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Sample records for understanding labels aor

  1. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  2. Food Allergies: Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a few common questions about food label requirements. What foods are labeled? Domestic or imported packaged food is ... allergens found in flavorings, colorings or other additives. What foods aren't labeled? Fresh produce, eggs, fresh meat ...

  3. [AOR characterization and zoning: a dosimeter for blue light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dario, R; Uva, J; Di Lecce, V; Quarto, A

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the results obtained thanks to an innovative experimental device for the assessment of artificial optical radiation (AOR) exposure in workplace. This . device was developed by 'Politecnico di Bari-DIASS'. The wearable personal dosimeter has three sensors: one is used for measuring head position/movement, therefore there is a color light sensor to determine the AOR and finally there is a video camera to localize sources. Our system is connected to a netbook via USB cable that allows one to obtain the real and extimated value of worker's exposure, also with "augmented reality". The aim of this paper is realizing work place safety zoning for the classifacation of not only specific dangerous areas through the analysis of overlapping information from the device.

  4. Understanding how consumers categorise nutritional labels: a consumer derived typology for front-of-pack nutrition labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Charo; Barnett, Julie; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; Gulcan, Yaprak; Kustepeli, Yesim; Akgungor, Sedef; Chryssochoidis, George; Fernández-Celemin, Laura; Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Gibbs, Michelle; Raats, Monique

    2012-12-01

    Significant ongoing debate exists amongst stakeholders as to the best front-of-pack labelling approach and emerging evidence suggests that the plethora of schemes may cause confusion for the consumer. To gain a better understanding of the relevant psychological phenomena and consumer perspectives surrounding FoP labelling schemes and their optimal development a Multiple Sort Procedure study involving free sorting of a range of nutritional labels presented on cards was performed in four countries (n=60). The underlying structure of the qualitative data generated was explored using Multiple Scalogram Analysis. Elicitation of categorisations from consumers has the potential to provide a very important perspective in this arena and results demonstrated that the amount of information contained within a nutrition label has high salience for consumers, as does the health utility of the label although a dichotomy exists in the affective evaluation of the labels containing varying degrees of information aggregation. Classification of exiting front-of-pack labelling systems on a proposed dimension of 'directiveness' leads to a better understanding of why some schemes may be more effective than others in particular situations or for particular consumers. Based on this research an enhanced hypothetical front-of-pack labelling scheme which combines both directive and non-directive elements is proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. consumers' understanding and use of textile eco-labels dur

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Special Edition. Diversifying clothing research in Southern Africa ..... ecological data of a product, within a set of parameters that are determined by an eligible .... to pay higher prices for eco-labelled products and products from environmentally friendly and.

  6. Use and understanding of nutrition information on food labels in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Fernández-Celemín, Laura; Wills, Josephine M; Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Nureeva, Liliya

    2010-06-01

    AIM: The goal of the study was to investigate the use of nutrition information on food labels and understanding of guideline daily amount (GDA) front-of-pack nutrition labels in six European countries. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In-store observations and in-store interviews were conducted in major retailers in the UK (n = 2019), Sweden (n = 1858), France (n = 2337), Germany (n = 1963), Poland (n = 1800) and Hungary (n = 1804), supplemented by questionnaires filled out at home and returned (overall response rate 50.3%). Use of labels was measured by combining in-store observations and in-store interviews on concrete purchases in six product categories. Understanding of GDA front-of-pack nutrition labels was measured by a variety of tasks dealing with conceptual understanding, substantial understanding and health inferences. Demographics, nutrition knowledge and interest in healthy eating were measured as potential determinants. RESULTS: Across six product categories, 16.8% of shoppers were found to have looked for nutrition information on the label, with the nutrition grid (table or list), GDA labels and the ingredients list as the main sources consulted and calories, fat and sugar the information most often looked for. Understanding of GDA labels was high in the UK, Sweden and Germany, and more limited in the other countries. Regression analysis showed that, in addition to country-specific differences, use and understanding are also affected by differences in interest in healthy eating and in nutrition knowledge and by social grade. CONCLUSION: Understanding of nutrition information seems to be more widespread than use, suggesting that lack of use is a question of not only understanding, but also motivation. Considerable national differences exist in both understanding and use, some of which may be attributed to different histories of the role of nutrition in the public debate.

  7. Use and understanding of nutrition information on food labels in six European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Grunert , Klaus G.; Fernández-Celemín , Laura; Wills , Josephine M.; Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann , Stefan; Nureeva , Liliya

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim The goal of the study was to investigate the use of nutrition information on food labels and understanding of guideline daily amount (GDA) front-of-pack nutrition labels in six European countries. Subjects and methods In-store observations and in-store interviews were conducted in major retailers in the UK (n?=?2019), Sweden (n?=?1858), France (n?=?2337), Germany (n?=?1963), Poland (n?=?1800) ...

  8. Bilingual Text With or Without Pictograms Improves Elderly Singaporeans' Understanding of Prescription Medication Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rahul; Bautista, Mary Ann C; Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Tang, Wern Ee; Tay, Sarah; Tan, Audrey Siok Ling; Pouliot, Annie; Saffari, Seyed Ehsan; Chei, Choy-Lye; Vaillancourt, Regis

    2017-11-19

    In Singapore, primarily English-language prescription medication labels challenge elderly Singaporeans, many of whom are unable to read English. We investigated whether bilingual text and pictograms can help them understand prescription medication labels. We randomized 1,414 elderly respondents of a national survey into four prescription medication labels: English-text; English-text-and-pictograms; Bilingual-text; and Bilingual-text-and-pictograms, which were similar except for the addition of another language and/or pictograms (International Pharmaceutical Federation, FIP). Respondents answered 16 label-related questions; an expert panel rated answers for correctness. Outcomes were (1) complete understanding (16 correct); (2) any understanding (≥1 correct); and (3) number of incorrect answers among those with any understanding. We evaluated associations of each prescription medication label (vs. English-text) with outcomes (1), (2), and (3) using logistic and negative binomial regression, respectively. The elderly respondents were similar across the four prescription medication labels (English-text, English-text-and-pictograms, Bilingual-text, Bilingual-text-and-pictograms), for which the proportions with outcomes (1) and (2) were (17.9%, 25.6%, 36.9%, 40.1%) and (50.4%, 62.6%, 75.9%, 76.5%), respectively. We observed statistically significant higher odds of outcomes (1) and (2) among those assigned the three labels (vs. English-text): English-text-and-pictograms, 1.96 and 2.51; Bilingual-text, 3.54 and 6.73; and Bilingual-text-and-pictograms, 4.51 and 7.93. Those assigned the three labels also had 0.94, 1.98, and 2.12 fewer outcome (3) on average (vs. English-text). Adding bilingual text with or without pictograms on prescription medication labels considerably improved elderly Singaporeans' understanding of the labels, strongly suggesting its application in practice. Other issues in prescription medication labels design and content, including adapting FIP

  9. 75 FR 33696 - Safety Zone: July Firework Display in Captain of the Port, Puget Sound AOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone: July Firework Display in Captain of the Port, Puget Sound AOR AGENCY: Coast Guard... Captain of the Port, Puget Sound AOR. (a) Safety Zone. The following area is a designated safety zone: all..., Captain of the Port, Puget Sound. [FR Doc. 2010-14294 Filed 6-14-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 9110-04-P ...

  10. Synthesis of Constructs for Modeling Consumers’ Understanding and Perception of Eco-Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Md Raziuddin Taufique

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The term “eco-labeling” has become a buzzword in today’s sustainable business world. The use of eco-labeling in various forms has been increasing notably for past many years, sometimes as an environmental “requirement” and sometimes merely as a marketing tool. Questions arise about how well these eco-labels are attended and understood by consumers. However, though mentionable studies are found on various aspects of eco-labels, gaps exist in exploring an inclusive set of parameters for investigating consumer perceptions of eco-labels. This paper aims at preparing a synthesis of all the possible factors to be incorporated for measuring consumer perceptions of eco-labeling of products. For making such synthesis, all major works in the field have been thoroughly reviewed. The paper comes up with a total of 10 parameters that include consumer awareness, consumer knowledge, consumer involvement, consumer trust, design and visibility, credibility of the source, type and level of information, clarity of meaning, persuasiveness, and private benefits. This tentative, yet inclusive, set of parameters is thought to be useful for designing large scale future empirical researches for developing a dependable inclusive set of parameters to test consumer understanding and perceptions of eco-label. A framework is proposed for further empirical research.

  11. Consumer acceptability and understanding of front-of-pack nutrition labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejean, C; Macouillard, P; Péneau, S; Hercberg, S; Castetbon, K

    2013-10-01

    Front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling has been proposed as a tool for helping consumers make healthy choices. Before determining its effects on consumer behaviour, factors involved in its use must be elucidated, i.e. understanding and acceptability on the part of the consumer. Among five FOP labels, we sought to determine which formats were most easily understood and accepted by a large sample of adults. Among 39 370 adults who participated in the French Nutrinet-Santé cohort study, understanding and indicators of acceptability (attitude, liking, visual attractiveness and perceived cognitive workload) were measured for five FOP labels: The currently used 'multiple traffic lights' (MTL) and 'simple traffic lights' (STL), and the 'colour range' logo (CR), the 'green tick' and the PNNS logo. We investigated the contribution of the different elements to consumer perception of FOP labels using multiple correspondence analyses. Over half of the sample population showed a high level of understanding and perceived no discomfort in terms of the different logos. Label formats were positioned along an acceptability gradient ranging from acceptance to rejection, consisting of 'liking', 'attractiveness' and indicators of perceived cognitive workload. MTL was significantly more often liked and was viewed as reliable and informative. MTL, STL and the green tick performed better than the CR and PNNS logos in terms of ease of identification and comprehension. CR was clearly the least appreciated and it had the most complex format. Consumers prefer FOP labels which give complete, reliable and simplified information on the nutrient quality of foods. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Information search behaviour, understanding and use of nutrition labeling by residents of Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Castillo, L; Royo-Bordonada, M A; Moya-Geromini, A

    2015-03-01

    To describe the information search behaviour, comprehension level, and use of nutritional labeling by consumers according to sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional study of consumers recruited in five stores of the main supermarket chains in Madrid: a random sample of 299 consumers (response rate: 80.6%). Interviewers collected information about the information search behaviour, comprehension, and use of nutritional labeling using a questionnaire designed for this purpose. Analyses examined the frequency of the variables of interest. Differences were tested using the Chi-square statistic. In this sample, 38.8% of consumers regularly read the nutritional labeling before making a purchase (45% of women vs 30% in men; P = 0.03) and the most common reason reported was choosing healthier products (81.3%). The proportion of people who were interested in additives and fats was the higher, (55% and 50%, respectively). Lack of time (38.9%), lack of interest (27.1%), and reading difficulties (18.1%) were the most common reasons given for not reading labels. Over half (52.4%) of consumers reported completely understanding the nutritional information on labels and 20.5% reported using such information for dietary planning. Reported information search behaviour, comprehension, and use of nutritional labeling were relatively high among consumers of the study, and their main goal was picking healthier products. However, not only are there still barriers to reading the information, but also the information most relevant to health is not always read or understood. Thus, interventions to increase nutritional labeling comprehension and use are required in order to facilitate the making of healthier choices by consumers. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cubic B-spline solution for two-point boundary value problem with AOR iterative method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardi, M. N.; Radzuan, N. Z. F. M.; Sulaiman, J.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the cubic B-spline approximation equation has been derived by using the cubic B-spline discretization scheme to solve two-point boundary value problems. In addition to that, system of cubic B-spline approximation equations is generated from this spline approximation equation in order to get the numerical solutions. To do this, the Accelerated Over Relaxation (AOR) iterative method has been used to solve the generated linear system. For the purpose of comparison, the GS iterative method is designated as a control method to compare between SOR and AOR iterative methods. There are two examples of proposed problems that have been considered to examine the efficiency of these proposed iterative methods via three parameters such as their number of iterations, computational time and maximum absolute error. The numerical results are obtained from these iterative methods, it can be concluded that the AOR iterative method is slightly efficient as compared with SOR iterative method.

  14. Implicit finite difference solution for time-fractional diffusion equations using AOR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunarto, A; Sulaiman, J; Saudi, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we derive an implicit finite difference approximation equation of the one-dimensional linear time fractional diffusion equations, based on the Caputo's time fractional derivative. Then this approximation equation leads the corresponding system of linear equation, which is large scale and sparse. Due to the characteristics of the coefficient matrix, we use the Accelerated Over-Relaxation (AOR) iterative method for solving the generated linear system. One example of the problem is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of AOR method. The numerical results of this study show that the proposed iterative method is superior compared with the existing one weighted parameter iterative method.

  15. Association between limited English proficiency and understanding prescription labels among five ethnic groups in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masland, Mary C; Kang, Soo H; Ma, Yifei

    2011-04-01

    Misunderstanding of prescription labels results in adverse drug events and non-adherence. We assessed the effect of limited English and other factors on prescription understanding among five ethnic groups in a controlled analysis. Subjects were respondents to California's 2007 Health Interview Survey who received a prescription in the past year. In separate logistic regressions, limited English's effect on self-reported prescription understanding - controlling for bilingual doctor, education level, medications for chronic conditions, disability, years in USA, citizenship and socio-demographics - was estimated for Mexicans, Central Americans, Chinese, Koreans, and Vietnamese. Unweighted sample size was 48,968. Approximately 14% had limited English and 8% had difficulty in understanding prescriptions. In multivariate analysis, limited English increased odds of difficulty in understanding prescriptions by three times for Mexicans, Central Americans, and Koreans, and four times for Chinese; it was insignificant for Vietnamese. Generally, having a bilingual doctor reduced odds of difficulty while disability, low education, low income or recent immigration increased odds of difficulty. Effects varied according to the ethnic group. In controlled analysis, Chinese and Korean ethnicity increased odds of difficulty compared to Mexican or Central American ethnicity; Vietnamese ethnicity reduced odds of difficulty compared to others. Limited English blocked prescription understanding for all groups except Vietnamese. Translated prescription labels and interpreted in-person pharmacy consultations are indicated. Education and ethnicity affected prescription understanding; prescription instructions must be compatible with patients' educational level and culture. Bilingual/bicultural providers and interpreters can help bridge linguistic/cultural gaps but efforts should be made to ensure that they are truly culturally and linguistically concordant. Linguistic, cultural or

  16. Understanding and acceptability by Hispanic consumers of four front-of-pack food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Torres, Pilar; Contreras-Manzano, Alejandra; Jáuregui de la Mota, Alejandra; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Villalpando, Salvador; Rodríguez-Oliveros, Guadalupe

    2017-03-07

    Front-of-pack food labels (FOPL) can help consumers make healthy and informed food choices. FOPL are used in the food market but evaluations of their understanding and acceptability are scanty. This study aimed to explore the subjective understanding and acceptability of four FOPL among Hispanic consumers. A qualitative study was conducted in six States of Mexico, in 18 urban elementary schools. A purposive sample of 135 parents of fifth-grade children was selected. Four FOPL were assessed: Logos, Rating Stars, Guideline Daily Allowances (GDA's), and Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL). Trained interviewers performed 18 focus groups with the participants, using an interview guide. Participants were asked about their subjective understanding and acceptability of the FOPL, displaying 16 generic breakfast cereal boxes designed for this study (four for each FOPL), varying in their nutritional value. Afterwards, participants were asked to choose among the four cereal boxes the one to best communicate the product healthiness and their reasons for choice, proposals for improving the FOPL, and desirable characteristics for new FOPL. Finally, a socio-demographic questionnaire was applied. Thematic analysis of the transcriptions of the focus groups was performed, using Altlas.tiV5 software. Logos were perceived as easy to understand, highly acceptable, and useful for decision-making; institutional endorsement of Logos was related to greater confidence in the label. The GDA's were hard to understand considering the nutritional knowledge and time needed for interpretation. The Rating Stars were related to the quality in businesses rather than foods. The MTL were viewed as indicating the high/low content of specific nutrients, but the meaning of the amber color was not fully understood. Participants highlighted the need for a simple FOPL that allows easily identification of healthy products while considering food purchasing time limitations and interpretation of food portions. Logos

  17. Application of an Area-of-Review (AOR) Concept to the East Texas Field and Other Selected Texas Oilfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Don L.; Koederitz, Leonard F.; Laudon, Robert C.

    2001-04-19

    The Underground Injection Control Regulations promulgated in 1980, under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, require Area-of-Review (AOR) studies be conducted as part of the permitting process for newly drilled or converted Class II injection wells. Existing Class II injection wells operating at the time regulations became effective were excluded from the AOR requirement. The AOR is the area surrounding an injection well or wells defined by either the radial distance within which pressure in the injection zone may cause migration of the injection and/or formation fluid into an underground source of drinking water (USDW) or defined by a fixed radius of not less than one-fourth mile. In the method where injection pressure is used to define the AOR radial distance, the AOR is also known as the ''zone of endangering influence.''

  18. Consumers' understanding and use of textile eco-labels during pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eco-labels inform consumers regarding products' environmental friendliness and emerged as a world-wide phenomenon because of increased environmental awareness and concern. Textile eco-labels, which are also available in South Africa, are intended to help consumers make decisions regarding textile products with ...

  19. Simplifying mental math: Changing how added sugars are displayed on the nutrition facts label can improve consumer understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandpur, Neha; Graham, Dan J; Roberto, Christina A

    2017-07-01

    Proposed variations to Nutrition Facts Labels (NFL) have included the display of added sugars (AS) content, but its impact on consumer understanding is poorly understood. To examine the degree to which different formats for displaying AS influence consumer understanding, perceptions, and purchase intentions. Randomized-controlled online experiment. A sample of 2509 U.S adults. Participants were randomized to 1 of 8 conditions and viewed 10 food or beverage images with either: (1) no label (control); (2) the current NFL (without AS); (3) the proposed NFL without AS; or the proposed NFL with AS in (4) grams, (5) grams and teaspoons, (6) grams and percent Daily Value (%DV), (7) grams with high/medium/low text, or (8) grams with high/medium/low text and %DV. ANCOVAs compared scores on quizzes that assessed the accuracy of judgments about AS, overall nutrition understanding and purchase intentions. Presenting AS in grams plus high/medium/low text with and without %DV led to the highest AS understanding scores (85% and 83% correct, respectively) compared to 70% correct when AS was not on the label or was displayed in grams only (74% correct). Displaying AS in teaspoons did not significantly improve understanding beyond grams alone. Consumers were best able to determine which of two products was healthier when AS was presented as %DV (68% correct) versus displayed in grams alone (60% correct), but %DV did not differ from high/medium/low text or teaspoons. None of the labels influenced purchase intentions relative to no label. Displaying AS on the NFL in grams with high/medium/low text, %DV, or the combination of the two, improved consumer understanding more than presenting it in grams or teaspoons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutrition knowledge, and use and understanding of nutrition information on food labels among consumers in the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Wills, Josephine M.; Fernández-Celemín, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Based on in-store observations in three major UK retailers, in-store interviews (2019) and questionnaires filled out at home and returned (921), use of nutrition information on food labels and its understanding were investigated. Respondents' nutrition knowledge was also measured, using a compreh......Based on in-store observations in three major UK retailers, in-store interviews (2019) and questionnaires filled out at home and returned (921), use of nutrition information on food labels and its understanding were investigated. Respondents' nutrition knowledge was also measured, using.......5% of respondents being able to identify the healthiest product in a set of three. Differences between level of understanding and level of usage are explained by different causal mechanisms. Regression analysis showed that usage is mainly related to interest in healthy eating, whereas understanding of nutrition...

  1. Health-related claims on food labels in Australia: understanding environmental health officers' roles and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon-Paoloni, Deanne; Yeatman, Heather R; Grigonis-Deane, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Health and related claims on food labels can support consumer education initiatives that encourage purchase of healthier foods. A new food Standard on Nutrition, Health and Related Claims became law in January 2013. Implementation will need careful monitoring and enforcement to ensure that claims are truthful and have meaning. The current study explored factors that may impact on environmental health officers' food labelling policy enforcement practices. The study used a mixed-methods approach, using two previously validated quantitative questionnaire instruments that provided measures of the level of control that the officers exercised over their work, as well as qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Local government; Australia. Thirty-seven officers in three Australian states participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews, as well as completing the quantitative questionnaires. Senior and junior officers, including field officers, participated in the study. The officers reported a high level of autonomy and control of their work, but also a heavy workload, dominated by concerns for public health and food safety, with limited time for monitoring food labels. Compliance of labels with proposed health claims regulations was not considered a priority. Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucracy was used to enhance understanding of officers' work practices. Competing priorities affect environmental health officers' monitoring and enforcement of regulations. Understanding officers' work practices and their perceptions of enforcement is important to increase effectiveness of policy implementation and hence its capacity to augment education initiatives to optimize health benefits.

  2. Adherence to a Gluten Free Diet Is Associated with Receiving Gluten Free Foods on Prescription and Understanding Food Labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayun Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of coeliac disease requires a strict gluten-free (GF diet, however, a high proportion of patients do not adhere to a GF diet. The study explores the practical challenges of a GF diet and dietary adherence in Caucasian and South Asian adults with coeliac disease. Patients with biopsy- and serology-proven coeliac disease were recruited from a hospital database. Participants completed a postal survey (n = 375, including a validated questionnaire designed to measure GF dietary adherence. Half of Caucasians (53% and South Asians (53% were adhering to a GF diet. The quarter of patients (n = 97 not receiving GF foods on prescription had a lower GF dietary adherence score compared with those receiving GF foods on prescription (12.5 versus 16.0; p < 0.001. Not understanding food labelling and non-membership of Coeliac UK were also associated with lower GF dietary adherence scores. A higher proportion of South Asian patients, compared with Caucasians, reported difficulties understanding what they can eat (76% versus 5%; p < 0.001 and understanding of food labels (53% versus 4%; p < 0.001. We recommend retaining GF foods on prescription, membership of a coeliac society, and regular consultations with a dietitian to enable better understanding of food labels. Robust studies are urgently needed to evaluate the impact of reducing the amount of GF foods prescribed on adherence to a GF diet in all population groups.

  3. Consumer understanding of food labels: toward a generic tool for identifying the average consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Selsøe; Holm, Lotte; Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ‘average consumer’ is referred to as a standard in regulatory contexts when attempts are made to benchmark how consumers are expected to reason while decoding food labels. An attempt is made to operationalize this hypothetical ‘average consumer’ by proposing a tool for measuring the level of ...... that independent future studies of consumer behavior and decision making in relation to food products in different contexts could benefit from this type of benchmarking tool.......The ‘average consumer’ is referred to as a standard in regulatory contexts when attempts are made to benchmark how consumers are expected to reason while decoding food labels. An attempt is made to operationalize this hypothetical ‘average consumer’ by proposing a tool for measuring the level...... of informedness of an individual consumer against the national median at any time. Informedness, i.e. the individual consumer's ability to interpret correctly the meaning of the words and signs on a food label is isolated as one essential dimension for dividing consumers into three groups: less-informed, informed...

  4. Nutrition label experience, obesity, high blood pressure, and high blood lipids in a cohort of 42,750 Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpeekool, Wimalin; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kirk, Martyn; Banwell, Cathy; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition labels have been promoted for nearly two decades in Thailand to educate people about healthy eating and to combat nutrient-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). But little is known about how nutrition labels are experienced and whether they are linked with better health. Our objective was to investigate the associations between nutrition label experience, obesity and nutrient-related NCDs in Thai consumers. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with a nationwide cohort of 42,750 distance learning Thai adult students enrolled in an Open University in 2013. We measured exposure as nutrition label experience (read, understand, use). Health outcomes were high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and high Body Mass Index (overweight at risk and obesity). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between nutrition label experience and health outcome adjusting for sociodemographic attributes, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake. Frequent nutrition label use varied by cohort attributes and health outcomes and was least for those with low physical activity and high blood pressure. Being male, older, an urban resident or with low physical activity was associated with increasing high blood pressure and high blood lipids. Compared to those who read, understand and use nutrition labels, participants who did not (read, understand, and use), were more likely to report high blood pressure (Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.33; 1.17-1.51), high blood lipids (AOR 1.26; 1.14-1.39), and obesity (AOR 1.23; 1.13-1.33), but were not more likely to be overweight at risk (AOR 1.06; 0.97-1.16). We found cross-sectional associations between low nutrition label experience and increased likelihood of high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and obesity among Thai adults. Nutrition label education should be promoted as part of a public health approach to appropriate food choices and better lifestyles to reduce obesity and nutrient-related NCDs.

  5. Food label reading and understanding in parts of rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Overweight and obesity prevalence is rapidly rising in developing countries. The reading and understanding of nutrition information on food packages has been shown to improve food choices and instill healthy eating habits in individuals. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence ...

  6. Food label reading and understanding in parts of rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Overweight and obesity prevalence is rapidly rising in developing countries. The reading and understanding of nutrition information on food packages has been shown to improve food choices and instill healthy eating habits in individuals. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of food ...

  7. The nematode stoma: Homology of cell architecture with improved understanding by confocal microscopy of labeled cell boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay Burr, A H; Baldwin, James G

    2016-09-01

    Nematode stomas vary widely in the cuticular structures evolved for different feeding strategies, yet the arrangement of the epithelial cell classes that form these structures may be conserved. This article addresses several issues that have impeded the full acceptance of this hypothesis including controversies arising from the structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans stoma. We investigated fluorescent antibody labeling of cell boundaries in conjunction with confocal microscopy as an alternative to transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using MH27 to label apical junctions in C. elegans and two other species. Accurately spaced optical sections collected by the confocal microscope provide a three-dimensional array of pixels (voxels) that, using image-processing software, can be rotated and sectioned at accurately chosen thicknesses and locations. Ribbons of fluorescence clearly identify cell boundaries along the luminal cuticle in C. elegans and Zeldia punctata and less clearly in Bunonema sp. The patterns render cell classes and their relationships readily identifiable. In the C. elegans stoma they correct a misreading of serial TEMs that was not congruent with architecture in other nematodes-the row of marginal cells is now seen to be continuous as in other nematodes, rather than being interrupted by encircling pm1 cells. Also impeding understanding, the reference to certain cell classes as 'epithelial' and others as "muscle" in the C. elegans literature is at variance with muscle expression in most other taxa. For consistent comparison among species, we propose that these cell class descriptors based on function be replaced by topological terms. With these and other confusing concepts and terminology removed, the homology of the cellular architecture among taxa becomes obvious. We provide a corrected description of the cell architecture of the C. elegans stoma and examples of how it is modified in other taxa with different feeding strategies. J. Morphol. 277

  8. Consumer use and understanding of labelling information on edible marijuana products sold for recreational use in the states of Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M; Giombi, Kristen C; Rains, Caroline B; Cates, Sheryl C

    2017-05-01

    In 2014, the states of Colorado and Washington began allowing retail sales of marijuana for recreational use. The regulatory agencies in these states have implemented specific labelling requirements for edible marijuana products sold for recreational use to help address concerns such as delayed activation time, accidental ingestion, and proper dosing. We conducted 12 focus groups with 94 adult consumers and nonconsumers of edibles in Denver and Seattle to collect information on their use and understanding of labelling information on edible marijuana products sold for recreational use. Specifically, we asked participants about the usefulness, attractiveness, ease of comprehension, relevancy, and acceptability of the label information. Some focus group participants look for and read specific information, such as the potency profile and serving size statement, but do not read or were unfamiliar with other labelling features. The focus groups revealed that participants have some concerns about the current labelling of edibles. In particular, participants were concerned that there is too much information on the labels so consumers may not read the label, there is no obvious indication that the product contains marijuana (e.g., a Universal Symbol), and the information on consumption advice is not clear. Participants in both locations suggested that education in a variety of formats, such as web- and video-based education, would be useful in informing consumers about the possible risks of edibles. The focus group findings suggest that improvements are needed in the labelling of edibles to prevent unintentional ingestion among adult nonusers and help ensure proper dosing and safe consumption among adult users. These findings, along with lessons learned from Colorado and Washington, can help inform the labelling of edibles as additional states allow the sale of edibles for recreational use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding N timing in corn yield and fertilizer N recovery: An insight from an isotopic labeled-N determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel de Oliveira, Silas; Almeida, Rodrigo Estevam Munhoz de; Ciampitti, Ignacio A; Pierozan Junior, Clovis; Lago, Bruno Cocco; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Favarin, José Laércio

    2018-01-01

    Early fertilizer nitrogen (N) application on cover crops or their residues during the off-season is a practice adopted in Brazil subtropical conditions under no-tillage corn (Zea mays L.) systems. However, the effect of early N application on yield, plant N content, and N recovery efficiency (NRE) for corn is not yet well documented. Five fertilizer N timings in an oat-corn system were evaluated in two studies utilizing an isotopic-labeled N determination, 15N isotope. The N fertilization timings were: (i) oat tillering, (ii) 15 days before corn planting time, over the oat residues, (iii) at corn planting time, (iv) in-season at the three-leaf growth stage (V3), and (v) in-season split application at V3 and six-leaf (V6) growth stages. Based on the statistical analysis, the N fertilization timings were separated into three groups: 1) N-OATS, designated to N applied at oat; 2) N-PLANT, referred to pre-plant and planting N applications; and 3) N-CORN, designated to in-season corn N applications. Corn yield was not affected by the N fertilization timing. However, the N-CORN N fertilization timings enhanced NRE by 17% and 35% and final N recovery system (plant plus soil) by 16% and 24% all relative to N-OATS and N-PLANT groups, respectively. Overall, N-OATS resulted in the largest N derived from fertilizer (NDFF) amount in the deeper soil layer, in overall a delta of 10 kg N ha-1 relative to the rest of the groups. Notwithstanding corn yield was not affected, early N fertilization under subtropical conditions is not a viable option since NRE was diminished and the non-recovery N increased relative to the in-season N applications.

  10. Deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driessen, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)

  11. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on their food labels. When a food says "light" ("lite") or "low fat" on the label, it ... on this topic for: Teens Nutrition & Fitness Center Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories How ...

  12. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  13. Learning with imperfectly labeled patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittineni, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of learning in pattern recognition using imperfectly labeled patterns is considered. The performance of the Bayes and nearest neighbor classifiers with imperfect labels is discussed using a probabilistic model for the mislabeling of the training patterns. Schemes for training the classifier using both parametric and non parametric techniques are presented. Methods for the correction of imperfect labels were developed. To gain an understanding of the learning process, expressions are derived for success probability as a function of training time for a one dimensional increment error correction classifier with imperfect labels. Feature selection with imperfectly labeled patterns is described.

  14. A brief history of cell labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The term cell labelling is usually used in the context of labelled leukocytes for imaging inflammation and labelled platelets for imaging thrombosis. Erythrocyte labelling for in vitro measurements of red cell life span, in vivo measurements of splenic red cell pooling, radionuclide ventriculography and imaging sites of bleeding has developed rather separately and has a different history. Labelled platelets and leukocytes were originally developed for cell kinetic studies. Since the current-day applications of labelled platelets and leukocytes depend on a clear understanding of cell kinetics, these classical studies are important and relevant to the history of cell labelling

  15. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  16. Consumer knowledge and attitudes toward nutritional labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pugo-Gunsam, Prity; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    To determine Mauritian consumers' attitudes toward nutritional labels based on the Kano model and to identify determinants of the use and understanding of nutrition labels. The researchers also used a Kano model questionnaire to determine consumers' attitudes toward nutrition labeling. Four hundred consumers residing in Mauritius. Information was elicited via a questionnaire that assessed nutritional knowledge and information about the use and understanding of nutritional labels and demographic factors. Nutritional label use and understanding, nutrition knowledge, and association of demographic factors with label use. Statistical tests performed included 1-way ANOVA and independent samples t tests. Statistically significant relationships (P consumer dissatisfaction. Age, education, income, household size, and nutrition knowledge had an impact on nutritional label use. Health promoters should aim to increase the use of nutritional labels. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Implications of survey labels and categorisations for understanding drug use in the context of sex among gay and bisexual men in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kathleen E; Wilkinson, Anna L; Pedrana, Alisa; Quinn, Brendan; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Stoové, Mark

    2018-02-02

    Reliably measuring drug use by gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) in the context of sex can inform sexual health service responses. We report changing drug use patterns among GBM testing for HIV at a community-based service in Melbourne in response to behavioural survey modifications. Surveys were completed by GBM prior to all HIV tests. Survey one asked about use of "party drugs for the purpose of sex" and survey two asked about specific drug use (alcohol, amyl nitrate, methamphetamine, cocaine, ecstasy, GHB, Viagra ® /Cialis ® ) before or during sex. Differences in drug use prevalence and demographic and sexual risk correlates are reported. Reported drug use increased from 16.9% in survey one to 54.0% in survey two. Among GBM completing both surveys, 45% who reported no drug use in survey one reported drug use in survey two. Drug use was associated with high HIV risk behaviours across both surveys. Survey modification improved ascertainment of drug use in the context of sex among GBM. Continued monitoring of drug use in this setting will improve our understanding the relationship between use of specific drugs and sexual health and help inform client focused health promotion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  19. Emotionel Labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Nanna Sofie Garnov; Pedersen, Mette Kofoed; de Wit, Liv Kantsø; Ørndorf, Siri; Dissing, Celina Kyrn

    2017-01-01

    This project arises from the ideas of social constructionist theorist Kenneth J. Gergen and his presentation of Emotional Labeling as presented in his work The saturated self: Dilemmas of identity in contemporary life (1991). And on that note we are examining how emotions are being dealt with in a Danish kindergarten. We investigate what might influence the issue of emotions being taught has on children’s emotional development in everyday life. In order to do so we have conducted observations...

  20. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......, human values as measured by the Schwartz value domains, and country differences. The results imply that sustainability labels currently do not play a major role in consumers’ food choices, and future use of these labels will depend on the extent to which consumers’ general concern about sustainability...

  1. Effect of Medication Label Units of Measure on Parent Choice of Dosing Tool: A Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H. Shonna; Parker, Ruth M.; Sanders, Lee M.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Mendelsohn, Alan; Bailey, Stacy; Patel, Deesha A.; Jimenez, Jessica J.; Kim, Kwang-Youn A.; Jacobson, Kara; Hedlund, Laurie; Landa, Rosa; Maness, Leslie; Raythatha, Purvi Tailor; McFadden, Terri; Wolf, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Some experts recommend eliminating “teaspoon” and “tablespoon” terms from pediatric medication dosing instructions, as they may inadvertently encourage use of nonstandard tools (i.e. kitchen spoons), which are associated with dosing errors. We examined whether use of “teaspoon” or “tsp” on prescription labels affects parents’ choice of dosing tools, and the role of health literacy and language. METHODS Analysis of data collected as part of a controlled experiment (SAFE Rx for Kids study), which randomized English/Spanish-speaking parents (n=2110) of children ≤8 years old to 1 of 5 groups which varied in unit of measurement pairings on medication labels/dosing tools. Outcome assessed was parent self-reported choice of dosing tool. Parent health literacy measured using the Newest Vital Sign. RESULTS 77.0% had limited health literacy (36.0% low, 41.0% marginal); 35.0% completed assessments in Spanish. Overall, 27.7% who viewed labels containing either “tsp” or “teaspoon” units (alone or with “mL”) chose nonstandard dosing tools (i.e. kitchen teaspoon, kitchen tablespoon), compared to 8.3% who viewed “mL”-only labels (AOR=4.4[95%CI: 3.3–5.8]). Odds varied based on whether “teaspoon” was spelled out or abbreviated (“teaspoon”-alone: AOR=5.3[3.8–7.3]); “teaspoon” with mL: AOR=4.7[3.3–6.5]; “tsp” with mL (AOR=3.3[2.4–4.7]); pmedication labels, and identify additional strategies to promote the safe use of pediatric liquid medications. PMID:27155289

  2. Figuring Out Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beware of. Using Food Labels for a Well-Balanced Diet Here are some guidelines on using food labels ... food label smarts to create a healthy, well-balanced diet. It might seem complicated at first, but it ...

  3. Graceful, harmonious and magic type labelings relations and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    López, Susana C

    2017-01-01

    Aimed toward upper undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics, this book examines the foremost forms of graph labelings including magic, harmonious, and graceful labelings. An overview of basic graph theory concepts and notation is provided along with the origins of graph labeling. Common methods and techniques are presented introducing readers to links between graph labels. A variety of useful techniques are presented to analyze and understand properties of graph labelings. The classical results integrated with new techniques, complete proofs, numerous exercises, and a variety of open problems, will provide readers with a solid understanding of graph labelings.

  4. Mixed Map Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Löffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Point feature map labeling is a geometric visualization problem, in which a set of input points must be labeled with a set of disjoint rectangles (the bounding boxes of the label texts. It is predominantly motivated by label placement in maps but it also has other visualization applications. Typically, labeling models either use internal labels, which must touch their feature point, or external (boundary labels, which are placed outside the input image and which are connected to their feature points by crossing-free leader lines. In this paper we study polynomial-time algorithms for maximizing the number of internal labels in a mixed labeling model that combines internal and external labels. The model requires that all leaders are parallel to a given orientation θ ∈ [0, 2π, the value of which influences the geometric properties and hence the running times of our algorithms.

  5. Industrial Robot Label Applicator

    OpenAIRE

    Kukasch, Kai

    2017-01-01

    The thesis deals with a project carried out for developing and setting up a robot label applicator system. The requirement was that RFID tracking labels can be applied on flexible positions, without manual effort and rearrangement, via programming. The purpose of the robot label applicator system is to increase the efficiency in production sites, where the RFID label position can change, depending on product or other reasons. New label positions should be programmed easily with a human-m...

  6. Calorie labeling and consumer estimation of calories purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B; Elbel, Brian

    2014-07-12

    Studies rarely find fewer calories purchased following calorie labeling implementation. However, few studies consider whether estimates of the number of calories purchased improved following calorie labeling legislation. Researchers surveyed customers and collected purchase receipts at fast food restaurants in the United States cities of Philadelphia (which implemented calorie labeling policies) and Baltimore (a matched comparison city) in December 2009 (pre-implementation) and June 2010 (post-implementation). A difference-in-difference design was used to examine the difference between estimated and actual calories purchased, and the odds of underestimating calories.Participants in both cities, both pre- and post-calorie labeling, tended to underestimate calories purchased, by an average 216-409 calories. Adjusted difference-in-differences in estimated-actual calories were significant for individuals who ordered small meals and those with some college education (accuracy in Philadelphia improved by 78 and 231 calories, respectively, relative to Baltimore, p = 0.03-0.04). However, categorical accuracy was similar; the adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for underestimation by >100 calories was 0.90 (p = 0.48) in difference-in-difference models. Accuracy was most improved for subjects with a BA or higher education (AOR = 0.25, p calories varied by subgroup, suggesting that at some level, consumers may incorporate labeling information.

  7. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  8. Synthesizing labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.; Unkefer, C.J.; Walker, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    A metabolic study is presented of the chemical reactions provided by isotopic labeling and NMR spectroscopy. Synthesis of 13 C-labeled D-glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, involves adding a labeled nitrile group to the 5-carbon sugar D-arabinose by reaction with labeled hydrogen cyanide. The product of this reaction is then reduced and hydrolyzed to a mixture of the labeled sugars. The two sugars are separated by absorption chromotography. The synthesis of 13 C-labeled L-tyrosine, an amino acid, is also presented

  9. Consumer response to food labels in an emerging market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Festila, Alexandra Florina; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates consumer response to food labels in an emerging market. More specifically, it measures the levels of awareness, objective and perceived understanding, perceived usefulness and perceived trustworthiness of the most prominent food labels found in the Romanian market. An online...... towards food labels was relatively high, especially towards those food labels that included a clear text element. Perceived understanding, perceived usefulness and perceived trustworthiness were found to be consistently high with regard to the GDA and the national organic food labels, while the European...

  10. 40 CFR 168.65 - Pesticide export label and labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... understandability as stated in this paragraph. (1) Label contents. The term label means the written, printed, or... change in the color or fragrance of the export product will not affect the product's registration status... fragrance must result only from the addition of a chemical included on the list of the chemicals exempted...

  11. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  12. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  13. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  14. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  15. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  16. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  17. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna

    2016-04-12

    threshold. Experimental results on our citation network corroborate the efficacy of these approaches. With each edge having a label, we also performed additional network analysis where we extracted a subnetwork of the dataset relevant edges and nodes in our citation network, and then detected different communities from this extracted sub-network. To understand the different detected communities, we performed a case study on several dataset communities. The study shows a relationship between the major topic areas in a dataset community and the data sources in the community.

  18. A Label to Regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoire, Aurélie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Laurent, Brice

    This paper examines the role labelling plays in the government of the contemporary economy.1Drawing on a detailed study of BBC-Effinergy, a French label for sustainable construction, we showhow the adoption and evolution of voluntary labels can be seen as emblematic of a governmentthrough experim...... experiment engaging 4 operations: stimulating market anticipations, focussing politicalconsultations, producing collective expertise and containing the regulatory transcription of the label....

  19. Gender differences in the evolution of illness understanding among patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kalen; Prigerson, Holly G; Paulk, Elizabeth; Temel, Jennifer; Finlay, Esme; Marr, Lisa; McCorkle, Ruth; Rivera, Lorna; Munoz, Francisco; Maciejewski, Paul K

    2013-09-01

    Patient understanding of advanced metastatic disease is central to decisions about care near death. Prior studies have focused on gender differences in communication style rather than on illness understanding. : To evaluate gender differences in terminal illness acknowledgement (TIA), understanding that the disease is incurable and the advanced stage of the disease. To evaluate gender differences in patients' reports of discussions of life expectancy with oncology providers and its effect on differences in illness understanding. Coping with Cancer 2 patients (N = 68) were interviewed before and after a visit with their oncology providers to discuss scan results. At the prescan interview, there were no statistically significant gender differences in patient measures of illness understanding. At the postscan interview, women were more likely than men to recognize that their illness was incurable (Adjusted Odds Ratio, [AOR] = 5.29; P = .038), know that their cancer was at an advanced stage (AOR = 6.38; P = .013), and report having had discussions of life expectancy with their oncologist (AOR = 4.77; P = .021). Controlling discussions of life expectancy, women were more likely than men to report that their cancer was at an advanced stage (AOR = 9.53; P = .050). Controlling for gender, discussions of life expectancy were associated with higher rates of TIA (AOR = 4.65; P = .036) and higher rates of understanding that the cancer was incurable (AOR = 4.09; P = .085). Due largely to gender differences in communication, women over time have a better understanding of their illness than men. More frequent discussions of life expectancy should enhance illness understanding and reduce gender differences.

  20. Attitude and Behavior Factors Associated with Front-of-Package Label Use with Label Users Making Accurate Product Nutrition Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Mary G; Joung, Hyun-Woo; Littlejohn, Emily I

    2018-05-01

    Front-of-package (FOP) labels are increasing in popularity on retail products. Reductive FOP labels provide nutrient-specific information, whereas evaluative FOP labels summarize nutrient information through icons. Better understanding of consumer behavior regarding FOP labels is beneficial to increasing consumer use of nutrition labeling when making grocery purchasing decisions. We aimed to determine FOP label format effectiveness in aiding consumers at assessing nutrient density of food products. In addition, we sought to determine relationships between FOP label use and attitude toward healthy eating, diet self-assessment, self-reported health and nutrition knowledge, and label and shopping behaviors. A between-subjects experimental design was employed. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four label conditions: Facts Up Front, Facts Up Front Extended, a binary symbol, and no-label control. One hundred sixty-one US primary grocery shoppers, aged 18 to 69 years. Participants were randomly invited to the online study. Participants in one of four label condition groups viewed three product categories (cereal, dairy, and snacks) with corresponding questions. Adults' nutrition assessment of food products based on different FOP label formats, along with label use and attitude toward healthy eating, diet self-assessment, self-reported health and nutrition knowledge, and label and shopping behaviors. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, χ 2 tests, and logistical regression. Significant outcomes were set to α=.05. Participants selected the more nutrient-dense product in the snack food category when it contained an FOP label. Subjective health and nutrition knowledge and frequency of selecting food for healthful reasons were associated with FOP label use (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). Both Facts Up Front (reductive) and binary (evaluative) FOP labels appear effective for nutrition assessment of snack products compared with no label. Specific

  1. The science on front-of-package food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Kristy L; Roberto, Christina A; Bragg, Marie A; Liu, Peggy J; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Institute of Medicine are currently investigating front-of-package (FOP) food labelling systems to provide science-based guidance to the food industry. The present paper reviews the literature on FOP labelling and supermarket shelf-labelling systems published or under review by February 2011 to inform current investigations and identify areas of future research. A structured search was undertaken of research studies on consumer use, understanding of, preference for, perception of and behaviours relating to FOP/shelf labelling published between January 2004 and February 2011. Twenty-eight studies from a structured search met inclusion criteria. Reviewed studies examined consumer preferences, understanding and use of different labelling systems as well as label impact on purchasing patterns and industry product reformulation. The findings indicate that the Multiple Traffic Light system has most consistently helped consumers identify healthier products; however, additional research on different labelling systems' abilities to influence consumer behaviour is needed.

  2. Labelled Lambda-calculi with Explicit Copy and Erase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Fernández

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present two rewriting systems that define labelled explicit substitution lambda-calculi. Our work is motivated by the close correspondence between Levy's labelled lambda-calculus and paths in proof-nets, which played an important role in the understanding of the Geometry of Interaction. The structure of the labels in Levy's labelled lambda-calculus relates to the multiplicative information of paths; the novelty of our work is that we design labelled explicit substitution calculi that also keep track of exponential information present in call-by-value and call-by-name translations of the lambda-calculus into linear logic proof-nets.

  3. Labelling Fashion Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Aspers, P.

    2008-01-01

    The present article discusses how an ethical and environmental labelling system can be implemented in fashion garment markets. Consumers act in markets that provide them with more information than their limited cognitive capacity allows them to handle. Ethical and environmental labelling in markets characterized by change, such as the fashion garment market, makes decision-making even more complicated. The ethical and environmental labelling system proposed here is designed to alleviate firms...

  4. Effective sample labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-water samples collected for hazardous-waste and radiological monitoring have come under strict regulatory and quality assurance requirements as a result of laws such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To comply with these laws, the labeling system used to identify environmental samples had to be upgraded to ensure proper handling and to protect collection personnel from exposure to sample contaminants and sample preservatives. The sample label now used as the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is a complete sample document. In the event other paperwork on a labeled sample were lost, the necessary information could be found on the label

  5. Bar Code Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  6. "I rarely read the label": Factors that Influence Thai Consumer Responses to Nutrition Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpeekool, Wimalin; Banwell, Cathy; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kirk, Martyn; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-05-14

    This qualitative study employed the Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour (KAB) model and Health Belief Model (HBM) to investigate factors influencing Thai consumer decision making about use of nutrition labels. Labels include both Nutrition Information Panels (1998-) and Guideline Daily Amounts labels (2011-). In-depth interviews were conducted with 34 participants representing two socio-demographic extremes in Thailand--"urban Bangkok" (university educated consumers) and "provincial Ranong" (non-university educated consumers). An integrated KAB-HBM model was used to devise in-depth interviews for a qualitative study using 20 open-ended questions and samples of food package labels. Additional questions arose from the interviews and they lasted 30-45 minutes and were video recorded. The analysis identified recurring themes using Atlas.ti software. Most participants (n=25) were aware of nutrition labels but a much smaller number (n=10) used and derived any benefit from them. Nutrition label users were classified into 4 groups: A) competent user; B) confused user; C) aware non-user; D) unaware non-user. Better educated participants were better at understanding nutrition labels but not more likely to use labels. Belief that nutrition influences health increased likelihood of using nutrition labels to make decisions about food. Being well-educated and motivated by health concerns increased likelihood of attention to nutrition labels. Results are discussed with a view to increasing the use of nutrition labels by Thai consumers. Our findings, drawing on a combination of the KAB and HBM models, can contribute to strategies motivating consumers to use nutrition labels and can provide useful insights for developing promotional strategies.

  7. Does labeling matter? An examination of attitudes and perceptions of labels for mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Andrew C H; Luong, Dorothy; Dobson, Keith S

    2013-04-01

    Labeling research in various domains has found that attitudes and perceptions vary as a function of the different labels ascribed to a group (e.g., overweight vs. obese). This type of research, however, has not been examined extensively in regards to labels for mental disorders. The present study examined whether common psychiatric labels (i.e., mental disease, mental disorders, mental health problems, and mental illness) elicited divergent attitudes and perceptions in a group of participants. These labels were also compared to the specific label of depression. Undergraduate psychology students (N = 124) were given identical questionnaire packages with the exception of the label used. That is, each participant received a set of questionnaires that referred to only one of the five labels. The questionnaire package contained various quantitative measures of attitudes and social distance, in addition to a short qualitative measure. Analyses demonstrated equivalence among the four general psychiatric labels on measures of attitudes, social distance, and general perceptions. However, results also suggested that the general labels diverged from the depression label, with the latter being generally more negatively perceived. Some analyses demonstrated that participants' understanding of the terminology might be incorrect. The results of the investigation are discussed with a focus on its relationship with current research in stigma. Within the current sample, general psychiatric labels did not appear to distinguish themselves from each other on measures of attitude and social distance but did so when compared to a relatively more specific term. Future research should examine the underlying mechanism driving this finding, with the ultimate goal of reducing the stigma faced by those with mental disorders.

  8. Avaliação do hábito de leitura e da compreensão da rotulagem por consumidores de Niterói, RJ | Evaluation of the habit of reading and understanding the label for consumers Niteroi, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Ramos Marins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A rotulagem de alimentos representa o elo entre o consumidor e o produto, sendo importante canal de comunicação acerca das características do produto. O presente estudo avaliou o hábito de leitura e a compreensão dos rótulos de produtos alimentícios por frequentadores de supermercados do município de Niterói, RJ, nos meses de setembro a dezembro de 2003. Foram realizadas entrevistas individuais, sendo usado como instrumento de estudo um questionário semiestruturado sobre os rótulos, aplicado a 400 indivíduos. Os dados obtidos foram compilados e processados em um banco de dados e as avaliações estatísticas foram realizadas pelo programa SPSS, versão 10 (p < 0,05. Os resultados referentes à parte quantitativa do estudo evidenciaram que o hábito de leitura dos rótulos dos produtos alimentícios é realizado por cerca de 61,0% dos entrevistados; o Percentual de Valor Diário expresso pela simbologia (%VD é compreendido por apenas15,5% na população estudada. Dentre os entrevistados, 54,3% confiam parcialmente nas informações dos rótulos e 74,8% sugeriram mudanças que poderiam facilitar a compreensão das informações pelos consumidores. Constatou-se a necessidade de se desenvolver e aperfeiçoar medidas educativas e políticas públicas na área de comunicação pelos órgãos de Vigilância Sanitária, visando ampliar o uso da rotulagem de alimentos pelo consumidor. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The food label is an important link between consumers and products, and may be used with important communication channel characteristics of the product. This study was carried out aiming at evaluating the habit of reading and understanding foodstuffs label content. The studied population was formed by clients of a supermarket chain located in the city of Niteroi, RJ, from September to December, 2003. Individual interviews were carried out (study quali-quantitative in

  9. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  10. Radioiodine and its labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Ana Maria

    1994-01-01

    Chemical characteristics and their nuclear characteristics, types of labelled molecules,labelling procedures, direct labelling with various oxidizing agents, indirect labelling with various conjugates attached to protein molecules, purification and quality control. Iodination damage.Safe handling of labelling procedures with iodine radioisotopes.Bibliography

  11. 'Naturemade' -- a new label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2001-01-01

    This short article discusses the introduction of the 'Naturemade' two-level labelling scheme in the Swiss electricity market, which is to help provide transparency in the market for green power and promote the building of facilities for its production. In the form of an interview with the CEO of Swissolar and the president of Greenpeace Switzerland, the pros and contras of these labels are discussed. In particular, the interview partners' opinions on the possible misuse of the less stringent label and the influence of the labels on the construction of new installations for the generation of electricity from renewable sources are presented. The basic principles of the promotional model behind the labels are listed

  12. Estimation of labeling efficiency in pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sina; Xu, Feng; Wang, Peiying L; Uh, Jinsoo; Yezhuvath, Uma S; van Osch, Matthias; Lu, Hanzhang

    2010-03-01

    Pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI is a new arterial spin labeling technique that has the potential of combining advantages of continuous arterial spin labeling and pulsed arterial spin labeling. However, unlike continuous arterial spin labeling, the labeling process of pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling is not strictly an adiabatic inversion and the efficiency of labeling may be subject specific. Here, three experiments were performed to study the labeling efficiency in pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI. First, the optimal labeling position was determined empirically to be approximately 84 mm below the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line in order to achieve the highest sensitivity. Second, an experimental method was developed to utilize phase-contrast velocity MRI as a normalization factor and to estimate the labeling efficiency in vivo, which was founded to be 0.86 +/- 0.06 (n = 10, mean +/- standard deviation). Third, we compared the labeling efficiency of pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI under normocapnic and hypercapnic (inhalation of 5% CO(2)) conditions and showed that a higher flow velocity in the feeding arteries resulted in a reduction in the labeling efficiency. In summary, our results suggest that labeling efficiency is a critical parameter in pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI not only in terms of achieving highest sensitivity but also in quantification of absolute cerebral blood flow in milliliters per minute per 100 g. We propose that the labeling efficiency should be estimated using phase-contrast velocity MRI on a subject-specific basis. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  14. Radioactive labelled orgotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactively labelled orgotein, i.e. water-soluble protein congeners in pure, injectable form, is described. This radiopharmaceutical is useful in scintigraphy, especially for visualization of the kidneys where the orgotein is rapidly concentrated. Details of the processes for labelling bovine orgotein with sup(99m)Tc, 60 Co, 125 I or 131 I are specified. The pharmaceutical preparation of the labelled orgotein for intravenous and parenteral administration is also described. Examples using either sup(99m)TC or 125 I-orgotein in scintiscanning dogs' kidneys are given. (UK)

  15. On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    be necessary to change the labels of some items; such changes may be done at any time at unit cost for each change. The goal is to minimize the total cost. An alternative formulation of this problem is the file maintenance problem, in which the items, instead of being labeled, are maintained in sorted order...... in an array of length m, and we pay unit cost for moving an item. For the case m = cn for constant c > 1, there are known algorithms that use at most O(n log(n)2) relabelings in total [9], and it was shown recently that this is asymptotically optimal [1]. For the case of m = θ(nC) for C > 1, algorithms...

  16. Clinical applications of cells labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Blood cells labelled with radionuclides are reviewed and main applications are described. Red blood cell labelling by both random and specific principle. A table with most important clinical uses, 99mTc labelling of RBC are described pre tinning and in vivo reduction of Tc, in vitro labelling and administration of labelled RBC and in vivo modified technique. Labelled leucocytes with several 99mTc-complex radiopharmaceuticals by in vitro technique and specific monoclonal s for white cells(neutrofiles). Labelled platelets for clinical use and research by in vitro technique and in vivo labelling

  17. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...

  18. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  19. Pembuatan kulit untuk label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ign. Sunaryo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is aimed to produce leather for label which is needed by market demand ant to disseminate this technology to industries. There were 10 sides of wet salted cow hides for this research. Those hides were divided into 3 groups, each group consisted of 3 sides that were serially tanned by 3%, 4% and 5% and one side for control. Those hides were then mixed and divided into 3 groups, each group consisted of 3 sides and were then tanned by 6%, 8% and 10% of mimosa. The rest one side was tanned by 6% chrome and 8% mimosa for control. One side of label leather was taken from market used for comparison. Organoleptical, physical and chemical leather testing were carried out in IRDLAI laboratory. The result showed that the quality of the label leather from this research were better than label leather from market. Beside this it could be found out the technology of label manufacture which could produce good quality of label leather that were tanned by 5% chrome and re-tanned by 8% of mimosa

  20. Guide to good practices for equipment and piping labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Equipment and Piping Labeling, Chapter XVIII of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing labeling programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Equipment and Piping Labeling is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for a coordinated labeling program to promote safe and efficient operations.

  1. Single particle labeling of RNA virus in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Ting; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Ren, Linzhu

    2017-06-02

    Real-time and visual tracking of viral infection is crucial for elucidating the infectious and pathogenesis mechanisms. To track the virus successfully, an efficient labeling method is necessary. In this review, we first discuss the practical labeling techniques for virus tracking in live cells. We then describe the current knowledge of interactions between RNA viruses (especially influenza viruses, immunodeficiency viruses, and Flaviviruses) and host cellular structures, obtained using single particle labeling techniques combined with real-time fluorescence microscopy. Single particle labeling provides an easy system for understanding the RNA virus life cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2001-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic

  3. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  4. Proposal for a New Energy Label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    be easily understandable by everybody: the more recent the year the better the product. The scheme readily lends itself for an almost unlimited variety of products, and would also cover properties other than energy consumption. It is always up to date, it is globally applicable, and it encourages......Energy labeling is believed to have great impact on the energy efficiency of household appliances sold. Many different labeling schemes exist around the world. As far as is known, none of these facilitates the easy tightening of specifications to keep up with technological advancements. The present...

  5. Relationships among food label use, motivation, and dietary quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L; Applegate, Elizabeth A; Beckett, Laurel A; Wilson, Machelle D; Gibson, Tanja N; Ellwood, Kathleen

    2015-02-05

    Nutrition information on packaged foods supplies information that aids consumers in meeting the recommendations put forth in the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans such as reducing intake of solid fats and added sugars. It is important to understand how food label use is related to dietary intake. However, prior work is based only on self-reported use of food labels, making it unclear if subjective assessments are biased toward motivational influences. We assessed food label use using both self-reported and objective measures, the stage of change, and dietary quality in a sample of 392 stratified by income. Self-reported food label use was assessed using a questionnaire. Objective use was assessed using a mock shopping task in which participants viewed food labels and decided which foods to purchase. Eye movements were monitored to assess attention to nutrition information on the food labels. Individuals paid attention to nutrition information when selecting foods to buy. Self-reported and objective measures of label use showed some overlap with each other (r=0.29, pfood label use. These data show both self-reported and objective measures of food label use are positively associated with dietary quality. However, self-reported measures appear to capture a greater motivational component of food label use than do more objective measures.

  6. Toward improved pregnancy labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon; Sakaguchi, Sachi; Klieger, Chagit; Kazmin, Alex; Osadchy, Alla; Yazdani-Brojeni, Parvaneh; Matok, Ilan

    2010-01-01

    Information about the use of a medication in pregnancy is part of overall drug labelling as prepared by the pharmaceutical company and approved by the regulators. It is aimed at assisting clinicians in prescribing, however, very few drugs are labelled for specific indications in pregnancy, since there is rarely information about the use of a drug in this condition. Recently the FDA has drafted new guidelines for the labeling of drugs in pregnancy and breastfeeding, to replace the A,B,C,D,X system that was used for more than 30 years. Here we document the use of the new system through 3 different medications; each representing a different clinical situation in pregnancy--acute infection, chronic pain, and drug use during labor. Advantages and challenges in the new system are being highlighted.

  7. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13 C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15 N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1- 13 C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO 2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose- 13 C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13 CO 2 and galactose- 13 C from galactosylglycerol- 13 C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate- 13 C

  8. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  9. Outcomes of self-labeling sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magley, V J; Hulin, C L; Fitzgerald, L F; DeNardo, M

    1999-06-01

    Research has consistently documented a discrepancy between experiencing offensive sex-related behaviors and labeling these situations as sexual harassment, leading to several attempts to understand this phenomenon. The authors propose that the issue of why it is that women who report such experiences generally do not indicate that they have been sexually harassed is an important psychological question, and may provide a path through the nested meanings of workplace harassment. The authors argue for the value of moving beyond a descriptive approach to this issue by examining the effects of self-labeling on the psychological, health, and work-related outcomes of unwelcome, sex-related experiences. They present data from female employees working in 3 separate organizations, demonstrating that women exposed to such behaviors report very similar consequences, whether they label their experiences as harassment or not.

  10. Environmental Labels and Declarations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Jeppe; Hansen, Lisbeth; Bonou, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Based on the terminology and structure developed by the International Organization for Standardization, a description is given on the types of ecolabels that build on life cycle assessments. Focus is on type I labels that point out products and services with an overall environmental preferability...... of labelling, the use of ecolabels in marketing, and the way ecolabels help build a market for “greener products”. Type III labels—or Environmental Product Declarations—are also briefly described with indicative examples from the building sector, a declaration for office furniture, and an introduction is given...... to the European Commission’s programme for product—and organisational environmental footprints ....

  11. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  12. The reliability of product-specific eco-labels as an agrobiodiversity management instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amstel, van Mariëtte; Brauw, de Claar; Driessen, Peter; Glasbergen, Pieter

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand why multinationals prefer to launch a label specific to their own product and examines how reliable these product-specific eco-labels are. A new methodology is applied to assess the extent to which eco-labels live up to claims about their contribution to

  13. Western Balkans consumers' attitudes toward food labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjanov Galjina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to shed light on consumers' attitudes toward food labelling in the Western Balkans. Pioneering in this respect, we present the results obtained from a cross-national consumer survey on a random representative sample of 3085 respondents, i.e. at least 500 respondents per country included. The survey covered six Western Balkans countries (WBC, namely Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. Differences in consumers' attitudes toward food labels as well as in self-perceived level of information about food with health claims were tested according to a number of socio-demographic criteria, including gender, age, education, type of settlement and the country of the Western Balkans where the respondent lives. The variables were also included as independents in a binary logistic model to achieve better understanding of the factors that may influence consumers' confidence in the usefulness of health claims on product labels. The results showed that self-perceived level of information about functional food as well as consumers' attitudes toward food labelling are influencing factors of consumers' confidence in usefulness of health claims on product labels when making food choices. Based on the mentioned, we provide conclusions and implications for marketing managers, decision makers in public health and for further research.

  14. Understanding differences in conception and abortion rates among under-20 year olds in Britain and France: Examining the contribution of social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rachel H; Bajos, Nathalie; Slaymaker, Emma; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H

    2017-01-01

    Socioeconomic status has been shown to be associated with sexual activity, contraceptive-use, pregnancy and abortion among young people. Less is known about whether the strength of the association differs for each outcome, between men and women, or cross-nationally. We investigate this using contemporaneous national probability survey data from Britain and France. Data were analysed for 17-29 year-olds in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, n = 5959) undertaken 2010-2012, and the 2010 French Fertility, Contraception and Sexual Dysfunction survey (FECOND, n = 3027). For each country, we estimated the gender-specific prevalence of sex before-16, contraceptive-use, conception before-20, and abortion in the event of conception, and used logistic regression to examine associations between two measures of socioeconomic status-educational-level and parental socioeconomic-group-and each outcome. We tested for interactions between socioeconomic characteristics and country, and socioeconomic characteristics and gender, for each outcome. For each outcome, Britain and France differed with regard to prevalence but associations with socioeconomic characteristics were similar. Respondents of higher educational level, and, less consistently, with parents from higher socioeconomic-groups, were less likely to report sex before-16 (Britain, men: adjusted OR (aOR) 0.5, women: aOR 0.5; France, men: aOR 0.5, women: aOR 0.5), no contraception at first sex (Britain, men: aOR 0.4, women: aOR 0.6; France, men: aOR 0.4, women: aOR 0.4), pregnancy before-20 (Britain: aOR 0.3; France: aOR 0.1), and in Britain, a birth rather than an abortion in the event of conception (Britain: aOR 3.1). We found no strong evidence of variation in the magnitude of the associations with socioeconomic characteristics by country or gender. Population level differences in conception and abortion rates between the two countries may partly be driven by the larger proportion

  15. Understanding differences in conception and abortion rates among under-20 year olds in Britain and France: Examining the contribution of social disadvantage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel H Scott

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status has been shown to be associated with sexual activity, contraceptive-use, pregnancy and abortion among young people. Less is known about whether the strength of the association differs for each outcome, between men and women, or cross-nationally. We investigate this using contemporaneous national probability survey data from Britain and France.Data were analysed for 17-29 year-olds in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, n = 5959 undertaken 2010-2012, and the 2010 French Fertility, Contraception and Sexual Dysfunction survey (FECOND, n = 3027. For each country, we estimated the gender-specific prevalence of sex before-16, contraceptive-use, conception before-20, and abortion in the event of conception, and used logistic regression to examine associations between two measures of socioeconomic status-educational-level and parental socioeconomic-group-and each outcome. We tested for interactions between socioeconomic characteristics and country, and socioeconomic characteristics and gender, for each outcome.For each outcome, Britain and France differed with regard to prevalence but associations with socioeconomic characteristics were similar. Respondents of higher educational level, and, less consistently, with parents from higher socioeconomic-groups, were less likely to report sex before-16 (Britain, men: adjusted OR (aOR 0.5, women: aOR 0.5; France, men: aOR 0.5, women: aOR 0.5, no contraception at first sex (Britain, men: aOR 0.4, women: aOR 0.6; France, men: aOR 0.4, women: aOR 0.4, pregnancy before-20 (Britain: aOR 0.3; France: aOR 0.1, and in Britain, a birth rather than an abortion in the event of conception (Britain: aOR 3.1. We found no strong evidence of variation in the magnitude of the associations with socioeconomic characteristics by country or gender.Population level differences in conception and abortion rates between the two countries may partly be driven by the larger

  16. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    to carry out a campaign targeted at this segment. The awareness percentage is already 92 % and 67% of the respondents believe they know the meaning of the scheme. But it stands to reason to study whether the respondents actually know what the labelling scheme stands for or if they just think they do...

  17. Energy labels and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, J.

    2000-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency at the end-use level is increasingly important as Climate Change commitments force policy makers to look for areas where greenhouse gas emissions reduction can be achieved rapidly. Indeed, although much improvement has been mode over the past 25 years, significant potential for improving energy efficiency still exists. Labelling and minimum efficiency standards for appliances and equipment have proven to be one of the most promising policy instruments. Used for many years in some IEA Member countries, they delivered tangible results. They are among the cheapest and least intrusive of policies. Policy makers cannot afford to neglect them. This book examines current and post experiences of countries using labels and standards to improve energy end-use efficiency. It identifies successful policy approaches, focusing on what works best. It also provides insight into the opportunities ahead, including the widespread use of computer chips in appliances, cars and equipment. This book should be of great help not only to administrations planning to introduce labelling schemes, but also to those in the process of strengthening their current programmes. Policy makers in developing countries will also find here all necessary justification for implementing labelling and standards in their economy. 74 refs

  18. Multi-label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Abdelhamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating multi-label rules in associative classification (AC from single label data sets is considered a challenging task making the number of existing algorithms for this task rare. Current AC algorithms produce only the largest frequency class connected with a rule in the training data set and discard all other classes even though these classes have data representation with the rule’s body. In this paper, we deal with the above problem by proposing an AC algorithm called Enhanced Multi-label Classifiers based Associative Classification (eMCAC. This algorithm discovers rules associated with a set of classes from single label data that other current AC algorithms are unable to induce. Furthermore, eMCAC minimises the number of extracted rules using a classifier building method. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a real world application data set related to website phishing and the results reveal that eMCAC’s accuracy is highly competitive if contrasted with other known AC and classic classification algorithms in data mining. Lastly, the experimental results show that our algorithm is able to derive new rules from the phishing data sets that end-users can exploit in decision making.

  19. Labeling of herbicide femesafen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She Dongmei; Qu Zhe; Tang Zhichang

    2004-01-01

    5-[2-chroo-4-(trifluoromethyl ) phenoxy]-N-(methyl sulphonyl )-2-niorobenzamide [femesafen] was labeled by six steps. Radio-chemical yield was 19.15%. TLC analysis of the final product showed that the radiochemical purity is not less than 99%. (authors)

  20. Competing Environmental Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Lyon, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    We study markets in which consumers prefer green products but cannot determine the environmental quality of any given firm's product on their own. A nongovernmental organization (NGO) can establish a voluntary standard and label products that comply with it. Alternatively, industry can create its

  1. Labeling of Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lionetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper use of cosmetics, ensure the protection of the consumer from the commercial aspects and, above all, from the safety point of view. Moreover, it should allow quick tracing of the product details and all info of toxicological relevance. However, the misuse of this tool often leads, on one side, to confusion among cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biocides. On the other side, it gives rise to fanciful interpretations by a huge number of web users, who pretend to be able to judge the quality of a cosmetic product just by reading the ingredients list. This article points out the concrete purpose of cosmetic labels, in order to shed light on the use of certain categories of ‘controversial’ ingredients and on the real quality concepts of cosmetic products. Indeed, when properly interpreted, cosmetic labels represent a good tool for the professional investigation of adverse reactions to cosmetics.

  2. Alternative Energy as an Engagement Opportunity in the USPACOM AOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    Power Voltage fvmppl 26.6V Maximum Power Current (lmpp) 7,90A • Module Clulracterlstlcs Open Circuit Voltaae (Voc) 33.2V Length X Width X Depth J...IPCode IP65 Maximum Power (Pmax) 148W Maximum Power Voltage (Vmppl 23.5V • Others Maximum Power Current (lmppl 6.32A - 4o·c- so·c Open Circuit Voltage ...Inverters to "Solar Distribution Panel" Mox. D~er Mox. DC voltoa.e PV-voltoee range, MPPT Mox. in ut current Number of MPP trackers Mox. number of

  3. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Understanding Carbohydrates How much and what type of carbohydrate foods ... glucose levels in your target range. Explore: Understanding Carbohydrates Glycemic Index and Diabetes Learn about the glycemic ...

  4. Relationships among grocery nutrition label users and consumers' attitudes and behavior toward restaurant menu labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Mary G; Mathe-Soulek, Kimberly; Higgins, Joseph A

    2013-12-01

    In the United States (US), based on the 2010 Affordable Care Act, restaurant chains and similar retail food establishments with 20 or more locations are required to begin implementing calorie information on their menus. As enacting of the law begins, it is important to understand its potential for improving consumers' healthful behaviors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore relationships among users of grocery nutrition labels and attitudes toward restaurant menu labeling, along with the caloric content of their restaurant menu selection. Study participants were surveyed and then provided identical mock restaurant menus with or without calories. Results found that participants who used grocery nutrition labels and believed they would make healthy menu selections with nutrition labels on restaurant menus made healthier menu selections, regardless of whether the menu displayed calories or not. Consumers' nutrition knowledge and behaviors gained from using grocery nutrition labels and consumers' desire for restaurants to provide nutrition menu labels have a positive effect on their choosing healthful restaurant menu items. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spin labels. Applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, T.P.; Frangopol, M.; Ionescu, S.M.; Pop, I.V.; Benga, G.

    1980-11-01

    The main applications of spin labels in the study of biomembranes, enzymes, nucleic acids, in pharmacology, spin immunoassay are reviewed along with the fundamentals of the spin label method. 137 references. (author)

  6. Use and understanding of nutrition labels among consumers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) as urban consumers (μ=9.99), but they were less likely to connect their knowledge to emerging non-communicable diseases, such as cancer and coronary heart disease, than were urban consumers. Despite these findings, the study had ...

  7. Labeling uncertainty in multitarget tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aoki, E.H.; Mandal, Pranab K.; Svensson, Lennart; Boers, Y.; Bagchi, Arunabha

    In multitarget tracking, the problem of track labeling (assigning labels to tracks) is an ongoing research topic. The existing literature, however, lacks an appropriate measure of uncertainty related to the assigned labels that has a sound mathematical basis as well as clear practical meaning to the

  8. Visualizing dengue virus through Alexa Fluor labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Summer; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2011-07-09

    The early events in the interaction between virus and cell can have profound influence on the outcome of infection. Determining the factors that influence this interaction could lead to improved understanding of disease pathogenesis and thus influence vaccine or therapeutic design. Hence, the development of methods to probe this interaction would be useful. Recent advancements in fluorophores development and imaging technology can be exploited to improve our current knowledge on dengue pathogenesis and thus pave the way to reduce the millions of dengue infections occurring annually. The enveloped dengue virus has an external scaffold consisting of 90 envelope glycoprotein (E) dimers protecting the nucleocapsid shell, which contains a single positive strand RNA genome. The identical protein subunits on the virus surface can thus be labeled with an amine reactive dye and visualized through immunofluorescent microscopy. Here, we present a simple method of labeling of dengue virus with Alexa Fluor succinimidyl ester dye dissolved directly in a sodium bicarbonate buffer that yielded highly viable virus after labeling. There is no standardized procedure for the labeling of live virus and existing manufacturer's protocol for protein labeling usually requires the reconstitution of dye in dimethyl sulfoxide. The presence of dimethyl sulfoxide, even in minute quantities, can block productive infection of virus and also induce cell cytotoxicity. The exclusion of the use of dimethyl sulfoxide in this protocol thus reduced this possibility. Alexa Fluor dyes have superior photostability and are less pH-sensitive than the common dyes, such as fluorescein and rhodamine, making them ideal for studies on cellular uptake and endosomal transport of the virus. The conjugation of Alexa Fluor dye did not affect the recognition of labeled dengue virus by virus-specific antibody and its putative receptors in host cells. This method could have useful applications in virological studies.

  9. Map labeling and its generalizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddi, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mirzaian, A. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science; Moret, B.M.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Zhu, B. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Map labeling is of fundamental importance in cartography and geographical information systems and is one of the areas targeted for research by the ACM Computational Geometry Impact Task Force. Previous work on map labeling has focused on the problem of placing maximal uniform, axis-aligned, disjoint rectangles on the plane so that each point feature to be labeled lies at the corner of one rectangle. Here, we consider a number of variants of the map labeling problem. We obtain three general types of results. First, we devise constant-factor polynomial-time-approximation algorithms for labeling point features by rectangular labels, where the feature may lie anywhere on the boundary of its label region and where labeling rectangles may be placed in any orientation. These results generalize to the case of elliptical labels. Secondly, we consider the problem of labeling a map consisting of disjoint rectilinear fine segments. We obtain constant-factor polynomial-time approximation algorithms for the general problem and an optimal algorithm for the special case where all segments are horizontal. Finally, we formulate a bicriteria version of the map-labeling problem and provide bicriteria polynomial- time approximation schemes for a number of such problems.

  10. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-14

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.

  11. Understanding classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subianto, M.

    2009-01-01

    In practical data analysis, the understandability of models plays an important role in their acceptance. In the data mining literature, however, understandability plays is hardly ever mentioned. If it is mentioned, it is interpreted as meaning that the models have to be simple. In this thesis we

  12. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  13. Evaluating food front-of-pack labelling: a pan-European survey on consumers' attitudes toward food labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Dario; Ballali, Simonetta; Vögele, Claus; Gafare, Claudia Elena; Stefanini, Giulia; Widhalm, Kurt

    2014-03-01

    Nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods have been widely used as a medium to foster healthier eating habits in the general population, to contribute to a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of diet-related conditions. Yet, there is no convincing evidence that food labels are an effective means to achieve the desired effect at population level. Several factors have been suggested to account for this decoupling of efficacy, e.g. difficulties in understanding the information on food-labels. The present article presents the results of a survey on Europeans' understanding of nutritional labels and evaluation on the communication tools for their diffusion. A total of 7550 phone interviews were conducted in 16 European Countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and Hungary. Consumers were asked about their opinion on nutritional information provided at different levels and their commitment to healthy behaviour.

  14. From Label to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...... because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use...

  15. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  16. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  17. The Influence of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Health Warning Labels on Parents' Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Wong, Diandra; Musicus, Aviva; Hammond, David

    2016-02-01

    US states have introduced bills requiring sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to display health warning labels. This study examined how such labels may influence parents and which labels are most impactful. In this study, 2381 demographically and educationally diverse parents participated in an online survey. Parents were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 conditions: (1) no warning label (control); (2) calorie label; or (3-6) 1 of 4 text versions of a warning label (eg, Safety Warning: Drinking beverages with added sugar[s] contributes to obesity, diabetes, and tooth decay). Parents chose a beverage for their child in a vending machine choice task, rated perceptions of different beverages, and indicated interest in receiving beverage coupons. Regression analyses controlling for frequency of beverage purchases were used to compare the no warning label group, calorie label group, and all warning label groups combined. Significantly fewer parents chose an SSB for their child in the warning label condition (40%) versus the no label (60%) and calorie label conditions (53%). Parents in the warning label condition also chose significantly fewer SSB coupons, believed that SSBs were less healthy for their child, and were less likely to intend to purchase SSBs. All P values parents' understanding of health harms associated with overconsumption of such beverages and may reduce parents' purchase of SSBs for their children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Understanding homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on understanding homelessness. It criticizes approaches that ignore, distort or diminish the humanity of homeless people, or else, add little to our understanding of that humanity. In particular, it rejects what it calls “epidemiological” approaches, which deny the possibility of agency for homeless people, insofar as those approaches view the situation of those people largely as a “social fact”, to be explained in terms of causal variables or “risk factors” ...

  19. A better carbon footprint label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    Based on insights from behavioral economics, it is suggested to extend carbon footprint labeling with information about relative performance, using the well-known “traffic light” color scheme to communicate relative performance. To test this proposition, the impact of a carbon footprint label......, participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices...... to indicate relative carbon footprint significantly increases carbon label effectiveness. Hence, a carbon footprint label is more effective if it uses traffic light colors to communicate the product’s relative performance....

  20. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  1. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...... two endvertices. We define χ (G) to be the smallest integer k for which G has an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This parameter has natural upper and lower bounds in terms of the maximum degree Δ of G : ⌈ (Δ + 1) / 2 ⌉ ≤ χ (G) ≤ Δ + 1. We improve the upper bound by 1 for every graph and prove χ (G...

  2. Labelled molecules, modern research implements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichat, L.; Langourieux, Y.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the synthesis of carbon 14- and tritium-labelled molecules are examined. Although the methods used are those of classical organic chemistry the preparation of carbon 14-labelled molecules differs in some respects, most noticeably in the use of 14 CO 2 which requires very special handling techniques. For the tritium labelling of organic molecules the methods are somewhat different, very often involving exchange reactions. The following are described in turn: the so-called Wilzbach exchange method; exchange by catalysis in solution; catalytic hydrogenation with tritium; reductions with borotritides. Some applications of labelled molecules in organic chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacology are listed [fr

  3. New Ideas on Labeling Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbart, Noy Galil

    in a distributed fashion increases. Second, attempting to answer queries on vertices of a graph stored in a distributed fashion can be significantly more complicated. In order to lay theoretical foundations to the first penalty mentioned a large body of work concentrated on labeling schemes. A labeling scheme...... evaluation of fully dynamic labeling schemes. Due to a connection between adjacency labeling schemes and the graph theoretical study of induced universal graphs, we study these in depth and show novel results for bounded degree graphs and power-law graphs. We also survey and make progress on the related...

  4. The radioactive labeling of monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    With the aim of studying a possible relationship between circulating monocytes and Sternberg-Reed cells investigations were started on the specific labeling of monocytes. In this thesis the literature on the pertinent data has been reviewed and a series of experiments on the monocyte labeling procedure has been described. The principles of cell labeling with radioactive compounds were discussed. 1. Total separation of the particular cell population to be labeled and subsequent labeling with a non-specific radiopharmaceutical. 2. Specific cell labeling in a mixture of cell types based on a well defined affinity of the cell under study for the radiopharmaceutical used. Next the radionuclides that can be used for cell labeling purposes were discussed with special attention for 111 In and its chelates. The principles of radiodosimetry were also discussed shortly. This section was focussed on the radiation dose the labeled cells receive because of the intracellular localized radioactivity. The radiation burden is high in comparison to amounts of radiation known to affect cell viability. A newly developed method for labeling monocytes specifically by phagocytosis of 111 In-Fe-colloid without apparent loss of cells was described in detail. (Auth.)

  5. Relationships among Food Label Use, Motivation, and Dietary Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Soederberg Miller

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition information on packaged foods supplies information that aids consumers in meeting the recommendations put forth in the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans such as reducing intake of solid fats and added sugars. It is important to understand how food label use is related to dietary intake. However, prior work is based only on self-reported use of food labels, making it unclear if subjective assessments are biased toward motivational influences. We assessed food label use using both self-reported and objective measures, the stage of change, and dietary quality in a sample of 392 stratified by income. Self-reported food label use was assessed using a questionnaire. Objective use was assessed using a mock shopping task in which participants viewed food labels and decided which foods to purchase. Eye movements were monitored to assess attention to nutrition information on the food labels. Individuals paid attention to nutrition information when selecting foods to buy. Self-reported and objective measures of label use showed some overlap with each other (r = 0.29, p < 0.001, and both predicted dietary quality (p < 0.001 for both. The stage of change diminished the predictive power of subjective (p < 0.09, but not objective (p < 0.01, food label use. These data show both self-reported and objective measures of food label use are positively associated with dietary quality. However, self-reported measures appear to capture a greater motivational component of food label use than do more objective measures.

  6. Understanding Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Maple is a powerful symbolic computation system that is widely used in universities around the world. This short introduction gives readers an insight into the rules that control how the system works, and how to understand, fix, and avoid common problems. Topics covered include algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics, programming, and procedures. Each chapter contains numerous illustrative examples, using mathematics that does not extend beyond first-year undergraduate material. Maple worksheets containing these examples are available for download from the author's personal website. The book is suitable for new users, but where advanced topics are central to understanding Maple they are tackled head-on. Many concepts which are absent from introductory books and manuals are described in detail. With this book, students, teachers and researchers will gain a solid understanding of Maple and how to use it to solve complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way.

  7. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  8. Oxygen labelled CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, K.-D.; Heller, H.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were carried out as to whether additional information concerning pulmonary gas exchange could be obtained from the application of oxygen labelled carbon dioxide. Single breath experiments were performed on two healthy subjects with 0.1 percent C 16 O 18 O and 2.8 percent C 18 O 2 in the inspiratory gas. Breath-hold time was varied between 0.5-20s in different experiments. The 18 O-concentration of the end-expired gas bi-exponentially decreased with increasing breath-hold time. The high and low rate constants 4s -1 and 0.12s -1 for C 18 O 2 and 2.5s -1 and 0.87s -1 for C 16 O 18 O were derived, respectively. These results, together with model calculations, suggest: 1) the rapid disappearance of C 18 O 2 from the alveolar space is primarily limited by diffusion, so that this isotopic species can be applied to quantify pulmonary diffusing conditions; 2) the lower disappearance rate of C 16 O 18 O is caused by a lower equilibration kinetics in blood, so that this isotopic species offers a possibility to study carbonic anhydrase activity of the red cells in vivo; 3) the slow phase of label decay is influenced by both alveolar dead space and carbonic anhydrase activity of the pulmonary tissues. Pathological dead spaces are expected to be sensitively detectable by C 16 O 18 O as well as by C 18 O 2 . (author). 4 refs.; 4 figs

  9. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  10. Restaurant menu labelling: Is it worth adding sodium to the label?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourboutakos, Mary J; Corey, Paul N; Mendoza, Julio; Henson, Spencer J; L'Abbe, Mary R

    2014-07-31

    Several provincial and federal bills have recommended various forms of menu labelling that would require information beyond just calories; however, the additional benefit of including sodium information is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether sodium information on menus helps consumers make lower-sodium choices and to understand what other factors influence the effect of menu labelling on consumers' meal choices. A total of 3,080 Canadian consumers completed an online survey that included a repeated measures experiment in which consumers were asked to select what they would typically order from four mock-restaurant menus. Subsequently, consumers were randomly allocated to see one of three menu-labelling treatments (calories; calories and sodium; or calories, sodium and serving size) and were given the option to change their order. There was a significant difference in the proportion of consumers who changed their order, varying from 17% to 30%, depending on the restaurant type. After participants had seen menu labelling, sodium levels decreased in all treatments (p<0.0001). However, in three of the four restaurant types, consumers who saw calorie and sodium information ordered meals with significantly less sodium than consumers who saw only calorie information (p<0.01). Consumers who saw sodium labelling decreased the sodium level of their meal by an average of 171-384 mg, depending on the restaurant. In the subset of consumers who saw sodium information and chose to change their order, sodium levels decreased by an average of 681-1,360 mg, depending on the restaurant. Sex, intent to lose weight and the amount of calories ordered at baseline were the most important predictors of who used menu labelling. Eighty percent of survey panelists wanted to see nutrition information when dining out. Including sodium information alongside calorie information may result in a larger decrease in the amount of sodium ordered by restaurant-goers.

  11. Superselective pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helle, M.; Norris, D.G.; Rufer, S.; Alfke, K.; Jansen, O.; van Osch, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    A new technique for the imaging of flow territories of individual extra- and intracranial arteries is presented. The method is based on balanced pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling but employs additional time-varying gradients in between the radiofrequency pulses of the long labeling train. The

  12. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a full...

  13. A Better Carbon Footprint Label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    Based on insights from behavioral economics, it is suggested to extend carbon footprint labeling with information about relative performance, using the well-known “traffic light” color scheme to communicate relative performance. To test this proposition, the impact of a carbon footprint label...... on Danish consumers' choice of ground coffee was tested in a 3 price levels × 3 levels of carbon emission × 3 certifying organizations × 2 organic labeling conditions discrete choice experiment. Participants were randomly assigned to two slightly different variants of the experiment: In one condition......, participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product's relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices...

  14. A study on the consumer's perception of front-of-pack nutrition labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Juhyeon

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the present situation for front of pack labeling in Korea and the perception of consumers for the new system of labeling, front of pack labeling, based on the consumer survey. We investigated the number of processed foods with front of pack labeling in one retailer in Youngin-si. And we also surveyed 1,019 participants nationwide whose ages were from 20 to 49; the knowledge of nutrition labeling, the knowledge of 'front of pack labeling', and the opinion about the labeling system. The data were analyzed using SAS statistics program. The results were as follows: 13.4% of processed foods had front of pack labeling, and 16.8% of the consumers always checked the nutrition labeling, while 32.7% of the consumers seldom checked it. In addition, 44.3% of the consumers think that 'front of pack labeling' is necessary, and 58.3% of the consumers think it is important to show the percentage of daily value as a way of 'front of pack labeling'. However, 32% of the consumer think the possibility of 'front of pack labeling' is slim. Meanwhile, 58.3% of the consumers think that it is important to have the color difference according to contents. The number of favorite nutrients in the front of pack was four or five. It seems that the recognition of current nutrition labeling has the influence on the willingness of using the future 'front of pack labeling'. Along with our study, the policy for 'front of pack labeling' has to be updated and improved constantly since 'front of pack labeling' helps consumer understand nutrition facts.

  15. Understanding translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  16. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  17. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  18. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  19. Understanding unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Rocheteau

    2006-01-01

    Modern economists have built models of the labor market, which isolate the market’s key drivers and describe the way these interact to produce particular levels of unemployment. One of the most popular models used by macroeconomists today is the search-matching model of equilibrium unemployment. We explain this model, and show how it can be applied to understand the way various policies, such as unemployment benefits, taxes, or technological changes, can affect the unemployment rate.

  20. Understanding Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bendtsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We are facing radical changes in our ways of living in the nearest future. Not necessarily of our own choice, but because tchnological development is moving so fast, that it will have still greater impact on many aspects of our lives. We have seen the beginnings of that change within the latest 35 years or so, but according to newest research that change will speed up immensely in the nearest years to come. The impact of that change or these changes will affect our working life immensely as a consequence of automation. How these changes are brought about and which are their consequences in a broad sense is being attempted to be understood and guessed by researchers. No one knows for sure, but specific patterns are visible. This paper will not try to guess, what will come, but will rather try to understand the deepest ”nature” of technology in order to understand the driving factors in this development: the genesis of technology in a broad sense in order to contibute to the understanding of the basis for the expected development.

  1. 40 CFR 86.007-35 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.007-35 Labeling. Section 86.007-35 includes text that specifies... background of the label: (A) The label heading: Important Vehicle Information; (B) Full corporate name and...

  2. 40 CFR 86.095-35 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.095-35 Labeling. (a) The manufacturer of any motor vehicle (or... color that contrasts with the background of the label: (A) The label heading: “Important Engine...

  3. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for label details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  4. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky Series...

  5. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  6. Understanding uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Lindley, Dennis V

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""...a reference for everyone who is interested in knowing and handling uncertainty.""-Journal of Applied Statistics The critically acclaimed First Edition of Understanding Uncertainty provided a study of uncertainty addressed to scholars in all fields, showing that uncertainty could be measured by probability, and that probability obeyed three basic rules that enabled uncertainty to be handled sensibly in everyday life. These ideas were extended to embrace the scientific method and to show how decisions, containing an uncertain element, could be rationally made.

  7. 21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location and size of symbol on label and labeling... AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.04 Location and size of symbol on label and labeling. The symbol shall be prominently located on the label or the labeling of the commercial...

  8. Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu

    2018-04-01

    Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.

  9. Effectiveness of Eco-label? : A Study of Swedish University Students' Choice on Ecological Food

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qian; Nguyen, Lien Quynh

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT The recent years mark the appearance of many Eco-label schemes in the attempt ofhelping consumer to recognize the products with less harm to the environment, forexample: Euro flower, Nordic swan, Blue Angle, Krav. These labels belong to the thirdparties, which get supports from government with object of achieving sustainabledevelopment. However there is still lacking a clear understanding about theeffectiveness of Eco-label in consumer consumption activities due to the lack ofresearc...

  10. Effect of Medication Label Units of Measure on Parent Choice of Dosing Tool: A Randomized Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H Shonna; Parker, Ruth M; Sanders, Lee M; Dreyer, Benard P; Mendelsohn, Alan; Bailey, Stacy; Patel, Deesha A; Jimenez, Jessica J; Kim, Kwang-Youn A; Jacobson, Kara; Hedlund, Laurie; Landa, Rosa; Maness, Leslie; Tailor Raythatha, Purvi; McFadden, Terri; Wolf, Michael S

    Some experts recommend eliminating "teaspoon" and "tablespoon" terms from pediatric medication dosing instructions, because these terms could inadvertently encourage use of nonstandard tools (ie, kitchen spoons), which are associated with dosing errors. We examined whether use of "teaspoon" or "tsp" on prescription labels affects parents' choice of dosing tools, and the role of health literacy and language. Analysis of data collected as part of a controlled experiment (SAFE Rx for Kids [Safe Administration For Every Prescription for Kids] study), which randomized English- and Spanish-speaking parents (n = 2110) of children 8 years of age and younger to 1 of 5 groups, which varied in unit of measurement pairings on medication labels and dosing tools. Outcome assessed was parent self-reported choice of dosing tool. Parent health literacy was measured using the Newest Vital Sign. Seventy-seven percent had limited health literacy (36.0% low, 41.0% marginal); 35.0% completed assessments in Spanish. Overall, 27.7% who viewed labels containing either "tsp" or "teaspoon" units (alone or with "mL") chose nonstandard dosing tools (ie, kitchen teaspoon, kitchen tablespoon), compared with 8.3% who viewed "mL"-only labels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.3-5.8]). Odds varied based on whether "teaspoon" was spelled out or abbreviated ("teaspoon"-alone: AOR = 5.3 [95% CI, 3.8-7.3]); "teaspoon" with mL: AOR = 4.7 [95% CI, 3.3-6.5]; "tsp" with mL: AOR = 3.3 [95% CI, 2.4-4.7]; P medication labels, and identify additional strategies to promote the safe use of pediatric liquid medications. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-sty...

  12. Understanding ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Vaidya Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda's power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  13. Understanding Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidya Dilip Gadgil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda′s power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  14. New labels for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi

    1992-01-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.)

  15. New labels for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).

  16. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  17. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  18. New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.

  19. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find A Program Near You Develop Your Program City and County Sites Case Studies National Partners National ... 20% DV or more is high Visit the Smart Food Shopping page and learn how the label ...

  20. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms What does 'mechanically separated ... Top of Page ] NATURAL: A product containing no artificial ingredient or added color and is only minimally ...

  1. Canonical Labelling of Site Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Oury

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate algorithms for canonical labelling of site graphs, i.e. graphs in which edges bind vertices on sites with locally unique names. We first show that the problem of canonical labelling of site graphs reduces to the problem of canonical labelling of graphs with edge colourings. We then present two canonical labelling algorithms based on edge enumeration, and a third based on an extension of Hopcroft's partition refinement algorithm. All run in quadratic worst case time individually. However, one of the edge enumeration algorithms runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "many" automorphisms, and the partition refinement algorithm runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "few" bisimulation equivalences. This suite of algorithms was chosen based on the expectation that graphs fall in one of those two categories. If that is the case, a combined algorithm runs in sub-quadratic worst case time. Whether this expectation is reasonable remains an interesting open problem.

  2. Quality control of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matucha, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (1 31 I, 14 C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  3. Information on nutritional supplement labels: time for legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assist this process, it is important to have specific knowledge and understanding of the claims made on labels of nutritional supplement products used for general, and more specifically, for sports consumers. The industry is not regulated, and therefore the claims that are made may not always be accurate. Method: The ...

  4. Synthesis of isotopically labelled salicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.; Pryor, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    [ 13 C-carboxyl]Salicylic acid has been prepared by carbonation of 2-benzyloxybromobenzene followed by reductive debenzylation. Deuterium and tritium labelled salicylic acid and 2 H 2 / 13 C-salicylic acid were prepared by reduction of the 3,5-dibromo derivatives using Raney Ni-Al. Deuterium labelled salicylic acid containing up to four deuterium atoms was prepared by catalytic exchange with Raney Ni-Al in 5% NaOD/D 2 O. (author)

  5. Eco-Labeled Seafood: Determinants for (Blue Green Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Jonell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Eco-certification has become an increasingly popular market-based tool in the endeavor to reduce negative environmental impacts from fisheries and aquaculture. In this study, we aimed at investigating which psychological consumer characteristics influence demand for eco-labeled seafood by correlating consumers’ stated purchasing of eco-labeled seafood to nine variables: environmental knowledge regarding seafood production, familiarity with eco-labels, subjective knowledge, pro-environmental self-identification, sense of personal responsibility, concern for negative environmental impacts from seafood production, perceived consumer effectiveness, gender and education. Questionnaires were distributed to consumers in Stockholm, Sweden, and the data were tested with multiple regression analysis using linear modeling and model averaging (n = 371. Two variables were the best predictors of stated purchasing of eco-labeled seafood: (i recognition and understanding of eco-labels for seafood (Marine Stewardship Council, Fish for Life, Aquaculture Stewardship Council and KRAV; and (ii concern for negative environmental impacts associated with seafood production. Meanwhile, consumer environmental knowledge was a weaker predictor. Results from this study suggest that strengthening the emotional component of consumer decision-making and improving the level of consumer familiarity with seafood eco-labels could stimulate more pro-environmental seafood consumption.

  6. A review of European research on consumer response to nutrition information on food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Wills, Josephine M.

    2007-01-01

    that they understand them and they can replay key information presented to them in an experimental situation. There is, however, virtually no insight into how labelling information is, or will be, used in a real-world shopping situation, and how it will affect consumers' dietary patterns. Results are largely in line...... information on food labels in a real-world setting....

  7. Understanding PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen DOWNES

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding PISA Stephen DOWNESMoncton, CANADA ABSTRACT The headline was dramatic enough to cause a ripple in the reading public. "Students who use computers a lot at school have worse maths and reading performance," noted the BBC news article, citing a 2004 study by Ludger Woessmann and Thomas Fuchs (Fuchs and Woessman, 2004. It was not long before the blogosphere took notice. Taking the theme and running with it, Alice and Bill ask, "Computers Make School Kids Dumber?" They theorize, "If you track the admitted decline of education, you'll probably notice that it follows along with the increase of technology in the classroom." In a similar vein, James Bartholomew asks, "Do you think that the government will turn down the volume of its boasting about how it has spent billions introducing computers in schools (while keeping down the pay of teachers so much that there are shortages? Do you think it will stop sending governors of state schools glossy pamphlets about insisting that computers are used in their schools as much as possible?" In this study, therefore, PISA looks well beyond educational attainment, and also includes school demographics, such as whether it is a public or private school, has large or small classes, or has access or not to technological resources. Finally, it does measure student information-their family background, access to books and computers and parental support as well. The PISA survey departs from previous surveys in disregarding the stated curricula of the schools being measured. Therefore, the conclusion is not surprising, nor even wrong for him to consider independently of any parental or teacher support, considered without reference to the software running on it, considered without reference to student attitudes and interests, does not positively impact an education. Finally, he focus on missing the reporting of results

  8. The topology of metabolic isotope labeling networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiechert Wolfgang

    2007-08-01

    topological analysis of ILNs allows to comprehensively describe and understand the general patterns of label flow in complex networks. This is an invaluable tool for the structural design of new experiments and the interpretation of measured data.

  9. The impact of nutritional labels and socioeconomic status on energy intake. An experimental field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; Jebb, Susan A; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-10-01

    There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t = -2.7, P = .04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t = -2.04, P = .04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Facts and Myths How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  11. Use of labeled compounds in tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The use of radiotracers in research has become common. This chapter looks at some of the underlying assumptions and advantages of labeled compounds: advantages of radiotracers; availability of suitable tracers and labeled compounds; purity of labeled compounds; autoradiolysis; storage of labeled compounds; detection systems for chromatography and electrophoretic methods. 14 refs., 2 figs

  12. 78 FR 8362 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... the label's technical efficiency rating terms (e.g., SEER) should appear in a more prominent fashion... appearance of two different maps on the same label. For central air-conditioner models that do not meet the... proposed label placement requirements. For example, ACCA asserted that the label's appearance on packaging...

  13. 21 CFR 606.121 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 606.121 Section 606.121 Food and... Container label. (a) The container label requirements are designed to facilitate the use of a uniform container label for blood and blood components (except Source Plasma) by all blood establishments. (b) The...

  14. 7 CFR 70.45 - Misleading labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misleading labeling. 70.45 Section 70.45 Agriculture... Misleading labeling. The use of the terms “Government Graded” and “Federal-State Graded” or terms of similar import in the labeling or advertising of any product without stating in the labeling or advertisement the...

  15. Recoil labelling of fluorine-18 labelled chlorofluoromethanes and tetrafluoromethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    18 F recoil labelling of trichlorofluoro-, dichlorodifluoro-, chlorotrifluoro- and tetrafluoromethane has been investigated. Mixtures of an appropriate substrate (0.3-2%) in neon were bombared with 14 MeV deuterons ( 20 Ne(d, α) 18 F reaction). All the above compounds were labelled in high activities by this technique. When tetrachloromethane was the substrate the major product was 18 F-trichlorofluoromethane (approximately 95% of total gaseous activity). 18 F-dichlorodifluoromethane was the major product (approximately 60 and approximately 70% respectively) when either trichlorofluoromethane or dichlorodifluoromethane was the substrate. The use of chlorotrifluoromethane as substrate produced 18 F-dichlorodifluoromethane and 18 F-tetrafluoromethane in significant amounts in addition to 18 F-chlorotrifluoromethane (approximately 40%). Bombardment of mixtures of tetrafluoromethane in neon produced 18 F-tetrafluoromethane (approximately 80%) together with other 18 F-labelled gaseous products. The targetry and irradiation conditions are described. the volatile products were analysed by radio-gas chromatography. (author)

  16. Welcome to the Wonderful World of Science and Agriculture: How to Read a Fertilizer Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    Presents an activity that enables students to learn how to read a fertilizer label, to understand the components of fertilizers, and to compare natural and man-made fertilizers. Includes background information and student worksheets. (DDR)

  17. Evaluation of students' opinion regarding food labelling

    OpenAIRE

    Budrytė, Indrė

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of Students' Opinion Regarding Food Labelling. Food labeling is one of the main information sources that helps to improve consumers eating habits and maintain health. The aim of research: To evaluate Vilnius University Medicine and Economics faculties students’ opinion regarding food labelling and its impact to their food products choice. Tasks: 1) to evaluate students’ opinion regarding food labelling; 2) to evaluate students’ opinion regarding food labelling depending on the soci...

  18. Label-free drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye eFang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Current drug discovery is dominated by label-dependent molecular approaches, which screen drugs in the context of a predefined and target-based hypothesis in vitro. Given that target-based discovery has not transformed the industry, phenotypic screen that identifies drugs based on a specific phenotype of cells, tissues, or animals has gained renewed interest. However, owing to the intrinsic complexity in drug-target interactions, there is often a significant gap between the phenotype screened and the ultimate molecular mechanism of action sought. This paper presents a label-free strategy for early drug discovery. This strategy combines label-free cell phenotypic profiling with computational approaches, and holds promise to bridge the gap by offering a kinetic and holistic representation of the functional consequences of drugs in disease relevant cells that is amenable to mechanistic deconvolution.

  19. Patient identification and tube labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dongen-Lases, Edmée C; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    of phlebotomy procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guideline was unacceptably low, and that patient identification and tube labelling are amongst the most critical steps in need of immediate attention and improvement. The process of patient identification and tube labelling is an essential safety barrier to prevent......Venous blood sampling (phlebotomy) is the most common invasive procedure performed in patient care. Guidelines on the correct practice of phlebotomy are available, including the H3-A6 guideline issued by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). As the quality of practices and procedures...... patient identity mix-up. Therefore, the EFLM Working Group aims to encourage and support worldwide harmonisation of patient identification and tube labelling procedures in order to reduce the risk of preanalytical errors and improve patient safety. With this Position paper we wish to raise awareness...

  20. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imagining and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography

  1. International Review of Frameworks for Standard Setting & Labeling Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina Zheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    As appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs reach a broader geographic and product scope, a series of sophisticated and complex technical and economic analyses have been adopted by different countries in the world to support and enhance these growing S&L programs. The initial supporting techno-economic and impact analyses for S&L development make up a defined framework and process for setting and developing appropriate appliance efficiency standards and labeling programs. This report reviews in-depth the existing framework for standards setting and label development in the well-established programs of the U.S., Australia and the EU to identify and evaluate major trends in how and why key analyses are undertaken and to understand major similarities and differences between each of the frameworks.

  2. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.; Kovacheva, S.

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: 3 H-thymidine, 32 P-DP, 111 In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), 99m Tc (reduced 99m Tc, lypophyl 99m Tc-complexes and 99m Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization

  3. Melatonin labelled by hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope exchange of melatonin with deuterium (D 2 O) and tritium (HTO) oxides under different conditions is studied. Simplicity of isotope exchange of hydrogens of the indole ring of melatonin in the acidic medium decreases in series H 4 >H 2 >H 6 >>H 7 , that permits to suggest the way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in positions 4,6 and 2 of the indole ring. The way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in position 2 according to the reaction of desulfation 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylsulphenyl) melatonin at catalyst Ni(Re)(D) is suggested

  4. Denture labeling: A new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep K Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for denture labeling is important for forensic and social reasons in case patients need to be identified individually. The importance of denture marking has long been acknowledged by the dental profession. Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature, but none till date fulfills all the prescribed ADA specifications. A simple, easy, inexpensive procedure for marking accurate identification marks on dentures with a lead foil is described here. The label caring the patient information is incorporated in the acrylic resin during the denture processing.

  5. Melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of isotope exchange between melatonin and deuterium (D 2 O) or tritium (HTO) oxide under different conditions. The ease of isotope exchange for the indole ring hydrogens of melatonin in an acidic medium decreases over the series H 4 > H 2 H 6 >> H 7 , enabling the authors to process a route for production of melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at positions 4,6, and 2 of the indole ring. A method has been suggested for producing melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at position 2 by desulfurization of 2-(2,4-dinitro-phenylsulfenyl)melatonin at Ni(Re) (D)

  6. Food quality labels from the producers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysing the food producer attitudes towards quality labels. The Klasa label, as the most known and the most frequently used food quality label in the Czech Republic, have become the subject of investigation. The aim of the research was to identify the benefits and problems arising from the certification process and the label use. Primary data were collected in online survey based on standardized questionnaire. In census, 86 respondents from the total 218 producers with the Klasa label in the Czech Republic completed the questionnaire. The most of producers (72% have a longer experience with the label, they are using the label for more than four years. The producers’ expectations from the label were fulfilled only partially. A poor state marketing support and missing marketing strategy were identified as general problems of the label. Specific perceived problems are formalities connected with the certification process and certification of poor-quality products. Correlation analysis, t-test and Pearson chi-square test were calculated to discover relations between variables. The results of the study can be beneficial to both, food producers as well as administrator of the label. Identified problems could help them to improve marketing strategy of the label in order to manage the label in effective way and use all benefits arising from the certification. Administrator of the label should make the certification process more effective and transparent, promotion should be focused on the explanation to consumers what the Klasa label guarantees.

  7. Perception of wine labels by Hong Kong Chinese consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Chi Man Tang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite Hong Kong׳s growing wine consumption and the abundance of retail brands available there, the demanding choice task faced by its wine consumers, who are more subject to a mix of Chinese and Western cultural influences than consumers in other South Asian countries, has not been studied until now. This exploratory study aims to delve into the importance of wine label attributes for Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers, and to shed light on the ways in which their perceptions affect their choice of wine. Employing an online survey, the results suggest that Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers look for the top three most searched attributes: wine origin, grape variety, and food and wine pairing. A simple means differences test indicated that a traditional label design is favored over modern and contemporary wine labels, and that yellow is the most preferred color. However, a data-driven segmentation analysis reveals that about 95% of young Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers prefer “elegant contemporary” labels with red as the dominant color. These findings could be useful for wineries entering this market and for wine label designers who wish to better understand how Hong Kong wine consumers assess alternatives when choosing a bottle of wine.

  8. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions...

  9. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the Table! Food Labels Tell the Story! What is in food? Food provides your body with all of the ... need from every group? How did you do? What recommendations can you make? Eating a healthy diet doesn't mean giving up your favorite foods. Just balance your food choices. Nutrition Facts—the ...

  10. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  11. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  12. Synthesis of labelled ecdysone precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, T.; Hetru, C.; Nakatani, Y.; Luu, B.; Meister, M.; Pichat, L.; Audinot, M.

    1985-01-01

    High specific activity tritiated 3β,14α-dihydroxy-5β-cholest-7-en-6-one, has been prepared using a precursor which permits rapid and easy labelling. This compound is converted to ecdysone under in vitro conditions by insect prothoracic glands, a well known site of ecdysone biosynthesis. (author)

  13. Symmetry in labeled transition systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. van Langevelde

    2003-01-01

    textabstractSymmetry is defined for labeled transition systems, and it is shown how symmetrical systems can be symmetrically decomposed into components. The central question is under what conditions one such component may represent the whole system, in the sense that one symmetrical system is

  14. Improving the energy labelling scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This report summarises the main results of an EU project on consumer response to energy labels in buildings. This report is mainly directed at Danish policy makers. The main focus is therefore on results that are relevant from a Danish point of view and on how they can be used to further strengthen...

  15. Front-of-pack nutrition labels. Their effect on attention and choices when consumers have varying goals and time constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herpen, Erica; Trijp, Hans C M van

    2011-08-01

    Although front-of-pack nutrition labeling can help consumers make healthier food choices, lack of attention to these labels limits their effectiveness. This study examines consumer attention to and use of three different nutrition labeling schemes (logo, multiple traffic-light label, and nutrition table) when they face different goals and resource constraints. To understand attention and processing of labels, various measures are used including self-reported use, recognition, and eye-tracking measures. Results of two experiments in different countries show that although consumers evaluate the nutrition table most positively, it receives little attention and does not stimulate healthy choices. Traffic-light labels and especially logos enhance healthy product choice, even when consumers are put under time pressure. Additionally, health goals of consumers increase attention to and use of nutrition labels, especially when these health goals concern specific nutrients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Labelling fashion magazine advertisements: Effectiveness of different label formats on social comparison and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Brown, Zoe

    2018-03-08

    The experiment investigated the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of different forms of label added to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 340 female undergraduate students who viewed 15 fashion advertisements containing a thin and attractive model. They were randomly allocated to one of five label conditions: no label, generic disclaimer label (indicating image had been digitally altered), consequence label (indicating that viewing images might make women feel bad about themselves), informational label (indicating the model in the advertisement was underweight), or a graphic label (picture of a paint brush). Although exposure to the fashion advertisements resulted in increased body dissatisfaction, there was no significant effect of label type on body dissatisfaction; no form of label demonstrated any ameliorating effect. In addition, the consequence and informational labels resulted in increased perceived realism and state appearance comparison. Yet more extensive research is required before the effective implementation of any form of label. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Requirements for Access to Pesticide Labeling Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employers of pesticide handlers must make sure that the handlers are given information from the pesticide labeling and have access to the labeling itself, before they do any handling task. Learn about the information employers must provide.

  18. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ...

  19. Soil Fumigant Labels - Metam Sodium/Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company; and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators ... packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ...

  1. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes....... A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very...

  2. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, and more — but they' ... Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels View more Partner Message About Us ...

  3. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print ...

  4. Enzymatic synthesis of isotopically labelled purine deoxyribonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank-Kamenetskaya, M.D.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1992-01-01

    An enzymatic method is described which makes it possible to synthesize labelled purine deoxyribonucleotides from corresponding labelled purine ribonucleotides using the RDP-reductase system of ether-treated E. coli E125 cells. (Author)

  5. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  6. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be white. The word “TOXIC” may be used in lieu of the word “POISON”. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66258, Dec... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1606 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Vehicle... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Regulations for Altitude Performance Adjustments for New and In-Use Motor Vehicles and Engines § 86.1606 Labeling. (a) The manufacturer shall make...

  8. What determines consumer attention to nutrition labels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the key determinants of consumer attention to nutrition labels, visual search tasks (present – absent; one – two targets) were used as an effective experimental tool. The main manipulation concerned: set size (number of labels on front of pack); label characteristics (display size,

  9. 10 CFR 61.57 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling. 61.57 Section 61.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.57 Labeling. Each package of waste must be clearly labeled to...

  10. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designed to prevent mixups. (d) Labeling operations. Each manufacturer shall control labeling and packaging... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  11. 7 CFR 56.73 - Misleading labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misleading labeling. 56.73 Section 56.73 Agriculture... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Denial of Service § 56.73 Misleading labeling. The use of the terms “Government Graded”, “Federal-State Graded”, or terms of similar import in the labeling or advertising of any...

  12. White Label Space GLXP Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A.

    2012-09-01

    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  13. Synthesis and biotransformation of bioactive substances labeles with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadrovskaya, V.A.; Savina, E.P.; Tsyshkova, N.G.; Trofimov, F.A.; Nemeryuk, M.P.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Safonova, T.S.

    1992-01-01

    Pharmaceutical characteristics of synthesized compounds were studied and assessment of their possible usage as radiopharmaceuticals was conducted in experiments with mice, rats and rabbits. The following compounds were studied: pyrimidothiazine, krizanol, toberone, sulfadiazine, abdidol. Pharmacokinetic features of these drugs were investigated with help of labelled compounds. Chemical structure of products of biotransformation of some prepartions was studied that was the basis for understanding of mechanism of their action. Investigating results are important for clinical usage of these preparations

  14. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  15. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Lewis, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting α-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin. (U.K.)

  16. Synthesis of deuterium labelled ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappon, V.J.; Halstead, G.W.; Theis, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The preparations of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen and [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen are described. The deuterium was incorporated into the aromatic ring of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen which is a metabolically stable position. [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen was synthesized by the same route using [ 2 H 3 ]-CH 3 I instead of CH 3 I for use as a GC/MS internal standard in stable isotope labelled bioavailability studies. (author)

  17. Nutrition marketing on food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Marketing strategy, nutrient label information, if the product was fruit/or milk based, and target age. Frequency distributions were computed. Forty-nine percent of all products contained nutrition marketing and of those, 48% had both nutrition marketing and were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar (11%, 17%, and 31% respectively). Seventy-one percent of products marketed to children had nutrition marketing. Of those, 59% were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar content, with more than half being high in sugar. The most commonly used nutrition marketing statements were "good source of calcium", "reduced/low/fat free", and "food company's health symbol". Nutrition marketing is commonly used on products high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar and is more often used on products marketed toward children than products marketed toward adults. Current food industry symbols may not be helping consumers select foods low in saturated fat, sodium or sugar. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Isotopically labelled pyrimidines and purines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaban, A.T.; Bally, I.

    1987-01-01

    Among the three diazines, pyrimidine is by far the most important one because its derivatives uracil, thymine and cytosine are constituents of the ubiquitous deoxynucleic acids (DNA) and ribonucleic acids (RNA). Other derivatives of pyrimidine without condensed rings include barbiturates, alloxan, orotic acid and thiamine or vitamin B 1 . From the polycyclic derivatives of pyrimidine such as pteridine, alloxazine, and purine, the latter, through its derivatives adenine and guanine complete the list of bases which occur in DNA and RNA: in addition, other purine derivatives such as hypoxanthine, xanthine, theobromine, theophylline, caffeine and uric acid are important natural products with biological activity. The paper presents methods for preparing isotopically labeled pyrimidines as well as purine derivatives. For convenience, the authors describe separately carbon-labeled with radioisotopes 11 C (T 1/2 = 20.3 min) and 14 C (T 1/2 = 5736 years) or the stable isotope 13 C (natural abundance 1.1%) and then hydrogen-labeled systems with the radioisotope 3 H ≡ T (T 1/2 = 12.346 years) or with the stable isotope 2 H ≡ D (natural abundance 0.015%). We do not separate stable from radioactive isotopes because the synthetic methods are identical for the same element; however, the introduction of hydrogen isotopes into organic molecules is often performed by reactions such as isotope exchange which cannot take place in the case of carbon isotopes

  19. Gender, status, and psychiatric labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K; Brown, Ryan P; Thomas, Lauren S

    2015-11-01

    We examine a key modified labeling theory proposition-that a psychiatric label increases vulnerability to competence-based criticism and rejection-within task- and collectively oriented dyads comprised of same-sex individuals with equivalent education. Drawing on empirical work that approximates these conditions, we expect the proposition to hold only among men. We also expect education, operationalized with college class standing, to moderate the effects of gender by reducing men's and increasing women's criticism and rejection. But, we also expect the effect of education to weaken when men work with a psychiatric patient. As predicted, men reject suggestions from teammates with a psychiatric history more frequently than they reject suggestions from other teammates, while women's resistance to influence is unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Men also rate psychiatric patient teammates as less powerful but no lower in status than other teammates, while women's teammate assessments are unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Also as predicted, education reduces men's resistance to influence when their teammate has no psychiatric history. Education also increases men's ratings of their teammate's power, as predicted, but has no effect on women's resistance to influence or teammate ratings. We discuss the implications of these findings for the modified labeling theory of mental illness and status characteristics theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stigma of a label: educational expectations for high school students labeled with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrer, Dara

    2013-01-01

    Poorer outcomes for youth labeled with learning disabilities (LDs) are often attributed to the student's own deficiencies or cumulative disadvantage; but the more troubling possibility is that special education placement limits rather than expands these students' opportunities. Labeling theory partially attributes the poorer outcomes of labeled persons to stigma related to labels. This study uses data on approximately 11,740 adolescents and their schools from the Education Longitudinal Survey of 2002 to determine if stigma influences teachers' and parents' educational expectations for students labeled with LDs and labeled adolescents' expectations for themselves. Supporting the predictions of labeling theory, teachers and parents are more likely to perceive disabilities in, and hold lower educational expectations for labeled adolescents than for similarly achieving and behaving adolescents not labeled with disabilities. The negative effect of being labeled with LDs on adolescents' educational expectations is partially mechanized through parents' and particularly teachers' lower expectations.

  1. Effectiveness of Front-Of-Pack Nutrition Labels in French Adults: Results from the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Pauline; Méjean, Caroline; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    To date, no consensus has emerged on the most appropriate front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition label to help consumers in making informed choices. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the label formats currently in use: nutrient-specific, graded and simple summary systems, in a large sample of adults. The FOP label effectiveness was assessed by measuring the label acceptability and understanding among 13,578 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, representative of the French adult population. Participants were exposed to five conditions, including four FOP labels: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL), Green Tick (Tick), and a "no label" condition. Acceptability was evaluated by several indicators: attractiveness, liking and perceived cognitive workload. Objective understanding was assessed by the percentage of correct answers when ranking three products according to their nutritional quality. Five different product categories were tested: prepared fish dishes, pizzas, dairy products, breakfast cereals, and appetizers. Differences among the label effectiveness were compared with chi-square tests. The 5-CNL was viewed as the easiest label to identify and as the one requiring the lowest amount of effort and time to understand. GDA was considered as the least easy to identify and to understand, despite being the most attractive and liked label. All FOP labels were found to be effective in ranking products according to their nutritional quality compared with the "no label" situation, although they showed differing levels of effectiveness (p<0.0001). Globally, the 5-CNL performed best, followed by MTL, GDA and Tick labels. The graded 5-CNL label was considered as easy to identify, simple and rapid to understand; it performed well when comparing the products' nutritional quality. Therefore, it is likely to present advantages in real shopping situations where choices are usually made quickly.

  2. Effectiveness of Front-Of-Pack Nutrition Labels in French Adults: Results from the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Ducrot

    Full Text Available To date, no consensus has emerged on the most appropriate front-of-pack (FOP nutrition label to help consumers in making informed choices. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the label formats currently in use: nutrient-specific, graded and simple summary systems, in a large sample of adults.The FOP label effectiveness was assessed by measuring the label acceptability and understanding among 13,578 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, representative of the French adult population. Participants were exposed to five conditions, including four FOP labels: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA, Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL, 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL, Green Tick (Tick, and a "no label" condition. Acceptability was evaluated by several indicators: attractiveness, liking and perceived cognitive workload. Objective understanding was assessed by the percentage of correct answers when ranking three products according to their nutritional quality. Five different product categories were tested: prepared fish dishes, pizzas, dairy products, breakfast cereals, and appetizers. Differences among the label effectiveness were compared with chi-square tests.The 5-CNL was viewed as the easiest label to identify and as the one requiring the lowest amount of effort and time to understand. GDA was considered as the least easy to identify and to understand, despite being the most attractive and liked label. All FOP labels were found to be effective in ranking products according to their nutritional quality compared with the "no label" situation, although they showed differing levels of effectiveness (p<0.0001. Globally, the 5-CNL performed best, followed by MTL, GDA and Tick labels.The graded 5-CNL label was considered as easy to identify, simple and rapid to understand; it performed well when comparing the products' nutritional quality. Therefore, it is likely to present advantages in real shopping situations where choices are usually made quickly.

  3. Monitoring CO[subscript 2] Fixation Using GC-MS Detection of a [superscript 13]C-Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Daniel G.; Bridgham, April; Reichert, Kara; Magers, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Much of our understanding of metabolic pathways has resulted from the use of chemical and isotopic labels. In this experiment, a heavy isotope of carbon, [superscript 13]C, is used to label the product of the well-known RuBisCO enzymatic reaction. This is a key reaction in photosynthesis that converts inorganic carbon to organic carbon; a process…

  4. Mission Driven Scene Understanding: Dynamic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    International Society for Optical Engineering; c2001. 14. Siva P, Russell C, Xiang T, Agapito L. Looking beyond the image : Unsupervised learning for...60,000 was 0.0818 and the training error rate was 0.0273, which means that the CNN had “ learned ” to assign the correct class label to an image , when... images is necessary for scene understanding. Such dynamic environmental conditions (e.g., changing illumination, precipitation, and vegetation) can

  5. Effectiveness Of Pesticide Labels As A Communication Tool For Smallholder Farmers On Pesticides Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Kapeleka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in northern Tanzania to assess the effectiveness of pesticide labels in communicating useful information to horticultural farmers. A total of 200 respondents were obtained through simple random selection. Data were collected through personal and face-to-face interview using structured interview schedule observation and focus group discussion. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation were used in the analysis. The study revealed that 79.6 of farmers interviewed had not learned anything from the labels. With regard to the main source of information on pesticides use 66.7 of the farmers get information from pesticides retailers. Misinterpretation of symbols and pictograms was realized among the farmers. It was revealed that 60 of the farmers cannot interpret correctly the warning symbols and pictograms. The study also revealed that 76.3 of the farmers are aware that pesticide labels contain useful information on safe use of pesticides and 76.1 of all farmers interviewed read pesticides labels before using pesticides. Even when farmers read instructions most do not understand the instructions provided on pesticide labels the main reasons reported include the use of foreign language 53.3 too technical language 51.7 unclear information 40 use of uncommon Swahili words 26.7 while 35.5 said following information on the label do not give good results. Other factors influencing the use of information on pesticide labels were found to be farmers perception on pesticide labels lacking sensitization on label use and reading habit. The study concluded that pesticide labels do not communicate fully the intended information on pesticide use. Pesticide labels need to be simplified and capacity building on symbols colour codes pictograms safety precautions health and environmental impacts of pesticides use is highly required to pesticide users.

  6. Top-down expectation effects of food labels on motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegman, Joost; van Loon, Ilke; Smeets, Paul A M; Cools, Roshan; Aarts, Esther

    2018-02-10

    Labels on food packages inform our beliefs, shaping our expectations of food properties, such as its expected taste and healthiness. These beliefs can influence the processing of caloric rewards beyond objective sensory properties and have the potential to impact decision making. However, no studies, within or beyond the food domain, have assessed how written information, such as food labels, affect implicit motivation to obtain rewards, even though choices in daily life might be strongly driven by implicit motivational biases. We investigated how written information affects implicit motivation to obtain caloric rewards in healthy young adults. We used food labels (high- and low-calorie), associated with an identical fruit-flavored sugar-sweetened beverage, to study motivation for caloric rewards during fMRI. In a joystick task, hungry participants (N = 31) were instructed to make fast approach or avoid movements to earn the cued beverages. Behaviorally, we found a general approach bias, which was stronger for the beverage that was most preferred during a subsequent choice test, i.e., the one labeled as low-calorie. This behavioral effect was accompanied by increased BOLD signal in the sensorimotor cortex during the response phase of the task for the preferred, low-calorie beverage compared with the non-preferred, high-calorie beverage. During the anticipation phase, the non-preferred, high-calorie beverage label elicited stronger fMRI signal in the right ventral anterior insula, a region associated with aversion and taste intensity, than the preferred, low-calorie label. Together, these data suggest that high-calorie labeling can increase avoidance of beverages and reduce neural activity in brain regions associated with motor control. In conclusion, we show effects of food labeling on fMRI responses during anticipation and subsequent motivated action and on behavior, in the absence of objective taste differences, demonstrating the influence of written

  7. Shape understanding system machine understanding and human understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Les, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    This is the third book presenting selected results of research on the further development of the shape understanding system (SUS) carried out by authors in the newly founded Queen Jadwiga Research Institute of Understanding. In this book the new term Machine Understanding is introduced referring to a new area of research aiming to investigate the possibility of building machines with the ability to understand. It is presented that SUS needs to some extent mimic human understanding and for this reason machines are evaluated according to the rules applied for the evaluation of human understanding. The book shows how to formulate problems and how it can be tested if the machine is able to solve these problems.    

  8. On the Competitive Interaction Between Private Label and Branded Grocery Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald W. Cotterill; Ravi Dhar; William P. Putsis Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Recent research in marketing has focused on cross-category variation in the market share of private label products, while recent work in the economics and industrial organization literature has focused on the determinants of firm price setting behavior. In this paper, the authors develop a framework for estimating market share and price reaction equations simultaneously in an attempt to understand the nature of competitive interaction in the market for private label and branded grocery produc...

  9. Tritium labeling of detonation nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Hugues A; El-Kharbachi, Abdelouahab; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Petit, Tristan; Bergonzo, Philippe; Rousseau, Bernard; Arnault, Jean-Charles

    2014-03-18

    For the first time, the radioactive labeling of detonation nanodiamonds was efficiently achieved using a tritium microwave plasma. According to our measurements, the total radioactivity reaches 9120 ± 120 μCi mg(-1), with 93% of (3)H atoms tightly bonded to the surface and up to 7% embedded into the diamond core. Such (3)H doping will ensure highly stable radiolabeled nanodiamonds, on which surface functionalization is still allowed. This breakthrough opens the way to biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies of nanodiamonds, while this approach can be scalable to easily treat bulk quantities of nanodiamonds at low cost.

  10. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  11. Label Space Reduction in MPLS Networks: How Much Can A Single Stacked Label Do?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solano, Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas K.; Fabregat, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS-allowing the config......Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS...

  12. Label-free photoacoustic nanoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Winkler, Amy M.; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lidai; Chen, Yun; Dorn, Gerald W.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-08-01

    Super-resolution microscopy techniques-capable of overcoming the diffraction limit of light-have opened new opportunities to explore subcellular structures and dynamics not resolvable in conventional far-field microscopy. However, relying on staining with exogenous fluorescent markers, these techniques can sometimes introduce undesired artifacts to the image, mainly due to large tagging agent sizes and insufficient or variable labeling densities. By contrast, the use of endogenous pigments allows imaging of the intrinsic structures of biological samples with unaltered molecular constituents. Here, we report label-free photoacoustic (PA) nanoscopy, which is exquisitely sensitive to optical absorption, with an 88 nm resolution. At each scanning position, multiple PA signals are successively excited with increasing laser pulse energy. Because of optical saturation or nonlinear thermal expansion, the PA amplitude depends on the nonlinear incident optical fluence. The high-order dependence, quantified by polynomial fitting, provides super-resolution imaging with optical sectioning. PA nanoscopy is capable of super-resolution imaging of either fluorescent or nonfluorescent molecules.

  13. Multimodal label-free microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pavillon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the different multimodal applications based on a large extent of label-free imaging modalities, ranging from linear to nonlinear optics, while also including spectroscopic measurements. We put specific emphasis on multimodal measurements going across the usual boundaries between imaging modalities, whereas most multimodal platforms combine techniques based on similar light interactions or similar hardware implementations. In this review, we limit the scope to focus on applications for biology such as live cells or tissues, since by their nature of being alive or fragile, we are often not free to take liberties with the image acquisition times and are forced to gather the maximum amount of information possible at one time. For such samples, imaging by a given label-free method usually presents a challenge in obtaining sufficient optical signal or is limited in terms of the types of observable targets. Multimodal imaging is then particularly attractive for these samples in order to maximize the amount of measured information. While multimodal imaging is always useful in the sense of acquiring additional information from additional modes, at times it is possible to attain information that could not be discovered using any single mode alone, which is the essence of the progress that is possible using a multimodal approach.

  14. Biochemistry Teaching Through Food Label Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L. Barbosa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional classes of Basic Biochemistry often rely on memorization of facts and concepts.  For  this  reason,  many  educators  have  evaluated  new  strategies  and tools  to  enrich  learning  and  motivate  undergraduate  students.  As  a  result  of different  methodologies  used  for  this  purpose,  several  commited  professors  are convinced  that  students  learn  more  effectively  if  the  knowledge  they  acquire  are inserted and contextualized in relevant real-life. This work aimed to report the use of  a  new  strategy  to  provide  first-semester  physiotherapy  students  with  a  more practical  and  interesting  approach  to  Biochemistry.The  method  consisted  in  the use  of  food  label  analysis  as  an  approach  to  study  the  structure  and  function  of biomolecules.The  activity  was  developed  at  Faculdade  Christus  (located  in Fortaleza  using  15h  of  extra  classes.  Firstly,  the  students  were  requested  to collect  food  labels  during  a  week.  Secondly,  they  were  teached  to  read  and interpret  a  food  label  according  the  dietary  recommendations  of  World  Health Organization  and  National  Health  Surveillance  Agency  -  Brazil,  contrasting different  types  of  foods  with  regard  to  their  calories  and  nutrient  content.  In  this activity, the analysis of structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins was made to support the understanding of basic concepts. The last activity aimed to organize a healthy breakfast, considering the concepts learned during the food label  analysis.  The  activities  were  evaluated  by  the  students  through  written questionaires  and  informal  conversations,  indicating  good  acceptance  and approval of this method and showing that this activity is a valid

  15. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labelled diazepam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurt, F.; Unek, P.; Asikoglu, M.; Baggi, S.; Erener, G.; Ozkilic, H.; Uluc, F.; Tuglular, I.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, diazepam is a derivative of the 1.4 benzodiazepine family that the most widely used drug as anticonvulsant agent has been labeled with I-131, as a new radiopharmaceutical and its radiopharmaceutical potential has been determined. Labeling of diazepam has been performed by iodogen method and optimum labeling conditions have been determined. Optimum reaction conditions are 1 mg for iodogen amount; 1-5 mg for diazepam amount, 15-20 minutes for reaction time and room temperature for reaction temperature. Specific activity of labeled compound was 0,15 Ci/mmol level. N-octanol/water ratio was found 1.9 for 131 IDZ ( 131 I labeled diazepam). In vivo experiments have been carried out to determine radiopharmaceutical potentials of labeled compound. Biodistribution studies on rats showed that 131 IDZ have accumulated in kidneys, liver, lungs and brain tissues. Scintigraphic results taken with gamma camera on rabbits agree with biodistribution results of rats. (author)

  16. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbon-14 labelled antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deigner, H.P.; Freyberg, C.; Heck, R.

    1993-01-01

    The syntheses of [ 14 C] labelled antioxidants are described. We developed an efficient synthetic methodology to prepare a series of labelled amides with antioxidant activity, starting from [ 14 C] KCN and alkyl or aryl halides. By a combination of nucleophilic displacement of halides by [ 14 C] cyanide, mediated by ultrasound and subsequent mild and selective enzymatic hydrolysis of the resulting nitriles, labelled carboxylic acids were obtained. Labelled amines were prepared by reduction of the respective nitriles. Availability of [ 14 C] KCN, efficient introduction of the label by ultrasound mediated reaction and selective and mild hydrolysis by commercially available nitrilase (Rhodococcus sp.), makes possible a wide range of applications of this methodology in the synthesis of functionalized labelled compounds. (Author)

  17. Comparison of the safety information on drug labels in three developed countries: The USA, UK and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamir M. Alshammari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The safety information on drug labels of a company marketing the same drugs in different countries is sometimes different. The aim of the present study is to understand the differences in the volume and content of safety information on the drug labels from the same manufacturers in three developed countries: the United States of America (USA, the United Kingdom (UK and Canada. This study involved the calculation of the proportion of total safety information (PSI and of contraindications (PCI in comparison to all information on the label and the percentage of boxed warnings (PBW among the 100 labels studied from each country. The PSI on the labels of different countries is different with USA labels bearing lesser value PSI and UK labels bearing higher value PSI. The qualitative information provided on these drug labels from each country in ‘contraindications’ sections, ‘boxed/serious warnings’ and ‘overdosage’ sections presented differences in the information provided on most of the labels. We have found distinct differences between the safety information available on drug labels in terms of volume and content. We conclude that the safety information for the same products should be standardised across all countries.

  18. Strength of evidence for labeled dosing recommendations in renal impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Joshua J; Khan, Nazleen F; Raj, Tara S; Patel, Lajja R; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2017-04-01

    Renally excreted medications often require dose adjustment in patients with kidney impairment. While drug development and approval in the United States are typically based on several Phase I and II studies and one or more larger Phase III randomized trials, the basis for labeled dosing recommendations for patients with renal impairment is less well known. In response, we aimed to quantify the level of evidence used to recommend labeled dosing adjustments for newly approved drugs in patients with renal impairment. We reviewed publicly available drug labels and approval packages for new molecular entities approved in the United States between 2012 and 2014. The sample was restricted to 29 renally excreted new molecular entities that were not granted orphan drug status. We extracted data regarding approved indications, normal dosing, dosing adjustments for patients with mild (estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ), moderate (estimated glomerular filtration rate 30-impairment, characteristics of studies used to justify dosing adjustments, and numbers of subjects in each study. In all, 14 of 29 (48%) new molecular entities had labels that recommended dosing adjustments for patients with mild, moderate, and/or severe renal impairment. Among these 14 new molecular entities, 4 (29%) used only pharmacokinetic studies to justify the recommendations, with no examination of clinical outcomes for patients with renal impairment. Where data were available, the median number of patients with renal impairment evaluated in studies used for dosing adjustment was 34 (range, 4-5976). Of the 15 new molecular entities with no recommended dosing adjustments for this population, 2 (13%) did not report assessing the effects of renal impairment. Nearly half of newly approved renally excreted drugs include dosing adjustments for kidney impairment on the label, but the recommendations are usually based on very small numbers of patients and often utilize pharmacokinetic

  19. Functional alterations of human platelets following indium-111 labelling using different incubation media and labelling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi; Kimura, Kazufumi; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Kamada, Takenobu

    1991-01-01

    Human platelets were labelled in the absence of presence of plasma using 111 In-labelled oxine sulphate, tropolone or 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (MPO). Under in vitro and in vivo conditions, platelet functions were evaluated by measuring their aggregability, survival, recovery and early distribution. High labelling efficiency was achieved in saline labelling, whereas with plasma labelling, it was necessary to concentrate the platelet-rich plasma to 4.8x10 6 platelets/μl. The aggregation of platelets labelled in plasma or saline was compared with that of controls; platelets labelled in saline showed lower aggregability in 2 μM ADP but not in 5 μM ADP nor with collagen. No significant differences in platelet survival and recovery were noted between platelets labelled in plasma and those labelled in saline. Our results indicate that partial loss of ADP aggregability in vitro does not influence the in vivo viability of platelets labelled in saline. Scintigraphic studies showed that platelets labelled in a saline medium were temporarily sequestrated in the liver but not in the spleen or heart. Thus, platelet labelling in saline does not affect platelet function adversely, but platelets labelled in plasma are more desirable for assessing the early distribution of platelets in the reticuloendothelial system. (orig.)

  20. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2015-12-07

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some of their labels are missing). To handle missing labels, we propose a unified model of label dependencies by constructing a mixed graph, which jointly incorporates (i) instance-level similarity and class co-occurrence as undirected edges and (ii) semantic label hierarchy as directed edges. Unlike most MLML methods, We formulate this learning problem transductively as a convex quadratic matrix optimization problem that encourages training label consistency and encodes both types of label dependencies (i.e. undirected and directed edges) using quadratic terms and hard linear constraints. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) can be used to exactly and efficiently solve this problem. To evaluate our proposed method, we consider two popular applications (image and video annotation), where the label hierarchy can be derived from Wordnet. Experimental results show that our method achieves a significant improvement over state-of-the-art methods in performance and robustness to missing labels.

  1. Synthesis of carboxy-labelled 1-carnitine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodfellow, D.B.; Hoppel, C.L.; Turkaly, J.S. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA). School of Medicine)

    1982-03-01

    A method for the production of carboxy-labelled l-carnitine is described. The first step is the chemical synthesis of 4-N-trimethylammoniobutanoate (butyrobetaine) from the precursors 4-aminobutanoate and iodomethane. The second step involves the hydroxylation of butyrobetaine to form l-carnitine using butyrobetaine hydroxylase partially purified from bovine calf liver. The method also can be used to synthesize Me-labelled and uniformly-chain-labelled l-carnitine.

  2. Eye tracking and nutrition label use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.

    2012-01-01

    cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutrition information. The present paper reviews all published studies of nutrition label use that have...... utilized eye tracking methodology, identifies directions for further research in this growing field, and makes research-based recommendations for ways in which labels could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to use nutrition labels to select healthful foods....

  3. Socio-Economic Disparities in Attitude and Preference for Menu Labels among Vietnamese Restaurant Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long Hoang; Thi Nguyen, Huong Lan; Le, Huong Thi; Do, Hoa Thi; Kim Dang, Anh; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Latkin, Carl A.; Zhang, Melvyn W. B.; Ho, Roger C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Calories and nutrition labeling on restaurant menus are powerful policy interventions to reduce the burden of obesity epidemic. However, the success of this policy requires an assurance of equal benefits among customers with different characteristics, especially people at a higher risk of poor health outcomes and eating habits. This study examined the sociodemographic disparities in the attitude and preference for calories and nutrition labeling on menus among customers in various food facilities. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1746 customers of food facilities in Hanoi, Vietnam, who were recruited by using a multistage sampling method. Socio-economic characteristics, attitudes regarding the necessity and preferences for calories, and nutrition labeling on menus were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to determine the associated factors with attitudes and preferences. Results show that most of the sample understood the necessity to have calories and nutrition labeling (59.8%), and 71.8% preferred to have calories and nutrition labeling. People who often visited food facilities (Odd Ratio (OR) = 1.36; 95% confident interval (CI) = 1.06–1.74) and had higher education and were more likely to understand the necessity of calories and nutrition labeling. Factors such as being homemakers, often going to dine-in restaurants, and perceiving that labeling was unnecessary were negatively associated with preferences for calories and nutrition labeling. The results of this study encourage policymakers to implement calories and nutrition labeling in the future. Health education interventions to improve knowledge and attitude as regards calories and nutrition labeling on menus are important, particularly for males, less-educated individuals, and high-income people. PMID:29509723

  4. Using 'may contain' labelling to inform food choice: a qualitative study of nut allergic consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowland M Hazel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Precautionary 'may contain' warnings are used to indicate possible allergen contamination. Neither food safety nor foods labelling legislation address this issue. The aim of this study is to understand how peanut and nut allergic adults interpret 'may contain' labelling and how they use this information when purchasing food. Methods Qualitative methods were used to explore both behaviour and attitudes. The behaviour and 'thinking aloud' of 32 participants were recorded during their normal food shop. A semi-structured interview also explored participants' views about 13 potentially problematic packaged foods. Transcribed data from these tasks were analysed to explore the interpretation of 'may contain' labelling and how this influenced food choice decisions. Results Peanut and nut allergic individuals adopt a complex range of responses and strategies to interpret 'may contain' labelling. Many claimed such labelling was not credible or desirable; many ignored it whilst some found it helpful and avoided products with all such labelling. Interpretation and consequent decisions were not only based on the detail of the labelling but also on external factors such as the nature of the product, the perceived trustworthiness of the producer and on the previous experience of the nut allergic individual. Conclusions 'May contain' labelling was interpreted in the light of judgements about the product, producer and previous personal experience. It is vital that these interpretation strategies are taken into account by those responsible for labelling itself and for the provision of advice to nut allergic individuals. Suggestions to improve labelling and advice to the allergic individual are considered.

  5. Socio-Economic Disparities in Attitude and Preference for Menu Labels among Vietnamese Restaurant Customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long Hoang; Tran, Bach Xuan; Thi Nguyen, Huong Lan; Le, Huong Thi; Do, Hoa Thi; Kim Dang, Anh; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Latkin, Carl A; Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Roger C M

    2018-03-06

    Calories and nutrition labeling on restaurant menus are powerful policy interventions to reduce the burden of obesity epidemic. However, the success of this policy requires an assurance of equal benefits among customers with different characteristics, especially people at a higher risk of poor health outcomes and eating habits. This study examined the sociodemographic disparities in the attitude and preference for calories and nutrition labeling on menus among customers in various food facilities. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1746 customers of food facilities in Hanoi, Vietnam, who were recruited by using a multistage sampling method. Socio-economic characteristics, attitudes regarding the necessity and preferences for calories, and nutrition labeling on menus were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to determine the associated factors with attitudes and preferences. Results show that most of the sample understood the necessity to have calories and nutrition labeling (59.8%), and 71.8% preferred to have calories and nutrition labeling. People who often visited food facilities (Odd Ratio (OR) = 1.36; 95% confident interval (CI) = 1.06-1.74) and had higher education and were more likely to understand the necessity of calories and nutrition labeling. Factors such as being homemakers, often going to dine-in restaurants, and perceiving that labeling was unnecessary were negatively associated with preferences for calories and nutrition labeling. The results of this study encourage policymakers to implement calories and nutrition labeling in the future. Health education interventions to improve knowledge and attitude as regards calories and nutrition labeling on menus are important, particularly for males, less-educated individuals, and high-income people.

  6. The LabelHash algorithm for substructure matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Drew H

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing number of proteins with known structure but unknown function. Determining their function would have a significant impact on understanding diseases and designing new therapeutics. However, experimental protein function determination is expensive and very time-consuming. Computational methods can facilitate function determination by identifying proteins that have high structural and chemical similarity. Results We present LabelHash, a novel algorithm for matching substructural motifs to large collections of protein structures. The algorithm consists of two phases. In the first phase the proteins are preprocessed in a fashion that allows for instant lookup of partial matches to any motif. In the second phase, partial matches for a given motif are expanded to complete matches. The general applicability of the algorithm is demonstrated with three different case studies. First, we show that we can accurately identify members of the enolase superfamily with a single motif. Next, we demonstrate how LabelHash can complement SOIPPA, an algorithm for motif identification and pairwise substructure alignment. Finally, a large collection of Catalytic Site Atlas motifs is used to benchmark the performance of the algorithm. LabelHash runs very efficiently in parallel; matching a motif against all proteins in the 95% sequence identity filtered non-redundant Protein Data Bank typically takes no more than a few minutes. The LabelHash algorithm is available through a web server and as a suite of standalone programs at http://labelhash.kavrakilab.org. The output of the LabelHash algorithm can be further analyzed with Chimera through a plugin that we developed for this purpose. Conclusions LabelHash is an efficient, versatile algorithm for large-scale substructure matching. When LabelHash is running in parallel, motifs can typically be matched against the entire PDB on the order of minutes. The algorithm is able to identify

  7. Systematic Comparison of Label-Free, Metabolic Labeling, and Isobaric Chemical Labeling for Quantitative Proteomics on LTQ Orbitrap Velos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhou [ORNL; Adams, Rachel M [ORNL; Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    A variety of quantitative proteomics methods have been developed, including label-free, metabolic labeling, and isobaric chemical labeling using iTRAQ or TMT. Here, these methods were compared in terms of the depth of proteome coverage, quantification accuracy, precision, and reproducibility using a high-performance hybrid mass spectrometer, LTQ Orbitrap Velos. Our results show that (1) the spectral counting method provides the deepest proteome coverage for identification, but its quantification performance is worse than labeling-based approaches, especially the quantification reproducibility; (2) metabolic labeling and isobaric chemical labeling are capable of accurate, precise, and reproducible quantification and provide deep proteome coverage for quantification. Isobaric chemical labeling surpasses metabolic labeling in terms of quantification precision and reproducibility; (3) iTRAQ and TMT perform similarly in all aspects compared in the current study using a CID-HCD dual scan configuration. Based on the unique advantages of each method, we provide guidance for selection of the appropriate method for a quantitative proteomics study.

  8. [(64) Cu]-labelled trastuzumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoeth-Eskesen, Christina; Nielsen, Carsten Haagen; Heissel, Søren

    2015-01-01

    ,7 acetic acid (NODAGA) analogue in a preliminary HER2 tumour mouse model. The chelators were conjugated to trastuzumab using the activated esters DOTA mono-N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and NODAGA-NHS. (64) Cu-labelling of DOTA-trastuzumab was studied by varying the amount of DOTA-trastuzumab used, reaction...... [(64) Cu]DOTA-trastuzumab and [(64) Cu]NODAGA-trastuzumab were produced after purification with radiochemical purities of >97%. The tracers were injected into mice with HER2 expressing tumours. The mice were imaged by positron emission tomography and showed high tumour uptake of 3-9% ID/g for both......The human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) is overexpressed in 20-30% of all breast cancer cases, leading to increased cell proliferation, growth and migration. The monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, binds to HER2 and is used for treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. Trastuzumab has...

  9. A Behavioral Approach to Understanding Green Consumerism Using Latent Class Choice Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo

    To better understand motivations of consumers making choices among sustainability-labeled food products, this paper analyzes drivers of stated choices for a dietary staple labeled with carbon and water foodprints. Latent class modeling of survey responses reveals distinct consumer segments based ...

  10. A Behavioral Approach to Understanding Green Consumerism Using Latent Class Choice Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo

    To better understand motivations of consumers making choices among sustainability-labeled food products, this paper analyzes drivers of stated choices for a dietary staple labeled with carbon and water foodprints. Latent class modeling of survey responses reveals distinct consumer segments based...

  11. F-18 labeled 3-fluorodiazepam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxen, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    3-Fluorodiazepam is a new and potent antianxiety agent with prolonged action. The authors found that molecular fluorine (0.5% in Ne) reacts cleanly with diazepam in freon or chloroform at room temperature to produce 3-fluorodiazepam in good yields. Successful syntheses have employed 2:1 to 5:1 molar ratios diazepam: fluorine to minimize the formation of byproducts. (/sup 18/F) 3-Fluorodiazepam, a potential candidate for PET studies, (specific activity 3-5 Ci/mmol) has been synthesized from /sup 18/F-F/sub 2/ using the same procedure, followed by column chromatographic purification (Silicagel, dichloromethane: ethyl acetate, 5:1) with a radiochemical yield of 12-20% (50% maximum) and a chemical and radiochemical purity >99% as judged by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (Ultrasyl octyl column, 10 ..mu.. m, 4.6 x 250 mm i.d., 60% MeOH 40% water; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min; retention time for (/sup 18/F) fluorodiazepam, 11.4 min; for diazepam, 13.5 min; radioactivity and ultraviolet detectors). Lower radiochemical yields (5-7%), and significant formation of by-products were observed when (/sup 18/F)acetylhypofluorite, prepared in the gasphase, was used as the reagent. Readily accessible routes to /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines of higher specific activity were also investigated. Approaches to the synthesis of high specific activity (>200 Ci/mmol) (/sup 18/F)3-fluorodiazepam involve nucleophilic displacement at carbon-3 (e.g. from 3-chlorodiazepam) with (/sup 18/F)fluoride ion. The results presented here demonstrate the synthetic accessibility of /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines for application in neurotransmitter ligand studies with PET.

  12. Chain store management through private labels strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sopta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future

  13. Portion size labeling and intended soft drink consumption : the impact of labeling format and size portfolio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Leeuwis, Franca H; Bos, Arjan E R; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess what portion size labeling format is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie,

  14. Experimental investigation of transmission properties and label swapping of an orthogonal ASK/FSK labeled signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Nan; Yu, S.Y.; Xu, Lin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental assessment of the transmission performance and all-optical label swapping for an orthogonal amplitude-shift keying-frequency-shift keying (ASK/FSK) labeled signal. Transmission through different dispersion maps with various compensation schemes and fiber types ...... is investigated. All-optical label erasure, reinsertion, and multihop transmission are experimentally demonstrated....

  15. Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using Mixed Dependency Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2018-04-06

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e., some of their labels are missing). The key point to handle missing labels is propagating the label information from the provided labels to missing labels, through a dependency graph that each label of each instance is treated as a node. We build this graph by utilizing different types of label dependencies. Specifically, the instance-level similarity is served as undirected edges to connect the label nodes across different instances and the semantic label hierarchy is used as directed edges to connect different classes. This base graph is referred to as the mixed dependency graph, as it includes both undirected and directed edges. Furthermore, we present another two types of label dependencies to connect the label nodes across different classes. One is the class co-occurrence, which is also encoded as undirected edges. Combining with the above base graph, we obtain a new mixed graph, called mixed graph with co-occurrence (MG-CO). The other is the sparse and low rank decomposition of the whole label matrix, to embed high-order dependencies over all labels. Combining with the base graph, the new mixed graph is called as MG-SL (mixed graph with sparse and low rank decomposition). Based on MG-CO and MG-SL, we further propose two convex transductive formulations of the MLML problem, denoted as MLMG-CO and MLMG-SL respectively. In both formulations, the instance-level similarity is embedded through a quadratic smoothness term, while the semantic label hierarchy is used as a linear constraint. In MLMG-CO, the class co-occurrence is also formulated as a quadratic smoothness term, while the sparse and low rank decomposition is incorporated into MLMG-SL, through two additional matrices (one is assumed as sparse, and the other is assumed as low

  16. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has ...

  17. 76 FR 45715 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... bulbs (often cardboard sheets with plastic bulb covers) have little or no room for the new label. \\13... many consumers. And, although typical usage patterns (e.g., hours per day of operation) may vary for these products, the standard usage assumption on the Lighting Facts label (i.e., three hours per day...

  18. Influence of Food Labels on Adolescent Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ranjita

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on food nutrition labels and discusses the benefits of adolescents' using them to plan healthy diets. Suggests that teachers and educators should encourage appropriate label reading education for adolescents to promote healthy eating practices. Provides definitions of nutrient content claims. (SG)

  19. 16 CFR 309.17 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicle fuels (including electricity), and the color of the knock-out type within the black band, is... ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Label Specifications... alternative vehicle fuel (other than electricity) labels with disclosure of principal component only. The...

  20. 40 CFR 86.413-78 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (i) The label heading. Vehicle... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New..., containing the information hereinafter provided, to all production models of such vehicles available for sale...

  1. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators ... español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  2. Private labels : The brands of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays that study private labels’ evolution from private labels as brand class to individual private-label brands from three different perspectives. In the second chapter of this dissertation (essay 1), I study the antecedents and performance implications of

  3. 16 CFR 1511.7 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PACIFIERS § 1511.7 Labeling. (a) As required by paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, pacifiers shall be labeled with the statement: “Warning—Do Not Tie Pacifier Around Child's Neck as it Presents a... and conspicuously on any retail display carton containing two or more pacifiers. (c) Each individually...

  4. The anatomy of a laser label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an efficient alternative to adhesive tags. The advantages of this system are numerous. In general the label consists of alphanumerical characters formed by laser generated pinhole depressions that penetrate the produce’s surface creating visible markings. H...

  5. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Talk to Your Child About the News Gun Safety Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias ... español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  6. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  7. On the complexity of labeled oriented trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We define a notion of complexity for labeled oriented trees (LOTs) related to the bridge number in knot theory and prove that LOTs of complexity 2 are aspherical. We also present a class of LOTs of higher complexity which is aspherical, give an upper bound for the complexity of labeled oriented intervals and study ...

  8. 10 CFR 20.1904 - Labeling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling containers. 20.1904 Section 20.1904 Energy....1904 Labeling containers. (a) The licensee shall ensure that each container of licensed material bears... handling or using the containers, or working in the vicinity of the containers, to take precautions to...

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo leer ...

  10. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ... Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) ...

  11. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  12. The preparation of radioiodine labelled amiodarone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Jialing; Yan Ping; Li Yanru

    1987-01-01

    Radioiodine labelled amiodarone can be conveniently obtained in the presence of copper(II) and excess reductant by hydrothermal method, at 100 deg C for 1 hour and separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Labelling efficiency is over 95%. Radiochemical purity is over 95%. The hydrothermal exchange method is a simple monocompartment isotope exchange reaction in homogeneous system and obeys the exponential law

  13. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important ... Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  14. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo ...

  15. Methods of synthesis of deuterium labelled lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragina, N.A.; Chupin, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for synthesis of deuterium-labelled hydrophobic and hydrophilic lipid molecules and ways of obtaining selectively and completely deuterized phospholipids and their analogues are considered. The deuterium-labelled lipids are used for studies on structural organization and functioning of biological membranes, including studies with the NMP and neutron-diffraction methods of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions

  16. Conformational change of spin labelled myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajnberg, E.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Nascimento, O.R.; Bemski, G.

    1978-01-01

    A conformational change of spin labelled myoglobin have been followed by measuring the spin label's (isothiocyanate) correlation time for temperatures between 18 0 C and 44 0 C. The correlation time was calculated from Electrom Paramagnetic Ressonance Spectra using the components of the espectroscopic and hiperfine tensors obtained by fitting the powder spectra using Lefebvre and Maruani's program- [pt

  17. A note on root projection and labelling*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Abstract. This paper identifies a problem with a hypothesis put forward in Chomsky (2013) in relation to his labelling algorithm. Chomsky suggests that category-neutral roots do not qualify as labels and cannot project. However, I provide evidence that the derivation of particle verbs involves the projection of a ...

  18. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... healthy choices. More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Figuring Out ...

  19. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ...

  20. 9 CFR 112.5 - Review and approval of labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... container label, carton label, and enclosure. Sketches must be legible, and must include all information... product two copies of each sketch of an enclosure, label for the smallest size final container, and carton label; Provided, That labels for larger size containers and/or cartons that are identical, except for...

  1. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label...

  2. The use of N-15 labelling to study the turnover and utilization of ruminant manure N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved understanding of the cycling of animal manure N is a prerequisite for malting better use of this N source. A sheep was fed N-15-Iabelled grass in order to study the fate of N-15-Iabelled ruminant manure N in the plant-soil system. The uniformity of labelling was found to be satisfactory...... when an appropriate feeding strategy was used. The mineralization of labelled faecal N was compared to the mineralization of labelled feed N and indigestible feed N by measuring residual labelled organic N in unplanted topsoil in the field. After18 months, 61% of both faecal N and feed N was recovered...... was low irrespective of the slurry distribution in soil. The results demonstrate that the contact between animal manure and the soil matrix significantly influences the short-term turnover and availability of faecal and ammonium N in slurry, especially in fine-textured soils....

  3. Energy labeling for electric fans in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Taha, F.M.; Rahim, N.A.; Saidur, R.

    2005-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing energy labels for household electrical appliances including electric fans in 2005. The purpose of the energy labels is to provide the consumers a guideline to compare the size, features, price and efficiency of the appliance. This paper discusses the energy label for electric fans in this country based on Malaysian Standards developed by a technical committee that reviewed the performance of household electrical appliances. This study includes methodology for the calculation of the energy efficiency star rating and projected energy usage, performance requirements, details of the energy label and the requirements for the valid application in Malaysia. The label also can be adopted for other household electrical appliances with only slight modifications

  4. Off-label Prescription of Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    Off-label use of medication refers to prescribing a registered medicine outside its approved marketing authorization, purpose, target group, or indication. Off-label prescription is a widely accepted practice. However, no or little regulation can be found. In this article, the legal status of off-label prescription will be examined. Does off-label prescription fall under the therapeutical freedom and is it free from regulation? Or should we equalize off-label prescription with a therapeutical experimentation and should it follow the rules of experimentation? I will also examine whether the patient can give an informed consent. Whether or not this is possible leads to intense discussions. Finally, the potential liability of the prescribing physician is of great importance.

  5. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs

  6. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-09-07

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Labeled estrogens as mammary tumor probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, A.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis estrogens labeled with a gamma or positron emitting nuclide, called estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are investigated as mammary tumour probes. The requirements for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are formulated and the literature on estrogens labeled for this purpose is reviewed. The potential of mercury-197/197m and of carbon-11 as label for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals is investigated. The synthesis of 197 Hg-labeled 4-mercury-estradiol and 2-mercury-estradiol and their properties in vitro and in vivo are described. It appears that though basically carbon-11 labeled compounds are very promising as mammary tumour probes, their achievable specific activity has to be increased. (Auth.)

  8. Insight into the labeling mechanism of acceleration selective arterial spin labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Sophie; Petersen, Esben T; Van Osch, Matthias J P

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Acceleration selective arterial spin labeling (AccASL) is a spatially non-selective labeling technique, used in traditional ASL methods, which labels spins based on their flow acceleration rather than spatial localization. The exact origin of the AccASL signal within the vasculature......-ASL, combined AccASL and VS-ASL signal, and signal from one module with crushing from the other. RESULTS: The label created with AccASL has an overlap of approximately 50% in the vascular region with VS-ASL, but also originates from smaller vessels closer to the capillaries. CONCLUSION: AccASL is able to label...

  9. Efficient Multi-Label Feature Selection Using Entropy-Based Label Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaesung Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-label feature selection is designed to select a subset of features according to their importance to multiple labels. This task can be achieved by ranking the dependencies of features and selecting the features with the highest rankings. In a multi-label feature selection problem, the algorithm may be faced with a dataset containing a large number of labels. Because the computational cost of multi-label feature selection increases according to the number of labels, the algorithm may suffer from a degradation in performance when processing very large datasets. In this study, we propose an efficient multi-label feature selection method based on an information-theoretic label selection strategy. By identifying a subset of labels that significantly influence the importance of features, the proposed method efficiently outputs a feature subset. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can identify a feature subset much faster than conventional multi-label feature selection methods for large multi-label datasets.

  10. Off-label use of vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neels, Pieter; Southern, James; Abramson, Jon; Duclos, Philippe; Hombach, Joachim; Marti, Melanie; Fitzgerald-Husek, Alanna; Fournier-Caruana, Jacqueline; Hanquet, Germaine

    2017-04-25

    This article reviews the off-label recommendations and use of vaccines, and focuses on the differences between the labelled instructions on how to use the vaccine as approved by the regulatory authorities (or "label" 1 ), and the recommendations for use issued by public health advisory bodies at national and international levels. Differences between public health recommendations and the product label regarding the vaccine use can lead to confusion at the level of vaccinators and vaccinees and possibly result in lower compliance with national vaccination schedules. In particular, in many countries, the label may contain regulatory restrictions and warnings against vaccination of specific population groups (e.g. pregnant women) due to a lack of evidence of safety from controlled trials at the time of initial licensure of the vaccine, while public health authorities may recommend the same vaccine for that group, based on additional post-marketing data and benefit risk analyses. We provide an overview of the different responsibilities between regulatory authorities and public health advisory bodies, and the rationale for off-label use 2 of vaccines, the challenges involved based on the impact of off-label use in real-life. We propose to reduce off-label use of vaccines by requiring the manufacturer to regularly adapt the label as much as possible to the public health needs as supported by new evidence. This would require manufacturers to collect and report post-marketing data, communicate them to all stakeholders and regulators to extrapolate existing evidence (when acceptable) to other groups or to other brands of a vaccine (class effect 3 ). Regulatory authorities have a key role to play by requesting additional post-marketing data, e.g. in specific target groups. When public health recommendations for vaccine use that are outside labelled indications are considered necessary, good communication between regulatory bodies, public health authorities, companies and

  11. In vivo imaging of monocyte trafficking with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose labeled monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Jin Young; Lee, Kyung Han; Han, Yu Mi; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung Tae

    2000-01-01

    Since the ability to monitor in vivo monocyte trafficking would contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology of various inflammatory disorders, we investigated the feasibility of labeling human monocytes with 18 F-FDG. Human monocytes were separated by Ficoll/Hypaque gradient and purity was assessed by flow cytometry. The influence of insulin and/or glucose on labeling efficiency was evaluated. Cell viability and activation was measured with trypan blue exclusion and hydrogen peroxide assays, respectively. Label stability was measured for up to 18 hr, and the effect of insulin pre-incubation on FDG washout was investigated. PET images were acquired in SD rats at various time points after injection of FDG labeled monocytes. Monocytes were >85% pure, and labeling efficiency was 35% for 1x106 cells after 40 min incubation with 2 mCi 18 F-FDG without insulin. Pre-incubation with 10∼100 nM insulin significantly increased FDG uptake which reached 400% of baseline levels, whereas presence of glucose or serum decreased FDG uptake. Labeled cells were >90% viable for up to 22 hr, and the labeling process did appear to significantly activate cells, Washout studies however, demonstrated gradual washout of the FDG from monocytes after initial uptake PET images of FDG labeled monocytes in SD rats showed consistent findings. Utilizing insulin effects on cellular glucose metabolism may be a feasible way of labeling monocytes with 18 F-FDG for PET imaging. However, gradual washout of FDG after initial uptake poses as a potential problem which needs to be addressed before practical application

  12. Explicit kinetic heterogeneity: mechanistic models for interpretation of labeling data in heterogeneous populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Estimation of division and death rates of lymphocytes in different conditions is vital for quantitative understanding of the immune system. Deuterium, in the form of deuterated glucose or heavy water, can be used to measure rates of proliferation and death of lymphocytes in vivo. Inferring these rates from labeling and delabeling curves has been subject to considerable debate with different groups suggesting different mathematical models for that purpose. We show that the three models that are most commonly used are in fact mathematically identical and differ only in their interpretation of the estimated parameters. By extending these previous models, we here propose a more mechanistic approach for the analysis of data from deuterium labeling experiments. We construct a model of 'kinetic heterogeneity' in which the total cell population consists of many sub-populations with different rates of cell turnover. In this model, for a given distribution of the rates of turnover, the predicted fraction of labeled DNA accumulated and lost can be calculated. Our model reproduces several previously made experimental observations, such as a negative correlation between the length of the labeling period and the rate at which labeled DNA is lost after label cessation. We demonstrate the reliability of the new explicit kinetic heterogeneity model by applying it to artificially generated datasets, and illustrate its usefulness by fitting experimental data. In contrast to previous models, the explicit kinetic heterogeneity model (1) provides a mechanistic way of interpreting labeling data; (2) allows for a non-exponential loss of labeled cells during delabeling, and (3) can be used to describe data with variable labeling length.

  13. Radioactive labelling with 125 I of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler Ch, M.; Farias O, G.; Kuznar H, J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to understand the interaction between a cellular receptor and a ligand the photochemical crosslinking method has been widely used. This method has been utilized as an approach to determine the presence or absence of virus receptors in susceptible cells. Successful detection of crosslinks is achieved if one of the components, in the crosslinked product, has been radioactively labeled. The incorporation of a radioactive isotope, in the virus-receptor complex, enables the identification of the receptor. To undertake this study in the future, in this communication the radioactive labeling of virus particles is presented. The infectious necrosis pancreatic virus (IPN virus) was the chosen moiety to be in vitro labeled with 125 I using a direct method. Three oxidizing agents were used in the iodination procedure for comparison: an enzyme, lactoperoxidase and two chemical reagents, N-Chloro-benceno-sulfonamide (Iodo-Beads) and 1,3,4,6-Tetra chloro-3a,6a-diphenyl glycouril (Iodo-Gen). The results are analysed to select the method which guarantee the incorporation of 125 I in the viral capsid protein, while preserving its full infectivity. (author)

  14. Deep Learning in Label-free Cell Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Claire Lifan; Mahjoubfar, Ata; Tai, Li-Chia; Blaby, Ian K.; Huang, Allen; Niazi, Kayvan Reza; Jalali, Bahram

    2016-03-01

    Label-free cell analysis is essential to personalized genomics, cancer diagnostics, and drug development as it avoids adverse effects of staining reagents on cellular viability and cell signaling. However, currently available label-free cell assays mostly rely only on a single feature and lack sufficient differentiation. Also, the sample size analyzed by these assays is limited due to their low throughput. Here, we integrate feature extraction and deep learning with high-throughput quantitative imaging enabled by photonic time stretch, achieving record high accuracy in label-free cell classification. Our system captures quantitative optical phase and intensity images and extracts multiple biophysical features of individual cells. These biophysical measurements form a hyperdimensional feature space in which supervised learning is performed for cell classification. We compare various learning algorithms including artificial neural network, support vector machine, logistic regression, and a novel deep learning pipeline, which adopts global optimization of receiver operating characteristics. As a validation of the enhanced sensitivity and specificity of our system, we show classification of white blood T-cells against colon cancer cells, as well as lipid accumulating algal strains for biofuel production. This system opens up a new path to data-driven phenotypic diagnosis and better understanding of the heterogeneous gene expressions in cells.

  15. Pyrolysis of Cigarette Ingredients Labelled with Stable Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stotesbury S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to know how tobacco additives behave when cigarettes are smoked, whether they transfer intact to the smoke or whether there is any decomposition during smoking. Pyrolysis-GC-MS is a technique that can be focussed upon the effects of combustion from a single material free from interference from the complex mixture of different components present in the smoke. However, because pyrolysis is a model technique, the results need to be validated by comparison with cigarette smoke chemistry. In a previous paper we presented such a method for modelling the smoke chemistry from a burning cigarette using pyrolysis-GC-MS. The transfer and the extent of degradation of anisole, p-anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, isoamylisovalerate, methyl trans-cinnamate and vanillin within a burning cigarette were estimated using this pyrolysis method. When these data were compared with results from smoke studies from 14C-analogues of the materials, the high levels of transfer predicted by pyrolysis were found to be generally consistent with the smoke chemistry data. However, there were still two outstanding issues. Firstly, there was some ambiguity in the labelled study about whether vanillin actually transferred without degradation or not. Furthermore, the results from the 14C-labelled study showed a greater extent of degradation for p-anisaldehyde than that indicated from the pyrolysis experiments. The purpose of the current study was to present some new information obtained to address these questions by better understanding the effect upon the smoke chemistry from adding vanillin and p-anisaldehyde, and the relationship between the smoke chemistry and the pyrolysis results. Components were identified in the smoke from cigarettes loaded with p-anisaldehyde and vanillin labelled with 18O and 13C. The extent of degradation from each additive was estimated by identifying labelled degradation products in the smoke. Because there was a clear distinction between the

  16. ORGANIC FOOD LABELING AND CERTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA-ANDREEA NEACSU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the rush to produce more and more crops to satisfy growing demand producers have had to resort to using a lethal cocktail of pesticides to control disease and insect attack. This has lead to numerous international debates about unhealthy food, the effects of it and the measures that must be taken in order to avoid the harmful effects of genetically modified food consumption demonstrated by specialists. These debates evolve around the benefits of the organic products versus the pure trade trick outlined by some. The organic food movement has earned its well deserved place in many markets around the world. Its prestige is lately being widespread to vast parts of Eastern-Europe as well. Based on data collected from specialized reports and articles on organic products, the aim of this paper is to present the importance of organic products, the regulations on organic food and different labels used around the world in order to certify the organic food products.

  17. Image Understanding Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    Reconnaissance des Formes et Intelligence Artificielle , Sept. 1981, Nancy, France. [11] T.C. Henderson and B. Bhanu, "Extraction of Planar Faces from...34Semantic Description of Aerial Images Using Stochastic Labeling," IEEE Trans. on Pattern Recognition and Machine Intelligence , Nov. 1981. [2] R. Ohlander...Tenenbaum, "MSYS: A System for Reasoning About Scenes," Tech. Note 121, Artificial Intelligence Center, SRI Intl., Menlo Park, CA, 1976. [7]. D. Marr

  18. "Why Mama and Papa?" The Development of Social Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewis, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Examined social labels first used for parents, differentiation of parents and others on the basis of labeling behavior, and overgeneralization of social labels in 71 infants ranging in age from 9 to 24 months. (JMB)

  19. 21 CFR 352.52 - Labeling of sunscreen drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...] Labeling § 352.52 Labeling of sunscreen drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the... protective clothing, and using sunscreens may reduce the risks of skin aging, skin cancer, and other harmful...

  20. Labelling of food: A challenge for many

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderikx Frans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In food marketing, there is a trend towards artisanal, traditional “honest” food, and simultaneously to good looking, long lasting, multi-purpose food with a clean label. In addition, marketeers like to upgrade the image of the food, including the label, using various digital techniques. This can produce (unintended non-conformities with the current food law on labelling, which in this review, refers to Regulation (EU No 1169/2011 (European Union, 2011. Food and meat labelling have been subjected to increased regulation in the recent years, sometimes after scandals (horse-gate, food fraud, sometimes due to wishes of consumer organisations (nutritional information and sometimes after the introduction of new types of ingredients (sweeteners, phytosterols, nanomaterials. Scope and approach: This review provides information about food labelling. Some experiences gathered by food inspectorate personnel in practice, with reference to the literature data, positive aspects, main problems and trends are discussed. Key findings and conclusion: Food labelling is a complex requirement, with the general demands written down in the harmonized regulation (European Union, 2011. Foods sold by e-commerce must also follow these same regulations. However, many food labels on the market show smaller and/or bigger deviations from the legal requirements, which should be appropriately addressed by the food manufacturers or packers, but also by the competent authorities. Even training of consumers seems to be needed, since all this information is, in the end, intended for consumers to aptly utilise.

  1. Synthesis of carbon-13-labeled tetradecanoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, J T; Patel, K M; Morrisett, J D

    1983-07-01

    The synthesis of tetradecanoic acid enriched with 13C at carbons 1, 3, or 6 is described. The label at the carbonyl carbon was introduced by treating 1-bromotridecane with K13CN (90% enriched) to form the 13C-labeled nitrile, which upon hydrolysis yielded the desired acid. The [3-13C]tetradecanoic acid was synthesized by alkylation of diethyl sodio-malonate with [1-13C]1-bromododecane; the acid was obtained upon saponification and decarboxylation. The label at the 6 position was introduced by coupling the appropriately labeled alkylcadmium chloride with the half acid chloride methyl ester of the appropriate dioic acid, giving the corresponding oxo fatty acid ester. Formation of the tosylhydrazone of the oxo-ester followed by reduction with sodium cyanoborohydride gave the labeled methyl tetradecanoate which, upon hydrolysis, yielded the desired tetradecanoic acid. All tetradecanoic acids were identical to unlabeled analogs as evaluated by gas-liquid chromatography and infrared or NMR spectroscopy. These labeled fatty acids were used subsequently to prepare the correspondingly labeled diacyl phosphatidylcholines.

  2. Tritium labeling for bio-med research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmon, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A very large fraction of what we know about biochemical pathways in the living cell has resulted from the use of radioactively-labeled tracer compounds; the use of tritium-labeled compounds has been particularly important. As research in biochemistry and biology has progressed the need has arisen to label compounds of higher specific activity and of increasing molecular complexity - for example, oligo-nucleotides, polypeptides, hormones, enzymes. Our laboratory has gradually developed special facilities for handling tritium at the kilocurie level. These facilities have already proven extremely valuable in producing labeled compounds that are not available from commercial sources. The principal ways employed for compound labeling are: (1) microwave discharge labeling, (2) catalytic tritio-hydrogenation, (3) catalytic exchange with T 2 O, and (4) replacement of halogen atoms by T. Studies have also been carried out on tritiation by the replacement of halogen atoms with T atoms. These results indicate that carrier-free tritium-labeled products, including biomacromolecules, can be produced in this way

  3. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labelled chlordiazepoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unak, P.; Yurt, F.; Asikoglu, M.; Erener, G.; Ozkilic, H.; Dundar, C.; Tuglular, I.

    1998-01-01

    1,4 Benzodiazepine derivatives have been largely used in Medicine since 1960. Chlordiazepoxide (7-Chloro-2-(methyl amino)-5-phenyl-3H-1.4 benzodiazepine 4-oxide) has been mostly used and the oldest one after diazepam. The aim of this study is labeling of chlordiazepoxide (CDZ) with I-131 and investigation of radiopharmaceutical potential as a benzodiazepine receptor agent. Iodogen has been used as iodination agent. Labeling yields have been determined by ITLC (instant This Layer Chromatography) and Paper Electrophoresis. pH and iodogen amount effects to labeling yields have been examined to obtain optimum reaction conditions. Labeling yield was 90% for 1 mg chlordiazepoxide, 1 mg iodogen, 1 pH, 15-20 minutes at room temperature. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labeled chlordiazepoxide was searched in vivo experiments carried out on rabbits by using Sophy DX Gamma Camera. I-131 labeled chlordiazepoxide of specific activity 690 MBq/mmol has been injected ear vein of rabbit and static perspectives were taken by pointed time intervals. Brain activity has increased after the injection, reached to maximum in 20th minutes and has not decreased during the imaging time (90 minutes). Obtained results have shown that I-131 labeled chlordiazepoxide can be used as a benzodiazepine receptor radiopharmaceutical for SPECT studies of brain. (author)

  4. Cancer therapy with alpha-emitters labeled peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2010-05-01

    Actively targeted alpha-particles offer specific tumor cell killing action with less collateral damage to surrounding normal tissues than beta-emitters. During the last decade, radiolabeled peptides that bind to different receptors on the tumors have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents both in the preclinical and clinical settings. Advantages of radiolabeled peptides over antibodies include relatively straightforward chemical synthesis, versatility, easier radiolabeling, rapid clearance from the circulation, faster penetration and more uniform distribution into tissues, and less immunogenicity. Rapid internalization of the radiolabeled peptides with equally rapid re-expression of the cell surface target is a highly desirable property that enhances the total delivery of these radionuclides into malignant sites. Peptides, such as octreotide, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogues, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing peptides, bombesin derivatives, and others may all be feasible for use with alpha-emitters. The on-going preclinical work has primarily concentrated on octreotide and octreotate analogues labeled with Bismuth-213 and Astatine-211. In addition, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogue has been labeled with Lead-212/Bismuth-212 in vivo generator and demonstrated the encouraging therapeutic efficacy in treatment of experimental melanoma. Obstacles that continue to obstruct widespread acceptance of alpha-emitter-labeled peptides are primarily the supply of these radionuclides and concerns about potential kidney toxicity. New sources and methods for production of these medically valuable radionuclides and better understanding of mechanisms related to the peptide renal uptake and clearance should speed up the introduction of alpha-emitter-labeled peptides into the clinic. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sparse Multidimensional Patient Modeling using Auxiliary Confidence Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Eric; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we focus on the problem of learning a classification model that performs inference on patient Electronic Health Records (EHRs). Often, a large amount of costly expert supervision is required to learn such a model. To reduce this cost, we obtain confidence labels that indicate how sure an expert is in the class labels she provides. If meaningful confidence information can be incorporated into a learning method, fewer patient instances may need to be labeled to learn an accurate model. In addition, while accuracy of predictions is important for any inference model, a model of patients must be interpretable so that clinicians can understand how the model is making decisions. To these ends, we develop a novel metric learning method called Confidence bAsed MEtric Learning (CAMEL) that supports inclusion of confidence labels, but also emphasizes interpretability in three ways. First, our method induces sparsity, thus producing simple models that use only a few features from patient EHRs. Second, CAMEL naturally produces confidence scores that can be taken into consideration when clinicians make treatment decisions. Third, the metrics learned by CAMEL induce multidimensional spaces where each dimension represents a different "factor" that clinicians can use to assess patients. In our experimental evaluation, we show on a real-world clinical data set that our CAMEL methods are able to learn models that are as or more accurate as other methods that use the same supervision. Furthermore, we show that when CAMEL uses confidence scores it is able to learn models as or more accurate as others we tested while using only 10% of the training instances. Finally, we perform qualitative assessments on the metrics learned by CAMEL and show that they identify and clearly articulate important factors in how the model performs inference.

  6. 78 FR 34565 - Modification of Mandatory Label Information for Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ...The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) is amending its regulations regarding the mandatory labeling requirements for wine. The regulatory change permits alcohol content to appear on other labels affixed to the container rather than requiring it to appear on the brand label. This regulatory change provides greater flexibility in wine labeling, and will conform the TTB wine labeling regulations to the agreement reached by members of the World Wine Trade Group regarding the presentation of certain information on wine labels.

  7. Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... weighted modal transition systems and allows the system developers to employ more complex label refinement than in the previously studied theories. On the other hand, the formalism maintains the desirable properties required by any specification theory supporting compositional reasoning. In particular, we...

  8. Valuing labelling attributes with hedonic price analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    employs hedonic price analysis to identify the values that marketers and consumers place on the information carried by the label of Australian wines in the British wine retail market. Although many grape varieties are given a highly distinct valuation by market participants, our results also suggest...... that consumers consider regions jointly with grape varieties as proxies for brands. This contrasts with the general observation that grape varietal labeling is the distinctive feature of New World wines. Marketing implications are examined by considering the revenue impact of changes in labeling at the retail...

  9. Labelling of immunoglobulins with metal radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budsky, F.; Prokop, J.; Hradil, M.

    1989-01-01

    The general principles are briefly described of labelling immunoglobulins with metal radionuclides. Bicyclic anhydrides cDTPAA and cEDTAA were selected for experiments by the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez near Prague. The compounds show sufficient reactivity to immunoglobulins and can be stored in an evacuated dessicator with calcium chloride at laboratory temperature for an unlimited time. The procedure is described of the preparation of the two anhydrides and of their labelling with 111 In and 99m Tc. For both radionuclides, favourable results have been obtained in labelling immunoglobulins, which creates preconditions for the introduction of immunoscintigraphy in Czechoslovak nuclear medicine. (Z.M.). 3 tabs., 13 refs

  10. Synthesis of plant hormones labelled by tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, G.V.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    Reaction of solid-phase catalytic hydrogenation, isotopic exchange with enriched tritium water, catalytic heterogenous isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium, hydrogenolysis as applied to synthesis of plants labelled by tritium were studied. Auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, fusicoccins - representatives of the basic hormones of plants - were objects of investigations. In dependence on synthesis method compounds labelled by tritium were prepared with molar radioactivity from 5 up to 155 Ci/mmol. Order of universal approaches to synthesis of plant hormones labelled by tritium was formulated [ru

  11. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  12. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  13. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  14. Synthesis of deuterium-labeled fluphenazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, H U; Hawes, E M; Midha, K K

    1984-01-01

    The propylpiperazine side chain of fluphenazine has been labeled with two, four, and six deuterium atoms by lithium aluminum deuteride reduction of the appropriate ester or imide. The gamma-carbon of the propyl group was labeled with two deuterium atoms by reduction of 10- (2-methoxycarbonylethyl) -2-trifluoromethyl-10H-phenothiazine, while four deuterium atoms were incorporated into the piperazine ring by reduction of 10-[3-(3,5-dioxo-1-piperazinyl)propyl]-2-trifluoromethyl-10H-pheno thiazine. The latter reduction gave the d4-labeled N-deshydroxyethyl metabolite of fluphenazine.

  15. Labelling of castor oil for myocardial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaba, E.; Al-Suhybani, A.; Zaki, F.S.; Abdullah, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The labelling of castor oil, hydrolyzed castor oil and oleic acid by iodine monochloride and chloramine-T was investigated. The effect of iodinating agent and concentration of castor oil on labelling yield was studied. A comparative pharmacological study with analog aliphatic acids was carried out. Castor oil labelled with iodine monochloride concentrates in heart and liver in good proportion, better than other natural fatty acids and nearly equal to analog fatty acids. Infrared study revealed that the OH group in ricinoleic acid may protect the sup(125)I added across the double bond with minor changes in biochemical properties causing better extraction by muscle of the heart. (author)

  16. Reductive methods for isotopic labeling of antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champney, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for the reductive methylation of the amino groups of eight different antibiotics using 3 HCOH or H 14 COH are presented. The reductive labeling of an additional seven antibiotics by NaB 3 H 4 is also described. The specific activity of the methyl-labeled drugs was determined by a phosphocellulose paper binding assay. Two quantitative assays for these compounds based on the reactivity of the antibiotic amino groups with fluorescamine and of the aldehyde and ketone groups with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine are also presented. Data on the cellular uptake and ribosome binding of these labeled compounds are also presented

  17. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated

  18. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated

  19. Young children's perceptions of health warning labels on cigarette packages: a study in six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Cohen, Joanna E

    2014-01-01

    Health warning labels on cigarette packages are one way to reach youth thinking about initiating tobacco use. The purpose of this study was to examine awareness and understanding of current health warning labels among 5 and 6 year old children. Researchers conducted one-on-one interviews with urban and rural 5 and 6 year olds from Brazil, China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Russia. Among the 2,423 participating children, 62 % were unaware of the health warnings currently featured on cigarette packages, with the lowest levels of awareness in India and the highest levels in Brazil. When shown the messages, the same percentage of participating children (62 %) showed no level of message understanding. While youth are receiving social and informational messages promoting tobacco use, health warning labels featured on cigarette packages are not effectively reaching young children with anti-smoking messages.

  20. Mass spectrometry–based relative quantification of proteins in precatalytic and catalytically active spliceosomes by metabolic labeling (SILAC), chemical labeling (iTRAQ), and label-free spectral count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Carla; Grønborg, Mads; Deckert, Jochen; Bessonov, Sergey; Conrad, Thomas; Lührmann, Reinhard; Urlaub, Henning

    2014-01-01

    The spliceosome undergoes major changes in protein and RNA composition during pre-mRNA splicing. Knowing the proteins—and their respective quantities—at each spliceosomal assembly stage is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms and regulation of splicing. Here, we applied three independent mass spectrometry (MS)–based approaches for quantification of these proteins: (1) metabolic labeling by SILAC, (2) chemical labeling by iTRAQ, and (3) label-free spectral count for quantification of the protein composition of the human spliceosomal precatalytic B and catalytic C complexes. In total we were able to quantify 157 proteins by at least two of the three approaches. Our quantification shows that only a very small subset of spliceosomal proteins (the U5 and U2 Sm proteins, a subset of U5 snRNP-specific proteins, and the U2 snRNP-specific proteins U2A′ and U2B′′) remains unaltered upon transition from the B to the C complex. The MS-based quantification approaches classify the majority of proteins as dynamically associated specifically with the B or the C complex. In terms of experimental procedure and the methodical aspect of this work, we show that metabolically labeled spliceosomes are functionally active in terms of their assembly and splicing kinetics and can be utilized for quantitative studies. Moreover, we obtain consistent quantification results from all three methods, including the relatively straightforward and inexpensive label-free spectral count technique. PMID:24448447

  1. Labeling has caused "incredible confusion".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration is considering changing the package labeling for the mini-pill to eliminate confusion about when to prescribe it. However, differing opinions about some related issues are hard to reconcile, to wit: whether breast feeding women should use progestin-only pills (POPs) or combined oral contraceptives (COCs). Less than 1% of American pill users rely on POPs, therefore manufacturers did not think it worthwhile to produce a separate insert for them. However, the shared insert has caused confusion. First-year failure rates for POPs range from 1.1% to 13.2%, but for lactating women they are nearly 100% effective if taken 3 weeks after delivery every day as a backup method. The consensus seems to be that POPs are used during lactation, and that at weaning or when menstruation returns women should switch to COCs. This should be done even if women were doing fine on POPs during breastfeeding, because POPs are less effective, cause irregular bleeding, and are implicated in a higher rate of ectopic pregnancies. In contrast to this opinion, another view is that prescribing COCs to breastfeeding women is acceptable, although lower-dose cyclic pills are preferred. Either pill would be acceptable for breastfeeding women according to a committee chair of the American Association of Pediatricians. Another option is to let the women decide themselves, especially if they have high blood pressure and do not like implants and injectables. For clients who choose POPs providers should assume that they comply with pill use; they should get feedback from them about the effectiveness of the pills; and they should allow them to have time to make a decision that would serve them in the long run.

  2. Metaphor, skepticism, understanding Metaphor, skepticism, understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Martins

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper examines the idea that metaphor is a basic cognitive tool from a Wittgensteinian point of view. One specific aspect of Wittgenstein’s legacy is explored, namely his account of verbal understanding. Two interconnected and notoriously difficult features of this account are highlighted and discussed: the idea that linguistic understanding is not an event or a process, but an “abiding condition” (Philosophical Investigations, §143-84; and the idea that neither the meaning of a linguistic expression nor our understanding of it can ever go beyond our capacity of explaining it (Philosophical Investigations, §75. This perspective is shown to be particularly apt in reflecting upon the virtues of metaphor as a means of understanding, especially because it allows for the avoidance of both essentialist and skeptical accounts.

    This paper examines the idea that metaphor is a basic cognitive tool from a Wittgensteinian point of view. One specific aspect of Wittgenstein’s legacy is explored, namely his account of verbal understanding. Two interconnected and notoriously difficult features of this account are highlighted and discussed: the idea that linguistic understanding is not an event or a process, but an “abiding condition” (Philosophical Investigations, §143-84; and the idea that neither the meaning of a linguistic expression nor our understanding of it can ever go beyond our capacity of explaining it (Philosophical Investigations, §75. This perspective is shown to be particularly apt in reflecting upon the virtues of metaphor as a means of understanding, especially because it allows for the avoidance of both essentialist and skeptical accounts

  3. Understanding Identity and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....

  4. Understanding Hereditary Angioedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy Library ▸ Understanding Hereditary Angioedema Share | Understanding Hereditary Angioedema This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic condition. People with ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prognosis Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., ... find our information on Coping With Cancer helpful. Understanding Statistics About Survival Doctors estimate prognosis by using ...

  6. Understanding in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinska, Anna

    1994-01-01

    The concept of understanding in mathematics with regard to mathematics education is considered in this volume, the main problem for mathematics teachers being how to facilitate their students'' understanding of the mathematics being taught.

  7. Designing Graphs that Promote Both Risk Understanding and Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okan, Yasmina; Stone, Eric R; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2017-10-03

    Graphs show promise for improving communications about different types of risks, including health risks, financial risks, and climate risks. However, graph designs that are effective at meeting one important risk communication goal (promoting risk-avoidant behaviors) can at the same time compromise another key goal (improving risk understanding). We developed and tested simple bar graphs aimed at accomplishing these two goals simultaneously. We manipulated two design features in graphs, namely, whether graphs depicted the number of people affected by a risk and those at risk of harm ("foreground+background") versus only those affected ("foreground-only"), and the presence versus absence of simple numerical labels above bars. Foreground-only displays were associated with larger risk perceptions and risk-avoidant behavior (i.e., willingness to take a drug for heart attack prevention) than foreground+background displays, regardless of the presence of labels. Foreground-only graphs also hindered risk understanding when labels were not present. However, the presence of labels significantly improved understanding, eliminating the detrimental effect of foreground-only displays. Labels also led to more positive user evaluations of the graphs, but did not affect risk-avoidant behavior. Using process modeling we identified mediators (risk perceptions, understanding, user evaluations) that explained the effect of display type on risk-avoidant behavior. Our findings contribute new evidence to the graph design literature: unlike what was previously feared, we demonstrate that it is possible to design foreground-only graphs that promote intentions for behavior change without a detrimental effect on risk understanding. Implications for the design of graphical risk communications and decision support are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Facile labeling of lipoglycans with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Betanzos, Carlos; Gonzalez-Moa, Maria; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Svarovsky, Sergei A.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxins or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are among the most potent activators of the innate immune system, yet mechanisms of their action and in particular the role of glycans remain elusive. Efficient non-invasive labeling strategies are necessary for studying interactions of LPS glycans with biological systems. Here we report a new method for labeling LPS and other lipoglycans with luminescent quantum dots. The labeling is achieved by partitioning of hydrophobic quantum dots into the core of various LPS aggregates without disturbing the native LPS structure. The biofunctionality of the LPS-Qdot conjugates is demonstrated by the labeling of mouse monocytes. This simple method should find broad applicability in studies concerned with visualization of LPS biodistribution and identification of LPS binding agents.

  9. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled diclofenac sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, D.; Richard, J.; Godbillon, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dicolofenac sodium labelled with deuterium in the phenylacetic ring was prepared from [ 2 H 5 ]-bromobenzene in a six-step reaction. It was found to be suitable for use in pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in man. (Author)

  10. Read the Label First: Protect Your Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the importance of reading pet products labels before purchasing and using any product to insure the safety of your pets. Find tips for ways to reduce the changes of pets accessing potentially dangerous products.

  11. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Figuring ...

  12. Read the Label First! Protect Your Household

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and pesticides could harm children, pets, or the environment if not used and stored correctly. Choose a product that is labeled for your specific pest. EPA encourages consumers to consider using EPA-registered ...

  13. Improving Labels to Reduce Pesticide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    We encourage pesticide manufacturers to state on their product labels that applicators should use DRT-rated technologies in applying pesticide products. The page includes information on how to obtain approval to add these instructions.

  14. 49 CFR 172.401 - Prohibited labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation and no carrier may transport a package bearing any marking or label which by its color, design, or... all residue; (2) Transported in a transport vehicle or freight container in such a manner that the...

  15. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  16. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & Cooking Health Problems Illnesses & Injuries Relax & Unwind People, Places & Things That Help Feelings ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  17. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  18. Food Labels for Infants under Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adult food labels, daily values for saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, and dietary fiber are not listed, because ... Jicama Salad Recipe Recipes Jicama Salad Recipe Rainbow Yogurt Trifle Cups Recipe Recipes Rainbow Yogurt Trifle Cups ...

  19. Overview of Current Labelling Methods. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberto, R.

    2009-01-01

    The conjugation of 99m Tc complexes or complex fragments to targeting vectors is the core science of labelling chemistry. The first sections of the chapter outline the non-chemical constraints to be considered for successful biomolecule labelling and for a chance of becoming introduced to the market. Without taking these constraints into account, even the best radiopharmaceutical will not gain access to the market. Labelling methods, which either fulfil these constraints completely or, at least, to a significant extent, will then be emphasized. Besides the old cores, such as [Tc=O] 3+ , the novel cores [Tc] 3+ , [Tc≡N] 2+ and [Tc(CO) 3 ] + as well as the intensive research based on these cores are discussed in detail. Recent examples towards novel 99m Tc based radiopharmaceuticals are described. Based on the current methods for the labelling of biomolecules, the objective of the chapter is to guide towards potential novel approaches in radiopharmaceutical chemistry. (author)

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  1. Figuring Out Food Labels (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your class to have one cookie each. Math comes in handy with food labels! Calories and ... site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...

  2. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Figuring ... purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

  3. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  4. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... choices. More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels ...

  5. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label ( ...

  6. Problems of Usage Labelling in English Lexicography*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (OALD), the Macmillan English Dictionary (MED), the Longman. Dictionary of ... Discrep- ancies in the contextual usage labelling in the dictionaries were established and are discussed. Keywords: ..... Moving Towards Perfection: The Learners' (Electronic) Dictionary of the Future.

  7. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  8. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & ... Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? ...

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & ... Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When ...

  10. Have Food Allergies? Read the Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Have Food Allergies? Read the Label Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... These foods account for 90 percent of all food allergies: milk egg fish, such as bass, flounder, or ...

  11. 78 FR 36693 - Rules and Regulations Under the Fur Products Labeling Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (``Textile Act''). Among other things, the proposed changes... enforcement issues. Specifically, many people who intend to comply with the Rules may be understandably... products are not sold as private label products; and (3) the businesses have no reason to know that the...

  12. Multiple tag labeling method for DNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, Richard A.; Huang, Xiaohua C.; Quesada, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    A DNA sequencing method described which uses single lane or channel electrophoresis. Sequencing fragments are separated in said lane and detected using a laser-excited, confocal fluorescence scanner. Each set of DNA sequencing fragments is separated in the same lane and then distinguished using a binary coding scheme employing only two different fluorescent labels. Also described is a method of using radio-isotope labels.

  13. On the complexity of labeled oriented trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    If TP is a tree we call it a labeled oriented tree or LOT and P a. LOT-presentation. The 2-complex modeled on P will be called a LOG (or LOT)-complex. A labeled oriented interval or LOI is a LOT where the underlying graph is an interval. For example the LOI depicted in figure 1 encodes the presentation. P = 〈a, b, c, d, e, ...

  14. Computer architecture for solving consistent labeling problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, J.R.; Haralick, R.M.; Shapiro, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    Consistent labeling problems are a family of np-complete constraint satisfaction problems such as school timetabling, for which a conventional computer may be too slow. There are a variety of techniques for reducing the elapsed time to find one or all solutions to a consistent labeling problem. The paper discusses and illustrates solutions consisting of special hardware to accomplish the required constraint propagation and an asynchronous network of intercommunicating computers to accomplish the tree search in parallel. 5 references.

  15. Labels, identity and narratives in children with primary speech and language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Rena; Roulstone, Sue

    2017-10-01

    There has been debate about labels in relation to speech and language impairments. However, children's views are missing from this debate, which is risky considering that labels with negative associations may result in stigma. The aim of this study was to explore the range of identities which children with primary speech and language impairments presented in their narratives and to investigate their evaluations of these identities with a view to understanding the values they attach to labels. Eleven children aged 9-12 years with primary speech and language impairments were recruited to the study. Fifty nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with the aim of generating storied accounts of everyday experiences. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Two themes were identified in the data: desired identities and undesired identities. The findings suggest that the children were actively involved in identity construction and wanted to be seen in positive ways. They disliked labels assigned by others, which they considered portrayed them in negative ways. The debate about labels could be progressed by consulting with children themselves asking for their ideas in relation to labels in specialist education, and speech and language pathology.

  16. [Investigation on the nutrition labels of prepackaged traditional foods of Henan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengsheng; Li, Lei; Sun, Jing; Ye, Bing; Fu, Pengyu; Li, Shan; Yuan, Pu; Chao, Feng; Yang, Li; Zhang, Ding; Zhang, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    To understand the current status of nutrition labeling on Henan province local traditional prepackaged food product. Purchasing the samplings according with the include criteria in the supermarket and retail stores within the scope of province, then taking photographs and logging nutrition labeling information to questionnaire, using Excel and SPSS 15.0 software to analyze. The .significance of difference rate was judged by chi-square test. The sum of meeting requirement samplings was 565 (including 5 major categories and 13 small classes) and the entire nutritional labeling signing rate was 91.9%. The signing rate of forced signing nutrients such as energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat and sodium was 98.8%. There were 7 kinds of mistakes of nutritional labeling signing. The nutrition labeling signing rate of optional nutrients was very low. The signing rate of nutrition claims and function claims was less than 4%. In the traditional local prepackaged food products made in Henan province, the forced signed nutrition labeling was well sighed but optional content was ignored.

  17. Automatic single- and multi-label enzymatic function prediction by machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervine Amidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of protein structures in the PDB database has been increasing more than 15-fold since 1999. The creation of computational models predicting enzymatic function is of major importance since such models provide the means to better understand the behavior of newly discovered enzymes when catalyzing chemical reactions. Until now, single-label classification has been widely performed for predicting enzymatic function limiting the application to enzymes performing unique reactions and introducing errors when multi-functional enzymes are examined. Indeed, some enzymes may be performing different reactions and can hence be directly associated with multiple enzymatic functions. In the present work, we propose a multi-label enzymatic function classification scheme that combines structural and amino acid sequence information. We investigate two fusion approaches (in the feature level and decision level and assess the methodology for general enzymatic function prediction indicated by the first digit of the enzyme commission (EC code (six main classes on 40,034 enzymes from the PDB database. The proposed single-label and multi-label models predict correctly the actual functional activities in 97.8% and 95.5% (based on Hamming-loss of the cases, respectively. Also the multi-label model predicts all possible enzymatic reactions in 85.4% of the multi-labeled enzymes when the number of reactions is unknown. Code and datasets are available at https://figshare.com/s/a63e0bafa9b71fc7cbd7.

  18. Gold Nanoparticle Labels Amplify Ellipsometric Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2008-01-01

    The ellipsometric method reported in the immediately preceding article was developed in conjunction with a method of using gold nanoparticles as labels on biomolecules that one seeks to detect. The purpose of the labeling is to exploit the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in order to amplify the measurable ellipsometric effects and thereby to enable ultrasensitive detection of the labeled biomolecules without need to develop more-complex ellipsometric instrumentation. The colorimetric, polarization, light-scattering, and other optical properties of nanoparticles depend on their sizes and shapes. In the present method, these size-and-shape-dependent properties are used to magnify the polarization of scattered light and the diattenuation and retardance of signals derived from ellipsometry. The size-and-shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles make it possible to interrogate the nanoparticles by use of light of various wavelengths, as appropriate, to optimally detect particles of a specific type at high sensitivity. Hence, by incorporating gold nanoparticles bound to biomolecules as primary or secondary labels, the performance of ellipsometry as a means of detecting the biomolecules can be improved. The use of gold nanoparticles as labels in ellipsometry has been found to afford sensitivity that equals or exceeds the sensitivity achieved by use of fluorescence-based methods. Potential applications for ellipsometric detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules include monitoring molecules of interest in biological samples, in-vitro diagnostics, process monitoring, general environmental monitoring, and detection of biohazards.

  19. Menu-labeling policy in King County, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donna B; Payne, Elizabeth C; McNeese, Molly A; Allen, Deborah

    2012-09-01

    Food eaten away from home now accounts for about one third of total calories consumed in the U.S. Policy change could lead to sustainable improvements in restaurant and other nutrition environments. Broadly described, policy development is one of the three core functions of public health, and there is a need to more fully understand and evaluate this function. Policy process research has developed frameworks and models that can be used to understand the policy development process. To describe policy processes associated with the passage of restaurant menu-labeling regulations in order to inform nutrition policy development in other settings. Document reviews and interviews with 12 key players in the policy process were conducted and analyzed between June 2009 and October 2010. Policy process actors primarily belonged to two advocacy coalitions: a public health coalition and an industry coalition. Within the coalitions there were shared values and beliefs about the appropriate role of governmental regulation in protecting the health of the population and the need for environmental change. The process was adversarial at times, but "policy learning" built the trust needed for collaboration to negotiate agreements. Expert technical assistance moved the process forward. Elements that contributed to the success of a menu-labeling policy initiative in a large, urban health department have been identified. The King County case study can inform the work of others who seek to build healthier nutrition environments through policy change. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Valuation of Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    An important aim for the teacher in Higher Education is that students, in order to learn, achieve understanding in terms of being able to handle knowledge in a certain way. In this paper focus will be on understanding as a phenomenon which is permeated with values of what good understanding might...... be. Understanding is to be discussed as a phenomenon which in its definition is relative to the paradigm of educational thinking in which it is embedded. Paradigms of valuation of understanding in higher education will be viewed from two perspectives: An anglosaxon curriculum studies tradition...

  1. Memorandum of Understanding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siple, Bud H. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A Memorandum of Understanding establishes a clear understanding of how an agreement is going to be implemented. The Memorandum of Understanding allows all involved to specifically understand that they are agreeing to the same thing and the terms are clearly identified. It also includes the clear distinction of functions and the level of involvement of the agencies involved. Specifically, a Memorandum of Understanding gives a chance to all of those involved in the agreement to see on paper as to what they all have agreed to.

  2. Basic evaluation of 67Ga labeled digoxin derivative as a metal-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Konishi, Junji; Takemura, Yasutaka; Taniuchi, Hideyuki; Iijima, Naoko; Yokoyama, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    To develop metal-labeled digoxin radiopharmaceuticals with affinity with anti-digoxin antibody as well as Na + , K + -ATPase, a digoxin derivative conjugated with deferoxamine was synthesized. The derivative had a high binding affinity with 67 Ga at deferoxamine introduced to the terminal sugar ring of digoxin. The 67 Ga labeled digoxin derivative showed enough in vitro binding affinity and selectivity to anti-digoxin antibody as well as Na + , K + -ATPase. The 67 Ga labeled digoxin derivative is considered to be a potential metal-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical for digoxin RIA as well as myocardial Na + , K + -ATPase imaging. (author)

  3. Front-of-pack nutrition labelling: are multiple formats a problem for consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Alizon K; Adamson, Ashley J; Clegg, Sue; Malam, Sally; Rigg, Malcolm; Duncan, Sue

    2013-06-01

    Nutrition labels are a potentially valuable tool to assist consumers in making healthy food choices. Front-of-pack labels are a relatively new format and are now widely used across many European countries, but it is unclear which of the many formats in use are best understood by consumers. It is also unclear whether the existence of multiple formats impedes understanding and use. This article addresses this question with findings from a study commissioned by the UK Food Standards Agency to provide evidence to inform policy decisions in this area. In-depth qualitative interviews were used to explore consumers' decision-making processes when using two different front-of-pack label formats to judge the relative healthiness of a pair of products. Participants were presented with product pairs differently labelled and a series of structured prompts were used to access their internal dialogues and to identify any difficulties encountered. The interviews revealed that making product comparisons using different label formats was challenging for participants and particularly for those product pairs where there was not an obvious answer. When the label formats on the product pairs lacked a common element, such as text, this also caused difficulties and misinterpretation. The comparisons also took time and effort that would be a deterrent in real-life situations. These findings indicate that the existence of multiple front-of-pack label formats in the marketplace may impede consumer comprehension and discourage use. They suggest that a single format may encourage consumers to use front-of-pack labels in making healthy food choices.

  4. Consumer purchasing patterns in response to calorie labeling legislation in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbel Brian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health threat and policies aimed at curbing this epidemic are emerging. National calorie labeling legislation is forthcoming and requires rigorous evaluation to examine its impact on consumers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether point-of-purchase calorie labels in New York City (NYC chain restaurants affected food purchasing patterns in a sample of lower income adults in NYC and Newark, NJ. Methods This study utilized a difference-in-difference design to survey 1,170 adult patrons of four popular chain restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ (which did not introduce labeling before and after calorie labeling was implemented in NYC. Receipt data were collected and analyzed to examine food and beverage purchases and frequency of fast food consumption. Descriptive statistics were generated, and linear and logistic regression, difference-in-difference analysis, and predicted probabilities were used to analyze the data. Results A difference-in-difference analysis revealed no significant favorable differences and some unfavorable differences in food purchasing patterns and frequency of fast food consumption between adult patrons of fast food restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ. Adults in NYC who reported noticing and using the calorie labels consumed fast food less frequently compared to adults who did not notice the labels (4.9 vs. 6.6 meals per week, p Conclusion While no favorable differences in purchasing as a result of labeling were noted, self-reported use of calorie labels was associated with some favorable behavioral patterns in a subset of adults in NYC. However, overall impact of the legislation may be limited. More research is needed to understand the most effective way to deliver calorie information to consumers.

  5. Media coverage of off-label promotion: a content analysis of US newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Avani D; Patel, Dipen A; Holdford, David A

    2011-09-01

    Promotion of drugs for off-label use is newsworthy, because it is an illegal but all too common strategy used by pharmaceutical companies. The print media are an important source of information about coverage of off-label promotion of drugs and devices and can influence public perceptions of the practice. Print media coverage of off-label promotion during the years 1990-2008 were described and quantified. The primary themes and general tones relating to off-label promotion articles were evaluated. General concerns associated with off-label promotion and complaints about specific brand name drugs were also identified. Content analyses of the top 6 US newspapers were conducted over the period of 1990-2008 to analyze the media coverage given to off-label promotion of drugs and devices. Headlines and full text of articles were analyzed for primary themes and tones of the coverage. Intercoder reliability tests were performed on all the study variables. One hundred and one articles were identified meeting the study inclusion criteria. Coverage varied by newspaper. The Wall Street Journal had the most coverage on the topic (45%), and USA Today and Chicago Tribune had the least coverage (5%). Overall, most of the stories sampled were deemed to have a negative tone in coverage (77%), focusing mainly on lawsuits against drug companies for promoting their drugs for off-label uses. Pfizer's Neurontin(®) (Pfizer Inc., New York, NY 10017, USA) and Johnson & Johnson's Retin-A(®) (Orthoneutrogena, Los Angeles, CA 90045, USA) received the most media attention. The news media helps shape public understanding of promotional practices of pharmaceutical companies and their potential benefits and harms. This study suggests that print media coverage is generally negative about off-label promotion, focusing on legal actions taken against drug companies and the negative consequences of such promotional practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rhenium 188 labelling of peptide conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez-Alafort, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Many human tumours express high levels, of somatostatin receptors. In order to make possible a radiotherapeutic treatment of this kind for tumour a series of somatostatin analogues that can tightly chelate beta emitting isotopes have been developed in recent years. The work carried out for this thesis has been aimed towards development of a new therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for treatment of somatostatin receptor positive tumours. The first chapters describe work with technetium-99m to establish the labelling and analytical conditions for a somatostatin analogue, [Tyr 3 ]-octreotide (TOC), as a precursor to undertaking labelling studies with the beta emitter rhenium-188. 6-Hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) was conjugated to TOC and labelled with 99m using different coligands. Then the stability, receptor binding and biodistribution of each complex were assessed. 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC using EDDA as coligand showed the best characteristics, and was superior for tumour imaging in humans than the commercially available 111 In-DTPA-octreotide. The conditions for labelling the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with 188 Re were then optimised using tricine as a co-ligand. A labelling yield of ∼80% was achieved. After purification however, the stability of the complex was low. The use of other coligand systems which had proved useful for 99m Tc labelling was explored, but yields were very poor. Other chelators such as diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG 3 ) were studied as potential co-ligand agents to label the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with 188 Re but, again low yields of the labelled peptide complexes were achieved. A novel 188 Re-HYNIC complex was prepared in high yields using N-N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates as coligands. However to date, the specific activities achieved with this system are relatively low. The use of the [ 99m Tc(CO) 3 (H 2 O) 3 ] complex to label the HYNIC-TOC conjugate was investigated

  7. Do nutrition labels influence healthier food choices? Analysis of label viewing behaviour and subsequent food purchases in a labelling intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Jiang, Yannan; Blakely, Tony

    2018-02-01

    There are few objective data on how nutrition labels are used in real-world shopping situations, or how they affect dietary choices and patterns. The Starlight study was a four-week randomised, controlled trial of the effects of three different types of nutrition labels on consumer food purchases: Traffic Light Labels, Health Star Rating labels, or Nutrition Information Panels (control). Smartphone technology allowed participants to scan barcodes of packaged foods and receive randomly allocated labels on their phone screen, and to record their food purchases. The study app therefore provided objectively recorded data on label viewing behaviour and food purchases over a four-week period. A post-hoc analysis of trial data was undertaken to assess frequency of label use, label use by food group, and association between label use and the healthiness of packaged food products purchased. Over the four-week intervention, study participants (n = 1255) viewed nutrition labels for and/or purchased 66,915 barcoded packaged products. Labels were viewed for 23% of all purchased products, with decreasing frequency over time. Shoppers were most likely to view labels for convenience foods, cereals, snack foods, bread and bakery products, and oils. They were least likely to view labels for sugar and honey products, eggs, fish, fruit and vegetables, and meat. Products for which participants viewed the label and subsequently purchased the product during the same shopping episode were significantly healthier than products where labels were viewed but the product was not subsequently purchased: mean difference in nutrient profile score -0.90 (95% CI -1.54 to -0.26). In a secondary analysis of a nutrition labelling intervention trial, there was a significant association between label use and the healthiness of products purchased. Nutrition label use may therefore lead to healthier food purchases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. The roles of human values and generalized trust on stated preferences when food is labeled with environmental footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This study explores stated preferences for food labeled with environmental footprints, concentrating on human values (Rokeach 1973) and trust attitudes (Uslaner 2002). An online survey, conducted in Germany during 2011 (n = 1579), collected data on human values using the Rokeach Value Survey...... that accounting for consumers’ value system and generalized trust attitudes – as well as traditional socio-demographics – adds value when trying to understand choices and identify new target markets for footprint-labeled food products....

  9. Design and operations at the National Tritium Labelling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, H.; Williams, P.G.

    1991-09-01

    The National Tritium Labelling Facility (NTLF) is a multipurpose facility engaged in tritium labeling research. It offers to the biomedical research community a fully equipped laboratory for the synthesis and analysis of tritium labeled compounds. The design of the tritiation system, its operations and some labeling techniques are presented

  10. 21 CFR 226.80 - Packaging and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and labeling. 226.80 Section 226.80 Food...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Packaging and Labeling § 226.80 Packaging and labeling. (a) Packaging and labeling operations shall be adequately controlled: (1) To assure...

  11. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims or...

  12. 40 CFR 600.306-86 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... general to specific labels or vice versa within a model type, the manufacturer shall, within five calendar... legibility of the fuel economy label is maintained. For this purpose, all fuel economy label information must... cause to be maintained on each automobile: (1) A general fuel economy label (initial, or updated as...

  13. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of animals...

  14. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with § 172.407, the background on the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label and the symbol must be white. The... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and...

  15. 30 CFR 47.41 - Requirement for container labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement for container labels. 47.41 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.41 Requirement for container labels. (a) The operator must ensure that each container of a hazardous chemical has a label. If a...

  16. 7 CFR 201.31a - Labeling treated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling treated seed. 201.31a Section 201.31a..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.31a Labeling treated seed. (a) Contents of label. Any agricultural seed...

  17. Understanding quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spillner, Vera

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a bundle definition for 'scientific understanding' through which the empirically equivalent interpretations of quantum mechanics can be evaluated with respect to the understanding they generate. The definition of understanding is based on a sufficient and necessary criterion, as well as a bundle of conditions - where a theory can be called most understandable whenever it fulfills the highest number of bundle criteria. Thereby the definition of understanding is based on the one hand on the objective number of criteria a theory fulfills, as well as, on the other hand, on the individual's preference of bundle criteria. Applying the definition onto three interpretations of quantum mechanics, the interpretation of David Bohm appears as most understandable, followed by the interpretation of Tim Maudlin and the Kopenhagen interpretation. These three interpretations are discussed in length in my thesis. (orig.)

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our information on Coping With Cancer helpful. Understanding Statistics About Survival Doctors estimate prognosis by using statistics that researchers have collected over many years about ...

  19. Contributions of experimentation on studying reception: The case of wine labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela BONESCU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Within an interdisciplinary perspective, this paper aims at examining a communication space (restricted to a wine label, by the simultaneous use of an experimental method and of a socio-semiotic approach. The purpose is to isolate and to measure, in an objective way, subjective variables from the symbolic and figurative area of the wine label. The innovative interdisciplinary design will help understanding the contribution of each measured parameter (for instance codes, attitudes, beliefs and their associated valorization to the global individual interpretation.

  20. Traffic light labelling: traduzindo a rotulagem de alimentos Traffic light labeling: translating food labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma adaptação do Traffic Light Labelling, ou "Semáforo Nutricional", adotado no Reino Unido e outros países da Europa, às normas vigentes no Brasil e classificar produtos industrializados comercializados no país. MÉTODOS: Esta ferramenta baseia-se na utilização das cores do semáforo para valorar concentrações de gorduras total, saturada e trans, açúcar, sódio e fibra correspondente a 100g ou 100mL do produto. O sinal vermelho indica que o nutriente está presente em quantidade excessiva; o amarelo, média e o verde, adequada. Para fibras as baixas concentrações têm cor vermelha e as recomendadas, verde. A adaptação e aplicação desses conceitos para consumidores brasileiros fundamentaram-se nas normas do Regulamento Técnico Referente à Informação Nutricional Complementar da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária e da Food Standards Agency. RESULTADOS: Foram classificados cem produtos industrializados, os quais foram selecionados da página eletrônica de um hipermercado brasileiro, optando pelos primeiros cinco a oito produtos listados na página, para cada uma das 17 categorias. A análise mostra que são altas as quantidades de gordura total, saturada e sódio e baixas as quantidades de gordura trans e fibra. CONCLUSÃO: A adaptação dessa metodologia visa facilitar a escolha de alimentos saudáveis, sensibilizando os consumidores quanto às desvantagens no que se refere a qualidade nutricional dos alimentos industrializados, e estimular as indústrias a melhorar a composição nutricional de seus produtos, sob a perspectiva de receberem maior quantidade de sinais verdes e menor quantidade de sinais vermelhos; assim, contribuindo para a prevenção de erros alimentares, obesidade e doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis, principais causas de incapacidade e mortes precoces no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: This study presented an adaptation of the Traffic Light Labeling or Nutrition Traffic Light adopted

  1. 76 FR 46671 - Food Labeling; Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... proposed to define the term ``gluten-free'' for the voluntary use in the labeling of foods to mean that the... level to define the food labeling term ``gluten-free'' (72 FR 2795 at 2803). Based upon the analytical... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 101 [Docket No...

  2. Stigma of a Label: Educational Expectations for High School Students Labeled with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrer, Dara

    2013-01-01

    Poorer outcomes for youth labeled with learning disabilities (LDs) are often attributed to the student's own deficiencies or cumulative disadvantage; but the more troubling possibility is that special education placement limits rather than expands these students' opportunities. Labeling theory partially attributes the poorer outcomes of…

  3. Study on the indirect labeling method of labeling monoclonal antibody with yttrium 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guiping; Huang Kai; Liu Feng; Fu Yunbi; Meng Fanyi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To prepare yttrium-90 labelled anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (McAb) and anti-CD45 McAb with indirect labelling method for possible use in targeting therapy of CEA-expressing tumors and acute leukemia. Methods: Anti-CEA McAb and anti-CD45 McAb were labelled with 90 Y by indirect method (with cyclic DTPA anhydride (cDTPAa) as chelating agent). The optimal conjugate conditions between the antibody and cDTPAa were studied. The labelling rate, radiochemical purity, immunore- activity and in vitro stability of labelled McAbs were determined. Results: With the optimal molar ratio of cDTPAa/McAb (20:1), the labelling rate was over 93%, radiochemical purity was over 95%, and the immunoreactivity of both labelled McAbs were not significantly different from those of unlabelled McAbs. Both 90 Y labelled conjugates were stable in vitro with no changes in the protein binding distribution in serum observed. Conclusion: 90 Y radiolabelled CEA McAb and CD45 McAb might be suitable radioimmunotherapy agents for the possible further targeting therapy research on CEA-expressing tumors and acute leukemia. (authors)

  4. Preparation of radioactive labelled compounds. Pt. 2. 82Br labelled organic bromine compounds by isotopic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.

    1988-05-01

    Studies on isotopic exchange between organic bromine compounds and 82 Br labelled dioxane dibromide in the presence of AlCl 3 are described. The results obtained enable to develop a simple and quick preparation method for the labelling with 82 Br [fr

  5. 78 FR 24211 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Container Labels and Carton Labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Labeling Design to Minimize Medication Errors.'' In Title I of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments..., dose designations, and error-prone label and packaging designs. Among these measures, FDA agreed that... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0401...

  6. 76 FR 37291 - Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 101 [Docket No. FDA-2011-F-0171] Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  7. Food Label Use and Food Label Skills among Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, Nadia; Doak, Colleen; Jasti, Sunitha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess food label use and skills and to identify their correlates among immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 200 FSU immigrants residing in New York City. Variables Measured: Food label use and skills; acculturation; and socioeconomic and…

  8. On the Number of α-Labeled Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrientos Christian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available When a graceful labeling of a bipartite graph places the smaller labels in one of the stable sets of the graph, it becomes an α-labeling. This is the most restrictive type of difference-vertex labeling and it is located at the very core of this research area. Here we use an extension of the adjacency matrix to count and classify α-labeled graphs according to their size, order, and boundary value.

  9. Domestic Agricultural Subsidies’ Impacts on National Security Objectives Relative to the SOUTHCOM AOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    Continued disregard for WTO standards threatens to undermine the reputation of the United States regarding free and fair trade with negative...consequences domestically and abroad. Similarly, domestic corn subsidies threaten to harm the United States‘ reputation with adversely affected...that the benefits of such subsidies continue to consolidate with large agribusinesses , while small corn farms continue to decline. Somewhat isolated

  10. 76 FR 70804 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7656; Affidavit of Relationship (AOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ..., Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration (PRM/A). Form Number: DS-7656. Respondents: Persons admitted to the United States as refugees or granted asylum in the United States requesting that their spouses..., Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, Department of State. [FR Doc. 2011-29472 Filed 11-14-11; 8...

  11. Building energy efficiency labeling programme in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Siew Eang; Rajagopalan, Priyadarsini

    2008-01-01

    The use of electricity in buildings constitutes around 16% of Singapore's energy demand. In view of the fact that Singapore is an urban city with no rural base, which depends heavily on air-conditioning to cool its buildings all year round, the survival as a nation depends on its ability to excel economically. To incorporate energy efficiency measures is one of the key missions to ensure that the economy is sustainable. The recently launched building energy efficiency labelling programme is such an initiative. Buildings whose energy performance are among the nation's top 25% and maintain a healthy and productive indoor environment as well as uphold a minimum performance for different systems can qualify to attain the Energy Smart Office Label. Detailed methodologies of the labelling process as well as the performance standards are elaborated. The main strengths of this system namely a rigorous benchmarking database and an independent audit conducted by a private accredited Energy Service Company (ESCO) are highlighted. A few buildings were awarded the Energy Smart Office Label during the launching of the programme conducted in December 2005. The labeling of other types of buildings like hotels, schools, hospitals, etc. is ongoing

  12. Measuring brain glucose phosphorylation with labeled glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brondsted, H.E.; Gjedde, A.

    1988-01-01

    This study tested whether glucose labeled at the C-6 position generates metabolites that leave brain so rapidly that C-6-labeled glucose cannot be used to measure brain glucose phosphorylation (CMRGlc). In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, the parietal cortex uptake of [ 14 C]glucose labeled in the C-6 position was followed for times ranging from 10 s to 60 min. We subtracted the observed radioactivity from the radioactivity expected with no loss of labeled metabolites from brain by extrapolation of glucose uptake in an initial period when loss was negligible. The observed radioactivity was a monoexponentially declining function of the total radioactivity expected in the absence of metabolite loss. The constant of decline was 0.0077.min-1 for parietal cortex. Metabolites were lost from the beginning of the experiment. However, with correction for the loss of labeled metabolites, it was possible to determine an average CMRGlc between 4 and 60 min of circulation of 64 +/- 4 (SE; n = 49) mumol.hg-1.min-1

  13. Naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenagy, J W; Stein, G C

    2001-11-01

    The problem of medical errors associated with the naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals is discussed. Sound-alike and look-alike drug names and packages can lead pharmacists and nurses to unintended interchanges of drugs that can result in patient injury or death. The existing medication-use system is flawed because its safety depends on human perfection. Simplicity, standardization, differentiation, lack of duplication, and unambiguous communication are human factors concepts that are relevant to the medication-use process. These principles have often been ignored in drug naming, labeling, and packaging. Instead, current methods are based on long-standing commercial considerations and bureaucratic procedures. The process for naming a marketable drug is lengthy and complex and involves submission of a new chemical entity and patent application, generic naming, brand naming, FDA review, and final approval. Drug companies seek the fastest possible approval and may believe that the incremental benefit of human factors evaluation is small. "Trade dress" is the concept that underlies labeling and packaging issues for the drug industry. Drug companies are resistant to changing trade dress and brand names. Although a variety of private-sector organizations have called for reforms in drug naming, labeling, and packaging standards have been proposed, the problem remains. Drug names, labels, and packages are not selected and designed in accordance with human factors principles. FDA standards do not require application of these principles, the drug industry has struggled with change, and private-sector initiatives have had only limited success.

  14. Employing anatomical knowledge in vertebral column labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    The spinal column constitutes the central axis of human torso and is often used by radiologists to reference the location of organs in the chest and abdomen. However, visually identifying and labeling vertebrae is not trivial and can be timeconsuming. This paper presents an approach to automatically label vertebrae based on two pieces of anatomical knowledge: one vertebra has at most two attached ribs, and ribs are attached only to thoracic vertebrae. The spinal column is first extracted by a hybrid method using the watershed algorithm, directed acyclic graph search and a four-part vertebra model. Then curved reformations in sagittal and coronal directions are computed and aggregated intensity profiles along the spinal cord are analyzed to partition the spinal column into vertebrae. After that, candidates for rib bones are detected using features such as location, orientation, shape, size and density. Then a correspondence matrix is established to match ribs and vertebrae. The last vertebra (from thoracic to lumbar) with attached ribs is identified and labeled as T12. The rest of vertebrae are labeled accordingly. The method was tested on 50 CT scans and successfully labeled 48 of them. The two failed cases were mainly due to rudimentary ribs.

  15. Synthesis of tritium labeled renin inhibitor ditekiren

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, R.S.P.; Stolle, W.T.; Bundy, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    In the search for a radioactive form of the peptidomimetic renin inhibitor, ditekiren, with a metabolically suitable radiolabel for conducting drug disposition studies, we prepared [ 3 H]ditekiren with tritium labels in the N-methyl-histidine moiety and in the leu-val alcohol transition-state insert. [His- 3 H]ditekiren was obtained by first introducing two iodine substituents into the N-methyl-histidine moiety of the parent drug, followed by catalytic hydrodehalogenation with tritium gas. Administration of this labeled drug to monkeys, however, resulted in prolonged retention of radioactivity in the test animals, even though little or no tritiated water was detected in urine. The results, together with similar earlier findings after administration of [ 3 H]ditekiren labeled in the proline moiety of the drug, led us to synthesize [ 3 H]ditekiren labeled in the ''unnatural'' leu-val alcohol (LVA) portion of the molecule. The tritium label in [LVA- 3 H]ditekiren was found to be metabolically suitable for conducting drug disposition studies, with no liability for tritiated water production or prolonged retention of radioactivity in tissues of test animals. (author)

  16. Selenium as an alternative peptide label - comparison to fluorophore-labelled penetratin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyrup Møller, Laura; Bahnsen, Jesper Søborg; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    lysates, primarily the intact peptide (PenMSe, TAMRA-PenMSe or TAMRA-Pen) was observed. Selenium labelling caused minimal alteration of the physicochemical properties of the peptide and allowed for absolute quantitative determination of cellular uptake by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry......In the present study, the impact on peptide properties of labelling peptides with the fluorophore TAMRA or the selenium (Se) containing amino acid SeMet was evaluated. Three differently labelled variants of the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin (Pen) were synthesized, PenMSe, TAMRA....... Selenium is thus proposed as a promising alternative label for quantification of peptides in general, altering the properties of the peptide to a minor extent as compared to commonly used peptide labels....

  17. SIRB, sans iron oxide rhodamine B, a novel cross-linked dextran nanoparticle, labels human neuroprogenitor and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and serves as a USPIO cell labeling control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei-Bin; Vaccaro, Dennis E; Fishman, Paul S; Groman, Ernest V; Yarowsky, Paul

    2016-05-01

    This is the first report of the synthesis of a new nanoparticle, sans iron oxide rhodamine B (SIRB), an example of a new class of nanoparticles. SIRB is designed to provide all of the cell labeling properties of the ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticle Molday ION Rhodamine B (MIRB) without containing the iron oxide core. MIRB was developed to label cells and allow them to be tracked by MRI or to be manipulated by magnetic gradients. SIRB possesses a similar size, charge and cross-linked dextran coating as MIRB. Of great interest is understanding the biological and physiological changes in cells after they are labeled with a USPIO. Whether these effects are due to the iron oxide buried within the nanoparticle or to the surface coating surrounding the iron oxide core has not been considered previously. MIRB and SIRB represent an ideal pairing of nanoparticles to identify nanoparticle anatomy responsible for post-labeling cytotoxicity. Here we report the effects of SIRB labeling on the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and primary human neuroprogenitor cells (hNPCs). These effects are contrasted with the effects of labeling SH-SY5Y cells and hNPCs with MIRB. We find that SIRB labeling, like MIRB labeling, (i) occurs without the use of transfection reagents, (ii) is packaged within lysosomes distributed within cell cytoplasm, (iii) is retained within cells with no loss of label after cell storage, and (iv) does not alter cellular viability or proliferation, and (v) SIRB labeled hNPCs differentiate normally into neurons or astrocytes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Housewives’ Compliance in Reading Food Labels in Gorontalo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Tumenggung

    2016-06-01

    Di Indonesia, masalah label pada kemasan makanan kurang mendapat perhatian konsumen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari determinan kepatuhan membaca label pada kemasan makanan oleh ibu rumah tangga di Kota Gorontalo. Penelitian dengan metode survei ini dilakukan dari bulan Juni sampai Agustus 2013. Data dikumpulkan secara potong lintang dengan menggunakan angket. Variabel terikat adalah kepatuhan membaca label pada kemasan makanan yang terdiri dari label informasi nilai gizi, komposisi makanan, masa kedaluwarsa, harga, dan status halal. Variabel bebas adalah usia, tingkat pendidikan, dan keterpaparan dengan media informasi. Besar sampel 262 orang ditentukan secara accidental technique. Analisis data menggunakan uji kai kuadrat. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar responden patuh membaca label kedaluwarsa, label harga, dan label halal. Faktor usia berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label informasi nilai gizi, label kedaluwarsa dan label harga. Tingkat pendidikan berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label informasi nilai gizi, label komposisi, label harga, dan lebel halal. Keterpaparan dengan media informasi berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label komposisi, kedaluwarsa, harga, dan halal. Disarankan kepada institusi terkait, yaitu dinas kesehatan untuk melakukan upaya meningkatkan pemahaman pentingnya membaca label kemasan makanan, terutama yang berkaitan dengan informasi nilai gizi dan komposisi bahan makanan.

  19. Understanding cancer onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veldhuis, Djuke

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Malaysia analysed the genomes of people with a rare genetic disorder to better understand people’s predisposition to cancer across generations.......Researchers in Malaysia analysed the genomes of people with a rare genetic disorder to better understand people’s predisposition to cancer across generations....

  20. Understanding Menstrual Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Anne H

    2018-04-01

    Menstrual-related migraine is very prevalent, very disabling, yet very easy to manage given a good understanding of its cause. This article is intended to help with that understanding and to enable headache specialists to prescribe or create effective hormonal preventives of menstrual-related migraine. © 2018 American Headache Society.

  1. Understanding the visual resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd L. Newby

    1971-01-01

    Understanding our visual resources involves a complex interweaving of motivation and cognitive recesses; but, more important, it requires that we understand and can identify those characteristics of a landscape that influence the image formation process. From research conducted in Florida, three major variables were identified that appear to have significant effect...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a ... for provider care teams (PDF-210KB). Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three ...

  3. Hypoxia marker labeling in tumor biopsies: quantification of labeling variation and criteria for biopsy sectioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, Donald E.; Rosner, Gary L.; Azuma, Chieko; McEntee, Margaret C.; Raleigh, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: The error associated with using biopsy-based methods for assessing parameters reflective of the tumor microenvironment depends on the variability in distribution of the parameter throughout the tumor and the biopsy sample. Some attention has been given to intratumoral distribution of parameters, but little attention has been given to their intrabiopsy distribution. We evaluated the intrabiopsy distribution of CCI-103F, a 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia marker. Materials and methods: The hypoxia marker CCI-103F was studied in dogs bearing spontaneous solid tumors. Two biopsies were taken from each of seven tumors, for a total of 14 biopsies. Biopsies were serially sectioned and four to six contiguous slides from each 100-150 μm of the biopsy were used to formulate the best estimate of CCI-103F labeled area throughout the biopsy sample. One, two or four slides were then randomly selected from each biopsy and the labeled area, based on this limited sample, was compared to the estimate obtained from counting all available slides. Random sampling of slides was repeated 1000 times for each biopsy sample. Results: CCI-103F labeling variance throughout the biopsy decreased as the estimated overall labeled area in the biopsy decreased. The error associated with estimating the overall labeled area in a biopsy from a randomly selected subset of slides decreased as the number of slides increased, and as the overall labeled area in the biopsy decreased. No minimally labeled biopsy was classified as unlabeled based on limited sampling. Conclusion: With regard to CCI-103F labeling, quantification of the labeled area in four randomly selected slides from a biopsy can provide, in most biopsies, an estimate of the labeled area in the biopsy within an absolute range of ±0.05

  4. A cross-sectional survey of nutrition labelling use and its associated factors on parents of school students in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianhong; Zhu, Zhenxin; Chen, Xiao; Guo, Yan; Zhang, Huansheng; Zhang, Yuyan; Zang, Jiajie

    2018-03-07

    To understand parents' knowledge and use of nutrition labelling and to explore its associated factors. Cross-sectional survey. Two schools providing a nine-year educational programme in Putuo District, Shanghai, China, were selected for the study. Information was included on demographic data and knowledge of the Chinese Food Pagoda. Students and their parents (n 1770) participated in a questionnaire survey. Of questionnaires, 1766 were completed (response rate 99·8 %). Utilization rate of nutrition labelling was 19·3 %. Among 624 parents knowing nutrition labelling, 22·1 % understood all the information included, 70·7 % understood it partially and 7·2 % could not understand it at all. Use of nutrition labelling by parents was related to the following factors (OR; 95 % CI): high educational level of parent (1·465; 1·165, 1·841), parent's knowledge of the Chinese Food Pagoda (1·333; 1·053, 1·688), parent's consumption of top three snacks which are unhealthy (1·065; 1·023, 1·109), parent's assumption that nutrition labelling would affect their choice of food (1·522; 1·131, 2·048), student's willingness to learn about labels (1·449; 1·093, 1·920) and student's knowledge and use of labels (2·214; 1·951, 2·513). Parents' knowledge and use of nutrition labelling are still at a lower level, and some information included in the nutrition labels is not understood by parents. The forms of the existing nutrition labelling need to be continuously improved to facilitate their understanding and usefulness. It is necessary to establish nutrition projects focusing on education and use of nutrition labels which help parents and their children make the right choices in selecting foods.

  5. VERTEX ANTIMAGIC TOTAL LABELING PADA GRAPHMULTICYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominikus Arif Budi Prasetyo pythagors

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelabelan graf merupakan bagian dari graf yang berkembang saat ini. Jenis pelabelan pada graf bergantungpada domainnya, yakni pelabelan sisi ajaib, pelabelan titik ajaib, dan pelabelan total ajaib. Pelabelan totalajaib pada graf dibedakan lagi berdasarkan komponen graf yang dievaluasi, yakni pelabelan total sisi ajaibdan pelabelan total titik ajaib. Pada pelabelan ajaib, bobot dari komponen graf yang dievaluasi adalah sama,jika bobotnya tidak sama maka dinamakan pelabelan tak-ajaib (antimagic. Misalkan G adalah graf denganbanyak titik p dan sisi q. Suatu pemetaan bijektif dari komponen-komponen graf ke bilangan bulat positif {1,2, …, (p+q} disebut called (a, d vertex antimagic total labelling (pelabelan total titik ajaib dari graf G jikabobot setiap titik (vertex merupakan barisan aritmetika naik. Pada artikel ini membahas bahwa grafmulticycle mCp memenuhi (a, d vertex antimagic total labelling dan beberapa bentuk pelabelannya.Kata kunci : graph multicycle, vertex antimagic total labeling

  6. Abcess detection using radiocolloid-labelled-leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Auvergnat, J.C.; Armengaud, M.; Guiraud, R.; Le Net, R.; Auvergnat, R.

    1975-01-01

    The early detection of infections centres using labelled polynuclear neutrophile (LPN) as vector was investigated. The method was based on one of the physiological properties of this substance, its phagocytotic power towards colloidal sulphur particles labelled with pertechnetate-Tc 99m. The preliminary results of experiments on dogs are reported and confirm that centres of infection can be determined in experimental animals by the use of polynuclear neutrophiles labelled by phagocytosis. It seems that these results are really due to the presence of LPN in situ and not to simple inflammatory hyperhaemia or to an excess of free pertechnetate. The nature of the vector, tracer and lebelling agent, the quality of the results obtained and the harmlessness of the method warrant its clinical application in human beings [fr

  7. Radioisotopes labelled agrochemicals for fertiliser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, S.; Subramanian, T.K.; Aachari, P.S.; Murthy, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical fertilisers like superphosphate, urea, ammonium phosphate, etc., are extensively used in agriculture for improving yields of various crops. Agrochemicals labelled with radioisotopes help in evaluating the fertiliser uptake and the role of essential nutrients like phosphorus, nitrogen and calcium in different types of soils. Such studies help the industry considerably in preparing fertilisers suitable for various crops and soil conditions. Methods have been developed for the large scale preparation of labelled fertilisers like superphosphate- 32 P, nitric phosphate- 32 P with varying water solubilities. An account of the experimental investigations carried out and the finalised procedures for the preparation of labelled agrochemicals are given. The chemical methods developed would be suitable for production of fertilisers using raw materials indigenously available. (auth.)

  8. Covalent labeling of the hepatic glucagon receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herberg, J.T.; Iyengar, R.

    1985-01-01

    The procedure for covalently labeling the hepatic glucagon receptor utilizes the light-sensitive heterobifunctional cross-linker hydroxysuccinimidyl-p-azidobenzoate (HSAB) to link the bound [ 125 I-Tyr 10 ]monoiodoglucagon ([ 125 I]MIG) to the receptor protein. The method involves first the binding of the labeled hormone to its receptor and the removal of the excess unbound label. This is followed by incubation with the cross-linker, in the dark and then under ultraviolet illumination to covalently couple the bound [ 125 I]MIG. HSAB contains an amino reactive group as well as an aryl azide which, upon light activation, is converted to an aryl nitrene that reacts in a chemically unspecific manner

  9. Labelling of castor oil for myocardial studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaba, E.; Al-Suhybani, A.; Zaki, F.S.; Abdullah, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The labelling of castor oil, hydrolysed castor oil and oleic acid was investigated by the iodine monochloride and chloramine-T methods. The effect of the iodinating agent and the concentration of castor oil on the labelling yield was studied. A comparative pharmacological study with analog aliphatic fatty acids was carried out. Castor oil labelled with iodine monochloride concentrated in the heart and liver in good proportion, better than other natural fatty acids and nearly equal to analog aliphatic fatty acids. An infra-red study showed that the OH group of the ricinoleic acid apparently protects the 125 I added on the double bond, with minor changes in biochemical properties and better uptake by the heart muscle. (author)

  10. Manifold Adaptive Label Propagation for Face Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xiaobing; Lyu, Zehua; Chen, Changqing; Chen, Chuanbo

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a novel label propagation (LP) method is presented, called the manifold adaptive label propagation (MALP) method, which is to extend original LP by integrating sparse representation constraint into regularization framework of LP method. Similar to most LP, first of all, MALP also finds graph edges from given data and gives weights to the graph edges. Our goal is to find graph weights matrix adaptively. The key advantage of our approach is that MALP simultaneously finds graph weights matrix and predicts the label of unlabeled data. This paper also derives efficient algorithm to solve the proposed problem. Extensions of our MALP in kernel space and robust version are presented. The proposed method has been applied to the problem of semi-supervised face clustering using the well-known ORL, Yale, extended YaleB, and PIE datasets. Our experimental evaluations show the effectiveness of our method.

  11. Consumer preferences for front-of-pack calories labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans; Paeps, Frederic; Fernández-Celemín, Laura

    2008-02-01

    In light of the emerging obesity pandemic, front-of-pack calories labels may be an important tool to assist consumers in making informed healthier food choices. However, there is little prior research to guide key decisions on whether caloric content should be expressed in absolute terms or relative to recommended daily intake, whether it should be expressed in per serving or per 100 g and whether the information should be further brought alive for consumers in terms of what the extra calorie intake implies in relation to activity levels. The present study aimed at providing more insight into consumers' appreciation of front-of-pack labelling of caloric content of food products and their specific preferences for alternative execution formats for such information in Europe. For this purpose, eight executions of front-of-pack calorie flags were designed and their appeal and information value were extensively discussed with consumers through qualitative research in four different countries (Germany, The Netherlands, France and the UK). The results show that calories are well-understood and that participants were generally positive about front-of-pack flags, particularly when flags are uniform across products. The most liked flags are the simpler flags depicting only the number of calories per serving or per 100 g, while more complex flags including references to daily needs or exercise and the flag including a phrase referring to balanced lifestyle were least preferred. Some relevant differences between countries were observed. Although participants seem to be familiar with the notion of calories, they do not seem to fully understand how to apply them. From the results, managerial implications for the design and implementation of front-of-pack calorie labelling as well as important directions for future research are discussed.

  12. Consumer preferences for front-of-pack calories labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans; Paeps, Frederic; Fernández-Celemín, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Objective In light of the emerging obesity pandemic, front-of-pack calories labels may be an important tool to assist consumers in making informed healthier food choices. However, there is little prior research to guide key decisions on whether caloric content should be expressed in absolute terms or relative to recommended daily intake, whether it should be expressed in per serving or per 100 g and whether the information should be further brought alive for consumers in terms of what the extra calorie intake implies in relation to activity levels. The present study aimed at providing more insight into consumers’ appreciation of front-of-pack labelling of caloric content of food products and their specific preferences for alternative execution formats for such information in Europe. Design For this purpose, eight executions of front-of-pack calorie flags were designed and their appeal and information value were extensively discussed with consumers through qualitative research in four different countries (Germany, The Netherlands, France and the UK). Results The results show that calories are well-understood and that participants were generally positive about front-of-pack flags, particularly when flags are uniform across products. The most liked flags are the simpler flags depicting only the number of calories per serving or per 100 g, while more complex flags including references to daily needs or exercise and the flag including a phrase referring to balanced lifestyle were least preferred. Some relevant differences between countries were observed. Although participants seem to be familiar with the notion of calories, they do not seem to fully understand how to apply them. Conclusion From the results, managerial implications for the design and implementation of front-of-pack calorie labelling as well as important directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17601362

  13. Impact of different food label formats on healthiness evaluation and food choice of consumers: a randomized-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borgmeier Ingrid

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Front of pack food labels or signpost labels are currently widely discussed as means to help consumers to make informed food choices. It is hoped that more informed food choices will result in an overall healthier diet. There is only limited evidence, as to which format of a food label is best understood by consumers, helps them best to differentiate between more or less healthy food and whether these changes in perceived healthiness result in changes of food choice. Methods In a randomised experimental study in Hamburg/Germany 420 adult subjects were exposed to one of five experimental conditions: (1 a simple "healthy choice" tick, (2 a multiple traffic light label, (3 a monochrome Guideline Daily Amount (GDA label, (4 a coloured GDA label and (5 a "no label" condition. In the first task they had to identify the healthier food items in 28 pair-wise comparisons of foods from different food groups. In the second task they were asked to select food portions from a range of foods to compose a one-day's consumption. Differences between means were analysed using ANOVAs. Results Task I: Experimental conditions differed significantly in the number of correct decisions (p Conclusion Different food label formats differ in the understanding of consumers. The current study shows, that German adults profit most from the multiple traffic light labels. Perceived healthiness of foods is influenced by this label format most often. Nevertheless, such changes in perceived healthiness are unlikely to influence food choice and consumption. Attempts to establish the informed consumer with the hope that informed choices will be healthier choices are unlikely to change consumer behaviour and will not result in the desired contribution to the prevention of obesity and diet related diseases.

  14. Superposition and alignment of labeled point clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fober, Thomas; Glinca, Serghei; Klebe, Gerhard; Hüllermeier, Eyke

    2011-01-01

    Geometric objects are often represented approximately in terms of a finite set of points in three-dimensional euclidean space. In this paper, we extend this representation to what we call labeled point clouds. A labeled point cloud is a finite set of points, where each point is not only associated with a position in three-dimensional space, but also with a discrete class label that represents a specific property. This type of model is especially suitable for modeling biomolecules such as proteins and protein binding sites, where a label may represent an atom type or a physico-chemical property. Proceeding from this representation, we address the question of how to compare two labeled points clouds in terms of their similarity. Using fuzzy modeling techniques, we develop a suitable similarity measure as well as an efficient evolutionary algorithm to compute it. Moreover, we consider the problem of establishing an alignment of the structures in the sense of a one-to-one correspondence between their basic constituents. From a biological point of view, alignments of this kind are of great interest, since mutually corresponding molecular constituents offer important information about evolution and heredity, and can also serve as a means to explain a degree of similarity. In this paper, we therefore develop a method for computing pairwise or multiple alignments of labeled point clouds. To this end, we proceed from an optimal superposition of the corresponding point clouds and construct an alignment which is as much as possible in agreement with the neighborhood structure established by this superposition. We apply our methods to the structural analysis of protein binding sites.

  15. Artiss Sympsoium 2016: Understanding the Patients’ Experiences: Beyond Diagnostic Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-11

    went into child psychiatry, I was not sure that I wanted to work with kids . It turns out I really love kids , but I thought about child psychiatry as...a developmental fellowship. Development is not just about kids . Development occurs throughout the life course, well into geriatrics. [Two...of power. Think of Adam in the Book of Genesis naming what he sees. The third advantage of naming the problem is that if we have some degree of

  16. Lectins Labelled with Digoxin as a Novel Tool to Study Glycoconjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerka Dumić

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years it has become clear that carbohydrate portions of glycoconjugates are performing numerous vital physiological functions in higher organisms. However, since glycobiology is a relatively new science, and carbohydrate structures are highly complex, the continuous development of novel analytical techniques is necessary to support the process of understanding the intricate nature of glycoconjugate structure and function. The introduction of digoxin as a novel tag for labelling of lectins that are being used to analyse glycoconjugates in immunoassay-like techniques is described. Lectins labelled with digoxin have significant advantages over biotin- or digoxigenin-labelled lectins and will hopefully prove to be a useful addition to the repertoire of glycobiological tools.

  17. Computational Platform for Flux Analysis Using 13C-Label Tracing- Phase I SBIR Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dien, Stephen J.

    2005-04-12

    Isotopic label tracing is a powerful experimental technique that can be combined with metabolic models to quantify metabolic fluxes in an organism under a particular set of growth conditions. In this work we constructed a genome-scale metabolic model of Methylobacterium extorquens, a facultative methylotroph with potential application in the production of useful chemicals from methanol. A series of labeling experiments were performed using 13C-methanol, and the resulting distribution of labeled carbon in the proteinogenic amino acids was determined by mass spectrometry. Algorithms were developed to analyze this data in context of the metabolic model, yielding flux distributions for wild-type and several engineered strains of M. extorquens. These fluxes were compared to those predicted by model simulation alone, and also integrated with microarray data to give an improved understanding of the metabolic physiology of this organism.

  18. Label-based routing for a family of small-world Farey graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yinhu; Wang, Yinhe

    2016-05-11

    We introduce an informative labelling method for vertices in a family of Farey graphs, and deduce a routing algorithm on all the shortest paths between any two vertices in Farey graphs. The label of a vertex is composed of the precise locating position in graphs and the exact time linking to graphs. All the shortest paths routing between any pair of vertices, which number is exactly the product of two Fibonacci numbers, are determined only by their labels, and the time complexity of the algorithm is O(n). It is the first algorithm to figure out all the shortest paths between any pair of vertices in a kind of deterministic graphs. For Farey networks, the existence of an efficient routing protocol is of interest to design practical communication algorithms in relation to dynamical processes (including synchronization and structural controllability) and also to understand the underlying mechanisms that have shaped their particular structure.

  19. Label-Free Biosensors for Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Fang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Label-free biosensors for studying cell biology have finally come of age. Recent developments have advanced the biosensors from low throughput and high maintenance research tools to high throughput and low maintenance screening platforms. In parallel, the biosensors have evolved from an analytical tool solely for molecular interaction analysis to powerful platforms for studying cell biology at the whole cell level. This paper presents historical development, detection principles, and applications in cell biology of label-free biosensors. Future perspectives are also discussed.

  20. Conference on radionuclide labelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The South African Medical Research Council presented this conference on radionuclide labelled cellular blood elements with application in atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The conference was held in Bloemfontein from 3-6 February 1986. This work only consists of the abstracts of the seminars that were delivered on the conference. The radioisotopes that occur most of the time in the abstracts include Indium 111, Indium 114, Chromium 51, Iodine 125, Iodine 131 and Carbon 14. Especially Indium 111 seems to be the method of choice for all labelling

  1. Synthesis of isotopically labeled threat agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, D.G.; Reisfeld, M.J.; Whaley, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    The blister agents, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (HD or sulfur mustard) and dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine (L or Lewisite) were prepared with carbon-14 at all carbon atoms. The synthesis of HD proceeded from 2-bromoethanol. In the Lewisite synthesis, chloro(2-chlorovinyl)mercury, from acetylene, was converted to L, along with the bis- and tris-(chlorovinyl) compounds, which were separated by thin layer chromatography. The nerve agents, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GB or sarin) and pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GD or soman) were labeled in the methyl group attached to phosphorus with either deuterium, tritium, or carbon-14 starting from the labeled iodomethane. 4 refs

  2. Magnetic Relaxation Detector for Microbead Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Paul Peng; Skucha, Karl; Duan, Yida; Megens, Mischa; Kim, Jungkyu; Izyumin, Igor I.; Gambini, Simone; Boser, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    A compact and robust magnetic label detector for biomedical assays is implemented in 0.18-μm CMOS. Detection relies on the magnetic relaxation signature of a microbead label for improved tolerance to environmental variations and relaxed dynamic range requirement, eliminating the need for baseline calibration and reference sensors. The device includes embedded electromagnets to eliminate external magnets and reduce power dissipation. Correlated double sampling combined with offset servo loops and magnetic field modulation, suppresses the detector offset to sub-μT. Single 4.5-μm magnetic beads are detected in 16 ms with a probability of error <0.1%. PMID:25308988

  3. 'Extreme' porn? The implications of a label

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Despite its prevalence, the term ‘extreme’ has received little critical attention. ‘Extremity’ is routinely employed in ways that imply its meanings are self-evident. However, the adjective itself offers no such clarity. This article focuses on one particular use of the term – ‘extreme porn’ – in order to illustrate a broader set of concerns about the pitfalls of labelling. The label ‘extreme’ is typically employed as a substitute for engaging with the term’s supposed referents (here, pornogr...

  4. Quality assurance, information tracking, and consumer labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caswell, Julie A. . E-mail caswell@resecon.umass.edu

    2006-01-01

    Reducing marine-based public health risk requires strict control of several attributes of seafood products, often including location and conditions of catch or aquaculture, processing, and handling throughout the supply chain. Buyers likely will also be interested in other attributes of these products such as eco-friendliness or taste. Development of markets for improved safety, as well as for other quality attributes, requires an effective certification and tracking of these attributes as well as their communication to buyers. Several challenges must be met if labeling, particularly consumer labeling, is to support the development of markets for improved seafood safety

  5. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

  6. Synthesis of carbon-13 labeled ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, R.S.P.; Stelzer, L.S.; Stolle, W.T.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the synthesis of 2-[4-(2-methyl)propyl-phenyl]propionic acid (ibuprofen) labeled with carbon-13 either at the terminal methyl carbons, or at the methine carbon of the isobutyl side chain. The synthetic route involves the removal of the isopropyl group in the isobutyl side-chain of ibuprofen via 2-[4-(2-methyl-1-propenyl)phenyl]propionic acid, followed by restoration of the isopropyl group with a Wittig reaction, using appropriate carbon-13 labeled acetone as the precursor of the isopropyl group. Interesting NMR coupling data attributable to phosphorous and carbon-13 are presented in the experimental section. (author)

  7. Research on consumer reactions to nutrition labelling (FLABEL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    Nutrition labels are potentially a major instrument for enabling consumers to make healthier food choices, but current insights into how nutrition labels are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations are limited, making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies and the eva......Nutrition labels are potentially a major instrument for enabling consumers to make healthier food choices, but current insights into how nutrition labels are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations are limited, making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies...... and the evaluation of existing ones difficult. Recent and ongoing research, including research in the European Union (EU)-funded FP7 project FLABEL (Food Labelling to Advance Better Education for Life), is accumulating evidence not only on consumer liking of labels and on self-reported use, but also on labels...

  8. Food Labeling and Consumer Associations with Health, Safety, and Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K; Doran, Neal

    2016-12-01

    The food supply is complicated and consumers are increasingly calling for labeling on food to be more informative. In particular, consumers are asking for the labeling of food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMO) based on health, safety, and environmental concerns. At issue is whether the labels that are sought would accurately provide the information desired. The present study examined consumer (n = 181) perceptions of health, safety and the environment for foods labeled organic, natural, fat free or low fat, GMO, or non-GMO. Findings indicated that respondents consistently believed that foods labeled GMO are less healthy, safe and environmentally-friendly compared to all other labels (ps labels mean something to consumers, but that a disconnect may exist between the meaning associated with the label and the scientific consensus for GMO food. These findings may provide insight for the development of labels that provide information that consumers seek.

  9. Insight into the labeling mechanism of acceleration selective arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Sophie; Petersen, Esben T; Van Osch, Matthias J P

    2017-04-01

    Acceleration selective arterial spin labeling (AccASL) is a spatially non-selective labeling technique, used in traditional ASL methods, which labels spins based on their flow acceleration rather than spatial localization. The exact origin of the AccASL signal within the vasculature is not completely understood. To obtain more insight into this, the acceleration selective module was performed followed by a velocity selective module, which is used in velocity selective arterial spin labeling (VS-ASL). Nine healthy volunteers were scanned with various combinations of the control and label conditions in both the acceleration and velocity selective module. The cut-off acceleration (0.59 m/s 2 ) or velocity (2 cm/s) was kept constant in one module, while it was varied over a large range in the other module. With the right subtractions this resulted in AccASL, VS-ASL, combined AccASL and VS-ASL signal, and signal from one module with crushing from the other. The label created with AccASL has an overlap of approximately 50% in the vascular region with VS-ASL, but also originates from smaller vessels closer to the capillaries. AccASL is able to label spins both in the macro- and meso-vasculature, as well as in the microvasculature.

  10. Are Luxury Brand Labels and "Green" Labels Costly Signals of Social Status? An Extended Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a "green" label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status.

  11. What Drives Adoption of National Labels as Global Reference Labels? A Case Study With the JPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shimon; Matsui, Rie; Kikuchi, Chikara

    2018-01-01

    Pharmaceutical labeling describes the safe and effective use of an approved product. Such information may be provided to consumers and/or health care physicians, and available online or in the pack in a variety of different formats according to local or regional regulations. Depending on the Health Authority (HA), content within a nationally approved label is generally reliant on two primary sources, a Company Core Data Sheet (CCDS), and the text approved by the Health Authority. Content in the nationally approved label may differ from the CCDS for a variety of reasons. In some countries, HAs require the Marketing Authorization Holder (MAH) to base their national label on an already approved label in a "major market" economy, only approving changes to the label when there is evidence that the major market has already approved. In this paper, we examine recent steps taken by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) and Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) to change labeling regulation in Japan in the context of the recently communicated national strategy, and assess whether this may impact on uptake of the J-PI as a reference label. Decreases in approval times by PMDA for new products, development of basic principles on multiregional clinical trials, greater transparency of content on the PMDA website, and increasing outreach to other Asian Agencies in recent years are highlighted. Labeling harmonization across regions, particularly of safety-related information, represents a key factor in promoting patient safety and risk communication, and is a worthy topic for future ICH consideration.

  12. Understanding Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Prenatal Tests Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... be done before pregnancy or at the first prenatal visit. If there is Rh incompatibility, treatments can ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reporting & Auditing Grant Transfer Grant Closeout Contracts & Small Business Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) Funding for ... disease will go for you is called prognosis. It can be hard to understand what prognosis means ...

  14. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  15. Thermometers: Understand the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the options Thermometers come in a variety of styles. Understand the different types of thermometers and how ... MA. Fever in infants and children: Pathophysiology and management. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 23, ...

  16. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  17. Tinnitus: Understanding the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Tinnitus Association Donate Become A Member Member Login Find A Provider Search form Search Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & ...

  18. Economics and International Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramesh

    1983-01-01

    A methodology linking the teaching of economics to the promotion of international understanding is discussed. The content of a course dealing with the new international economic order is examined. (Author/RM)

  19. Understanding the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... side effects from the cancer treatments you received. Video Series This video series offers the perspectives of ... care teams (PDF-210KB). Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three cancer patients ...

  1. Understanding the DASH diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000784.htm Understanding the DASH diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The DASH diet is low in salt and rich in fruits, ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer What Is ... Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources ...

  5. Understanding the Opioid Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Opioid Overdose Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Opioid Overdose Opioid Basics Understanding the Epidemic Commonly Used ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... doctor to give you an accurate prognosis. Understanding the Difference Between Cure and Remission Cure means that ... about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this video on YouTube. Andrew wants ...

  7. Understanding your hospital bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000881.htm Understanding your hospital bill To use the sharing features on this ... help you save money. Charges Listed on Your Hospital Bill A hospital bill will list the major ...

  8. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Feb 19,2018 What do your ... this chart: English | Spanish | Traditional Chinese Enter Your Blood Pressure Systolic mm Hg (upper #) Diastolic mm Hg (lower #) ...

  9. Use and understanding of nutrition information on foodlabels in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Fernandez-Celemin, Laura; Wills, Josephine M.

    2010-01-01

    =2337), Germany (n=1963), Poland (n=1800) and Hungary (n=1804), supplemented by questionnaires filled out at home and returned (overall response rate 50.3%). Use of labels was measured by combining in-store observation and in-store interview on concrete purchases in six product categories. Understanding...... of GDA front-of-pack nutrition labels was measured by a variety of tasks dealing with conceptual understanding, substantial understanding and health inferences. Demographics, nutrition knowledge, and interest in healthy eating were measured as potential determinants. Results: Across six product...... of GDA labels was high in the UK, Sweden and Germany, and more limited in the other countries. Regression analysis showed that, in addition to country-specific differences, use and understanding are also affected by differences in interest in healthy eating and in nutrition knowledge and by social grade...

  10. Spanish Parents' Emotion Talk and their Children's Understanding of Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eAznar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Relations between parent-child emotion talk and children’s emotion understanding were examined in 63 Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.35 months, SD = 3.86 and 6-year-old (M = 76.62 months, SD = 3.91 children. Parent-child emotion talk was analyzed during two storytelling tasks: a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences. Children’s emotion understanding was assessed twice through a standardized test of emotion comprehension (TEC; Pons, Harris, & de Rosnay, 2004, once before one of the two parent-child storytelling sessions and again six months later. Mothers’ use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task predicted children’s emotion understanding after controlling for children’s previous emotion understanding. Whereas fathers’ use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task was correlated with children’s emotion understanding, it did not predict children’s emotion understanding after controlling for previous emotion understanding. Implications of these findings for future research on children’s socioemotional development are discussed.  

  11. Persepsi Perokok Aktif Terhadap Label Pictorial Health Warning pada Masyarakat Desa Rumah Kabanjahe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Adi Putra Sitepu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of this study by the Government Regulation No. 109 of 2012 on the inclusion of images and text health warnings / pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs. The norm of this aims to reduce the negative health effects, protect productive age population and increasing public awareness of the dangers of smoking. Against the background of the norm of the government, the study was intended to determine the perception of active smokers the pictorial health warning labels on packs of cigarettes there. In this study, the method used is descriptive method with qualitative data. Data collected through library research informant interviews, and documentation. The results showed that smokers know their pictorial health warning labels on packs of cigarettes and smokers can understand the meaning of their label. Knowledge smokers against pictorial health warning label does not make the smokers to quit smoking, they continue to smoke because of their experience does not suffer due to take up smoking, and the effects felt far different from what was stated on the packaging that has been made. Thus we can say the perception of smokers tend to deny the existence of the warning label.

  12. Typography And Local Culture How Local Values Influence Batik Label Design In Yogyakarta And Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Zainal Muttakin Raden

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Batik was incorporated into the Indonesian culture since the Majapahit era. At that time the royal families of Majapahit Kingdom wore batik clothes for activities such as religious event or kingdom event. Since then batik was seen as a symbol of nobility. The growth of batik industry especially in Yogyakarta and Surakarta region has produced a diverse motive and fabric quality of batik clothes. To help differentiate between these batik clothes the owner of batik industries created batik labels with intricate design. This study focused on analysing the intricate design and typography found within three batik labels each from Yogyakarta and Surakarta Region to better understand the role of local culture and values in creating the batik label design using vernacular typography and cultural approach. The result shows that the local culture and values symbolically enforced by each keraton kingdom-like body and social system in Yogyakarta and Surakarta influenced the batik label design. The high cultured values of Yogyakarta keraton resulted in a more formal and rigid typefaces used in the batik label giving off a classical feeling. Meanwhile the more grass rooted values of Surakarta urban culture resulted in a fluid and flowing typefaces giving off a trendy casual feeling.

  13. Consumer Food Security and Labeling Intervention on Food Products through Public Policies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacinia Crina Petrescu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The correct understanding of consumers’ food labeling knowledge and perceptions is a prerequisite to develop and implement coherent and appropriate food safety policies. One objective of the paper was to discover how often consumers access and use specific food label information. Another objective was to explore stakeholders’ preferences for several public policy options relevant for food safety. In this respect, a survey on a sample of 312 Romanian consumers and the evaluation of several public policy options by four stakeholder groups (food producers and sellers, doctors, fitness trainers, and consumers were carried out. The results revealed that the most frequently read types of information on the label were “expiration date” and “price”, closely followed by “quantity” and “brand”. Among tested public policies, those related to the traffic light labels and to the social interest messages with health claims were rewarded with high scores by investigated stakeholders. Although nutrition has a decisive impact on health state, nutrition information was not frequently read by people, thus justifying the implementation of a public policy meant to enhance consumers’ interest in and reading frequency of nutrition information on food label.

  14. Governance of private label as a strategic asset: developing a brand valuation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Giovannini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at identifying which factors should be considered in the building of an economic evaluation model for the private label brand. In fact, some specific characteristics of private label, with respect to industrial brand, make unusable the consolidated models available. The results of the paper are the definition of some specific factors of private label, the assumptions about how these features impact on the traditional economic evaluation models and how these could be included in a model. Because of the complexity of the topic, the hypothesis is to build a model of synthesis, made of two parts: one part for a Financial-Based evaluation of Brand Equity, with the addition of some specific factors and indicators to the traditional formulas, while the other part is for a Consumer-based evaluation of Brand Equity, thanks to an index that summarizes the strength of private label brands from the consumer perspective. The private label economic evaluation has some relevant managerial implications on the retail system, on the vertical supply chain relationships and on the understanding of the strategic nature of this asset.

  15. Visualization of coral host-pathogen interactions using a stable GFP-labeled Vibrio coralliilyticus strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, F. Joseph; Krediet, Cory J.; Garren, Melissa; Stocker, Roman; Winn, Karina; Wilson, Bryan; Huete-Stauffer, Carla; Willis, Bette L.; Bourne, David G.

    2015-06-01

    The bacterium Vibrio coralliilyticus has been implicated as the causative agent of coral tissue loss diseases (collectively known as white syndromes) at sites across the Indo-Pacific and represents an emerging model pathogen for understanding the mechanisms linking bacterial infection and coral disease. In this study, we used a mini-Tn7 transposon delivery system to chromosomally label a strain of V. coralliilyticus isolated from a white syndrome disease lesion with a green fluorescent protein gene (GFP). We then tested the utility of this modified strain as a research tool for studies of coral host-pathogen interactions. A suite of biochemical assays and experimental infection trials in a range of model organisms confirmed that insertion of the GFP gene did not interfere with the labeled strain's virulence. Using epifluorescence video microscopy, the GFP-labeled strain could be reliably distinguished from non-labeled bacteria present in the coral holobiont, and the pathogen's interactions with the coral host could be visualized in real time. This study demonstrates that chromosomal GFP labeling is a useful technique for visualization and tracking of coral pathogens and provides a novel tool to investigate the role of V. coralliilyticus in coral disease pathogenesis.

  16. What's in a Name? Health Care Providers' Perceptions of Pediatric Pain Patients Based on Diagnostic Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Taylor A; Gorodzinsky, Ayala Y; Finley, G A; Sangster, Michael; Chorney, Jill

    2017-08-01

    Diagnostic labels can help patients better understand their symptoms and can influence providers' treatment planning and patient interactions. Recurrent pain is common in childhood; however, there are various diagnostic labels used. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of diagnostic labels on pediatric health care providers' perceptions of pediatric chronic pain patients. Using an online survey, providers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 vignette conditions (differing only in diagnostic label provided) and completed questionnaires about their perceptions of the vignette patient. Responses from 58 participants were analyzed. The 2 groups, based on diagnostic conditions used (fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain) did not differ significantly on general demographics and health care providers' perceptions of the patient. Perceived origin of the pain influenced providers' perceptions; pain of a perceived medical origin was negatively correlated with stigmatization and positively correlated with sympathy. Perceived psychological origin was positively correlated with stigmatization and providers' age. Health care providers' perceptions of children's pain are more likely influenced by the presumed etiology rather than the diagnostic label used. Pain believed to be more medically based was associated with more positive reactions from providers (ie, less stigmatization). Older providers in particular perceived the patient more negatively if they believe the pain to be psychologically based. The findings of this pediatric study replicated findings from adult literature on chronic pain, suggesting that children and adults are subject to negative perceptions from health care providers when the providers believe the pain to be psychological in origin.

  17. In vivo ultrasound and photoacoustic monitoring of mesenchymal stem cells labeled with gold nanotracers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Yun Nam

    Full Text Available Longitudinal monitoring of cells is required in order to understand the role of delivered stem cells in therapeutic neovascularization. However, there is not an imaging technique that is capable of quantitative, longitudinal assessment of stem cell behaviors with high spatial resolution and sufficient penetration depth. In this study, in vivo and in vitro experiments were performed to demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasound-guided photoacoustic (US/PA imaging to monitor mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs labeled with gold nanotracers (Au NTs. The Au NT labeled MSCs, injected intramuscularly in the lower limb of the Lewis rat, were detected and spatially resolved. Furthermore, our quantitative in vitro cell studies indicate that US/PA imaging is capable of high detection sensitivity (1×10⁴ cells/mL of the Au NT labeled MSCs. Finally, Au NT labeled MSCs captured in the PEGylated fibrin gel system were imaged in vivo, as well as in vitro, over a one week time period, suggesting that longitudinal cell tracking using US/PA imaging is possible. Overall, Au NT labeling of MSCs and US/PA imaging can be an alternative approach in stem cell imaging capable of noninvasive, sensitive, quantitative, longitudinal assessment of stem cell behaviors with high spatial and temporal resolutions at sufficient depths.

  18. Fostering Sustainable Travel Behavior: Role of Sustainability Labels and Goal-Directed Behavior Regarding Touristic Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfriede Penz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals around the globe engage in sustainable consumption in their everyday life, e.g., when it comes to individual transportation. Although tourism behavior contributes to global carbon emissions to a considerable extent, consumers’ awareness of sustainability in the tourism industry is still underresearched. Placing eco-labels next to tourist offers on websites might direct consumer’s perception towards more sustainable offers. By employing eye-tracking techniques and surveys, this research aimed at linking information about sustainable tourist offers, perception of eco-labels and subsequent perception and preferences of tourism services. In Study 1, eight existing hotel offers with sustainability certification (four different labels were selected and their websites presented to 48 participants (four websites each, whose eye movements were tracked. After looking at each website, they rated the overall appearance of the website. Based on the results, in the second study, participants’ (n = 642 awareness of labels, their values and attitudes regarding sustainable behavior were found to influence their preference for certified tour operators. In addition, individuals’ ideas of their perfect holidays were captured to allow a better understanding of their motivation. This research proposes implementing appropriate sustainable labeling in the tourism industry to increase awareness about sustainability among travelers and subsequently increase sustainable travel behavior.

  19. Understanding Conflict?...Maybe!

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony P. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    The premise of this paper is the study in the field of conflict andconflict resolution and that conflict and conflict resolution are usefulareas of focus in order to better understand human behavior. Additionally,I will present data that will highlight the notion that conflict is not in itselfa bad thing and that conflict has the capability to be utilized as a vehiclefor understanding the many contradictions that are necessarily present inour efforts to be social beings.

  20. Understanding Family Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, G

    2012-01-01

    This essential text will help students and those already working with children to understand both theoretically and practically, what may constitute a ‘family’. It explores how to build relationships with a child’s family to ensure early years settings and schools are working in partnership with children’s home environments, thereby supporting the best possible learning outcomes for children. It will help the reader to develop their skills, knowledge and understanding of their professional pr...

  1. What is the value given by consumers to nutritional label information? Results from a large investigation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Dario; Ballali, Simonetta; Vögele, Claus; Galasso, Francesca; Widhalm, Kurt; Berchialla, Paola; Baldi, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition labels on prepackaged foods have been widely advocated as a medium to foster healthier eating habits in the general population. The study is aimed at understanding how people value nutritional information on food labels, in particular for front-of-pack labeling. A phone-assisted survey of 7550 consumers in 16 European countries was conducted. People were asked about their opinion on nutritional information provided at different levels, from the media to public institutions, and their commitment to healthy behavior. The value of pack labeling was estimated using a willingness-to-pay (WTP) elicitation technique. Older age groups (>45 years old), members of a larger family, people of low income or low education, and those who perceived themselves to be obese valued front-of-pack nutritional labeling. WTP estimates across all countries provided an average accepted added price of $4.32 to the overall yearly food expenditure (95% confidence interval, 3.33-3.68). Overall, perceived value of labeling is low. However, factors affecting the value for consumer of nutritional labeling appear to be strictly linked to the socioeconomic and health status of the respondents.

  2. Orthogonal optical labeling based on a 40 Gbit/s DPSK payload and a 2.5 Gbit/s IM label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Nan; Xu, Lin; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva

    2004-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate label encoding/erasure and transmission for an orthogonally labeled signal using a 40 Gbit/s DPSK payload and an IM label. The influence of the modulation depth and the label erasure are discussed.......We experimentally demonstrate label encoding/erasure and transmission for an orthogonally labeled signal using a 40 Gbit/s DPSK payload and an IM label. The influence of the modulation depth and the label erasure are discussed....

  3. On d-antimagic labelings of plane graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Baca

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of labeling the vertices and edges of a plane graph in such a way that the labels of the vertices and edges surrounding that face add up to a weight of that face. A labeling of a plane graph is called d-antimagic if for every positive integer s, the s-sided face weights form an arithmetic progression with a difference d. Such a labeling is called super if the smallest possible labels appear on the vertices. In the paper we examine the existence of such labelings for several families of plane graphs.

  4. Facial Emotion Labeling in Language Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunay-El Allam, Maryse; Guidetti, Michele; Chaix, Yves; Reilly, Judy

    2011-01-01

    The few studies that have investigated emotion labeling in children with specific language impairment (SLI) have generally focused on global identification performances and appear contradictory. The current study is a fine-grained examination of how children with SLI and typical peers differ in the accuracy of their emotional lexicon use. Children…

  5. Neuropeptides labelled with [sup 35]S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Nispen, J.W. van; Sperling, E.M.G.; Vader, J.F. (Organon Int BV, Oss (Netherlands))

    1993-01-01

    Methionine and cysteine containing peptides can be labelled with [sup 35]S by coupling of [sup 35]S-cysteine or [sup 35]S-methionine with a large excess of suitability protected peptide precursors. This is illustrated for [pGlu[sup 4], Cyt[sup 6

  6. Off-label utilization of antipsychotics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    As part of a pharmacovigilance/pharmacoepidemiology program, all drugs given on 5 reference days (1999 – 2001) in the 98- bed psychiatric ... Key words: Antipsychotic drugs; Off-label use; Prescription habits; Psychotic disorders; Affective disorders ..... Laux G, Baier D. Quality-monitoring of psychotropic drug therapy in.

  7. Synthesis of carbon-14 labeled doxylamine succinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.N.; Damodaran, K.M.

    1986-05-01

    Doxylamine succinate, N,N-dimethyl-2-(1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)-ethoxy)ethanamine succinate is an antihistamine used primarily as a sedative. Carbon-14 labeled doxylamine succinate, required for toxicological studies, was synthesized in two steps starting from 2-benzoyl pyridine.

  8. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol ... to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales ( ...

  9. Labelling of tung oil with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, R.J.; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method for labelling Tung Oil with 131 I is described. The oil is dissolved in peroxide free, dry ethyl ether and then it is treated with 131 ICl. A 2,5% mercuric acetate solution in glacial acetic acid is added as a catalist. A radiochemical yield of 100% is achieved in 20 minutes. (author)

  10. 21 CFR 640.70 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and 610.61 of this chapter, the following information shall appear on the label affixed to each... size and type of print as the proper name. If the Source Plasma has a reactive screening test for... conspicuously state as applicable, “STORAGE TEMPERATURE EXCEEDED −20 °C” or “SHIPPING TEMPERATURE EXCEEDED −5 °C”. ...

  11. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Charles Davis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs. Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels and edge weights to graph structure.

  12. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Franklin gothic type. All type is centered. Spacing of the label is 1/4″ (.64 cm) between the top border... letterspace set at 101/2 points. The octane number is set in 96 point Franklin gothic condensed with 1/8″ (.32...

  13. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE... label of all products for which regulations have been published under this part: (a) The term “Noise Rating” if the product produces noise, or the term “Noise Reduction Rating” if the product reduces noise...

  14. 40 CFR 156.10 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... statements as prescribed in subpart D of this part for human and domestic animal hazards and subpart E of... shall be expressed in conventional American units of fluid ounces, pints, quarts, and gallons. (3) If... labeling.” (iii) The site(s) of application, as for example the crops, animals, areas, or objects to be...

  15. 75 FR 21007 - Food Labeling; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... small food manufacturers and startups originating from the area covered by DALDO. DALDO presents the... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Food Labeling; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public...

  16. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling. 660.28 Section 660.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL... change, precipitate, that may indicate possible deterioration of the product. (c) Package insert. Each...

  17. 21 CFR 660.55 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling. 660.55 Section 660.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL...., turbidity, color change, precipitate, that may indicate possible deterioration of the product. (13...

  18. Core labeling of adenovirus with EGFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Long P.; Le, Helen N.; Nelson, Amy R.; Matthews, David A.; Yamamoto, Masato; Curiel, David T.

    2006-01-01

    The study of adenovirus could greatly benefit from diverse methods of virus detection. Recently, it has been demonstrated that carboxy-terminal EGFP fusions of adenovirus core proteins Mu, V, and VII properly localize to the nucleus and display novel function in the cell. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the core proteins may serve as targets for labeling the adenovirus core with fluorescent proteins. To this end, we constructed various chimeric expression vectors with fusion core genes (Mu-EGFP, V-EGFP, preVII-EGFP, and matVII-EGFP) while maintaining expression of the native proteins. Expression of the fusion core proteins was suboptimal using E1 expression vectors with both conventional CMV and modified (with adenovirus tripartite leader sequence) CMV5 promoters, resulting in non-labeled viral particles. However, robust expression equivalent to the native protein was observed when the fusion genes were placed in the deleted E3 region. The efficient Ad-wt-E3-V-EGFP and Ad-wt-E3-preVII-EGFP expression vectors were labeled allowing visualization of purified virus and tracking of the viral core during early infection. The vectors maintained their viral function, including viral DNA replication, viral DNA encapsidation, cytopathic effect, and thermostability. Core labeling offers a means to track the adenovirus core in vector targeting studies as well as basic adenovirus virology

  19. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to ...

  20. Pitch memory, labelling and disembedding in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Pamela

    2003-05-01

    Autistic musical savants invariably possess absolute pitch ability and are able to disembed individual musical tones from chords. Enhanced pitch discrimination and memory has been found in non-savant individuals with autism who also show superior performance on visual disembedding tasks. These experiments investigate the extent that enhanced disembedding ability will be found within the musical domain in autism. High-functioning children with autism, together with age- and intelligence-matched controls, participated in three experiments testing pitch memory, labelling and chord disembedding. The findings from experiment 1 showed enhanced pitch memory and labelling in the autism group. In experiment 2, when subjects were pre-exposed to labelled individual tones, superior chord segmentation was also found. However, in experiment 3, when disembedding performance was less reliant on pitch memory, no group differences emerged and the children with autism, like controls, perceived musical chords holistically. These findings indicate that pitch memory and labelling is superior in autism and can facilitate performance on musical disembedding tasks. However, when task performance does not rely on long-term pitch memory, autistic children, like controls, succumb to the Gestalt qualities of chords.

  1. Discussion on posting and labeling for radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Fabio F.

    2009-01-01

    The radioprotection aims the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation or radioactive substances as well as the safety of radiation sources. As ionizing radiation is not perceived by human senses, the warning signs and labels on radiation sources and the safety posters in controlled and supervised areas have an important role to keep the doses and risks as low as reasonably achievable, to prevent radiological accidents and to mitigate their consequences. In Brazil, several technical regulations require such safety labels and posters, however, despite their importance, there is quite few guidance about their format or contents. In this paper the posting and labeling requirements for radiological control existing in Brazilian technical regulations are discussed, confronting them with national, foreign and international technical standards and by drawing up a parallel with requirements of technical regulations from other countries. Changes are suggested in some parts of the national regulations, to prevent some differences in the current guidance, allowing the optimization of posting and labeling programs of radiological facilities. (author)

  2. 78 FR 2200 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... and help ensure consumers can view the labels when they are shopping online. In particular, it will... requirements for manufacturers, clarifying testing requirements and enforcement provisions, improving online... requirements, and improvements to the Rule's online disclosure requirements--as well as several less...

  3. Synthesis of deuterium-labeled prochlorperazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, E M; Gurnsey, T S; Shetty, H U; Midha, K K

    1983-06-01

    The propylpiperazine side chain of prochlorperazine was labeled with two, four, or six deuterium atoms by lithium aluminum deuteride reduction of the appropriate amide. The isotopic purity of the products after correcting for chlorine isotopes was greater than 95.7%.

  4. Hidden Markov models for labeled sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    1994-01-01

    A hidden Markov model for labeled observations, called a class HMM, is introduced and a maximum likelihood method is developed for estimating the parameters of the model. Instead of training it to model the statistics of the training sequences it is trained to optimize recognition. It resembles MMI...

  5. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If ... take you to a site outside of KidsHealth's control. About KidsHealth Nemours.org Reading BrightStart! Contact Us ...

  6. 40 CFR 85.1411 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1411 Labeling... shall be affixed to the rebuilt engine which states, “Certified to EPA Urban Bus Engine Rebuild... warranter) to EPA Urban Bus Engine Rebuild Emission Standards”; and (2) A list of the vehicles or engines...

  7. Preparation of C-14 labeled flumorph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She Dongmei; Qu Zhe; Huang Qiliang; Li Fengmin

    2007-01-01

    Flumorph is a newly invented systemic fungicide. Radio-chemical yield of the target product was 35.9% through three steps of 14 C-labeling synthesis, and its radio-chemical purity was 97.8% by TLC analysis. (authors)

  8. Off-label utilization of antipsychotics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    seldom received a combination of an atypical and a conventional antipsychotic, whereas a lesser number of patients with off- label indications received atypical antipsychotics less often than those of the two comparison groups (p<0.05). Stepwise logistic regression revealed that patients with a psychotic disorder were more ...

  9. Enantiospecific tritium labeling of 28-homocastasterone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elbert, Tomáš; Patil, Mahadeo Rajshekhar; Marek, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2017), s. 176-182 ISSN 0362-4803 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550801 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 28-homocastasterone * brassinosteroids * enantiospecific reaction * tritium dehalogenation * tritium labeling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 1.745, year: 2016

  10. Frustrated Lewis pairs-assisted tritium labeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, Aleš; Široká, Sabina; Elbert, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2016), s. 219 ISSN 2336-7202. [Sjezd českých a slovenských chemických společností /68./. 04.09.2016-07.09.2016, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : frustrated Lewis pairs * one-pot synthesis * tritium -labeling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  11. 21 CFR 530.12 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a veterinarian or dispensed by a pharmacist on the order of a veterinarian shall bear or be... information shall include the following: (a) The name and address of the prescribing veterinarian. If the drug is dispensed by a pharmacy on the order of a veterinarian, the labeling shall include the name of the...

  12. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 - 300¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  13. The Positive Side of Negative Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Jonge, de J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical labels signal positive ethical quality of a product but fail to create massive demand for such products. Based on regulatory focus theory and prospect theory, it is argued that negative signalling of low ethical quality would have a stronger effect on the adoption of ethical products than

  14. The big chill: interpersonal coldness and emotion-labeling skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Sara K; Robinson, Michael D; Wilkowski, Benjamin M; Hanson, Devin M

    2012-06-01

    Interpersonally cold (relative to warm) individuals may be less skilled in inferring the emotional states of others, a factor that should contribute to their poorer social relationships. Systematic support for this hypothesis was obtained in 4 studies (total N = 434 undergraduates) involving diverse emotion- and affect-decoding tasks. Specifically, relatively cold individuals exhibited lower accuracy in decoding emotional facial expressions (Study 1), in labeling the emotions of others from audio and video clips (Study 2), in predicting the emotions of others from social scenario descriptions (Study 3), and in the normative accuracy of their word evaluations (Study 4). Altogether, the results demonstrate that cold individuals appear broadly deficient in linking emotion and affect to relevant environmental stimuli. Implications of the findings for understanding the nature and correlates of interpersonal coldness are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Raman spectroscopy of isotopically labeled two-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbac, Martin [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Dolejskova 3, 18223 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Chemistry, Palacky University, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kong, Jing [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kavan, Ladislav [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Dolejskova 3, 18223 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Dresselhaus, Mildred S. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Physics, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    A detailed understanding of graphene properties both in its neutral and doped states is an important prerequisite for applications of this new material in electronic devices. We used electrochemical doping to study the influence of charge on isotopically labeled two-layer graphene. No change of the G mode intensity was observed at electrode potentials between -1.5 and 1 V. At high positive electrode potentials (>1 V) we observed enhancement of the G mode intensity due to partial removal of interfering resonant transitions. Hence, we confirmed that in case of absence of the enhancement due to a specific orientation between the two layers the Raman spectroelectrochemistry of non-stacked two-layer graphene mimics that of one-layer graphene. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Raman spectroscopy of isotopically labeled two-layer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalbac, Martin; Kong, Jing; Kavan, Ladislav; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed understanding of graphene properties both in its neutral and doped states is an important prerequisite for applications of this new material in electronic devices. We used electrochemical doping to study the influence of charge on isotopically labeled two-layer graphene. No change of the G mode intensity was observed at electrode potentials between -1.5 and 1 V. At high positive electrode potentials (>1 V) we observed enhancement of the G mode intensity due to partial removal of interfering resonant transitions. Hence, we confirmed that in case of absence of the enhancement due to a specific orientation between the two layers the Raman spectroelectrochemistry of non-stacked two-layer graphene mimics that of one-layer graphene. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Preparation and surface labeling of murine eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.W.; Cruise, K.M.; Mitchell, G.F.; Watt, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    Eosinophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated from the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice infected with the parasite Mesocestoides corti. Approximately 4 x 10 7 eosinophils (purity, 50%) could be harvested from each mouse. A high yield and purity of eosinophils was obtained from the peritoneal cells of infected male BALB/c mice using density centrifugation on a gradient of slightly hypotonic colloidal silica sol (Percoll). After initial irradiation of the mice to lower the lymphocyte contamination, subsequent density gradient (and where nescessary sedimentation velocity) centrifugation yielded 10 8 eosinophils (purity >95%) from six to eight mice. It was also possible to isolate small numbers of eosinophils (2 x 10 4 cells/minute, purity >99%) without irradiating the mice. This could be achieved by separating the density gradient purified peritoneal cells by light-scatter on a Becton-Dickinson cell sorter (FACS II). Analysis of proteins extracted from eosinophils using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed a group of high molecular weight proteins (between 250K and 160K) which were not as distinctive in the neutrophil profile. Surface labeling was performed, before the cell separation, by using 125 I and 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3α,6α-diphenylglycoluril. Only five 125 I-labeled proteins were detected initially (all with apparent molecular weights >50,000). No 125 I appeared to be associated with actin under the conditions used for surface labeling. Four of the eosinophil surface labeled proteins corresponded to surface labeled proteins on neutrophils, but the major surface component of the eosinophils (MW 79,000) appeared to be smaller than the major neutrophil protein (MW 90,000). (author)

  18. The production of understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Bruce G

    2003-12-01

    While there is little doubt that sociological theory and research has had an important impact on the way people think about health and health care, mental health and medical sociologists are often confronted with challenges concerning the utility of the work that they do. Among the doubters are deans, funding agencies and family members. We are challenged by the ascendency of biological interpretations of human behaviors, by the incompatibility between the contextual view we prefer and the very strong individualistic orientation of our culture, and by the fact that we do not have an applied arm that trains the professionals who treat health and mental-health conditions. How do we respond to this challenge? The title of this paper gives a short answer: "The Production of Understanding." I propose that a powerful but under-recognized value of our work is the generation of explanations about health and mental health matters that help people understand the other side of an "us"/"them" divide. We produce understanding in a context in which misunderstanding is regularly constructed by powerful people who offer victim-blaming explanations for the circumstances experienced by people with less power. The production of understanding serves as an important counterbalance to this tendency. Our work shapes the way people think about problems related to health and mental health, limits the power of inaccurate victim-blaming accounts and provides understanding about why health and mental health are mal-distributed among people from different social circumstances.

  19. Preparation of radioactive labelled compounds Pt.1. 82Br labelled organic bromine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.

    1988-05-01

    A simple method allowing the preparation of 82 Br labelled organic bromine compounds from olefins with chemical and radiochemical yields between 75 and 95% and the specific activities required, is described [fr

  20. Construction of an α-labeled tree from a given set of α-labeled trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sethuraman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the method of Koh et al. (1979 of combining known graceful trees to construct bigger graceful trees, a new class of graceful trees is constructed from a set of k known graceful trees, k≥2 in a specific way. In fact, each member of this new class of trees admits α-labeling, a stronger version of graceful labeling. Consequently, each member of this family of trees decomposes complete graphs and complete bipartite graphs.