insights into how Arctic ecosystems are responding under new stressors. Our studies examine how and why changes in the ice-dominated ecosystems of the Arctic are affecting wildlife and will provide a better foundation for understanding the degree and manner in which wildlife species respond and adapt to rapid environmental change. Changes to Arctic ecosystems will be felt broadly because the Arctic is a production zone for hundreds of species that migrate south for the winter. The CAE initiative includes three major research themes that span Arctic ice-dominated ecosystems and that are structured to identify and understand the linkages between physical processes, ecosystems, and wildlife populations. The USGS is applying knowledge-based modeling structures such as Bayesian Networks to integrate the work.

  15. Depression and Anxiety Change from Adolescence to Adulthood in Individuals with and without Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Nicola; Toseeb, Umar; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2016-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study aims to determine patterns and predictors of change in depression and anxiety from adolescence to adulthood in individuals with language impairment (LI). Individuals with LI originally recruited at age 7 years and a comparison group of age-matched peers (AMPs) were followed from adolescence (16 years) to adulthood (24 years). We determine patterns of change in depression and anxiety using the Child Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised (CMAS-R) and Short Moods and...

  16. Western Australian High School Students' Understandings about the Socioscientific Issue of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most significant science issues facing humanity; yet, teaching students about climate change is challenging: not only is it multidisciplinary, but also it is contentious and debated in political, social and media forums. Students need to be equipped with an understanding of climate change science to be able to…

  17. Understanding Change for Effective School Improvement Initiatives: Critical Elements of School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnautz, Dee Ann Piercy

    2012-01-01

    With the historical political and social changes, which ultimately affect education, it is easy to see why teachers sometimes balk at new initiatives and perceived new best practices. For change to occur it is important to understand how perception of critical elements of change impact student academic growth. It is also important to have a…

  18. Transformation in K-12 English Language Proficiency Assessment: Changing Contexts, Changing Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boals, Timothy; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Blair, Alissa; Cranley, M. Elizabeth; Wilmes, Carsten; Wright, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    In conducting this review, we examine literature that explores the merits and shortcomings of ELP test design and testing as they have evolved over time through the current era of CCR standards. In the first section, we situate the role of language testing in its broader historical and policy context. In the second section, we examine the evolving…

  19. Understanding the dynamics of change and the impact on psychiatric education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Theodore B

    2014-12-01

    Academic departments of psychiatry are experiencing unprecedented changes that are difficult and challenging for faculty and administrators. This article examines the factors that influence change and the barriers to effective change. The author reviewed the business literature on change in organizations and examined the psychodynamic factors that mediate individual and organizational response to change. Several business models for effective change management exist and can be utilized by psychiatric educators. The psychodynamic models of change are useful for understanding the psychological impact of change on organizations and individuals. Effective management of change requires careful attention to the goals of the organization, development of a detailed plan to implement change, adequate resources to carry out the change, effective leadership and communication, and contingency plans for unforeseen events. Individual and organizational needs must also be considered. A model for dealing with change in education is presented.

  20. Changes in pitch height elicit both language-universal and language-dependent changes in neural representation of pitch in the brainstem and auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Suresh, Chandan H; Gandour, Jackson T

    2017-03-27

    Language experience shapes encoding of pitch-relevant information at both brainstem and cortical levels of processing. Pitch height is a salient dimension that orders pitch from low to high. Herein we investigate the effects of language experience (Chinese, English) in the brainstem and cortex on (i) neural responses to variations in pitch height, (ii) presence of asymmetry in cortical pitch representation, and (iii) patterns of relative changes in magnitude of pitch height between these two levels of brain structure. Stimuli were three nonspeech homologs of Mandarin Tone 2 varying in pitch height only. The frequency-following response (FFR) and the cortical pitch-specific response (CPR) were recorded concurrently. At the Fz-linked T7/T8 site, peak latency of Na, Pb, and Nb decreased with increasing pitch height for both groups. Peak-to-peak amplitude of Na-Pb and Pb-Nb increased with increasing pitch height across groups. A language-dependent effect was restricted to Na-Pb; the Chinese had larger amplitude than the English group. At temporal sites (T7/T8), the Chinese group had larger amplitude, as compared to English, across stimuli, but also limited to the Na-Pb component and right temporal site. In the brainstem, F0 magnitude decreased with increasing pitch height; Chinese had larger magnitude across stimuli. A comparison of CPR and FFR responses revealed distinct patterns of relative changes in magnitude common to both groups. CPR amplitude increased and FFR amplitude decreased with increasing pitch height. Experience-dependent effects on CPR components vary as a function of neural sensitivity to pitch height within a particular temporal window (Na-Pb). Differences between the auditory brainstem and cortex imply distinct neural mechanisms for pitch extraction at both levels of brain structure. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in pitch height elicit both language universal and language dependent changes in neural representation of pitch in the brainstem and auditory cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Suresh, Chandan H.; Gandour, Jackson T.

    2017-01-01

    Language experience shapes encoding of pitch-relevant information at both brainstem and cortical levels of processing. Pitch height is a salient dimension that orders pitch from low to high. Herein we investigate the effects of language experience (Chinese, English) in the brainstem and cortex on i) neural responses to variations in pitch height, ii) presence of asymmetry in cortical pitch representation, and iii) patterns of relative changes in magnitude of pitch height between these two levels of brain structure. Stimuli were three nonspeech homologs of Mandarin Tone 2 varying in pitch height only. The frequency-following response (FFR) and the cortical pitch-specific response (CPR) were recorded concurrently. At the Fz-linked T7/T8 site, peak latency of Na, Pb, and Nb decreased with increasing pitch height for both groups. Peak-to-peak amplitude of Na–Pb and Pb–Nb increased with increasing pitch height across groups. A language-dependent effect was restricted to Na-Pb; the Chinese had larger amplitude than the English group. At temporal sites (T7/T8), the Chinese group had larger amplitude, as compared to English, across stimuli, but also limited to the Na-Pb component and right temporal site. In the brainstem, F0 magnitude decreased with increasing pitch height; Chinese had larger magnitude across stimuli. A comparison of CPR and FFR responses revealed distinct patterns of relative changes in magnitude common to both groups. CPR amplitude increased and FFR amplitude decreased with increasing pitch height. Experience-dependent effects on CPR components vary as a function of neural sensitivity to pitch height within a particular temporal window (Na–Pb). Differences between the auditory brainstem and cortex imply distinct neural mechanisms for pitch extraction at both levels of brain structure. PMID:28108254

  2. Musicianship and Tone Language Experience Are Associated with Differential Changes in Brain Signal Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutka, Stefanie; Carpentier, Sarah M; Bidelman, Gavin M; Moreno, Sylvain; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2016-12-01

    Musicianship has been associated with auditory processing benefits. It is unclear, however, whether pitch processing experience in nonmusical contexts, namely, speaking a tone language, has comparable associations with auditory processing. Studies comparing the auditory processing of musicians and tone language speakers have shown varying degrees of between-group similarity with regard to perceptual processing benefits and, particularly, nonlinguistic pitch processing. To test whether the auditory abilities honed by musicianship or speaking a tone language differentially impact the neural networks supporting nonlinguistic pitch processing (relative to timbral processing), we employed a novel application of brain signal variability (BSV) analysis. BSV is a metric of information processing capacity and holds great potential for understanding the neural underpinnings of experience-dependent plasticity. Here, we measured BSV in electroencephalograms of musicians, tone language-speaking nonmusicians, and English-speaking nonmusicians (controls) during passive listening of music and speech sound contrasts. Although musicians showed greater BSV across the board, each group showed a unique spatiotemporal distribution in neural network engagement: Controls had greater BSV for speech than music; tone language-speaking nonmusicians showed the opposite effect; musicians showed similar BSV for both domains. Collectively, results suggest that musical and tone language pitch experience differentially affect auditory processing capacity within the cerebral cortex. However, information processing capacity is graded: More experience with pitch is associated with greater BSV when processing this cue. Higher BSV in musicians may suggest increased information integration within the brain networks subserving speech and music, which may be related to their well-documented advantages on a wide variety of speech-related tasks.

  3. Secret Society 123: Understanding the Language of Self-Harm on Instagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A.; Ton, Adrienne; Selkie, Ellen; Evans, Yolanda

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) content is present on social media and may influence adolescents. Instagram is a popular site among adolescents in which NSSI-related terms are user-generated as hashtags (words preceded by a #). These hashtags may be ambiguous and thus challenging for those outside the NSSI community to understand. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the meaning, popularity, and content advisory warnings related to ambiguous NSSI hashtags on Instagram. Methods This study used the search term “#selfharmmm” to identify public Instagram posts. Hashtag terms co-listed with #selfharmmm on each post were evaluated for inclusion criteria; selected hashtags were then assessed using a structured evaluation for meaning and consistency. We also investigated the total number of Instagram search hits for each hashtag at two time points and determined whether the hashtag prompted a Content Advisory warning. Results Our sample of 201 Instagram posts led to identification of 10 ambiguous NSSI hashtags. NSSI terms included #blithe, #cat, and #selfinjuryy. We discovered a popular image that described the broader community of NSSI and mental illness, called “#MySecretFamily.” The term #MySe-cretFamily had approximately 900,000 search results at Time 1 and >1.5 million at Time 2. Only one-third of the relevant hashtags generated Content Advisory warnings. Conclusions NSSI content is popular on Instagram and often veiled by ambiguous hashtags. Content Advisory warnings were not reliable; thus, parents and providers remain the cornerstone of prompting discussions about NSSI content on social media and providing resources for teens. PMID:26707231

  4. Secret Society 123: Understanding the Language of Self-Harm on Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Ton, Adrienne; Selkie, Ellen; Evans, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) content is present on social media and may influence adolescents. Instagram is a popular site among adolescents in which NSSI-related terms are user-generated as hashtags (words preceded by a #). These hashtags may be ambiguous and thus challenging for those outside the NSSI community to understand. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the meaning, popularity, and content advisory warnings related to ambiguous NSSI hashtags on Instagram. This study used the search term "#selfharmmm" to identify public Instagram posts. Hashtag terms co-listed with #selfharmmm on each post were evaluated for inclusion criteria; selected hashtags were then assessed using a structured evaluation for meaning and consistency. We also investigated the total number of Instagram search hits for each hashtag at two time points and determined whether the hashtag prompted a Content Advisory warning. Our sample of 201 Instagram posts led to identification of 10 ambiguous NSSI hashtags. NSSI terms included #blithe, #cat, and #selfinjuryy. We discovered a popular image that described the broader community of NSSI and mental illness, called "#MySecretFamily." The term #MySecretFamily had approximately 900,000 search results at Time 1 and >1.5 million at Time 2. Only one-third of the relevant hashtags generated Content Advisory warnings. NSSI content is popular on Instagram and often veiled by ambiguous hashtags. Content Advisory warnings were not reliable; thus, parents and providers remain the cornerstone of prompting discussions about NSSI content on social media and providing resources for teens. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Land use and land cover change in the Western Cape Province: quantification of changes & understanding of driving factors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tizora, P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available analysis; and expert opinion in the form of semi-structured interviews with municipal town planners. An adapted Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) Framework is used to analyse and understand LULC changes in the study area. LULC changes are driven...

  6. Seagrasses under threat: Understanding the resilience of temperate seagrass meadows in a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soissons, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being highly valuable ecosystems, seagrass meadows are threatened worldwide, mostly by human activities. In order to preserve seagrass meadows from collapse, we need to better understand their resilience in a changing environment. By means of various

  7. Understanding the words of relationships”: Language as an essential tool to manage CSR in communities of place

    OpenAIRE

    W Travis Selmier II; Aloysius Newenham-Kahindi; Chang Hoon Oh

    2015-01-01

    Multinational enterprises (MNEs) encounter relentless stakeholder pressures when operating across linguistic, cultural and institutional boundaries. Our aims are to examine whether and how acquisition of language resources may help MNEs to bridge these boundaries and reduce pressures on MNE legitimacy by improving their corporate social responsibility (CSR) outcomes. We propose an MNE model of language resource acquisition policy based on three language orientations: “language-as-problem,” “l...

  8. An exploratory case study: The impact of constructivist-based teaching on English language learners understanding of science in a middle school classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimears, C. Matt

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this exploratory case study was to explore the middle school science classroom of a constructivist teacher and examine how constructivist-based teaching influences ELL students and their learning of science. The researcher's purpose was to discover patterns which emerged after close observations, careful documentation, and thoughtful analysis of the research topic. What was discovered by this exploratory case study was not sweeping generalizations but contextual findings. This case study was conducted in the spring of 2006. The researcher sought to answer the question, "How does constructivist teaching help middle school English Language Learners understand science?" Two variable clusters were examined: (1) the independent variable cluster of the constructivist teaching practices of the one selected teacher; and (2) the dependent variable cluster of the middle school English Language Learners understanding of the science concepts being taught. Four broad categories of data were collected: (1) observations of teaching and learning (including teaching plans and other teaching materials); (2) interviews related to teaching and learning; (3) inventories of teaching and learning; and (4) artifacts of learning. Steve Loos, an eighth grade middle school science teacher, is an expert constructivist-based teacher. His teaching influences English Language Learners understanding of the science concepts being taught. Steve's teaching influenced the English Language Learners through a variety of pedagogical strategies. The researcher concluded in this study that, "Constructivist teaching helps middle school English Language Learners understand science."

  9. Brain responses before and after intensive second language learning: proficiency based changes and first language background effects in adult learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner's first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1-L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., "grammaticalization") are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning.

  10. Brain Responses before and after Intensive Second Language Learning: Proficiency Based Changes and First Language Background Effects in Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner’s first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1–L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., “grammaticalization”) are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning. PMID:23300641

  11. Selected Translated Abstracts of Chinese-Language Climate Change Publications; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.M.; Burtis, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions. In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest

  12. Language change and the adverb cycle: the decline of thus and the rise of thusly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    The grammaticalization of English thus is investigated within the Cycles framework of language change. On the basis of data from Old, Middle and Modern English it is shown that thus follows the cycle typical for adverbs, widening its scope and losing manner features. Real time corpus data shows...... thus being used less frequently in the 21st century compared with the 19th and 20th. It is claimed that the –ly suffix adds reinforcing manner features to form the new adverb thusly, as other deictic elements like so have done in the past. It is shown that although initially considered non......-standard or colloquial, thusly is now used by educated speakers and in the main-stream press. It is argued that there are two possibilities for cyclical renewal; either the root thus could disappear altogether, or it could be retained as the adverb thusly. The paper gives support for the adverb cycle in language change...

  13. Teacher change in beliefs and practices in science and literacy instruction with English language learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee

    2004-01-01

    This study examined patterns of change in beliefs and practices as elementary teachers learned to establish instructional congruence, a process of mediating academic disciplines with linguistic and cultural experiences of diverse student groups. The study focused on six bilingual Hispanic teachers working with fourth-grade, mostly Hispanic students. The results indicated that teacher learning and change occurred in different ways in the areas of science instruction, students' language and culture, English language and literacy instruction, and integration of these areas in establishing instructional congruence. The results also indicated that establishing instructional congruence was a gradual and demanding process requiring teacher reflection and insight, formal training, and extensive support and sharing. Implications for further research in promoting achievement for all students are discussed.

  14. Bilingual Mothers' Language Choice in Child-Directed Speech: Continuity and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Houwer, Annick; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of Family Language Policy in bilingual families is parental language choice. Little is known about the continuity in parental language choice and the factors affecting it. This longitudinal study explores maternal language choice over time. Thirty-one bilingual mothers provided reports of what language(s) they spoke with their…

  15. Integrating population and genetic monitoring to understand changes in the abundance of a threatened seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina Vásquez-Carrillo; R. William Henry; Laird Henkel; M. Zachariah. Peery

    2013-01-01

    Population monitoring programs for threatened species are rarely designed to disentangle the effects of movements from changes in birth and death rates on estimated trends in abundance. Here, we illustrate how population and genetic monitoring can be integrated to understand the cause of large changes in the abundance of a threatened species of seabird, the Marbled...

  16. Freire's reading to understand important aspects in South African context of change

    OpenAIRE

    Darlei de Paula; EST-PPG

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate that Freire's pedagogy reading is useful way to help Brazilian theology students to understand better the South African change context. So we show common features that can be identified as in South African context as in Brazilian Freire's Pedagogy as tool to access the post-apartheid change.

  17. Effect of Technology Enhanced Conceptual Change Texts on Students' Understanding of Buoyant Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gulbin; Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of technology enhanced conceptual change texts on elementary school students' understanding of buoyant force was investigated. The conceptual change texts (written forms) used in this study are proven for effectiveness and are enriched by using technology support in this study. These texts were tried out on two groups. A…

  18. Understanding the science of climate change: Talking points - Impacts to the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda Schramm; Rachel Loehman

    2010-01-01

    Climate change presents significant risks to our nation’s natural and cultural resources. Although climate change was once believed to be a future problem, there is now unequivocal scientific evidence that our planet’s climate system is warming (IPCC 2007a). While many people understand that human emissions of greenhouse gases have significantly contributed to recent...

  19. Understanding "Change" through Spatial Thinking Using Google Earth in Secondary Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, X.; Liu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding geographic changes has become an indispensable element in geography education. Describing and analyzing changes in space require spatial thinking skills emphasized in geography curriculum but often pose challenges for secondary school students. This school-based research targets a specific strand of spatial thinking skills and…

  20. Pharmacist Behavior Changes Following a Medication Counseling Training Program Targeting Teach-Back and Plain Language

    OpenAIRE

    David R Hager; Katherine Hartkopf; Amanda Margolis; Beth A Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether active learning-based training in teach-back and plain language (TBPL) techniques can lead to observable changes to patient-centered practices in pharmacist-patient counseling. Methods: All pharmacists in direct patient care roles, inpatient and outpatient, were required to complete a didactic module and a workshop / webinar or small group training. The workshop / webinar and small group modalities incorporated elements of adult education theory. Following co...

  1. "University Student Perspectives on English Language Classroom Anxiety:Majors, Gender Differences, and Changes"

    OpenAIRE

    河内, 千栄子; Chieko, Kawauchi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated English language learning anxiety of university students, focusing on differences in their majors and genders, and related factors such as motivation and self-assessment of English ability. We also examined whether or not anxiety changed after one year of learning English and how students tried to relieve anxiety. A total of 103 English majors and 114 non-English majors were provided with a questionnaire composed of 55 items adapted by Hojo (1996) and Ga...

  2. Exploring Change in Pre-service Teachers' Beliefs about English Language Learning and Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylah Clark-Goff

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The beliefs a teacher carries into the classroom are a strong predictor of behaviour and, thus, have educational implications. With more English Language Learners (ELLs worldwide, in mainstream classrooms in English speaking countries and in content-based classes in other countries around the globe than ever before, it is essential that preservice teachers’ beliefs about these students are understood and, when possible, altered to ensure positive and productive educational experiences. This study examined the initial language learning beliefs and attitudes toward ELLs among 354 pre-service teachers in a large public university and compared it to their beliefs after their ESL related coursework. The findings demonstrate beliefs about ELLs can be changed, influencing preservice teachers’ practices in future classrooms. Survey data collected before and after specific coursework revealed a significant shift in preservice teachers’ beliefs, indicating more alignment with current research and sound educational practice. Semi-structured focus-group interviews provided supporting evidence. These findings suggest pre-service teachers need evidence-based coursework in language development and language learning processes to overcome misconceptions regarding ELLs.

  3. EEG beta-power changes reflect motor involvement in abstract action language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Franziska; Weiss, Sabine; Müller, Horst M

    2017-05-01

    Brain oscillations in the α- and β-range become suppressed during motor processing and motor imagery. It has recently been discussed that such power changes also occur during action language processing. In our study, we compared β 2 -oscillations (16-25Hz) during the observation of prototypical arm movements (revealed via motion tracking) as well as during semantic processing of concrete and abstract sentences containing arm-related action verbs. Whereas we did find a strong desynchronization in the β 2 -range during action observation, the processing of action sentences evoked a rather weak desynchronization. However, this desynchronization occurred for action verbs in both concrete and abstract contexts. These results might indicate a tendency for abstract action language to be processed similar to concrete action language rather than abstract sentences. The oscillation patterns reflect the close relationship between language comprehension and motor functions - one of the core claims of current theories on embodied cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Holistic Understanding of Conflicts during the Enterprise Resource Planning Change Process: A Dialectic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    MUSLEH ALSULAMI

    2017-01-01

    This doctoral study investigates conflicts during ERP change process from a dialectic perspective. A major motivation of this study thus arises from the recognition that a high level of risk is generally associated with the ERP change process. This is due to three reasons: a) limited understanding and experience in supporting the ERP change process, b) highly complex and risky involvement of multiple ERP stakeholders who have contrasting expectations, and c) inherent ERP conflicts in the ERP ...

  5. Understanding Tonal Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    based on listening to vowels only 17 Table 12: Tone recognition rate by gender of speakers and listeners ............................... 18 Table 13...base syllable can be decomposed into an “INITIAL/FINAL” format very similar to the consonant/ vowel relations in English. “INITIAL” is the initial...consonant part of a syllable and “FINAL” is the vowel part but including optional medial or nasal ending. There are a total of 22 “INITIALs” and 41

  6. Aspects of the Two Language System and Three Language Problem in the Changing Society of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Benjamin K.

    1996-01-01

    Presents details of the language shifts among the various sections of the Chinese-speaking population in Hong Kong and analyzes patterns of allegiance. Notes that complex social, economic, and political pressures will affect future language in Hong Kong and that, within the domains of family, work, and others, the use of Modern Standard Chinese is…

  7. Changes in Beliefs about Language Learning and Teaching by Foreign Language Teachers in an Applied Linguistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the language learning and teaching beliefs of graduate students enrolled in an applied linguistics course in a language teaching program. Ten participants completed a questionnaire at the start of the course and another at the end; their responses were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  8. Association of D16S515 microsatellite with specific language impairment on Robinson Crusoe Island, an isolated Chilean population: a possible key to understanding language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Pia; Jara, Lilian; Palomino, Hernan

    2010-08-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is a developmental language disorder that occurs for no known reason. The disorder affects 2-8% of children. Some scientific evidence suggests that genetic factors are implicated in the etiology of SLI. The disorder is genetically complex. Two novel loci, SLI1 on chromosome 16q24 (MIM 606711) and SLI2 on chromosome 19q13 (MIM 606712), have been found to be highly correlated with SLI. Four genes have been identified as susceptibility genes. SLI occurs at an unusually elevated incidence (35%) among the population of Robinson Crusoe Island (Chile), which also has a high consanguinity rate. This finding supports the influence of genetic mechanisms in the transmission of SLI based on a founder effect. To investigate further the genetic involvement in this population, we collected blood samples from 115 islanders from 13 families with a language-impaired proband and from 18 families with a normal-language proband. The analysis of micro satellite marker D16S515, located in locus SLI1, demonstrated that the 230-bp allele was correlated with SLI and that the 232-bp allele was correlated with normal language development. The domain containing the D16S515 marker, therefore, may play a role in language development.

  9. Thinking or feeling? An exploratory study of maternal scaffolding, child mental state talk, and emotion understanding in language-impaired and typically developing school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Nicola; Little, Sarah

    2017-10-06

    Mother-child mental state talk (MST) supports children's developing social-emotional understanding. In typically developing (TD) children, family conversations about emotion, cognition, and causes have been linked to children's emotion understanding. Specific language impairment (SLI) may compromise developing emotion understanding and adjustment. We investigated emotion understanding in children with SLI and TD, in relation to mother-child conversation. Specifically, is cognitive, emotion, or causal MST more important for child emotion understanding and how might maternal scaffolding support this? Nine 5- to 9-year-old children with SLI and nine age-matched typically developing (TD) children, and their mothers. We assessed children's language, emotion understanding and reported behavioural adjustment. Mother-child conversations were coded for MST, including emotion, cognition, and causal talk, and for scaffolding of causal talk. Children with SLI scored lower than TD children on emotion understanding and adjustment. Mothers in each group provided similar amounts of cognitive, emotion, and causal talk, but SLI children used proportionally less cognitive and causal talk than TD children did, and more such child talk predicted better child emotion understanding. Child emotion talk did not differ between groups and did not predict emotion understanding. Both groups participated in maternal-scaffolded causal talk, but causal talk about emotion was more frequent in TD children, and such talk predicted higher emotion understanding. Cognitive and causal language scaffolded by mothers provides tools for articulating increasingly complex ideas about emotion, predicting children's emotion understanding. Our study provides a robust method for studying scaffolding processes for understanding causes of emotion. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Western Australian High School Students' Understandings about the Socioscientific Issue of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2015-05-01

    Climate change is one of the most significant science issues facing humanity; yet, teaching students about climate change is challenging: not only is it multidisciplinary, but also it is contentious and debated in political, social and media forums. Students need to be equipped with an understanding of climate change science to be able to participate in this discourse. The purpose of this study was to examine Western Australian high school students' understanding of climate change and the greenhouse effect, in order to identify their alternative conceptions about climate change science and provide a baseline for more effective teaching. A questionnaire designed to elicit students' understanding and alternative conceptions was completed by 438 Year 10 students (14-15 years old). A further 20 students were interviewed. Results showed that students know different features of both climate change and the greenhouse effect, however not necessarily all of them and the relationships between. Five categories of alternative conceptions were identified. The categories were (1) the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer; (2) types of greenhouse gases; (3) types of radiation; (4) weather and climate and (5) air pollution. These findings provide science educators a basis upon which to develop strategies and curriculum resources to improve their students' understanding and decision-making skills about the socioscientific issue, climate change.

  11. Dilemmas in the Analysis of Technological Change. A Cognitive Approach to Understand Innovation and Change in the Water Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Borri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue for the need to apply a cognitive approach to understand deep dynamics and determinants of technological evolutions. After examining main contributions from innovation studies to the conceptualization of innovation and change in complex socio-technical environments, we highlight the contribution coming from the application of the cognitive approach to evolutionary studies on technologies and we introduce the concept of technological memory as an interpretative tool to understand those changes. We discuss our hypothesis with reference to several observations carried out in different local contexts – Mexico, India and Italy – in relation to technological change in the water sector. In those cases deliberate attempts to substitute traditional technologies with modern ones led to interesting trajectories of change ranging from the collapse of old technologies to the development of multifaceted hybridization patterns.

  12. The Role of Language Contact in Semantic Change: "Ser" and "Estar"--A Response to Geeslin and Guijarro-Fuentes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    The role of language contact in linguistic change remains a polemic issue in the field of contact linguistics. Many researchers (Weinreich, 1953; Lefebvre, 1985; Prince, 1988; Silva-Corvalan, 1994; King, 2000; Sankoff, 2002; Labov, 2007) believe that there are limits on the types of linguistic patterns that can be transmitted across languages,…

  13. From Cultural Knowledge to Intercultural Communicative Competence: Changing Perspectives on the Role of Culture in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Approaches to the concept of culture and teaching cultural competence in a foreign language classroom have been changing over the last decades. The paper summarises, compares, contrasts and evaluates four major approaches to teaching cultural competence in foreign language teaching, that is, knowledge-based approach, contrastive approach,…

  14. Linking hunter knowledge with forest change to understand changing deer harvest opportunities in intensively logged landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidd J. Brinkman; Terry Chapin; Gary Kofinas; David K. Person

    2009-01-01

    The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the...

  15. Bilingual Mothers' Language Choice in Child-directed Speech: Continuity and Change

    OpenAIRE

    De Houwer, Annick; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of Family Language Policy in bilingual families is parental language choice. Little is known about the continuity in parental language choice and the factors affecting it. This longitudinal study explores maternal language choice over time. Thirty-one bilingual mothers provided reports of what language(s) they spoke with their children. Mother-child interactions were videotaped when children were pre-verbal (5M), producing words in two languages (20M), and fluent speakers ...

  16. Sixth-Grade Students' Progress in Understanding the Mechanisms of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintainer, Tammie; Linn, Marcia

    2015-04-01

    Developing solutions for complex issues such as global climate change requires an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This study reports on the impact of a technology-enhanced unit designed to improve understanding of global climate change, its mechanisms, and their relationship to everyday energy use. Global Climate Change, implemented in the Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE), engages sixth-grade students in conducting virtual investigations using NetLogo models to foster an understanding of core mechanisms including the greenhouse effect. Students then test how the greenhouse effect is enhanced by everyday energy use. This study draws on three data sources: (1) pre- and post-unit interviews, (2) analysis of embedded assessments following virtual investigations, and (3) contrasting cases of two students (normative vs. non-normative understanding of the greenhouse effect). Results show the value of using virtual investigations for teaching the mechanisms associated with global climate change. Interviews document that students hold a wide range of ideas about the mechanisms driving global climate change. Investigations with models help students use evidence-based reasoning to distinguish their ideas. Results show that understanding the greenhouse effect offers a foundation for building connections between everyday energy use and increases in global temperature. An impediment to establishing coherent understanding was the persistence of an alternative conception about ozone as an explanation for climate change. These findings illustrate the need for regular revision of curriculum based on classroom trials. We discuss key design features of models and instructional revisions that can transform the teaching and learning of global climate change.

  17. Stepping Stones to Others' Minds: Maternal Talk Relates to Child Mental State Language and Emotion Understanding at 15, 24, and 33 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2008-01-01

    This continuation of a previous study (Taumoepeau & Ruffman, 2006) examined the longitudinal relation between maternal mental state talk to 15- and 24-month-olds and their later mental state language and emotion understanding (N = 74). The previous study found that maternal talk about the child's desires to 15-month-old children uniquely predicted…

  18. The added complications of climate change: understanding and managing biodiversity and ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda Staudt,; Allison K. Leidner,; Jennifer Howard,; Kate A. Brauman,; Jeffrey S. Dukes,; Hansen, Lara J.; Paukert, Craig; Sabo, John L.; Solorzano, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystems around the world are already threatened by land-use and land-cover change, extraction of natural resources, biological disturbances, and pollution. These environmental stressors have been the primary source of ecosystem degradation to date, and climate change is now exacerbating some of their effects. Ecosystems already under stress are likely to have more rapid and acute reactions to climate change; it is therefore useful to understand how multiple stresses will interact, especially as the magnitude of climate change increases. Understanding these interactions could be critically important in the design of climate adaptation strategies, especially because actions taken by other sectors (eg energy, agriculture, transportation) to address climate change may create new ecosystem stresses.

  19. Leveraging the Novel Climates of Arboreta to Understand Tree Responses to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, A.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Joly, S.

    2016-12-01

    Rising global temperatures are expected to cause large-scale changes to forests, including altered mortality and recruitment rates, and dramatic changes in species composition, but exactly how tree growth will be affected by climate change is uncertain. Studies to date suggest that temperate and boreal tree responses to warming range from growing faster, slower, or at unchanged rates. Here we present an approach and preliminary findings that will improve predictions of tree responses to climate change by studying how tree traits, including phenology (e.g. the timing of leaf-out), wood density, leaf mass area, and height, relate to climate sensitivity (i.e. growth responses to annual changes in climate, Figure 1). We demonstrate how arboreta can be used to understand tree responses to climate change using 500 individuals across 65 tree species growing at the Arnold Arboretum, Boston, Massachusetts. Arboretum provide a unique opportunities for understanding temperate tree responses to climate change: they provide large collections of woody species growing together that enable traits to be studied across diverse species in a phylogenetic context. Furthermore, many species in arboreta are nonnative and have been exposed to "novel" climates that may resemble future conditions in their native distributions. We use a phylogenetic approach to understand how annual growth and climate sensitivity relate to focal traits, and asses what these findings may tell us about tree responses to climate change.

  20. Changes in Speech-Language Pathology Students' Attitudes Toward Breastfeeding During a Pediatric Dysphagia Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahurin-Smith, Jamie

    2017-11-01

    Speech-language pathologists provide infant feeding assessment and intervention; their training in breastfeeding management is highly variable. Research aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate student attitudes toward breastfeeding and self-identified factors in attitude change. Before and after their course in pediatric dysphagia, two cohorts of graduate students in speech-language pathology ( N = 36) completed an assignment designed to capture qualitative and quantitative data on changes in their attitudes toward breastfeeding. Students rated their reactions to two hypothetical breastfeeding scenarios before and after the class, which included multiple sources of information on the importance of human milk and on breastfeeding management. Additionally, they completed a postclass reflection describing the nature of any changes in their attitudes toward breastfeeding and their ideas about the factors that were responsible for these changes. Nonparametric statistical tests were used to assess quantitative results; the qualitative data were evaluated via content analysis to identify themes. Significant positive changes in student attitudes were measured at the completion of the course. Students identified parents' stories as a particularly compelling component of their increased openness to breastfeeding. Attitudes toward breastfeeding may improve significantly over a relatively short period of time following a targeted intervention. Implications for lactation consultants and continuing education providers are discussed.

  1. Linking Hunter Knowledge with Forest Change to Understand Changing Deer Harvest Opportunities in Intensively Logged Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Brinkman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the relationship between forest change and opportunities to harvest Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. We used data collected through interviews with local deer hunters and GIS analysis of land cover to determine relationships among landscape change, hunter access, and habitat for deer hunting over the last 50 yr. We then used these relationships to predict how harvest opportunities may change in the future. Intensive logging from 1950 into the 1990s provided better access to deer and habitat that facilitated deer hunting. However, successional changes in intensively logged forests in combination with a decline in current logging activity have reduced access to deer and increased undesirable habitat for deer hunting. In this new landscape, harvest opportunities in previously logged landscapes have declined, and hunters identify second-growth forest as one of the least popular habitats for hunting. Given the current state of the logging industry in Alaska, it is unlikely that the logging of the remaining old-growth forests or intensive management of second-growth forests will cause hunter opportunities to rebound to historic levels. Instead, hunter opportunities may continue to decline for at least another human generation, even if the long-term impacts of logging activity and deer harvest on deer numbers are minimal. Adapting hunting strategies to focus on naturally open habitats such as alpine and muskeg that are less influenced by external market forces may require considerably more hunting effort but provide the best option for

  2. The changing relationship between anatomic and cognitive explanation in the neuropsychology of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodglass, H; Wingfield, A

    1998-03-01

    Changing trends in the approach to neurolinguistics are reviewed. We suggest that these trends are marked by a distinct convergence between linguistic/cognitive and anatomic/physiological approaches to the study of aphasia. With respect to the former, we cite the refinement of analysis of language symptoms and the introduction of experimental methods that reveal real-time aspects of language processing. With respect to the latter, we cite the technical advances in static and dynamic brain imaging that have allowed the in vivo analysis of lesion sites in aphasic patients, and the identification of foci of metabolic activity during linguistic/cognitive tasks in normal brains. We cite recent imaging studies of category-specific lexical dissociations as examples of the productive convergence of anatomic and technological advances to illuminate a particularly challenging problem.

  3. Using system dynamics modeling to understand the impact of social change initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Gary B; Levine, Ralph; Miller, Robin Lin

    2007-06-01

    Community psychologists have a long history of interest in understanding social systems and how to bring about enduring positive change in these systems. However, the methods that community psychologists use to anticipate and evaluate the changes that result from system change efforts are less well developed. In the current paper, we introduce readers to system dynamics modeling, an action research approach to studying complex systems and the consequences of system change. We illustrate this approach by describing a system dynamics model of educational reform. We provide readers with an introduction to system dynamics modeling, as well as describe the strengths and limitations of the approach for application to community psychology.

  4. Population, Environment, and Climate in the Albertine Rift: Understanding Local Impacts of Regional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartter, J.; Ryan, S. J.; Diem, J.; Palace, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is of critical concern for conservation and to develop appropriate policies and responses, it is important not only to anticipate the nature of changes, but also how they are perceived, interpreted and adapted to by local people. The Albertine Rift in East Africa is one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots due to dense settlement, extreme poverty, and land conversion. We synthesize ongoing NSF-CNH research, where Ugandan park landscapes are examined to understand the impacts of climate change on livelihoods. Kibale National Park, the main study site, exemplifies the challenges facing many parks because of its isolation within a densely populated agricultural landscape. Three separate household surveys (n=251, 130, 100) reveal that the most perceived benefits provided by Kibale were ecosystem services and farmers cite rainfall as one of the park's most important benefits, but are also concerned with variable precipitation. Analysis of 30+ years of daily rainfall station data shows total rainfall has not changed significantly, but timing and transitions of seasons and intra-seasonal distribution are highly variable, which may contribute to changes in farming schedules and threaten food security. Further, the contrast between land use/cover change over 25 years around the park and the stability of forest within the park underscores the need to understand this landscape for future sustainability planning and the inevitable population growth outside its boundaries. Understanding climate change impacts and feedbacks to and from socio-ecological systems are important to address the dual challenge of biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation.

  5. Understanding the Role of Teaching Materials in a Beginners' Level English as a Foreign Language Course: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Rondón, Elio Jesús; Velasco Vera, Leidy Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Learning a foreign language may be a challenge for most people due to differences in the form and structure between one's mother tongue and a new one. However, there are some tools that facilitate the teaching and learning of a foreign language, for instance, new applications for digital devices, video blogs, educational platforms, and teaching…

  6. Understanding Language in Education and Grade 4 Reading Performance Using a "Natural Experiment" of Botswana and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Debra Lynne

    2018-01-01

    The regional and cultural closeness of Botswana and South Africa, as well as differences in their political histories and language policy stances, offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the role of language in reading outcomes. This study aims to empirically test the effect of exposure to mother tongue and English instruction on the reading…

  7. Resolution of ambiguities in cartoons as an illustration of the role of pragmatics in natural language understanding by computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlack, L.J.; Paz, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Newspaper cartoons can graphically display the result of ambiguity in human speech; the result can be unexpected and funny. Likewise, computer analysis of natural language statements also needs to successfully resolve ambiguous situations. Computer techniques already developed use restricted world knowledge in resolving ambiguous language use. This paper illustrates how these techniques can be used in resolving ambiguous situations arising in cartoons. 8 references.

  8. Understanding the divide between the theory and practice of organisational change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Pollack

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the different ways that academics and practitioners write about and discuss change management, to develop an understanding of whether there is a divide between the theory and practice of change management. This research used scientometric research techniques to compare three corpora: one based on the most cited research in the general management literature on change management; one based on the most cited research in specialist change management journals; and one based on interviews with practising change managers. It was found that the general management literature emphasised an abstract understanding of knowledge management and the learning organisation, while the change management literature focused more on issues associated with value, culture and social identity. The practitioners emphasised issues at the individual, project and team levels, the need for the effective use of targeted communication to achieve organisational change objectives, and the value of rapidly identifying key drivers in a new context. This research found significant differences between these three corpora, which lends support to other researchers’ claims of a divide between theory and practice in change management.

  9. Two languages in mind: Bilingualism as a tool to investigate language, cognition, and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Judith F; Bobb, Susan C; Hoshino, Noriko

    2014-06-01

    A series of discoveries in the last two decades has changed the way we think about bilingualism and its implications for language and cognition. One is that both languages are always active. The parallel activation of the two languages is thought to give rise to competition that imposes demands on the bilingual to control the language not in use to achieve fluency in the target language. The second is that there are consequences of bilingualism that affect the native as well as the second language. The native language changes in response to second language use. The third is that the consequences of bilingualism are not limited to language but appear to reflect a reorganization of brain networks that hold implications for the ways in which bilinguals negotiate cognitive competition more generally. The focus of recent research on bilingualism has been to understand the relation between these discoveries and the implications they hold for language, cognition, and the brain across the lifespan.

  10. Urban High School Students' Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions around Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Katherine L.; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students' development of critical science agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum…

  11. Understanding sudden environmental and societal change through coupled geochronological and artefact shape analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoggard, Christian Steven; Sauer, Florian Rudolf; Zernack, Anke Verena

    Over the last twenty years, advances in geometric morphometric methodologies have revolutionised how archaeologists understand changes in artefact shape and form (size plus shape) throughout the Quaternary period. Such methodologies provide a high resolution of artefact coverage, and allow a crit...

  12. The Collaboration of Cooperative Learning and Conceptual Change: Enhancing the Students' Understanding of Chemical Bonding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymur, Gülüzar; Geban, Ömer

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning based on conceptual change approach instruction on ninth-grade students' understanding in chemical bonding concepts compared to traditional instruction. Seventy-two ninth-grade students from two intact chemistry classes taught by the same teacher in a public high…

  13. Effect of Conceptual Change Approach on Students' Understanding of Reaction Rate Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of conceptual change text oriented instruction compared to traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of reaction rate concepts. 45 students from two classes of the same teacher in a public high school participated in this study. Students in the experimental group…

  14. Root for rain : Towards understanding land-use change impacts on the water cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang-Erlandsson, L.

    2017-01-01

    We live today on a human-dominated planet under unprecedented pressure on both land and water. The water cycle is intrinsically linked to vegetation and land use, and anticipating the consequences of simultaneous changes in land and water systems requires a thorough understanding of their

  15. Shifting Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Understandings to Support Pedagogical Change in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letwinsky, Karim Medico; Cavender, Monica

    2018-01-01

    Many preservice teacher (PST) programs throughout the world are preparing students to implement the Core Standards, which require deeper conceptual understandings of mathematics and an informed approach for teaching. In this qualitative multi-case study, researchers explored the teaching methods for two university instructors and changes in PSTs…

  16. The Effect of a Conceptual Change Approach on Understanding of Students' Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Basri; Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a conceptual change approach over traditional instruction on tenth-grade students' conceptual achievement in understanding chemical equilibrium. The study was conducted in two classes of the same teacher with participation of a total of 44 tenth-grade students. In this study, a…

  17. Changes in White-Matter Connectivity in Late Second Language Learners: Evidence from Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Rossi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphological brain changes as a consequence of new learning have been widely established. Learning a second language (L2 is one such experience that can lead to rapid structural neural changes. However, still relatively little is known about how levels of proficiency in the L2 and the age at which the L2 is learned influence brain neuroplasticity. The goal of this study is to provide novel evidence for the effect of bilingualism on white matter structure in relatively proficient but late L2 learners who acquired the second language after early childhood. Overall, the results demonstrate a significant effect on white matter fractional anisotropy (FA as a function of L2 learning. Higher FA values were found in a broad white matter network including the anterior thalamic radiation (ATR, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF, the Uncinate Fasciculus (UF, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF. Moreover, FA values were correlated with age of L2 acquisition, suggesting that learning an L2, even past childhood, induces neural changes. Finally, these results provide some initial evidence that variability in the age of L2 acquisition has important consequences for neural plasticity.

  18. Changes in White-Matter Connectivity in Late Second Language Learners: Evidence from Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Eleonora; Cheng, Hu; Kroll, Judith F; Diaz, Michele T; Newman, Sharlene D

    2017-01-01

    Morphological brain changes as a consequence of new learning have been widely established. Learning a second language (L2) is one such experience that can lead to rapid structural neural changes. However, still relatively little is known about how levels of proficiency in the L2 and the age at which the L2 is learned influence brain neuroplasticity. The goal of this study is to provide novel evidence for the effect of bilingualism on white matter structure in relatively proficient but late L2 learners who acquired the second language after early childhood. Overall, the results demonstrate a significant effect on white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) as a function of L2 learning. Higher FA values were found in a broad white matter network including the anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the Uncinate Fasciculus (UF), and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Moreover, FA values were correlated with age of L2 acquisition, suggesting that learning an L2, even past childhood, induces neural changes. Finally, these results provide some initial evidence that variability in the age of L2 acquisition has important consequences for neural plasticity.

  19. Understanding rapid theoretical change in particle physics: a month-by-month co-citation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, D.; Koester, D.; White, D.H.; Kern, R.

    1979-01-01

    While co-citation analysis has proved a powerful tool in the study of changes in intellectual foci in science, no one has ever used the technique to study very rapid changes in the theoretical structure of a scientific field. This paper presents month-by-month co-citation analyses of key phases in the weak-electromagnetic unification research program within particle physics, and shows that these analyses capture and illuminate very rapid intellectual changes. These data provide yet another illustration of the utility of co-citation analysis for understanding the history of science. 8 figures

  20. ROS signalling in a destabilised world: A molecular understanding of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Melanie; Waszczak, Cezary; Idänheimo, Niina; Saarinen, Timo; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko

    2016-09-20

    Climate change results in increased intensity and frequency of extreme abiotic and biotic stress events. In plants, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulate in proportion to the level of stress and are major signalling and regulatory metabolites coordinating growth, defence, acclimation and cell death. Our knowledge of ROS homeostasis, sensing, and signalling is therefore key to understanding the impacts of climate change at the molecular level. Current research is uncovering new insights into temporal-spatial, cell-to-cell and systemic ROS signalling pathways, particularly how these affect plant growth, defence, and more recently acclimation mechanisms behind stress priming and long term stress memory. Understanding the stabilising and destabilising factors of ROS homeostasis and signalling in plants exposed to extreme and fluctuating stress will concomitantly reveal how to address future climate change challenges in global food security and biodiversity management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding the Development of a Hybrid Practice of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction and Language Development: A Case Study of One Teacher's Journey Through Reflections on Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitelli, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Rankin, Lynn; Austin, Marilyn; Caven, Gennifer

    2016-04-01

    This qualitative case study looks closely at an elementary teacher who participated in professional development experiences that helped her develop a hybrid practice of using inquiry-based science to teach both science content and English language development (ELD) to her students, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). This case study examines the teacher's reflections on her teaching and her students' learning as she engaged her students in science learning and supported their developing language skills. It explicates the professional learning experiences that supported the development of this hybrid practice. Closely examining the pedagogical practice and reflections of a teacher who is developing an inquiry-based approach to both science learning and language development can provide insights into how teachers come to integrate their professional development experiences with their classroom expertise in order to create a hybrid inquiry-based science ELD practice. This qualitative case study contributes to the emerging scholarship on the development of teacher practice of inquiry-based science instruction as a vehicle for both science instruction and ELD for ELLs. This study demonstrates how an effective teaching practice that supports both the science and language learning of students can develop from ongoing professional learning experiences that are grounded in current perspectives about language development and that immerse teachers in an inquiry-based approach to learning and instruction. Additionally, this case study also underscores the important role that professional learning opportunities can play in supporting teachers in developing a deeper understanding of the affordances that inquiry-based science can provide for language development.

  2. Polar Bears or People?: How Framing Can Provide a Useful Analytic Tool to Understand & Improve Climate Change Communication in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Not only will young adults bear the brunt of climate change's effects, they are also the ones who will be required to take action - to mitigate and to adapt. The Next Generation Science Standards include climate change, ensuring the topic will be covered in U.S. science classrooms in the near future. Additionally, school is a primary source of information about climate change for young adults. The larger question, though, is how can the teaching of climate change be done in such a way as to ascribe agency - a willingness to act - to students? Framing - as both a theory and an analytic method - has been used to understand how language in the media can affect the audience's intention to act. Frames function as a two-way filter, affecting both the message sent and the message received. This study adapted both the theory and the analytic methods of framing, applying them to teachers in the classroom to answer the research question: How do teachers frame climate change in the classroom? To answer this question, twenty-five lessons from seven teachers were analyzed using semiotic discourse analysis methods. It was found that the teachers' frames overlapped to form two distinct discourses: a Science Discourse and a Social Discourse. The Science Discourse, which was dominant, can be summarized as: Climate change is a current scientific problem that will have profound global effects on the Earth's physical systems. The Social Discourse, used much less often, can be summarized as: Climate change is a future social issue because it will have negative impacts at the local level on people. While it may not be surprising that the Science Discourse was most often heard in these science classrooms, it is possibly problematic if it were the only discourse used. The research literature on framing indicates that the frames found in the Science Discourse - global scale, scientific statistics and facts, and impact on the Earth's systems - are not likely to inspire action-taking. This

  3. Neural basis of understanding communicative actions: Changes associated with knowing the actor's intention and the meanings of the actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möttönen, Riikka; Farmer, Harry; Watkins, Kate E

    2016-01-29

    People can communicate by using hand actions, e.g., signs. Understanding communicative actions requires that the observer knows that the actor has an intention to communicate and the meanings of the actions. Here, we investigated how this prior knowledge affects processing of observed actions. We used functional MRI to determine changes in action processing when non-signers were told that the observed actions are communicative (i.e., signs) and learned the meanings of half of the actions. Processing of hand actions activated the left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, BA 44 and 45) when the communicative intention of the actor was known, even when the meanings of the actions remained unknown. These regions were not active when the observers did not know about the communicative nature of the hand actions. These findings suggest that the left and right IFG play a role in understanding the intention of the actor, but do not process visuospatial features of the communicative actions. Knowing the meanings of the hand actions further enhanced activity in the anterior part of the IFG (BA 45), the inferior parietal lobule and posterior inferior and middle temporal gyri in the left hemisphere. These left-hemisphere language regions could provide a link between meanings and observed actions. In sum, the findings provide evidence for the segregation of the networks involved in the neural processing of visuospatial features of communicative hand actions and those involved in understanding the actor's intention and the meanings of the actions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Contributions, Controversies, and Credibility: Citizen Science and Understandings of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirk, J.; Bonney, R.

    2011-12-01

    Studying the impacts of global climate change on earth systems requires data to be gathered at vast spatial and temporal scales. Numerous citizen science projects, including the National Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count and the Cooperative Observer Program of the National Weather Service, engage volunteers in collecting environmental information. Some projects span countries or even continents and have been operating for decades, meaning long-term and geographically distributed data are already available for analysis. Citizen science projects have made significant contributions to understanding the effects of climate change by revealing changing patterns in phenology, shifts in species' ranges and distributions, and trends in temperature and rainfall patterns. In addition, citizen science presents opportunities for developing public understanding of climate change and its consequences. According to the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication (YPCCC), public responses to this issue can be categorized into six groups - from alarmed to dismissive - with each group characterized as much by attitudes about climate change as by understandings of the topic. Participants in citizen science projects run by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, who tend to be highly educated and hold positive views towards the environment, exhibit an unexpected degree of skepticism and misunderstandings regarding climate science. This parallels findings by YPCCC suggesting that, on the issue of climate change, the American public is more meaningfully segmented by ideology and cultural affiliation than by educational background and economic status. No matter how they are segmented, if the public perceives a controversy, individuals often decide what to believe based on who they trust to impart credible information. Citizen science has long endured - and in most fields, has largely overcome - questions of credibility. With refined and sophisticated measures to ensure data quality, the

  5. The challenge of regional accents for aviation English language proficiency standards: a study of difficulties in understanding in air traffic control-pilot communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiewtrakul, T; Fletcher, S R

    2010-02-01

    Although English has been the international aviation language since 1951, formal language proficiency testing for key aviation personnel has only recently been implemented by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). It aims to ensure minimum acceptable levels of English pronunciation and comprehension universally, but does not attend to particular regional dialect difficulties. However, evidence suggests that voice transmissions between air traffic controllers and pilots are a particular problem in international airspace and that pilots may not understand messages due to the influence of different accents when using English. This study explores the potential impact of 'non-native English' in pilot-air traffic control transmissions using a 'conversation analysis' technique to examine approach phase recordings from Bangkok International Airport. Results support that communication errors, defined by incidents of pilots not understanding, occur significantly more often when speakers are both non-native English, messages are more complex and when numerical information is involved. These results and their possible implications are discussed with reference to the development of ICAO's new language proficiency standards. Statement of Relevance: This study builds on previous work and literature, providing further evidence to show that the risks caused by language and linguistics in aviation must be explored more deeply. Findings are particularly contemporary and relevant today, indicating that recently implemented international standards would benefit from further exploratory research and development.

  6. Challenges and Changes: Developing Teachers' and Initial Teacher Education Students' Understandings of the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Gillian; Haigh, Mavis

    2017-12-01

    Teachers need an understanding of the nature of science (NOS) to enable them to incorporate NOS into their teaching of science. The current study examines the usefulness of a strategy for challenging or changing teachers' understandings of NOS. The teachers who participated in this study were 10 initial teacher education chemistry students and six experienced teachers from secondary and primary schools who were introduced to an explicit and reflective activity, a dramatic reading about a historical scientific development. Concept maps were used before and after the activity to assess teachers' knowledge of NOS. The participants also took part in a focus group interview to establish whether they perceived the activity as useful in developing their own understanding of NOS. Initial analysis led us to ask another group, comprising seven initial teacher education chemistry students, to take part in a modified study. These participants not only completed the same tasks as the previous participants but also completed a written reflection commenting on whether the activity and focus group discussion enhanced their understanding of NOS. Both Lederman et al.'s (Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(6), 497-521, 2002) concepts of NOS and notions of "naive" and "informed" understandings of NOS and Hay's (Studies in Higher Education, 32(1), 39-57, 2007) notions of "surface" and "deep" learning were used as frameworks to examine the participants' specific understandings of NOS and the depth of their learning. The ways in which participants' understandings of NOS were broadened or changed by taking part in the dramatic reading are presented. The impact of the data-gathering tools on the participants' professional learning is also discussed.

  7. Using Scientific Argumentation in a Science Methods Course to Improve Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, J. L.; Bleicher, R. E.; Soden, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Given that K-12 students have numerous alternative conceptions, it is critical that teachers have an understanding of the fundamental science underlying climate change (Feldman et al., 2010). Many teachers, however, do not demonstrate adequate understanding of these concepts (Daskolia et al., 2006). Argumentation has been identified as a mechanism for conceptual change (Mercer et al., 2004). Even with several educational initiatives promoting and supporting the use of argumentation as an instructional practice, teachers often struggle to implement argumentation in the classroom (Sampson & Blanchard, 2012). To remedy both issues above, we have designed an innovative methods course to provide background in climate change knowledge and argumentation instruction. In our methods course, we utilize Climate Science Investigations (CSI), an online, interactive series of modules and teaching resources funded by a NASA grant to support teachers learning about the basic science concepts underlying climate change. A key assignment is to develop and present an evidence-based scientific argument. The teachers were assigned a typical question and claim of climate skeptics and asked to conduct research on the scientific findings to prepare a counter-argument (rebuttal). This study examined changes in 60 preservice teachers' knowledge and perceptions about climate change after participation in the course. The teachers' understanding of fundamental concepts increased significantly. Their perceptions about climate change became more aligned to those of climate scientists. Findings suggest that scientific argumentation can play an effective role in the preparation of science educators. In addition to reporting findings in more detail, methods course activities, particularly in argumentation, will be shared in our presentation.

  8. Forests under climate change and air pollution: Gaps in understanding and future directions for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Calfapietra, C.; Vries, W. de; Dizengremel, P.; Ernst, D.; Jolivet, Y.; Mikkelsen, T.N.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Le Thiec, D.; Tuovinen, J.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems (“supersites”) will be conducive to addressing these gaps by enabling integration of experimentation and modelling within the soil-plant-atmosphere interface, as well as further model development. - Highlights: ► Research needs are identified for forests under climate change and air pollution. ► Abiotic–biotic interactions in response impede tree-ecosystem upscaling. ► Integration of empirical and modelling research is advocated. ► The concept of multi-scale investigations at novel “Supersites” is propagated. ► “Supersites” warrant mechanistic understanding of soil-plant-atmosphere interface. - Forests under climate change and air pollution require empirical and modelling research needs to be integrated at novel “Supersites” through multi-scale investigations.

  9. White and grey matter changes in the language network during healthy aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Yang

    Full Text Available Neural structures change with age but there is no consensus on the exact processes involved. This study tested the hypothesis that white and grey matter in the language network changes during aging according to a "last in, first out" process. The fractional anisotropy (FA of white matter and cortical thickness of grey matter were measured in 36 participants whose ages ranged from 55 to 79 years. Within the language network, the dorsal pathway connecting the mid-to-posterior superior temporal cortex (STC and the inferior frontal cortex (IFC was affected more by aging in both FA and thickness than the other dorsal pathway connecting the STC with the premotor cortex and the ventral pathway connecting the mid-to-anterior STC with the ventral IFC. These results were independently validated in a second group of 20 participants whose ages ranged from 50 to 73 years. The pathway that is most affected during aging matures later than the other two pathways (which are present at birth. The results are interpreted as showing that the neural structures which mature later are affected more than those that mature earlier, supporting the "last in, first out" theory.

  10. Pre-Service Teacher Beliefs about Language Learning: The Second Language Acquisition Course as an Agent for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This large mixed methods study investigated the effects of the introductory second language acquisition (SLA) course on the beliefs of pre-service teachers (n = 381) enrolled over a three-year period at a state university in California. Pre- to post-course paired sample t-tests that were run on 23 beliefs statements from a widely used survey…

  11. Understanding perceptions of stuttering among school-based speech-language pathologists: an application of attribution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether attribution theory could explain speech-language pathologists (SLPs) perceptions of children with communication disorders such as stuttering. Specifically, it was determined whether perceptions of onset and offset controllability, as well as biological and non-biological attributions for communication disorders were related to willingness to help, sympathy, and anger toward children with these disorders. It was also of interest to determine if blame for stuttering was related to perceived controllability of stuttering and negative attitudes toward people who stutter (PWS). A survey was developed to measure perceived onset and offset controllability, biological and non-biological attributions, willingness to help, sympathy, and anger toward middle school children with developmental stuttering, functional articulation disorders, and cerebral palsy. In addition, a scale was developed to measure blame and negative attitudes toward PWS in general. Surveys were mailed to 1000 school-based SLPs. Data from 330 participants were analyzed. Supporting the hypotheses of attribution theory, higher perceived onset and offset controllability of the disorder was linked to less willingness to help, lower sympathy, and more anger across conditions. Increased biological attributions were associated with more reported sympathy. Increased blame for stuttering was linked to higher perceived controllability of stuttering, more dislike of PWS, and more agreement with negative stereotypes about PWS. Educating SLPs about the variable loss of control inherent in stuttering could improve attitudes and increase understanding of PWS. Reductions in blame may facilitate feelings of sympathy and empathy for PWS and reduce environmental barriers for clients. Learning outcomes Readers should be able to: (1) identify the main principles of Weiner's attribution theory (2) identify common negative perceptions of people who stutter (3) describe how

  12. "The impossible made possible": A method for measuring change in conceptual understanding in undergraduate science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himangshu, Sumitra

    This study examined change in conceptual knowledge of scientific concepts at the undergraduate level by using concept mapping to assess student understanding. Recent reports from science educators and researchers indicate an acute need to enhance student conceptual understanding in science. This suggests that faculty need to investigate whether actual student learning matches their goals for enhancing conceptual understanding. The study design incorporated the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze change in student conceptual understanding. The sample population consisted of a total of 61 students, 47 science majors and 14 non-majors from ten different classrooms at seven separate institutions of higher education across the United States. Student concept maps were constructed, by the researcher, from the transcripts of structured interviews with the student participants. Analysis of the concept maps was correlated with other quantitative data, such as course grades and the Learning and Studying Questionnaire (LSQ). The LSQ is a well-established survey instrument that measures student learning based on the use of rote and/or conceptual learning techniques. Results indicate that concept maps provide more information than grades alone because they represented individual understanding, in terms of depth of understanding, relationships between concepts, quality of knowledge organization and identification of misconceptions. Thus, differences in student comprehension of course material, with respect to critical concepts, could be analyzed. The greatest determinant of increased conceptual understanding over the course of a semester was the student's self-report of approaches to learning and studying. The quality of the student maps, in turn, was reflective of differences in student approaches to learning. Concomitantly, the concept maps reflected student gains in content and depth over a semester with respect to an expert map. The results also

  13. Relationship between the change of language symptoms and the change of regional cerebral blood flow in the recovery process of two children with acquired aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuka, Junko; Uno, Akira; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Yoshiya; Hamano, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the change of language symptoms and the change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the recovery process of two children with acquired aphasia caused by infarctions from Moyamoya disease with an onset age of 8years. We compared the results for the Standard Language Test of Aphasia (SLTA) with rCBF changes in 7 language regions in the left hemisphere and their homologous regions in the right hemisphere at 4 time points from 3weeks for up to 5years after the onset of aphasia, while controlling for the effect of age. In both cases, strong correlations were seen within a hemisphere between adjacent regions or regions that are connected by neuronal fibers, and between some language regions in the left hemisphere and their homologous regions in the right hemisphere. Conversely, there were differences between the two cases in the time course of rCBF changes during their recovery process. Consistent with previous studies, the current study suggested that both hemispheres were involved in the long-term recovery of language symptoms in children with acquired aphasia. We suggest that the differences between both cases during their recovery process might be influenced by the brain states before aphasia, by which hemisphere was affected, and by the timing of the surgical revascularization procedure. However, the changes were observed in the data obtained for rCBF with strong correlations with the changes in language performance, so it is possible that rCBF could be used as a biomarker for language symptom changes. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Scenarios of Earth system change in western Canada: Conceptual understanding and process insights from the Changing Cold Regions Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Stewart, R. E.; Turetsky, M. R.; Baltzer, J. L.; Pietroniro, A.; Marsh, P.; Carey, S.; Howard, A.; Barr, A.; Elshamy, M.

    2017-12-01

    The interior of western Canada has been experiencing rapid, widespread, and severe hydroclimatic change in recent decades, and this is projected to continue in the future. To better assess future hydrological, cryospheric and ecological states and fluxes under future climates, a regional hydroclimate project was formed under the auspices of the Global Energy and Water Exchanges (GEWEX) project of the World Climate Research Programme; the Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN; www.ccrnetwork.ca) aims to understand, diagnose, and predict interactions among the changing Earth system components at multiple spatial scales over the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River basins of western Canada. A particular challenge is in applying land surface and hydrological models under future climates, as system changes and cold regions process interactions are not often straightforward, and model structures and parameterizations based on historical observations and understanding of contemporary system functioning may not adequately capture these complexities. To address this and provide guidance and direction to the modelling community, CCRN has drawn insights from a multi-disciplinary perspective on the process controls and system trajectories to develop a set of feasible scenarios of change for the 21st century across the region. This presentation will describe CCRN's efforts towards formalizing these insights and applying them in a large-scale modelling context. This will address what are seen as the most critical processes and key drivers affecting hydrological, cryospheric and ecological change, how these will most likely evolve in the coming decades, and how these are parameterized and incorporated as future scenarios for terrestrial ecology, hydrological functioning, permafrost state, glaciers, agriculture, and water management.

  15. Language Skills: Questions for Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paran, Amos

    2012-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the changes in teaching the four language skills in the past 15 years. It focuses on two main changes for each skill: understanding spoken language and willingness to communicate for speaking; product, process, and genre approaches and a focus on feedback for writing; extensive reading and literature for reading; and…

  16. Forests under climate change and air pollution: Gaps in understanding and future directions for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Calfapietra, C.

    2012-01-01

    changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research......Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between...... for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems (“supersites”) will be conducive to addressing...

  17. Chronic disease and climate change: understanding co-benefits and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Anthony G; Rissel, Chris E

    2010-01-01

    Chronic disease and climate change are major public policy challenges facing governments around the world. An improved understanding of the relationship between chronic disease and climate change should enable improved policy formulation to support both human health and the health of the planet. Chronic disease and climate change are both unintended consequences of our way of life, and are attributable in part to the ready availability of inexpensive fossil fuel energy. There are co-benefits for health from actions to address climate change. For example, substituting physical activity and a vegetable-rich diet for motor vehicle transport and a meat-rich diet is both good for health and good for the planet. We should encourage ways of living that use less carbon as these can be healthy ways of living, for both individuals and society. Quantitative modelling of co-benefits should inform policy responses.

  18. Understanding subtropical cloud feedbacks in anthropogenic climate change simulations of CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, T. A.; Norris, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Subtropical marine boundary layer clouds over the eastern subtropics are poorly simulated by climate models and contribute substantially to inter-model differences in climate sensitivity. The aim of the present study is to better understand inter-model differences in projected cloud changes and to constrain the cloud feedback to warming. To do this, we compute independent relationships of cloud properties (cloud fraction, cloud-top height, and cloud radiative effect) to interannual variations in sea surface temperature, estimated inversion strength, horizontal surface temperature advection, free-tropospheric humidity, and subsidence using observations and as simulated by models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. Each relationship is considered to be independent because it represents the association between some cloud property and a meteorological parameter when the other parameters are held constant. We approximate modelled cloud trends in climate change simulations as the sum of the simulated cloud/meteorology relationships multiplied by the respective meteorological trends. We compare these estimated cloud trends to the sum of the observed cloud/meteorology relationships multiplied by the simulated meteorological trends. This method allows us to better understand the sources of inter-model differences in projected cloud changes, including whether cloud/meteorology relationships or meteorological trends dominate the spread of cloud changes. We approximate the true cloud trend due to climate change as the sum of the observed cloud/meteorology relationships multiplied by the multi-model mean meteorological trends. The results may provide an observational and model constraint on climate sensitivity.

  19. Understanding of Grassland Ecosystems under Climate Change and Economic Development Pressures in the Mongolia Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, J.; Chen, J.; Shan, P.; Pan, X.; Wei, Y.; Wang, M.; Xin, X.

    2011-12-01

    The land use and land cover change, especially in the form of grassland degradation, in the Mongolian Plateau, exhibited a unique spatio-temporal pattern that is a characteristic of a mixed stress from economic development and climate change of the region. The social dimension of the region played a key role in shaping the landscape and land use change, including the cultural clashes with economic development, conflicts between indigenous people and business ventures, and exogenous international influences. Various research projects have been conducted in the region to focus on physical degradation of grasslands and/or on economic development but there is a lack of understanding how the social and economic dimensions interact with grassland ecosystems and changes. In this talk, a synthesis report was made based on the most recent workshop held in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, of China, that specifically focused on climate change and grassland ecosystems. The report analyzed the degree of grassland degradation, its climate and social drivers, and coupling nature of economic development and conservation of traditional grassland values. The goal is to fully understand the socio-ecological-economic interactions that together shape the trajectory of the grassland ecosystems in the Mongolia Plateau.

  20. Commoning in the periphery – The role of the commons for understanding rural continuities and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sandström

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how commons reproduce over time and introduces the concept of commoning to discuss rural continuities and change. The point of departure is that commons are essential for local community development in that they have an important role for mediating social change and for local identity production. Through an ethnographic and historical study of a number of commons systems from the village of Ängersjö in the Midwest of Sweden, the paper argues for a more historically and socially grounded understanding of how commons evolve. The paper examines Ängersjö’s commons within two broad historical time frames – the pre-industrial (4th to 20th century and the post-industrial time periods (20th century to the present – in order to understand commons, not just as arenas for resource extraction and resource struggles, but also as important contexts for identity formation, local mobilisation and for shaping rural change. The paper reveals how the commons have co-evolved with changes in society at large and how the meanings and functions of the commons have changed throughout history – from being important economic resources – to cultural and symbolic resources that have created new avenues for collective action.

  1. Longitudinal changes in resting-state fMRI from age 5 to age 6years covary with language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Friederici, Angela D; Margulies, Daniel S; Brauer, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful technique to study the whole-brain neural connectivity that underlies cognitive systems. The present study aimed to define the changes in neural connectivity in their relation to language development. Longitudinal resting-state functional data were acquired from a cohort of preschool children at age 5 and one year later, and changes in functional connectivity were correlated with language performance in sentence comprehension. For this, degree centrality, a voxel-based network measure, was used to assess age-related differences in connectivity at the whole-brain level. Increases in connectivity with age were found selectively in a cluster within the left posterior superior temporal gyrus and sulcus (STG/STS). In order to further specify the connection changes, a secondary seed-based functional connectivity analysis on this very cluster was performed. The correlations between resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and language performance revealed developmental effects with age and, importantly, also dependent on the advancement in sentence comprehension ability over time. In children with greater advancement in language abilities, the behavioral improvement was positively correlated with RSFC increase between left posterior STG/STS and other regions of the language network, i.e., left and right inferior frontal cortex. The age-related changes observed in this study provide evidence for alterations in the language network as language develops and demonstrates the viability of this approach for the investigation of normal and aberrant language development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Big Data Guide to Understanding Climate Change: The Case for Theory-Guided Data Science

    OpenAIRE

    Faghmous, James H.; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change and its impact on human life has become one of our era's greatest challenges. Despite the urgency, data science has had little impact on furthering our understanding of our planet in spite of the abundance of climate data. This is a stark contrast from other fields such as advertising or electronic commerce where big data has been a great success story. This discrepancy stems from the complex nature of climate data as well as the scientific questions climate science brin...

  3. Talking Change - A comparative narrative analysis of language use amongst external consultants and internal change agents in delivering organisational change.

    OpenAIRE

    Muchatuta, Gashirai

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation into the existence of material differences between the respective approaches to change management of consultants and corporate managers. The narrative accounts proffered by participants are examined in three primary dimensions, sensemaking, sensegiving and overcoming resistance to change. Relationships between these dimensions are explored and an effort at establishing best practice approaches is made.

  4. The interactional management of ‘language difficulties’ at work – L2 strategies for responding to explicit inquiries about understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranekjær, Louise

    2017-01-01

    In multilingual work-place settings, there are many ways of addressing (or not addressing) the issue of understanding, and different ways of handling when the issue is explicitly raised in the form of a question. Building on a previous study by Tranekjær (Tranekjær, 2015; Tranekjær og Kappa, 2016......; 2014) the paper will explore the possibility of outlining differences in the efficiency of SL learner strategies for addressing inquiries about understanding. The paper in this way provides valuable input to language teachers and trainers within the field of diversity management and intercultural...

  5. The Promise and Limitations of Using Analogies to Improve Decision-Relevant Understanding of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin T Raimi

    Full Text Available To make informed choices about how to address climate change, members of the public must develop ways to consider established facts of climate science and the uncertainties about its future trajectories, in addition to the risks attendant to various responses, including non-response, to climate change. One method suggested for educating the public about these issues is the use of simple mental models, or analogies comparing climate change to familiar domains such as medical decision making, disaster preparedness, or courtroom trials. Two studies were conducted using online participants in the U.S.A. to test the use of analogies to highlight seven key decision-relevant elements of climate change, including uncertainties about when and where serious damage may occur, its unprecedented and progressive nature, and tradeoffs in limiting climate change. An internal meta-analysis was then conducted to estimate overall effect sizes across the two studies. Analogies were not found to inform knowledge about climate literacy facts. However, results suggested that people found the medical analogy helpful and that it led people-especially political conservatives-to better recognize several decision-relevant attributes of climate change. These effects were weak, perhaps reflecting a well-documented and overwhelming effect of political ideology on climate change communication and education efforts in the U.S.A. The potential of analogies and similar education tools to improve understanding and communication in a polarized political environment are discussed.

  6. Change in higher education: understanding and responding to individual and organizational resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, India F

    2007-01-01

    In many fields, the ability of educators and practitioners to cope with rapid change is essential to sustained success. In veterinary medical education, as in other scientific disciplines, meaningful change is challenging to achieve and subject to resistance from many individual and organizational norms. Individual concerns often relate to fears of instability or uncertainty, loss of current status, or effects on individual time and workload. Sources of organizational resistance may include a conservative culture, fierce protection of current practices, and prevalence of disciplinary or territorial viewpoints. In academia, especially in scientific or medical fields, individuals appear to be strongly independent and conservative in nature, and generally skeptical of educational change. In this environment, a highly participatory process, with regular communication strategies and demonstrations or evidence that supports proposed changes, can be useful in facilitating change. An understanding of the nature of complex change, as well as of the reasons underlying resistance to change, and some methods to overcome these barriers are highly valuable tools for educational leaders.

  7. The Promise and Limitations of Using Analogies to Improve Decision-Relevant Understanding of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimi, Kaitlin T; Stern, Paul C; Maki, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    To make informed choices about how to address climate change, members of the public must develop ways to consider established facts of climate science and the uncertainties about its future trajectories, in addition to the risks attendant to various responses, including non-response, to climate change. One method suggested for educating the public about these issues is the use of simple mental models, or analogies comparing climate change to familiar domains such as medical decision making, disaster preparedness, or courtroom trials. Two studies were conducted using online participants in the U.S.A. to test the use of analogies to highlight seven key decision-relevant elements of climate change, including uncertainties about when and where serious damage may occur, its unprecedented and progressive nature, and tradeoffs in limiting climate change. An internal meta-analysis was then conducted to estimate overall effect sizes across the two studies. Analogies were not found to inform knowledge about climate literacy facts. However, results suggested that people found the medical analogy helpful and that it led people-especially political conservatives-to better recognize several decision-relevant attributes of climate change. These effects were weak, perhaps reflecting a well-documented and overwhelming effect of political ideology on climate change communication and education efforts in the U.S.A. The potential of analogies and similar education tools to improve understanding and communication in a polarized political environment are discussed.

  8. Changes in health perceptions after exposure to human suffering: using discrete emotions to understand underlying processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia A Paschali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality, as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An experimental group (N = 47 was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N = 47 was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being.

  9. Devising a Method to Study if Wernicke's Aphasia Patients are Aware That They Do Not Comprehend Language or Speak It Understandably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kasondra; Peluzzo, Amanda; Shadani, Sharon; Chellquist, Ian; Weprin, Samuel; Hunt, Halley; Smith-Benjamin, Sarah; Altschuler, Eric L

    2017-01-01

    Wernicke's Aphasia (WA) is characterized by an individual speaking fluent gibberish without the ability to understand anything that is said to them or anything they attempt to read. It is caused by damage to the left posterior temporoparietal cortex, also known as Wernicke's area. An additional intriguing symptom of WA patients is their apparent obliviousness to their own lack of understanding despite their intact reasoning or other cognitive abilities. Their only deficit seems to be in the basic rules of language that define word meaning, also known as phonology. Growing out of a project in an undergraduate class, we devised a phonology-free approach to communicating with WA patients that attempts to answer the questions of whether WA patients know that they do not understand what is said to them, that others do not understand what they have said, and if these patients are distressed by this lack of communication. We here describe the process and the resulting method.

  10. Pharmacist Behavior Changes Following a Medication Counseling Training Program Targeting Teach-Back and Plain Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Hager

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate whether active learning-based training in teach-back and plain language (TBPL techniques can lead to observable changes to patient-centered practices in pharmacist-patient counseling. Methods: All pharmacists in direct patient care roles, inpatient and outpatient, were required to complete a didactic module and a workshop / webinar or small group training. The workshop / webinar and small group modalities incorporated elements of adult education theory. Following completion, pharmacists were surveyed to assess their ability, confidence and commitment to incorporating TBPL techniques into practice. Evaluation of pharmacist-patient counseling was completed pre- and post- training through direct observation. Student pharmacists were trained to evaluate pharmacists’ consultations on patients with ≥2 new medications. Students recorded completeness rates for 39 communication techniques. Results: One-hundred and eighteen pharmacists completed the TBPL training program and 59 pharmacists completed an evaluation. A total of 84 direct observations were completed (40 pre-training and 44 post-training. Skills improved included: using plain language (p Conclusion: Implementing a TBPL training program improved observable pharmacist-patient consultation skills. This approach is replicable and could be utilized as a model for other competencies.   Type: Original Research

  11. Promoting Cross-Cultural Understanding and Language Use in Research-Oriented Internet-Mediated Intercultural Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jen Jun; Yang, Shu Ching

    2016-01-01

    This case study investigated the effectiveness of the United Beyond Our Diversity (UBOD) project for the development of language skills and intercultural communicative competence (including attitudes, knowledge, skills, and critical intercultural awareness) in Taiwanese seventh grade learners. The learners' attitudes and evaluations of UBOD were…

  12. Empirical study of Kanji as archetypal images: understanding the collective unconscious as part of the Japanese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotirova-Kohli, Milena; Rosen, David H; Smith, Steven M; Henderson, Patti; Taki-Reece, Sachiko

    2011-02-01

    Chinese characters originated as a semiotic system independent from spoken language and in the Japanese language they function non-phonetically with speakers exhibiting right-hemispheric advantage in their processing. We tested the hypothesis that Chinese characters are archetypal images and therefore part of our collective unconscious memory. Our study builds on the first empirical study of archetypal memory of Rosen et al. (1991) which demonstrated that archetypal symbols presented matched with their correct meaning were better learned and recalled. In a series of three experiments we used 40 Chinese characters instead of the archetypal symbols used by Rosen, et al. (1991). The results provided empirical evidence that Chinese characters matched with their correct meaning were significantly better recalled than the ones that were mismatched. Thus, we demonstrated that there appears to be unconscious knowledge of the meaning of the Chinese characters which was triggered as a result of priming when the characters were correctly matched with their meaning. On this basis, we suggest that Chinese characters exhibit the same cognitive qualities as archetypal symbols. Thus, in the Japanese language an archetypal image is integrated non-phonetically into the system of language and signifies the concept independent from the phonetic signifier and is equal to it. © 2011, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  13. Understanding the Relationship between Social Cognition and Word Difficulty. A Language Based Analysis of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramaki, E; Shikata, S; Miyabe, M; Usuda, Y; Asada, K; Ayaya, S; Kumagaya, S

    2015-01-01

    Few quantitative studies have been conducted on the relationship between society and its languages. Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are known to experience social hardships, and a wide range of clinical information about their quality of life has been provided through numerous narrative analyses. However, the narratives of ASD patients have thus far been examined mainly through qualitative approaches. In this study, we analyzed adults with ASD to quantitatively examine the relationship between language abilities and ASD severity scores. We generated phonetic transcriptions of speeches by 16 ASD adults at an ASD workshop, and divided the participants into 2 groups according to their Social Responsiveness Scale(TM), 2nd Edition (SRS(TM)-2) scores (where higher scores represent more severe ASD): Group A comprised high-scoring ASD adults (SRS(TM)-2 score: ≥ 76) and Group B comprised low- and intermediate-scoring ASD adults (SRS(TM)-2 score: relationships between the language ability scores and ASD severity scores were compared. Group A showed a marginally negative correlation with the level of Japanese word difficulty (p applications of these findings may be available in the near future, and there is a need for further detailed study on language metrics designed for ASD adults.

  14. Understanding the Interconnectedness between Language Choices, Cultural Identity Construction and School Practices in the Life of a Latina Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Sandra Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research looks at the effects that language choices and cultural practices have on identity development in the education of minority students in the United States. It examines the educational journey of Irma, a Latina educator. Through the analysis of interviews with the participant, this paper intends to show the effects of…

  15. How Intuition and Language Use Relate to Students' Understanding of Span and Linear Independence in an Elementary Linear Algebra Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Catherine Frieda

    2010-01-01

    A possible contributing factor to students' difficulty in learning advanced mathematics is the conflict between students' "natural" learning styles and the formal structure of mathematics, which is based on definitions, theorems, and proofs. Students' natural learning styles may be a function of their intuition and language skills. The purpose of…

  16. Using a schoolyard garden to increase language acquisition and conceptual understanding of science in elementary ELL students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Morgan

    This action research study examined a small cross-section of a Texas public school population. Participants were kindergarten through third grade students enrolled in the English as a Second Language (ESL) Program who were pulled out of their general classroom to receive English support within the content area of science. This study looked at how effective a hands-on learning experience using a schoolyard garden enhanced the academic language and science content of the participants. The study began in mid-March and concluded at the end of April with each group receiving 40 minutes of instruction five days a week. Each group consisted of a Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced/Advanced High student for a total of 12 participants. Four forms of data were used in this study: archival, pre-test, post-test, and journal. Rubrics were used to analyze individual students' level of academic language before and after the study. The results illustrate that the younger students (kindergarten and first grade) descriptions were very basic and concrete while the older students had more accurate and descriptive responses. Upon completion of this research, it was determined that the usage of a schoolyard garden compliments both the acquisition of academic language and the increase in science content knowledge.

  17. Understanding by Design (UbD) in EFL Teaching: The Investigation of Students' Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtseven, Nihal; Altun, Sertel

    2016-01-01

    In today's world, where learning a foreign language is highly prioritized, it is an important prerequisite that education has components that are lasting, meaningful, and transferable to everyday life. Moreover, these components would have a positive influence on student motivation. The purpose of this study is to investigate students' language…

  18. The development of second-order social cognition and its relation with complex language understanding and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslan, Burcu; Hohenberger, Annette; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the development of second-order social cognition and its possible relationship with language and memory were investigated. For this reason two second-order false belief tasks (FBT_2), a short term memory task (WST), a complex working memory task (LST), a linguistic perspective-taking

  19. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S K; Adjeroud, M; Bellwood, D R; Berumen, M L; Booth, D; Bozec, Y-Marie; Chabanet, P; Cheal, A; Cinner, J; Depczynski, M; Feary, D A; Gagliano, M; Graham, N A J; Halford, A R; Halpern, B S; Harborne, A R; Hoey, A S; Holbrook, S J; Jones, G P; Kulbiki, M; Letourneur, Y; De Loma, T L; McClanahan, T; McCormick, M I; Meekan, M G; Mumby, P J; Munday, P L; Ohman, M C; Pratchett, M S; Riegl, B; Sano, M; Schmitt, R J; Syms, C

    2010-03-15

    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef fishes were invited to submit five questions that, if addressed, would improve our understanding of climate change effects on coral reef fishes. Thirty-three scientists provided 155 questions, and 32 scientists scored these questions in terms of: (i) identifying a knowledge gap, (ii) achievability, (iii) applicability to a broad spectrum of species and reef habitats, and (iv) priority. Forty-two per cent of the questions related to habitat associations and community dynamics of fish, reflecting the established effects and immediate concern relating to climate-induced coral loss and habitat degradation. However, there were also questions on fish demographics, physiology, behaviour and management, all of which could be potentially affected by climate change. Irrespective of their individual expertise and background, scientists scored questions from different topics similarly, suggesting limited bias and recognition of a need for greater interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Presented here are the 53 highest-scoring unique questions. These questions should act as a guide for future research, providing a basis for better assessment and management of climate change impacts on coral reefs and associated fish communities.

  20. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, S. K.

    2010-02-26

    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef fishes were invited to submit five questions that, if addressed, would improve our understanding of climate change effects on coral reef fishes. Thirty-three scientists provided 155 questions, and 32 scientists scored these questions in terms of: (i) identifying a knowledge gap, (ii) achievability, (iii) applicability to a broad spectrum of species and reef habitats, and (iv) priority. Forty-two per cent of the questions related to habitat associations and community dynamics of fish, reflecting the established effects and immediate concern relating to climate-induced coral loss and habitat degradation. However, there were also questions on fish demographics, physiology, behaviour and management, all of which could be potentially affected by climate change. Irrespective of their individual expertise and background, scientists scored questions from different topics similarly, suggesting limited bias and recognition of a need for greater interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Presented here are the 53 highest-scoring unique questions. These questions should act as a guide for future research, providing a basis for better assessment and management of climate change impacts on coral reefs and associated fish communities.

  1. Experts’ understandings of drinking water risk management in a climate change scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Boholm

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges for society presented by climate change are complex and demanding. This paper focuses on one particular resource of utmost necessity and vulnerability to climate change: namely, the provisioning of safe drinking water. From a critical perspective on the role of expertise in risk debates, this paper looks at how Swedish experts understand risk to drinking water in a climate change scenario and how they reason about challenges to risk management and adaptation strategies. The empirical material derives from ten in-depth semi-structured interviews with experts, employed both at government agencies and at universities, and with disciplinary backgrounds in a variety of fields (water engineering, planning, geology and environmental chemistry. The experts understand risk factors affecting both drinking water quality and availability as complex and systemically interrelated. A lack of political saliency of drinking water as a public service is identified as an obstacle to the development of robust adaptation strategies. Another area of concern relates to the geographical, organizational and institutional boundaries (regulatory, political and epistemological between the plethora of public actors with partly overlapping and sometimes unclear responsibilities for the provisioning of safe drinking water. The study concludes that climate change adaptation regarding drinking water provisioning will require a new integration of the knowledge of systemic risk relations, in combination with more efficient agency collaboration based on a clear demarcation of responsibility between actors.

  2. Revisiting of Stommel's model for the understanding of the abrupt climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scatamacchia, R.; Purini, R.; Rafanelli, C.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the enormous number of papers devoted to modelling climate changes, the pionieristic Stommel paper (1961) remains a still valid tool for the understanding of the basic mechanism that governs the abrupt climate change, i.e. the existence of multipla equilibria in the governing non-linear equations. Using non-dimensional quantities, Stommel did not provide any explicit information about the temporal scale affecting the process under examination when the control parameters are varied. On the basis of this consideration, the present paper revisits the Stommel theory putting some emphasis on the quantitative estimate of how the variations of the control system parameters system modify the fundamental motor of the climate change, i.e. the thermohaline circulation.

  3. Understanding change in recycling and littering behavior across a school social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2014-06-01

    Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior.

  4. Overcoming resistance to innovation: Suggestions for encouraging change in language teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weideman, Albert

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available As in many other countries, communicative language teaching (CLT became the orthodoxy in second language teaching in many sub-Saharan African education systems in the last two decades of the previous century. There is enough evidence, however, to indicate that it has not been adopted by a critical mass of language teachers in their day-to-day classroom practice, as distinct from their professed adherence to its main tenets. There may be many reasons for this resistance. Markee’s (1993 discussion of these indeed picks up a number of points that may be worth following up. This paper looks at three instructional tools that may assist teachers in overcoming resistance and adopting a communicative approach. The first is an instrument developed by Shaalukeni (2000 for use in her own work as an advisory teacher in northern Namibia. The paper discusses the employment of this instrument in her action research study into stimulating the use of pair work tasks in English second language classes. The second and third instruments help teachers to articulate their beliefs about language learning, as well as to examine whether these beliefs are in harmony with what we know about language learning, and aligned with what the teachers themselves profess. Such strategies are not sufficient to bring about change, but they may be the beginning of overcoming resistance to what is new. Gedurende die laaste twee dekades van die twintigste eeu het kommunikatiewe taalonderrig, soos elders ook die geval is, tweedetaalonderrig in talle onderwyssisteme van Afrika-lande suid van die Sahara oorheers. Daar is egter meer as genoeg bewyse dat ’n kritieke massa onderwysers hierdie aanpak nog nie in hul daaglikse onderwyspraktyk geïmplimenteer het nie, alhoewel hierdie onderwysers tog te kenne gee dat hulle die aanpak oor die algemeen professioneel aanvaarbaar vind. Daar kan seker vele redes aangevoer word vir hierdie weerstand. Markee (1993 se uiteensetting van moontlike

  5. Native experience with a tone language enhances pitch discrimination and the timing of neural responses to pitch change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Giuliano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Native tone language experience has been linked with alterations in the production and perception of pitch in language, as well as with the brain response to linguistic and non-linguistic tones. Here we use two experiments to address whether these changes apply to the discrimination of simple pitch changes and pitch intervals. ERPs were recorded from native Mandarin speakers and a control group during a same/different task with pairs of pure tones differing only in pitch height, and with pure tone pairs differing only in interval distance. Behaviorally, Mandarin speakers were more accurate than controls at detecting both pitch and interval changes, showing a sensitivity to small pitch changes and interval distances that was absent in the control group. Converging evidence from ERPs obtained during the same tasks revealed an earlier response to change relative to no-change trials in Mandarin speakers, as well as earlier differentiation of trials by change direction relative to controls. These findings illustrate the cross-domain influence of language experience on the perception of pitch, suggesting that the native use of tonal pitch contours in language leads to a general enhancement in the acuity of pitch representations.

  6. How do you say 'Global Warming' in Your Language?" Linguistic Research on Climate Change in the Upper Tanana Valley, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovick, O.

    2006-12-01

    The Upper Tanana valley in the interior of Alaska used to be one of the most remote regions on the North American continent. This changed rapidly about 100 years ago, with the onset of the gold rush. Ever since, change has come to the Upper Tanana valley in many forms, from the intrusion of white people to climate change and pollution. The changes are severe and on-going, and they affect everyday life in every possible way. It is obvious that the ideal consultant for long-term studies like studies on climate change has to be older rather than younger. In rural communities of Alaska, including the ones targeted in this study, older consultants, that is, consultants in their 60s or older, usually have a first language different from English, in our case Upper Tanana Athabascan. Even though most of these consultants do have some knowledge of English, their skills in this language can be limited. Thus, communication between the (English-speaking) scientist and the (Upper Tanana-speaking) consultant is bound to be problematic and error-prone. This can be avoided by conducting the research in the Native language. This poster illustrates as part of IPY research how the kinds of change mentioned above are regarded by the Upper Tanana Athabascans, and how the Upper Tanana language reflects them. Concepts like 'global warming' or 'greenhouse effect' are relatively new even to the English language. Speakers are asked to translate such and similar terms into their language, and to explain their choice of words. While the Upper Tanana translations of these terms do not necessarily reflect the English original accurately, discussion of such concepts is still possible for a fluent speaker. Still, the ways of expression such concepts differ from language to language, a different pool of metaphors is employed in the formation of words, and there are nuances in Upper Tanana that can easily get lost in translation to English. Thus, the use of the Upper Tanana language reflects to

  7. Communicating bodily changes: physicians' ways of enabling patient understanding in gastrointestinal cancer consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Febe; Lidén, Eva; Håkanson, Cecilia; Öhlén, Joakim

    2015-06-01

    To explore how physicians communicatively enable patients' understanding of bodily changes in gastrointestinal cancer care consultations. Two datasets were used. The first consisted of transcribed video-recorded palliative care consultations with three oncologists and six patients diagnosed with advanced gastrointestinal cancer, in the context of outpatient palliative care. The second dataset was audio-recorded transcriptions from diagnostic consultations with six surgeons and seven patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, in the context of cancer surgery. An inductively driven and iterative analysis of interaction was performed, guided by Wetherell et al. (2001). Two overarching communicative strategies were identified: (1) "visualizing strategies," with the dimensions: visible strategies (visualizing with what you actually or potentially can see), sensory strategies (visualizing with what is possible to feel), and imaginative strategies; and (2) "contrasting strategies," with the dimensions: contrasting subjective experiences and contrasting between the patient and other people. The visualizing and contrasting communicative strategies form parts of physicians' tacit and experience-based knowledge. The strategies employed by physicians reveal clear potentials to enable patients' understanding and sense making of bodily changes. However, these strategies need to be explicated and problematized as parts of both consultation practice and basic medical education. By means of increased awareness, physicians can more easily identify turning points in patients' levels of understanding, thereby enriching ordinary medical consultations with reflected pedagogical strategies and skills in how to dialogue in a person-centered manner.

  8. How learning to read changes the cortical networks for vision and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaene, Stanislas; Pegado, Felipe; Braga, Lucia W; Ventura, Paulo; Nunes Filho, Gilberto; Jobert, Antoinette; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Kolinsky, Régine; Morais, José; Cohen, Laurent

    2010-12-03

    Does literacy improve brain function? Does it also entail losses? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured brain responses to spoken and written language, visual faces, houses, tools, and checkers in adults of variable literacy (10 were illiterate, 22 became literate as adults, and 31 were literate in childhood). As literacy enhanced the left fusiform activation evoked by writing, it induced a small competition with faces at this location, but also broadly enhanced visual responses in fusiform and occipital cortex, extending to area V1. Literacy also enhanced phonological activation to speech in the planum temporale and afforded a top-down activation of orthography from spoken inputs. Most changes occurred even when literacy was acquired in adulthood, emphasizing that both childhood and adult education can profoundly refine cortical organization.

  9. Remodelling a changing language of tourism: from monologue to dialogue and trialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham M. S. Dann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When the “language of tourism” was initially articulated, tourism formed part of the modernist project, wherein its unilateral, monological discourse was framed within the parameters of social control. However, there is evidence today that it has now been transformed on account of the digitalised communication of the Internet. Indeed, there is currently a more egalitarian, postmodern ethos of dialogue, or even trialogue, between the key players of tourism: the industry, the tourist and the touree. Consequently, a new heuristic framework becomes necessary, one that reflects the changes that are rapidly occurring. With examples, a cell-by-cell approach is adopted in three constituent models which together illustrate a shifting paradigm in terms of the media that are now open to greater democratisation.

  10. The Changing Face of Motivation: A Study of Second Language Learners' Motivation over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Elizabeth; Storch, Neomy

    2011-01-01

    Motivation to learn a second language (L2) is considered a crucial individual factor in explaining success or lack thereof in second language learning. This study examined learners' motivation to learn Chinese as a second language (L2). The study was longitudinal and cross sectional. Interviews were conducted with learners at different year levels…

  11. A real time study of contact-induced language change in Frisian relative pronouns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.E.; Heeringa, W.J.; Yilmaz, E.; van den Heuvel, H.; van Leeuwen, D.; Van de Velde, Hans; Babatsouli, E.

    2017-01-01

    Many minority languages are subject to linguistic interferences from a more prestigious language, for example the country’s majority language. This is also the case with (West-)Frisian, spoken in the province of Fryslân in the north of the Netherlands. The current real-time study investigates the

  12. Climate change and livestock system in mountain: Understanding from Gandaki River basin of Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, P.; Shrestha, N. S.; Krakauer, N.; Lakhankar, T.; Panthi, J., Sr.; Pradhanang, S.; Jha, A. K.; Shrestha, M.; Sharma, M.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years climate change has emerged as a source of vulnerability for agro-livestock smallholders in Nepal where people are mostly dependent on rain-fed agriculture and livestock farming for their livelihoods. There is a need to understand and predict the potential impacts of climate change on agro-livestock farmer to develop effective mitigation and adaptation strategies. To understand dynamics of this vulnerability, we assess the farmers' perceptions of climate change, analysis of historical and future projections of climatic parameters and try to understand impact of climate change on livestock system in Gandaki River Basin of Central Nepal. During the period of 1981-2012, as reported by the mountain communities, the most serious hazards for livestock system and agriculture are the increasing trend of temperature, erratic rainfall patterns and increase in drought. Poor households without irrigated land are facing greater risks and stresses than well-off people. Analysis of historical climate data also supports the farmer perception. Result shows that there is increasing trend of temperature but no consistent trend in precipitation but a notable finding is that wet areas are getting wetter and dry areas getting drier. Besides that, there is increase in percentage of warm days and nights with decrease in the cool nights and days. The magnitude of the trend is found to be higher in high altitude. Trend of wet days has found to be increasing with decreasing in rainy days. Most areas are characterized by increases in both severity and frequency of drought and are more evident in recent years. The summers of 2004/05/06/09 and winters of 2006/08/09 were the worst widespread droughts and have a serious impact on livestock since 1981. Future projected change in temperature and precipitation obtained from downscaling the data global model by regional climate model shows that precipitation in central Nepal will change by -8% to 12% and temperature will change by 1

  13. CEOS Theory: A Comprehensive Approach to Understanding Hard to Maintain Behaviour Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Ron

    2017-03-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to CEOS theory, a comprehensive theory for understanding hard to maintain behaviour change. The name CEOS is an acronym for Context, Executive, and Operational Systems theory. Behaviour is theorised to be the result of the moment by moment interaction between internal needs (operational processes) in relation to environmental conditions, and for humans this is augmented by goal-directed, executive action which can transcend immediate contingencies. All behaviour is generated by operational processes. Goal-directed behaviours only triumph over contingency-generated competing behaviours when operational processes have been sufficiently activated to support them. Affective force can be generated around executive system (ES) goals from such things as memories of direct experience, vicarious experience, and emotionally charged communications mediated through stories the person generates. This paper makes some refinements and elaborations of the theory, particularly around the role of feelings, and of the importance of stories and scripts for facilitating executive action. It also sketches out how it reconceptualises a range of issues relevant to behaviour change. CEOS provides a framework for understanding the limitations of both informational and environmental approaches to behaviour change, the need for self-regulatory strategies and for taking into account more basic aspects of human functioning. © 2016 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.

  14. Understanding the systemic nature of cities to improve health and climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ralph; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Capon, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Understanding cities comprehensively as systems is a costly challenge and is typically not feasible for policy makers. Nevertheless, focusing on some key systemic characteristics of cities can give useful insights for policy to advance health and well-being outcomes. Moreover, if we take a coevolutionary systems view of cities, some conventional assumptions about the nature of urban development (e.g. the growth in private vehicle use with income) may not stand up. We illustrate this by examining the coevolution of urban transport and land use systems, and institutional change, giving examples of policy implications. At a high level, our concern derives from the need to better understand the dynamics of urban change, and its implications for health and well-being. At a practical level, we see opportunities to use stylised findings about urban systems to underpin policy experiments. While it is now not uncommon to view cities as systems, policy makers appear to have made little use so far of a systems approach to inform choice of policies with consequences for health and well-being. System insights can be applied to intelligently anticipate change - for example, as cities are subjected to increasing natural system reactions to climate change, they must find ways to mitigate and adapt to it. Secondly, systems insights around policy cobenefits are vital for better informing horizontal policy integration. Lastly, an implication of system complexity is that rather than seeking detailed, 'full' knowledge about urban issues and policies, cities would be well advised to engage in policy experimentation to address increasingly urgent health and climate change issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High-resolution modeling approaches to understanding changes in extreme precipitation projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, K. M.; Alexander, M. A.; Thompson, G.; Scott, J. D.; Barsugli, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    One of the challenges inherent to understanding the effect of global climate change on precipitation extremes is the mismatch of scale. Climate models simulate large-scale patterns of long-term change, while weather models generally diagnose small-scale weather phenomena such as extreme rainfall. Therefore, understanding the potential effects of global-scale changes on local-scale weather requires new research approaches to connect questions and processes across weather and climate scales. This study represents one such integrated approach by investigating projected changes in warm-season extreme precipitation events using a dynamical downscaling framework that sequentially interfaces climate- and weather-scale data. Focusing on the Colorado Front Range, global simulations are first downscaled to a medium/regional-scale resolution; the resulting simulations are then further downscaled using a high-resolution weather model. The high-resolution model is able to explicitly simulate intense thunderstorms using 1.3-km grid spacing, thus resolving the small-scale physical processes that generate extreme precipitation. Physical process explanations are sought for projected changes in rainfall amount, hail occurrence, and flood risk. Past and future extreme event simulations are compared with respect to environmental drivers such as low-level instability (e.g., CAPE), large-scale forcing, and vertical temperature and moisture profiles. The events are also examined for systematic differences in storm-scale processes such as updraft strength, hail production and hail melting, dry air entrainment, and downdraft formation. Qualitative and quantitative consistency (or the lack thereof) across global, regional, and local-scale simulations is also explored.

  16. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  17. Understanding Changes in Modeled Land Surface Characteristics Prior to Lightning-Initiated Holdover Fire Breakout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Case, Jonathan L.; Hain, Christopher R.; White, Kristopher; Wachter, J. Brent; Nauslar, Nicholas; MacNamara, Brittany

    2018-01-01

    Lightning initiated wildfires are only 16% of the total number of wildfires within the United States, but account for 56% of the acreage burned. One of the challenges with lightning-initiated wildfires is their ability to "holdover" which means smolder for up to 2+ weeks before breaking out into a full fledged fire. This work helps characterize the percentage of holdover events due to lightning, and helps quantify changes in the land surface characteristics to help understand trends in soil moisture and vegetation stress that potentially contribute to the fire breaking out into a full wildfire.

  18. Exploring "patient-centered" hospitals: a systematic review to understand change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabutti, Irene; Mascia, Daniele; Cicchetti, Americo

    2017-05-22

    The healthcare scenario in developed countries is changing deeply: patients, who are frequently affected by multi-pathological chronic conditions, have risen their expectations. Simultaneously, there exist dramatic financial pressures which require healthcare organizations to provide more and better services with equal (or decreasing) resources. In response to these challenges, hospitals are facing radical transformations by bridging, redesigning and engaging their organization and staff. This study has the ambitious aim to shed light and clearly label the trends of change hospitals are enhancing in developed economies, in order to fully understand the presence of common trends and which organizational models and features are inspiring the most innovative organizations. The purpose is to make stock of what is known in the field of hospital organization about how hospitals are changing, as well as of how such change may be implemented effectively through managerial tools. To do so the methodology adopted integrates a systematic literature review to a wider engaged research approach. Evidence suggests that the three main pillars of change of the system are given by the progressive patient care model, the patient-centered approach and the lean approach. However, there emerge a number of gaps in what is known about how to exploit drivers of change and their effects. This study confirms that efforts in literature are concentrated in analyzing circumscribed experiences in the implementation of new models and approaches, failing therefore to extend the analysis at the organizational and inter-organizational level in order to legitimately draw consequences to be generalized. There seem to be a number of "gaps" in what is known about how to exploit drivers of change and their effects, suggesting that the research approach privileged till now fails in providing a clear guidance to policy makers and to organizations' management on how to concretely and effectively implement

  19. Heating up Climate Literacy Education: Understanding Teachers' and Students' Motivational and Affective Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    presentation, findings from a research program exploring the role of "hot constructs" such as motivation and emotion in teaching and learning about climate change will be shared. In these studies, we have explored constructs such as emotions, misconceptions, plausibility perceptions, understanding deep time, and dispositions towards uncertainty. Results from four studies will be highlighted. In the first study, we demonstrated that comfort with ambiguity and a willingness to think deeply about issues predicted both change in attitudes towards climate change and expressed willingness to take mitigative action in college students (Sinatra, et al. 2011). In another study with college students, we demonstrated that knowledge of deep time and plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate change were related to students' understanding of weather and climate distinctions (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). In a study with graduate education students, we found that misconceptions about climate change were associated with strong emotions (Broughton, et al., 2011). With practicing teachers we have found that emotions, specifically anger and hopelessness, were significant predictors of plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, in preparation). The implications for climate change education of the findings will be discussed.

  20. Integrating Observations and Models to Better Understand a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    TThe loss of the Arctic sea ice cover has captured the world's attention. While much attention has been paid to the summer ice loss, changes are not limited to summer. The last few winters have seen record low sea ice extents, with 2017 marking the 3rdyear in a row with a new record low for the winter maximum extent. More surprising is the number of consecutive months between January 2016 through April 2017 with ice extent anomalies more than 2 standard deviations below the 1981-2010 mean. Additionally, October 2016 through April 2017 saw 7 consecutive months with record low extents, something that had not happened before in the last 4 decades of satellite observations. As larger parts of the Arctic Ocean become ice-free in summer, regional seas gradually transition from a perennial to a seasonal ice cover. The Barents Sea is already only seasonally ice covered, whereas the Kara Sea has recently lost most of its summer ice and is thereby starting to become a seasonally ice covered region. These changes serve as harbinger for what's to come for other Arctic seas. Given the rapid pace of change, there is an urgent need to improve our understanding of the drivers behind Arctic sea ice loss, the implications of this ice loss and to predict future changes to better inform policy makers. Climate models play a fundamental role in helping us synthesize the complex elements of the Arctic sea ice system yet generally fail to simulate key features of the sea ice system and the pace of sea ice loss. Nevertheless, modeling advances continue to provide better means of diagnosing sea ice change, and new insights are likely to be gained with model output from the 6th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). The CMIP6 Sea-Ice Model Intercomparison Project (SIMIP) aim is to better understand biases and errors in sea ice simulations so that we can improve our understanding of the likely future evolution of the sea ice cover and its impacts on global climate. To

  1. Cross-language identification of long-term average speech spectra in Korean and English: toward a better understanding of the quantitative difference between two languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Heil; Lee, Dong-Hee

    2012-01-01

    To identify the quantitative differences between Korean and English in long-term average speech spectra (LTASS). Twenty Korean speakers, who lived in the capital of Korea and spoke standard Korean as their first language, were compared with 20 native English speakers. For the Korean speakers, a passage from a novel and a passage from a leading newspaper article were chosen. For the English speakers, the Rainbow Passage was used. The speech was digitally recorded using GenRad 1982 Precision Sound Level Meter and GoldWave® software and analyzed using MATLAB program. There was no significant difference in the LTASS between the Korean subjects reading a news article or a novel. For male subjects, the LTASS of Korean speakers was significantly lower than that of English speakers above 1.6 kHz except at 4 kHz and its difference was more than 5 dB, especially at higher frequencies. For women, the LTASS of Korean speakers showed significantly lower levels at 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.25, 2, 2.5, 6.3, 8, and 10 kHz, but the differences were less than 5 dB. Compared with English speakers, the LTASS of Korean speakers showed significantly lower levels in frequencies above 2 kHz except at 4 kHz. The difference was less than 5 dB between 2 and 5 kHz but more than 5 dB above 6 kHz. To adjust the formula for fitting hearing aids for Koreans, our results based on the LTASS analysis suggest that one needs to raise the gain in high-frequency regions.

  2. The Crucible simulation: Behavioral simulation improves clinical leadership skills and understanding of complex health policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel; Vlaev, Ivo; McMahon, Laurie; Harvey, Sarah; Mitchell, Andy; Borovoi, Leah; Darzi, Ara

    2017-05-11

    The Health and Social Care Act 2012 represents the most complex National Health Service reforms in history. High-quality clinical leadership is important for successful implementation of health service reform. However, little is known about the effectiveness of current leadership training. This study describes the use of a behavioral simulation to improve the knowledge and leadership of a cohort of medical doctors expected to take leadership roles in the National Health Service. A day-long behavioral simulation (The Crucible) was developed and run based on a fictitious but realistic health economy. Participants completed pre- and postsimulation questionnaires generating qualitative and quantitative data. Leadership skills, knowledge, and behavior change processes described by the "theory of planned behavior" were self-assessed pre- and postsimulation. Sixty-nine medical doctors attended. Participants deemed the simulation immersive and relevant. Significant improvements were shown in perceived knowledge, capability, attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, and leadership competency following the program. Nearly one third of participants reported that they had implemented knowledge and skills from the simulation into practice within 4 weeks. This study systematically demonstrates the effectiveness of behavioral simulation for clinical management training and understanding of health policy reform. Potential future uses and strategies for analysis are discussed. High-quality care requires understanding of health systems and strong leadership. Policymakers should consider the use of behavioral simulation to improve understanding of health service reform and development of leadership skills in clinicians, who readily adopt skills from simulation into everyday practice.

  3. Speech-language pathologists and the Common Core Standards initiative: an opportunity for leadership and organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkle, Jennifer; Flynn, Perry

    2012-05-01

    The Common Core State Standards initiative within public school education is designed to provide uniform guidelines for academic standards, including more explicit language targets. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are highly qualified language experts who may find new leadership roles within their clinical practice using the Common Core Standards. However, determining its usage by SLPs in clinical practice needs to be examined. This article seeks to discover the social context of organizations and organizational change in relation to clinical practice. Specifically, this article presents the diffusion of innovations theory to explain how initiatives move from ideas to institutionalization and the importance of social context in which these initiatives are introduced. Next, the values of both SLPs and organizations will be discussed. Finally, this article provides information on how to affect organizational change through the value of an affirmative, socially based theoretical perspective and methodology, appreciative inquiry. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Managing madness, murderers and paedophiles: Understanding change in the field of English forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ruth; Furtado, Vivek; Vollm, Birgit

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses changes occurring in the field of English forensic psychiatry which appear to be linked to feelings of discomfort amongst medical professionals who manage care in such settings. These changes are neither the result of a sudden 'shock' to the system, nor small improvisations at the margins, but instead appear to reflect a growing perception amongst psychiatrists of accepted field practice as inadequate for some types of patients. To understand how feelings and emotions are implicated in these changes we draw on and develop the work of Pierre Bourdieu to suggest that changes must be seen in the context of field tensions, which have implications for habitus. However, we do not view feelings of discomfort merely as a response to these tensions. Instead we suggest a more dynamic process. The habitus plays a key role in structuring what people pay attention to, how they perceive it and therefore, whether they experience particular feelings in the first place. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Workshops as a useful tool to better understand care professionals' views of a lean change program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Pascale A M; Benders, Jos; Marneffe, Wim; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Vandijck, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    For change programs to succeed, it is vital to have a detailed understanding of employees' views regarding the program, especially when the proposed changes are potentially contested. Gaining insight into employee perceptions helps managers to decide how to proceed. The authors conducted two workshops in a radiotherapy institute to assess the benefits and drawbacks, as well as their underlying causes, of a proposed Lean change program. Managers' views on the workshops' usefulness were charted. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Two workshops were organized in which employees predicted positive and negative effects of a Lean program. The workshops combined a structured brainstorm (KJ-technique) and an evaluation of the expected effects. Eight top managers judged the workshops' value on supporting decision making. In total, 15 employees participated in the workshops. Participants from workshop 2 reported more expected effects (27 effects; 18 positive) than from workshop 1 (14 effects; six positive). However, when effects were categorized, similar results were shown. Three from eight managers scored the results relevant for decision making and four neutral. Seven managers recommended future use of the instrument. Increased employee involvement and bottom-up thinking combined with relatively low costs were appreciated most. The workshop could serve as a simple instrument to improve decision making and enhance successful implementation of change programs, as it was expected to enhance employees' involvement and was relatively easy to conduct and cheap. The workshop increased insight into employee views, facilitating adaptive actions by healthcare organization managers.

  6. Statistical Primer for Athletic Trainers: The Essentials of Understanding Measures of Reliability and Minimal Important Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Lininger, Monica R

    2018-01-01

      To describe the concepts of measurement reliability and minimal important change.   All measurements have some magnitude of error. Because clinical practice involves measurement, clinicians need to understand measurement reliability. The reliability of an instrument is integral in determining if a change in patient status is meaningful.   Measurement reliability is the extent to which a test result is consistent and free of error. Three perspectives of reliability-relative reliability, systematic bias, and absolute reliability-are often reported. However, absolute reliability statistics, such as the minimal detectable difference, are most relevant to clinicians because they provide an expected error estimate. The minimal important difference is the smallest change in a treatment outcome that the patient would identify as important.   Clinicians should use absolute reliability characteristics, preferably the minimal detectable difference, to determine the extent of error around a patient's measurement. The minimal detectable difference, coupled with an appropriately estimated minimal important difference, can assist the practitioner in identifying clinically meaningful changes in patients.

  7. Perfectly Reasonable in a Practical World: Understanding Chemistry Teacher Responses to a Change Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbroek, Hanna; Janssen, Fred; Doyle, Walter

    2017-12-01

    Curriculum ideals often get compromised as a curriculum moves through its various levels of representation. Across the different science reforms, this process of slippage is clearly present. Research shows that teacher subject matter knowledge, PCK, beliefs and context factors all influence implementation. Professional development arrangements focus on fixing deficiencies in teachers' knowledge, beliefs or work context. This approach has not solved the problem of slippage, as we still do not understand what mechanisms operate when teachers make decisions about change proposals. In this study, we unpacked the decision mechanisms of three highly qualified chemistry teachers who subsequently adapted an innovative context-based chemistry unit. In spite of a state of the art professional development arrangement and the teachers being highly qualified, slippage occurred. The teachers' goal systems were used to interpret their reasoning. A goal system is a context-dependent, within-person mental construct that consists of a hierarchy of a person's goals and means in pursuit of a task. We showed that all three teachers adopted or redesigned elements of the change proposals to meet their core goals, i.e., goals that had multiple connections with other goals. This indicated that the adaptations teachers made were perfectly reasonable ways to serve their professional goals. For change to happen, we contend that one should begin with ways to connect teachers' core goals with the lesson or unit goal demands of a proposed innovation. Change emerges from the adaptions teachers make in the service of their core goals.

  8. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change.

  9. Cultural and social change of foreign students in Indonesia: The influence of Javanese Culture in Teaching Indonesian to Speakers of Other Languages (TISOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddhono, Kundharu

    2018-03-01

    Teaching Indonesian to Speakers of Other Languages (TISOL) program is increasingly in demand by people in various parts of the world. Foreign students learn a lot of Indonesian language in major cities in Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to explain the cultural and social changes of foreign students in Indonesia, especially in Java, which is following TISOL program. This study focused on the influence of Javanese culture on foreign students studying Indonesian in Java. Research method used is descriptive qualitative with ethnography approach. This research was conducted in TISOL program organized by in Central Java, East Java, and Yogyakarta. Sources of data used are documents and informants. The sampling technique used is purposive sampling. Purposive sampling is considered more capable to obtain complete data in the face of various realities. Data collection techniques are done by reviewing documents or records using content analysis techniques. Other techniques used are interview techniques with some students and lecturers to get data about the factors that affect the cultural and social changes of foreign students in Indonesia. Also, interviews were also conducted with teachers to request a different process in TISOL. The most common way used to improve validity in qualitative research is the triangulation technique. In this study used triangulation theory, triangulation method, and review of informants. The results show that using Javanese culture is very influential in the cultural and social changes of foreign students in Indonesia. Students become more enthusiastic and active in responding to learning in TISOL that is influenced by Javanese culture. The change comes from internal and external students. This change helps foreign students to understand Indonesian language and culture more comprehensively.

  10. Functional changes in people with different hearing status and experiences of using Chinese sign language: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Xia, Shuang; Zhao, Fei; Qi, Ji

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess functional changes in the cerebral cortex in people with different sign language experience and hearing status whilst observing and imitating Chinese Sign Language (CSL) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 50 participants took part in the study, and were divided into four groups according to their hearing status and experience of using sign language: prelingual deafness signer group (PDS), normal hearing non-signer group (HnS), native signer group with normal hearing (HNS), and acquired signer group with normal hearing (HLS). fMRI images were scanned from all subjects when they performed block-designed tasks that involved observing and imitating sign language stimuli. Nine activation areas were found in response to undertaking either observation or imitation CSL tasks and three activated areas were found only when undertaking the imitation task. Of those, the PDS group had significantly greater activation areas in terms of the cluster size of the activated voxels in the bilateral superior parietal lobule, cuneate lobe and lingual gyrus in response to undertaking either the observation or the imitation CSL task than the HnS, HNS and HLS groups. The PDS group also showed significantly greater activation in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus which was also found in the HNS or the HLS groups but not in the HnS group. This indicates that deaf signers have better sign language proficiency, because they engage more actively with the phonetic and semantic elements. In addition, the activations of the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule were only found in the PDS group and HNS group, and not in the other two groups, which indicates that the area for sign language processing appears to be sensitive to the age of language acquisition. After reading this article, readers will be able to: discuss the relationship between sign language and its neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  11. Changes in Ethnic Self-Identification and Heritage Language Preference in Adolescence : A Cross-Lagged Panel Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, Jolien; Verkuijten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses data of the U.S. Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study and focuses on the relations and changes in ethnic self-identification and preferred language use from early to late adolescence. The findings show that over time (pan-)ethnic self-identification increased and preference

  12. Becoming a Teacher: Tracing Changes in Pre-Service English as a Foreign Language Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, H. Gülru

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to trace changes in Turkish pre-service English as a foreign language teachers' self-efficacy over a year, and to detect possible sources of information influencing their efficacy. Utilizing concurrent mixed model design of Creswell (2003) both qualitative and quantitative data was collected. A total of 40 pre-service…

  13. Linguistics in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  14. "You must be lying because I don't understand you: Language proficiency and lie detection:" Correction to Elliott and Leach (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Reports an error in "You must be lying because I don't understand you: Language proficiency and lie detection" by Elizabeth Elliott and Amy-May Leach ( Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied , 2016[Dec], Vol 22[4], 488-499). In the Results section, under "Signal detection theory," the first sentence of the second paragraph contains errors. The correct sentence is provided in this erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-59419-006.) We examined the impact of interviewees' language proficiencies on observers' lie detection performance. Observers (N = 132) were randomly assigned to make deception judgments about interviewees (N = 56) from Four proficiency groups (i.e., native, advanced, intermediate, and beginner English speakers). Discrimination between lie- and truth-tellers was poorest when observers judged beginner English speakers compared to interviewees from any other proficiency group. Observers were also less likely to exhibit a truth-bias toward nonnative than native English speakers. These results suggest that interviewing individuals in their nonnative languages can create inequalities in the justice system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Understanding Indian Institutional Networks and Participation in Water Management Adaptation to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhoni, A.; Holman, I.; Jude, S.

    2014-12-01

    Adaptation to climate change for water management involves complex interactions between different actors and sectors. The need to understand the relationships between key stakeholder institutions (KSIs) is increasingly recognized. The complexity of water management in India has meant that enhancing adaptive capacity through improved inter-institutional networks remains a challenge for both government and non-governmental institutions. To analyse such complex inter-actions this study has used Social Network and Stakeholder Analysis tools to quantify the participation of, and interactions between, each KSI in the climate change adaptation and water discourse based on keyword analysis of their online presence. Using NodeXL, a Social Network Analysis tool, network diagrams have been used to evaluate the inter-relationships between these KSIs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-five KSIs to identify the main barriers to adaptation and to triangulate the findings of the e-documents analysis. The analysis found that there is an inverse relationship between institutions' reference to water and climate change in their web-documents. Most institutions emphasize mitigation rather than adaptation. Bureaucratic delays, poor coordination between the KSIs, unclear policies and systemic deficiencies are identified as key barriers to improving adaptive capacity within water management to climate change. However, the increasing attention being given to the perceived climate change impacts on the water sector and improving the inter-institutional networks are some of the opportunities for Indian water institutions. Although websites of Union Government Institutions seldom directly hyperlink to one another, they are linked through "bridging" websites which have the potential to act as brokers for enhancing adaptive capacity. The research has wider implications for analysis of complex inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional issues involving multi stakeholders.

  16. The changing Arctic carbon cycle: using the past to understand terrestrial-aquatic linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N. J.; van Hardenbroek, M.; Jones, V.; McGowan, S.; Langdon, P. G.; Whiteford, E.; Turner, S.; Edwards, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Predicted shifts in terrestrial vegetation cover associated with Arctic warming are altering the delivery and processing of carbon to aquatic ecosystems. This process could determine whether lakes are net carbon sources or sinks and, because lake density is high in many Arctic areas, may alter regional carbon budgets. Lake sediment records integrate information from within the lake and its catchment and can be used quantify past vegetation shifts associated with known climatic episodes of warmer (Holocene Thermal Maximum) and cooler (Neoglacial) conditions. We analysed sediment cores located in different Arctic vegetation biomes (tundra, shrub, forested) in Greenland, Norway and Alaska and used biochemical (algal pigments, stable isotopes) remains to evaluate whether past vegetation shifts were associated with changes in ecosystem carbon processing and biodiversity. When lake catchments were sparsely vegetated and soil vegetation was limited ultra-violet radiation (UVR) screening pigments indicate clear lake waters, scarce dissolved organic carbon/ matter (DOC/M). Moderate vegetation development (birch scrub in Norway; herb tundra in Greenland) appears to enhance delivery of DOM to lakes, and to stimulate algal production which is apparently linked to heterotrophic carbon processing pathways (e.g. algal mixotrophy, nutrient release via the microbial loop). Mature forest cover (in Alaska and Norway) supressed lake autotrophic production, most likely because coloured DOM delivered from catchment vegetation limited light availability. During wetter periods when mires developed lake carbon processing also changed, indicating that hydrological delivery of terrestrial DOM is also important. Therefore, future changes in Arctic vegetation and precipitation patterns are highly likely to alter the way that arctic ecosystems process carbon. Our approach provides an understanding of how ecosystem diversity and carbon processing respond to past climate change and the difficulty

  17. Understanding organization and institutional changes for management of environmental affairs in the Brazilian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.A.P. de

    2003-01-01

    This article analyzes how governments and an oil company adapted their institutional and organization frameworks to manage actual and potential environmental impacts of oil-related activities in Brazil. Two major factors are important for understanding these changes. First, the monopoly of the state to explore and produce oil is over. Foreign companies have entered Brazil and increased the competitiveness of the oil sector. Second, major oil spills into waterways in recent years resulted in severe fines and an increasing outcry from government and civil society representatives for greater control over oil activities. These two factors raised a debate about what are, or should be, the roles of various stakeholders involved in controlling oil activities and their impacts on the environment. Legislative changes assigned different roles to the state oil company, to a newly created regulatory agency, to the Navy and to federal and state environmental agencies. Because many of the legal changes were not well defined, accountability among institutional actors remained unclear and institutional conflicts about who is accountable for what were likely to occur. As well, government organizations, public prosecutors, media and civil society increasingly influenced the regulation of both government agencies and companies. As a result, these responded to regulatory change and market forces by changing their relations with external stakeholders and their organizational arrangements for environmental management. This article identifies some of the institutional conflicts in selected case studies from the oil industry, the difficulties in clarifying regulatory roles within the industry, and responses in terms of the environmental strategies of regulatory bodies and oil companies, specifically the Brazilian state company, Petrobas. (author)

  18. High School Students' Understanding of Change over Time and System Complexity: A Focus on the Cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Guthrie, C.

    2010-12-01

    Most students have difficulty articulating processes that are key for Earth’s changes and may have limited ability to understand Earth system science and think across spatial and temporal dimensions. The cryosphere, a complex and dynamic Earth system that exhibits change over time (e.g., seasonal, yearly, decadal, and millennial), can be difficult for students to reason about. The presented research assesses the effectiveness of the project developed on-line modules on high school students’ cryosphere content knowledge and skill development, including their: (1) conceptual understanding of ice, thermodynamics, climate, changes in ice cover over time, Earth system interactions, and complexity, and (2) use and interpretation of data and graphs about the cryosphere. Pre- and post- student assessments, classroom observations, and teacher interviews were collected from four high school classrooms in Texas to determine the effectiveness of the Earthlabs cryosphere modules in reaching the specified learning goals. Preliminary analysis of pre-and post-test data revealed a number of interesting changes where students displayed an increase in their awareness of the cryosphere, increase in confidence about cryosphere knowledge, and an increase in their ability to read and interpret graphs. Furthermore, classroom observations made for 25 minutes during a class period illustrated that for over 84% of the class period the students were engaged with the Earthlabs materials and spent the majority (>50%) of their time either discussing (31%) or working on the on-line Earthlabs cryosphere materials (29%). Finally, forty-five minute individual telephone interviews conducted with the four implementing cryosphere teachers revealed that teachers overwhelmingly reflected that the materials supported students’ ability to learn about the (i) nature and importance of the cryosphere, (ii) manipulation, analysis, interpretation of data, (iii) physical changes over multiple time scales

  19. Developing an Understanding of Vegetation Change and Fluvial Carbon Fluxes in Semi-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttock, A.; Brazier, R. E.; Dungait, J. A. J.; Bol, R.; Macleod, C. J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Dryland environments are estimated to cover around 40% of the global land surface (Okin et al, 2009) and are home to approximately 2.5 billion people (Reynolds et al. 2007). Many of these areas have recently experienced extensive land degradation. One such area and the focus of this project is the semi-arid US Southwest, where degradation over the past 150 years has been characterised by the invasion of woody vegetation into grasslands. Transition from grass to woody vegetation results in a change in ecosystem structure and function (Turnbull et al, 2008). Structural change is typically characterised by an increased heterogeneity of soil and vegetation resources, associated with reduced vegetation coverage and an increased vulnerability to soil erosion and the potential loss of key nutrients to adjacent fluvial systems. Such loss of resources may impact heavily upon the amount of carbon that is sequestered by these environments and the amount of carbon that is lost as the land becomes more degraded. Therefore, understanding these vegetation transitions is significant for sustainable land use and global biogeochemical cycling. This project uses an ecohydrological approach, monitoring natural rainfall-runoff events over six bounded plots with different vegetation coverage. The experiment takes advantage of a natural abundance stable 13C isotope shift from C3 piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) mixed stand through a C4 pure-grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) to C3 shrub (Larrea tridentata). Data collected quantify fluvial fluxes of sediment and associated soil organic matter and carbon that is lost from across the grass-to-shrub and grass-to-woodland transition (where change in space is taken to indicate a similar change through time). Results collected during the 2010 and 2011 monsoon seasons will be presented, illustrating that soil and carbon losses are greater as the ecosystem becomes more dominated by woody plants. Additionally this project utilises novel

  20. Understanding the regional pattern of projected future changes in extreme precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfahl, S.; O'Gorman, P. A.; Fischer, E. M.

    2017-06-01

    Changes in extreme precipitation are among the most impact-relevant consequences of climate warming, yet regional projections remain uncertain due to natural variability and model deficiencies in relevant physical processes. To better understand changes in extreme precipitation, they may be decomposed into contributions from atmospheric thermodynamics and dynamics, but these are typically diagnosed with spatially aggregated data or using a statistical approach that is not valid at all locations. Here we decompose the forced response of daily regional scale extreme precipitation in climate-model simulations into thermodynamic and dynamic contributions using a robust physical diagnostic. We show that thermodynamics alone would lead to a spatially homogeneous fractional increase, which is consistent across models and dominates the sign of the change in most regions. However, the dynamic contribution modifies regional responses, amplifying increases, for instance, in the Asian monsoon region, but weakening them across the Mediterranean, South Africa and Australia. Over subtropical oceans, the dynamic contribution is strong enough to cause robust regional decreases in extreme precipitation, which may partly result from a poleward circulation shift. The dynamic contribution is key to reducing uncertainties in future projections of regional extreme precipitation.

  1. A Kaleidoscope of Understanding: Pre-service Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of Climate Change Concepts and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhoe, D.; Bullock, S.; Hayhoe, K.

    2010-12-01

    Teachers are at the forefront of efforts to increase climate literacy; however, even teachers’ understanding can contain significant misconceptions. Probes aimed at capturing these misconceptions have been used with pre-service teachers in several countries. Here, we report on a unique 59-item questionnaire useful as a pre-post diagnostic for teacher training. Topics include Earth’s climate system, long-range climatic changes, recent changes, various gases and types of radiation involved in the greenhouse effect, future impacts of climate change, and mitigation options This questionnaire is unique in three ways: 1. the topics include climate change concepts not usually probed, 2. the questions have a binary-choice format that avoided both the “positive statement bias” of agree-disagree questions and the superfluous distractors of multiple-choice tests, and 3. the questionnaire was piloted with pre-service elementary teachers in Toronto, one of the most multicultural cities in the world. The questionnaire items were written for the Ontario curriculum (K-10); however, they also address almost all of the principles identified in Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. The questionnaire was completed by 89 volunteers from a pool of 280. Most had a substantial knowledge of climate change concepts, with 34 of the 59 questions being answered correctly by more than 60% of the subjects. The item discrimination of most questions was relatively low, however, and only a very few item pairs showed a significant correlation. This suggests that subjects’ knowledge consisted of a “kaleidoscope of understanding,” rather than a coherent picture. Significant misconceptions were also identified, with 18 of the 59 items being answered incorrectly by more than 60% of the subjects. Of these, 11 correspond to misconceptions previously noted, while 7 suggest new misconceptions not yet identified in studies done with students or teachers, such as the

  2. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Quintero Corzo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality of education.

  3. Storytelling, behavior planning, and language evolution in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Glen

    2014-01-01

    An attempt is made to specify the structure of the hominin bands that began steps to language. Storytelling could evolve without need for language yet be strongly subject to natural selection and could provide a major feedback process in evolving language. A storytelling model is examined, including its effects on the evolution of consciousness and the possible timing of language evolution. Behavior planning is presented as a model of language evolution from storytelling. The behavior programming mechanism in both directions provide a model of creating and understanding behavior and language. Culture began with societies, then family evolution, family life in troops, but storytelling created a culture of experiences, a final step in the long process of achieving experienced adults by natural selection. Most language evolution occurred in conversations where evolving non-verbal feedback ensured mutual agreements on understanding. Natural language evolved in conversations with feedback providing understanding of changes.

  4. Understanding the connection between conformational changes of peptides and equilibrium thermal fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Miguel A; Zúñiga, José; Requena, Alberto; Bastida, Adolfo

    2017-02-01

    Despite the increasing evidence that conformational transitions in peptides and proteins are driven by specific vibrational energy pathways along the molecule, the current experimental techniques of analysis do as yet not allow to study these biophysical processes in terms of anisotropic energy flows. Computational methods offer a complementary approach to obtain a more detailed understanding of the vibrational and conformational dynamics of these systems. Accordingly, in this work we investigate jointly the vibrational energy distribution and the conformational dynamics of trialanine peptide in water solution at room temperature by applying the Instantaneous Normal Mode analysis to the results derived from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that conformational changes in trialanine are triggered by the vibrational energy accumulated in the low-frequency modes of the molecule, and that excitation is caused exclusively by thermal fluctuations of the solute-solvent system, thus excluding the possibility of an intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution process.

  5. The contributions of cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging to understanding mechanisms of behavior change in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Jon; Naqvi, Nasir H; Debellis, Robert; Breiter, Hans C

    2013-06-01

    In the last decade, there has been an upsurge of interest in understanding the mechanisms of behavior change (MOBC) and effective behavioral interventions as a strategy to improve addiction-treatment efficacy. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about how treatment research should proceed to address the MOBC issue. In this article, we argue that limitations in the underlying models of addiction that inform behavioral treatment pose an obstacle to elucidating MOBC. We consider how advances in the cognitive neuroscience of addiction offer an alternative conceptual and methodological approach to studying the psychological processes that characterize addiction, and how such advances could inform treatment process research. In addition, we review neuroimaging studies that have tested aspects of neurocognitive theories as a strategy to inform addiction therapies and discuss future directions for transdisciplinary collaborations across cognitive neuroscience and MOBC research. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Towards understanding hydroclimatic change in Victoria, Australia – preliminary insights into the "Big Dry"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kiem

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s the majority of Victoria, Australia, has experienced severe drought conditions (i.e. the "Big Dry" characterized by streamflow that is the lowest in approximately 80 years of record. While decreases in annual and seasonal rainfall totals have also been observed, this alone does not seem to explain the observed reduction in flow. In this study, we investigate the large-scale climate drivers for Victoria and demonstrate how these modulate the regional scale synoptic patterns, which in turn alter the way seasonal rainfall totals are compiled and the amount of runoff per unit rainfall that is produced. The hydrological implications are significant and illustrate the need for robust hydrological modelling, that takes into account insights into physical mechanisms that drive regional hydroclimatology, in order to properly understand and quantify the impacts of climate change (natural and/or anthropogenic on water resources.

  7. Towards a Stochastic Predictive Understanding of Ecosystem Functioning and Resilience to Environmental Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, C.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem processes respond differently to hydrometeorological variability across timescales, and so does our scientific understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Process-based modeling of ecosystem functioning is therefore challenging, especially when long-term predictions are envisioned. Here we analyze the statistical properties of hydrometeorological and ecosystem variability, i.e., the variability of ecosystem process related to vegetation carbon dynamics, from hourly to decadal timescales. 23 extra-tropical forest sites, covering different climatic zones and vegetation characteristics, are examined. Micrometeorological and reanalysis data of precipitation, air temperature, shortwave radiation and vapor pressure deficit are used to describe hydrometeorological variability. Ecosystem variability is quantified using long-term eddy covariance flux data of hourly net ecosystem exchange of CO2 between land surface and atmosphere, monthly remote sensing vegetation indices, annual tree-ring widths and above-ground biomass increment estimates. We find that across sites and timescales ecosystem variability is confined within a hydrometeorological envelope that describes the range of variability of the available resources, i.e., water and energy. Furthermore, ecosystem variability demonstrates long-term persistence, highlighting ecological memory and slow ecosystem recovery rates after disturbances. We derive an analytical model, combining deterministic harmonics and stochastic processes, that represents major mechanisms and uncertainties and mimics the observed pattern of hydrometeorological and ecosystem variability. This stochastic framework offers a parsimonious and mathematically tractable approach for modelling ecosystem functioning and for understanding its response and resilience to environmental changes. Furthermore, this framework reflects well the observed ecological memory, an inherent property of ecosystem functioning that is currently not

  8. Stability and Change in Americans’ Foreign Language Policy Attitudes: 2000-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Robinson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen unprecedented policy emphasis on the Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs – whether broadly, as indicated by the regular publication of lists of languages critical to the national interest, such as that of the US Department of Education (2010, or in the particular languages included in the multiple new Federal programs that comprise the National Security Language Initiative (NSLI, such as the National Language Service Corps, STARTALK, the Language Flagship, the English for Heritage Language Speakers program, or the NSLI for Youth, to cite several examples. The LCTLs predominate in these lists, reflecting a national level policy emphasis on the LCTLs. This emphasis derives from perceived and actual needs for specific LCTLs required for the common weal – for national security, economic well being, and social justice (Brecht et al., 2007; Brecht & Rivers, 2000. This emphasis, consisting in its entirety of programs promulgated, funded, and directed by the Federal government, stands in contrast to the ongoing perception in our professional fields that Foreign Languages (FLs, and the LCTLs among them, are under increasing and unprecedented stress in the educational system, and that furthermore, that the teaching of LCTLs lacks public support, or is even actively opposed in the broader US society (Wiley, 2007.

  9. Integrating Computer-Assisted Language Learning in Saudi Schools: A Change Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alresheed, Saleh; Leask, Marilyn; Raiker, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) technology and pedagogy have gained recognition globally for their success in supporting second language acquisition (SLA). In Saudi Arabia, the government aims to provide most educational institutions with computers and networking for integrating CALL into classrooms. However, the recognition of CALL's…

  10. Exploring Stability and Change in Preschool Teachers' Shared Book Reading Verbal Language Profiles across One Semester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Mary K. Cockburn

    2013-01-01

    This study explored preschool teachers' verbal language profiles during shared book reading sessions. The verbal language profiles were comprised of a combination of instructional and management strategies both at the fall and winter time points. Latent profile and transition analyses were used to explore the profiles identified in the study's…

  11. The English-Only Movement: A Communication Analysis of Changing Perceptions of Language Vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Valerie; Giles, Howard; Noels, Kimberly; Duck, Julie; Hecht, Michael; Clement, Richarde

    2001-01-01

    Offers an extensive literature review across disciplines and media reports on the potential impact of the English-only movement. Examines how Anglo support for English-only policies limits the use, promotion, and salience of minority languages like Spanish in institutional settings and in the linguistic landscape. Examines language vitality…

  12. Change and Variation in Family Religious Language Policy in a West African Muslim Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Leslie C.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines variation in family religious language policy in a Muslim community in West Africa. Taking an ethnographically grounded case study approach, I situate families' choices with regards to their children's religious (language) education within the larger linguistic, social, and cultural context, focusing on new influences on…

  13. Rapid language-related plasticity: microstructural changes in the cortex after a short session of new word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Shir; Friedmann, Naama; Assaf, Yaniv

    2017-04-01

    Human brain imaging revealed that the brain can undergo structural plasticity following new learning experiences. Most magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uncovered morphometric alternation in cortical density after the long-term training of weeks to months. A recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study has found changes in diffusion indices after 2 h of training, primarily in the hippocampus. However, whether a short learning experience can induce microstructural changes in the neocortex is still unclear. Here, we used diffusion MRI, a method sensitive to tissue microstructure, to study cortical plasticity. To attain cortical involvement, we used a short language task (under 1 h) of introducing new lexical items (flower names) to the lexicon. We have found significant changes in diffusivity in cortical regions involved in language and reading (inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule). In addition, the difference in the values of diffusivity correlated with the lexical learning rate in the task. Moreover, significant changes were found in white matter tracts near the cortex, and the extent of change correlated with behavioral measures of lexical learning rate. These findings provide first evidence of short-term cortical plasticity in the human brain after a short language learning task. It seems that short training of less than an hour of high cognitive demand can induce microstructural changes in the cortex, suggesting a rapid time scale of neuroplasticity and providing additional evidence of the power of MRI to investigate the temporal and spatial progressions of this process.

  14. Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

  15. Plastic debris and policy: Using current scientific understanding to invoke positive change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Cook, Anna-Marie; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-07-01

    Captain Charles Moore introduced the world to the "Great Pacific Garbage Patch" in the mid-1990s, and images of plastic debris in the oceans began to sweep the media. Since then, there has been increasing interest from scientists, the public, and policy makers regarding plastic debris in the environment. Today, there remains no doubt that plastic debris contaminates aquatic (marine and freshwater) habitats and animals globally. The growing scientific evidence demonstrates widespread contamination from plastic debris, and researchers are beginning to understand the sources, fate, and effects of the material. As new scientific understanding breeds new questions, scientists are working to fill data gaps regarding the fate and effects of plastic debris and the mechanisms that drive these processes. In parallel, policy makers are working to mitigate this contamination. The authors focus on what is known about plastic debris that is relevant to policy by reviewing some of the weight of evidence regarding contamination, fate, and effects of the material. Moreover, they highlight some examples of how science has already been used to inform policy change and mitigation and discuss opportunities for future linkages between science and policy to continue the relationship and contribute to effective solutions for plastic debris. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1617-1626. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  16. Understanding the Impact of Anthropogenic and Environmental Changes on Dengue Fever Cases in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Serman, E. A.; Couret, J.; Puggioni, G.; Ginsberg, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Worldwide, there are an estimated 50-100 million cases of dengue fever each year, roughly 30 times the number of cases as 50 years ago. Dengue was introduced to Puerto Rico (PR) in 1963 and it has experienced epidemic activity ever since. There have been 4 large epidemics since 1990, the most recent in 2010 where almost 27,000 cases were reported. Vaccine development remains in the testing stages, and years away from mass distribution. Effective control thus depends on our understanding of the complex relationships between environmental and anthropogenic factors, mosquito vector ecology, and disease epidemiology. Dengue virus is primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which also carry the Zika virus, and humans in urban environments are their preferred hosts. The purpose of our analysis is to identify trends between anthropogenic and environmental changes and dengue fever cases in PR over the past 15 years. Data on housing and population density, percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy at the municipality level were procured from the U.S. Census Bureau and the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium (MLRC) project, respectively. Land cover data from the National Land Cover Database, created by USGS and NOAA, as well as environmental data from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), were also used. Smaller land cover and green space analysis studies have been performed for PR, but this is the first study to consider the island as a whole, and in six distinct regions, with regards to increases in dengue fever cases. The results from this study can be used to understand the effects of urbanization and climate change on vector-borne disease transmission in PR and to project the impact of growing sub-urban and urban areas on dengue cases in coming years. Our results could also be used to assess Dengue and Zika transmission in growing megacites of the world, where urban slums provide a favorable habitat for Ae. aegypti and foster

  17. VERSHINA – A POLISH VILLAGE IN SIBERIA. FACTORS INFLUENCING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE UNDER CHANGING SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Głuszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.

  18. Longitudinal changes in auditory discrimination in normal children and children with language-learning problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, L L; Hammer, M A

    1988-11-01

    Two groups of children--one progressing normally in school and the other exhibiting language-learning problems--were tested in each of 3 years on a set of fine-grained auditory discrimination tasks that required listening for small acoustic differences. Children's ages ranged from 6 to 9 years; there were 21 children per group. The children with language-learning problems, despite having normal intelligence and normal pure-tone sensitivity, showed poorer auditory discrimination than normal children for temporally based acoustic differences. This effect continued across the 3 years. Children with language-learning problems also exhibited poorer receptive vocabulary and language performance as well as more deviations from standard Midwest articulation than children making normal progress in school. All children had hearing within the normal range, but at some frequencies there was a significant association of pure-tone sensitivity with performance on the auditory discrimination, receptive language, and speech production tasks.

  19. Depression and Anxiety Change from Adolescence to Adulthood in Individuals with and without Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, Nicola; Toseeb, Umar; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2016-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study aims to determine patterns and predictors of change in depression and anxiety from adolescence to adulthood in individuals with language impairment (LI). Individuals with LI originally recruited at age 7 years and a comparison group of age-matched peers (AMPs) were followed from adolescence (16 years) to adulthood (24 years). We determine patterns of change in depression and anxiety using the Child Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised (CMAS-R) and Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). In addition to examining associations with gender, verbal and nonverbal skills, we use a time-varying variable to investigate relationships between depression and anxiety symptoms and transitions in educational/employment circumstances. The results show that anxiety was higher in participants with LI than age matched peers and remained so from adolescence to adulthood. Individuals with LI had higher levels of depression symptoms than did AMPs at 16 years. Levels in those with LI decreased post-compulsory schooling but rose again by 24 years of age. Those who left compulsory school provision (regardless of school type) for more choice-driven college but who were not in full-time employment or study by 24 years of age were more likely to show this depression pathway. Verbal and nonverbal skills were not predictive of this pattern of depression over time. The typical female vulnerability for depression and anxiety was observed for AMPs but not for individuals with LI. These findings have implications for service provision, career/employment advice and support for individuals with a history of LI during different transitions from adolescence to adulthood.

  20. Depression and Anxiety Change from Adolescence to Adulthood in Individuals with and without Language Impairment.

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    Nicola Botting

    Full Text Available This prospective longitudinal study aims to determine patterns and predictors of change in depression and anxiety from adolescence to adulthood in individuals with language impairment (LI. Individuals with LI originally recruited at age 7 years and a comparison group of age-matched peers (AMPs were followed from adolescence (16 years to adulthood (24 years. We determine patterns of change in depression and anxiety using the Child Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised (CMAS-R and Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ. In addition to examining associations with gender, verbal and nonverbal skills, we use a time-varying variable to investigate relationships between depression and anxiety symptoms and transitions in educational/employment circumstances. The results show that anxiety was higher in participants with LI than age matched peers and remained so from adolescence to adulthood. Individuals with LI had higher levels of depression symptoms than did AMPs at 16 years. Levels in those with LI decreased post-compulsory schooling but rose again by 24 years of age. Those who left compulsory school provision (regardless of school type for more choice-driven college but who were not in full-time employment or study by 24 years of age were more likely to show this depression pathway. Verbal and nonverbal skills were not predictive of this pattern of depression over time. The typical female vulnerability for depression and anxiety was observed for AMPs but not for individuals with LI. These findings have implications for service provision, career/employment advice and support for individuals with a history of LI during different transitions from adolescence to adulthood.