Full Text Available [First paragraph] Christopher Alexander's book, The Timeless Way of Building, is probably the most beautiful book on the notion of quality in observation and design that I have been reading since Robert Pirsig's (1974 Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. It was published in 1979, when Alexander was a professor of architecture at the University of California, Berkeley, where I was at that time studying. Although I was aware of some of Alexander's famous articles such as "A city is not a tree" (Alexander, 1965, the book (Alexander, 1979 never quite made it to the top of my reading list. This remained so until recently, when I met a software developer who enthusiastically talked to me on a book he was currently reading, about the importance of understanding design patterns. He was talking about the very book I had failed to read during my Berkeley years and which, as I now discovered, has since become a cult book among computer programmers and information scientists, as well as in other fields of research. I decided it was time to read the book.
Paul Ricoeur asks that we conceive of the imagination less in terms of visual images than in terms of language. He develops this idea as part of the hermeneutic work of interpreting literary texts and posits that the world disclosed by the literary work provides a space for the imaginative consideration of new possibilities for the self. I…
Vásquez, Anete; Smith, Philip C
This thoroughly revised and updated edition of Teaching Language Arts to English Language Learners provides readers with the comprehensive understanding of both the challenges that face ELLs and ways in which educators might address them in the language arts classroom. The authors offer proven techniques that teachers can readily use to teach reading, writing, grammar, and vocabulary as well as speaking, listening, and viewing skills. A complete section is also devoted to ways teachers can integrate all five strands of the language arts curriculum into a comprehensive unit of study w
Full Text Available In this paper we describe a preliminary, work-in-progress Spoken Language Understanding Software (SLUS with tailored feedback options, which uses interactive spoken language interface to teach Iraqi Arabic and culture to second language learners. The SLUS analyzes input speech by the second language learner and grades for correct pronunciation in terms of supra-segmental and rudimentary segmental errors such as missing consonants. We evaluated this software on training data with the help of two native speakers, and found that the software recorded an accuracy of around 70% in law and order domain. For future work, we plan to develop similar systems for multiple languages.
Roel M Willems
Full Text Available Do people use sensori-motor cortices to understand language? Here we review neurocognitive studies of language comprehension in healthy adults and evaluate their possible contributions to theories of language in the brain. We start by sketching the minimal predictions that an embodied theory of language understanding makes for empirical research, and then survey studies that have been offered as evidence for embodied semantic representations. We explore four debated issues: first, does activation of sensori-motor cortices during action language understanding imply that action semantics relies on mirror neurons? Second, what is the evidence that activity in sensori-motor cortices plays a functional role in understanding language? Third, to what extent do responses in perceptual and motor areas depend on the linguistic and extra-linguistic context? And finally, can embodied theories accommodate language about abstract concepts? Based on the available evidence, we conclude that sensori-motor cortices are activated during a variety of language comprehension tasks, for both concrete and abstract language. Yet, this activity depends on the context in which perception and action words are encountered. Although modality-specific cortical activity is not a sine qua non of language processing even for language about perception and action, sensori-motor regions of the brain appear to make functional contributions to the construction of meaning, and should therefore be incorporated into models of the neurocognitive architecture of language.
Anderson, Alida; Loughlin, Sandra M.
Teacher and student academic discourse was examined in an urban arts-integrated school to better understand facilitation of students' English language learning. Participants' discourse was compared across English language arts (ELA) lessons with and without classroom drama in a third-grade classroom of English learning (EL) students (N = 18) with…
Hasselriis, Peter; Watson, Dorothy J.
The authors contrast the views of those who advocate a back-to-basics approach to language arts education with research findings on language arts basics. The authors are critical of the former, product centered approach which stresses conformity. Research supports an approach which is student centered. (Author/RD)
Since September 11, 2001, the interest in learning more about Islam, Muslims, and Islamic culture and society has expanded in a variety of ways. The purpose of this brief narrative is to create a sense of curiosity and anticipation to learning more about how Islamic art contributes to the art world. In this article, the author describes a unit…
The process of acquiring language is often depicted as a tiered process of oral development: listening and speaking; and, literacy development: reading, and writing. As infants we first learn language by listening, then speaking. That is, regardless of culture, or dialect we are first immersed in language in this oral context. It is only after one…
Full Text Available Wittgenstein has often explored language games that have to do with musical objects of different sizes (phrases, themes, formal sections or entire works. These games can refer to a technical language or to common parlance and correspond to different targets. One of these coincides with the intention to suggest a way of conceiving musical understanding. His model takes the form of the invitation to "hear (something as (something": typically, to hear a musical passage as an introduction or as a conclusion or in a certain tonality. However one may ask to what extent or in what terms (literal or metaphorical these procedures, and usually the intervention of language games, is requested by our common ways of understanding music. This article shows through the use of some examples that aspectual perception inherent to musical understanding does not require language games as a necessary condition (although in many cases the link between them seems very strong, in contradiction with the thesis of an essential linguistic character of music. At a basic level, it seems more appropriate to insist on the notion of a game: to understand music means to enter into the orbit of "music games" which show an autonomous functioning. Language games have, however, an important function when we develop this comprehension in the light of the criteria of judgment that substantiate the manner in which music is incorporated in and operates within specific forms of life.
In the test-driven society in which teachers teach, many art teachers are encouraged to create interdisciplinary units that fuse art with reading and writing. In this article, the author presents a unit which fosters appreciation of Sandra Cisneros' writing and encourages students to portray her words in their own three-dimensional designs.…
Chang, Ni; Cress, Susan
Visual arts, such as drawings, are attractive to most young children. Marks left on paper by young children contain meaning. Although it is known that children's oral language could be enhanced through communication with adults, rarely is there a series of dialogues between adults and young children about their drawings. Often heard instead…
Full Text Available This study aims to explore how Chinese college students appreciate art as reflected in their descriptions of an artwork. Students’ descriptions were defined by a content analysis with respect to opinions and facts, art elements and principles. A questionnaire was also used to investigate students’ attitudes toward art education. 85 students who were divided into four groups participated in the study. The results showed: (1 participants were more familiar with art appreciation than art elements and principles; (2 there was a slight but no significant difference between students’ describing facts and opinions; (3 participants had significantly higher scores on describing art elements than describing art principles; (4 among all participants with regard to all elements and principles, there was a significant difference of describing space between students of art education and students of music education, and also, there was a significant difference of describing value between Chinese language students and other students. The results suggested that participants, including those of art education, had poor knowledge and strategies of understanding art, implying art education in China may have ended up with failure.
August, Diane; Artzi, Lauren; Barr, Christopher
The Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards require students to understand and produce academic language that appears in informational text. Vocabulary is a critical domain of academic language, but English language learners (ELLs) come to the English Language Arts classroom with more limited English vocabulary than…
Olesen, Henning Salling; Weber, Kirsten
is based on a transformation of the "scenic understanding" from a clinical to a text interpretation, which seeks to understand collective unconscious meaning in text, and is presented with an illustration of the interpretation procedure from social research. Then follows a brief systematic account of key......»Sozialisation, Sprache und szenisches Verstehen. Alfred Lorenzers Beitrag zu einer psychosozialen Methodologie«. The article is a guided tour to Alfred Lorenzer's proposal for an "in-depth hermeneutic" cultural analysis methodology which was launched in an environment with an almost complete split...... between social sciences and psychology/psychoanalysis. It presents the background in his materialist socialization theory, which combines a social reinterpretation of the core insights in classical psychoanalysis – the unconscious, the drives – with a theory of language acquisition. His methodology...
Barr, Ada M.
A study investigated whether whole language principles had "seeped" into secondary language arts teaching in Cass County, Michigan by surveying teachers' attitudes. A total of 14 of the 15 language arts teachers in the four secondary schools in the county returned completed surveys. Results indicated that the language arts teachers (1)…
Louisiana Department of Education, 2016
The Louisiana English language arts student standards were created by over one hundred Louisiana educators with input by thousands of parents and teachers from across the state. Educators envisioned what proficient students should know and be able to do to compete in society and focused their efforts on creating standards that would allow them to…
Martin, Brittany Harker
The arts can be used to teach, not just as activities that enhance learning, but also as the primary medium through which students process, acquire, and represent knowledge. This means the arts can function as a language. If we accept this metaphor, and we truly want students to be fluent in the artistic languages, then the arts can be taught in…
Renish, Angela J.
Nineteen students whose first language is not English (English Language Learners, ELL) participated in an action research study that focused on the marriage of an art education curriculum and literacy practice. The study introduced students to the consistent use of language in art education as a means to discuss, inform, explain, and demonstrate…
In the course of foreign language teaching, the priority should always be given to increase international understanding by enabling the students to enter into the life, thought, and literature of people who speak another language. The objective may vary from one period to another, but it should long be present in the thinking of our minds. The…
Poldberg, Monique M.,; Trainin, Guy; Andrzejczak, Nancy
This paper explores the integration of art, literacy and science in a second grade classroom, showing how an integrative approach has a positive and lasting influence on student achievement in art, literacy, and science. Ways in which art, science, language arts, and cognition intersect are reviewed. Sample artifacts are presented along with their…
Fitzgerald, Thomas P.
Four activities are suggested to develop student appreciation for the relationships between listening and the other language arts. The activities are designed to improve on present classroom instruction, which usually provides little time for formal oral language instruction. Each activity begins with some aspect of oral language training and…
Watson, Dorothy J., Ed.
Intended to provide elementary school language arts teachers with new and interesting teaching activities, this book contains over 100 teacher-tested classroom activities that are based on the whole language approach to learning. Chapters discuss the following: (1) a world of language in use; (2) literature points the way (including themes and…
Full Text Available Visual art curriculum should allow a wide range of activities to develop children's imagination and creativity, to provide a balanced framework for the harmonious development of people who can cope with the massive ammount of images that invade our daily lives. Contemporary art develops a new language - a hybrid language - which for now remains unknown to the majority of the public and it is not integrated into the Arts curriculum. General frame analysis reveals that Fine Arts are studied only up to the 10th grade, except for the humanity profile and for the vocational arts profile. School curricula stipulate fine arts study up to mid twentieth century. Openness towards contemporary art and the language of art starting with the second half of the twentieth century is quite limited even if the curriculum allows a certain flexibility in the approach.
Searching for a Different Understanding of Operational Art A Monograph by MAJ Sean C. Chang United States...Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Searching for a Different Understanding of Operational Art Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Many think that operational art
Full Text Available Today taijiquan is usually sought after not as a martial art, but as a health art. Within this milieu, sanshou or “free hands,” in which form applications are trained within a martial context, is rarely practiced and often misunderstood. By investigating the role sanshou plays within the taijiquan system, this article argues that the health benefits widely associated with the art can only be obtained through a mindful practice of martial application.
Williams, Wendy R.
This article discusses the arts, multimodality, and new technologies in English language arts. It then turns to the example of the illuminated text--a multimodal book report consisting of animated text, music, and images--to consider how art, multimodality, and technology can work together to support students' reading of literature and inspire…
Full Text Available Works of art are visual transformations and visual conveyors of a specific mindset in the world. The capability of the work of art to produce and communicate meaning does not occur independently of natural language (everyday language. The meaning and conceptual aspect of the artwork, which is a signifier, is always wrapped up with language. The connection that the artwork has with language is not simply limited to its manifest aspect (its meaning. Both historically and currently, writing itself, which is a lingual indicator, has been used in the medium of painting in different ways and for different purposes. Writing as a lingual indicator was included in contemporary art practices after 1960 in different ways and for different purposes. Lingual signifiers began to garner greater importance than visual signifiers in art practices after 1960. As artists began to utilize alternative art materials, conceptual artists such as Ludwig Wittgenstein, Ferdinand de Saussure and Roland Barthes began to be influenced by the theories of linguists and semioticians. A greater number of questions began to be asked at the fundamental level in terms of theory and meaning that related to language and semiotics, both in respect of the works’ formal aspects, which comprise their material dimension, and the creative process. The impact of art practices, wherein the relationships between works of art and language took on a new dimension, were felt intensely at this stage. In this study, we will attempt to illustrate the relationship between the work of art and language on the basis of the signified aspect of art (its meaning and the signified aspect of art, which comprises its formal dimension, in terms of the use of lingual signifiers (writing.
This book discusses the following: Computational Linguistics, Artificial Intelligence, Linguistics, Philosophy, and Cognitive Science and the current state of natural language understanding. Three topics form the focus for discussion; these topics include aspects of grammars, aspects of semantics/pragmatics, and knowledge representation.
Provides five fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in art, reading, language arts, and science. Library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up are described for each activity. (LRW)
Young, Carl A., Ed.; Moran, Clarice M., Ed.
The flipped classroom method, particularly when used with digital video, has recently attracted many supporters within the education field. Now more than ever, language arts educators can benefit tremendously from incorporating flipped classroom techniques into their curriculum. "Applying the Flipped Classroom Model to English Language Arts…
Full Text Available Development of information technologies is growing steadily. With the latest software technologies development and application of the methods of artificial intelligence and machine learning intelligence embededs in computers, the expectations are that in near future computers will be able to solve problems themselves like people do. Artificial intelligence emulates human behavior on computers. Rather than executing instructions one by one, as theyare programmed, machine learning employs prior experience/data that is used in the process of system’s training. In this state of the art paper, common methods in AI, such as machine learning, pattern recognition and the natural language processing (NLP are discussed. Also are given standard architecture of NLP processing system and the level thatisneeded for understanding NLP. Lastly the statistical NLP processing and multi-word expressions are described.
Soloway, Rhoda K.
Describes a five-week project in which elementary students chose a favorite letter as the main character of a 25- to 30-page book for practice in language skills. The book each child made was composed of more than 20 learning activities that stimulated students to review and practice skills, parts of speech, synonyms, antonyms and alliteration as…
Lewis Brooks, Anthony (aka Tony); Monção, Ana
IJART is a top venue for high quality research and artworks that advance state-of-the-art contributions in the area of the arts and new technologies. The focus is on the multi-disciplinary emerging area of computational art. With the evolution of intelligent devices, sensors and ambient intelligent....../ubiquitous systems, it is not surprising to see many research projects starting to explore the design of intelligent artistic artefacts. This is a new multi-disciplinary area that is still in its infancy. Ambient intelligence(AmI) supports the vision that technology will become invisible, embedded in our natural...... a science of general morphology, which will express the universal totality and necessity of human existence. This existence should not be exhausted either on an emotional level or on a logical level....
Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.
This guide provides the teacher with strategies to aid students in examining five representative plays by Bernard Shaw and in comparing his comedy with the comic art of Oscar Wilde, Richard Sheridan, Ben Jonson, and William Shakespeare. Performance objectives include isolating elements which pertain to the life and times of Shaw, delineating…
Wang, John B.
The ways in which the Chinese have used the homophonic nature of their language to express abstractions in concrete terms, especially to express daily wishes, are described. In Chinese, a value is assigned to an object because the pronunciation of the word for the object brings that implied value to the mind of the listener; for instance, vase in…
Jeremiah, Milford A.
Offers suggestions for using rap lyrics to teach language skills. A brief overview of the sociocultural dimension of rap music and its literature, a theoretical orientation for the instructional methodology, and a curriculum model are presented. The prevalence of these musical forms can make them a valuable aid. (SLD)
Ray, Beverly B.; Coulter, Gail A.
Reflection is considered an important aspect of teacher practice. Researchers examined 21 teacher-created language arts blogs to determine whether randomly selected entries within the blogs demonstrated reflection on professional practice. In addition, entries were examined to determine the depth of reflective practice. The amount and depth of…
Caster, Tonja Root
A review was conducted of 16 research studies evaluating the effectiveness of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in teaching reading and language arts in the elementary school. The studies were of what K. A. Hall has termed "interactive instruction," which includes drill and practice as well as tutoring. Of the studies reviewed, 13 used at least…
VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; And Others
This study of language arts curriculum effectiveness presents data supporting utilization of the Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM) with high-ability learners in various grouping contexts. Significant gains were demonstrated in literary analysis, persuasive writing, and linguistic competency for seven elementary classes using the ICM. Implications…
Knapp, Thyra E.
This article examines the importance of visual culture with regard to its pedagogical applications in the German language classroom. I begin by outlining the benefits and concerns associated with making visual art a part of the curriculum. Next, practical ideas are presented for using paintings in beginning, intermediate, and advanced courses.…
McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke
Two studies were conducted to facilitate the development of feasible support for the process of integrating digital video making activities in the primary school language arts curriculum. The first study explored which teaching supports would be necessary to enable primary school children to create
This qualitative, longitudinal study examines the perspectives on professional development of a group of exemplary, new secondary teachers of English Language Arts and Spanish (n = 4). This study explores the teachers' development through the lens of the "embodied understanding of practice" (EUP), a novel theoretical framework of…
Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Viberg, Olga
This paper presents a review of mobile collaborative language learning studies published in 2012-16 with the aim to improve understanding of how mobile technologies have been used to support collaborative learning among second and foreign language students. We identify affordances, general pedagogical approaches, second- and foreign-language…
Christensen, P R
Kenya's Radio Language Arts Project, directed by the Academy for Educational Development in cooperation with the Kenya Institute of Education in 1980-85, sought to teach English to rural school children in grades 1-3 through use of an intensive, radio-based instructional system. Daily 1/2 hour lessons are broadcast throughout the school year and supported by teachers and print materials. The project further was aimed at testing the feasibility of adaptation of the successful Nicaraguan Radio Math Project to a new subject area. Difficulties were encountered in articulating a language curriculum with the precision required for a media-based instructional system. Also a challenge was defining the acceptable regional standard for pronunciation and grammar; British English was finally selected. An important modification of the Radio Math model concerned the role of the teacher. While Radio Math sought to reduce the teacher's responsibilities during the broadcast, Radio Language Arts teachers played an important instructional role during the English lesson broadcasts by providing translation and checks on work. Evaluations of the Radio language Arts Project suggest significant gains in speaking, listening, and reading skills as well as high levels of satisfaction on the part of parents and teachers.
Language change is a phenomenon that has fascinated scholars for centuries. As a science, linguistic theory has evolved considerably during the 20th century, but the overall puzzle of language change still remains unsolved...
The Hippocratic treatise The Art is an epideictic speech in defence of medicine against certain unnamed detractors. The author of The Art is fully aware of the fact that for him, language (as opposed to, say, a live demonstration) is the medium of education. Accordingly, the author shows full command of the main issues of the late fifth century 'sophistic' debate on the nature and the correct and effective use of language. In his views on language, the author seems to adopt a quite positivistic stance. For him, words reflect our perception and interpretation of the visual appearances or eidea of the things that are, and these appearances prove the existence of things in nature. To this extent, language reflects reality, provided that we language users have the expertise to form correct interpretations of what we observe. At the same time, language remains a secondary phenomenon: it is not a 'growth' of nature, but a set of conventional signs that have a basis in reality only if they are applied correctly. There is always the possibility of incorrect interpretation of our perceptions, which will lead to an incorrect use of language that does not reflect real phenomena. Words remain conventional expressions, and not all words can be expected to reflect the truth. In fact, the unnamed detractors of the art are victim to many such incorrect interpretations. Consistent with his view of language as secondary to visual phenomena, the author claims in his peroration that as a medium for the defence of medicine, the spoken word is generally considered less effective than live demonstrations. This modesty, while undoubtedly effective as a means to catch the sympathy of his public, still seems slightly overstated. Our author is fully aware of the powers and limitations of his medium, and shows great sophistication in its use.
Percy-Smith, L; Busch, GW; Sandahl, M
The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with the level of language understanding, the level of receptive and active vocabulary, and to estimate effect-related odds ratios for cochlear implanted children's language level.......The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with the level of language understanding, the level of receptive and active vocabulary, and to estimate effect-related odds ratios for cochlear implanted children's language level....
Students from an urban middle school participated in a Science Book Club for one semester using the literature circles format. These students voluntarily attended twice weekly lunch meetings, reading books that followed their Grade 7 science classes. Groups of three to six participants read the same text, each performing rotating jobs to improve group discussions during meetings. When a group completed a book, participants created a presentation to share what they learned with the other groups in the club and the researcher/teacher. This research measured gains in science content knowledge and language arts skills focusing on reading comprehension, and literary response and analysis. Gains were measured using pre-existing district benchmarks. An ANCOVA showed that while no gains were found in science content knowledge, there were gains in language arts in the areas of reading comprehension and literary response and analysis.
Kaminski, Andreas; Gehring, Petra
The new book series “The Science and Art of Simulation” (SAS) addresses computer simulations as a scientific activity and engineering artistry (in the sense of a technē). The first volume is devoted to three topics: 1. The Art of Exploring Computer Simulations Philosophy began devoting attention to computer simulations at a relatively early stage. Since then, the unquestioned point of view has been that computer simulation is a new scientific method; the philosophy of simulation is therefore part of the philosophy of science. The first section of this volume discusses this implicit, unchallenged assumption by addressing, from different perspectives, the question of how to explore (and how not to explore) research on computer simulations. Scientists discuss what is still lacking or considered problematic, while philosophers draft new directions for research, and both examine the art of exploring computer simulations. 2. The Art of Understanding Computer Simulations The results of computer simulations are ...
Joffe, Victoria L.; Nippold, Marilyn A.
Purpose: This prologue introduces a clinical forum on adolescent language disorders, a topic that has long been of interest to school-based speech-language pathologists/therapists. Method: A rationale for the clinical forum is provided, and the content is contrasted with a previous forum on the same topic that was published nearly 20 years ago.…
character recognition in different Indian languages, pre- and post-processing techniques tai- lored for Indian languages and user-friendly interfaces for better utilisation of the output of document analysis systems, all need attention from Indian scientists working in Image Pro- cessing and Pattern Recognition. It is with this ...
Read, Walter; And Others
A discussion of the application of artificial intelligence to natural language processing looks at several problems in language comprehension, involving semantic ambiguity, anaphoric reference, and metonymy. Examples of these problems are cited, and the importance of the computational approach in analyzing them is explained. The approach applies…
Sato, Kazuyoshi; Kleinsasser, Robert C.
Reports on a study that documented the views and practices of communicative language teaching (CLT) by Japanese second language inservice teachers. Uses multiple data sources including interviews, observations, and surveys to report on how teachers define CLT and implement it in their classrooms. (Author/VWL)
However, to engage critically with practice, SLA research must be situated in its institutional, social and cultural settings. We argue that situated research into classroom interaction provides second language teachers with opportunities to theorize and improve practice. (S/ern Af Linguistics & Applied Language Stud: 2001 ...
Kiefer, Barbara, Comp.
This book is a collection of articles originally printed in "Language Arts," the membership journal of the elementary section of the National Council of Teachers of English. The book responds to the thousands of teachers looking for ways to incorporate student-centered, collaborative learning strategies into their classrooms. The…
Swope, Kenneth Laws
Written by a physicist with professional dance training, Physics and the Art of Dance explains how dancers can achieve better, safer performances through an understanding of physics in motion. Using simple, non-technical terms, Kenneth Laws combines his knowledge of both physics and dance to describe how the laws of gravity, momentum, and energy affect dancing bodies. The book explores the natural laws that govern the subtleties of balance, the techniques of leaps and pirouettes, and the impressive lifts and turns executed by ballet partners. Finally, Laws offers insight into two current discussions in the dance world--the effect of body size on ballet technique, and the relationship between science and the art of dance. Beautiful, original stop-action photographs by Martha Swope, along with clear diagrams, illustrate the concepts described in the text. Plus, an intriguing "puzzler" at the beginning of each chapter provides an engaging entree into the topics presented. For those who want a more advanced understanding of the physics, extensive appendices are provided. This new book combines the best features of Laws's widely acclaimed The Physics of Dance and Physics, Dance, and the Pas de Deux by Laws and Cynthia Harvey. Its expert application of the basic principles of physics to the art of dance will be an invaluable resource for dancers and dance instructors and will open a new level of appreciation for lovers of the form. It will also appeal to physicists who seek to include the arts in their scientific pursuits.
Kearsey, John; Turner, Sheila
Argues that, although some bilingual pupils may be at a disadvantage in understanding scientific language, there may be some circumstances where being bilingual is an advantage in understanding scientific language. Presents evidence of circumstances where being bilingual was an advantage and circumstances where it was a disadvantage in…
Different generations are constituted depending on social changes and they are designed sociologically as traditional, baby boomer, X, Y and Z. Many studies have been reported on understanding of foreign language learning generation Y. This study aims to realise the gap in and contribute to the research on language learning understanding of…
Full Text Available This article is an attempt to develop a counter-argument to the contention that meaning is bound by language. Locating itself within the realist ontology of language developed by Saint Anselm of Canterbury, it will be argued that language comprises representations of entities perceived both extra to the perceiver and through introspection. Thus, a language game cannot be a closed system in the sense that by its very existence representations of extralinguistic being are contained therein. If truth is defined as that which is the case, the task of the perceiver becomes apprehension of being beheld without the cloud imposed by symbols: representations are not what they represent, instead they serve as windows onto a view of what is. Following exploration of psychological studies on contemplation, it is argued that it is in desymbolised moments of attentive awareness of being that meaning, unfiltered by the representativeness of language (and indeed, other symbolic systems, can arise. It will be proposed that in contemplative traditions, being is not reduced in perception, and the moment of meaning comes to the fore in the engagement and encounter with being.
Pragmatics , in press. Collins, A. and M. R. Quillian, "Experiments on Semantic Memory and Language Comprehension," in L. W. Gregg (Ed.), Cognition in Learning...ed Anaphora in Basque," ProceedingA of the 8th Anniil -cet in of the Berjkeley Ljnuisti,._; $ocietZ, Berkeley, CA, 1982. (2) Azkarate, M., D. Far
authoritative manner outlining all the issues involved. The next two papers deal with com- plete systems designed for processing printed text documents in a single language. The paper by Chaudhuri, Pal and Mitra, which is also an invited contribution, describes a system for recognition of printed Oriya script. The paper by ...
The Department of Basic Education insists that English as a First additional Language be taught using the Communicative Approach. The use of the approach has been spelt out in the national curriculum statement. However, the Communicative Approach takes many different forms as dictated by the competences being ...
In this article we argue that second language acquisition (SLA) research and theory have a significant role to play in teacher education, especially at the masters level. The danger of overly practical approaches is that they cannot challenge current practice in ways that are both critical and rigorous. However, to engage ...
Nisreen Al-Khawaldeh; Abdullah Jaradat; Husam Al-momani; Baker Bani-Khair
Learning idioms which is considered a very essential part of learning and using language (Sridhar and Karunakaran, 2013) has recently attracted a great attention of English learning researchers particularly the assessment of how well Asian language learners acquire and use idioms in communication (Tran, 2013). Understanding and using them fluently could be viewed as a sign towards language proficiency as they could be an effective way to give students better conditions to enhance their commun...
Tragant, Elsa; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Victori, Mia
The present work aims to contribute to our understanding of the underlying dimensions of language learning strategies in foreign language contexts. The study analyzes alternative factor structures underlying a recently developed instrument (Tragant and Victori, 2012) and it includes the age factor in the examination of its construct validity. The…
Almaguer, Isela; Esquierdo, J. Joy
It is essential to support bilingual learners' language and academic development; however, teaching second language learners English has taken precedence over teaching content area knowledge and vocabulary, specifically for language arts. The focus has shifted from content area instruction to primarily second language instruction due to an…
Through a review of literature, this paper notes that journalism has been fulfilling several elements considered crucial in the language arts program for many years, more richly and more understandably for students than many traditional English composition courses and other writing classes. In view of this, and in light of the many educational…
Grey, Anne C.
From bipartisan origins and a laudable intent, the No Child Left Behind (Act) of 2001 has profoundly altered the condition of art education. A historical vantage point and review of literature reveals the current status of pending arts language revisions to the NCLB Act, as well as a pressing need to examine the key recommendations and to consider…
This paper applies social interactionism to gender identity issues as addressed in the art therapy literature and within interview data collected from art therapists working in the field. The findings revealed that perceptions from practicing art therapists differed from ideas put forth in the art therapy literature about gender traits that…
Full Text Available Learning idioms which is considered a very essential part of learning and using language (Sridhar and Karunakaran, 2013 has recently attracted a great attention of English learning researchers particularly the assessment of how well Asian language learners acquire and use idioms in communication (Tran, 2013. Understanding and using them fluently could be viewed as a sign towards language proficiency as they could be an effective way to give students better conditions to enhance their communication skills in the daily context (Beloussova, 2015. Investigating how idiomatic expressions are dealt with and processed in a second language or foreign language is an issue worth examining further since it may give language teachers a better idea of some of the strategies language learners use in order to interpret figurative language. Despite their importance, learning and using English idioms by Arab EFL learners have not been investigated extensively, and no research has been conducted on Jordanian students’ idiomatic competency. Thus, the researcher decided to work on these un-tackled issues in the Jordanian context. Most idioms-based investigations are the difficulties Jordanians learners of English face when translating them into Arabic (Hussein, Khanji, and Makhzoumi, 2000; Bataineh and Bataineh, 2002; Alrishan and Smadi, 2015. The analysis of the test showed students’ very poor idiomatic competence; particularly a very limited awareness of the most frequently used idioms despite their overwhelming desire to learn them. Data analysis of the questionnaire revealed the strategies students use and the problems they face in understanding and learning idioms.
Thein, Amanda Haertling
In recent years, scholars and other educators have encouraged language arts teachers to include LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender) issues and texts in their classrooms. Despite these efforts, scholars have pointed out that LGBT perspectives are seldom included in language arts pedagogy. Studies of teacher attitudes toward addressing LGBT…
Belk, E. Jo Ann; Thompson, Richard A.
This book contains hands-on language arts activities for K-3 children. Activities in the book help develop skills in the six language arts while continually reinforcing how much fun learning can be. The book's teacher-friendly format breaks down each activity into the following components: objectives, materials, preparation, procedure, summary,…
Patterson, Nancy; Weaver, Joanna; Fletcher, Jamie; Connor, Bryce; Thomas, Angela; Ross, Cindy
The value of preparing students for college, careers, and civic life is a shared outcome of social studies and language arts teachers. This study explores how developing content and civic literacy to these ends can be fortified through language arts and social studies teacher collaboration in source-based planning and teaching. Although numerous…
Schaub, Gayle; Cadena, Cara; Bravender, Patricia; Kierkus, Christopher
To effectively access and use the resources of the academic library and to become information-literate, students must understand the language of information literacy. This study analyzes undergraduate students' understanding of fourteen commonly used information-literacy terms. It was found that some of the terms least understood by students are…
Pavlou, Victoria; Athansiou, Georgina
In a world that is becoming increasingly more visual, there is a greater need to educate children to better understand images. A school subject that deals directly with image understanding is visual arts. This article discusses an interdisciplinary approach to promote art understanding, within a multimodal environment that combines art and music.…
Nataša Pirih Svetina
Full Text Available Intercomprehension is a communication practice where two persons speak their mother tongue and are able to understand each other without being taught the language of their adressee. It is a usual practice between languages that belong to the same linguistic family, for example Slavic, Romance or Germanic languages. In the article, the authors present the notion of intercomprehension as an alternative to communication in English as a lingua franca. That kind of communication was known among Scandinavians, whereas the first teaching method was developped for Romance languages (EuRomCom at the beginning of the 21st century. Today, more methods exist including German and Slavic languages. In the article, the authors are enumerating some of them and also give a short outline of existing practices.
2009) use a combinatorial categorial grammar (CCG) parser with a pre-specified map - ping between words or phrases and the matching branch- ing...agents communicating via rich language remain an open challenge. Toward this end, the central goal of the SUBTLE MURI project was to develop an...3451 Walnut Street , Suite P-221 Philadelphia, PA 19104 -6205 31-Aug-2014 ABSTRACT Final Report: SUBTLE: Situation Understanding Bot through Language
The word ''radioactivity'' has something scary about it; it makes us think of something intangable, creeping dangers, the mysterious ticking of Geiger counters, reactor disasters, dirty bombs, nuclear contamination and destruction. True: Whole landscapes were made uninhabitable by accidents involving radioactive material such as Windscale, Sellafield and Chernobyl and others that were kept largely secret from the public. While to some they brought premature death, for the great majority of the world population their effects have so far been insignificant. By contrast, how little known is the fact that natural radioactivity has been around since human beginnings and that the cells of the human body have always been equipped to repair damage from radioactive radiation or other causes provided such damage does not occur too frequently. Elmar Traebert presents the physics underlying radioactivity without resorting to formulas and explains in an easily understandable manner the different types of radiation, their measurement and sources (in medicine, power plants, and weapons technology) and how they should be handled. He describes nuclear power plants and the safety problems they involve, sunburn, radiation therapy, uranium ammunition and uranium mining. Whoever knows about these things can more early cope with his own fears and maybe allay some of them. He can also see through statements made by different interest groups with regard to radioactive material and duly form his own opinion
Lenti Boero, Daniela
Building a theory on extant species, as Ackermann et al. do, is a useful contribution to the field of language evolution. Here, I add another living model that might be of interest: human language ontogeny in the first year of life. A better knowledge of this phase might help in understanding two more topics among the "several building blocks of a comprehensive theory of the evolution of spoken language" indicated in their conclusion by Ackermann et al., that is, the foundation of the co-evolution of linguistic motor skills with the auditory skills underlying speech perception, and the possible phylogenetic interactions of protospeech production with referential capabilities.
Walker, C. G.; Walker, C. C.
Children's literature has often featured an understanding of our world through imaginative means: Peter Pan and Alice in Wonderland both display this quality. As Wonderland was a manifestation of Alice's own imagination, her journey to understand Wonderland was actually a quest to understand the phenomena that comprised her 'real' world. It was author Lewis Carroll's way of showing that human beings must use multiple intelligences to understand the complicated mystery that is the world and all things in it. The specific way in which we each interpret the facts presented determine if we become an 'artist' or 'scientist.' But does the label matter? Albert Einstein himself once said, 'Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.' Inherently, discovery---the finding of something new---demands that one must imagine something that is heretofore unknown. Researchers in both science and the arts use the same basic principles to examine different fields of study. These principles will be discussed via examples such as comparative analysis of scientific vs. historical research methods; how scientific language compares to arts language and why they often mean the same thing; and how study of a subject matter could often be improved through a mutual understanding of both science and art. Because of the apparent difference in subject matter, a schism between the two sides of human understanding has grown to the point where they are thought to be two different and unrelated schools of thought. Here we present several examples of the integration of science and art, and show how 'different' actually means the 'same,' in terms of scientific and artistic processes. We argue that 'science' and 'art' are not mutually exclusive; they are often the same practice and can be taught as such. Simple changes in language prove that methods of inquiry in science are the same as those in the arts. In order to support the mission of STEAM
Keifer-Boyd, Karen; Smith-Shank, Deborah L.
The belief that art should not be a handmaiden to social studies has continued in art education discourse since the 1920s. What role does the handmaiden play in this cultural narrative? Who is the handmaiden? We explore the handmaiden metaphor in art education and in popular texts. She is both needed and despised for her metaphorical acts of…
Moore, S. W.; Rogerson, T. M.; Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Oots, P. C.; Lewis, P. M.
Science can serve as an authentic motivational and instructional vehicle for instruction in language arts. Two NASA educational outreach programs provide ample opportunity for strengthening vocabulary, reading comprehension, and writing skills, through the integration of authentic activities and scenarios in the context of a real-time NASA mission. The NASA CERES Students’ Cloud Observation On-Line (S’COOL) project is a hands-on project that supports NASA research on the Earth’s climate. Students are engaged in identifying cloud-types and levels and sending that information to NASA. If the students’ observations are within +/-15 minutes of the CERES satellite-based instrument passing over their location, this is designated as a “match”. The participating teacher is sent an e-mail asking the student-observers to consider the various aspects of the match, including the interpretation of a graphical aid, using the correct terminology to express level of agreement, and writing comments to describe their “matches”, all of which contribute to strengthening skills in language arts. To further integrate the language arts, the S’COOL website provides several teacher-authored on-line lessons that integrate reading skills, vocabulary, and composition. The Mentoring and inquiry using NASA Data on Atmospheric and earth science for Teachers and Amateurs (MY NASA DATA) project is a project to enable K-12 teaches and students, as well as citizen scientists, to explore the large volumes of data that NASA collects about the Earth from space. Opportunity for addressing literacy is integrated into several teacher-authored on-line lessons. Scenarios present students with a problem requiring the reading and comprehension of the scenario, understanding of terminology, the ability to read and understand a written technical procedure, and composition of related conclusions. In addition, students are provided opportunities to analyze a data-set and/or data plot, then
This article suggests that the discourse on arts and health encompass contemporary arts practices as an active and engaged analytical activity. Distinctions between arts therapy and arts practice are made to suggest that clinical evidence-based evaluation, while appropriate for arts therapy, is not appropriate for arts practice and in effect cast them in unreasonable doubt. Themes in current discourse on “arts” and “health” are broadly sketched to provide a context for discussion of arts practices. Approaches to knowledge validation in relation to each domain are discussed. These discourses are applied to the Irish healthcare context, offering a reading of three different art projects; it suggests a multiplicity of analyses beyond causal positive health gains. It is suggested that the social turn in medicine and the social turn in arts practices share some similar pre-occupations that warrant further attention. PMID:22675403
Adams, Joelle; McNab, Nicole
This article examines how undergraduate students on arts and humanities courses experience assessment and feedback. The research uses a detailed audit, a specially devised questionnaire (the Assessment Experience Questionnaire), and student focus group data, and the article examines results from 19 programmes, comparing those from "arts and…
Spoken language understanding (SLU) is an emerging field in between speech and language processing, investigating human/ machine and human/ human communication by leveraging technologies from signal processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence. SLU systems are designed to extract the meaning from speech utterances and its applications are vast, from voice search in mobile devices to meeting summarization, attracting interest from both commercial and academic sectors. Both human/machine and human/human communications can benefit from the application of SLU, usin
Meystre, Stephanie; Haug, Peter J
We are developing tools to help maintain a complete, accurate and timely problem list within a general purpose Electronic Medical Record system. As a part of this project, we have designed a system to automatically retrieve medical problems from free-text documents. Here we describe an information model based on XML (eXtensible Markup Language) and compliant with the CDA (Clinical Document Architecture). This model is used to ease the exchange of clinical data between the Natural Language Understanding application that retrieves potential problems from narrative document, and the problem list management application.
Clark, Kenneth; Hosticka, Alice; Kent, Judi; Browne, Ron
Addresses issues of access to World Wide Web sites, mathematics and science content-resources available on the Web, and methods for integrating mathematics, science, and language arts instruction. (Author/ASK)
DeBoer, George; Carman, Elaine; Lazzaro, Christopher
[Slides] presented at the College Board National Forum in Washington, D.C., October 2010. This presentation examines the implementation of Common Core Standards for English Language Arts in STEM classrooms and the implications for effective teaching of STEM subjects.
Bishop, Rudine Sims
Presents a conversation with Dorothy Watson, the 2002 Outstanding Educator in the Language Arts recipient. Hopes that this profile will provide insight into Dorothy Watson and her intellectual foundations, her humaneness, and her passion for teaching and learning. (SG)
Into the Curriculum. Art: Worm Art; Reading/Language Arts: Writer's Briefcase; Reading/Language Arts: Word Play with "Kid Pix"; Science/Language Arts: Wiggle into the Library Media Center; Science: From a Seed to a Plant; Science: Seed Growth; Social Studies: Ancient Greece and Rome: Crossword Puzzle Research.
Hazergian, Carol; Marine, Cathy; Humphrey, Mary; Craig, Mary; Parker, Meredith L.; Palomaki, Julie; Willingham, Susan L.
Provides seven fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in art, reading, language arts, science, and social studies. Library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluations, and follow-up are described for each activity. (LRW)
How to name the genocide in order to therapy it? On the way of reconciliation, the provisional mediation in the art and religion reminds first moments of the stop of the genocide. Rwanda fast remembered first moments of the humanity when she had to find a language to say the inhospitable: the terrible nature. The Arts and ...
Lazutina, Tatyana V.; Pupysheva, Irina N.; Shcherbinin, Mikhail N.; Baksheev, Vladimir N.; Patrakova, Galina V.
This article examines art in the semiotic aspect. The aim of research is to identify the specificity of the language of architecture as a special form of symbolic art meaning the process of granting the symbolic value of aesthetic phenomena caused by the cultural and historical context allowing transmitting the values represented at the level of…
Lachapelle, Richard; Murray, Deborah; Neim, Sandy
A common misconception about the nature of art and of aesthetic appreciation is that these activities are essentially a question of "feeling," as if tuning in to the right feeling will automatically lead to a full understanding of the work of art. Another widespread misunderstanding essentially reduces art viewing to a simple question of…
Full Text Available This study describes the Seminar «Language Skills and Seventh Art» developed at the University of Extremadura in the course 2015-2016. Through the analysis of ten films, we deal with professional competences of future Primary teachers from unique situations, for example disabilities such as blind and deaf people, autism or dyslexia, questions about the origin of the language and artificial languages, or cultural issues such as the wild child or within situations of isolation or loneliness. In addition to the specific considerations of each film, the active use of Cinema in different areas of learning foreign languages and ELE (Spanish as Foreign Language is postulated
Silberman, Roseanne K.; Sowell, Virginia
The article recommends assessment techniques and teaching strategies in the area of reading and language arts for the visually impaired student with learning disabilities. Appropriate reading and language tests are cited. Reading approaches, practical strategies for teaching reading comprehension and spelling, and suggestions for organizing the…
Brouillette, Liane; Childress-Evans, Karen; Hinga, Briana; Farkas, George
In this article, we look at the impact of an arts integration program offered at five large urban elementary schools on the daily attendance and oral language skills of children in kindergarten through second grade. Many of the children attending these schools spoke a language other than English at home. Teaching artists visited each class weekly…
The goal of the master’s thesis is to determine the influence of teaching means and materials on both successful learning of different art concepts and the ability to depict motifs by using different art materials. The theoretical part of the master degree describes both the analysis of special teaching means and their adaptation for certain parts of arts and design lessons. The input hypothesis claims that the usage of ICT (such as digital animation, Internet, social networks ...
Art integration is a rich and complex approach to teaching and learning that not only aligns with new initiatives in education that prioritize conceptual and procedural skills but could also contribute to education's transformation. Framing art integration as a transdisciplinary field with a distinct conceptual framework, epistemology, and…
Seah, Lay Hoon; Clarke, David John; Hart, Christina Eugene
This case study of a science lesson, on the topic thermal expansion, examines the language demands on students from an integrated science and language perspective. The data were generated during a sequence of 9 lessons on the topic of 'States of Matter' in a Grade 7 classroom (12-13 years old students). We identify the language demands by comparing students' writings with the scientific account of expansion that the teacher intended the students to learn. The comparison involved both content analysis and lexicogrammatical (LG) analysis. The framework of Systemic Functional Linguistics was adopted for the LG analysis. Our analysis reveals differences in the meaning and the way LG resources were employed between the students' writings and the scientific account. From these differences, we found the notion of condition-of-use for LG resources to be a significant aspect of the language that students need to appropriate in order to employ the language of school science appropriately. This notion potentially provides a means by which teachers could concurrently address the conceptual and representational demands of science learning. Finally, we reflect on how the complementary use of content analysis and LG analysis provides a way for integrating the science and language perspectives in order to understand the demands of learning science through language.
Full Text Available Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU model (Rönnberg et al., 2013 pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1 we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2. Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at the T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills
Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary
Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into
That nursing is an art as well as a science is in danger of becoming a cliché unless attempts are made to reverse the marginalization and exclusion of arts and humanities within nursing. An educational approach to promoting more esthetic and less instrumental thinking and understanding is described. This approach enables nurses to gain a deeper understanding of the lived experiences of suffering, chronic pain, miscarriage, and disability through engaging with the art of Mexican painter Frida Kahlo.
Full Text Available Arts are commonly used in primary and secondary classrooms for learning purposes, but arts integration in higher education curricula could benefit university-level students academically and emotionally as well. Integrating arts into an English as a Foreign Language (EFL curriculum could benefit students who experience foreign language anxiety, which hinders them from being socially and linguistically successful in the classroom according to multiple studies outlined in the literature section. The focus for students in this study was on listening skills because it is a major element in foreign language development that is explored to a lesser degree than reading, writing and speaking skills. The eight introductory-level classes were split between control and experimental classes. During the first part of the arts implementation, the experimental classes began with drama theatre for 30 minutes. This consisted of students taking a theme in English, such as home and directions, then creating a creative performance for their peers involving relevant vocabulary and phrases. The second part consisted of a 15 minute music cloze section, where students were filling in lyrics for a song that they were actively listening to. Two academic assessments were given as department-wide mid-term and final academic assessments, two subjective surveys and the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS were given at the beginning and end of the school semester. The FLCAS determined that students’ anxieties lowered on 15 questions and increased on 18 questions, so the arts integration has not notably altered foreign language anxiety. The arts-integrated classes received average scores of 80.5%, while the control classes received 74%. Students have performed higher academically with an arts integrated curriculum. It is therefore recommended that arts in the form of music cloze and drama theatre should be included in EFL curricula to increase academic achievement
Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.
A teaching guide for teachers of language arts for native Spanish-speaking primary school students in the Chicago public schools consists of four sections and appendices. Part I introduces the concepts of the language arts program, its behavioral objectives, suggestions for teachers, and notes on the characteristics of students of this age group.…
computers. ♦ Noam Chomsky , Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1965). -A- One of the earliest attempts at Natural Language...of computers that a machine which understood natural languages was highly desirable. It also was evident from the work of Chomsky * and others that...20 years. All the interviewees were educated to the Ph.D. level and most had extensively published in AI literature. The interviewees were evenly
Imaginative and attractive, cutting edge in its conception, this text explicates a model for the integration of language arts and literacy education based on the notion of framing. The act of framing--not frames in themselves--provides a creative and critical approach to English as a subject. "Re-framing Literacy" breaks new ground in the language…
Chapman, Susan N.
Australia's national arts curriculum has potential to realise the following benefits: cognitive, social, affective and curricular. This curriculum is designed for generalist and special arts teachers, but its delivery may be hindered by the prioritisation of high-stakes-tested disciplines and pedagogies, and reduced government funding to arts…
Karliner, Leah S; Auerbach, Andrew; Nápoles, Anna; Schillinger, Dean; Nickleach, Dana; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J
Effective communication at hospital discharge is necessary for an optimal transition and to avoid adverse events. We investigated the association of a language barrier with patient understanding of discharge instructions. Spanish-speaking, Chinese-speaking, and English-speaking patients admitted to 2 urban hospitals between 2005 and 2008, comparing patient understanding of follow-up appointment type, and medication category and purpose between limited English-proficient (LEP) and English-proficient patients. Of the 308 patients, 203 were LEP. Rates of understanding were low overall for follow-up appointment type (56%) and the 3 medication outcomes (category 48%, purpose 55%, both 41%). In unadjusted analysis, LEP patients were less likely than English-proficient patients to know appointment type (50% vs. 66%; P=0.01), medication category (45% vs. 54%; P=0.05), and medication category and purpose combined (38% vs. 47%; P=0.04), but equally likely to know medication purpose alone. These results persisted in the adjusted models for medication outcomes: LEP patients had lower odds of understanding medication category (odds ratio 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.95); and category/purpose (odds ratio 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.89). Understanding of appointment type and medications after discharge was low, with LEP patients demonstrating worse understanding of medications. System interventions to improve communication at hospital discharge for all patients, and especially those with LEP, are needed.
Full Text Available It is generally accepted that there is not a single school of thought that is called social constructivism, and ideas and assumptions from various disciplines in different fields are being incorporated into the social constructivist understanding. In this paper, a Bakhtinian perspective of social constructivism on education and language learning is discussed and studies that have explored Bakhtinian concepts in education have been reviewed. It is recommended that examining the structure of social interaction in the classroom based on the Bakhtinian concepts discussed (i.e., dialogism, monologism, recitation can help us see the classrooms from a different perspective and provide insights that are not available from other perspectives.
Full Text Available The face, the voice, the space that our body occupies are obscure to ourselves just like the experience of our birth. From Psychoanalysis to Phenomenology, from Freud to Merleau-Ponty, through Simmel, Ortega y Gasset and Zambrano, we learn that self-perception - the inward eye - is an experience that encompasses the styles of the verbal and visual (poetic and pictorial representations, while showing and defending the intimacy, inside and outside the ego. Thanks to its metaphoric essence, the word possess the ability to show itself as a figure, imago. Metaphor is the facet of language. The word takes shape and significance thanks to a fluctuation between subtraction, distance (language is never straightforward, will of adherence and belonging, while making itself visible and becoming the maternal facet of language.
Solomon, John; Murata, Nathan M.
Physical education is a prime content area for interdisciplinary learning. The movement components of physical education can be used as a medium through which children are provided with opportunities to practice and strengthen language skills. Cone, Werner, Cone, and Woods (1998, p. 4) agree: "interdisciplinary learning is an educational process…
Lazaros, Edward J.; Shackelford, Ray
Reducing water consumption and pollution are important concerns for all people. This article describes an activity--production of water conservation hangtags for hotel rooms--that provides students with information about water conservation, in addition to excellent practice with graphic communication and language skills. The activity gives…
This phenomenological case study attempts to understand the phenomenon of intertextuality of traditional novels and graphic novels, and how it may or may not contribute to transference of one mode of literacy to another. The study's sample was seven Grade 12 Advanced Placement English/language arts students and their teacher. I conducted my…
Eglinton, Kristen Ali; Gubrium, Aline; Wexler, Lisa
In this paper we examine digital storytelling as a mode of arts-inspired inquiry: in particular we consider digital storytelling as a powerful arts-inspired approach that can help researchers, practitioners, and communities understand and support indigenous and marginalized youth. Our two-fold focus is on: (1) a digital storytelling initiative…
Dhanapal, Saroja; Kanapathy, Ravi; Mastan, Jamilah
This research was carried out to understand the role of visual arts in the teaching and learning of science among Grade 3 teachers and students. A mixture of qualitative and quantitative research design was used to discover the different perceptions of both teachers and students on the role of visual arts in science. The data for the research was…
Wieland, Stacey M. B.
Courses: Organizational Communication, Advanced Organizational Communication, Organizing Work, Management/Organizational History. Objectives: This activity will help students to understand major shifts in the organization of work and creatively represent changing work structures and practices. An optional follow-up assignment is included. A…
Full Text Available This paper reports on research of scholarly research practices and requirements conducted in the context of the Preparing DARIAH European e-Infrastructures project, with a view to ensuring current and future fitness for purpose of the planned digital infrastructure, services and tools. It summarises the findings of earlier research, primarily from the field of human information behaviour as applied in scholarly work, it presents a conceptual perspective informed by cultural-historical activity theory, it introduces briefly a formal conceptual model for scholarly research activity compliant with CIDOC CRM, it describes the plan of work and methodology of an empirical research project based on open-questionnaire interviews with arts and humanities researchers, and presents illustrative examples of segmentation, tagging and initial conceptual analysis of the empirical evidence. Finally, it presents plans for future work, consisting, firstly, of a comprehensive re-analysis of interview segments within the framework of the scholarly research activity model, and, secondly, of the integration of this analysis with the extended digital curation process model we presented in earlier work.
I intend to demonstrate how artists such as myself can influence the public discourse on climate change. I believe aesthetically compelling visualizations can transcend data and language. I will speak specifically to how I communicate scientific research to diverse populations. I have much to share since first speaking in 2012 on the Panel "Communication of Science through Art: Raison d'Etre for Interdisciplinary Communication". I then illustrated how I utilized visual cues such as archival evidence in the form of repeats, geological charts of recessional lines, graphs, symbols and Landsat maps in my large scale paintings and photographs and inspired learning. I continue to develop visual strategies delivering information on an emotional/non-verbal level. Now 4 years later, I've added the most dramatic layer to my creative process: bearing witness. I've been to the three largest ice fields in the world: Greenland, Antarctica and Argentina's Patagonia, observing the unprecedented pace of glacial melt. Those expeditions feed my practice, leading to exhibitions that begin a dialog with an audience not initially interested in science. In the past 5 years my work has appeared in 6 solo and 19 group exhibits all devoted to the environment. I make myself present in universities, museums and galleries to explain what the images are about. I require universities to include a public component: an all-college lecture or panel where the geography/environmental/sociology/geology departments participate with broad student involvement. I believe that such endeavors are worthwhile and can be models for further efforts to educate an unsuspecting audience. Artists can bridge the gap communicating to a public of art appreciators, nonscientists - how easy it is to understand geology and global warming. I believe we can even inspire attitudinal change. Aside from personal examples I will include other artists and exhibition venues contributing to this phenomenon.
de Boer, Bart; Gontier, N; VanBendegem, JP; Aerts, D
This paper describes the uses of computer models in studying the evolution of language. Language is a complex dynamic system that can be studied at the level of the individual and at the level of the population. Much of the dynamics of language evolution and language change occur because of the
Taharuddin Nurul Shima
Full Text Available In Negeri Sembilan, they are still practicing Minangkabau culture and custom. Element of uniqueness in Negeri. Sembilan has been shown on its architectural where the houses have dramatic curved roof structures with multitier. The art and architecture features a unique regional style. This house fills with cultural values, customs and reflects the people’s understanding about designing art and architecture that is in harmony with nature. The house serves as a residence, a hall for family meetings, and for ceremonial activities. This research, studies the understanding of art students towards the characteristic that are found in the Negeri Sembilan Minangkabau Traditional House (NSMTH in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The objectives are to identify the element of characteristic that shows the identity of Negeri Sembilan Minangkabau Traditional House and to determine the level of understanding on characteristic of a Minangkabau house by art students. Scope of this research is on understanding of Faculty Art & Design student that has syllabus on Malay art. The research methodology that been use in this research is quantitative where surveys are made among the art students
The English Language Arts Common Core State Standards and corresponding assessments brought about many changes for educators, their literacy instruction, and the literacy learning of their students. This study examined the day-to-day literacy instruction of two primary grade teachers during their first year of full CCSS implementation. Engestr?m's…
Shepard, Courtney A.
Adolescents' motivation to read continues to decline. The purpose of this embedded single case study was to explore adolescent reading motivation to determine some ways in which adolescents are motivated to read. Through purposeful sampling, the participants included seven twelfth grade students and three English Language Arts teachers in grades…
Ratliff, Gerald Lee
Isolated examples of creative adaptation show that Jean Piaget's theories of childhood development provide the conscientious teacher with a veritable warehouse of innovative and thought-provoking principles with which to construct a meaningful foundation of language arts experimentation. The elementary Piagetian principles for evoking creativity…
Phelps, Geoffrey; Corey, Douglas; DeMonte, Jenny; Harrison, Delena; Loewenberg Ball, Deborah
The amount of instruction students receive has long been viewed as a foundational educational resource. This article presents an analysis of the time students spend in elementary English language arts (ELA) and mathematics instruction. In mathematics, the average student received about 140 hr of instruction, but students in the top sixth of…
George, Marshall; Pope, Carol; Reid, Louann
Three leaders of the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) Conference on English Education (CEE) reflect on the changes that have occurred in English language arts teacher education in the past 15 years since the first edition of "Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education" ("CITE Journal") was published.…
Weisman, Hannah L.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Lippincott, Ann; Taylor, Zachary; Zheng, Jimmy
Background: Researchers have emphasized the importance of integrating mental health education with academic curriculum. The focus of the current studies was "Mental Health Matters" (MHM), a mental health curriculum that is integrated with English language arts. It is taught by trained community member volunteers and aims to increase…
Thomas, Angela Falter
Two language arts teachers in a small, rural middle school set a goal of improving their reading instruction and ultimately their students' learning. The two teachers implemented Reading Workshop as their new methodology for teaching reading to all six of their 7th and 8th grade classes. Interviews and classroom observations, over the course of…
The dramatic rebirth of the foreign language department in a four-year liberal arts college is documented. The process is described as having three stages: assessment of the department's curricular mission in light of the changed student constituency; development of a long-range plan for outreach and public relations activities to prepare the way…
Simic, Marge; Smith, Carl, Comp.
Originally developed for the Department of Defense Schools (DoDDS) system, this learning package on guiding at-risk students in the language arts classroom is designed for teachers who wish to upgrade or expand their teaching skills on their own. The package includes a comprehensive search of the ERIC database; a lecture giving an overview on the…
Elkins, Stacey Michelle
The purpose of this study was to provide professional development in vocabulary instructional practices and analyze the impact on student achievement. This quasi-experimental study utilized the PLC to curriculum map English/Language Arts state academic vocabulary words in K-4 into each of the four nine-weeks. The first through fourth grade…
As a teacher of Bowling Green State University's English 3810, Grammar and Writing, the author is charged with teaching future language arts teachers how to teach grammar so that it actually helps their students become better writers and communicators. Because such teaching rejects the ineffective but time-honored drill-it-and-kill-it approach, in…
Journal of Children's Literature, 2016
Books can indeed change us, and the Notable Children's Books in the English Language Arts Selection Committee is pleased to share a list of powerful books that they believe have the potential to change individuals. Through this list, they hope readers discover books that not only are worth reading but also can stretch their imaginations and…
James, Alisa R.; Bullock, Kerri
Physical education teachers are expected to implement the English language arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in their instruction. This has proved to be challenging for many physical educators. The purpose of this article is to provide developmentally appropriate examples of how to incorporate the ELA CCSS into physical education,…
Broughton, Mary A.; Fairbanks, Colleen M.
Describes how in the examination of a sixth-grade girl's participation in the language arts classroom that is driven by high-stakes testing and by a regimented classroom culture, the authors came to view students' approaches to literacy events as "stances" and their negotiation of their subjectivities in response to literacy events as…
Kiefer, Barbara, Comp.
This book is a selection of profiles of children's authors featured in the journal "Language Arts" over the years. The book's 12 individual profiles highlight some of the real people who contribute to children's book publishing, provide a sample of a few of the many genres of books available for children, and give an insight into the…
Bromley, Karen; Modlo, Marcia
Deals with S. Kagan's (1990) structural approach to cooperative learning and its application to language arts. Offers detailed descriptions of several cooperative learning structures, including Numbered Heads Together, Roundtable, Think-Pair-Share, Corners, and others. Provides examples from actual classroom settings, along with various teacher…
Puchner, Laurel; Klein, Nicole Aydt
The goal of this study was to examine perceptions, attitudes, and reported practices of a group of middle level Language Arts teachers concerning sexuality-related issues. Through interviews with 15 teachers, the study found that sexuality was in one sense pervasive, as it came up frequently in the teachers' practice. Yet at the same time the…
Simms, Julia A.
Research indicates that most standards documents articulate far more content than can be taught in the time available to K-12 teachers. In response, analysts at Marzano Research sought to identify, as objectively as possible, a focused set of critical concepts for each K-12 grade level in the content areas of English language arts (ELA),…
Colwell, Jamie; Hutchison, Amy C.
A systematic review of relevant literature was conducted to provide a source of information and practical guidelines for teachers and teacher educators to consider instructional methods for using digital tools in elementary language arts classrooms to promote literacy. Focal studies are highlighted to provide rich descriptions of practical uses…
Digital personal(ized) books are a relatively recent addition to the rich repertoire of literacy resources available to pre-K and elementary school teachers. This article summarizes the key ways in which personal(ized) books can enrich the language arts curriculum, drawing on a series of empirically based examples. The value of personalization in…
This article reviews research on English language arts teachers' use of digital tools in the classroom to remediate print literacies. Specifically, this review focuses on the affordances of digital tools to foster uses of digital literacies of informational/accessibility, collaboration knowledge construction, multimodal communication, gaming…
Scott, Jessica; Hinton, Christina
The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or countries, are more successful than others at teaching languages. The book comprises chapters by different authors on the subject of language learning. There are chapters on the role of motivation; the way that languages, cultures and identities are interc
Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted
This study assessed the relation between mother mental state language and child desire language and emotion understanding in 15--24-month-olds. At both times point, mothers described pictures to their infants and mother talk was coded for mental and nonmental state language. Children were administered 2 emotion understanding tasks and their mental…
Sparrow, E. B.; Zicus, S.; Miller, A.; Baird, A.; Page, G.
Twelve Alaskan elementary and middle school classes (grades 3-8) partnered with twelve Australian middle school classes, with each pair using web-based strategies to develop a collaborative ice-mystery fictional book incorporating authentic polar science. Three professional development workshops were held, bringing together educators and polar scientists in two IPY education outreach projects. The Alaska workshop provided an opportunity to bring together the North American teachers for lessons on arctic and antarctic science and an earth system science program Seasons and Biomes measurement protocols, as well as methods in collaborative e-writing and art in Ice e-Mysteries: Global Student Polar e-books project. Teachers worked with University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) and Australian scientists to become familiar with Arctic science research, science artifacts and resources available at UAF and the University of Alaska Museum of the North. In Australia, teachers received a similar project training through the Tasmania Museum and Art Gallery (TMAG) Center for Learning and Discovery on Antarctic science and the University of Tasmania. The long-distance collaboration was accomplished through Skype, emails and a TMAG supported website. A year later, Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere teacher partners met in a joint workshop in Tasmania, to share their experiences, do project assessments and propose activities for future collaborations. The Australian teachers received training on Seasons and Biomes scientific measurements and the Alaskan teachers, on Tasmanian vegetation, fauna and indigenous culture, Antarctic and Southern ocean studies. This innovative project produced twelve e-polar books written and illustrated by students; heightened scientific literacy about the polar regions and the earth system; increased awareness of the environment and indigenous cultures; stronger connections to the scientific community; and lasting friendships. It also resulted in
Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to show that language can support social and intercultural competence of both students and teachers: one of the ways to do it is teaching cultural taboos and taboo language for intercultural awareness and understanding. The current state of the art in the field points to an increasing interest in the teaching of taboos. The material we analysed consisted in 238 offensive, vulgar and obscene English words that both students and teachers should know to attain social and intercultural competence. The method used is the descriptive one. The degree of novelty is rather high in our cultural area. Results show that there are 134 offensive (slang words and expressions (referring to the country of origin or to an ethnic group, to sex and sex-related issues (sexual orientation, to race, etc., 75 vulgar words and expressions (referring to sex and sex-related issues, to body parts, to people, etc., and 29 obscene words and expressions (referring to body secretions, to sex and sex-related issues, to people, etc.. There seems to be no research limitations given the lexicographic sources that we used. The implications of teaching cultural taboos and taboo language at tertiary level concern both the students and teachers and the organisation they belong to. The paper is original and relevant given the process of globalisation.
Landmark, Anne Marie Dalby; Svennevig, Jan; Gerwing, Jennifer; Gulbrandsen, Pål
This study aims to explicate efforts for realizing patient-centeredness (PCC) and involvement (SDM) in a difficult decision-making situation. It investigates what communicative strategies a physician used and the immediate, observable consequences for patient participation. From a corpus of videotaped hospital encounters, one case in which the physician and patient used Norwegian as lingua franca was selected for analysis using conversation analysis (CA). Secondary data were measures of PCC and SDM. Though the physician did extensive interactional work to secure the patient's understanding and acceptance of a treatment recommendation, his persistent attempts did not succeed in generating the patient's participation. In ratings of PCC and SDM, this case scored well above average. Despite the fact that this encounter displays some of the 'best actual practice' of PCC and SDM within the corpus, our analysis of the interaction shows why the strategies were insufficient in the context of a language barrier and possible disagreement. When facing problems of understanding, agreement and participation in treatment decision-making, relatively good patient centered skills may not suffice. Knowledge about the interactional realization of key activities is needed for developing training targeted at overcoming such challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chiesa, Bruno Della, Ed.; Scott, Jessica, Ed.; Hinton, Christina, Ed.
The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or…
Jones, R. Kent
Education helps children select and progress toward appropriate goals. One of the impediments to education for American students is their lack of skill in English. Clear insight into the essentials of language comes from observing how the variables function in a model language such as Esperanto. Once children understand the basic anatomy of…
In a globalised world with different languages and cultures, learning foreign languages is a necessity for ensuring international communication and understanding. Considering the fact that language and culture are inseparable, learning a language also involves learning the associated culture. The close interdependency between culture and language can be used to contribute to social cohesion and stability, in areas where cultural bias, political and religious hostility is prevalent. Therefore,...
Myth is the breakthrough point of [Ernest] Cassirer's philosophy; Art is one of key words to understand his defined language; and Symbolism infiltrates into all aspects of human cultures especially language. The shift of Cassirer from great theories of science and philosophy to the world of art, language, myth, and culture mirrors his bold and…
Students may use the technical engineering terms without knowing what these words mean. This creates a language barrier in engineering that influences student learning. Previous research has been conducted to characterize the difference between colloquial and scientific language. Since this research had not yet been applied explicitly to engineering, conclusions from the area of science education were used instead. Various researchers outlined strategies for helping students acquire scientific language. However, few examined and quantified the relationship it had on student learning. A systemic functional linguistics framework was adopted for this dissertation which is a framework that has not previously been used in engineering education research. This study investigated how engineering language proficiency influenced conceptual understanding of introductory materials science and engineering concepts. To answer the research questions about engineering language proficiency, a convenience sample of forty-one undergraduate students in an introductory materials science and engineering course was used. All data collected was integrated with the course. Measures included the Materials Concept Inventory, a written engineering design task, and group observations. Both systemic functional linguistics and mental models frameworks were utilized to interpret data and guide analysis. A series of regression analyses were conducted to determine if engineering language proficiency predicts group engineering term use, if conceptual understanding predicts group engineering term use, and if conceptual understanding predicts engineering language proficiency. Engineering academic language proficiency was found to be strongly linked to conceptual understanding in the context of introductory materials engineering courses. As the semester progressed, this relationship became even stronger. The more engineering concepts students are expected to learn, the more important it is that they
Full Text Available In a globalised world with different languages and cultures, learning foreign languages is a necessity for ensuring international communication and understanding. Considering the fact that language and culture are inseparable, learning a language also involves learning the associated culture. The close interdependency between culture and language can be used to contribute to social cohesion and stability, in areas where cultural bias, political and religious hostility is prevalent. Therefore, language teaching practices can be used to eradicate stereotypes and to promote intercultural understanding, universally shared values, which will serve to the peaceful coexistence of different people in the world. Movies chosen appropriately for this purpose, with a rich source of cultural events and varying patterns of human behaviors, seem to be an appropriate tool to enhance the understanding of cultural diversity. This study describes the rationale, ways and activities of using movies in language classrooms as a means of developing the understanding for cultural diversity.
English Second Language, General, Special Education, and Speech/Language Personal Teacher Efficacy, English Language Arts Scientifically-Validated Intervention Practice, and Working Memory Development of English Language Learners in High and Low Performing Elementary Schools
Brown, Barbara J.
The researcher investigated teacher factors contributing to English language arts (ELA) achievement of English language learners (ELLs) over 2 consecutive years, in high and low performing elementary schools with a Hispanic/Latino student population greater than or equal to 30 percent. These factors included personal teacher efficacy, teacher…
Murphy, Kimberly A.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the preschool language and early literacy skills of kindergarten good and poor readers, and to determine the extent to which these skills predict reading status. Method: Participants were 136 children with language impairment enrolled in early childhood special education classrooms.…
Kiran, Swathi; Iakupova, Regina
The goal of this study was to address the relationship between language proficiency, language impairment and rehabilitation in bilingual Russian-English individuals with aphasia. As a first step, we examined two Russian-English patients' pre-stroke language proficiency using a detailed and comprehensive language use and history questionnaire and…
Lai, Chun; Hu, Xiao; Lyu, Boning
Out-of-class learning with technology comprises an essential context of second language development. Understanding the nature of out-of-class language learning with technology is the initial step towards safeguarding its quality. This study examined the types of learning experiences that language learners engaged in outside the classroom and the…
Full Text Available In the didactics of the Slovenian language as the first language the term language awareness is related primarily to the identity function of standard language as the most important element of the national and cultural awareness, while the conception of language awareness, based on the functional linguistics, has been put forward only in the last decade. Therefore, the main issue is how to understand language and linguistic cultural awareness in a society which is traditionally considered “culturally monolithic”, and how they should be dealt with in the first language teaching. In attempt to find the answer, first main features of both the language and linguistic cultural awareness are presented: their levels, components and emphasized language functions. It is evident that a person’s linguistic activity and his/her linguistic identification are inseparable. Because of this, the development of language and cultural awareness in the context of two models of first language teaching is discussed later on. In the model aimed at the development of functional communicative competence they are developed optionally and unrelated to each other. Only the model which aims at critical communicative competence allows developing them closely related to each other and to critical thinking.
Thomas, Beth A.
In 1968 the Bilingual Education Act marked the first comprehensive federal intervention in the schooling of language minoritized students by creating financial incentives for bilingual education in an effort to address social and educational inequities created by poverty and linguistic isolation in schools. Since that time federal education…
Smith, Ann Marie; Salgado, Yolanda
The purpose of this case study was to investigate how an English language arts teacher used young adult literature to help English language learners improve English and literacy comprehension. Through the lens of Anzaldua's (2007) "borderlands", and Rolon-Dow's (2005) "critical care", the authors analyze the case study…
Ruben, Robert J
The development of conceptualization of a biological basis of language during the 20th century has come about, in part, through the appreciation of the central nervous system's ability to utilize varied sensory inputs, and particularly vision, to develop language. Sign language has been a part of the linguistic experience from prehistory to the present day. Data suggest that human language may have originated as a visual language and became primarily auditory with the later development of our voice/speech tract. Sign language may be categorized into two types. The first is used by individuals who have auditory/oral language and the signs are used for special situations, such as communication in a monastery in which there is a vow of silence. The second is used by those who do not have access to auditory/oral language, namely the deaf. The history of the two forms of sign language and the development of the concept of the biological basis of language are reviewed from the fourth century BC to the present day. Sign languages of the deaf have been recognized since at least the fourth century BC. The codification of a monastic sign language occurred in the seventh to eighth centuries AD. Probable synergy between the two forms of sign language occurred in the 16th century. Among other developments, the Abbey de L'Epée introduced, in the 18th century, an oral syntax, French, into a sign language based upon indigenous signs of the deaf and newly created signs. During the 19th century, the concept of a "critical" period for the acquisition of language developed; this was an important stimulus for the exploration of the biological basis of language. The introduction of techniques, e.g. evoked potentials and functional MRI, during the 20th century allowed study of the brain functions associated with language.
Pons, Francisco; Lawson, J.: Harris, P.; Rosnay, M. de
Over the last two decades, it has been established that children's emotion understanding changes as they develop. Recent studies have also begun to address individual differences in children's emotion understanding. The first goal of this study was to examine the development of these individual...... differences across a wide age range with a test assessing nine different components of emotion understanding. The second goal was to examine the relation between language ability and individual differences in emotion understanding. Eighty children ranging in age from 4 to 11 years were tested. Children...... displayed a clear improvement with age in both their emotion understanding and language ability. In each age group, there were clear individual differences in emotion understanding and language ability. Age and language ability together explained 72% of emotion understanding variance; 20% of this variance...
Thwaite, P; Bennett, D L; Pynor, H; Zigmond, H
Feeling effective as a young person depends on a capacity to draw upon one's own resources in the service of healthy living and development. In adolescent health care, there is the need to call upon the talents and creativity of young people, to introduce new and exciting experiences, and to facilitate involvement in their own care in order to nurture optimal growth and development on a physical and psychological level. While hospitalisation can represent a major crisis point in adolescence, the provision of a stimulating environment and the opportunity for creative activities offers an exciting, transformative and healing experience. Art allows adolescents to use alternative languages beyond illness, to engage in endeavours that are distanced from overt therapeutic intent, and to embrace attributes of self-esteem and resilience. Through the process and production of art, and the inclusion of music, poetry, film or theatre, young people can experience personal growth, acquire skills, develop socially and contribute to environmental change. In seeking to illustrate the value and importance of such approaches, this paper draws upon the experiences of a youth arts program attached to an adolescent ward. In a project called Art Injection, art students worked with adolescents to make sculptures from old hospital equipment, with startling results. More recently, the development of personal totem poles and an imaginative mosaic mural has powerfully engaged creativity and community in care. Group and individual art sessions, including the media arts project Creative Well, are offered on weekdays as part of the general hospital routine, enabling hospitalised young people to experience creativity as a daily part of their lives.
Full Text Available The article presents a brief analysis of the role of art in the thinking of Gregory Bateson. This is the starting point for a pedagogical reflection that may emphasize, in the educational processes, the languages of connection, typical of art and metaphor, and may propose alternative paths to «single thought» and simplification.
Machineski, Gicelle Galvan; Schneider, Jacó Fernando; Bastos, Carmen Célia Barradas Correia
This study aimed understanding the woman's language during the post-partum period as to her perceptions of her body language. This study was based in the work of Maurice Merleau-Pont. Ten women living in Cascavel, State of Parand, Brazil, were interviewed from February to May 2005. This study allowed the understanding of the meaning that the woman gives to her existence in the post childbirth period. This study may support training of health professionals in terms of understanding how women experience the post-partum period, thereby allowing better care of these patients.
Wagner, Jason Paul; Wulf, Douglas J.
Written Corrective Feedback (WCF) is used extensively in second-language (L2) writing classrooms despite controversy over its effectiveness. This study examines indirect WCF, an instructional procedure that flags L2 students' errors with editing symbols that guide their corrections. WCF practitioners assume that this guidance will lead to…
Measures aimed at procedural fairness address conduct during the bargaining process and generally aim at ensuring transparency. Transparency in relation to the terms of a contract relates to whether the terms of the contract terms accessible, in clear language, well-structured, and cross-referenced, with prominence being ...
Sondag, Tyler; Pokorny, Kian L.; Rajan, Hridesh
Students in all areas of computing require knowledge of the computing device including software implementation at the machine level. Several courses in computer science curricula address these low-level details such as computer architecture and assembly languages. For such courses, there are advantages to studying real architectures instead of…
Thompson, Gregory L.
Given the ever-growing number of Spanish heritage learners in both universities and colleges, the need has continued to grow for the development of placement exams that accurately measure language ability, are simple to evaluate, and are easy to administer to large numbers of students. This article analyzes the implementation of a placement exam…
S / ALEKSEY PANASYUK MICHAEL J. WESSING Work Unit Manager Deputy Chief, Information Intelligence Systems & Analysis Division Information...background knowledge, including NELL’s KB, to achieve improvements over existing methods, • We developed a system for joint extraction of events and...entities within a document. This Bayesian approach substantially outperforms other state-of-the-art methods for event extraction, • We explored a
Susana Cristina dos Reis
Full Text Available Research in the field of computer assisted language learning (CALL and teaching has discussed the necessity of defining a research agenda in the area. Because of this, some of these studies have focused on the analysis of research reports to identify the objectives of studies, the methodologies and the themes in order to identify the state of the art. By using a methodology of a research synthesis, this work identifies the Brazilian research stages in the field of CALL based on researches already published. The results suggest three stages of research in Brazil and that there are few Brazilian Applied Linguists producing research and publishing in the field of CALL in our country. Furthermore, it also suggests the necessity of CALL theory and practice to be implemented through academic subjects at Languages courses.
Richard K. Payne
Full Text Available The question motivating this essay is how tantric Buddhist practitioners in Japan understood language such as to believe that mantra, dhāraṇī, and related forms are efficacious. “Extraordinary language” is introduced as a cover term for these several similar language uses found in tantric Buddhist practices in Japan. The essay proceeds to a critical examination of Anglo-American philosophy of language to determine whether the concepts, categories, and concerns of that field can contribute to the analysis and understanding of extraordinary language. However, that philosophy of language does not contribute to this analysis, as it is constrained by its continuing focus on its founding concepts, dating particularly from the work of Frege. Comparing it to Indic thought regarding language reveals a distinct mismatch, further indicating the limiting character of the philosophy of language. The analysis then turns to examine two other explanations of tantric language use found in religious studies literature: magical language and performative language. These also, however, prove to be unhelpful. While the essay is primarily critical, one candidate for future constructive study is historical pragmatics, as suggested by Ronald Davidson. The central place of extraordinary language indicates that Indic reflections on the nature of language informed tantric Buddhist practice in Japan and are not simply cultural baggage.
a collage of previously published materials on Artfulness, in this journal targeted teachers for dysfunctional behaviour children.......a collage of previously published materials on Artfulness, in this journal targeted teachers for dysfunctional behaviour children....
20. 7 Michael Krause and R. Cody Phillips, Historical Perspectives of the Operational Art (Washington: Center of Military History , United States...Clayton Newell and Michael Krause, On Operational Art (Washington: Center of Military History , US Army, 1994), 18. 11 Kelly and Brennan, Alien, 67...an operational art theory, test it with history , and then use it to evaluate doctrine. The theory of operational art began with an examination of
Waters, Anna Jeddeloh
Research has identified language impairment as a pervasive disability (Bishop & Edmundson, 1987; Greenhalgh & Strong, 2001). Classroom communication behaviors have a role in the maintenance of special education eligibility and functional communication difficulties for young children with language impairment. This paper reviews the…
Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.
The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, and literature appreciation. Sections follow for each of the areas…
Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.
The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking primary students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section on preparing instructional material for this group and a section defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study…
Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.
The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking primary students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section outlining the program and defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, and literature appreciation.…
Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.
The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, and literature appreciation. Sections follow for each of the areas…
Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.
The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking primary students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section outlining the program and defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, and literature appreciation.…
Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.
The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking primary students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section on preparing instructional material for this group and a section defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study…
Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.
The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking primary students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section outlining the program and defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, and literature appreciation.…
Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.
The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking primary students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, literature appreciation, and writing skills. Sections…
Huerta, Margarita; Tong, Fuhui; Irby, Beverly J.; Lara-Alecio, Rafael
The authors of this quantitative study measured and compared the academic language development and conceptual understanding of fifth-grade economically disadvantaged English language learners (ELL), former ELLs, and native English-speaking (ES) students as reflected in their science notebook scores. Using an instrument they developed, the authors…
Elson, Raymond J.; O'Callaghan, Susanne; Walker, John P.; Williams, Robert
Students rely on rote knowledge to learn accounting concepts. However, this approach does not allow them to understanding the meta language of accounting. Meta language is simply the concepts and terms that are used in a profession and are easily understood by its users. Terms such as equity, assets, and balance sheet are part of the accounting…
The paper surveys the major projects on the understanding of natural language that fall within what may now be called the artificial intelligence paradigm of natural language systems. Some space is devoted to arguing that the paradigm is now a reality and different in significant respects from the generative paradigm of present-day linguistics.…
Baker, Eva L.; And Others
Evaluation models are being developed for assessing artificial intelligence (AI) systems in terms of similar performance by groups of people. Natural language understanding and vision systems are the areas of concentration. In simplest terms, the goal is to norm a given natural language system's performance on a sample of people. The specific…
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of peculiarities of syntactic development, as an element of language structure on the grammatical level of children suffering from developmental dysphasia, after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years. Syntactic level at younger school age was studied by assessing language competence in the accomplishment of communicative sentence with subordinate clause. The research was performed on the samples of children at school age in regular primary schools in Belgrade. The sample comprised 160 respondents who were divided in two groups: target and comparative. The target group consisted of 60 respondents (children suffering from developmental dysphasia after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years, and the comparative group consisted of 100 respondents from regular primary school "Gavrilo Princip" in Zemun. Research results show that grammatical development of children suffering from developmental dysphasia takes place at a considerably slower rate and entails substantially more difficulties in accomplishing predication in subordinate clauses. This paper discusses the consequences which the difficulties in grammatical development can have on school achievement.
Yore, Larry D.; Bisanz, Gay L.; Hand, Brian M.
This review, written to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the International Journal of Science Education, revealed a period of changes in the theoretical views of the language arts, the perceived roles of language in science education, and the research approaches used to investigate oral and written language in science, science teaching, and learning. The early years were dominated by behavioralist and logico-mathematical interpretations of human learning and by reductionist research approaches, while the later years reflected an applied cognitive science and constructivist interpretations of learning and a wider array of research approaches that recognizes the holistic nature of teaching and learning. The early years focus on coding oral language into categories reflecting source of speech, functional purpose, level of question and response, reading research focused on the readability of textbooks using formulae and the reader's decoding skills, and writing research was not well documented since the advocates for writing in service of learning were grass roots practitioners and many science teachers were using writing as an evaluation technique. The advent of applied cognitive science and the constructivist perspectives ushered in interactive-constructive models of discourse, reading and writing that more clearly revealed the role of language in science and in science teaching and learning. A review of recent research revealed that the quantity and quality of oral interactions were low and unfocused in science classrooms; reading has expanded to consider comprehension strategies, metacognition, sources other than textbooks, and the design of inquiry environments for classrooms; and writing-to-learn science has focused on sequential writing tasks requiring transformation of ideas to enhance science learning. Several promising trends and future research directions flow from the synthesis of this 25-year period of examining the literacy component of science literacy
Teachers’ practical knowledge is considered as teachers’ general knowledge, beliefs and thinking (Borg, 2003) which can be traced in teachers’ practices (Connelly & Clandinin, 1988) and shaped by various background sources (Borg, 2003; Grossman, 1990; Meijer, Verloop, and Beijard, 1999). This paper initially discusses how language teachers are influenced by three background sources: teachers’ prior language learning experiences, prior teaching experience, and professional coursework in pr...
Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T; Schoenemann, P Thomas
We discuss two problems for a general scientific understanding of language, sequences and synergies: how language is an intricately sequenced behavior and how language is manifested as a multidimensionally structured behavior. Though both are central in our understanding, we observe that the former tends to be studied more than the latter. We consider very general conditions that hold in human brain evolution and its computational implications, and identify multimodal and multiscale organization as two key characteristics of emerging cognitive function in our species. This suggests that human brains, and cognitive function specifically, became more adept at integrating diverse information sources and operating at multiple levels for linguistic performance. We argue that framing language evolution, learning, and use in terms of synergies suggests new research questions, and it may be a fruitful direction for new developments in theory and modeling of language as an integrated system. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Conner, Tracy; Jackson, Janice E
Language difference among speakers of African American English (AAE) has often been considered language deficit, based on a lack of understanding about the AAE variety. Following Labov (1972), Wolfram (1969), Green (2002, 2011), and others, we define AAE as a complex rule-governed linguistic system and briefly discuss language structures that it shares with general American English (GAE) and others that are unique to AAE. We suggest ways in which mistaken ideas about the language variety add to children's difficulties in learning the mainstream dialect and, in effect, deny them the benefits of their educational programs. We propose that a linguistically informed approach that highlights correspondences between AAE and the mainstream dialect and trains students and teachers to understand language varieties at a metalinguistic level creates environments that support the academic achievement of AAE-speaking students. Finally, we present 3 program types that are recommended for helping students achieve the skills they need to be successful in multiple linguistic environments.
Although a broad literature exists concerning the development of conceptual understanding of force and other topics within mechanics, little is known about the role and development of students' talk about the subject. The paper presents an in-depth investigation of students' talk whilst being introduced to the concept of force. The main research goal was to investigate and understand how students develop an understanding of the concept of force and how they use and understand the term 'force'. Therefore, we make relation to the research field of students' preconceptions and the field of second language learning. Two classes of students (N = 47) were videotaped during a time period of nine lessons, each transcribed and analysed using a category system. Additional data were obtained via written tasks, logs kept by the students, and tests. The detailed analysis of the talk and the results of the tests indicate that students face difficulties in using the term 'force' scientifically similar to those in a foreign language instruction. Vygotsky already recognised a relationship between learning in science and learning a language. In this paper, important aspects of this relationship are discussed based upon empirical data. We conclude that in some respects it might be useful to make reference to the research related to language learning when thinking about improving science education. In particular, according to Selinker's concept of interlanguage describing language-learning processes within language instruction, the language used by the students during physics lessons can be viewed as a 'scientific interlanguage'.
Corless, Inge B.; Limbo, Rana; Bousso, Regina Szylit; Wrenn, Robert L.; Head, David; Lickiss, Norelle; Wass, Hannelore
The aim of this work is to provide an overview of the key features of the expressions of grief. Grief is a response to loss or anticipated loss. Although universal, its oral and nonverbal expression varies across cultures and individuals. Loss is produced by an event perceived to be negative to varying degrees by the individuals involved and has the potential to trigger long-term changes in a person's cognitions and relationships. The languages used by the bereaved to express grief differ from the language used by professionals, creating dissonance between the two. Data were obtained from English language Medline and CINAHL databases, from professional and personal experiences, interviews with experts, and exploration of cemetery memorials. Blog websites and social networks provided additional materials for further refinement of the model. Content analysis of the materials and agreement by the authors as to the themes resulted in the development of the model. To bridge the gap between professional language and that used by the bereaved, a Languages of Grief model was developed consisting of four Modes of Expression, four Types of Language, plus three Contingent Factors. The Languages of Grief provides a framework for comprehending the grief of the individual, contributing to clinical understanding, and fruitful exploration by professionals in better understanding the use of languages by the bereaved. Attention to the Modes of Expression, Types of Language, and Contingent Factors provides the professional with a richer understanding of the grieving individual, a step in providing appropriate support to the bereaved. The Languages of Grief provides a framework for application to discrete occurrences with the goal of understanding grief from the perspective of the bereaved. PMID:25750773
Windle, Gill; Gregory, Samantha; Newman, Andrew; Goulding, Anna; O'Brien, Dave; Parkinson, Clive
Arts-based activities are being increasingly suggested as a valuable activity for people living with dementia in terms of countering the negative aspects of their condition. The potential for such programmes to improve a broad range of psychosocial outcomes is suggested in some studies. However, there is largely an absence of rigorous methodology to demonstrate the benefits, and research results are mixed. Practice variability in terms of the content, contexts and implementation of such interventions raises challenges in terms of identifying an optimal arts programme model that could be adopted by other service providers. Understanding how interventions may have the best chance at broad implementation success and uptake is limited. A realist review will be undertaken. This aims to understand how visual arts interventions influence outcomes in people living with dementia. The review will explore how the context, that is the circumstances which enable or constrain, affect outcomes through the activation of mechanisms. An early scoping search and a stakeholder survey formulated the preliminary programme theory. A systematic literature search across a broad range of disciplines (arts, humanities, social sciences, health) will be undertaken to identify journal articles and grey literature. Data will be extracted in relation to the programme theory, contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes and their configurations, background information about the study design and participant characteristics, detail about the quantity ('dose') of an intervention, theoretical perspectives proposed by the authors of the paper and further theorising by the reviewer. Thematic connections/patterns will be sought across the extracted data, identifying patterns amongst contextual factors, the mechanisms they trigger and the associated outcomes. Along with stakeholder engagement and validation, this review will help inform the development of an optimal, replicable arts intervention for people
Weimer, Amy A; Gasquoine, Philip G
Belief reasoning and emotion understanding were measured among 102 Mexican American bilingual children ranging from 4 to 7 years old. All children were tested in English and Spanish after ensuring minimum comprehension in each language. Belief reasoning was assessed using 2 false and 1 true belief tasks. Emotion understanding was measured using subtests from the Test for Emotion Comprehension. The influence of family background variables of yearly income, parental education level, and number of siblings on combined Spanish and English vocabulary, belief reasoning, and emotion understanding was assessed by regression analyses. Age and emotion understanding predicted belief reasoning. Vocabulary and belief reasoning predicted emotion understanding. When the sample was divided into language-dominant and balanced bilingual groups on the basis of language proficiency difference scores, there were no significant differences on belief reasoning or emotion understanding. Language groups were demographically similar with regard to child age, parental educational level, and family income. Results suggest Mexican American language-dominant and balanced bilinguals develop belief reasoning and emotion understanding similarly.
Gaucherel, Cédric; Boudon, Frédéric; Houet, Thomas; Castets, Mathieu; Godin, Christophe
Patchy landscapes driven by human decisions and/or natural forces are still a challenge to be understood and modelled. No attempt has been made up to now to describe them by a coherent framework and to formalize landscape changing rules. Overcoming this lacuna was our first objective here, and this was largely based on the notion of Rewriting Systems, also called Formal Grammars. We used complicated scenarios of agricultural dynamics to model landscapes and to write their corresponding driving rule equations. Our second objective was to illustrate the relevance of this landscape language concept for landscape modelling through various grassland managements, with the final aim to assess their respective impacts on biological conservation. For this purpose, we made the assumptions that a higher grassland appearance frequency and higher land cover connectivity are favourable to species conservation. Ecological results revealed that dairy and beef livestock production systems are more favourable to wild species than is hog farming, although in different ways. Methodological results allowed us to efficiently model and formalize these landscape dynamics. This study demonstrates the applicability of the Rewriting System framework to the modelling of agricultural landscapes and, hopefully, to other patchy landscapes. The newly defined grammar is able to explain changes that are neither necessarily local nor Markovian, and opens a way to analytical modelling of landscape dynamics. PMID:23049935
Whitelaw, R. Lynn
Among the many contributions made by Ancient Greeks and Romans to contemporary life, are those which influence art, architecture, literature, philosophy, mathematics and science, theater, athletics, religion, and the founding of democracy. The Tampa Museum of Art's classical collection offers a unique opportunity to learn about Ancient Greeks and…
of RUS 157 157 160 161 SECTION 9. THE PRAGMATICS OF NON-ANAPHORIC NOUN PHRASES 9.1 Introduction 163 9.2 Setting the Stage: Previous views on... ANAPHORA , ELLIPSIS, DISCOURSE,... MRL DATA BASE TRANSLATOR DBMS COMMAND GENERATOR DBMS COMMANDS FIG. 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE IRUS SYSTEM 146...understanding system (such as semantics, pragmatics , and a dialogue expert) can be used to improve the performance of the parser. The production of the
Philip N Stoop
Full Text Available The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 came into effect on 1 April 2011. The purpose of this Act is, among other things, to promote fairness, openness and respectable business practice between the suppliers of goods or services and the consumers of such good and services. In consumer protection legislation fairness is usually approached from two directions, namely substantive and procedural fairness. Measures aimed at procedural fairness address conduct during the bargaining process and generally aim at ensuring transparency. Transparency in relation to the terms of a contract relates to whether the terms of the contract terms accessible, in clear language, well-structured, and cross-referenced, with prominence being given to terms that are detrimental to the consumer or because they grant important rights. One measure in the Act aimed at addressing procedural fairness is the right to plain and understandable language. The consumer’s right to being given information in plain and understandable language, as it is expressed in section 22, is embedded under the umbrella right of information and disclosure in the Act. Section 22 requires that notices, documents or visual representations that are required in terms of the Act or other law are to be provided in plain and understandable language as well as in the prescribed form, where such a prescription exists. In the analysis of the concept “plain and understandable language” the following aspects are considered in this article: the development of plain language measures in Australia and the United Kingdom; the structure and purpose of section 22; the documents that must be in plain language; the definition of plain language; the use of official languages in consumer contracts; and plain language guidelines (based on the law of the states of Pennsylvania and Connecticut in the United States of America.
Roush, Daniel R.
This article proposes an answer to the primary question of how the American Sign Language (ASL) community in the United States conceptualizes (im)politeness and its related notions. It begins with a review of evolving theoretical issues in research on (im)politeness and related methodological problems with studying (im)politeness in natural…
An influential view of the nature of the language system is that of an evolved biological system in which a set of rules is combined with a lexicon that contains the words of the language together with a representation of their context. Alternative views, usually based on connectionist modeling, attempt to explain the structure of language on the basis of complex associative processes. Here, I put forward a third view that stresses experience-dependent structural development of the brain circuits supporting language as a core principle of the organization of the language system. In this view, embodied in a recent neuroconstructivist neural network of past tense development and processing, initial domain-general predispositions enable the development of functionally specialized brain structures through interactions between experience-dependent brain development and statistical learning in a structured environment. Together, these processes shape a biological adult language system that appears to separate into distinct mechanism for processing rules and exceptions, whereas in reality those subsystems co-develop and interact closely. This view puts experience-dependent brain development in response to a specific language environment at the heart of understanding not only language development but adult language processing as well. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Davies, Christina R; Knuiman, Matthew; Wright, Peter; Rosenberg, Michael
In recent years the health-arts nexus has received increasing attention; however, the relationship is not well understood and the extent of possible positive, negative and unintended outcomes is unknown. Guided by the biopsychosocial model of health and theories of social epidemiology, the aim of this study was to develop a framework pertaining to the relationship between arts engagement and population health that included outcomes, confounders and effect modifiers. A health-arts framework is of value to researchers seeking to build the evidence base; health professionals interested in understanding the health-arts relationship, especially those who use social prescribing for health promotion or to complement treatments; in teaching medical, nursing and health-science students about arts outcomes, as well as artists and health professionals in the development of policy and programmes. A qualitative study was conducted. Semistructured interviews were analysed thematically. Western Australia. 33 Western Australian adults (18+ years). Participants were randomly selected from a pool of general population nominees who engaged in the arts for enjoyment, entertainment or as a hobby (response rate=100%). A thematic analysis was conducted using QSR-NVivo10. The resulting framework contained seven outcome themes and 63 subthemes. Three themes specifically related to health, that is, mental, social and physical health, while economic, knowledge, art and identity outcomes were classified as health determinants. Within each theme, positive, negative and unintended outcomes (subthemes) were identified and categorised as relating to the individual and/or to the community. A list of confounding and/or effect modifying factors, related to both the arts and health, was identified. Given the increasing pressure on health resources, the arts have the potential to assist in the promotion of health and healing. This framework expands on current knowledge, further defines the health-arts
Beyond "Option B+": Understanding Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Adherence, Retention in Care and Engagement in ART Services Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women Initiating Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Myer, Landon; Phillips, Tamsin K
Several studies from sub-Saharan Africa have highlighted significant challenges in providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) to pregnant and postpartum women, with specific concerns around maintaining optimal levels of adherence to ART and/or retaining women in long-term services. However, there are few conceptual frameworks to help understand nonadherence and nonretention, as well as the drivers of these, among HIV-infected women, particularly in the postpartum period. This review provides an overview of the key issues involved in thinking about ART adherence, retention in care and engagement in ART services among pregnant and postpartum women. The related behaviors of adherence and retention may be understood as components of effective engagement of patients in ART services, which share the goal of achieving and maintaining suppressed maternal viral load on ART. Under this framework, the existing literature indicates that disengagement from care is widespread among postpartum women, with strikingly similar data emerging from ART services around the globe and indications that similar challenges may be encountered by postpartum care services outside the context of HIV. However, the drivers of disengagement require further research, and evidence-based intervention strategies are limited. The challenges of engaging women in ART services during pregnancy and the postpartum period seem pervasive, although the determinants of these are poorly understood. Looking forward, a host of innovative intervention approaches are needed to help improve women's engagement, and in turn, promote maternal and child health in the context of HIV.
Full Text Available Since all theories of knowing deal with the being of subjects, objects, instruments and environments, they can be viewed as onto-epistemological. This chapter examines key ideas that emerge from the work of Julia Kristeva – 'the speaking subject', 'materiality of language' and 'heterogeneity' – to demonstrate how ontology and epistemology are inextricably entwined in knowledge production. Kristeva also affirms both the agency of matter and the dimension of human/subjective agency implicated in cultural production. This is contrasted with Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari’s account creative practice. The article also draws on the artistic work of researcher-practitioner Brian Martin, and his account of the relationship between Indigenous Australian art and culture to demonstrate that in an Indigenous world view, the real, the immaterial, the imaginary and the representational occur concurrently.
Stewart, Marilyn G.
National Coalition for Core Arts Standards (NCCAS) Writing Team member Marilyn G. Stewart discusses what to expect from the new "next generation" Visual Arts Standards, detailing the 4 Artistic Processes and 15 Enduring Understandings. This invited essay addresses the instructional aspects of the standards, and looks at how they can help…
Mahadevan, Shankar; Virk, Kashif M.; Madsen, Jan
. We present an abstract system-level modelling and simulation framework (ARTS) which allows for cross-layer modelling and analysis covering the application layer, middleware layer, and hardware layer. ARTS allows MPSoC designers to explore and analyze the network performance under different traffic...... and load conditions, consequences of different task mappings to processors (software or hardware) including memory and power usage, and effects of RTOS selection, including scheduling, synchronization and resource allocation policies. We present the application and platform models of ARTS as well...... as their implementation in SystemC. We present the usage of the ARTS framework as seen from platform developers’ point of view, where new components may be created and integrated into the framework, and from application designers’ point of view, where existing components are used to explore possible implementations...
Shatz, Marilyn; Diesendruck, Gil; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse; Akar, Didar
Study 1 investigated whether differences in the lexical explicitness with which languages express false belief influence children's performance on standard false belief tasks. Preschoolers speaking languages with explicit terms (Turkish and Puerto Rican Spanish) were compared with preschoolers speaking languages without explicit terms (Brazilian Portuguese and English) on questions assessing false belief understanding either specifically (the think question) or more generally (the look for question). Lexical explicitness influenced responses to the think question only. Study 2 replicated Study 1 with groups of both speakers differing in socioeconomic status (SES). A local effect of explicitness was found again as well as a more general influence of SES. The findings are discussed with regard to possible relations among language, SES, and understanding of mind.
Full Text Available Mental image directed semantic theory (MIDST has proposed an omnisensory mental image model and its description language Lmd. This language is designed to represent and compute human intuitive knowledge of space and can provide multimedia expressions with intermediate semantic descriptions in predicate logic. It is hypothesized that such knowledge and semantic descriptions are controlled by human attention toward the world and therefore subjective to each human individual. This paper describes Lmd expression of human subjective knowledge of space and its application to aware computing in cross-media operation between linguistic and pictorial expressions as spatial language understanding.
Full Text Available This study, has been prepeared for examining the advertisement texts creativities and artistic language particularities especially for literary arts. For this reason spoken, written and visual media advertisements has been used. Which media groups will publish this sample advertise ments has been confirmed. The literary arts published in the advertisements have been defined shortly then with this work how much literary arts has been used in the advertisement will be shown you. Bu çalışma, reklam metinlerinin yaratıcı ve sanatsal bir dil özelliğini edebî sanatlar bağlamında incelemek amacıyla hazırlanmıştır. Bu amaçla sözlü, yazılı ve görsel medyadaki reklamlardan ve bazı haber başlıklarından faydalanılmıştır. Örneklemeye alınan reklamların hangi basın yayın organında yayınlandığı belirtilmiştir. Reklamlarda yer alan edebî sanatların önce kısa bir tanımı yapılmış, daha sonra reklamla ilişkilendirerek açıklanmıştır. Bu çalışmayla reklam dilinde edebî sanatların ne ölçüde kullanıldığı gösterilmeye çalışılacaktır.
Hiebert, Elfrieda H.
The typical approach to teaching vocabulary in English/Language Arts programs has been to focus on six to eight words per text. Even though these words may add meaning to a particular story, the target words are often rare and their generalizability is limited. The Vocabulary Megaclusters provides a framework for selecting and teaching words…
Welcome, Simone E.
The purpose for this cross-sectional, non-experimental explanatory quantitative research study was to explain the amount of variance in the High School Proficiency Assessment-11 Language Arts and Mathematics scores accounted for by the amount of instructional minutes at high schools in New Jersey. A proportional, stratified random sample which…
Marks, Jamar Terry
The purpose of this quasi-experimental, nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design study was to determine if any differences existed in upper elementary school students' science academic achievement when instructed using an 8-week integrated science and English language arts literacy supplemental instructional intervention in conjunction…
Varuzza, Michelle; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert; Blake, Brett Elizabeth
Conducted at 10 schools in four communities, this study investigated relationships of young adolescents' reading motivation, reading preference, and reading engagement as influenced by their English Language Arts teachers' use of instructional strategies. Students in eight sixth grade (N = 196) and nine seventh grade (N = 218) classes completed a…
Litman, Cindy; Greenleaf, Cynthia
This study drew on observations of 40 secondary English language arts, history, and science lessons to describe variation in opportunities for students to engage in argumentation and possible implications for student engagement and learning. The authors focused their analysis on two broad dimensions of argumentation tasks: (1) "Instructional…
Golub, Lester; And Others
The procedures used to develop a list of concepts taught in fourth-grade language arts are described. Thirty concepts from the list were randomly sampled and then analyzed. Analysis consisted of listing examples and non-examples, relevant and irrelevant attributes, subordinates and supraordinates, and a definition and principle for each concept.…
Berrong, Darren Andrew
This study examined the relationship between principal turnover rate, percentage of minority students, percentage of students with disabilities, and percentage of students who are economically disadvantaged and student achievement in reading/English language arts and math measured by Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) on the Georgia Criterion…
Wielgosz, Meg; Molyneux, Paul
Students learning English as an additional language (EAL) in Australian schools frequently struggle with the cultural and linguistic demands of the classroom while concurrently grappling with issues of identity and belonging. This article reports on an investigation of the role primary school visual arts programs, distinct programs with a…
Kelly, Sean; Zhang, Yuan; Northrop, Laura; VanDerHeide, Jen; Dunn, Mandie; Caughlan, Samantha
This article reports results from a study of teacher beliefs among a panel of English and language arts teachers at three universities as the pre-service teachers entered methodological coursework and internships. Using a new assessment tool, the Developmental Instruction Assessment Battery (DIAB), along with a discrete choice task and one-on-one…
Lynch, Christopher D.
This study examined the relationship between the 2013 New Jersey High School Proficiency Assessment (HSPA) Language Arts and Mathematics scores and school level data related to family human capital and community social capital found in the extant literature to influence student achievement on high-stakes standardized assessments. School level data…
Edwards, Anthony C.
Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…
Bradbury, Leslie U.
The purpose of this paper is to review the literature published during the last 20 years that investigates the impact of approaches that describe themselves as integrating science and language arts on student learning and/or attitude at the elementary level. The majority of papers report that integrated approaches led to greater student…
The purpose of this action research study was to investigate the effect of full inclusion of EC students in regular Language Arts classes on student performance in reading. The study was instituted from the third week of the school and ran for an entire school year. The target population (an inclusion class of sixth graders) was identified. Data…
Bárcena, Elena; Read, Timothy; Underwood, Joshua; Obari, Hiroyuki; Cojocnean, Diana; Koyama, Toshiko; Pareja-Lora, Antonio; Calle, Cristina; Pomposo, Lourdes; Talaván, Noa; Ávila-Cabrera, José; Ibañez, Ana; Vermeulen, Anna; Jordano, María; Arús-Hita, Jorge; Rodríguez, Pilar; Castrillo, María Dolores; Kétyi, Andras; Selwood, Jaime; Gaved, Mark; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes
In this paper, experiences from different research groups illustrate the state-of-the-art of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (henceforth, MALL) in formal and non-formal education. These research samples represent recent and on-going progress made in the field of MALL at an international level and offer encouragement for practitioners who are…
This article explores the teaching of English to speakers of other languages as an art, and as such, how teachers can engage in the creative process to develop their own teaching and encourage students to gain more meaningful and effective language skills. Drawing on the work of psychologists, art educators, and creative pedagogy, the writer…
Falk, Ylva; Bardel, Camilla
The aim of this article is to give an up-to-date picture of study of the role of the background languages (the first language, L1, and the second language, L2) in third language (L3) acquisition, mainly in the two areas of vocabulary and syntax. These seem to be the two linguistic levels on which there has so far been most research concerning…
Smilan, Cathy A.
Art integration as educational reform has been the focus of recent debate. The suggestion has been made that the arts can provide unique learning opportunities in other content areas. To provide empirical evidence for this added value of the arts in learning, this study investigated the efficacy of teaching science concepts in and through the visual arts by implementing an art integrated lesson. The study investigated the impact of an art integration to assist elementary level learners' visual perception so they could more accurately form mental models of the science ideas. The hypothesis suggests that participants in the art intervention who construct a three-dimensional representation of abstract science concepts will gain an increased understanding of those concepts. Specifically, students who work with parallel concepts in art and science to make and manipulate three-dimensional, kinetic models of the sun, earth, and moon will be able to more accurately visualize the relationships between these heavenly bodies. Fifth grade students participated in the study which was integrated into the regular curriculum. Seventy-six randomly selected students comprised the experimental group and participated in the art project. After the completion of traditional textbook and lecture presentation by the classroom teachers, a researcher developed Science Concept Test was administered to all fifth grade students. Statistically significant results indicated that the differences between the groups on the science concept test were due to the integration of the art intervention. These empirical data show significant differences between the group receiving the art intervention and the group receiving traditional classroom instruction, supporting the efficacy of the art integration model. In conclusion, the study supports the literature that suggests the efficacy of art integration partnerships as alternative avenues for presenting and representing knowledge. The study additionally
Fabamwo, A O; Akinola, O I
This descriptive study was carried out to assess the awareness and acceptability of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) among infertile women in Lagos, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaires on the knowledge of ART in the women were used. After a brief exposé on ART, questions relating to their attitude were answered. A total of 166 women were studied. Only 51.8% had any knowledge of ART and most of these had poor knowledge. A total of 137 women would embrace ART if offered but 29 would not, for reasons such as religion, fear of side-effects, failure and unaffordable costs. There is a paucity of good knowledge of ART. A significant number of the women would consider ART if offered. There is thus a need to create more awareness about the possibilities offered by ART, as well as instituting low cost ART strategies in developing world countries.
Cláudio Benito OLIVEIRA FERRAZ
Full Text Available The wealth, diversity and complexity of Walter Benjamin’s thoughts led us to deepen our understanding of some aspects of his ideas, notably those that refer to a reflection of the role of the truth in the hegemonic philosophical-scientific discourse and its relation to the artistic language as a redimensioning vehicle of the process for the human knowledge creation. In this sense, we have chosen the work `The Origin of German Tragic Drama` as an idea reference towards our worries, highlighting the role of individual experience in order to establish narratives which are able to build a social memory, and technical and technological perseverance as central for the new human perceptions. Such ideas have revealed how modern and important his writings are as far as understanding human beings is concerned.
Integrating environmental education into curriculum in a way that tackles the holistic and complicated nature of multi-dimensional issues continues to be a challenge for educators and administrators. There is potential in using ecological literacy to introduce local environmental case studies into English Language Arts high school classrooms. This research examines the experiences of two ELA classrooms in one Saint John, NB, high school with a two-week unit based on stakeholder relationships within the Saint John Harbour. Through presentations by guest speakers and research sourced from local community groups, students learned about the highly complex environmental issues that inform management decisions for the Harbour. Using these materials as background, students participated in a mock stakeholders meeting. Case study methodology was used to explore student learning in both a higher-level and a lower-level grade 10 ELA class. Data for the analysis included: cognitive mapping exercises; oral and written classroom assignments and activities; a videotape of the mock stakeholder meetings; a focus group interview with selected students; and researcher field notes. Data demonstrated significant student learning about environmental issues including increased sophistication in describing links between and among environmental issues affecting the harbour, and much more complex understandings of the positions and roles of the various stakeholder groups. Some important areas of resistance to new learning were also evident. Implications for practice and policy and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Brod, Richard I.
This report presents the results of the ninth survey of foreign language entrance and degree requirements in United States colleges and universities that grant a bachelor of arts degree. The survey was conducted in 1974 by the Modern Language Association, and was directed at foreign language department chairmen. Responses were received from 98.8…
Into the Curriculum. Art: Landscape Painting; Home Economics/Social Studies: Greek Clothing; Reading/Language Arts: In Search of Greek and Roman Gods and Goddesses!; Science: Magnets; Social Studies/Language Arts: Great Primary Sources on the Great Depression: Using the Library of Congress Collections Online.
Barbour, Jeffrey Paul; Ward, Lisa M.
Provides five fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in art, home economics, social studies, reading, language arts, and science. Library Media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up are described for each…
Lazarević Emilija; Šefer Jasmina
Hermetic textbook language poses a significant problem in education of the young in our country. The goal of this paper is to point out to the complexity of vocabulary in textbooks, which contributes to students' lack of understanding of what they are reading. Since we established that textbooks in narrative subjects - history, geography and biology - are mostly used during studying and that students mark them as especially difficult for understanding, the subject of this research is precisel...
Ramsay, Janet; Cowell, Naina; Gersch, Irvine
This exploratory study adopted a mixed methods methodology, a critical realist ontological stance and a constructionist epistemological position to consider how special educational needs coordinators and pastoral managers in mainstream high schools understand the relationship between problem behaviours and language development. Semi-structured…
Nyachwaya, James M.
The objective of this study was to examine college general chemistry students' conceptual understanding and language fluency in the context of the topic of acids and bases. 115 students worked in groups of 2-4 to complete an activity on conductometry, where they were given a scenario in which a titration of sodium hydroxide solution and dilute…
Visual experience and meaning making in art therapy constitute more than looking at the image created. Clients and therapists utilize the environment of therapy in ways that have been hitherto unrecognized. This article presents a key finding from an art-based study of the experience of the art therapy room from the perspectives of client and…
This article is intended to identify the complex process of children's art making by bringing new methodologies into the analysis of children's pictures. This article analyses the art-making process of a selected drawing by a five-year-old boy. The study builds on previous findings regarding children's verbal discourses during the art-making…
Fremantle, Chris; Kearney, Gemma
Failure forms an important dimension of art and design and is inherent in creative endeavours. This article explores current literature on failure in the art and design context and offers a contribution through qualitative research drawing upon interviews with lecturing staff in a UK art school. The findings from this research emphasise the…
Tustin, Rachel Sarah
Virtual K-12 schools have rapidly become a popular choice for parents and students in the last decade. However, little research has been done on the instructional practices used in virtual courses. As reflected in the central research question, the purpose of this study was to explore how teachers provided instruction for Grade 7-10 students in both English language arts and science courses in a virtual school in a southern state. The conceptual framework was based on Piaget's theory of cognitive development and Garrison, Anderson, and Siemens' research on instructional design. The units of analysis in this qualitative, comparative case study were four virtual courses; the data were collected from teacher and student questionnaires, threaded student discussions, student work samples, and archival records. The first level of data analysis involved coding and categorization using the constant comparative method, and the second level involved examining the data for patterns, themes, and relationships to determine key findings. Results indicated that a standardized virtual course design supported teacher use of direct instruction and summative assessments and some individualized instruction to deliver course content, including adjusting the course pace, conducting individual telephone conferences, and providing small group instruction using Blackboard Elluminate. Opportunities for student interaction and inquiry learning were limited. This study is expected to contribute to positive social change by providing educators and policymakers with an awareness of the critical need for further study of research-based instructional practices in K-12 virtual courses that would improve student learning.
Puranik, Cynthia S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana
The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners' writing performance.
Puranik, Cynthia S.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana
The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners’ writing performance. PMID:24578591
Full Text Available The teaching of grammar has fluctuated and shifted over years. This paper addresses issues such as different ways of teaching grammar, changes in ideas, and practices at the present stage of its development as well as the current state of the art in grammar instruction. Several grammar textbooks which were published in different years also are looked at in order to discover the extent of change in terms of the materials used to teach grammar from time to time. A considerable array of English language teaching methods is available for teacher to utilize since 1980s. Before deciding to employ a particular method, however, educational practitioners need to take several things into consideration such as the objectives of the instruction, the needs, the interests, the expectation, the age, and the level of the learners, and the available supporting facilities. Equally important, the possible constraints such as the environment where the students are learning, the time, and the expectation of the institution are also needed to be considered.
Tompkins, Virginia; Logan, Jessica A R; Blosser, Daniel F; Duffy, Kaylin
Achieving false belief understanding is an important cognitive milestone that allows children to understand that thoughts and reality can differ. Researchers have found that low-income children score significantly lower than middle-income children on false belief understanding but have not examined why this difference exists. We hypothesized that children's language and parent discipline mediate the income-false belief relation. Participants were 174 3- to 6-year-olds. False belief understanding was significantly correlated with family income, children's vocabulary, parents' self-reported discussion of children's behavior, discussion of emotions, and power assertion. Family income had a significant indirect effect on false belief understanding through children's vocabulary and parent discipline when examined independently, but only through children's vocabulary when using parallel multiple mediation. This study contributes to our knowledge of individual differences in false belief understanding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fang, Yuxing; Chen, Quanjing; Lingnau, Angelika; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao
The observation of other people's actions recruits a network of areas including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG). These regions have been shown to be activated through both visual and auditory inputs. Intriguingly, previous studies found no engagement of IFG and IPL for deaf participants during non-linguistic action observation, leading to the proposal that auditory experience or sign language usage might shape the functionality of these areas. To understand which variables induce plastic changes in areas recruited during the processing of other people's actions, we examined the effects of tasks (action understanding and passive viewing) and effectors (arm actions vs. leg actions), as well as sign language experience in a group of 12 congenitally deaf signers and 13 hearing participants. In Experiment 1, we found a stronger activation during an action recognition task in comparison to a low-level visual control task in IFG, IPL and pMTG in both deaf signers and hearing individuals, but no effect of auditory or sign language experience. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of the first experiment using a passive viewing task. Together, our results provide robust evidence demonstrating that the response obtained in IFG, IPL, and pMTG during action recognition and passive viewing is not affected by auditory or sign language experience, adding further support for the supra-modal nature of these regions.
This article responds to two long-standing dilemmas that limit the effectiveness of language education for students who speak and write in African American Language (AAL): (1) the gap between theory and research on AAL and classroom practice, and (2) the need for critical language pedagogies. This article presents the effectiveness of a critical…
Ross, Sheryl Tuttle
Pablo Picasso's "Guernica," Francisco de Goya's "Fifth of May," Eugene Delacroix's "Liberty Leading the People," George Orwell's "Road to Wigan Pier," Leni Riefenstahl's "Triumph of the Will," and D. W. Griffith's "Birth of a Nation," are all examples of expressly political art. Historically some art has been not only an object of aesthetic…
Baker, Vicki L.; Baldwin, Roger G.
We draw upon the evolutionary model of change in order to examine the organizational transformation of three liberal arts colleges (Albion College, Allegheny College, Kenyon College). Relying on our prior research (Baker, Baldwin, & Makker, 2012), we seek to continue our exploration and understanding of the evolution occurring in the important…
Seah, Lay Hoon; Clarke, David; Hart, Christina
This study examines how a class of Grade 7 students employed linguistic resources to explain density differences. Drawing from the same data-set as a previous study by, we take a language perspective to investigate the challenges students face in learning the concept of density. Our study thus complements previous research on learning about density which has mostly focussed on the conceptual challenges. The data consist of transcripts of lessons on density and students' written assignments. Using selected analytical categories from the Systemic Functional Linguistics framework, we first examined students' use of linguistic resources in their written reports of a practical activity. We then compared the language employed by the students with the instructional language, identifying possible links. Our analysis identified specific aspects of language that the students need to appropriate in order to express an understanding of density that aligns with a scientific perspective. The findings from this study illuminate ways by which teachers could assist students in overcoming the linguistic challenges in explaining density differences, which complement those made by existing studies that focus on conceptual challenges.
Seah, Lay Hoon
This study is an attempt to examine the use of linguistic resources by primary science students so as to understand the conceptual and language demands encountered by them when constructing written explanations. The students' written explanations and the instructional language (whole-class discussion and textbook) employed over the topic, the life cycle of plants, in four grade 4 classrooms (age 10) taught by three teachers constitute the data for this study. Students' written explanations were subjected to a combination of content and linguistic analysis. The linguistic analysis was conducted using selected analytical tools from the systemic functional linguistics framework. A diversity of linguistic resources and meanings were identified from the students' explanations, which reveal the extent to which the students were able to employ linguistic resources to construct written scientific explanations and the challenges involved. Both content and linguistic analyses also illuminate patterns of language use that are significant for realising scientific meanings. Finally, a comparison is made in the use of linguistic resources between the students' explanations and the instructional language to highlight possible links. This comparison reveals that the teachers' expectations of the students' written explanations were seldom reflected in their oral questioning or made explicit during the instruction. The findings of this study suggest that a focus on conceptual development is not sufficient in itself to foster students' ability to construct explanations. Pedagogical implications involving the support needed by primary students to construct scientific explanations are discussed.
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment Div.
This Spanish-language version of a booklet intended for parents offers information about how reading instruction is changing and is now only one part of an integrated language arts curriculum. The booklet urges parents and educators to work together to help meet students' needs. Section titles include: Important Facts About Integrated Language…
Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders
Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language - a meta-language - for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and feedback-giving. Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore students' perception of teachers' feedback given on their texts in two genres, and to suggest how writing training and feedback-giving could become more efficient. Sample: In this study were included 44 degree project students in biology and molecular biology, and 21 supervising teachers at a Swedish university. Design and methods: The study concerned students' writing about their degree projects in two genres: scientific writing and popular science writing. The data consisted of documented teacher feedback on the students' popular science texts. It also included students' and teachers' answers to questionnaires about writing and feedback. All data were collected during the spring of 2012. Teachers' feedback, actual and recalled - by students and teachers, respectively - was analysed and compared using the so-called Canons of rhetoric. Results: While the teachers recalled the given feedback as mainly positive, most students recalled only negative feedback. According to the teachers, suggested improvements concerned firstly the content, and secondly the structure of the text. In contrast, the students mentioned language style first, followed by content. Conclusions: The disagreement between students and teachers regarding how and what feedback was given on the students texts confirm the need of improved strategies for writing training and feedback-giving in science education. We suggest that the rhetorical meta-language might play a crucial role in overcoming the difficulties observed in this study. We also discuss how training of writing skills may contribute to
Via interview data focused on instructor practices and values, this study sought to describe some of what performing and visual arts instructors do at the university level to effectively teach disciplinary values through writing. The study's research goals explored how relationships to writing process in visual and performing arts support…
Scientists are using high-energy X-ray instruments to solve mysteries behind art masterpieces, including artwork by Picasso. Learn how Argonne National Laboratory is working with major art institutions, such as The Art Institute of Chicago and Smithsonian Institute, to unlock groundbreaking information about art, the artist, and our cultural heritage. A deep connection to our past and shared cultural heritage must be preserved to foster a balanced society where all humanity can thrive. This talk will describe analysis of paint materials used by Pablo Picasso at the nanoscale, as only possible at the brightest synchrotron sources. It will highlight how new imaging techniques can reveal the invisible, bringing to light underlying compositions of old masters' paintings. This in turn enables the writing of new art history and provides important material clues that can assist with attribution and authentication. We will explain how the use of new technology can lead to new discoveries, which, in turn, can change the public's and the specialists' perception of great works of art. In collaboration with scientists from The Art Institute of Chicago we have teamed up to study the chemical make up of zinc oxide pigments used in artworks by Pablo Picasso. We will show how highly focused X-ray beams with nanoscale spatial resolution and trace element sensitivity have helped to determine that Picasso has used conventional house paint in some of his paintings. Surprisingly, the study gives also new insights into the pigment material zinc oxide, which has also great potential in a variety of applications such as in spintronics or as transparent electrodes in solar panels. Work at the Advanced Photon Source and the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract DEAC02-06CH11357.
The purpose of this study is to examine the English language apprehension and interpersonal communication for 170 international postgraduate students, who study in the College of Art and Science, University of Utara Malaysia. The research objectives are: firstly, to determine to what extent international postgraduate students‘ attitudes influence English language pronunciation for interpersonal communication. Secondly, to examine the relationship between attitudes and English language apprehe...
Ivana Bašičević Antić
The main ideas of ordinary language philosophy were important for both Mangelos and Broodthaers. The idea that the language and more precisely, grammar of the language that defines the rules of connecting names and things is a place where the solution (solution meaning the answer to questions about the nature and definition of art is hidden (behind the obvious, provided a very fruitful basis for their research.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the influence of instructional games on middle school learners' use of scientific language, concept understanding, and attitude toward learning science. The rationale for this study stemmed from the lack of research concerning the value of play as an instructional strategy for older learners. Specifically, the study focused on the ways in which 6 average ability 7th grade students demonstrated scientific language and concept use during gameplay. The data were collected for this 6-week study in a southern New Jersey suburban middle school and included audio recordings of the 5 games observed in class, written documents (e.g., student created game questions, self-evaluation forms, pre- and post-assessments, and the final quiz) interviews, and researcher field notes. Data were coded and interpreted borrowing from the framework for scientific literacy developed by Bybee (1997). Based on the findings, the framework was modified to reflect the level of scientific understanding demonstrated by the participants and categorized as: Unacquainted, Nominal, Functional, and Conceptual. Major findings suggested that the participants predominantly achieved the Functional level of scientific literacy (i.e., the ability to adequately and appropriately use scientific language in both written and oral discourse) during games. Further, it was discovered that the participants achieved the Conceptual level of scientific literacy during gameplay. Through games participants were afforded the opportunity to use common, everyday language to explore concepts, promoted through peer collaboration. In games the participants used common language to build understandings that exceeded Nominal or token use of the technical vocabulary and concepts. Additionally, the participants reported through interviews and self-evaluation forms that their attitude (patterns included: Motivation, Interest, Fun, Relief from Boredom, and an Alternate Learning
Lokono is a critically endangered Northern Arawakan language spoken in the pericoastal areas of the Guianas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana). Today, in every Lokono village there remains only a small number of elderly native speakers. However, in spite of the ongoing language loss, across the three Guianas as well as in the Netherlands, where a…
Full Text Available Hermetic textbook language poses a significant problem in education of the young in our country. The goal of this paper is to point out to the complexity of vocabulary in textbooks, which contributes to students' lack of understanding of what they are reading. Since we established that textbooks in narrative subjects - history, geography and biology - are mostly used during studying and that students mark them as especially difficult for understanding, the subject of this research is precisely the analysis of words which seventh-grade students from primary school state as unfamiliar on a randomly selected, but balanced in terms of length, textbook text of those subjects. The results of frequency analysis indicate that there are a lot of unfamiliar expert words, and frequently the same number, or even more, of common Serbian words in textbook texts, especially in history. Approximately the same or even larger number of unfamiliar words occurs in familiar texts when compared to unfamiliar, which indicates that the previous usage of texts does not contribute to their understanding. Based on correlation analysis referring to the number of unfamiliar words, frequency of textbook usage, perception of difficulty of the text in textbook, general and the achievement in the particular subject, it was determined that unfamiliar words are not only mentioned by students with low grades, although they do it more often, nor that only these students are the ones complaining how difficult textbooks are to them. Based on regression analysis, the number of unfamiliar words, especially in the history textbook, even figures as a predictor of success, which seems contradictory and can be interpreted differently. The results point out to the fact that inaccessibility of textbook language mostly does not guide the students to learn new words, but causes revolt and thus disables the development of language, scientific concepts and acquiring professional terminology
Full Text Available Changing notions of literacy impact and complicate ways in which English language arts educators adapt curriculum in meaningful ways for students. In this paper, I position scholastic journalism as authentic, 21st It is a wintery Saturday morning and a small group of student writers and editors wait outside Publications Room 70 eager for me to unlock the school door. The group is ready to work. They century ELA coursework. I provide an historical overview of scholastic journalism. I emphasize impacts of media law, emergent technologies, and redesigned school literacy goals to the ways in which scholastic journalism negotiates acceptance within ELA curriculum.
Olson, Andrea M; Swabey, Laurie
Despite federal laws that mandate equal access and communication in all healthcare settings for deaf people, consistent provision of quality interpreting in healthcare settings is still not a reality, as recognized by deaf people and American Sign Language (ASL)-English interpreters. The purpose of this study was to better understand the work of ASL interpreters employed in healthcare settings, which can then inform on training and credentialing of interpreters, with the ultimate aim of improving the quality of healthcare and communication access for deaf people. Based on job analysis, researchers designed an online survey with 167 task statements representing 44 categories. American Sign Language interpreters (N = 339) rated the importance of, and frequency with which they performed, each of the 167 tasks. Categories with the highest average importance ratings included language and interpreting, situation assessment, ethical and professional decision making, manage the discourse, monitor, manage and/or coordinate appointments. Categories with the highest average frequency ratings included the following: dress appropriately, adapt to a variety of physical settings and locations, adapt to working with variety of providers in variety of roles, deal with uncertain and unpredictable work situations, and demonstrate cultural adaptability. To achieve health equity for the deaf community, the training and credentialing of interpreters needs to be systematically addressed.
Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D; Anaya, Jissel B; Nieto, Ricardo; Lugo-Neris, Mirza J; Baron, Alisa
This study examines English performance on a set of 11 grammatical forms in Spanish-English bilingual, school-age children in order to understand how item difficulty of grammatical constructions helps correctly classify language impairment (LI) from expected variability in second language acquisition when taking into account linguistic experience and exposure. Three hundred seventy-eight children's scores on the Bilingual English-Spanish Assessment-Middle Extension (Peña, Bedore, Gutiérrez-Clellen, Iglesias, & Goldstein, 2008) morphosyntax cloze task were analyzed by bilingual experience groups (high Spanish experience, balanced English-Spanish experience, high English experience, ability (typically developing [TD] vs. LI), and grammatical form. Classification accuracy was calculated for the forms that best differentiated TD and LI groups. Children with LI scored lower than TD children across all bilingual experience groups. There were differences by grammatical form across bilingual experience and ability groups. Children from high English experience and balanced English-Spanish experience groups could be accurately classified on the basis of all the English grammatical forms tested except for prepositions. For bilinguals with high Spanish experience, it was possible to rule out LI on the basis of grammatical production but not rule in LI. It is possible to accurately identify LI in English language learners once they use English 40% of the time or more. However, for children with high Spanish experience, more information about development and patterns of impairment is needed to positively identify LI.
Full Text Available Working memory is important for online language processing during conversation. We use it to maintain relevant information, to inhibit or ignore irrelevant information, and to attend to conversation selectively. Working memory helps us to keep track of and actively participate in conversation, including taking turns and following the gist. This paper examines the Ease of Language Understanding model (i.e., the ELU model, Rönnberg, 2003; Rönnberg et al., 2008 in light of new behavioral and neural findings concerning the role of working memory capacity (WMC in uni-modal and bimodal language processing. The new ELU model is a meaning prediction system that depends on phonological and semantic interactions in rapid implicit and slower explicit processing mechanisms that both depend on WMC albeit in different ways. A revised ELU model is proposed based on findings that address the relationship between WMC and (a early attention processes in listening to speech, (b signal processing in hearing aids and its effects on short-term memory, (c inhibition of speech maskers and its effect on episodic long-term memory, (d the effects of hearing impairment on episodic and semantic long-term memory, and finally, (e listening effort. New predictions and clinical implications are outlined. Comparisons with other WMC and speech perception models are made.
Belkofer, Christopher M.; McNutt, Jill V.
This article discusses ethics in the context of the participatory culture of social media as it relates to art therapy. The authors present the view that social media formats are important venues for expression that contribute to interpersonal connections and social learning via the active participation of their members. To make informed ethical…
Concurrent to the present reduction of arts education in mainstream American schools, many evolutionary-minded scholars are asserting that artistic behavior contributes significantly to cognition, has been advantageous for our survival, and satisfies psychological needs that are biologically embedded. Supported by long-term and wide-spread art…
Furlich, Stephen A.
Instructor communication behaviors and student motivation to learn relationships were studied at a small liberal arts university. Specifically, relationships between instructor nonverbal immediacy, verbal immediacy behaviors and student motivation to learn were measured. Only instructor verbal immediacy behaviors had a significant linear…
Fahey, Patrick; Cronen, Laura
Students need a genuine voice in the content, process, outcome, and assessment of their learning so they can take ownership of their education (Jaquith and Hathaway 2012). Digital art portfolios allow students to research, document, and reflect on the development and assessment of their learning. Unlike traditional portfolios, which typically…
Kim, Jeong-Hee; Wiehe-Beck, Anna
Teachers in many countries live the language of standards although it is confined to uniformity and standardization. In the United States, for example, teachers teach to what is now called the Common Core State Standards that focus on students' college and career readiness while falling short of developing good judgment and wisdom. In this…
Full Text Available Pragmatics is the study of the relation of signs to interpreters. For English foreign language (EFL learners, the knowledge and comprehensible input of pragmatics is much needed. This paper is based on research project. The writer did the research survey by giving some respondents questionnaire. The respondent is some students from UAD, which is taken randomly. Besides using open questionnaire, the writer also got the data from in depth interview with some EFL learners, the native speaker who teaches English, and also did literature review from some books. The result of the research then gives some evidences that EFL learners difficulties in understanding the English pragmatics occurs in 1 greeting, 2 apologizing, 3 complimenting, and 4 thanking. The factors that promotes EFL learners’ difficulties in understanding because 1 the different culture and values between native speaker and learners; 2 habit that the usually use in their daily life.
Henning Salling Olesen
Full Text Available The article is a guided tour to Alfred LORENZER's proposal for an "in-depth hermeneutic" cultural analysis methodology which was launched in an environment with an almost complete split between social sciences and psychology/psychoanalysis. It presents the background in his materialist socialization theory, which combines a social reinterpretation of the core insights in classical psychoanalysis—the unconscious, the drives—with a theory of language acquisition. His methodology is based on a transformation of the "scenic understanding" from a clinical to a text interpretation, which seeks to understand collective unconscious meaning in text, and is presented with an illustration of the interpretation procedure from social research. Then follows a brief systematic account of key concepts and ideas—interaction forms, engrams, experience, symbolization, language game, utopian imagination—with an outlook to the social theory connections to the Frankfurt School. The practical interpretation procedure in a LORENZER-based psycho-societal research is briefly summarized, emphasizing the role of the researcher subjects in discovering socially unconscious meaning in social interaction. Finally an outlook to contemporary epistemological issues. LORENZER's approach to theorize and research the subject as a socially produced entity appears as a psycho-societal alternative to mainstream social constructivism. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1203229
Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh
Full Text Available Malaysian intercultural society is typified by three major ethnic groups mainly Malays, Chinese and Indians. Although education system is the best tool for these three major ethnic groups to work together, contemporary research reveals that there is still lack of intercultural embedding education context and national schools are seen as breeding grounds of racial polarisation. In Malaysian context, there is a gap in research that focuses on the design of a proper intercultural reading framework for national integration and such initiatives are viable through schools. The main objective of this conceptual paper is to introduce the English Language Intercultural Reading Programme (ELIRP in secondary schools to promote intercultural understanding among secondary school students. The proposed framework will facilitate the acquisition of intercultural inputs without being constrained by ideological, political, or psychological demands. This article will focus on elucidating how ELIRP could affect cognitive (knowledge and behavioural transformations to intercultural perceptions harboured by selected Form 4 students of 20 national schools in Malaysia. Keywords: behavior, knowledge, intercultural reading framework, intercultural understanding, English Language Intercultural Reading Programme, secondary school students
Students may use the technical engineering terms without knowing what these words mean. This creates a language barrier in engineering that influences student learning. Previous research has been conducted to characterize the difference between colloquial and scientific language. Since this research had not yet been applied explicitly to…
Arciuli, Joanne; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss
Mastery of language can be a struggle for some children. Amongst those that succeed in achieving this feat there is variability in proficiency. Cognitive scientists remain intrigued by this variation. A now substantial body of research suggests that language acquisition is underpinned by a child's capacity for statistical learning (SL). Moreover, a growing body of research has demonstrated that variability in SL is associated with variability in language proficiency. Yet, there is a striking lack of longitudinal data. To date, there has been no comprehensive investigation of whether a capacity for SL in young children is, in fact, associated with language proficiency in subsequent years. Here we review key studies that have led to the need for this longitudinal research. Advancing the language acquisition debate via longitudinal research has the potential to transform our understanding of typical development as well as disorders such as autism, specific language impairment, and dyslexia.
Klos, P. Z.; Holtsnider, L.
Climate Odyssey (climateodyssey.org) is a year-long sailing expedition and continuing collaboration aimed at using overlaps in science and visual art to communicate coastal climate change impacts and solutions. We, visual artist Lucy Holtsnider and climate scientist Zion Klos, are using our complimentary skills in art, science and communication to engage audiences both intuitively and cognitively regarding the urgency of climate change through story and visualization. Over the 2015 - 2016 academic year, we embarked on the sailing portion of Climate Odyssey, beginning in Lake Michigan, continuing along the Eastern Seaboard, and concluding in the tropics. Along the way we photographed climate change impacts and adaptation strategies, interviewed stakeholders, scientists, and artists. We are now sharing our photographs and documented encounters through a tangible artist's book, interactive digital map, blog, and series of K16 lesson plans. Each of our images added to the artist's book and digital map are linked to relevant blog entries and other external scientific resources, making the map both a piece of art and an engaging education tool for sharing the science of climate change impacts and solutions. After completing the sailing component of the project, we have now finalized our multi-media resources and are working to share these with the public via libraries, galleries, and K16 classrooms in coastal communities. At AGU, we will share with our peers the completed version of the series of K16 lesson plans that provide educators an easy-to-use way to introduce and utilize the material in the artist's book, digital map, and online blog. Through this, we hope to both discuss climate-focused education and engagement strategies, as well as showcase this example of art-science outreach with the broader science education and communication community that is focused on climate literacy in the U.S. and beyond.
Full Text Available In the first of four lectures on Nietzsche’s philosophy, “The Will to Poweras Art” (1936-37, Heidegger argues that the unique and importantrelationship between truth and art, which Nietzsche suggests, must beunderstood “with a view to the conquest of nihilism,” i.e., within the historical context of a radically novel interpretation of sensuous reality. Beginning with the project of overturning Platonism as the active countermovement to nihilism, this essay interprets Heidegger’s difficult notion of the discordant relationship between truth (the fixation of semblance and art (the transfiguration of semblance in Nietzsche’s philosophy, emphasizing the supreme importance of art as life’s greatest enhancing force. The analysis is conducted within the context of Nietzsche’s metaphysics as presented by Heidegger, who claims thatas a metaphysical thinker, Nietzsche could not explain such topics as “truth,” “Being,” and “Becoming” in terms beyond the conceptualization of Western philosophy. In spite of that, his thought intimates a movement beyond the constraints of the tradition within which he was entrenched. In addition to providing a detailed exegesis of Heidegger’s lecture course, the problems associated with Heidegger’s metaphysical interpretation of Nietzsche’s philosophy will be discussed, problems that commentators such as Alan Schrift (Nietzsche and the Question of Interpretation believe stem from Heidegger’s stringent and restrictive methodological choices for approaching the reading of Nietzsche.
Chinese Education, 1973
Guidelines for the development of teaching materials that reflect the realities of the Three Great Revolutionary Movements are presented. It is recommended that materials be in conformity with the language laws and advantageous to training for the basic mastery of language. (SM)
Full Text Available The author considers Wittgenstein’s thesis from his Tractatus logico-philosophicus: “ethics and aesthetics are one” (6.421 in the light of three statements which can be found in his Notebooks 1914-1916: “Art is a kind of expression”; “The work of art is the object seen sub specie aeternitatis; and the good life is the world seen sub specie aeternitatis. This is the connection between art and ethics”; and “Life is serious, art is gay.” Next, the author approaches Iris Murdoch’s novel Under the Net in terms of Wittgenstein’s thesis that ethics and aesthetics are one because both belong to the sphere of what cannot be said and what can only be demonstrated. This novel was inspired by Wittgenstein’s philosophy expounded in his Tractatus… as well as by himself as a mentor for many students of philosophy, including Murdoch herself.
Cummine, Jacqueline; Boliek, Carol A
Recent studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have described overall white matter integrity in bilinguals but have not related structural neural pathways to language functions. The current study examined white matter integrity and its relationship to reading skill in monolingual English and bilingual Chinese-English speakers. Eleven monolingual speakers (mean age 28.5 years) and 13 bilingual speakers (mean age 24.2 years; English as a second language was acquired post 5 years of age) participated. Behavioural response times and accuracy rates to name regular and exception words were recorded. Participants were then scanned using a standardized DTI protocol. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity values were derived from a voxelwise statistical analysis for comparisons between participant groups. Tests for relationships between response time and FA were also conducted. Our results show minimal regions of higher FA for monolinguals when compared to bilinguals and no regions of higher FA for bilinguals when compared to monolinguals, which indicates that white matter integrity may not stabilize in bilinguals until late adulthood. We do show several regions where an increase in FA is associated with faster response times. Interestingly, the FA-response time relationship varies between groups and between word types, which may reflect an increased processing demand for retrieval of difficult words (e.g., exception words). These results provide some support for the interference control and reduced frequency hypotheses outlined by Jones et al. (Cerebr Cortex 22:892-902, 2012). The current findings advance our understanding of the underlying cortical networks associated with language status and reading skill in monolingual and bilingual adults.
Reviews three books on the acquisition of Japanese as a second language: "Second Language Acquisition Process in the Classroom" by A.S. Ohta;"The Acquisition of Grammar by Learners of Japanese" (English translation of title), by H. Noda, K. Sakoda, K. Shibuya, and N. Kobayashi; and "The Acquisition of Japanese as a Second Language," B. K. Kanno,…
Indianapolis Public Schools, IN.
The language program and the six thematic literature units outlined in this oral-aural-visual guide for grade 9 were developed by the Indianapolis Public Schools under Title III, Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The literature units--"Excitement at Your Elbow,""Worlds of the Weird and the Wayout,""Close-Ups,""War and the Individual,""A…
Pepin, Gina M.
Although the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001 created new instructional intervention practices, reading and writing scores across K-12 and postsecondary levels continue to reflect stagnant achievement outcomes. The research questions in this study concerned the effect of a northern Michigan middle school language arts…
Atlee, Marilyn; Hardin, Linda Friddle
Presents 2 articles concentrating on middle-school teaching: 1 that describes how a teacher, using 12 zip-lock sandwich bags and 300 small ceramic tiles, may create "grammar tiles," a method for teaching the parts of speech; and another that describes several innovative ways in which students have learned to work with language while manipulating…
Greenfader, Christa Mulker; Brouillette, Liane
Background/Context: Throughout schooling, English learners (ELs) perform well below their monolingual English-speaking peers on literacy assessments, and Hispanics make up the majority of EL students in the United States. There is a strong consensus about the importance of early English oral language skills for ELs' literacy development, yet…
Describes the computer as a hammer, a tool with unique qualities that allows people to perceive, manipulate, and express language in ways quite different from traditional media. Explores the tool of the multimedia presentation, a common use of technology in classrooms today. Describes a simple project with sixth graders that incorporates reading,…
Yoon, Sae Yeol
The purpose of this study was to explore the development of students' understanding through writing while immersed in an environment where there was a strong emphasis on a language-based argument inquiry approach. Additionally, this study explored students' spoken discourse to gain a better understanding of what role(s) talking plays in the development of understanding through writing. Finally, the study proposed a new concept of Discourse Space, which enabled researchers to improve their understanding of the characteristics of the development of student cognition through writing, and of the roles talking plays in cognitive development through writing. This study was guided by the research question: What patterns of the development of fifth grade students' cognition over time emerge in their private and public negotiations under a teacher who is ranked as a low-level implementer of the SWH approach? This question was divided into two sub-questions: (a) Throughout a unit, Ecosystems, what patterns emerge regarding the development of six fifth grade students' understanding through writing, and b) What patterns of the development of Discourse Space emerge through talking in three different contexts. In order to answer these questions, this qualitative research employed a generic qualitative study. Twenty-one fifth grade students participated in this study, and six students were purposefully selected through which to further investigate the development of an understanding of science through private negotiation while immersed in a language-based argument inquiry approach. Major data sources included students' writing samples, informal conversations with the teacher, researcher's field notes, and classroom videos. Additionally, the teacher's modified RTOP scores and semi-structured interviews were used to deepen the contextual understanding of the learning environment and the teacher's instructional performance. The data analysis was conducted by utilizing discourse
Noise-resistant and nuanced, COGBASE makes 10 million pieces of commonsense data and a host of novel reasoning algorithms available via a family of semantically-driven prior probability distributions. Machine learning, Big Data, natural language understanding/processing, and social AI can draw on COGBASE to determine lexical semantics, infer goals and interests, simulate emotion and affect, calculate document gists and topic models, and link commonsense knowledge to domain models and social, spatial, cultural, and psychological data. COGBASE is especially ideal for social Big Data, which tends to involve highly implicit contexts, cognitive artifacts, difficult-to-parse texts, and deep domain knowledge dependencies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Classical cognitive theories hold that word representations in the brain are abstract and amodal, and are independent of the objects’ sensorimotor properties they refer to. An alternative hypothesis emphasises the importance of bodily processes in cognition: the representation of a concept appears to be crucially dependent upon perceptual-motor processes that relate to it. Thus, understanding action-related words would rely upon the same motor structures that also support the execution of the same actions. In this context, motor simulation represents a key component. Our approach is to draw parallels between the literature on mental rotation and the literature on action verb/sentence processing. Here we will discuss recent studies on mental imagery, mental rotation, and language that clearly demonstrate how motor simulation is neither automatic nor necessary to language understanding. These studies have shown that motor representations can or cannot be activated depending on the type of strategy the participants adopt to perform tasks involving motor phrases. On the one hand, participants may imagine the movement with the body parts used to carry out the actions described by the verbs (i.e., motor strategy; on the other, individuals may solve the task without simulating the corresponding movements (i.e., visual strategy. While it is not surprising that the motor strategy is at work when participants process action-related verbs, it is however striking that sensorimotor activation has been reported also for imageable concrete words with no motor content, for non-words with regular phonology, for pseudo-verb stimuli, and also for negations. Based on the extant literature, we will argue that implicit motor imagery is not uniquely used when a body-related stimulus is encountered, and that it is not the type of stimulus that automatically triggers the motor simulation but the type of strategy. Finally, we will also comment on the view that
Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.
Curriculum Guide for Spanish Language Arts, Elementary Level M. Field Test, Working Draft = Guia para la ensenanza de las artes del lenguaje espanol, nivel elemental adelantado M. Edicion experimental.
Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.
The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section outlining the program and defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, and literature appreciation. Sections…
Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.
Curriculum Guide for Spanish Language Arts, Elementary Level N. Field Test, Working Draft = Guia para la ensenanza de las artes del lenguaje espanol, nivel elemental adelantado N. Edicion experimental.
Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.
The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section outlining the program and defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, and literature appreciation. Sections…
Curriculum Guide for Spanish Language Arts, Elementary Level L. Field Test, Working Draft = Guia para la ensenanza de las artes del lenguaje espanol, nivel elemental intermedio L. Edicion experimental.
Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.
The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section outlining the program and defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, and literature appreciation. Sections…
Full Text Available The representation of other arts in cinema can be regarded as a different semiotic system revealing what is hidden in the narrative, as a site of cultural meanings inherent to the cinematic apparatus addressing a pensive spectator, or a discourse on cinema born in the space of intermediality. In the post-1989 films of Romanian director Lucian Pintilie, painterly and sculptural references, as well as miniatures become figurations of cultural identity inside allegories about a society torn between East and West. I argue that art references are liberating these films from provincialism by transforming them into a discourse lamenting over the loss of Western, Christian and local values, endangered or forgotten in the post-communist era. In the films under analysis – An Unforgettable Summer (1994, Too Late (1996 and Tertium Non Datur (2006 – images reminding of Byzantine iconography, together with direct references and remediations of sculptures by Romanian-born Constantin Brâncuşi, participate in historico-political allegories as expressions of social crisis and the transient nature of values. They also reveal the tension between an external and internal image of Romania, the aspiration of the “other Europe” to connect with the European cultural tradition, in a complex demonstration of a “self-othering” process. I will also argue that, contrary to the existing criticism, this generalizing, allegorical tendency can also be detected in some of the films of the generation of filmmakers representing the New Romanian Cinema, for example in Radu Jude’s Aferim! (2015.1
Machine translation systems often incorporate modeling assumptions motivated by properties of the language pairs they initially target. When such systems are applied to language families with considerably different properties, translation quality can deteriorate. Phrase-based machine translation
A arte de contar histórias, integrada a outras linguagens de arte: uma prática pedagógica na educação básica The art of storytelling integrated to other languages of art: an educational practice in primary education
Marina Tarnowski Fasanello
Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir a relevância da arte de contar histórias, integrada a outras linguagens de arte e expressão enquanto prática pedagógica desencadeadora de processos criativos e de autoconhecimento no âmbito da educação básica. O artigo está organizado em duas partes: a primeira aborda as bases conceituais da arte-educação e da arte de contar histórias; e a segunda relata experiências profissionais de um dos autores, desenvolvidas entre 1998 e 2006, no âmbito da chamada "Oficina Escola de Arte Granada", envolvendo atividades complementares à escola com alunos e professores de escolas públicas no município de Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro. Tais experiências reforçam a importância de buscar alternativas pedagógicas para o desenvolvimento de escolas criativas e transformadoras da realidade, que estimulem alunos mais autônomos e futuros cidadãos.This article discusses the relevance of the art of storytelling integrated to other art languages and expressions As a teaching practice which can promote creative and self-knowledge processes in the context of basic education. The article is organized in two parts: firstly we approach the conceptual bases of art-education and the art of storytelling; secondly we explain some professional experiences developed by one of the authors between 1998 and 2006 related to the "Granada School of Art", an educational organization dedicated to art education and storytelling, involving complementary activities to formal education with students and teachers from public schools in the municipality of Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State. Such experiences reinforce the importance of looking for pedagogic alternatives to the development of creative and engaged schools that generate autonomy and citizenship among students.
This grounded theory study explored the conceptualization of authenticity in language education. The participants were 30 Iranian English language educators, who were studied as adult learners. The findings revealed that authenticity was conceptualized by language educators as a social and reflective practice under the influence of the…
Sanden, Guro Refsum
Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...
The growing need to understand a Kenyan child in learning situations today indeed broadens our quest to understand literacy and related text forms associated with information and multimedia technologies. Media today constitute socialization avenues for children in the contemporary society. They play a relation in family ...
Garrity, Sarah; Guerra, Alison Wishard
The school-readiness gap for Latino dual language learners in the United States has been well documented, despite a strong research base highlighting effective strategies and practices for supporting their academic success. However, current educational practices reflect the hegemonic discourse that, because the United States is an English-speaking…
Litman, Cindy; Marple, Stacy; Greenleaf, Cynthia; Charney-Sirott, Irisa; Bolz, Michael J.; Richardson, Lisa K.; Hall, Allison H.; George, MariAnne; Goldman, Susan R.
This study presents a descriptive analysis of 71 videotaped lessons taught by 34 highly regarded secondary English language arts, history, and science teachers, collected to inform an intervention focused on evidence-based argumentation from multiple text sources. Studying the practices of highly regarded teachers is valuable for identifying…
Martínez, Ramón Antonio
This article draws on scholarship in educational and linguistic anthropology to explore awareness of Spanish-English code-switching among bilingual Chicana/o and Latina/o students in a sixth-grade English Language Arts classroom. Analysis of qualitative data gathered via participant observation, video/audio recording, and semistructured interviews…
Despite the significance of vocabulary knowledge to student learning, limited studies have examined English language arts (ELA) teachers' skills and practices that may be effective for building word consciousness in high school Mexican-American bilingual students. The research objective of the present study is to examine how two high school ELA…
Watson, Dwight C.
The controversial and complicated nature of the "N" word is examined in a multicultural classroom project. Utilizing both old and new literature, pop culture, historical lenses, and contemporary interpretations, the word proves extremely relevant in today's language arts classroom. By examining students' perceptions and experiences as well as the…
Turnamian, Peter G.
This study examined the strength and direction of the relationship between 2009 NJ ASK 3 Language Arts and Mathematics scores and district social and demographic data (i.e., lone-parent household, level of parental education, and household income levels) found in the extant literature to influence student achievement on high-stakes standardized…
Krause, Dorothy Loretta
The attitudes and opinions of secondary school language arts teachers and administrators on the island of Oahu were surveyed regarding the traditional letter grading system and their uses of it. By administering a questionnaire on the letter grade system and computing the responses, data were obtained on educator attitudes toward the definition…
Plevier, Meghan M.
The purpose of this relational, non-experimental, explanatory, cross sectional study with quantitative methods was to explain the influence of length of school day, if any, on Grade 4 and Grade 5 student achievement in Language Arts and Mathematics as measured by the high-stakes New Jersey standardized test entitled New Jersey Assessment of Skills…
Stoneberg, Bert D.
Idaho uses the English Language Arts and Mathematics tests from the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) for the Idaho Standard Achievement Tests. ISAT results have been reported almost exclusively as "percent proficient or above" statistics (i.e., the percentage of Idaho students who performed at the "A" level). This…
White, Larry; Hixson, Nate
This report summarizes an evaluation study investigating the effects of participation in the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (CCLC) program on student achievement in mathematics and reading/language arts, for the cohort of students who participated during the 2012-2013 school year. The report is a supplement to the Office of Assessment,…
White, Larry; Whisman, Andy
This report summarizes an evaluation study investigating the effects of participation in the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (CCLC) program on student achievement in mathematics and reading/language arts, for the cohort of students who participated during the 2013-2014 school year. The report is a supplement to the Office of Assessment,…
Martinez, Danny C.
This article addresses teachers' uptake of Black and Latina/o youth linguistic repertoires within the official space of an English Language Arts (ELA) classroom and how youth respond to corrective feedback that is focused on the form of their messages, rather than their function. Corrective feedback offered by one Latina teacher indexed larger…
Igor Alexandre Capellato
Full Text Available This article proposes a dialogue on what art is, through a semiotic perspective (Peirce, researching artists such as Jan Svankmajer, Marcel Duchamp, Salvador Dali, and others, to find possible arguments that lead to a new perception of art, its technical and symbolic functionality, as well as the process of continuity where the work of art is placed in its function as a sign. In order to carry out this analysis, we consider the creative process up to its condition before the spectator, considering every constructive and perceptive signs that put 'something' in the condition to match the definition of art.
Elio Jesús Cruz Rondón
Full Text Available Learning a foreign language may be a challenge for most people due to differences in the form and structure between one’s mother tongue and a new one. However, there are some tools that facilitate the teaching and learning of a foreign language, for instance, new applications for digital devices, video blogs, educational platforms, and teaching materials. Therefore, this case study aims at understanding the role of teaching materials among beginners’ level students learning English as a foreign language. After conducting five non-participant classroom observations and nine semi-structured interviews, we found that the way the teacher implemented a pedagogical intervention by integrating the four language skills, promoting interactive learning through the use of online resources, and using the course book led to a global English teaching and learning process.
Full Text Available In the last decades, Natural Language Processing (NLP has obtained a high level of success. Interactions between NLP and Serious Games have started and some of them already include NLP techniques. The objectives of this paper are twofold: on the one hand, providing a simple framework to enable analysis of potential uses of NLP in Serious Games and, on the other hand, applying the NLP framework to existing Serious Games and giving an overview of the use of NLP in pedagogical Serious Games. In this paper we present 11 serious games exploiting NLP techniques. We present them systematically, according to the following structure: first, we highlight possible uses of NLP techniques in Serious Games, second, we describe the type of NLP implemented in the each specific Serious Game and, third, we provide a link to possible purposes of use for the different actors interacting in the Serious Game.
.... After examining some situations in which United States and British forces carried out counterinsurgency operations, the author reveals that ground troops with foreign-language skills and cultural...
Berkel, Cady; Murry, Velma McBride; Roulston, Kathryn J; Brody, Gene H
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of considering both fidelity and adaptation in assessing the implementation of evidence-based programs. The current study employs a multi-method strategy to understand two dimensions of implementation (fidelity and adaptation) in the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program. Data were video recordings of program delivery and pre-test and post-test interviews from the efficacy trial. Multilevel regression in Mplus was used to assess the impact of fidelity to the manual, coded by independent observers, on racial socialization outcomes. One activity on racial socialization, a core component of the program, was selected for an in-depth examination using conversation analysis (a qualitative method of analyzing talk in interactions). Results of the quantitative analyses demonstrated that fidelity of the selected activity was associated with increases in parent's use of racial socialization from pre-test to post-test, but only when participant attendance was included in the model. Results of the qualitative analyses demonstrated that facilitators were making adaptations to the session and that these adaptations appeared to be in line with cultural competence. The development of quantitative fidelity measures can be problematic, with many decision points to consider. The current study contributes to the evidence base to develop a quantitative measure of adaptation for family-based parenting programs. Many researchers examining implementation of evidence-based programs consider fidelity and adaptation to be polar ends of a single spectrum. This paper provides evidence for the importance of examining each independently.
Akerblom, Annika; Anderberg, Elsie; Alvegard, Christer; Svensson, Lennart
In this article the role of children's awareness of the function of language use is examined in an empirical, qualitative investigation. Forty children of six and 10 years old were asked to make sense of a science problem in special dialogue setting where they were encouraged to reflect on their own language use. The article concerns the interplay…
Tomblin, J. Bruce; Mueller, Kathyrn L.
This article provides a background for the topic of comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and spoken and written language and speech disorders that extends through this issue of "Topics in Language Disorders." Comorbidity is common within developmental disorders and may be explained by many possible reasons. Some of these can be…
Adams, Helga; Nicolson, Margaret
In this article, the authors examine the fourth stage of their research into diversity in the languages classroom, focusing specifically on the teacher perspective in planning for and managing diversity in adult student groups. The article discusses findings from a day with experienced Open University language teachers working together on lesson…
Sun, Peijian; Yuan, Rui; Teng, Lin
This research explored the congruence and disparity between teachers' and students' attitudes towards French as a second language (L2) teaching strategies in a non-target language classroom context in the USA. The findings suggest students' and teachers' attitudes towards the direct and indirect teaching strategies were generally consistent, but…
Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Chen, Ke Heng; Xu, Fei
Languages function as independent and distinct conventional systems, and so each language uses different words to label the same objects. This study investigated whether 2-year-old children recognize that speakers of their native language and speakers of a foreign language do not share the same knowledge. Two groups of children unfamiliar with Mandarin were tested: monolingual English-learning children (n=24) and bilingual children learning English and another language (n=24). An English speaker taught children the novel label fep. On English mutual exclusivity trials, the speaker asked for the referent of a novel label (wug) in the presence of the fep and a novel object. Both monolingual and bilingual children disambiguated the reference of the novel word using a mutual exclusivity strategy, choosing the novel object rather than the fep. On similar trials with a Mandarin speaker, children were asked to find the referent of a novel Mandarin label kuò. Monolinguals again chose the novel object rather than the object with the English label fep, even though the Mandarin speaker had no access to conventional English words. Bilinguals did not respond systematically to the Mandarin speaker, suggesting that they had enhanced understanding of the Mandarin speaker's ignorance of English words. The results indicate that monolingual children initially expect words to be conventionally shared across all speakers-native and foreign. Early bilingual experience facilitates children's discovery of the nature of foreign language words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Communication is a fundamental life skill and acts as the foundation on which many other areas of development are based. Any child who is not developing their speech, language and communication skills in the expected way is considered to have speech, language and communication needs (SLCN). These range from children with delayed speech and language development, whose difficulties will resolve with the correct intervention, to children with long term, persistent difficulties in one or more areas of their speech, language and communication development. Speech, language and communication is a skill central to other areas of development, meaning the impacts of SLCN can be significant. These impacts can be minimised by ensuring early identification and support for those children and young people who are presenting with SLCN.
Exploring the Relationships between Independent Listening and Listening-Reading-Writing Tasks in Chinese Language Testing: Toward a Better Understanding of the Construct Underlying Integrated Writing Tasks
Zhu, Xinhua; Li, Xueyan; Yu, Guoxing; Cheong, Choo Mui; Liao, Xian
Integrated assessment tasks have been increasingly used in language tests, but the underlying constructs of integrated tasks remain elusive. This study aimed to improve understanding of the construct of integrated writing tasks in Chinese Language examinations in Hong Kong by looking at the language competences measured in the…
Marks, Jamar Terry
The purpose of this quasi-experimental, nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design study was to determine if any differences existed in upper elementary school students' science academic achievement when instructed using an 8-week integrated science and English language arts literacy supplemental instructional intervention in conjunction with traditional science classroom instruction as compared to when instructed using solely traditional science classroom instruction. The targeted sample population consisted of fourth-grade students enrolled in a public elementary school located in the southeastern region of the United States. The convenience sample size consisted of 115 fourth-grade students enrolled in science classes. The pretest and posttest academic achievement data collected consisted of the science segment from the Spring 2015, and Spring 2016 state standardized assessments. Pretest and posttest academic achievement data were analyzed using an ANCOVA statistical procedure to test for differences, and the researcher reported the results of the statistical analysis. The results of the study show no significant difference in science academic achievement between treatment and control groups. An interpretation of the results and recommendations for future research were provided by the researcher upon completion of the statistical analysis.
Cunningham, Anne E; Zibulsky, Jamie; Stanovich, Keith E; Stanovich, Paula J
As teacher quality becomes a central issue in discussions of children's literacy, both researchers and policy makers alike express increasing concern with how teachers structure and allocate their lesson time for literacy-related activities as well as with what they know about reading development, processes, and pedagogy. The authors examined the beliefs, literacy knowledge, and proposed instructional practices of 121 first-grade teachers. Through teacher self-reports concerning the amount of instructional time they would prefer to devote to a variety of language arts activities, the authors investigated the structure of teachers' implicit beliefs about reading instruction and explored relationships between those beliefs, expertise with general or special education students, years of experience, disciplinary knowledge, and self-reported distribution of an array of instructional practices. They found that teachers' implicit beliefs were not significantly associated with their status as a regular or special education teacher, the number of years they had been teaching, or their disciplinary knowledge. However, it was observed that subgroups of teachers who highly valued particular approaches to reading instruction allocated their time to instructional activities associated with other approaches in vastly different ways. It is notable that the practices of teachers who privileged reading literature over other activities were not in keeping with current research and policy recommendations. Implications and considerations for further research are discussed.
) of how employers in internship interviews orient to internship candidates as members of the category ‘second language speaker’, this paper examines the strategies employed by second languages speakers for refuting suspected language difficulties. Inspired by the training method CARM (Stokoe, 2011; 2013...... communication by illuminating not only the interactional trajectories of inquiries about understanding but also the interactional resources available to second language speakers of effectively ensuring intersubjectivity....
Ghobadi, Mehdi; Ghasemi, Hadi
Translation and language teaching techniques which take language learners' first language (L1) as point of reference for teaching the second language (L2) have been long discouraged on the ground that these teaching techniques would end in the fossilization of L2 structure forms in the learner's Interlanguage system. However, in recent years, the…
Varelas, Maria; Pappas, Christine; Barry, Anne; O'Neill, Amy
Presents units that address states of matter and changes of states of matter linked with the water cycle and integrates literacy and science. Discusses the language in science books. Lists characteristics of good science inquiry units. (Contains 11 references.) (ASK)
Into the Curriculum. Health/Nutrition: It's a Way of Life [and] Mathematics/Reading/Language Arts: GeoRugs [and] Music: Question Songs for Search and Sing Along [and] Reading/Language Arts: Using a Team Approach in Teaching Children's Poetry [and] Social Studies: King Abdul Aziz: The Founder of Saudi Arabia [and] Social Studies: Women of the American West.
Page, Angela D.; Thermos, Mary; Timblin, Carol; Arishee, Jabreel; Stack, Jack; Troisi, Andrea
Presents six curriculum guides for health/nutrition, mathematics, reading, language arts, and social studies. Each activity identifies library media skills objectives, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, librarians and teacher instructional roles, activity and procedures for completion, activity samples, guidelines for evaluating…
Into the Curriculum. Reading/Language Arts: Three Little Kittens and the Lost Mittens; Reading/Language Arts: A Caldecott Archaeological Dig; Science: Discovering the Periodic Table of Elements; Science: The Red-Eyed Tree Frog Jumps into Nonfiction; Social Studies: Our Nation's Beginnings-Jamestown and Plymouth Settlements.
Cherry, Carolyn; Louk, Cathy; Barwick, Martha; Kidd, Gentry E.
Provides five fully developed school library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in reading/language arts, science, and social studies. Library media skills objectives, curriculum (subject area) objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedures for completion, evaluation, and…
Into the Curriculum. Reading/Language Arts: Frog's Fabulous Fallacy [and] Reading/Language Arts: An Integrated Approach to Children's Book Week [and] Science: Demonstrating the Importance of the Rain Forest in Our Daily Lives [and] Science: What Is a Planet? [and] Social Studies: The Twenties, Roaring Again: An Interdisciplinary Project.
Goldstein, Maria D.; Ritz-Salminen, Dianne; Abu-Ghazaleh, Samer; Portocarreo, Elisabeth A.; Barnes, Marilyn E.
Provides five fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in elementary school reading and language arts and science, and secondary school social studies. Library media skills, objectives, grade levels, instructional roles, evaluation, and follow-up are described for each activity. (LRW)
Into the Curriculum. Nutrition: Where Is the Taste of Sweetness on the Tongue? Or, the History of Candy [and] Reading/Language Arts: Historical Fact and Fiction [and] Reading/Language Arts: Smart Television Viewing [and] Science: Which Fish? [and] Social Studies: Family Reunion Time! [and] Social Studies: Lighthouse and Shoreline.
Stafford, Brenda; Bailey, Annette; Atkins, Rebecca L.
Provides five fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in nutrition, reading and language arts, science, and social studies. Each activity identifies library media skills, objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedures for completion, evaluation, and…
Full Text Available This article examines concepts often used in debates on language proficiency and proficiency testing. It argues that the notion of "reality", when used by contrast with the "constructed" world of the test, is naive. Such "reality" is also "constructed" in words. This insight opens up important questions in language testing. Hierdie artikel ondersoek begrippe wat dikwels in debatte oor taalvaardigheid en taalvaardigheidstoetsing gebruik word Daar word geredeneer dat die begrip "werklikheid" naief is wanneer dit as kontrasterende be grip teenoor die "gekonstrueerde" wereld van die toets gebruik word Hierdie "werklikheid" word ook in woorde ''gekonstrueer". Belangrike vrae met be trekking tot taaltoetsing word deur hierdie insig aan die orde gestel.
Elliott, Elizabeth; Leach, Amy-May
We examined the impact of interviewees' language proficiencies on observers' lie detection performance. Observers (N = 132) were randomly assigned to make deception judgments about interviewees (N = 56) from Four proficiency groups (i.e., native, advanced, intermediate, and beginner English speakers). Discrimination between lie- and truth-tellers was poorest when observers judged beginner English speakers compared to interviewees from any other proficiency group. Observers were also less likely to exhibit a truth-bias toward nonnative than native English speakers. These results suggest that interviewing individuals in their nonnative languages can create inequalities in the justice system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Integrated art history and language arts activities are presented in this curriculum guide. The art history content is chronologically organized by units: (1) "Art of the Ancient World"; (2) "Arts of the East and Africa"; (3) "Art of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance"; (4) "Five European Masters"; (5) "Impressionism and Post-Impressionism"; (6)…
Charity Hudley, Anne H.; Mallinson, Christine
In today's culturally diverse classrooms, students possess and use many culturally, ethnically, and regionally diverse English language varieties that may differ from standardized English. This book helps classroom teachers become attuned to these differences and offers practical strategies to support student achievement while fostering positive…
Zhu, Wei; Flaitz, Jeffra
Assessing students' language needs is the indispensable first step in EAP (English for Academic Purposes) curriculum development. In this article, we report a portion of the results from a needs assessment study whose ultimate purpose was to inform curriculum development in EAP contexts. We used the focus group methodology to examine learner needs…
Bouchereau Bauer, Eurydice; Guerrero, Beatriz; Hornberg, Sabine; Bos, Wilfried
In this article we propose that teaching/learning is a process that involves world knowledge, identity, and future construction of oneself. The goal of this qualitative research paper is to document the experiences of 2 fourth-grade students with immigration backgrounds in Germany. Using a poststructuralist approach to language and identity, we…
Massaro, Dominic W
I review 2 seminal research reports published in this journal during its second decade more than a century ago. Given psychology's subdisciplines, they would not normally be reviewed together because one involves reading and the other speech perception. The small amount of interaction between these domains might have limited research and theoretical progress. In fact, the 2 early research reports revealed common processes involved in these 2 forms of language processing. Their illustration of the role of Wundt's apperceptive process in reading and speech perception anticipated descriptions of contemporary theories of pattern recognition, such as the fuzzy logical model of perception. Based on the commonalities between reading and listening, one can question why they have been viewed so differently. It is commonly believed that learning to read requires formal instruction and schooling, whereas spoken language is acquired from birth onward through natural interactions with people who talk. Most researchers and educators believe that spoken language is acquired naturally from birth onward and even prenatally. Learning to read, on the other hand, is not possible until the child has acquired spoken language, reaches school age, and receives formal instruction. If an appropriate form of written text is made available early in a child's life, however, the current hypothesis is that reading will also be learned inductively and emerge naturally, with no significant negative consequences. If this proposal is true, it should soon be possible to create an interactive system, Technology Assisted Reading Acquisition, to allow children to acquire literacy naturally.
The prevalence of academic procrastination has long been the subject of attention among researchers. However, there is still a paucity of studies examining language learners since most of the studies focus on similar participants such as psychology students. The present study was conducted among students trying to learn English in the first year…
DeKeyser, Robert M.
The effect of age of acquisition on ultimate attainment in second language learning has been a controversial topic for years. After providing a very brief overview of the ideas that are at the core of the controversy, I discuss the two main reasons why these issues are so controversial: conceptual misunderstandings and methodological difficulties.…
Mascareño Lara, Mayra; Snow, Catherine E.; Deunk, Marjolein I.; Bosker, Roel J.
We explored links between complexity of teacher-child verbal interaction and child language and literacy outcomes in fifteen whole-class read-aloud sessions in Chilean kindergarten classrooms serving children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. We coded teacher and child turns for function
Adamson, John L.; Brown, Howard G.; Fujimoto-Adamson, Naoki
This study has traced the growth of a new facility intended to promote independent language study in a Japanese university. The study traces this Self Access Learning Center (SALC) from its inception through the first two years of its development. It has revealed how key qualitative insights from an archive of semi-structured interviews,…
ter Kuile, H.; Veldhuis, M.; van Veen, S.C.; Wicherts, J.M.
An increasing number of schools offer bilingual programs, where lessons are taught in more than one language. Several theories state that bilinguals have greater metalinguistic awareness than monolinguals. We investigated whether this greater metalinguistic awareness is also related to an increased
Cheng, Liying; Fox, Janna
The aggressive internationalization of Canadian universities and increased immigration to Canada over the past 20 years have resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of second language (L2) students in Canadian universities. However, little is known about the factors that influence academic acculturation of L2 students or about the role of…
FITTS, J.P.; KALB, P.D.; FRANCIS, A.J.; FUHRMANN, M.; DODGE, C.J.; GILLOW, J.B.
Although DOE's Environmental Management program has made steady progress in cleaning up environmental legacies throughout the DOE complex, there are still significant remediation issues that remain to be solved. For example, DOE faces difficult challenges related to potential mobilization of radionuclides (e.g., actinides) and other hazardous contaminants in soils, removal and final treatment of high-level waste and residuals from leaking tanks, and the long-term stewardship of remediated sites and engineered disposal facilities, to name just a few. In some cases, new technologies and technology applications will be required based on current engineering expertise. In others, however, basic scientific research is needed to understand the mechanisms of how contaminants behave under specific conditions and how they interact with the environment, from which new engineering solutions can emerge. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Stony Brook University, scientists have teamed to use state-of-the-art synchrotron techniques to help understand the basic interactions of contaminants in the environment. Much of this work is conducted at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which is a user facility that provides high energy X-ray and ultraviolet photon beams to facilitate the examination of contaminants and materials at the molecular level. These studies allow us to determine how chemical speciation and structure control important parameters such as solubility, which in turn drive critical performance characteristics such as leaching. In one study for example, we are examining the effects of microbial activity on actinide contaminants under conditions anticipated at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. One possible outcome of this research is the identification of specific microbes that can trap uranium or other contaminants within the intracellular structure and help mitigate mobility. In another study, we are exploring the interaction of contaminants with
Seiferth, Berniece B; And Others
Learning to appreciate religious art and to understand the interdependence of history and art are basic to the foundations of culture. Students need to be exposed to the art of the diverse adherents of all major religions in order to understand the beliefs and practices of others. Students can examine religious art from ancient times, including…
This paper presents a theorised classroom-based account discussing the author's interdisciplinary approach to engaging first-year teacher-education students in self-critical inquiry using creative writing techniques as an entry point into Arts-based three-dimensional storytelling. Via an interpretation of Lacan's "speaking…
This volume examines mathematics as a product of the human mind and analyzes the language of "pure mathematics" from various advanced-level sources. Through analysis of the foundational texts of mathematics, it is demonstrated that math is a complex literary creation, containing objects, actors, actions, projection, prediction, planning, explanation, evaluation, roles, image schemas, metonymy, conceptual blending, and, of course, (natural) language. The book follows the narrative of mathematics in a typical order of presentation for a standard university-level algebra course, beginning with analysis of set theory and mappings and continuing along a path of increasing complexity. At each stage, primary concepts, axioms, definitions, and proofs will be examined in an effort to unfold the tell-tale traces of the basic human cognitive patterns of story and conceptual blending. This book will be of interest to mathematicians, teachers of mathematics, cognitive scientists, cognitive linguists, and anyone interested...
Maldonado Torres, Sonia Enid
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between Latino students' learning styles and their language spoken at home. Results of the study indicated that students who spoke Spanish at home had higher means in the Active Experimentation modality of learning (M = 31.38, SD = 5.70) than students who spoke English (M = 28.08,…
The First Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications , pages 13-18. IEEE Computer Society, December, 1984. S"[121 Sager, N. The String Parser...Language Access. In The First Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications , pages 19-24. IEEE Computer Society, December, 1984.  Stallard...of The First Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications . IEEE Computer Society, Denver, Colorado, December, 1984. [71 Scha. R.J.H. English
has conceptually noted lim- itations of COPs ; our research empirically illustrates the tradeoffs with a COP even if all users have a shared goal...in group size and dynamics. To further assess the effects of a COP on information quality and quantity, we plan to run a conceptual replication of the...2] T. Kuhn, “A survey and classification of controlled natural languages,” Computational Linguistics , vol. 40, pp. 121–170, 2014.  E. Cambria
Full Text Available Conceptual knowledge accessed by language may involve the re-activation of the associated primary sensory-motor processes. Whether these embodied representations are indeed constitutive to conceptual knowledge is hotly debated, particularly since direct evidence that sensory-motor expertise can improve conceptual processing is scarce.In this study, we sought for this crucial piece of evidence, by training naive healthy subjects to perform complex manual actions and by measuring, before and after training, their performance in a semantic language task. 19 participants engaged in 3 weeks of motor training. Each participant was trained in 3 complex manual actions (e.g. origami. Before and after the training period, each subject underwent a series of manual dexterity tests and a semantic language task. The latter consisted of a sentence-picture semantic congruency judgment task, with 6 target congruent sentence-picture pairs (semantically related to the trained manual actions, 6 non-target congruent pairs (semantically unrelated, and 12 filler incongruent pairs.Manual action training induced a significant improvement in all manual dexterity tests, demonstrating the successful acquisition of sensory-motor expertise. In the semantic language task, the reaction times to both target and non-target congruent sentence-image pairs decreased after action training, indicating a more efficient conceptual-semantic processing. Noteworthy, the reaction times for target pairs decreased more than those for non-target pairs, as indicated by the 2x2 interaction. These results were confirmed when controlling for the potential bias of increased frequency of use of target lexical items during manual training.The results of the present study suggest that sensory-motor expertise gained by training of specific manual actions can lead to an improvement of cognitive-linguistic skills related to the specific conceptual-semantic domain associated to the trained actions.
This paper considers the state of the science regarding language matters in medical education, with particular attention to two informal language practices: silence and humour. Silence and humour pervade clinical training settings, although we rarely attend explicitly to them. This paper considers the treatment of these topics in our field to date and introduces a selection of the scholarship on silence and humour from other fields, including philosophy, sociology, anthropology, linguistics and rhetoric. Particular attention is paid to distilling the theoretical and methodological possibilities for an elaborated research agenda around silence and humour in medical education. These two language practices assume a variety of forms and serve a range of social functions. Episodes of silence and humour are intimately tied to their relational and institutional contexts. Power often figures centrally, although not predictably. A rich theoretical and methodological basis exists on which to elaborate a research agenda around silence and humour in medical education. Such research promises to reveal more fully the contributions of silence and humour to socialisation in clinical training settings. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.
O'Laughlin, Kelli N; Rouhani, Shada A; Kasozi, Julius; Greenwald, Kelsy E; Perkons, Nicholas R; Faustin, Zikama M; Bassett, Ingrid V; Ware, Norma C
Refugees living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa suffer unique hardships that may increase their vulnerability to interruptions in antiretroviral therapy (ART). To investigate refugees' experiences adhering to ART, we conducted inperson interviews with refugees on ART ( n = 73) and HIV clinic staff ( n = 4) in Nakivale Refugee Settlement in southwest Uganda from March to July 2011. Three analysts used a conventional content analysis approach to evaluate these data. Refugees described profound motivation to adhere to ART and employed adherence strategies to facilitate success despite the austere setting. However, refugees spoke of specific hardships living in Nakivale that served as barriers to ART adherence, including difficulty accessing clinic when ill, food insecurity, drug stockouts, and violence and unrest in the settlement. For some refugees, need for ART inextricably linked them to the HIV clinic and prevented them from transitioning permanently away from the settlement. By learning about refugees' experiences we can design informed interventions to enhance ART adherence, thus minimizing morbidity and mortality, preventing transmission of HIV, and supporting refugees' abilities to move freely toward repatriation, resettlement or integration in their host country.
Exploring the Relationships Between Independent Listening and Listening-Reading-Writing Tasks in Chinese Language Testing:Toward a Better Understanding of the Construct Underlying Integrated Writing Tasks
Zhu, Xinhua; Li, Xueyan; Yu, Guoxing; Cheong, Choo Mui; Liao, Xian
Integrated assessment tasks have been increasingly used in language tests, but the underlying constructs of integrated tasks remain elusive. This study aimed to improve understanding of the construct of integrated writing tasks in Chinese Language examinations in Hong Kong by looking at the language competences measured in the Listening-Reading-Writing Task and how they relate to the outcome of the Independent Listening Task. The performance of 226 native Chinese Secondary Five students on bo...
Friedman, Carol; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Corn, Milton
Natural language processing (NLP) is crucial for advancing healthcare because it is needed to transform relevant information locked in text into structured data that can be used by computer processes aimed at improving patient care and advancing medicine. In light of the importance of NLP to health, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) recently sponsored a workshop to review the state of the art in NLP focusing on text in English, both in biomedicine and in the general language domain. Specific goals of the NLM-sponsored workshop were to identify the current state of the art, grand challenges and specific roadblocks, and to identify effective use and best practices. This paper reports on the main outcomes of the workshop, including an overview of the state of the art, strategies for advancing the field, and obstacles that need to be addressed, resulting in recommendations for a research agenda intended to advance the field. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper describes a system for the computer understanding of English. The system answers questions, executes commands, and accepts information in normal English dialogue. It uses semantic information and context to understand discourse and to disambiguate sentences. It combines a complete syntactic analysis of each sentence with a heuristic…
Full Text Available Performing an art, either by painting or by sculpturing, requires to be interdisciplinary. When an artist creates his/her work of art, the process he/she realizes is supported by different engineering disciplines. Therefore, especially modern artists need to understand engineering science and this results in transforming artists into engineers. Opportunities provided by technology and science enable artists to expand his/her vision and to improve his/her works. Especially kinetic art has become an approach that combines art with engineering. Kinetic art, which is nourished with varied disciplines, is an excellent example to prove that art is interdisciplinary and to show the relationship between artist/art and engineering.
Skotko, Brian G.; Rubin, David C.; Tupler, Larry A.
The amnesic patient H.M. has been solving crossword puzzles nearly all of his life. Here, we analyzed the linguistic content of 277 of H.M.’s crossword-puzzle solutions. H.M. did not have any unusual difficulties with the orthographic and grammatical components inherent to the puzzles. He exhibited few spelling errors, responded with appropriate parts of speech, and provided answers that were, at times, more convincing to observers than those supplied by the answer keys. These results suggest that H.M.’s lexical word-retrieval skills remain fluid despite his profound anterograde amnesia. Once acquired, the maintenance of written language comprehension and production does not seem to require intact medial temporal lobe structures. PMID:18286414
Lindhe, Christina; Hartelius, Lena
The aim of the study was to describe the subjective ratings of the course 'Training of the student's own voice and speech', from a student-centred perspective. A questionnaire was completed after each of the six individual sessions. Six speech and language pathology (SLP) students rated how they perceived the practical exercises in terms of doing and understanding. The results showed that five of the six participants rated the exercises as significantly easier to understand than to do. The exercises were also rated as easier to do over time. Results are interpreted within in a theoretical framework of approaches to learning. The findings support the importance of both the physical and reflective aspects of the voice training process.
The manner in which the arts can enhance the practical, therapeutic concerns of mental health professionals is becoming well established in the health care literature. What gets discussed less frequently, however, are those aesthetic frameworks that propose to give an account of the possible 'meaning' and 'purpose' of art. In response, this paper will elucidate the aesthetic theory of the Hungarian philosopher Georg Lukács and will suggest that his concept of specific particularity enables an understanding of how art, and literature, poetry and drama in particular, can be employed as an educational resource that can contribute to the development of the 'emotional capabilities' of practitioners. However, insofar as Lukács' works are philosophically complex and challenging, his concept of specific particularity will be discussed within the context of Samuel Beckett's dramatic work Ohio Impromptu. In doing so, it will be suggested that Ohio Impromptu is not only productive for the elucidation of Lukács' aesthetics, but also illustrates how the arts provides practitioners with a valuable educative opportunity to engage with, and critically reflect upon, a multiplicity of affective dimensions, thereby enhancing the practitioner's ability to move towards achieving an empathic understanding of, and 'emotional resonance' with, those receiving mental health care. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.
Full Text Available Analyzing a movie telling the story of the “mental deportation” of the Jewish pianist Władysław Szpilman, the authors wonder about the meaning of the language of art as a privileged key to access a transcultural dimension. Keywords: Language of Art,Transculturality,Education to the future
van der Kroon, Linda; Jauregi Ondarra, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/276318102; ten Thije, J.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10391515X
The development of intercultural communicative competence is increasingly important in this globalised and highly digitalised world. This implies the adequate understanding of otherness, which entails a myriad of complex cognitive competences, skills and behaviour. The TILA project aims to study how
Ramírez, A Susana; Willis, Gordon; Rutten, Lila Finney
Spanish-speaking Latinos account for 13% of the U.S. population yet are chronically under-represented in national surveys; additionally, the response quality suffers from low literacy rates and translation challenges. These are the same issues that health communicators face when understanding how best to communicate important health information to Latinos. The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) offers a unique opportunity to understand the health communication landscape and information needs of the U.S. We describe the challenges in recruiting Spanish-speaking HINTS respondents and strategies used to improve rates and quality of responses among Spanish-speaking Latinos. Cognitive interviewing techniques helped to better understand how Spanish-speaking Latinos were interpreting the survey questions, and the extent to which these interpretations matched English-speaking respondents' interpretations. Some Spanish-speaking respondents had difficulty with the questions because of a lack of access to health care. Additionally, Spanish-speaking respondents had a particularly hard time answering questions that were presented in a grid format. We describe the cognitive interview process, and consider the impact of format changes on Spanish-speaking people's responses and response quality. We discuss challenges that remain in understanding health information needs of non-English-speakers.
Dodick, Jeff; Argamon, Shlomo; Chase, Paul
A key focus of current science education reforms involves developing inquiry-based learning materials. However, without an understanding of how working scientists actually "do" science, such learning materials cannot be properly developed. Until now, research on scientific reasoning has focused on cognitive studies of individual scientific fields.…
Bucks, Gregory Warren
Computers have become an integral part of how engineers complete their work, allowing them to collect and analyze data, model potential solutions and aiding in production through automation and robotics. In addition, computers are essential elements of the products themselves, from tennis shoes to construction materials. An understanding of how…
Social phenomenological analysis is presented as a research method to study gallery talks or guided tours in art museums. The research method is based on the philosophical considerations of Edmund Husserl and sociological/social science concepts put forward by Max Weber and Alfred Schuetz. Its starting point is the everyday lifeworld; the…
Hoedel, Joseph M.; Lee, Robert E.
This is a case study in which the Character Development and Leadership Program replaced an alternative high school's traditional English language offerings. A triangulated case study used student records, field notes, and interviews of stakeholders to compare the academic year prior to this substitution and the 2 academic years following it. All 3…
disagreements. If codes had weak interrater reliability (0.4 or below), the categories would be removed or changed and the data was recoded. Disagreement and re... weaknesses in software to exploit organizational dependencies and lack of understanding of low-level technologies. Better trained Air Force personnel...Technical report, Department of Computer Science, University of Auckland , 1997. 51. Conrad F., Blair J., and Tracy E. “Verbal reports are data! A theoretical
Alhirtani, Nahla A. K.
The most important in Islamic Legal Sciences is Arabic Language, because of its necessity for Muslims to understand the Islamic Legal Provisions in Qur'an and Hadith which are in Arabic and informed by Arabs, thus, to understand these sciences it is a must to learn Arabic to discern the meanings and benefits of Islamic Texts and Provisions. So…
In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int
Greenfader, Christa Mulker; Brouillette, Liane; Farkas, George
Although English oral language proficiency in the primary grades is critical to the literacy development of English learners (ELs), we know little about how to foster these skills. This study examined a yearlong K-2 drama and creative movement intervention. A randomized experimental design (N = 5,240) was used to address two research questions:…
This article examines current research on the role and importance of lower-level processes in second language (L2) reading. The focus is on word recognition and its subcomponent processes, including various phonological and orthographic processes. Issues related to syntactic and semantic processes and their relationship with word recognition are…
Moreno, Megan A.; Ton, Adrienne; Selkie, Ellen; Evans, Yolanda
Purpose Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) content is present on social media and may influence adolescents. Instagram is a popular site among adolescents in which NSSI-related terms are user-generated as hashtags (words preceded by a #). These hashtags may be ambiguous and thus challenging for those outside the NSSI community to understand. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the meaning, popularity, and content advisory warnings related to ambiguous NSSI hashtags on Instagram. Methods This study used the search term “#selfharmmm” to identify public Instagram posts. Hashtag terms co-listed with #selfharmmm on each post were evaluated for inclusion criteria; selected hashtags were then assessed using a structured evaluation for meaning and consistency. We also investigated the total number of Instagram search hits for each hashtag at two time points and determined whether the hashtag prompted a Content Advisory warning. Results Our sample of 201 Instagram posts led to identification of 10 ambiguous NSSI hashtags. NSSI terms included #blithe, #cat, and #selfinjuryy. We discovered a popular image that described the broader community of NSSI and mental illness, called “#MySecretFamily.” The term #MySe-cretFamily had approximately 900,000 search results at Time 1 and >1.5 million at Time 2. Only one-third of the relevant hashtags generated Content Advisory warnings. Conclusions NSSI content is popular on Instagram and often veiled by ambiguous hashtags. Content Advisory warnings were not reliable; thus, parents and providers remain the cornerstone of prompting discussions about NSSI content on social media and providing resources for teens. PMID:26707231
Moreno, Megan A; Ton, Adrienne; Selkie, Ellen; Evans, Yolanda
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) content is present on social media and may influence adolescents. Instagram is a popular site among adolescents in which NSSI-related terms are user-generated as hashtags (words preceded by a #). These hashtags may be ambiguous and thus challenging for those outside the NSSI community to understand. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the meaning, popularity, and content advisory warnings related to ambiguous NSSI hashtags on Instagram. This study used the search term "#selfharmmm" to identify public Instagram posts. Hashtag terms co-listed with #selfharmmm on each post were evaluated for inclusion criteria; selected hashtags were then assessed using a structured evaluation for meaning and consistency. We also investigated the total number of Instagram search hits for each hashtag at two time points and determined whether the hashtag prompted a Content Advisory warning. Our sample of 201 Instagram posts led to identification of 10 ambiguous NSSI hashtags. NSSI terms included #blithe, #cat, and #selfinjuryy. We discovered a popular image that described the broader community of NSSI and mental illness, called "#MySecretFamily." The term #MySecretFamily had approximately 900,000 search results at Time 1 and >1.5 million at Time 2. Only one-third of the relevant hashtags generated Content Advisory warnings. NSSI content is popular on Instagram and often veiled by ambiguous hashtags. Content Advisory warnings were not reliable; thus, parents and providers remain the cornerstone of prompting discussions about NSSI content on social media and providing resources for teens. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
W Travis Selmier II; Aloysius Newenham-Kahindi; Chang Hoon Oh
Multinational enterprises (MNEs) encounter relentless stakeholder pressures when operating across linguistic, cultural and institutional boundaries. Our aims are to examine whether and how acquisition of language resources may help MNEs to bridge these boundaries and reduce pressures on MNE legitimacy by improving their corporate social responsibility (CSR) outcomes. We propose an MNE model of language resource acquisition policy based on three language orientations: “language-as-problem,” “l...
Seimears, C. Matt
The purpose of this exploratory case study was to explore the middle school science classroom of a constructivist teacher and examine how constructivist-based teaching influences ELL students and their learning of science. The researcher's purpose was to discover patterns which emerged after close observations, careful documentation, and thoughtful analysis of the research topic. What was discovered by this exploratory case study was not sweeping generalizations but contextual findings. This case study was conducted in the spring of 2006. The researcher sought to answer the question, "How does constructivist teaching help middle school English Language Learners understand science?" Two variable clusters were examined: (1) the independent variable cluster of the constructivist teaching practices of the one selected teacher; and (2) the dependent variable cluster of the middle school English Language Learners understanding of the science concepts being taught. Four broad categories of data were collected: (1) observations of teaching and learning (including teaching plans and other teaching materials); (2) interviews related to teaching and learning; (3) inventories of teaching and learning; and (4) artifacts of learning. Steve Loos, an eighth grade middle school science teacher, is an expert constructivist-based teacher. His teaching influences English Language Learners understanding of the science concepts being taught. Steve's teaching influenced the English Language Learners through a variety of pedagogical strategies. The researcher concluded in this study that, "Constructivist teaching helps middle school English Language Learners understand science."
Full Text Available The establishment of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP in 1999 has led to the creation of a whole range of bureaucratic bodies in Brussels and the national capitals. These bodies support the crisis management operations of the European Union. This review article presents the state of the art of academic research on the role of bureaucracy in this recent policy area. It argues that the growing institutional complexity and the constant interaction between actors at the national and European level require scholars to go beyond the dominant approaches of International Relations. Using insights from comparative politics, public administration and multi-level governance, this article considers four important questions: who these civil servants are, why they matter, how they interact, and how they are controlled politically and democratically.
Changeux, Jean Pierre
Works of art can be viewed as elements of a human-specific nonverbal communication system, distinct from language. First, the cognitive abilities and skills required for art creation and perception are built from a cascade of events driven by a "genetic envelope". Essential for the understanding of artistic creation is its epigenetic variability.…
Vago, David R.; Silbersweig, David A.
Mindfulness—as a state, trait, process, type of meditation, and intervention has proven to be beneficial across a diverse group of psychological disorders as well as for general stress reduction. Yet, there remains a lack of clarity in the operationalization of this construct, and underlying mechanisms. Here, we provide an integrative theoretical framework and systems-based neurobiological model that explains the mechanisms by which mindfulness reduces biases related to self-processing and creates a sustainable healthy mind. Mindfulness is described through systematic mental training that develops meta-awareness (self-awareness), an ability to effectively modulate one's behavior (self-regulation), and a positive relationship between self and other that transcends self-focused needs and increases prosocial characteristics (self-transcendence). This framework of self-awareness, -regulation, and -transcendence (S-ART) illustrates a method for becoming aware of the conditions that cause (and remove) distortions or biases. The development of S-ART through meditation is proposed to modulate self-specifying and narrative self-networks through an integrative fronto-parietal control network. Relevant perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral neuropsychological processes are highlighted as supporting mechanisms for S-ART, including intention and motivation, attention regulation, emotion regulation, extinction and reconsolidation, prosociality, non-attachment, and decentering. The S-ART framework and neurobiological model is based on our growing understanding of the mechanisms for neurocognition, empirical literature, and through dismantling the specific meditation practices thought to cultivate mindfulness. The proposed framework will inform future research in the contemplative sciences and target specific areas for development in the treatment of psychological disorders. PMID:23112770
OYE: Ogun Journal of Arts is an annual publication devoted to publishing articles relevant to the development of the humanities. Essays in any of the regular disciplines of the humanities: language, linguistics, communication arts, history, theatre arts or performing arts, history and diplomatic studies or international relations, ...
Baglioni, Michele; Rengstl, Doris; Berti, Debora; Bonini, Massimo; Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Piero
Conservation of works of art often involves the inappropriate application of synthetic polymers. We have proposed the use of alternative methodologies for conservation and formulated innovative cleaning nanostructured systems to remove previously applied polymer films and grime from painted surfaces. In particular, a novel ``micellar system'' composed of water, SDS, 1-pentanol, ethyl acetate and propylene carbonate was recently formulated and successfully used to remove acrylic and vinyl/acrylic copolymers from Mesoamerican wall paintings in the archeological site of Cholula, Mexico. This contribution reports on the mechanism of the interaction process that takes place between the nanostructured fluid and the polymer coating at the nanoscale. The structural properties of the ``micellar solution'' and of the polymer film are investigated before, during and after the interaction process using several surface and solution techniques. Rather than a classical detergency mechanism, we demonstrate that micelles act as solvent containers and interact with the polymer film leading to its swelling and detachment from the surface and to its segregation in a liquid droplet, which phase-separates from the aqueous bulk. After the removal process the micelles become smaller in size and undergo a structural re-arrangement due to the depletion of the organic solvents. These findings can be framed in an interaction mechanism which describes the removal process, opening up new perspectives in the design and formulation of new cleaning systems specifically tailored for intervention on particular conservation issues.
Heintz, June Rutledge
Argues that African art helps children to learn vital art concepts and enlarges their understanding of the role of art in human culture. Outlines a unit on African art based on animals. Students created fabric designs and illustrated folktales and fables. Provides a list of free resources. (KM)
based on listening to vowels only 17 Table 12: Tone recognition rate by gender of speakers and listeners ............................... 18 Table 13...base syllable can be decomposed into an “INITIAL/FINAL” format very similar to the consonant/ vowel relations in English. “INITIAL” is the initial...consonant part of a syllable and “FINAL” is the vowel part but including optional medial or nasal ending. There are a total of 22 “INITIALs” and 41
Villanueva, Pia; Jara, Lilian; Palomino, Hernan
Specific language impairment (SLI) is a developmental language disorder that occurs for no known reason. The disorder affects 2-8% of children. Some scientific evidence suggests that genetic factors are implicated in the etiology of SLI. The disorder is genetically complex. Two novel loci, SLI1 on chromosome 16q24 (MIM 606711) and SLI2 on chromosome 19q13 (MIM 606712), have been found to be highly correlated with SLI. Four genes have been identified as susceptibility genes. SLI occurs at an unusually elevated incidence (35%) among the population of Robinson Crusoe Island (Chile), which also has a high consanguinity rate. This finding supports the influence of genetic mechanisms in the transmission of SLI based on a founder effect. To investigate further the genetic involvement in this population, we collected blood samples from 115 islanders from 13 families with a language-impaired proband and from 18 families with a normal-language proband. The analysis of micro satellite marker D16S515, located in locus SLI1, demonstrated that the 230-bp allele was correlated with SLI and that the 232-bp allele was correlated with normal language development. The domain containing the D16S515 marker, therefore, may play a role in language development.
Yuill, Nicola; Little, Sarah
Mother-child mental state talk (MST) supports children's developing social-emotional understanding. In typically developing (TD) children, family conversations about emotion, cognition, and causes have been linked to children's emotion understanding. Specific language impairment (SLI) may compromise developing emotion understanding and adjustment. We investigated emotion understanding in children with SLI and TD, in relation to mother-child conversation. Specifically, is cognitive, emotion, or causal MST more important for child emotion understanding and how might maternal scaffolding support this? Nine 5- to 9-year-old children with SLI and nine age-matched typically developing (TD) children, and their mothers. We assessed children's language, emotion understanding and reported behavioural adjustment. Mother-child conversations were coded for MST, including emotion, cognition, and causal talk, and for scaffolding of causal talk. Children with SLI scored lower than TD children on emotion understanding and adjustment. Mothers in each group provided similar amounts of cognitive, emotion, and causal talk, but SLI children used proportionally less cognitive and causal talk than TD children did, and more such child talk predicted better child emotion understanding. Child emotion talk did not differ between groups and did not predict emotion understanding. Both groups participated in maternal-scaffolded causal talk, but causal talk about emotion was more frequent in TD children, and such talk predicted higher emotion understanding. Cognitive and causal language scaffolded by mothers provides tools for articulating increasingly complex ideas about emotion, predicting children's emotion understanding. Our study provides a robust method for studying scaffolding processes for understanding causes of emotion. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
A Review of Neshaminy School District's Exemplary Vocational-Technical English/Language Arts Program Against Commonwealth Goals for Quality Education. Focusing on Goals One, Three and Seven: Annual Phase I Report, Addendum and Appendices.
Neshaminy School District, Langhorne, PA.
The purpose of this project was to develop a more relevant and utilitarian English/language arts and communications media program for technical school students in Grades 10-12. During Phase I, the curriculum was developed by a team of teachers and implemented at each of the grade levels. Evaluation of the program was accomplished through surveying…
Union, Craig D.; Union, Lori Walker; Green, Tim D.
This study explored the effects of a portable technology intervention, the Nook Simple Touch eReader, on student performance in Reading and English/Language Arts when included as an integral part of the teaching and learning process in an elementary third-grade classroom. This study used the participating students' end-of-year second-grade scores…
Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted
This continuation of a previous study (Taumoepeau & Ruffman, 2006) examined the longitudinal relation between maternal mental state talk to 15- and 24-month-olds and their later mental state language and emotion understanding (N = 74). The previous study found that maternal talk about the child's desires to 15-month-old children uniquely predicted…
An introduction to the field of Arts-in-Business outlining 4 different approaches: 1) Art as decoration, 2) Art as intertainment, 3) Arts as instrumental, 4) Art as strategic......An introduction to the field of Arts-in-Business outlining 4 different approaches: 1) Art as decoration, 2) Art as intertainment, 3) Arts as instrumental, 4) Art as strategic...
Kovačević Predrag S.
Full Text Available In this paper, the author argues for a theoretical difference between the modern and postmodern aestheticism and considers their political implications arguing that modern aestheticism carried progressive or radical political impulse; whereas, under postmodernism, its character shifted into a reactionary politics. The specific political implications that are derived from these two kinds of aestheticism concern the attitude towards human nature, different kinds of narcissistic tendencies and divergent attitudes towards art/culture. Next, the author uses the examples of Oscar Wilde's Picture of Dorian Gray and Nabokov's Lolita to demonstrate how these differences manifest themselves in the works of these two prominent, if not pivotal, artists related to the aesthetic movement in the history of literature. It is concluded that the politics of Oscar Wilde and Vladimir Nabokov differ radically and these differences stem from the fact that their works embody divergent conceptions of aestheticism.
Cruz Rondón, Elio Jesús; Velasco Vera, Leidy Fernanda
Learning a foreign language may be a challenge for most people due to differences in the form and structure between one's mother tongue and a new one. However, there are some tools that facilitate the teaching and learning of a foreign language, for instance, new applications for digital devices, video blogs, educational platforms, and teaching…
Shepherd, Debra Lynne
The regional and cultural closeness of Botswana and South Africa, as well as differences in their political histories and language policy stances, offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the role of language in reading outcomes. This study aims to empirically test the effect of exposure to mother tongue and English instruction on the reading…
Mazlack, L.J.; Paz, N.M.
Newspaper cartoons can graphically display the result of ambiguity in human speech; the result can be unexpected and funny. Likewise, computer analysis of natural language statements also needs to successfully resolve ambiguous situations. Computer techniques already developed use restricted world knowledge in resolving ambiguous language use. This paper illustrates how these techniques can be used in resolving ambiguous situations arising in cartoons. 8 references.
Sang Cheol Yun
Full Text Available Foreign students that travel to Korea to study the Korean language and culture as part of their professional formation they usually face out work adaptation problems whenever they get a job at the Korean companies and most of them try to change to another job in just two or three years. Within this investigation work and through comparative linguistics, the Korean conscience is analysed emphasizing on the basic differences and similarities of the Spanish language and the Korean language expression ways, linguistically wise, it is easy to distinguish differences between both languages also the way each language society expresses by its own, such matter may give as a result a possible cultural clash, yet similarities between these two cultures exists, giving prove in this way of similar thinking processes, and thanks to this similarity Mexicans could grant a good Korean society adaptation also to ensure successful cooperation and international exchange on any other field relationships such as cultural relationship between both countries. As conclusion learning a foreign language involves understand native speakers’ way of thinking and conscience.
David R. Vago
Full Text Available Mindfulness - as a state, trait, process, type of meditation, and intervention has proven to be beneficial across a diverse group of psychological disorders as well as for general stress reduction. Yet, there remains a lack of clarity in the operationalization of this construct, and underlying mechanisms. Here, we provide an integrative theoretical framework and systems-based neurobiological model that explains the mechanisms by which mindfulness reduces biases related to self-processing and creates a sustainable healthy mind. Mindfulness is described through systematic mental training that develops meta-awareness (self-awareness, an ability to effectively modulate one’s behavior (self-regulation, and the development of a positive relationship between self and other that transcends self-focused needs and increases prosocial characteristics (self-transcendence. This framework of self-awareness, regulation, and transcendence (S-ART illustrates a method for becoming aware of the conditions that cause (and remove distortions or biases. The development of S-ART through meditation is proposed to modulate self-specifying and narrative self-networks through an integrative fronto-parietal control network. Relevant perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral neuropsychological processes are highlighted, including intention and motivation, attention regulation, emotion regulation, extinction and reconsolidation, prosociality, non-attachment and decentering. The S-ART framework and neurobiological model is based on our growing understanding of the mechanisms for neurocognition, empirical literature, and through dismantling the specific meditation practices thought to cultivate mindfulness. The proposed framework will inform future research in the contemplative sciences and target specific areas for development in the treatment of psychological disorders.
This handbook outlines learning strategies in language arts for children in kindergarten to third grade learning English as a second language (ESL). They are designed for the Whole Language or Natural Approach. Although reading and writing are the key language components emphasized, listening, speaking, drama, and visual arts activities have been…
Chalmers, F. Graeme
Teachers and students who are ethnographers and who study the artifacts and "visual sign making" of their own culture will learn to value and understand the arts, as well as to produce art that matters. (Author)
Steltzer, H.; House, B.
In August 2015, 3 million gallons of acidic mine water flooded into a mountain stream, then flowed into the Animas River and the San Juan River. Downstream communities in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah watched in shock as the rivers on which they depend turned an unworldly orange color. As a result, water color currently drives public concern about river health. Data collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency and local and state public health indicate that water color does not correspond with health risk. Health risk is driven by river chemistry that cannot be seen, and river chemistry and quantity vary seasonally and due to precipitation events. Rivers have a pulse, one that is both regular and irregular, some aspects of which can be seen and others that cannot be seen. As a science communicator, I wanted to know if art could communicate the `pulse of the river', helping people to understand the dynamic quality of mountain rivers, and why scientific data is needed to determine health risk. Brian's vision was to do this through sound with real-time data on river water chemistry generating tones so that we can hear what we can't see. Through art, complex data on our world and how it is changing can be shared, reach more people, and lead to new dialogue. These conversations are much needed as we work to manage for global environmental issues.
Eisenhauer, Jennifer F.
Beginning with an understanding of visual culture as a postmodern discourse, this article argues for more focused attention to how visual culture presents a critical rethinking of subjectivity within art education. Through an analysis of a language of bombardment, a discourse that positions the subject as bombarded by media messages, this article…
Outlines a course in artificial intelligence for liberal arts students that has no programing prerequisites. Topics and projects included in the course are described, including problem solving; natural language; expert systems; image understanding, or character recognition; and robotic systems. (28 references) (Author/LRW)
Full Text Available In a language with distinctive tone and length, such as Gavião of Rondônia, the first question about speech played by musical instruments is the relation between the melodies and the super-segmental phonology of the corresponding words in sung speech and in normal speech. The sung speech is useful for learning and explaining the musical notes. It is influenced by the phonological possibilities of the spoken form and by the musical possibilities of the instrumental form, being intermediate between the two. This art is performed with various Gavião traditional musical instruments. The role of the instrumental sung speech is artistic and also practical, to help to maintain the oral heritage. This practice represents a little-studied and threatened cultural heritage of the traditional substratum of the cultures of Amazonia. On the Indigenous Reserve Igarapé Lourdes we used an original methodology to document this phenomenon in the musical instruments which the Gavião collaborators identified as 'speaking' or 'singing'. The recording and transcription sessions necessary for this type of research will be explained here. They show the relation of acoustic iconicity which exists between the words and the music. Linguistic analysis makes it possible to understand the phonetic and phonological nature of the iconicity.
Capitelli, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Rankin, Lynn; Austin, Marilyn; Caven, Gennifer
This qualitative case study looks closely at an elementary teacher who participated in professional development experiences that helped her develop a hybrid practice of using inquiry-based science to teach both science content and English language development (ELD) to her students, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). This case study examines the teacher's reflections on her teaching and her students' learning as she engaged her students in science learning and supported their developing language skills. It explicates the professional learning experiences that supported the development of this hybrid practice. Closely examining the pedagogical practice and reflections of a teacher who is developing an inquiry-based approach to both science learning and language development can provide insights into how teachers come to integrate their professional development experiences with their classroom expertise in order to create a hybrid inquiry-based science ELD practice. This qualitative case study contributes to the emerging scholarship on the development of teacher practice of inquiry-based science instruction as a vehicle for both science instruction and ELD for ELLs. This study demonstrates how an effective teaching practice that supports both the science and language learning of students can develop from ongoing professional learning experiences that are grounded in current perspectives about language development and that immerse teachers in an inquiry-based approach to learning and instruction. Additionally, this case study also underscores the important role that professional learning opportunities can play in supporting teachers in developing a deeper understanding of the affordances that inquiry-based science can provide for language development.
Petersen, Anne Ring
phenomena. It investigates how it became one of today’s most widely used art forms, increasingly expanding into consumer, popular and urban cultures, where installation’s often spectacular appearance ensures that it meets contemporary demands for sense-provoking and immersive cultural experiences. The main...... in the surrounding world to become part of the work? Featuring the work of such well-known artists as Bruce Nauman, Pipilotti Rist, Ilya Kabakov and many others, this book breaks crucial new ground in understanding the conceptual underpinnings of this multifarious art form....
Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of acceptance of the multiple intelligence types as one of the key factor influencing the (language teaching. It focuses mainly on the possibility to introduce art as a source of material for language teaching, providing a wide spectrum of possibilities to introduce different types of activities. The author understands art not only as a source for language teaching/learning but something more than that. For her, the art can be a source for presenting moral and aesthetic values and the material, which will develop learners as a complete personality. The art can bring ethics, culture, history to the language lesson and can help learners to understand the mentality and culture of the target language countr(ies more deeply. The paper is the case study done at the secondary school (1st graders, using some materials and preparing them for achieving the states aim, by the author. This study was a space to learn more about the students’ perception of task based approach, what gave them a chance to experience a shift from ‘teacher-centred’ learning to ‘learner centred’ lesson.
Tiewtrakul, T; Fletcher, S R
Although English has been the international aviation language since 1951, formal language proficiency testing for key aviation personnel has only recently been implemented by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). It aims to ensure minimum acceptable levels of English pronunciation and comprehension universally, but does not attend to particular regional dialect difficulties. However, evidence suggests that voice transmissions between air traffic controllers and pilots are a particular problem in international airspace and that pilots may not understand messages due to the influence of different accents when using English. This study explores the potential impact of 'non-native English' in pilot-air traffic control transmissions using a 'conversation analysis' technique to examine approach phase recordings from Bangkok International Airport. Results support that communication errors, defined by incidents of pilots not understanding, occur significantly more often when speakers are both non-native English, messages are more complex and when numerical information is involved. These results and their possible implications are discussed with reference to the development of ICAO's new language proficiency standards. Statement of Relevance: This study builds on previous work and literature, providing further evidence to show that the risks caused by language and linguistics in aviation must be explored more deeply. Findings are particularly contemporary and relevant today, indicating that recently implemented international standards would benefit from further exploratory research and development.
Boyle, Michael P
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether attribution theory could explain speech-language pathologists (SLPs) perceptions of children with communication disorders such as stuttering. Specifically, it was determined whether perceptions of onset and offset controllability, as well as biological and non-biological attributions for communication disorders were related to willingness to help, sympathy, and anger toward children with these disorders. It was also of interest to determine if blame for stuttering was related to perceived controllability of stuttering and negative attitudes toward people who stutter (PWS). A survey was developed to measure perceived onset and offset controllability, biological and non-biological attributions, willingness to help, sympathy, and anger toward middle school children with developmental stuttering, functional articulation disorders, and cerebral palsy. In addition, a scale was developed to measure blame and negative attitudes toward PWS in general. Surveys were mailed to 1000 school-based SLPs. Data from 330 participants were analyzed. Supporting the hypotheses of attribution theory, higher perceived onset and offset controllability of the disorder was linked to less willingness to help, lower sympathy, and more anger across conditions. Increased biological attributions were associated with more reported sympathy. Increased blame for stuttering was linked to higher perceived controllability of stuttering, more dislike of PWS, and more agreement with negative stereotypes about PWS. Educating SLPs about the variable loss of control inherent in stuttering could improve attitudes and increase understanding of PWS. Reductions in blame may facilitate feelings of sympathy and empathy for PWS and reduce environmental barriers for clients. Learning outcomes Readers should be able to: (1) identify the main principles of Weiner's attribution theory (2) identify common negative perceptions of people who stutter (3) describe how
In multilingual work-place settings, there are many ways of addressing (or not addressing) the issue of understanding, and different ways of handling when the issue is explicitly raised in the form of a question. Building on a previous study by Tranekjær (Tranekjær, 2015; Tranekjær og Kappa, 2016......; 2014) the paper will explore the possibility of outlining differences in the efficiency of SL learner strategies for addressing inquiries about understanding. The paper in this way provides valuable input to language teachers and trainers within the field of diversity management and intercultural...
Hartman, Kasondra; Peluzzo, Amanda; Shadani, Sharon; Chellquist, Ian; Weprin, Samuel; Hunt, Halley; Smith-Benjamin, Sarah; Altschuler, Eric L
Wernicke's Aphasia (WA) is characterized by an individual speaking fluent gibberish without the ability to understand anything that is said to them or anything they attempt to read. It is caused by damage to the left posterior temporoparietal cortex, also known as Wernicke's area. An additional intriguing symptom of WA patients is their apparent obliviousness to their own lack of understanding despite their intact reasoning or other cognitive abilities. Their only deficit seems to be in the basic rules of language that define word meaning, also known as phonology. Growing out of a project in an undergraduate class, we devised a phonology-free approach to communicating with WA patients that attempts to answer the questions of whether WA patients know that they do not understand what is said to them, that others do not understand what they have said, and if these patients are distressed by this lack of communication. We here describe the process and the resulting method.
Chen, Jen Jun; Yang, Shu Ching
This case study investigated the effectiveness of the United Beyond Our Diversity (UBOD) project for the development of language skills and intercultural communicative competence (including attitudes, knowledge, skills, and critical intercultural awareness) in Taiwanese seventh grade learners. The learners' attitudes and evaluations of UBOD were…
Sotirova-Kohli, Milena; Rosen, David H; Smith, Steven M; Henderson, Patti; Taki-Reece, Sachiko
Chinese characters originated as a semiotic system independent from spoken language and in the Japanese language they function non-phonetically with speakers exhibiting right-hemispheric advantage in their processing. We tested the hypothesis that Chinese characters are archetypal images and therefore part of our collective unconscious memory. Our study builds on the first empirical study of archetypal memory of Rosen et al. (1991) which demonstrated that archetypal symbols presented matched with their correct meaning were better learned and recalled. In a series of three experiments we used 40 Chinese characters instead of the archetypal symbols used by Rosen, et al. (1991). The results provided empirical evidence that Chinese characters matched with their correct meaning were significantly better recalled than the ones that were mismatched. Thus, we demonstrated that there appears to be unconscious knowledge of the meaning of the Chinese characters which was triggered as a result of priming when the characters were correctly matched with their meaning. On this basis, we suggest that Chinese characters exhibit the same cognitive qualities as archetypal symbols. Thus, in the Japanese language an archetypal image is integrated non-phonetically into the system of language and signifies the concept independent from the phonetic signifier and is equal to it. © 2011, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Aramaki, E; Shikata, S; Miyabe, M; Usuda, Y; Asada, K; Ayaya, S; Kumagaya, S
Few quantitative studies have been conducted on the relationship between society and its languages. Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are known to experience social hardships, and a wide range of clinical information about their quality of life has been provided through numerous narrative analyses. However, the narratives of ASD patients have thus far been examined mainly through qualitative approaches. In this study, we analyzed adults with ASD to quantitatively examine the relationship between language abilities and ASD severity scores. We generated phonetic transcriptions of speeches by 16 ASD adults at an ASD workshop, and divided the participants into 2 groups according to their Social Responsiveness Scale(TM), 2nd Edition (SRS(TM)-2) scores (where higher scores represent more severe ASD): Group A comprised high-scoring ASD adults (SRS(TM)-2 score: ≥ 76) and Group B comprised low- and intermediate-scoring ASD adults (SRS(TM)-2 score: relationships between the language ability scores and ASD severity scores were compared. Group A showed a marginally negative correlation with the level of Japanese word difficulty (p applications of these findings may be available in the near future, and there is a need for further detailed study on language metrics designed for ASD adults.
Mercuri, Sandra Patricia
This qualitative research looks at the effects that language choices and cultural practices have on identity development in the education of minority students in the United States. It examines the educational journey of Irma, a Latina educator. Through the analysis of interviews with the participant, this paper intends to show the effects of…
Parker, Catherine Frieda
A possible contributing factor to students' difficulty in learning advanced mathematics is the conflict between students' "natural" learning styles and the formal structure of mathematics, which is based on definitions, theorems, and proofs. Students' natural learning styles may be a function of their intuition and language skills. The purpose of…
This action research study examined a small cross-section of a Texas public school population. Participants were kindergarten through third grade students enrolled in the English as a Second Language (ESL) Program who were pulled out of their general classroom to receive English support within the content area of science. This study looked at how effective a hands-on learning experience using a schoolyard garden enhanced the academic language and science content of the participants. The study began in mid-March and concluded at the end of April with each group receiving 40 minutes of instruction five days a week. Each group consisted of a Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced/Advanced High student for a total of 12 participants. Four forms of data were used in this study: archival, pre-test, post-test, and journal. Rubrics were used to analyze individual students' level of academic language before and after the study. The results illustrate that the younger students (kindergarten and first grade) descriptions were very basic and concrete while the older students had more accurate and descriptive responses. Upon completion of this research, it was determined that the usage of a schoolyard garden compliments both the acquisition of academic language and the increase in science content knowledge.
Yurtseven, Nihal; Altun, Sertel
In today's world, where learning a foreign language is highly prioritized, it is an important prerequisite that education has components that are lasting, meaningful, and transferable to everyday life. Moreover, these components would have a positive influence on student motivation. The purpose of this study is to investigate students' language…
Arslan, Burcu; Hohenberger, Annette; Verbrugge, Rineke
In this study, the development of second-order social cognition and its possible relationship with language and memory were investigated. For this reason two second-order false belief tasks (FBT_2), a short term memory task (WST), a complex working memory task (LST), a linguistic perspective-taking
Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.
Following on from my state-of-the-art article on "Language Awareness and language learning" (Svalberg 2007), in this paper I will discuss specific research tasks which are centrally concerned with different aspects of language awareness (LA): "explicit knowledge about language, and conscious perception and sensitivity in language learning,…
Choi, Tat Heung
This article describes a unit of work framed by a rationale for activating English language learning through arts-based practices that are suitable for preservice teachers who are nonnative speakers of English (seeking certification for teaching English as a second language). Because teachers of English are expected to use language arts to promote…
Gamboa Hinestrosa, Pablo
¿Cuál es la vigencia del arte precolombino? ¿Qué ha aportado ala corriente del arte universal? ¿Qué se deben mutuamente arte modernoy arte precolombino? Estos planteamientos nos sirven para establecerla vigencia del arte precolombino en Latinoamérica, buscandoantecedentes desde los tiempos de la Conquista hasta nuestros días.
Lee Bih Ni; Kiu Su Na
This paper discusses the Chinese Language Teaching as a Second Language by focusing on Immersion Teaching. Researchers used narrative literature review to describe the current states of both art and science in focused areas of inquiry. Immersion teaching comes with a standard that teachers must reliably meet. Chinese language-immersion instruction consists of language and content lessons, including functional usage of the language, academic language, authentic language, and correct Chinese so...
Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....
The article refers to the political art scene in Austria during the 1990s and early 2000s. Participatory art-activism projects by the group WochenKlausur and by Martin Krenn and Oliver Ressler are juxtaposed to artistic work used for political activism by the women migrants' organization maiz. All
May, Michael; Stjernfelt, Frederik
Discussion of the semiotic concept of the iconic sign according to Charles S. Peirce and its importance for the understanding of "diagrammatic reasoning" in science and art.......Discussion of the semiotic concept of the iconic sign according to Charles S. Peirce and its importance for the understanding of "diagrammatic reasoning" in science and art....
Kliewer, Brandon W.; Moretto, Kristin N.; Purcell, Jennifer W.
The value of the liberal arts and humanities has increasingly been called into question on multiple fronts. Attempts to bridge the practical and liberal arts through forms of civic professionalism have been gaining traction in larger spheres of influence. This article outlines the results of a deliberative civic engagement forum (n = 42) that…
Cabedo-Mas, Alberto; Nethsinghe, Rohan; Forrest, David
This article reviews and analyses educational policies and curricula for general education in Australian and Spanish systems, in relation to their concerns for arts education to contribute to values education and the acquisition of peaceful, social and civic competences in schools. The use of the arts to shape individual and community identities,…
Noh, Heil; Lee, Dong-Hee
To identify the quantitative differences between Korean and English in long-term average speech spectra (LTASS). Twenty Korean speakers, who lived in the capital of Korea and spoke standard Korean as their first language, were compared with 20 native English speakers. For the Korean speakers, a passage from a novel and a passage from a leading newspaper article were chosen. For the English speakers, the Rainbow Passage was used. The speech was digitally recorded using GenRad 1982 Precision Sound Level Meter and GoldWave® software and analyzed using MATLAB program. There was no significant difference in the LTASS between the Korean subjects reading a news article or a novel. For male subjects, the LTASS of Korean speakers was significantly lower than that of English speakers above 1.6 kHz except at 4 kHz and its difference was more than 5 dB, especially at higher frequencies. For women, the LTASS of Korean speakers showed significantly lower levels at 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.25, 2, 2.5, 6.3, 8, and 10 kHz, but the differences were less than 5 dB. Compared with English speakers, the LTASS of Korean speakers showed significantly lower levels in frequencies above 2 kHz except at 4 kHz. The difference was less than 5 dB between 2 and 5 kHz but more than 5 dB above 6 kHz. To adjust the formula for fitting hearing aids for Koreans, our results based on the LTASS analysis suggest that one needs to raise the gain in high-frequency regions.
Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva
This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…
Reports an error in "You must be lying because I don't understand you: Language proficiency and lie detection" by Elizabeth Elliott and Amy-May Leach ( Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied , 2016[Dec], Vol 22, 488-499). In the Results section, under "Signal detection theory," the first sentence of the second paragraph contains errors. The correct sentence is provided in this erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-59419-006.) We examined the impact of interviewees' language proficiencies on observers' lie detection performance. Observers (N = 132) were randomly assigned to make deception judgments about interviewees (N = 56) from Four proficiency groups (i.e., native, advanced, intermediate, and beginner English speakers). Discrimination between lie- and truth-tellers was poorest when observers judged beginner English speakers compared to interviewees from any other proficiency group. Observers were also less likely to exhibit a truth-bias toward nonnative than native English speakers. These results suggest that interviewing individuals in their nonnative languages can create inequalities in the justice system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Gevarter, W. B.
An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.
This article identifies recent, mainly Nordic, research approaches to visual arts education. A concept map was developed as a heuristic tool in order to highlight salient traits and blind spots. Contemporary research typically has its origin either in "education" or in "the art world", with an emphasis either on art "as language" or on "art as…
Full Text Available The article refers to the political art scene in Austria during the 1990s and early 2000s. Participatory art-activism projects by the group WochenKlausur and by Martin Krenn and Oliver Ressler are juxtaposed to artistic work used for political activism by the women migrants' organization maiz. All case-studies engage with issues of immigration in Austria, touching also upon official immigration policies and practices in the European Union after 1989. In the case studies the artists transfer political activism practices (giving people a voice to art practices by means of participatory, public art projects, where, for instance, migrants are interviewed. In reverse, the activists transfer artistic practices (e.g., performance to their political activism practices.
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Gregory P. A. Levin
Full Text Available This essay sketches a history of the study of Zen art from the late nineteenth century to post-war reconsiderations, leading towards what I term “critical Zen art studies.” The latter, I suggest, has been undertaken by historians of art and others to challenge normative definitions of Zen art based on modern constructs, revise understanding of the types and functions of visual art important to Chan/Sŏn/Zen Buddhist monasteries, and study iconographies and forms not as a transparent aesthetic indices to Zen Mind or No Mind but as rhetorically, ritually, and socially complex, even unruly, events of representation.
Rennermalm, A. K.; Salzman, H.; Gustafson, D.
The rapidly changing climate and environment in polar regions in the 20th and 21st centuries are well documented by scientists. Yet, this understanding is not well disseminated to students and the general public because the language of science is often inaccessible to these groups. To increase participation in science about the changing Polar regions, we organized a series of interdisciplinary events at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, in 2013/14 called "Polar Perspectives on Art and Science". This series brought five artist/scholars to Rutgers and reached a broad audience of students, faculty and the general public. Accompanying this series were two high-profile events. First, the Zimmerli Art Museum's academic-year-long exhibit, "Glacial Perspectives," displayed paintings and photographs by Diane Burko documenting rapidly changing glacial, and polar landscapes. Second, the "Let Us Talk About Water" event included a screening of the documentary "Chasing Ice" followed by a panel discussion at the Rutgers Cinema. Financial support was provided by Zimmerli Art Museum's Andrew W. Mellon Endowment Fund, Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrological Sciences, Inc., Rutgers Centers for Global Advancement and International Affairs, GAIA, and many other Rutgers institutes and departments. Student feedback on the "Polar Perspectives on Science and Art" suggest that art was effective in enhancing engagement and understanding of contemporary polar change. Furthermore, the many events created a forum for reoccurring and stimulating discussions among people with their academic home in widely different disciplines, including humanities, and physical and social sciences.
Josefina Quintero Corzo
Full Text Available Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality of education.
Farfan, Jose Antonio Flores
Even though Nahuatl is the most widely spoken indigenous language in Mexico, it is endangered. Threats include poor support for Nahuatl-speaking communities, migration of Nahuatl speakers to cities where English and Spanish are spoken, prejudicial attitudes toward indigenous languages, lack of contact between small communities of different…
Moore, Richard; Mueller, Bettina; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael
Infants can see someone pointing to one of two buckets and infer that the toy they are seeking is hidden inside. Great apes do not succeed in this task, but, surprisingly, domestic dogs do. However, whether children and dogs understand these communicative acts in the same way is not yet known. To test this possibility, an experimenter did not…
Full Text Available Some knowledge of the Latin terminology of Roman Dutch law is a prerequisite for law students in SouthAfrican universities. Although there are some points of similarity between black languages and Latin, the differences are such that many students need extra assistance with their study of Latin, which cannot be provided in the normal teaching schedule. The microcomputer is a possible solution to this need, and the author describes a research project in which microsoft QUEST was used to develop drill exercises in vocabulary, accidence and morphology. Student reactions are described. 'n Gedeeltelike kennis van die Latynse terminologie wat in die Romeins-Hollandse reg voorkom, is 'n voorvereiste vir regstudente aan Suid-Afrikaanse universiteite. Alhoewel daar sekere ooreenkomste tussen swart tale en Latyn bestaan, is die verskille van so 'n aard dat heelwat studente ekstra hulp in hul studie vanLatyn benodig. Hierdie hulp kan nie deel van die normale onderrigprogram uitmaak nie. Die mikrorekenaar bied 'n moontlike oplossing hiervoor en die skryfster beskryf 'n navorsingsprojek waarin gebruik gemaak is van QUEST om driloefeninge te ontwerp vir woordeskat, morfologie en vormleer. Studentreaksies word beskryf
Lauridsen, Karen M.
Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....
Almanzar, Victor B.
The author, Victor B. Almanzar, reports on his introduction to the arts while growing up in New York as a young teenager. He felt like an outcast from society due to his language barrier and numerous ethnic groups different from his. He became involved with other students who, like himself, were harassed and suffered from bullying due to their…
In Classical Greece, works defining the nature of art appeared in the various disciplines like medicine, rhetoric, dietetics, architecture and painting. Hippocratic authors tried to show that an art of medicine existed indeed. They contrasted the concept of art with that of chance, not experience that Plato and Aristotle distinguished from art. In fact there are similarities and discrepancies between Hippocratic epistemology and Platoic epistemology. Hippocratic authors maintained that the products of chance were not captured by art. They distinguished the domain of art charactered by explanatory knowledge and prediction from the domain of chance ruled by the unexplained and the unforeseeable. They minimized the role of luck and believed the role of art. Hippocratic authors thought that professional ability contained both knowledge and experience. In Hippocratic corpus, experience is a synonym of competence and usually has a positive meaning. But Plato gave empirical knowledge the disdainful sense and decided a ranking between two types of knowledge. Both Hippocratic authors and Plato held that a genuine art had connection with explanatory knowledge of the nature of its subject matter. A common theme that goes through arguments about art-chance and art-chance is the connection between art and nature. Hippocratic authors and Plato regarded art as a highly systematic process. Art provides us with general and explanatory knowledge of human nature. Art and nature is a mutual relationship. The systematic understanding of nature helps us gain the exactness of art and an exact art helps us understand nature well.
Segel, Edward; Boroditsky, Lera
Jakobson (1959) reports: "The Russian painter Repin was baffled as to why Sin had been depicted as a woman by German artists: he did not realize that 'sin' is feminine in German (die Sünde), but masculine in Russian (rpex)." Does the grammatical gender of nouns in an artist's native language indeed predict the gender of personifications in art? In this paper we analyzed works in the ARTstor database (a digital art library containing over a million images) to measure this correspondence. This analysis provides a measure of artists' real-world behavior. Our results show a clear correspondence between grammatical gender in language and personified gender in art. Grammatical gender predicted personified gender in 78% of the cases, significantly more often than if the two factors were independent. This analysis offers a new window on an age-old question about the relationship between linguistic structure and patterns in culture and cognition.
Full Text Available This article will describe how the U.S. Army has created a culture & foreign language enterprise in an effort to leverage cross-cultural understanding in support of U.S. Army mission objectives. Topics to be addressed include problems and challenges related to cultural issues that the U.S. Army has encountered since September 11, 2001 during military operations in Pakistan, Iraq, Afghanistan and surrounding countries in the region and steps taken to address these problems and challenges. Such topics describe the workings of the Army bureaucracy as it sought to maneuver resources in a manner that could effectively address culturally oriented issues and obstacles. The resulting approaches that have been created, funded, defended and sustained are detailed as examples of how large government institutions can persevere with agility to address such goals. The primary focus of this article, regarding the aforementioned, is the Army Culture & Foreign Language Enterprise. The life of this Enterprise exemplifies how a vision for utilizing civilian social science Ph.D.s, in support of Army goals & objectives related to culture, came to fruition and effectively functions. This description illustrates how such an Enterprise approach can be employed in other types of settings and with other types of issues.
Moore, Richard; Mueller, Bettina; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael
Infants can see someone pointing to one of two buckets and infer that the toy they are seeking is hidden inside. Great apes do not succeed in this task, but, surprisingly, domestic dogs do. However, whether children and dogs understand these communicative acts in the same way is not yet known. To test this possibility, an experimenter did not point, look, or extend any part of her body towards either bucket, but instead lifted and shook one via a centrally pulled rope. She did this either intentionally or accidentally, and did or did not address her act to the subject using ostensive cues. Young 2-year-old children but not dogs understood the experimenter's act in intentional conditions. While ostensive pulling of the rope made no difference to children's success, it actually hindered dogs' performance. We conclude that while human children may be capable of inferring communicative intent from a wide variety actions, so long as these actions are performed intentionally, dogs are likely to be less flexible in this respect. Their understanding of communicative intention may be more dependent upon bodily markers of communicative intent, including gaze, orientation, extended limbs, and vocalizations. This may be because humans have come under selective pressure to develop skills for communicating with absent interlocutors - where bodily co-presence is not possible. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Men are traditionally thought to have more problems in understanding women compared to understanding other men, though evidence supporting this assumption remains sparse. Recently, it has been shown, however, that meńs problems in recognizing women's emotions could be linked to difficulties in extracting the relevant information from the eye region, which remain one of the richest sources of social information for the attribution of mental states to others. To determine possible differences in the neural correlates underlying emotion recognition from female, as compared to male eyes, a modified version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was applied to a sample of 22 participants. We found that men actually had twice as many problems in recognizing emotions from female as compared to male eyes, and that these problems were particularly associated with a lack of activation in limbic regions of the brain (including the hippocampus and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Moreover, men revealed heightened activation of the right amygdala to male stimuli regardless of condition (sex vs. emotion recognition. Thus, our findings highlight the function of the amygdala in the affective component of theory of mind (ToM and in empathy, and provide further evidence that men are substantially less able to infer mental states expressed by women, which may be accompanied by sex-specific differences in amygdala activity.
Rachmi Sari Baso
Full Text Available The study is about the project to revise and re-evaluate the unit of Cross Cultural Understanding curriculum which is taught in the Akademi Bahasa Asing Ballikpapan. The unit is for fifth semester students. The project aimed to provide students' perspectives of cross cultural differences in the workplace with the materials and knowledge that suitable for workplace demands. The information was gained by distributing questionnaires to 2 teachers and 2 employers of multinational companies in Balikpapan. The investigations for teachers were focused on the content, learning activities and materials of the current curriculum. The investigations for the employers were focused on their perspectives on the cross cultural understanding taught in the higher education. The project used Nicholls' cycle model that will be a useful tool to regularly evaluate curriculum based on the situational analysis. As the result, there were some of materials of American business cultural encounter should be revised to meet the companies demands and additional table manners in cultural perspectives should be included in the curriculum. Therefore, the new curriculum will be applied by these materials as the demands of the workplace.
Cranston, Jerome A.; Kusanovich, Kristin A.
This article considers the implications and effectiveness of a performing arts-based pedagogy in the professional development of school leaders. It reports on the findings from a study that exposed educational leaders to methods of dramatic analysis as a means of reflecting on the ethical dilemmas found in personnel management. Through the dynamic…
In this model lesson, secondary students test the hypothesis that Mexican achievements have widely influenced art and architecture in the United States as a result of the cultural flow and exchange between the two nations. The lesson is designed to be presented in two to three class periods. To determine the validity of the hypothesis, students…
Alice J. Feret, EdD
Full Text Available Art educators have a unique opportunity to develop and strengthen a crosscurricular foundation in literacy through art education. Enrolled in a content area reading course, pre-service teachers in art education at one, large southeastern university discovered that using language skills as a lens sharpened their observations of student performance in art classes at the elementary and high school levels. The inclusion of brief lessons featuring listening, reading, speaking, or writing strategies revealed unanticipated academic needs, which impacted classroom performance and artistic development. This increased awareness deepened preservice teachers’ understanding of young students as learners and allowed the preservice teachers to adjust their lesson planning and classroom management skills. The pre-service teachers were more confident in their practice as they witnessed the results of their efforts in terms of students’ improved levels of artistic achievements.
Alphonso Lopez Pinto
Full Text Available In this paper, Sacred Art is examined as an imitation of historia. Historia interprets historical human events as empirical, material and real while seeking to understand their moral and spiritual significance. It is from historia that sacred art can be understood, where Christ and the saints are portrayed in the integrity of their human natures united to symbols representing Divinity or grace in order to present a visual/contemplative narrative. Mortimer Adler rightly sees that the vision of the beautiful is inherently contemplative, thus sacred iconography provides a language that can form the common sense of men and women.
Women wrote about art in the nineteenth century in a variety of genres, ranging from the formal historical or technical treatise and professional art journalism, to travel writing, poetry, and fiction. Their fiction is often less ideologically circumscribed than their formal art histories: the visual arts constituted a language for writing about the social position of women, and about questions of gender and sexuality. This essay considers how women introduced the visual arts and artist figur...
Zoreda, Margaret Lee
This paper, written in Spanish, focuses on the instruction of English as a Second Language in the context of cultural understanding, rather than from a purely linguistic point of view. It argues that foreign language instruction should include lessons in the field of sociology, anthropology, history, geography, politics, the arts, and popular…
Goldberg, Merryl; Bossenmeyer, Melinda
SUAVE (Socios Unidos para Artes Via Educacion--United Community for Arts in Education) is an arts-integrated approach to teaching in multicultural and multilingual settings. A unique professional development project for San Diego-area teachers, SUAVE helps teachers develop ways to integrate the arts into mathematics, science, language arts, and…
Policy changes influence various aspects of art education such as K-12 art education curricula, state licensure systems, and contexts of art teacher preparation. Despite strong relationships between art education policy and practical fields, few studies have attempted to understand art education from the perspective of policy analysis. This study…
Barilla, Rosemary; Brown, Tina Boyer
Rosemary Barilla, a middle-grade language arts teacher, inspired by her own dedication to the arts, describes the ways she integrates the fine arts into her classroom program that is designed to teach reading and writing. Tina Boyer Brown, a founding teacher at The Chicago High School for the Arts (ChiArts®), describes the school as a place where…
Full Text Available Art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses art materials. Art therapy combines traditional psychotherapeutic theories and techniques with an understanding of the psychological aspects of the creative process, especially the affective properties of the different art materials. Medical art therapy has been defined as the clinical application of art expression and imagery with individuals who are physically ill, experiencing physical trauma or undergoing invasive or aggressive medical procedures such as surgery or chemotherapy and is considered as a form of complementary or integrative medicine. Several studies have shown that patients with physical illness benefit from medical art therapy in different aspects. Unlike other therapies, art therapy can take the patients away from their illness for a while by means of creative activities during sessions, can make them forget the illness or lost abilities. Art therapy leads to re-experiencing normality and personal power even with short creative activity sessions. In this article definition, influence and necessity of medical art therapy are briefly reviewed.
Davis, Ernest Kofi; Bishop, Alan J.; Seah, Wee Tiong
This paper reports on a study which sought to investigate how social and political influences affect students' preference for language of instruction in mathematics in Ghana, where the language of instruction from grade 4 onwards in school is not the students' main language. 4 focus group interviews were carried out with 16 primary school…
Mann, David A.
Drawing on the principles of critical multicultural teacher education, Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) and bilingual education, this study examined how pre-service teachers were prepared to educate Emerging Bilinguals (EBs) in ESOL-infused teacher education programs in Florida universities. The textual analysis of a…
Chappell, Sharon Verner; Cahnmann-Taylor, Melisa
Since the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, public discourse on "failing schools" as measured by high-stakes standardized tests has disproportionately affected students from minoritized communities (such as language, race, class, dis/ability), emphasizing climates of assessment at the expense of broader, more democratic, and…
Samsel, F.; Deck, L. T.; Wilson, C. J.; Rodriguez-Acosta, M.
An ever-growing body of research in Informal Science Education is showing that the arts contribute greatly to engaging the free-choice science learner. This kind of learning goes on outside of the classroom, notably in science centers and museums, where novel, experiential approaches can be piloted. A new exhibit, Climate Prisms: The Arctic, is being mounted by a team of artists and scientists at the Bradbury Science Museum of Los Alamos National Laboratory. It presents the pipeline from collecting soil samples in the Arctic to analyzing them in the labs to the statistical analysis of the findings and on to the input into the climate model, using prisms of art: visual art, poetry, scientific text, information graphics, field imagery and others. The presentation encourages users to view Arctic science through these different lenses. Each person plots their own path, moving through the content at the pace and level that best enables them to engage with the material. With the entry points through multiple artistic voices, learners hearts and feelings are directly reached, building primarily affective connections and then curiosity, rather than cognitive. The project itself is a large display screen driven by a touch interface designed for individual or small group viewing. Content paths are determined by an underlying system of tags, levels, content categories and related research areas. A screen shows a set of images. Each image can be accessed to provide image-specific information or can be a launching pad for a new set of related content and images that allows the user to continue on their exploration journey. Each person, each time they visit, creates a unique path through over 2000 pieces of content according to the unique set of learning assets and interests they bring with them at that visit. Embedded assessment will log basic demographics and each individual foray through the content. These assessments will be analyzed to explore trends of use and drive
Kuster, Deborah; TerAvest, Matt
Christopher Adejumo identified community-based art as "works of art produced by people living within the same locality, and defined by common interests such as shared concerns, cultural heritage, traditions, and language patterns." Community-based art has the potential of heightening students' sense of personal responsibility and generating…
Essays in any of the regular disciplines of the humanities: language, linguistics, communication arts, history, theatre arts or performing arts, history and diplomatic studies or international relations, philosophy, religious studies, film, etc., are normally peer-reviewed before publication. Book reviews and commentaries ...
Sartorius, Tara Cady
Provides information on china painting, focusing on Kurt Weiser, who paints on ceramics using china paints. Discusses his techniques and describes his work titled "Woman with Mongoose." Includes accompanying projects for art history, visual arts, language arts, natural science, and science or mathematics. (CMK)
Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine
"Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…
Segel, Edward; Boroditsky, Lera
Roman Jakobson (1959) reports: The Russian painter Repin was baffled as to why Sin had been depicted as a woman by German artists: he did not realize that sin is feminine in German (die Sünde), but masculine in Russian (грех). Does the grammatical gender of nouns in an artist’s native language indeed predict the gender of personifications in art? In this paper we analyzed works in the ARTstor database (a digital art library containing over a million images) to measure this correspondenc...
It publishes scholarly articles in such areas of the humanities as Igbo and other African languages and literatures, English and other European languages and literatures, Chinese and other Asian languages and literatures, History, Philosophy, Religion, Music, Theatre Arts, etc. UJAH seeks to grow the variety of human ...
Kats, L.C.L.; Visser, E.
Spoofax is a language workbench for efficient, agile development of textual domain-specific languages with state-of-the-art IDE support. It provides a comprehensive environment that integrates syntax definition, program transformation, code generation, and declarative specification of IDE components
Refletindo o ‘Transpessoal’ humano - uma compreensão multidisciplinar em transversalidade com o estado da arte de ser Reflexionando el ‘Transpersonal’ humano - la comprensión multidisciplinar en la transversalidad con el estado del arte de ser Reflecting the ‘Transpersonal’ human - an multidisciplinary understanding in parallel with the state of the art of being
Emanuelle Caires Dias Araújo Nunes
, SciELO y MEDLINE y SCOPUS con el descriptor: transpersonal. Emergieron nueve artículos pertinentes a la propuesta. La comprensión de la transpersonalidad bajo una perspectiva interdisciplinar se ha mostrado como necesaria para el alcance de un cuidar más integral al ser humano en su complexidad. El análisis y discusión desarrollados en el enlace con los conceptos teóricos con las experiencias observadas en la revisión literaria interfieren en el subsidio para el desarrollo de un cuidado más ampliado, más sensible a las necesidades, más interactivo/intersubjectivo y vinculado a la persona humana. Concluimos que pensar transpersonalmente requiere percibir el hombre como multidimensional, sistémico, psicológico, cuántico, total, cuidado e intersubjectivo/transpersonal. Para eso, se hace necesario un nuevo paradigma de enseñanza-aprendizaje que desarrolle un conocer-ser-saber-hacer la interdisciplinaridad en la praxis de cuidados de la enfermería actual.The aim of the study was to carry out a comprehensive theoretical and multidisciplinary reflection on the concept of transpersonality, which could underpin multidimensional care of human beings. This is a multidisciplinary theoretical paper developed from nursing, sociology and psychology references with contributions from quantum physics, biology and anthropology in parallel with the state of the art. The data for the literature review were collected from the Virtual Health Library (LILACS, SciELO and MEDLINE and SCOPUS with the descriptor ‘transpersonal’. Nine relevant articles emerged according to the proposal. Understanding transpersonality within an interdisciplinary perspective proved to be necessary to achieve more integrated care for human beings in their complexity. The analysis and discussion was developed by linking the theoretical concepts with the experiences observed in the literature review to underpin the development of an expanded form of nursing care, more sensitive to the needs of the
Nellemann, Kristian Lindhardt; Birk, Nikoline Aarup; Toft-Nielsen, Nina Kristine; Justice, Alexandra Isabella; Løkkegaard, Jakob Ludvig; Mørch, Cecilia
This project seeks to investigate the intricate processes immigrants in Denmark go through when learning Danish as a foreign or second language. It builds from an understanding of language as a social practice and a view of language learning as having more than a cognitive level. By combining theory on second language acquisition with theory on identity and communities of practice, this project looks to explore how immigrants through investment in language learning create or maintain a meanin...
Olesen, Henning Salling; Weber, Kirsten
. Presenta los antecedentes en su teoría materialista de la socialización, lo que combina una reinterpretación social del pensamiento central en el psicoanálisis clásico – el inconsciente, la pulsión – con una teoría de la adquisición del lenguaje. Su metodología se basa en una transformación de la...... e ideas clave – formas de interacción, engramas, experiencia, simbolización, juego del lenguaje, imaginación utópica – con una mirada a las conexiones de teoría social a la escuela de Frankfurt. El procedimiento de la interpretación práctica basada en una investigación psicosocial de LORENZER, es...... to contemporary epistemological issues. LORENZER's approach to theorize and research the subject as a socially produced entity appears as a psycho-societal alternative to mainstream social constructivism. Resumen: Socialización, lenguaje y comprensión escénica. La contribución de Alfred Lorenzer a una metodología...
of the lexical material to explain how many actions there were, how many actors , etc., and the nature of the map from actor onto action, etc. For...direction and make a measurement there, or may scan from the current focus in a specified " direccion " (or by some other specification of a trajectory
What Works Clearinghouse, 2013
"LANGUAGE!"[R] is a language arts intervention designed for struggling learners in grades 3-12 who score below the 40th percentile on standardized literacy tests. The curriculum integrates English literacy acquisition skills into a six-step lesson format. During a daily lesson, students work on six key literacy strands (which the…
Gomez-Laich, Maria Pia
Pragmatic competence is an indispensable aspect of language ability in order for second and foreign language (L2/FL) learners to understand and be understood in their interactions with both native and nonnative speakers of the target language. Without a proper understanding of the pragmatic rules in the target language, learners may run the risk…
This paper illustrates a 'Conversational Model' of art therapy. The Conversational Model was jointly created by Robert Hobson and Russell Meares. It is a developmental theory unique in its clinical application. The focus of the paper is two sessions that altered the course of therapy. In these sessions, variations on Donald Winnicott's "squiggle-game" and Hobson's "party game" were used to engage an isolative, reluctant incarcerated patient. The interventions illustrate the basic tenets of the Conversational Model. The theoretical process--from disruption to repair--is visually recorded in the artwork. The central argument of the paper is that interactive art therapy interventions can be effective, when used appropriately. By engaging the patient in a 'visual' conversation, he/she may develop an emotional vocabulary, a prerequisite for a psychotherapeutic conversation. The paper begins with a brief historical overview of the interface between art and psychoanalysis, the context out of which 'art therapy'--a distinct body of theory--evolved. Theory interweaves with clinical material in a narrative style. What I say and do in therapy is aimed at promoting understanding: a 'conversation', a meeting between two experiencing subjects (an I and a Thou), here and now, in such a way that learning can be effective in other relationships. If, as I believe, psychotherapy is a matter of promoting a personal dialogue, then we need to know how to receive, express, and share feeling: how to learn a language of the heart in its 'minute particulars'.
Degn Johansson, Troels
This article outlines the author's continuous collaboration with the Danish art collective Superflex; an internationally recognised example of how contemporary art has taken interest in design practice in order to realise visions of change and empowerment. Setting off from Frayling's infamous...... distinction between research in, for, and through art and design, the author lays out this collaboration as a series of stepping back from an initial action research situation, that is, a case of research through design where the researcher is involved by means of strategic interest. However, by gradually...... distancing himself, by taking steps back from this situation, the author has sought to map out systematically the institutional contexts in which the art collective has been operating. In this way, it has become possible to understand further why art may maintain its original empowering role in design...
Andy Charalambous; firstname.lastname@example.org artist and trained engineer based in London UK, HEP Artist in Residence, Astronomy Artist in Residence and Honorary Research Fellow Physics and Astronomy University College London http://www.andycharalambous.com art@CMS_sciARTbooklet: web page : http://artcms.web.cern.ch/artcms/ A tool to support students with their research on various scientific topics, encourage an understanding of the relevance of expression through the arts, a manual to recreate the artwork and enable students to define and develop their own artistic inquiry in the creation of new artworks. The art@CMS sciART booklet series directed by Dr. Michael Hoch, email@example.com scientist and artist at CERN, in cooperation with the HST 2017 participants (S. Bellefontaine, S. Chaiwan, A. Djune Tchinda, R. O’Keeffe, G. Shumanova)
Boster, Jamie B.; McCarthy, John W.
The Internet is a source of many resources for graduate speech-language pathology (SLP) students. It is important to understand the resources students are aware of, which they use, and why they are being chosen as sources of information for therapy activities. A national online survey of graduate SLP students was conducted to assess their…
. This is most often done together with non-artist members of the organisation and on-site in their social context. OA is characterised as socially engaged, conceptual, discursive, site-specific and contextual. It is argued that OA seeks to advance both art and the organisation of human work/life by crossing......University of Copenhagen / Learning Lab Denmark. 2005 Kort beskrivelse: Organisational Art is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations to produce art. This is most often done together with non-artist members of the organisation and on-site in their social context. OA...... is characterised as socially engaged, conceptual, discursive, site-specific and contextual. Abstract: This investigation is about Organisational Art (OA), which is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations (companies, institutions, communities, governments and NGOs) to produce art...
Horn, Brian R.
This paper examines how, as a teacher researcher, I employed a narrative approach to research to better understand my 8th grade Language Arts students' empowerment in school. Drawing on sociocultural theory, critical pedagogy and a narrative approach to teacher research, students' voices were privileged and compared to the systemic assumptions…
McGaughy, Charis; Hopper-Moore, Greg; Fukuda, Erin; Phillips, Rachel; Rooseboom, Jennifer; Chadwick, Kristine
"Understanding Entry-Level Courses in American Institutions of Higher Education" outlines a study conducted by Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) that empirically identifies the characteristics of work at the college- and career-readiness level in English/language arts, science, and social sciences courses. Using a previously…
This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…
Kovács, Emese; Simon, Lajos
The authors in this article explor the most important steps of the development of the research on the psychopathology of expression. They introduce the development of Art Brut and it's place in art history. They deal with the characteristics of art therapy.
In recent years aesthetics and cosmopolitanism has been linked in new ways. On the one hand contemporary research in sociology of art appears to indicate an increasing openness and a potential cosmopolitanism in aesthetic taste and consumption. On the other hand aesthetic concepts and ideals play...... implications of the apparent new openness. Does it indicate an increasing tolerance and commonality? Or does it rather point towards a new and more individualized understanding of the social function and legitimacy of art?...
Mei, Bing; Brown, Gavin T. L.; Teo, Timothy
Despite the rapid proliferation of information and communication technologies, there exists a paucity of empirical research on the causes of the current low acceptance of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) by English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers in the People's Republic of China (PRC). This study aims to remedy this situation…
Petersen, Anne Ring
This book addresses a topic of increasing importance to artists, art historians and scholars of cultural studies, migration studies and international relations: migration as a profoundly transforming force that has remodelled artistic and art institutional practices across the world. It explores...... contemporary art's critical engagement with migration and globalisation as a key source for improving our understanding of how these processes transform identities, cultures, institutions and geopolitics. The author explores three interwoven issues of enduring interest: identity and belonging, institutional...... visibility and recognition of migrant artists, and the interrelations between aesthetics and politics, including the balancing of aesthetics, politics and ethics in representations of forced migration....
language and power issues. Drawn from all parts of the world, the contributors are active in a range of scientific and professional areas including bilingual education; sociolinguistics; the sociology of education, law and language; economics and language; linguistics; sign language; racism; communication......; discourse analysis; language policy; minority issues; and language pedagogy. The book situates issues of minorities and bilingual education in broader perspectives of human rights, power and the ecology of language. It aims at a distillation of themes that are central to an understanding of language rights...... topics can cross-fertilize each other, and that our understanding of the issues can benefit from coverage that is global, reflective and committed. A website with additional resource material to this book can be found at http://babel.ruc.dk/-robert/. Brings together scholarship in language, education...
Into the Curriculum. Career Education: What Job Can I Do?; Music/Social Studies: Musical Hits for the Holidays; Reading/Language Arts: Favorite Toys; Science: In Arctic Regions; Science/Social Studies: Floods versus Droughts; Social Studies: History of Writing.
School Library Media Activities Monthly, 2002
Provides six fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in career education, music, social studies, reading, language arts, and science. Library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up are described for each…
Into the Curriculum. Reading/Language Arts: Hans Christian Andersen [and] Science: Bat Research [and] Science: The Library Media Center Rocks! An Introduction to Rocks, Minerals, and Gemstones [and] Social Studies: Ticket to the Olympics: Exploring Sydney and the 2000 Summer Games [and] Social Studies/Music: Sounds of the Election: Presidential Campaign Songs.
Germain, Claudia; Mayo, Jeanne B.; Hart, Lisa
Provides five fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in reading and language arts, science, social studies, and music. Library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up are described for each activity. (LRW)
Into the Curriculum. Guidance: Sense of Self, Self-Esteem; Health: Clean Hands, Clean Books; Mathematics/Science: What's the Heaviest Thing in the Library Media Center?; Reading/Language Arts: Merry-Go-Round Mooo-ving Picture Show; Social Studies: I Came to School By !; Social Studies: Revolutionary War Facts.
School Library Media Activities Monthly, 2001
Provides six fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in guidance, health, mathematics, science, reading, language arts, and social studies. Library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up are described for each…
Petersen, Anne Ring
Despite its large and growing popularity – to say nothing of its near-ubiquity in the world’s art scenes and international exhibitions of contemporary art –installation art remains a form whose artistic vocabulary and conceptual basis have rarely been subjected to thorough critical examination....... In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic...... phenomena. It investigates how it became one of today’s most widely used art forms, increasingly expanding into consumer, popular and urban cultures, where installation’s often spectacular appearance ensures that it meets contemporary demands for sense-provoking and immersive cultural experiences. The main...
Petersen, Anne Ring
. In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic......Despite its large and growing popularity – to say nothing of its near-ubiquity in the world’s art scenes and international exhibitions of contemporary art –installation art remains a form whose artistic vocabulary and conceptual basis have rarely been subjected to thorough critical examination...... phenomena. It investigates how it became one of today’s most widely used art forms, increasingly expanding into consumer, popular and urban cultures, where installation’s often spectacular appearance ensures that it meets contemporary demands for sense-provoking and immersive cultural experiences. The main...
Hinkamp, David L; McCann, Michael; Babin, Angela
Work in the visual arts, performing arts, and writing can involve exposures to occupational hazards, including hazardous materials, equipment, and conditions, but few art workplaces have strong occupational health resources. Literature searches were conducted for articles that illustrate these concerns. Medical databases were searched for art-related health articles. Other sources were also reviewed, including, unindexed art-health publications, and popular press articles. Information was located that described some exposed populations, art-related hazards, and resulting disorders. Anecdotal reports were used when more complete data were not available. Health hazards in the arts are significant. Occupational health professionals are familiar with most of these concerns and understand their treatment and prevention. The occupational health approach can reduce the health hazards encountered by at-risk art workers. Additional research would benefit these efforts. Resources for further information are available.
Jonathan J Helmus
Full Text Available The Python ARM Radar Toolkit is a package for reading, visualizing, correcting and analysing data from weather radars. Development began to meet the needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility and has since expanded to provide a general-purpose framework for working with data from weather radars in the Python programming language. The toolkit is built on top of libraries in the Scientific Python ecosystem including NumPy, SciPy, and matplotlib, and makes use of Cython for interfacing with existing radar libraries written in C and to speed up computationally demanding algorithms. The source code for the toolkit is available on GitHub and is distributed under a BSD license.
Assessment of EFL learners' attitude towards cooperative language learning: Limu Preparatory School, East Wollega Zone in focus. ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... Keywords: Cooperative language learning, Cooperative learning, Attitude, Language learning, EFL teachers, Students' willingness ...
Schroth, Stephen T.; Helfer, Jason A.
Knowledge of English/language arts, mathematics, and the sciences are considered important in the development of gifted children. Familiarity with the arts--music, the visual arts, dance, creative writing, and theatre--is, for many, a more difficult proposition. Budget cutbacks have marginalized the art offerings in numerous school districts…
Sorensen, Barbara Ellen
Indigenous people have always created what colonial language labels art. Yet there is no Native word for "art" as defined in a Euro-American sense. Art, as the dominant culture envisions, is mostly ornamental. This is in sharp juxtaposition to a Native perspective, which sees art as integrative, inclusive, practical, and constantly…
Art criticism was introduced into art education to help students understand works of art. However, art interpretation methods differ according to the educational goals specified for various types of art students. The fine arts interpretation procedures established in education are usually purely theoretical and exclusively verbal, and are thus…
Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida
Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....
Art and science are intrinsically linked; the essence of art and science is discovery. Both artists and scientists work in a systematic but creative way--knowledge and understanding are built up through pieces of art or a series of labs. In the classroom, integrating science and visual art can provide students with the latitude to think, discover,…
Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda
Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…