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Sample records for understanding intimate partner

  1. Understanding intimate partner violence and its correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikumar Ramadugu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study assessed intimate partner violence (IPV and alcohol use in an urban population in Pune, India. The prevalence of IPV and alcohol use was assessed along with the correlation of IPV with alcohol and other variables. Materials and Methods: The study was cross-sectional, questionnaire-based. The materials used were the hurt insult threaten scream (HITS scale, the alcohol use disorders identification test, and a brief psychosocial questionnaire. Systematic random sampling was done on the target population. Regression analysis of various factors in relation to HITS score was done. Results: Sample size (n was 318 individuals. Prevalence of IPV was found to be 16% and the victims were mostly women. Prevalence of alcohol use was 44%, of which 8.9% were harmful users. No female subjects consumed alcohol, but 94% were aware of their husband's alcohol consumption. No significant correlation was found between IPV and education (P = 0.220 or income of women (P = 0.250. Alcohol consumption by males was a significant risk factor for women experiencing IPV (σ = +0.524; P< 0.001. Regression analysis also revealed that increasing marital age (P = 0.019 and financial support from in-laws (P = 0.040 were significantly protective. Conclusion: IPV prevalence was less than the national average for India, but the majority of victims was women. The most common type of IPV was verbal. Alcohol use prevalence was higher than the national average, but harmful use was lower. Alcohol use is a significant risk factor for IPV. Education and income of women were not significantly protective against IPV but increased age at marriage and support from in-laws were.

  2. Abused Women's Understandings of Intimate Partner Violence and the Link to Intimate Femicide

    OpenAIRE

    Dekel, Bianca; Andipatin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore how women survivors of intimate partner violence understand the abuse they endured and the possible link to intimate femicide. This is a qualitative study based on a feminist poststructuralist perspective. Seven South African women, aged 23 to 50 years, with a history of different manifestations of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) participated in open-ended interviews. The data was analyzed by means of discourse analysis. In their explanations, the women constructed...

  3. Abused Women's Understandings of Intimate Partner Violence and the Link to Intimate Femicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Dekel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explore how women survivors of intimate partner violence understand the abuse they endured and the possible link to intimate femicide. This is a qualitative study based on a feminist poststructuralist perspective. Seven South African women, aged 23 to 50 years, with a history of different manifestations of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV participated in open-ended interviews. The data was analyzed by means of discourse analysis. In their explanations, the women constructed gendered identities, which reflected contradictory and ambiguous subjective experiences. The women's understandings were filtered through the particular social context in which their abusive experiences occurred. The findings highlighted that contemplating femicide was too threatening, and consequently participants drew on discourses of femininity, romantic love, and others to justify their remaining in their violence-ridden relationships. It emphasizes the need for additional engagement in women's understandings of intimate femicide, as women who live in abusive relationships have largely been consigned to the periphery. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160196

  4. Intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronholm, Peter F; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard

    2011-05-15

    Intimate partner violence is a common source of physical, psychological, and emotional morbidity. In the United States, approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men annually are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner. Women are more likely than men to be injured, sexually assaulted, or murdered by an intimate partner. Studies suggest that one in four women is at lifetime risk. Physicians can use therapeutic relationships with patients to identify intimate partner violence, make brief office interventions, offer continuity of care, and refer them for subspecialty and community-based evaluation, treatment, and advocacy. Primary care physicians are ideally positioned to work from a preventive framework and address at-risk behaviors. Strategies for identifying intimate partner violence include asking relevant questions in patient histories, screening during periodic health examinations, and case finding in patients with suggestive signs or symptoms. Discussion needs to occur confidentially. Physicians should be aware of increased child abuse risk and negative effects on children's health observed in families with intimate partner violence. Physicians also should be familiar with local and national resources available to these patients.

  5. Collateral Intimate Partner Homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Collateral intimate partner homicide (CIPH is an underinvestigated genre of intimate partner violence (IPV where an individual(s connected to the IPV victim is murdered. We conducted a content analysis of a statewide database of CIPH newspaper articles (1990-2007. Out of 111 collateral murder victims, there were 84 IPV female focal victims and 84 male perpetrators. The most frequently reported CIPH decedent was the focal victim’s new partner (30%; 45% of focal victims were themselves killed. News reports framed CIPH as the unexpected result of interpersonal conflict, despite evidence of a systematic pattern of coercion and violence that capitulated in murder.

  6. Lethal intimate partner violence in later life: Understanding measurements, strengths, and limitations of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Sonia; Maxwell, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to conduct a critical analysis of existing family violence literature related to elder abuse homicide, also known as "eldercide." The focus relates to fatal violence perpetrated by current or former intimates. Men are the most likely victims of homicide but are rarely murdered by partners. Older women are most often killed in the home by a spouse or other family, consistent with the notion of "femicide." The Federal Bureau of Investigation Supplemental Homicide Reports and the Bureau of Justice Statistics National Crime Victimization Survey are utilized to illustrate trends by sex over time. Intimate partner homicide-suicide is examined via news surveillance. Strengths and limitations of data and methods are addressed. Homicide trends among the members of the baby boom cohort are predicted based on current and future patterns as they age. To facilitate prevention, researchers are encouraged to move beyond simple prevalence estimates toward greater understanding of complex trends, distinctions, and motivations of these violent deaths.

  7. Understanding adolescent and family influences on intimate partner psychological violence during emerging adulthood and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Brenda J; Neppl, Tricia K; Senia, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi-method, multi-trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and adulthood (27-31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14-15 years), the results show that exposure to parent-to-child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions.

  8. Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy. PMID:22723767

  9. Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men--five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists--and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Among the ordinary young men the theme 'too much gender equality leads to IPV' emerged, while among the activists the theme 'gender inequality is the root of IPV'. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.

  10. Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Goicolea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods: We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results: Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.Background: This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods: We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results: Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.

  11. Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence during Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection,…

  12. Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence During Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence i...

  13. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  14. A life course understanding of domestic and intimate partner violence in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y; Owusu, Adobea Y

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrate the long term effects of childhood violence on future victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). With a few exceptions from Asia, however, this literature is largely limited to North America and Europe. To date, contributions from sub-Saharan Africa remain scant. We began to fill this gap by applying the life course theory to retrospective data collected from 2289 women in Ghana. Specifically, we examined if women's childhood experiences of family violence were associated with their later victimization and/or their perpetration of IPV. We also explored the effect of the timing and continuity of family violence over the life course. Generally, we found that women with childhood experiences of violence were more likely to be victims and perpetrators of IPV than those with no such experiences. However, the effect and significance of the violence was more pronounced if it continued from early childhood (before age 15) to adulthood (after age 15). Violence experienced after age 15 was more significant than violence experienced before age 15, and women who perpetrated IPV were significantly more likely to be victimized themselves. To improve domestic violence interventions in Ghana, it is necessary to pay attention to victims' early childhood experiences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 911 Legal aid: Local shelter: ______________ Trusted friend: Clinic: _______________ Animal shelter: _______________ _______________ _______________ Journal of Midwifery ... Don’t Think That My Partner Means to Hurt Me or ...

  16. Understanding child maltreatment in Hanoi: intimate partner violence, low self-control, and social and child care support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R; Nguyen, Hai Trung; Kim, Jaeyop

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to understand the role of low self-control, stress, depression, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse, and social support and child care support in the etiology of child abuse and neglect in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study estimated the prevalence of child maltreatment in a randomly selected, representative cluster sample of 269 Hanoi families. Among these families, 21% reported severe abuse of their children in the past year, 12% reported neglect. Low self-control was found to be strongly associated with child abuse. Life stressors were found to be strongly associated with neglect, but only indirectly with child abuse. Counter-intuitively, a positive interaction between social support and low self-control was found, suggesting that social support of parents low in self-control is associated with more maltreatment. Implications for research, intervention, and criminological theory are discussed.

  17. Barriers to Screening for Intimate Partner Violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Simunovic, Nicole; Godin, Katelyn; Pham, Ngan K.; Bhandari, Mohit; Goslings, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health care providers play a vital role in the detection of intimate partner violence among their patients. Despite the recommendations for routine intimate partner violence screening in various medical settings, health care providers do not routinely screen for intimate partner

  18. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.

  19. Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Associated Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Intimate Partner Violence. African Journal of Reproductive Health March 2016; 20 (1): 31 child?”, and 2) “Have you ever been sexually abused as a child?” Response options were 'yes' and 'No'40. Sexual risk behaviour and reproductive health. Items included 'How many sexual partners have you had in the past 12 months ...

  20. RISK FACTORS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Atakay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained first. Afterwards, the findings of content analysis which was obtained from newspaper reports about femicide in 2013 have been shown and these findings have been discussed within the context of I-cube theory, respectively. Finally, solutions to prevent this violence has been suggested.

  1. Gender symmetry, sexism, and intimate partner violence.

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    Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-11-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in their relationships with intimate partners, the path models suggest that women's violence tends to be in reaction to male violence, whereas men tend to initiate violence and then their partners respond with violence. Benevolent sexism was shown to have a protective effect against men's violence toward partners. Findings highlight the importance of studying women's violence not only in the context of men's violence but also within a broader sociocultural context.

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Intimate partner violence, health behaviours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South African Stress and Health Study, we assessed exposure to intimate partner ..... Other drug use. 0.77. 0.11. 5.51. 0.795. Health-seeking behaviours. Partner stability. 0.95. 0.64. 1.42. 0.815. Sexual precautions. 0.86. 0.61. 1.22. 0.404. AIDS test.

  3. Adolescent Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn A; Greenman, Sarah J; Thornberry, Terence P; Henry, Kimberly L; Ireland, Timothy O

    2015-08-01

    The prevention of intimate partner violence is a desirable individual and public health goal for society. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive assessment of adolescent risk factors for partner violence in order to inform the development of evidence-based prevention strategies. We utilize data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a two decade long prospective study of a representative community sample of 1000 participants that has extensive measures of adolescent characteristics, contexts, and behaviors that are potential precursors of partner violence. Using a developmental psychopathology framework, we assess self-reported partner violence perpetration in emerging adulthood (ages 20-22) and in adulthood (ages 29-30) utilizing the Conflict Tactics Scale. Our results indicate that risk factors for intimate partner violence span several developmental domains and are substantially similar for both genders. Internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors as well as early intimate relationships are especially salient for both genders. Additionally, cumulative risk across a number of developmental domains places adolescents at particularly high risk of perpetrating partner violence. Implications for prevention include extending existing prevention programs that focus on high risk groups with multiple risks for developmental disruption, as well as focusing on preventing or mitigating identified risk factors across both genders.

  4. Mental health, intimate partner violence and HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD and depression symptoms reduces risk for future intimate partner violence among interpersonal trauma survivors. J Consult Clin Psychol 2011;79(2):193-202. DOI:10.1037/a0022512. 17. Joyner K, Theunissen L, de Villiers L, et al. Emergency care provision for, and psychological ...

  5. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  6. Does neighborhood environment differentiate intimate partner femicides from other femicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Layde, Peter M; Hamberger, L Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared with other femicides, whereas neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally representative survey to assess experiences of intimate partner violence,...

  8. Complex Personhood as the Context for Intimate Partner Victimization: One American Indian Woman's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and…

  9. Intimate Partner Violence in Nigeria Implications for Counselling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate partner violence is a social problem which continues to plague the nation. In the past, in many cultures, intimate partner violence was not viewed a serious problem. However, in recent years, it has begun to be viewed as a criminal problem. This paper explains the concepts of intimate partner violence. It discusses ...

  10. Intimate partner violence and pregnancy intentions: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kathleen; Creedy, Debra; Mitchell, Theresa

    2017-08-01

    In this qualitative study, we explored women's pregnancy intentions and experiences of intimate partner violence before, during and after pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies in the context of intimate partner violence can have serious health, social and economic consequences for women and their children. Feminist and phenomenological philosophies underpinned the study to gain a richer understanding of women's experiences. Eleven women who had been pregnant in the previous two years were recruited from community-based women's refuges in one region of the UK. Of the 11 women, eight had unplanned pregnancies, two reported being coerced into early motherhood, and only one woman had purposively planned her pregnancy. Multiple in-depth interviews focused on participants' accounts of living with intimate partner violence. Experiential data analysis was used to identify, analyse and highlight themes. Three major themes were identified: men's control of contraception, partner's indiscriminate response to the pregnancy and women's mixed feelings about the pregnancy. Participants reported limited influence over their sexual relationship and birth control. Feelings of vulnerability about themselves and fear for their unborn babies' safety were intensified by their partners' continued violence during pregnancy. Women experiencing intimate partner violence were more likely to have an unintended pregnancy. This could be attributed to male dominance and fear, which impacts on a woman's ability to manage her birth control options. The women's initial excitement about their pregnancy diminished in the face of uncertainty and ongoing violence within their relationship. Women experiencing violence lack choice in relation to birth control options leading to unintended pregnancies. Interpreting the findings from the victim-perpetrator interactive spin theory of intimate partner violence provides a possible framework for midwives and nurses to better understand and respond to women

  11. Men who batter intimate partners: a grounded theory study of the development of male violence in intimate partner relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Donna Scott; Brackley, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious and pervasive problem in U.S. society, with 25% of women and 7.6% of men reporting physical abuse by an intimate partner each year. Understanding the risk factors for development of violence is essential toward the development of interventions to reduce partner violence. Much of the understanding about the development of partner violence is based on research with victims rather than perpetrators. The study was conducted with men convicted of assault on an intimate female partner. Grounded theory was the method used to analyze data from interviews with 16 men participating in a batterers' intervention and prevention program. From the data, the Violent Couples Model was developed. The primary elements of the Violent Couples Model are justifying violence, minimizing violence, childhood exposure to violence, ineffective anger management, childhood experience of violence, and ineffective conflict resolution. Social and familial factors serve as moderating elements. Contextual elements of the model include power and control, social isolation, desensitization, insecure maternal relationships, the view of violence as a private problem, ambivalent intimate relationships, objectification of women, immaturity, lack of awareness about what constitutes violence, mistrust, traditional views of the roles of women, financial issues, and jealousy. Interventions indicated in the model are primary, or preventive, in nature. The model focuses on prevention efforts with the family as a whole, rather than on batterers alone.

  12. Risk Factors of Female Intimate Partner and Non-Intimate Partner Homicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Loinaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The most alarming type of intimate partner violence is homicide. Violence risk assessment of intimate partner violent offenders is a common topic in police and prison contexts with the aim of preventing recidivism and fatal results. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether men who kill their intimate partner (intimate partner homicide - IPH present different risk factors from those who kill women outside of a relationship (non-intimate partner homicide - non-IPH. The crime characteristics of 30 attempted or completed IPHs that were sentenced in Catalonia (Spain between 2004 and 2009 are described. Moreover, the risk factors of 21 completed IPHs and 20 non-IPHs were compared using the RisCanvi, an actuarial risk assessment tool used in the Catalan prison context to manage inmates. Results show differences between the two types of offenders in the criminal role and recklessness, more prevalent among non-IPHs, which is consistent with research indicating that IPH offenders are similar to other homicide offenders. The difficulties faced seeking to assess and manage the risk of IPH are discussed.

  13. Intimate partner violence. Mothers' perspectives of effects on their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmey, D; McFarlane, J; Willson, P; Malecha, A

    2001-01-01

    Intimate partner violence not only affects adults but also the children living within that "war zone." The present study expands our understanding about how children are affected when they observe violence in their own homes, as reported by their mothers. This descriptive study was conducted to describe mothers' perspectives of the impact of the violence on their children. A consecutive sample of 72 mothers attempting to file assault charges were interviewed in a private room by a registered nurse and were asked to describe the effect of witnessing intimate partner violence on their child's behavior. Each response was written verbatim by the interviewer. A majority (72%) of the mothers reported negative behaviors in their children that they believed were as a result of witnessing their mother's violent experiences. The most common negative traits were distress-indicating behaviors such as sleep disturbances, clinging, and fretful behaviors followed by problems with the abuser, problems in school, and problems with mother. Because intimate partner violence affects children, health care providers should become familiar with behaviors indicative of this problem. To promote the well being and development of children, recommendations for assessment and intervention for women experiencing intimate partner violence are discussed.

  14. Drug Use and Intimate Partner Violence among College Students: An In-Depth Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Erin L.

    2010-01-01

    College students experience an extremely high level of violence among intimate partners during their college careers, with prevalence rates ranging between 20% and 50%. Because intimate partner violence (IPV) among college students is such a widespread problem, it is important to understand the factors that contribute to this type of abuse.…

  15. [Intimate partner violence: study with female nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel; Bertagnolli, Liana; Muñoz-Gomariz, Elisa; Redondo-Pedraza, Rosa; Muñoz-Alonso, Adoración

    2011-08-01

    Describe gender-based violence by intimate partners against female nurses in a sample of nurses in Andalucia, Spain. Descriptive transversal study. Hospitals and primary health care districts in Andalucia. Six hundred and twenty-two female nurses that work as nurses in the eight provinces in Andalucia (Spain). Social-demographic characteristics and presence of abuse (psychological, physical and sexual). 78.5% of the nurses were married or with a regular partner and had the economic income based on both salaries; 71.1% had a child or an elderly dependent person. It was proved that there can be a statistical association between abuse and: marital status; life together; familiar economic support and children and/or dependent elderly person. The average age was 42.5±8.1 years old (22-62 years) and presented statistical age differences comparing both groups: abused (average 44 years) and non-abused (average 41.8 years). Between the married couples studied, 21.7% of them belong to the social class I and 16.9% to the social class II. Between all studied nurses, 33.0% suffered abuse, among which 75.1% were psychologically abused. Of all the abuse cases 60% were less severe and 40% more serious. It was confirmed the presence of intimate partner violence (IPV) against nurses, which was predominantly psychological abuse, but others classes of abuse were present too. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Is Working Risky or Protective for Married Adolescent Girls in Urban Slums in Kenya? Understanding the Association between Working Status, Savings and Intimate-Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthengi, Eunice; Gitau, Tabither; Austrian, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that women's empowerment, though beneficial in many aspects, can also increase the risk of intimate-partner violence (IPV). This study seeks to examine the association between work and experience of physical violence among married adolescents, and to understand the impact of access to independent financial resources on this risk. Authors draw on the asset-building framework and the ecological model. The data is from a baseline survey of girls aged 15-19 residing in urban slums in four cities and towns in Kenya (Nairobi, Thika, Nakuru and Kisumu). The analytic sample is 452 married girls. Logistic regression is used to examine associations between working status, savings and experience of IPV in the previous six months, controlling for other factors. This is complemented by content analysis of in-depth interviews with 32 adolescent girls and 16 young men. Compared to girls who did not work, working with no regular savings was significantly associated with greater odds (OR = 1.96, p<0.01) of experiencing IPV. There was no difference between girls who did not work and those who worked but had regular savings. Qualitative findings indicate savings decrease girls' dependency on men and allow them to leave abusive partners. Findings imply that in these communities with patriarchal gender norms and high levels of poverty, female employment and financial conflicts can be triggers of violence in marriages. On the other hand, girls' management of and access to independent financial resources through savings can potentially help to reduce this risk.

  17. Mental Health Aspects of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donna Eileen; Vigod, Simone Natalie

    2017-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common worldwide and occurs in more than one-third of American women and psychiatric patients. As well as physical injuries, it may cause mental health sequelae, such as depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychosis, inability to trust others, self-harm, and a host of psychosomatic conditions, that may be referred to psychiatrists. It is imperative that psychiatrists know the risk factors, how to assist disclosure of IPV, and how to safely respond. Psychiatrists must know the best evidence-based management of IPV and its mental health sequelae to best assist patients who have been exposed to IPV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The severity of violence against women by intimate partners and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problem drinking and drug use among male partners is a strong determinant of physical intimate partner violence among battered women in South Africa. Intimate partner violence prevention measures should address reduction of problem drinking and drug use among men. Keywords: physical violence, psychological ...

  19. Trends in Intimate Partner Violence: 1980-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Rachael A.; Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Research on trends in partner violence has primarily relied on official measures of victimization focusing primarily on women's risk for intimate partner homicide. The current study uses 28 years of data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine the trends of intimate partner violence against female victims and identify…

  20. The psychopathic intimate partner batterer: a non-psychopathological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Pozueco-Romero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical study reviews two of the most cited profiles of intimate partner batterers in the scientific literature, paying special attention to the most notable differences between them, as well as to their common criteria. The study also discusses one of the longest standing controversies in various research studies, including the particular overview with respect to Spain: it being the constant yet erroneous reference to the equivalence of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder. Similarly, special attention is paid to the implications of considering intimate partner batterers as having either a psychopathological or psychopathic profile, while also stressing the specific role played by psychopathy in the intimate partner batterer and, concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers, such aspects as their specific motives for perpetrating intimate partner violence and the evaluation instruments of this particular profile. Finally, a series of future directives for research concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers are also pointed out.

  1. Negotiating agency in cases of intimate partner violence in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pells, K.; Wilson, E.; Thi Thu Hang, N.

    2016-01-01

    Understandings of women's agency in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been dominated by an individualistic focus on help-seeking behaviour. The role of children in influencing, enabling and restricting the decision-making processes of their mothers has been largely ignored. We adopt biographical analytical approaches to qualitative longitudinal data collected as part of the Young Lives study to highlight the interdependency of women's and children's agency in contexts of IPV in Vi...

  2. Attitudes Toward Physical Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Leah Okenwa-Emegwa; Stephen Lawoko; Bjarne Jansson

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) are known predictors of IPV victimization and perpetration with more women generally believed to justify IPV than men. An understanding of the determinants of justification of IPV may provide information necessary for holistic interventions. This study sought to examine the magnitude, extent, and predictors of justification of physical IPV against women among men and women in Nigeria. Data from 33,385 women and 15,486 men from the 2008 Nigerian...

  3. Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Programs in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Dana W

    One in 4 women will experience intimate partner violence in her lifetime. The goal of primary intimate partner violence prevention programs is to stop the violence before it begins. Secondary prevention programs identify violence that is occurring and intervene as soon as possible to prevent the problem from progressing. This commentary discusses intimate partner violence, primary and secondary prevention, and current prevention programs in North Carolina. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  4. Unperceived intimate partner violence and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Michela; Gandarillas, Ana; Zorrilla, Belén; Lasheras, Luisa; Pires, Marisa; Anes, Ana; Ordobás, María

    2013-01-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) often do not perceive themselves as abused. This study sought to estimate the health effects of unperceived IPV (uIPV), taking violence-free women as the reference, and to compare the effects of uIPV with those of perceived IPV (pIPV). We performed a cross-sectional population study through telephone interviews of 2835 women aged 18 to 70 years living in the region of Madrid and having an ongoing intimate partner relationship or contact with a former partner in the preceding year. Based on 26 questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale-1 and the Enquête Nacional sur les Violences envers les Femmes en France and the question "Do you feel abused by your partner?" a variable was constructed in three categories, namely, the absence of IPV, uIPV and pIPV. Using logistic regression, we analyzed the association between health problems, medication use, health-service utilization and IPV (perceived and unperceived) vis-à-vis the absence of IPV. There were 247 cases of uIPV and 96 of pIPV (prevalences of 8.8% and 3.4%, respectively). The multivariate analysis showed that a substantial number of the outcomes explored were associated with uIPV, pIPV, or both. The highest odds ratios (ORs) were obtained for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9≥10) (uIPV: OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.4-3.8; and pIPV: 4.1, 95%CI 2.5-6.8). In most problems, the ORs did not significantly differ between the two types of IPV. uIPV is 2.6 times more frequent than pIPV and is associated with at least as many health problems as pIPV. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Emotional intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodyatt, Cory R; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-10-01

    Intimate partner violence research has focused almost exclusively on physical and sexual intimate partner violence in opposite-sex relationships, paying little attention to the intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships. Emerging research focusing on intimate partner violence among male-male couples has focused largely on physical and sexual violence, with little consideration of the unique forms of emotional violence experienced by gay men. Ten focus-group discussions with gay and bisexual men were conducted to examine perceived typologies, antecedents and experiences of emotional violence that occur between male partners. Participants described emotional violence as the most threatening form of intimate partner violence, driven largely by factors including power differentials, gender roles and internalised homophobia. Results indicate that gay and bisexual men perceive emotional intimate partner violence to be commonplace. A better understanding of emotional violence within male-male relationships is vital to inform intimate partner violence prevention efforts and the more accurate measurement of intimate partner violence for gay men.

  6. Intimate partner violence among rural South African men: alcohol use, sexual decision-making, and partner communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Abigail M; Colvin, Christopher J; Ndlovu, Nkuli; Dworkin, Shari L

    2014-01-01

    Nearly one-third of South African men report enacting intimate partner violence. Beyond the direct health consequences for women, intimate partner violence is also linked to varied risk behaviours among men who enact it, including alcohol abuse, risky sex, and poor healthcare uptake. Little is known about how to reduce violence perpetration among men. We conducted retrospective, in-depth interviews with men (n = 53) who participated in a rural South African programme that targeted masculinities, HIV risk, and intimate partner violence. We conducted computer-assisted thematic qualitative coding alongside a simple rubric to understand how the programme may lead to changes in men's use of intimate partner violence. Many men described new patterns of reduced alcohol intake and improved partner communication, allowing them to respond in ways that did not lead to the escalation of violence. Sexual decision-making changed via reduced sexual entitlement and increased mutuality about whether to have sex. Men articulated the intertwined nature of each of these topics, suggesting that a syndemic lens may be useful for understanding intimate partner violence. These data suggest that alcohol and sexual relationship skills may be useful levers for future violence prevention efforts, and that intimate partner violence may be a tractable issue as men learn new skills for enacting masculinities in their household and in intimate relationships.

  7. Intimate partner violence: homicides followed by suicides in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sabrina; Hemenway, David

    2005-01-01

    Homicides followed by suicides are rare yet devastating events. This study, for the first time, details the problem in Kentucky by linking coroner, medical examiner, vital statistics and administrative judicial data. In the three-year period 1998-2000, there were 492 firearm homicides in Kentucky, of which 32 (6.5%) were followed by a firearm suicide. All perpetrators who followed their homicide by killing themselves were males. Just or 9% of firearm homicides (46/492) were intimate partner-related but the majority of these (54%) were followed by a suicide. Although we found that only a small percentage of firearm homicides a followed by firearm suicide, when women were shot and killed by their intimate partners, the perpetrator shot himself in two thirds of cases. Continued research about violent deaths might provide a better understanding of homicides followed by suicides--critical for surveillance and prevention efforts.

  8. Intimate partner homicide: review and implications of research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Glass, Nancy; Sharps, Phyllis W; Laughon, Kathryn; Bloom, Tina

    2007-07-01

    Current rates of intimate partner homicide of females are approximately 4 to 5 times the rate for male victims, although the rates for both have decreased during the past 25 years. The major risk factor for intimate partner homicide, no matter if a female or male partner is killed, is prior domestic violence. This review presents and critiques the evidence supporting the other major risk factors for intimate partner homicide in general, and for intimate partner homicide of women (femicide) in particular, namely guns, estrangement, stepchild in the home, forced sex, threats to kill, and nonfatal strangulation (choking). The demographic risk factors are also examined and the related phenomena of pregnancy-related homicide, attempted femicide, and intimate partner homicide-suicide.

  9. Intimate partner violence and companion animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiplady, C M; Walsh, D B; Phillips, C J C

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of intimate partner violence (IPV) on companion animal welfare. Self-selected telephone survey of people meeting the criteria. Members of the Australian public with experience of IPV and concurrent companion animal ownership were invited to telephone a researcher for a semi-structured interview. In total, 26 Australian women reported one or more companion animals in the household being verbally and/or physically abused by their male partner, usually with prolonged effects on animal behaviour; 92% indicated that they had been unwilling to discuss the animal abuse with a veterinarian. Many were unaware of animal accommodation services for people fleeing violence and those who did know about these were unwilling to use them, citing their bond with the animals as the main reason. Animals targeted for abuse were most likely to be dogs and owned by women rather than men, children or both partners. Animals can be severely affected by domestic violence situations and many people experiencing violence are unwilling to confide in veterinarians or seek help from animal shelters. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Intimate partner violence and maternal educational practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Josianne Maria Mattos da; Lima, Marília de Carvalho; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2017-04-10

    The objective of this study is to analyze the association between intimate partner violence against women and maternal educational practice directed to children at the beginning of formal education. This is a cross-sectional study, carried out between 2013 and 2014, with 631 mother/child pairs, registered in the Family Health Strategy of the Health District II of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. It integrates a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the consequences of exposure to intimate partner violence in relation to the child who was born between 2005 and 2006. The maternal educational practice has been assessed by the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale and the intimate partner violence by a questionnaire adapted from the Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence of the World Health Organization. Intimate partner violence referred to the last 12 months and was defined by specific acts of psychological, physical, and sexual violence inflicted to women by the partner. The crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated for the association studied, using log-binomial regression. The prevalence of intimate partner violence was 24.4%, and violent maternal educational practice was 93.8%. The use of non-violent discipline was mentioned by 97.6% of the women, coexisting with violent strategies of discipline. Children whose mothers reported intimate partner violence presented a higher chance of suffering psychological aggression (PR = 2.2; 95%CI 1.0-4.7). The violence suffered by the mother interferes in the parental education. The findings show high prevalence of violent maternal educational practice, pointing to the need for interventions that minimize the damage of violence in women and children. Analisar a associação entre a violência pelo parceiro íntimo contra a mulher e a prática educativa materna direcionada às crianças no início da escolaridade formal. Estudo transversal, realizado entre 2013 e 2014, com

  11. Intimate Partner Jealousy and Femicide Among Former Ethiopians in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2018-02-01

    Ethiopian immigrant women in Israel are overrepresented as victims of femicide; they are killed at more than 16 times the rate of the general population. This article suggests integrating current theoretical and empirical models to explain Ethiopian femicide, and stresses that considering psychological or sociocultural explanations as risk factors alone is not enough to understand this phenomenon. We distinguish between risk factors and triggers for femicide against Ethiopian women. While sociocultural and even psychological changes are risk factors for femicide, one, two, or three main triggers may activate such potential risk factors, such as the woman's willingness (WW) to leave the intimate relationship, sexual jealousy (SJ), and formal complaints against the abusive partner. The first two triggers are jealousy oriented. To analyze this phenomenon in Israel, we examined all court decisions on intimate partner homicide (IPH) from 1990 to 2010. After reading former studies on IPH and identifying important variables that could explain the phenomenon, we first catalogued the data in every decision and verdict according to main independent variables mentioned in the literature. The study population consists of first-generation immigrants, N = 194: native Israelis (47%), new immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU; 31%), and Ethiopians (16%). Our analysis of court decisions reveals that triggers containing jealousy components are responsible for 83% of femicide cases committed by Ethiopian men, in comparison with native Israelis (77%) and immigrant Russian men (66%) who murdered their intimate partners. In addition, there is a significant correlation among motive (jealousy), method of killing (stabbing), and "overkilling" (excessive force).

  12. Physical intimate partner violence in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavan, Maya I; Iyengar, Kirti; Wurtz, Rebecca M

    2014-04-01

    In this article, we examine perceptions about the definition of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in northern India utilizing feminist perspectives as a framework. We interviewed 56 women and 52 men affiliated with a health services nongovernmental organization in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan. We transcribed, coded, and analyzed the interviews utilizing grounded theory. We found that perceptions regarding physical IPV were associated with both structural and ideological patriarchal beliefs and microlevel constructs such as alcohol use. We discovered multiple types of physical IPV in the study region, including rationalized violence (socially condoned violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), unjustified violence (socially prohibited violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), and majboori violence (violence perpetrated by a wife against her husband). Our results add to the breadth of research available about IPV in India and create a framework for future research and IPV prevention initiatives.

  13. AWHONN Position Statement. Intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) opposes laws and other policies that require nurses to report the results of screening for intimate partner violence (IPV) to law enforcement or other regulatory agencies without the consent of the woman who experiences the IPV. Nurses and other health care professionals, however, should become familiar with laws on mandatory reporting in their states and comply as applicable. Women should be universally screened for IPV in private, safe settings where health care is provided. Nurses are ideally positioned to screen for IPV for the purpose of initiating a referral for services and support when applicable. To protect the woman's safety, AWHONN supports policies that require a woman's consent before reporting occurs.

  14. Effect of intimate partner violence on birth outcomes | Laelago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Violence by intimate partner during pregnancy has many adverse pregnancy outcomes. Thus, that's why we sought to determine association between intimate partner violence during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted among 183 recently ...

  15. HIV- related intimate partner violence among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: HIV-positive status predisposes pregnant women to increased intimate partner violence more of emotional nature further underlying the enormity of social rejection suffered as a result of HIV infection. Intimate partner violence screening should form part of their routine antenatal care. Key words. HIV-Related ...

  16. Intimate Partner Violence: Building Resilience with Families and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Thomasine T.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence includes physical, emotional, or sexual maltreatment from an intimate partner that may include name-calling, hitting, controlling behaviors, use of weapons, rape, intimidation, and a plethora of other physical and emotional tactics (Kress, Protivnak, & Sadlak, 2008; United States Department of Justice, 2013). Such…

  17. Examining the Interface between Substance Misuse and Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory L. Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable theoretical and empirical support for a link between substance misuse and perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. This review briefly summarizes this literature and highlights current research that addresses the interface between treatment for substance abuse and intimate partner violence. Suggestions for future research and clinical implications are provided.

  18. Intimate partners' violence in Southern Ethiopia: Examining the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high level of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in many population groups in Ethiopia and the risk factors associated with the practice is not well understood among scholars and decision makers. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors associated with intimate partner violence in Sidama, ...

  19. Intimate partner violence at a tertiary institution | Spencer | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, emotional or stalking abuse by an intimate partner. Despite the high prevalence of IPV in South Africa (SA), there is a paucity of data on university students training in fields where they are likely to have to manage the ...

  20. Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence in Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Braithwaite, Scott; Pasley, Kay

    2008-01-01

    Prevention of intimate partner violence on college campuses includes programs designed to change attitudes, and hence, a scale that assesses such attitudes is needed. Study 1 (N = 859) cross validates the factor structure of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised using exploratory factor analysis and presents initial validity data on…

  1. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization of adult women and men in the United States. The survey ... of this violence, the im- mediate impacts of victimization, and the lifelong health ... are disproportionally affected by sexual violence, intimate partner ...

  2. Intimate partner violence: what do movies have to teach us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenahan, Patricia M

    2009-06-01

    Intimate partner violence is one of the most pervasive global public health problems affecting women. It results in untold costs to the healthcare system and is positively linked to eight out of ten leading indicators for Healthy People 2010. Intimate partner violence also is one of the factors associated with adverse childhood experiences that result in negative healthcare behaviours. Intimate partner violence has been the subject of film, made for television movies and music videos. The use of film as an innovative tool to teach about common health and mental health disorders is well-documented. Film also has been used as an adjunctive therapeutic tool in counselling. This paper will provide an overview of intimate partner violence, its portrayal in popular film and ways in which educators may use film to teach intimate partner violence-related topics.

  3. Recent Intimate Partner Violence and Housing Instability Among Women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Sorrentino, Anneliese E; Cusack, Meagan C; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Medvedeva, Elina; Roberts, Christopher B; Dichter, Melissa E

    2018-04-01

    Women Veterans are at increased risk of both housing instability and intimate partner violence compared with their non-Veteran counterparts. The objectives of the present study were (1) to assess the relationship between women Veterans' experience of intimate partner violence and various indicators of housing instability, and (2) to assess what correlates help to explain experiences of housing instability among women Veterans who experienced past-year intimate partner violence. Data were collected from U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs electronic medical records for 8,427 women Veterans who were screened for past-year intimate partner violence between April 2014 and April 2016 at 13 Veterans Affairs' facilities. Logistic regressions performed during 2017 assessed the relationship between past-year intimate partner violence and housing instability. A total of 8.4% of the sample screened positive for intimate partner violence and 11.3% for housing instability. Controlling for age and race, a positive intimate partner violence screen increased odds of housing instability by a factor of 3. Women Veterans with past-year intimate partner violence were more likely to have an indicator of housing instability if they identified as African American, had screened positive for military sexual trauma, or had a substance use disorder; receiving compensation for a disability incurred during military service and being married were protective. For women Veterans, intimate partner violence interventions should assess for both physical and psychological housing needs, and housing interventions should coordinate with intimate partner violence programs to address common barriers to resources. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Towards a global interdisciplinary evidence-informed practice: intimate partner violence in the ethiopian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruge, Sepali; Bender, Amy; Aga, Fekadu; Hyman, Ilene; Tamiru, Melesse; Hailemariam, Damen; Kassa, Andargachew; Refaie-Shirpak, Khosro

    2012-01-01

    Background. Intimate partner violence is a global health issue and is associated with a range of health problems for women. Nurses, as the largest health workforce globally, are well positioned to provide care for abused women. Objectives. This nursing-led interdisciplinary project was conducted to understand the current state of knowledge about intimate partner violence in Ethiopia and make recommendations for country-specific activities to improve response to intimate partner violence through practice changes, education, and research. Methods. The project involved two phases: review of relevant literature and an interdisciplinary stakeholder forum and a meeting with nurse educators. Findings. The literature review identified the pervasiveness and complexity of intimate partner violence and its sociocultural determinants in the Ethiopian context. Two significant themes emerged from the forum and the meeting: the value of bringing multiple disciplines together to address the complex issue of intimate partner violence and the need for health care professionals to better understand their roles and responsibilities in actively addressing intimate partner violence. Conclusions. Further research on the topic is needed, including studies of prevention and resilience and "best practices" for education and intervention. Interdisciplinary and international research networks can support local efforts to address and prevent intimate partner violence.

  5. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C

    2014-06-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships ( N =648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type.

  6. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2014-01-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829

  7. Experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Engnes, Kristin; Lidén, Eva; Lundgren, Ingela

    2012-01-01

    In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women’s experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support f...

  8. Intimate partner violence against deaf female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa L; Leigh, Irene W

    2011-07-01

    It has been estimated that roughly 25% of all Deaf women in the United States are victims of intimate partner violence (Abused Deaf Women's Advocacy Services [ADWAS]), a figure similar to annual prevalence rates of 16% to 30% for intimate partners in the general population. One goal of the present study was to ascertain the prevalence of intimate partner violence victimization in a sample of Deaf female college students. When comparing the prevalence of physical assault, psychological aggression, and sexual coercion victimization to hearing female undergraduates, the current sample was approximately two times as likely to have experienced victimization in the past year.

  9. Trajectories of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Swartout

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purposes of this study were to assess the extent to which latent trajectories of female intimate partner violence (IPV victimization exist; and, if so, use negative childhood experiences to predict trajectory membership.Methods: We collected data from 1,575 women at 5 time-points regarding experiences during adolescence and their 4 years of college. We used latent class growth analysis to fit a series of personcentered, longitudinal models ranging from 1 to 5 trajectories. Once the best-fitting model was selected, we used negative childhood experience variables—sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence—to predict most-likely trajectory membership via multinomial logistic regression.Results: A 5-trajectory model best fit the data both statistically and in terms of interpretability. The trajectories across time were interpreted as low or no IPV, low to moderate IPV, moderate to low IPV, high to moderate IPV, and high and increasing IPV, respectively. Negative childhood experiences differentiated trajectory membership, somewhat, with childhood sexual abuse as a consistent predictor of membership in elevated IPV trajectories.Conclusion: Our analyses show how IPV risk changes over time and in different ways. These differential patterns of IPV suggest the need for prevention strategies tailored for women that consider victimization experiences in childhood and early adulthood. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3:272–277.

  10. The macro-level drivers of intimate partner violence: New evidence from a multilevel dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Roxanne J

    2017-05-04

    This study uses multi-level regression analysis to determine the impact of macro-level drivers on intimate partner violence (IPV). It argues that we need to look beyond the usual, individual-level risk factors in order to understand why women experience abuse at the hands of their intimate partners. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 40 developing countries, this paper demonstrates that socio-economic development, beliefs and laws play an important role in explaining IPV.

  11. Experiences of physical violence by women living with intimate partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Madzimbalale

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence directed towards females by male partners is a common significant global public health problem. Most victims of physical aggression such as women and children are subjected to multiple acts of violence over extended periods of time, suffering from more than one type of abuse, for example physical which is more symbolic and evidenced by scars. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of the symbols of physical violence as experienced by women who live with intimate partners in the Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province. The research design of this study was qualitative, exploratory and descriptive in nature. The accessible population was those participants who used the trauma unit A in a particular hospital. Seven women comprised the sample of the study. In-depth individual interviews were conducted exploring the women’s experiences in the context of physical violence. From the data collected all seven participants experienced some form of physical violence which resulted in permanent deformity. They experienced some form of battering such as kicking, stabbing, burning, fracturing, strangling and choking. Recommendations were made that health care providers are encouraged to implement screening for physical violence, to provide appropriate interventions if assault is identified and to provide appropriate education regarding, employment opportunities, legal literacy, and rights to inheritance. Human rights education and information regarding domestic violence should be provided to them because this is their absolute right (UNICEF, 2000:14.

  12. How Children and Their Caregivers Adjust after Intimate Partner Femicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Jennifer L.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; McFarlane, Judith M.; Lewandowski, Linda A.

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 3,300 children are affected by intimate partner femicide each year. Despite the multitude of stressors and the potential for negative outcomes, little is known about these children or their caregivers. This in-depth interview study used family stress theory to explore caregivers' and children's adjustment after intimate partner…

  13. Intimate partner violence in early adolescence: The role of gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate partner violence in early adolescence: The role of gender, socioeconomic factors and the school. AJ Mason-Jones, P De Koker, SM Eggers, C Mathews, M Temmerman, E Leye, PJ de Vries, H de Vries ...

  14. The global prevalence of intimate partner homicide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Devries, Karen; Rotstein, Alexandra; Abrahams, Naeemah; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Watts, Charlotte; Moreno, Claudia Garcia

    2013-09-07

    Homicide is an important cause of premature mortality globally, but evidence for the magnitude of homicides by intimate partners is scarce and hampered by the large amount of missing information about the victim-offender relationship. The objective of the study was to estimate global and regional prevalence of intimate partner homicide. A systematic search of five databases (Medline, Global Health, Embase, Social Policy, and Web of Science) yielded 2167 abstracts, and resulted in the inclusion of 118 full-text articles with 1122 estimates of the prevalence of intimate partner homicide after double-blind screening. All studies were included that reported the number or proportion of women or men who were murdered by an intimate partner in a country, province, or town, using an inclusive definition of an intimate partner. Additionally, a survey of official sources of 169 countries provided a further 53 estimates. We selected one estimate per country-year using a quality assessment decision algorithm. The median prevalence of intimate partner homicide was calculated by country and region overall, and for women and men separately. Data were obtained for 66 countries. Overall 13·5% (IQR 9·2-18·2) of homicides were committed by an intimate partner, and this proportion was six times higher for female homicides than for male homicides (38·6%, 30·8-45·3, vs 6·3%, 3·1-6·3). Median percentages for all (male and female) and female intimate partner homicide were highest in high-income countries (all, 14·9%, 9·2-18·2; female homicide, 41·2%, 30·8-44·5) and in southeast Asia (18·8%, 11·3-18·8; 58·8%, 58·8-58·8). Adjustments to account for unknown victim-offender relationships generally increased the prevalence, suggesting that results presented are conservative. At least one in seven homicides globally and more than a third of female homicides are perpetrated by an intimate partner. Such violence commonly represents the culmination of a long history of abuse

  15. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood*

    OpenAIRE

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2013-01-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting,...

  16. Resources and Intimate Partner Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cools, Sara; Kotsadam, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Combining DHS data for 580,000 women from 30 different countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, we analyze how both the incidence and the acceptance of intimate partner violence vary across time and space, in a region with record high levels of violence against women. We review the existing literature regarding the impact of resources on intimate partner violence, extracting testable and often conflicting hypotheses at the micro and macro level, and on the interaction across levels. We propose to ext...

  17. [Health status and intimate partner violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Rey, Lourdes; Otero-García, Laura

    2014-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Spain in the last year and at some point during the lifetime, to determine health status in women according to whether they had experienced IPV or not, and to analyze the individual variables associated with IPV in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed of the database, Macrosurvey on Gender Violence in Spain 2011. This database includes data on 7,898 women older than 18 years old. The dependent variables were IPV-last year, IPV-ever in life. Covariates consisted of sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, maternal experience of IPV, social support, and self-care. The measure of association used was the OR with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 3.6% of women had experienced IPV-last year and 12.2% ever in life. Female victims of IPV had poorer health than women who had not experienced IPV. Immigrant women living in Spain for 6 years or more were more likely to experience IPV-ever in life than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.95 (1.50, 2.53)]. An interaction was found between nationality and the existence of children under 18 years old. Among women with children under 18 years old, immigrant women were more likely to experience IPV-last year than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.99 (1.25, 3.17)]. Other variables associated with IPV were age, low socioeconomic status, low social support and having a mother who had experienced IPV. In Spain, some women have a higher probability of experiencing IPV. The variables associated with greater vulnerability to IPV should be taken into account when implementing measures to prevent or alleviate IPV. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Intimate partner violence and housing instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao, Joanne; Alvarez, Jennifer; Baumrind, Nikki; Induni, Marta; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-02-01

    The mental and physical health consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been well established, yet little is known about the impact of violence on a woman's ability to obtain and maintain housing. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between recent IPV and housing instability among a representative sample of California women. It is expected that women who have experienced IPV will be at increased risk for housing instability as evidenced by: (1) late rent or mortgage, (2) frequent moves because of difficulty obtaining affordable housing, and/or (3) without their own housing. Data were taken from the 2003 California Women's Health Survey, a population-based, random-digit-dial, annual probability survey of adult California women (N=3619). Logistic regressions were used to predict housing instability in the past 12 months, adjusting for the following covariates; age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, children in the household, and past year IPV. In the multivariate model, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, poverty, and IPV were significant predictors of housing instability. After adjusting for all covariates, women who experienced IPV in the last year had almost four times the odds of reporting housing instability than women who did not experience IPV (adjusted odds ratio=3.98, 95% confidence interval: 2.94-5.39). This study found that IPV was associated with housing instability among California women. Future prospective studies are needed to learn more about the nature and direction of the relationship between IPV and housing instability and the possible associated negative health consequences.

  19. Screening for and treating intimate partner violence in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecha, Ann

    2003-07-01

    The WHO has declared that violence is a leading worldwide public health problem with intimate partner violence one of the most common forms of violence against women (2002). Health care providers are frequently among the first to see victims of intimate partner violence and must strive to provide appropriate and effective care to abused women. Violence by intimate partners can be prevented. Occupational health nurses have a unique opportunity to intervene with abused women. Routine screening for intimate partner violence increases the likelihood of violence identification, leading to early intervention that may prevent trauma and injury. Occupational health nurses can foster a caring and confidential workplace where abused women feel safe to disclose the violence in their lives and trust that the nurse will provide treatment. A safe and healthy workplace, where abused women feel comfortable disclosing intimate partner violence and seeking treatment may also protect coworkers from the stress and violence that may potentially affect them. Occupational health nurses need to add screening for and treatment of intimate partner violence to their current health promotion and prevention activities to benefit all employees.

  20. Psychosocial factors affecting various types of intimate partner violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güleç Öyekçin, Demet; Yetim, Dilek; Şahin, Erkan Melih

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence against women is a growing global public health problem that is related to various psychosocial, cultural, mental, and economic factors. In this study, psychosocial factors affecting various types of intimate partner violence against women were investigated based upon affected individuals' statements. Demographic data, exposure to various types of partner violence, individual habits, partner habits, family functioning, and social support were inquired about during face to face interviews with 306 women chosen by stratified sampling to represent adult women living in Edirne, Turkey. Among the participants, 54.5% were exposed to psychological violence, 30.4% were exposed to physical violence, 19.3% were exposed to economic violence, and 6.3% were exposed to sexual violence. Partner's age and the duration of marriage had a protective effect on intimate partner violence while worsening of marital relations, marriage by family decision, marriage against family consent, and the presence of a violent history against women in a partner's family had incremental effects on intimate partner violence. The duration of marriage, the worsening of marital relations and a history of violent exposure during childhood increased physical violence. Additionally, a decreasing family income, increasing economic violence, worsening of marital relations, and a decreasing social support network increased sexual violence against women. Recognizing and defining the effecting factors of intimate partner violence will aid in the understanding of the sources that generate and feed the violent behavior. Risk factors of different types of intimate partner violence vary. Our results indicate that any kind of violent behavior increases intimate partner violence against women.

  1. Intimate partner violence: psychological and verbal abuse during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Christie; Borg Xuereb, Rita; Scerri, Josianne; Camilleri, Liberato

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy-related variables and psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse, as well as to determine which of these variables are predictors of psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy. Intimate partner violence is a significant health issue, with severe implications to both mother and foetus. However, much of the research to date focuses on the outcomes of physical abuse. This article addresses the dearth in the literature by examining the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy-related variables and psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy. A survey research design was used. Three hundred postnatal women were recruited by convenience, nonproportional quota sampling technique. The WHO Violence Against Women Instrument was self-administered by participants. The association between categorical variables was assessed using Pearson's chi-square test, the strength of association using Cramer's V and the phi coefficient, and the identification of predictor variables for psychological and verbal abuse using logistic regression analysis. Four predictors were identified for psychological abuse, namely low education level in women, an unplanned pregnancy, experiencing two or more pregnancy-related health problems and living with an unemployed partner. However, unemployment in women, an unplanned pregnancy, fear of partner and a low education level of partner were identified as the predictors of verbal abuse. This study identified a number of variables that strongly predict psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy; however, it extends the available literature by identifying a low standard of education in males, unemployment and fear of the intimate partner as the significant predictors of psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the predictors predisposing pregnant women to abuse. This

  2. “I’ve never asked one question.” Understanding the barriers among orthopedic surgery residents to screening female patients for intimate partner violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Lesley Gotlib; Young, Aynsely; Rotstein, Ori D.; Schemitsch, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. Orthopedic surgery residents may identify IPV among injured patients treated in fracture clinics. Yet, these residents face a number of barriers to recognizing and discussing IPV with patients. We sought to explore orthopedic surgery residents’ knowledge of IPV and their preparedness to screen patients for IPV in academic fracture clinic settings with a view to developing targeted IPV education and training. Methods We conducted focus groups with junior and intermediate residents. Discussions explored residents’ knowledge of and experiences with IPV screening and preparedness for screening and responding to IPV among orthopedic patients. Data were analyzed iteratively using an inductive approach. Results Residents were aware of the issue of abuse generally, but had received no specific information or training on IPV in orthopedics. Residents did not see orthopedics faculty screen patients for IPV or advocate for screening. They did not view IPV screening or intervention as part of the orthopedic surgeon’s role. Residents’ clinical experiences emphasized time management and surgical intervention by effectively “getting through clinic” and “dealing with the surgical problem.” Communication with patients about other health issues was minimal or nonexistent. Conclusion Orthopedic surgery residents are entering a career path where IPV is well documented. They encounter cultural and structural barriers preventing the incorporation of IPV screening into their clinical and educational experiences. Hospitals and academic programs must collaborate in efforts to build capacity for sustainable IPV screening programs among these trainees. PMID:25421078

  3. Effect of maternal exposure to intimate partner violence on under

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... e.g. stalking, name calling, intimidation or not allowing a partner see friends or family. Intimate partner violence is the third highest cause of death among people 15-44 years of age,5 and the most common form of violence against women. Its negative effects on women's health are serious enough to be rec-.

  4. Intimate partner violence, health behaviours, and chronic physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate partner violence was not significantly associated with chronic physical illness, although rates of headache, heart attack and high blood pressure reached near-significance. Conclusions. Partner violence against women is a significant public health problem in South Africa, associated with healthrisk behaviours and ...

  5. Female Intimate Partner Violence Survivors' Experiences with Accessing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…

  6. Intimate Partner Violence among Women of Childbearing Age in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence among women of childbearing age in a primary health centre. With interviewer-administered questionnaire, information on partner violence was elicited from three hundred women of childbearing age selected by systematic sampling in a ...

  7. Pattern of intimate partner violence disclosure among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of intimate partner violence disclosure among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Oyo East Local Government, Nigeria. ... South African Family Practice ... Results: Of 252 (72.0%) women who had been exposed to violence by their partner in pregnancy, 72 (28.6%) disclosed their IPV experience.

  8. Effect of intimate partner violence on birth outcomes.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... sought to determine association between intimate partner violence during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. Methods: A ... partner violence was not associated with still birth, pre-term birth and Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes. Conclusion: ..... Besides, the wide confidence intervals were observed ...

  9. Trauma Symptoms among Infants Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…

  10. THE INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE RESPONSIBILITY ATTRIBUTION SCALE (IPVRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Lila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a psychometrically sound instrument to assess intimate partner violence offenders’ responsibility attributions: the Intimate Partner Violence Responsibility Attribution Scale. The scale was administrated to 423 adult male intimate partner violence offenders court-mandated to a community-based intervention program. A three factor structure (responsibility attribution to the legal system, responsibility attribution to the victim, and responsibility attribution to the offender personal context was supported using confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability of the scales in this study was estimated using Cronbach’s alpha, ρ and greatest lower bound. The Intimate Partner Violence Responsibility Attribution Scale correlated in theoretically expected ways with variables used to assess construct validity (system blaming, problems with partner, and responsibility assumption and with variables used to assess criterion-related validity (satisfaction with legal system, victim-blaming attitudes, alcohol consumption, hostile sexism, stressful life events, social desirability, impulsivity and household income. Results support the validity and reliability of the Intimate Partner Violence Responsibility Attribution Scale

  11. Negotiating agency in cases of intimate partner violence in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pells, Kirrily; Wilson, Emma; Thi Thu Hang, Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Understandings of women's agency in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been dominated by an individualistic focus on help-seeking behaviour. The role of children in influencing, enabling and restricting the decision-making processes of their mothers has been largely ignored. We adopt biographical analytical approaches to qualitative longitudinal data collected as part of the Young Lives study to highlight the interdependency of women's and children's agency in contexts of IPV in Vietnam. We illustrate how women's agency is both enabled and constrained by their relationships with their children, as well as by wider structural processes, and examine how gender and generation intersect. In marginalised settings where few formal services exist or strong social norms preclude women from accessing support, understanding these informal coping strategies and the processes by which these are negotiated is essential for developing more effective policy responses.

  12. Male Veteran Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Program Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    The prominence and incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) with male military veterans vary, but generally there is consensus that screening and intervention does help reduce IPV. Intervention is generally provided in the community via Batterer Intervention Programs. However, at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) intervention is provided via the Domestic Relations Clinic. Nationally the VA has limited treatment for male IPV. An aggregate sample (n = 178) of participants was assessed using the Domestic Violence/Abuse Screen to measure covariate pre-test and post-test outcomes, program failure, and recidivism. The treatment approach is psycho-educationally based to meet the challenging and unique needs of the military veteran population. The results contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of IPV and highlight the need for more intervention and prevention approaches.

  13. Intimate partner violence: a review of online interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Ebony; Donelle, Lorie; Hall, Jodi; Rodger, Susan

    2018-03-14

    Violence against women (VAW) is a global social issue affecting health, social, and legal systems. VAW contributes to the inequities with respect to the social determinants of health that many women face today. The onus on self-care in the face of violence remains almost singularly with the victims. Access to information and services in support of women's health and safety is fundamental. However, research gaps exist regarding how women access health information across all stages of an abusive intimate relationship. Given the ubiquity of online access to information, the purpose of this scoping review was to provide an overview of online interventions available to women within the context of intimate partner violence (IPV). Research literature published between 2000 and 2016, inclusive, was reviewed: 11 interventions were identified. Findings suggest that online interventions focused on the act of leaving with less emphasis on the experiences that occur after a woman has left the relationship. In addition, the online interventions concentrated on the individual capacity of the survivor to leave an abusive relationship and demonstrated limited understanding of IPV in relation to the broader social-contextual factors. Findings from this research highlight information gaps for women who require significant support after leaving an abusive relationship.

  14. Teen Mothers' Experience of Intimate Partner Violence: A Metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, Sarah; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting teens suffer higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) than older mothers. This qualitative metasynthesis explores teen mothers' experience with IPV during pregnancy and postpartum. Organized by the metaphor of a web, findings highlight how pervasive violence during childhood contributes to teen pregnancy and the risk of IPV as violence is normalized. The web constricts through the partner's control as violence emerges or worsens with pregnancy. Young mothers become increasingly isolated, and live with the physical and psychological consequences of IPV. Trauma-informed nursing practice is needed to support teen mothers in violent intimate relationships to spin a new web.

  15. Integrated treatment options for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Cory A; Easton, Caroline J

    2017-01-01

    Male-to-female intimate partner violence remains a worldwide public health issue with adverse physical and psychological consequences for victims, perpetrators and children. Personality disorders, addiction, trauma and mood symptoms are established risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration and factor prominently into a recovery-oriented treatment approach. We reviewed the partner violence literature for detailed reports of traditional as well as innovative, integrated treatment approaches. Empirically based recommendations for intervention programs and the policies that guide intervention efforts are offered. Nascent research suggests that integrated treatment models utilising a holistic approach to account for psychological comorbidity and interventions that involve a motivational interviewing component appear promising in terms of significantly improving intimate partner violence treatment compliance and reducing subsequent acts of physical partner violence. Further, methodologically rigorous research is required to fully assess the benefits of traditional and integrated treatment options. We have advanced several recommendations, including the development of and exclusive reliance upon empirically supported treatments, conducting a thorough risk and needs assessment of the offender and the immediate family to facilitate appropriate treatment referrals, integrating content to foster the offender's internal motivation to change maladaptive behaviours, and attempting to minimise offender treatment burdens through the strategic use of integrated treatment models. Intimate partner violence is a complicated and nuanced problem that is perpetrated by a heterogeneous population and requires greater variability in integrated treatment options. [Crane CA, Easton CJ. Integrated treatment options for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:24-33]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Men and Intimate Partner Rape: Characteristics of Men Who Sexually Abuse Their Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Raquel Kennedy; Bukovec, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This article explores men's use of sexual violence against their intimate partner. Although there is a growing body of information about men's use of physical violence, there is less data about men's sexual violence in intimate partnerships. Data were collected from 229 men who were enrolled in an intervention program for men who abuse. Of men in…

  17. Partner dependency and intimate partner abuse: A sociocultural grounding of spousal abuse in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-01-01

    While sociocultural scholarship has attempted an ecological explanation of intimate partner violence, it has largely been criticized for ignoring dispositional factors of both perpetrators and victims. Dependent personality and attachment-related emotional problems have been implicated in the ext...

  18. "Teen Mothers' experience of Intimate Partner Violence; a metasynthesis."

    OpenAIRE

    Bekaert, S.; SmithBattle, L.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting teens suffer higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) than older mothers. This qualitative metasynthesis explores teen mothers' experience with IPV during pregnancy and postpartum. Organized by the metaphor of a web, findings highlight how pervasive violence during childhood contributes to teen pregnancy and the risk of IPV as violence is normalized. The web constricts through the partner's control as violence emerges or worsens with pregnancy. Young mothers beco...

  19. Intimate partner violence and incidence of common mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Franklin Salvador de Mendonça

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of intimate partner violence against women reported in the last 12 months and seven years with the incidence of common mental disorders. METHODS A prospective cohort study with 390 women from 18 to 49 years, registered in the Family Health Program of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco; from July 2013 to December 2014. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20 assessed mental health. Intimate partner violence consists of concrete acts of psychological, physical or sexual violence that the partner inflicts on the woman. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR of the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence. RESULTS The incidence of common mental disorders was 44.6% among women who reported intimate partner violence in the last 12 months and 43.4% among those who reported in the past seven years. Mental disorders remained associated with psychological violence (RR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.9–4.7 and RR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.0–3.7 in the last 12 months, and seven years, respectively, even in the absence of physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence were related to physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher, both in the last 12 months (RR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.1–4.7 and in the last seven years (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7–3.8. CONCLUSIONS Intimate partner violence is associated with the incidence of common mental disorders in women. The treatment of the consequences of IPV and support for women in seeking protection for themselves for public services is essential.

  20. Preventing violence by intimate partners in adolescence: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Nunes Guedes De Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature on preventing intimate partner violence among adolescents in the field of health based on gender and generational categories. METHOD This was an integrative review. We searched for articles using LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, and SciELO databases. RESULTS Thirty articles were selected. The results indicate that most studies assessed interventions conducted by programs for intimate partner violence prevention. These studies adopted quantitative methods, and most were in the area of nursing, psychology, and medicine. Furthermore, most research contexts involved schools, followed by households, a hospital, a health center, and an indigenous tribe. CONCLUSION The analyses were not conducted from a gender- and generation-based perspective. Instead, the scientific literature was based on positivist research models, intimately connected to the classic public healthcare model and centered on a singular dimension.

  1. Intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina da C. Azevêdo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence before pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,054 women, aged 18 to 49, in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, from July 2005 to March 2006. Non-conditional logistic regression analysis was performed with a hierarchical strategy for entering variables into the model, according to the conceptual framework defined. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 60.3% (636 women. Intimate partner violence prior to the pregnancy was associated with unintended pregnancy (ORadj = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.17-2.11, even when adjusted for the women's sociodemographic characteristics, the partner's behaviour, and the relationship dynamic. When the association was adjusted for the use of contraception and the partner's refusal to use contraception, the association was no longer significant, suggesting that the effect of partner violence on unintended pregnancy may be mediated by these variables. The findings point to the need of screening for intimate partner violence in reproductive health services.

  2. Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal investigation examined potential risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. Methods A sample of 180 pregnant women was collected in order to investigate 1) whether associations between partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, partner suspicion of infidelity, and stress were associated with IPV victimization, 2) the indirect effects of alcohol misuse on these relationships, and 3) factors related to changes in IPV victimization over time. Results At baseline, partner alcohol misuse was associated with each type of IPV victimization and the combination of partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, and partner suspicion of infidelity was most strongly associated with severe physical victimization. Partner alcohol misuse mediated the relationship between partner jealousy and psychological and severe physical victimization. At follow-up, partner jealousy and stress were related to women’s psychological victimization and partner alcohol misuse was related to women’s severe physical victimization. Conclusions Findings suggest that partner alcohol misuse is a risk factor for women’s IPV victimization during pregnancy and jealousy and stress may increase risk for some types of IPV. Findings also suggest that intervention should target parents early in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk for future IPV. PMID:23053216

  3. Risk factors for intimate partner violence during pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Julianne C; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L; Moore, Todd M

    2013-02-01

    This longitudinal investigation examined potential risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. A sample of 180 pregnant women was collected in order to investigate (1) whether associations between partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, partner suspicion of infidelity, and stress were associated with IPV victimization; (2) the indirect effects of alcohol misuse on these relationships; and (3) factors related to changes in IPV victimization over time. At baseline, partner alcohol misuse was associated with each type of IPV victimization and the combination of partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, and partner suspicion of infidelity was most strongly associated with severe physical victimization. Partner alcohol misuse mediated the relationship between partner jealousy and psychological and severe physical victimization. At follow-up, partner jealousy and stress were related to women's psychological victimization and partner alcohol misuse was related to women's severe physical victimization. Findings suggest that partner alcohol misuse is a risk factor for women's IPV victimization during pregnancy and jealousy and that stress may increase risk for some types of IPV. Findings also suggest that intervention should target parents early in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk for future IPV.

  4. The Role of Gender in Officially Reported Intimate Partner Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Heather C.; Sillito, Carrie Lefeve

    2012-01-01

    The role of gender in intimate partner abuse (IPA) perpetration and victimization has been debated for the last several decades. Two perspectives have emerged regarding this debate. Researchers from the family violence perspective argue that men and women are violent at near equal rates and call for a reframing of the issue from one of woman…

  5. Intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: Any ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intimate partner and sexual violence are major public health and human right concerns affecting women and girls all round the world. These problems have been part of the fabric of many societies and cultures worldwide, and have thus gone unnoticed despite the devastating physical, psychological, ...

  6. [An economic evaluation of intimate partner violence in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nectoux, Marc; Mugnier, Claude; Baffert, Sandrine; Albagly, Maité; Thélot, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to carry out an economic evaluation of intimate partner violence in France. Using published data, institutional sources, field studies and expert opinions, the cost of intimate partner violence is estimated in terms of the overall cost to society. A range of different economic approaches are used (micro-economic, meso-economic and macro-economic approaches). The total cost of intimate partner violence in France is estimated at 2.5 billion Euros per year (between 1.7 and 3.5 billion Euros). The total cost of intimate partner violence includes healthcare costs (483 ? million), social and justice services (355 ? million), production losses as a result of deaths, imprisonments and absenteeism (1099 ? million), and the human costs of rape and prejudice (535 ? million). By increasing the budget allocated to the prevention of domestic violence by one euro, it is estimated that the state, health insurance and local authorities could make savings of up to 87 Euros of social spending, including 30 Euros of direct expenses.

  7. Revisiting the Role of Communication in Adolescent Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Adam M.; Rickert, Vaughn I.; Fry, Deborah A.; Lessel, Harriet; Davidson, Leslie L.

    2012-01-01

    A growing literature suggests that communication strategies can promote or inhibit intimate partner violence (IPV). Research on communication is still needed on a group ripe for early IPV intervention: high school-aged adolescents. This article revisits our previous analyses of young female reproductive clinic patients (Messinger, Davidson, &…

  8. The neural correlates of intimate partner violence in women | Flegar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine hippocampal volume and white matter tracts in women with and without intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Nineteen women with IPV exposure in the last year, and 21 women without IPV exposure in the last year underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion tensor ...

  9. Intimate partner violence: A helpful guide to legal and psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a combined health and social sector system response to intimate partner violence, this article provides health professionals with insight into domestic violence and current legal and psychosocial support services. It focuses on how to support and advise abused women about practicalities of obtaining protection orders and ...

  10. Intimate Partner Violence among Women of Child Bearing Age in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the extent to which married women had experienced physical, sexual, psychological and economic forms of violence by their intimate partners was determined. The study was descriptive and cross-sectional. It was conducted in Alimosho Local Government Area (LGA) of Lagos State. Data were collected using ...

  11. Intimate partner violence in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: Women's experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate partners' violence (IPV) is a topical reproductive health, rights and gender issue. Data on IPV experiences and associated factors were collected from 224 randomly selected married women and 99 men in Ile-Ife through administered questionnaire. Data was analysed through SPSS: chi-square test and binary ...

  12. Women at Risk of Physical Intimate Partner Violence: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is prevalent in Nigeria but a culture of silence exists, making it difficult to identify women at risk. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was employed to determine the prevalence and predictors of physical IPV in a low income, high density community in south west Nigeria. Among 924 interviews ...

  13. Programmes for change: Addressing sexual and intimate partner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa has a number of locally evaluated interventions that have been designed to prevent sexual and intimate partner violence before it occurs. This article describes such programmes that have been evaluated and found to be promising or effective. Seven locally evaluated primary prevention interventions are ...

  14. Prevalence, Pattern and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most common type of violence against women. It is a major public health problem and violates the fundamental human rights of women. Aim: To determine the prevalence, pattern and consequences of IPV during pregnancy in Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria. Subjects and ...

  15. Screening and brief intervention for intimate partner violence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening and brief intervention for intimate partner violence among antenatal care attendees at primary healthcare clinics in. Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. G Matseke,1 MPH; K Peltzer,1,2,3 PhD, Dr Habil. 1 HIV/AIDS, STIs and TB (HAST) Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South ...

  16. Intimate partner abuse: wife beating among civil servants in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wife beating is one of the most common forms of violence against women by husbands or other intimate male partners. Although violence against women is pervasive, there are only few studies documenting the magnitude of the problem especially among the working class. The civil service comprises of persons from all ...

  17. Tackling gender inequalities and intimate partner violence in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ending intimate partner violence (IPV) and reducing gender inequalities are recognised as critical to “'ending AIDS” by 2030. Amongst women, experiencing IPV has been shown to increase HIV acquisition, reduce women's ability to use HIV prevention strategies and reduce adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART).

  18. Experience of intimate partner violence as a predictor of sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue that is associated with adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STIs have recently gained more recognition worldwide because they increase the risk forHIV infection. However, there is ...

  19. Mental health, intimate partner violence and HIV | Woollett | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are intersecting epidemics in South Africa (SA). Despite recognition that IPV and HIV are bidirectionally linked, less attention has been given to mental health – a key health condition that is at the nexus of both violence and HIV/AIDS. While SA healthcare professionals have made ...

  20. Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia: Who Is at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Lovaton, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and…

  1. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women and women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and analyze the pattern of intimate partner violence over six months. This was a cohort study undertaken on 207 women aged 18 to 49 years, who consulted in general out-patient and antenatal care clinics in nine hospitals in central Thailand. The women were interviewed ...

  2. Intimate Partner Violence and Welfare Participation: A Longitudinal Causal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tyrone C.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/ dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and…

  3. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

  4. Women at Risk of Physical Intimate Partner Violence: A Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    to any behaviour within an intimate relationship that causes ... alcohol to perpetrate IPV.17 Witnessing parental violence or being a victim .... physical violence if she said “yes” when asked if a current or past partner ever abused her in any of the following ways: a) Slapped you or threw something at you that could hurt you?

  5. Methodological Review of Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christine E.; Graybeal, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a methodological review of empirical program evaluation research in the area of intimate partner violence prevention. The authors adapted and utilized criterion-based rating forms to standardize the evaluation of the methodological strengths and weaknesses of each study. The findings indicate that the limited amount of…

  6. Intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: Any ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... Background: Intimate partner and sexual violence are major public health and human right concerns affecting women and girls all round .... of bullying and social learning of abuse; however, abusers' efforts to dominate their .... delivery and low birth weight babies.[7]. 3. Psychological effect: Violence against.

  7. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence and Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    KARAKOÇ, Berna; GÜLSEREN, Leyla; ÇAM, Birmay; GÜLSEREN, Şeref; TENEKECİ, Nermin; METE, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of intimate partner physical violence among depressive Turkish women, as well as the association of intimate partner physical violence with attachment patterns, childhood traumas, and socio-demographic factors. Methods The study included 100 women diagnosed with depressive disorder and 30 healthy women. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV axis I disorders, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Adult Attachment Style Questionnaire (AASQ), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were used for clinical assessment. Results It was found that 64% of the women diagnosed with depression were suffering from intimate partner physical violence. In these women, the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms was higher, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were more common, and the diagnosis of double depression was more prevalent. These women also achieved higher scores in the avoidant and ambivalent subscales of AASQ and higher total scores and higher scores in the physical abuse subscale of CTQ. The partner’s and the woman’s experiences of physical violence in their families during their childhood predicted intimate partner physical violence for women suffering from depression. Conclusion The investigation of domestic violence contributes to the treatment of depression and also to the recognition and prevention of domestic violence that has profound effects on successive generations. PMID:28360734

  8. The severity of violence against women by intimate partners and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    verbal/psychological, followed by physical abuse, intimidation, economic coercion, harassment, damage to property, sexual, stalking .... home, school, or workplace) developed by Tjaden and Thoennes (2000). Ten items were ..... Prevalence and consequences of male-to-female and female-to-male intimate partner violence ...

  9. Intimate Partner Violence in Interracial and Monoracial Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brittny A.; Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D.

    2013-01-01

    This study, using a nationally representative sample, investigated intimate partner violence (IPV) in interracial and monoracial relationships. Regression analyses indicated that interracial couples demonstrated a higher level of mutual IPV than monoracial White couples but a level similar to monoracial Black couples. There were significant gender…

  10. Intimate partner violence among HIV infected and uninfected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    3Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Children's Health, Uppsala. University, Sweden. Abstract. Background: Worldwide Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health problem, affecting all women and ..... women's health and domestic violence: an observational study. Lancet ...

  11. experience of intimate partner violence as a predictor of sexually

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence of IPV among married women in Nigeria was 29.3%. Majority of the women ... with multiple types of violence. Keywords: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV), Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), married women, Nigeria. .... richer, richest); marital duration (grouped as 15); number of ...

  12. Intimate Partner Violence and Coparenting across the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Marni L.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Solmeyer, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) between parents has been linked to negative parenting and child maladjustment, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood. Based on a theory that violence among parents disrupts the coparental alliance--which has been linked to parenting quality and child adjustment--the authors examined…

  13. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Physical Violence against Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESULTS: The study showed that 52.6% and 30.2% of the respondents experienced intimate partner physical violence in their lifetime and in the 12 months before the survey respectively. Witnessing family violence as a girl child, education, place of residence, parity, duration of marriage, tradition of marriage arrangement ...

  14. Reproductive coercion and intimate partner violence among rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A growing body of U.S.-based research demonstrates that reproductive coercion is an important consideration regarding the negative health impacts of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, less work on IPV and reproductive coercion has been done in West African settings. Cross-sectional data of 981 women who ...

  15. Media Portrayals of Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, Kellie E; Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Slater, Michael D

    2014-09-01

    Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health priority. An important component of designing prevention programs is developing an understanding of how media portrayals of health issues influence public opinion and policy. To better understand the ways in which media images may be informing our understanding of IPV, this study content analyzed portrayals of IPV in news media articles. Stratified media outlets were used to obtain a representative sample of daily newspapers based on their designated market areas. Researchers created constructed months using weeks from each season across a 2-year period. The first part of the study investigated quantitative differences in the coverage of female and male perpetrators (n = 395) and identified several areas where coverage differed. The second part of the study qualitatively examined coverage of female perpetrators (n = 61) to provide a richer description of such coverage. This study contributes to our understanding of female perpetrators and how these portrayals may contribute to the larger gender symmetry debate surrounding female aggressors. Implications for public health policy and research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Attitudes Toward Physical Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Okenwa-Emegwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV are known predictors of IPV victimization and perpetration with more women generally believed to justify IPV than men. An understanding of the determinants of justification of IPV may provide information necessary for holistic interventions. This study sought to examine the magnitude, extent, and predictors of justification of physical IPV against women among men and women in Nigeria. Data from 33,385 women and 15,486 men from the 2008 Nigerian demographic and health surveys were analyzed using chi-square test and multiple logistic regressions. Results show that although larger proportions of women justified physical IPV, certain categories of men such as poor, illiterate men, and men with secondary education justified abuse more than women. Contrary to expectations, access to radio/TV increased the odds of justifying abuse among women thus casting doubts on program content. The gender differences observed for predictors of attitudes to physical IPV suggest a need for gender-tailored interventions to change attitudes toward partner violence in Nigeria.

  17. Altered Eating Behaviors in Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Susan P Y; Chang, Judy C

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about altered eating behaviors that are associated with the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Our aim was to explore the experiences and perspectives of IPV victims regarding their eating behaviors and their attitudes toward and use of food. We conducted focus groups and individual interviews with 25 IPV victims identified at a domestic violence agency and asked them about their eating behaviors and how, if at all, these behaviors related to their experience of IPV. Qualitative analysis of the transcribed encounters identified themes explicating the relationship between their eating behaviors and experiences of IPV. All women described altered eating behaviors related to IPV that were categorized into several major themes: (a) somatization (victims experience significant somatic symptoms as a result of abuse); (b) avoiding abuse (victims modify their eating behaviors to avoid abuse); (c) coping (victims use food to handle the psychological effects of abuse); (d) self-harm (victims use food to hurt themselves as a reaction to the abuse); and (e) challenging abusive partners (victims use their eating behaviors to retaliate against their abusers). IPV can provoke altered eating behaviors in victims that may be harmful, comforting, or a source of strength in their abusive relationships. Understanding the complex relationship between IPV and victims' altered eating behaviors is important in promoting healthy eating among victims. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Gay men and intimate partner violence: a gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina; Maria, Estephanie Sta; Lohan, Maria; Howard, Terry; Stewart, Donna E; MacMillan, Harriet

    2014-05-01

    Though intimate partner violence (IPV) is predominately understood as a women's health issue most often emerging within heterosexual relationships, there is increasing recognition of the existence of male victims of IPV. In this qualitative study we explored connections between masculinities and IPV among gay men. The findings show how recognising IPV was based on an array of participant experiences, including the emotional, physical and sexual abuse inflicted by their partner, which in turn led to three processes. Normalising and concealing violence referred to the participants' complicity in accepting violence as part of their relationship and their reluctance to disclose that they were victims of IPV. Realising a way out included the participants' understandings that the triggers for, and patterns of, IPV would best be quelled by leaving the relationship. Nurturing recovery detailed the strategies employed by participants to mend and sustain their wellbeing in the aftermath of leaving an abusive relationship. In terms of masculinities and men's health research, the findings reveal the limits of idealising hegemonic masculinities and gender relations as heterosexual, while highlighting a plurality of gay masculinities and the need for IPV support services that bridge the divide between male and female as well as between homosexual and heterosexual. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  20. Self and partner personality in intimate relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.

    Two studies were conducted to examine the relations between both partners' personality and marital quality in married or cohabiting heterosexual couples. In Study 1 (N = 1380, or 690 couples), personality was assessed by means of the Dutch Personality Questionnaire, whereas in Study 2 (N = 564, or

  1. Intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marital control behaviours by husband and parental IPV were associated with past 12-month physical IPV violence perpetration. IPV prevention programmes should include the reduction of violent gender norms, male control of female behaviour and problem drinking among men. Keywords: psychological partner violence, ...

  2. Previous experience of family violence and intimate partner violence in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bernarda Ludermir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. METHODS A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18–49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. RESULTS Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89–3.63 and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01–2.13, sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68–6.38 and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 – 2.12. The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43–3.02 and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07–2.47, who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86–8.27, and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57–16.45. CONCLUSIONS Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help

  3. Previous experience of family violence and intimate partner violence in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de; Valongueiro, Sandra Alves; Muniz, Maria Luísa Corrêa; Silva, Elisabete Pereira

    2017-01-01

    To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89-3.63) and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01-2.13), sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68-6.38) and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 - 2.12). The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43-3.02) and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07-2.47), who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86-8.27), and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57-16.45). Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help policymakers and health service managers to develop intervention strategies.

  4. Common mental disorders and intimate partner violence in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bernarda Ludermir

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To investigate the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. METHODS : A cross sectional study was carried out with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Program in the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Intimate partner violence was defined as psychologically, physically and sexually abusive acts committed against women by their partners. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association studied utilizing logistic regression analysis. RESULTS : The most common form of partner violence was psychological. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 71.0% among women who reported all form of violence in pregnancy and 33.8% among those who did not report intimate partner violence. Common mental disorders were associated with psychological violence (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.8;3.5, even without physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence was combined with physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher (OR 3.45; 95%CI 2.3;5.2. CONCLUSIONS : Being assaulted by someone with whom you are emotionally involved can trigger feelings of helplessness, low self-esteem and depression. The pregnancy probably increased women`s vulnerability to common mental disorders

  5. The role of alcohol use in intimate partner femicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, P W; Campbell, J; Campbell, D; Gary, F; Webster, D

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine alcohol use by victims and perpetrators as a risk factor for intimate partner violence and femicide. A case control design was used to describe alcohol use among Femicide/Attempted Femicide victims (n = 380), Abused Controls (n = 384) and Non-Abused Controls (n = 376), and their intimate partners. Telephone interviews of proxies (family members or friends) of femicide victims and actual survivors of attempted femicide were conducted in 10 cities. The purpose of the interviews was to gather information about relationship violence and alcohol use by femicide victims, attempted femicide survivors, and their perpetrators. Telephone interviews of controls, recruited from the same cities by random digit dialing, were also conducted. Perpetrator problem drinking was associated with an eight fold increase in partner abuse (e beta = 8.24, p femicide/attempted femicide (e beta = 2.39, p = .001), controlling for demographic differences.

  6. Emotional intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Woodyatt, Cory R.; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence research has focused almost exclusively on physical and sexual intimate partner violence in opposite-sex relationships, paying little attention to the intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships. Emerging research focusing on intimate partner violence among male-male couples has focused largely on physical and sexual violence, with little consideration of the unique forms of emotional violence experienced by gay men. Ten focus group discuss...

  7. Intimate Partner Violence in Interracial Couples: A Comparison to White and Ethnic Minority Monoracial Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Rachel A.

    2010-01-01

    The number of interracial couples in the U.S. is growing, but they often receive little support. Although previous studies have explored the relationship between low social support and decreased relationship satisfaction in interracial couples, there are few studies on intimate partner violence (IPV) in these couples. To better understand IPV in…

  8. MSW Graduates' Readiness to Respond to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedina, Lisa; Lee, Joonyup; de Tablan, Dante

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the relationship among factors affecting social workers' overall readiness to respond to intimate partner violence (IPV) in a sample of recent MSW graduates (N = 205). Findings suggest MSW IPV education and postgraduate IPV training are significantly associated with perceived preparedness and…

  9. Intimate Partner Violence in the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Harknett, Kristen; McLanahan, Sara

    2016-04-01

    In the United States, the Great Recession was marked by severe negative shocks to labor market conditions. In this study, we combine longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study with U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data on local area unemployment rates to examine the relationship between adverse labor market conditions and mothers' experiences of abusive behavior between 2001 and 2010. Unemployment and economic hardship at the household level were positively related to abusive behavior. Further, rapid increases in the unemployment rate increased men's controlling behavior toward romantic partners even after we adjust for unemployment and economic distress at the household level. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that the uncertainty and anticipatory anxiety that go along with sudden macroeconomic downturns have negative effects on relationship quality, above and beyond the effects of job loss and material hardship.

  10. A comparison of intimate partner homicide to intimate partner homicide-suicide: one hundred and twenty-four New Mexico cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Laura; Crandall, Cameron; Sklar, David; Bauer, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The authors compare cases of female intimate partner homicide-suicide to female intimate partner homicide alone to describe risk factors and suggest prevention strategies, including strategies in the medical setting. Differences are found between the types of cases in marital relationship, age, blood alcohol, and the use of firearms. Physicians and other health care providers who treat victims of intimate partner violence and patients at risk for suicide should be aware of the interwoven risk factors within these populations. Interventions aimed at suicide prevention as well as targeted removal of firearms should be investigated as tools in the prevention of intimate partner homicide.

  11. Men's accounts of infertility within their intimate partner relationships: an analysis of online forum discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Esmée; Gough, Brendan

    2017-04-01

    This article aims to provide insights into men's accounts of infertility in the context of their intimate partnerships. Although we are beginning to understand that men experience the emotions of infertility acutely, little is known about how such emotions impact on men's intimate partner relationships. Evidence suggests that infertility can impact intimate partner relationships (both positively and negatively), but there is a paucity of research around how men talk about such relationship impacts, and how they share their stories with other men. Men are often viewed as the silent supporting partner within infertility contexts, with women narrated as taking the burden within the relationship. The paper draws on data from a general discussion board on an online men-only forum. Inductive thematic analysis was utilised to identify key themes across the men's online posts. Men's posts demonstrate that infertility challenges relationships, and that men use the forum examined to offer each other advice on coping with infertility in their relationships. Men highlighted a sense of having less agency than their female partners in relation to infertility and that they were less able to access support for themselves as a result. We argue that infertility can be a challenging and complex time within intimate partner relationships and that men construct this situation with reference to gendered norms and constraints within their online accounts. Consideration of both parties in couples experiencing infertility is important for supporting relationships during any diagnosis and treatment processes for infertility.

  12. Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Gatekeeping, and Child Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvara, Bharathi J; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Cox, Martha

    2016-12-01

    We examined the mediating role of parenting behavior on the relationship between intimate partner violence and child conduct problems, as well as the moderating role of maternal gatekeeping to these associations. The sample (N = 395) is from a longitudinal study of rural poverty in the eastern United States, exploring the ways in which child, family, and contextual factors shape child development over time. Study findings indicate that a father's harsh-intrusive parenting behavior may be a key mediating pathway linking intimate partner violence and child conduct problems. Study findings further provide evidence for problematic outcomes for children when mothers encourage fathers with high levels of harsh-intrusive parenting to interact with their children.

  13. Understanding and addressing stigma and attachment insecurity in HIV-positive women who experience intimate partner violence: a model of medical and psychosocial care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Katy B

    2012-01-01

    Low-income women of color who are HIV positive and living in violent relationships are at significant risk for stigma and problems with attachment security. This article explores the ways in which these women may experience internalized stigma from incorporating society's negative views of HIV and domestic violence. It also addresses the ways in which insecure attachment may develop or intensify in this population through violence in their adult intimate relationships and/or living with a life threatening illness. A model of medical and psychosocial care utilized at the Women's HIV Program at the University of California San Francisco is offered as an intervention to reduce stigma and enhance healthy attachment. Clinical examples demonstrate how this system of medical and psychosocial care can help women in this situation establish stability and improve their lives despite the intense challenges they face.

  14. Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy: Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Ray, Ellen; Sharps, Phyllis; Bullock, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on maternal and neonatal outcomes are multifaceted and largely preventable. During pregnancy, there are many opportunities within the current health care system for screening and early intervention during routine prenatal care or during episodic care in a hospital setting. This article describes the effects of IPV on maternal health (e.g., insufficient or inconsistent prenatal care, poor nutrition, inadequate weight gain, substance use, increased...

  15. Intimate Partner Violence in South Chilean College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Vizcarra Larrañaga, Maria Beatriz; Universidad de La Frontera; Póo Figueroa, Ana María; Universidad de la Frontera

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to estimate the magnitude of intimate partner violence (IPV) in university students in southern Chile; to describe its manifestations, its associated factors, consequences and coping strategies. Method: A descriptive quantitative design was used, the sample was constituted by 447 university students randomly selected balanced by sex. Participants were asked about violent behaviour conduct through a questionnaire. Results: 57% of those questioned reported having exper...

  16. Sexual infidelity as trigger for intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Bonomi, Amy E; Lee, Meghan A; Ludwin, Jennifer M

    2012-09-01

    We conducted a qualitative study to examine acute, situational factors and chronic stressors that triggered severe intimate partner violence (IPV) in women. Our sample consisted of 17 heterosexual couples, where the male was in detention for IPV and made telephone calls to his female victim. We used up to 4 hours of telephone conversational data for each couple to examine the couple's understanding of (1) acute triggers for the violent event and (2) chronic stressors that created the underlying context for violence. Grounded theory guided our robust, iterative data analysis involving audiotape review, narrative summation, and thematic organization. Consistently across couples, violence was acutely triggered by accusations of infidelity, typically within the context of alcohol or drug use. Victims sustained significant injury, including severe head trauma (some resulting in hospitalization/surgery), bite wounds, strangulation complications, and lost pregnancy. Chronic relationship stressors evident across couples included ongoing anxiety about infidelity, preoccupation with heterosexual gender roles and religious expectations, drug and alcohol use, and mental health concerns (depression, anxiety, and suicide ideation/attempts). Disseminated models feature jealousy as a strategy used by perpetrators to control IPV victims and as a red flag for homicidal behavior. Our findings significantly extend this notion by indicating that infidelity concerns, a specific form of jealousy, were the immediate trigger for both the acute violent episode and resulting injuries to victims and were persistently raised by both perpetrators and victims as an ongoing relationship stressor.

  17. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webermann, Aliya R; Brand, Bethany L; Chasson, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD) have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80-95% and severe dissociative symptoms. DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV) and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.

  18. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya R. Webermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. Objective: The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80–95% and severe dissociative symptoms. Methods: DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Results: Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. Conclusions: The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.

  19. Experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Engnes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support from a professional research and treatment centre. The essential structure shows that IPV during pregnancy is characterized by difficult existential choices related to ambivalence. Existential choices mean questioning one's existence, the meaning of life as well as one's responsibility for oneself and others. Five constituents further explain the essential structure: Living in unpredictability, the violence is living in the body, losing oneself, feeling lonely and being pregnant leads to change. Future life with the child is experienced as a possibility for existential change. It is important for health professionals to recognize and support pregnant women who are exposed to violence as well as treating their bodies with care and respect.

  20. Experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engnes, Kristin; Lidén, Eva; Lundgren, Ingela

    2012-01-01

    In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support from a professional research and treatment centre. The essential structure shows that IPV during pregnancy is characterized by difficult existential choices related to ambivalence. Existential choices mean questioning one's existence, the meaning of life as well as one's responsibility for oneself and others. Five constituents further explain the essential structure: Living in unpredictability, the violence is living in the body, losing oneself, feeling lonely and being pregnant leads to change. Future life with the child is experienced as a possibility for existential change. It is important for health professionals to recognize and support pregnant women who are exposed to violence as well as treating their bodies with care and respect.

  1. The Social Networks of Homeless Youth Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Robin; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey

    2015-01-01

    While there is a growing body of research on intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by the housed youth population, a limited amount is known about IPV experienced by homeless youth. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined how homeless youths’ experience of IPV is related to their social network, even though the social networks of homeless youth have been shown to be significant indicators of health and mental health. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between IPV, gender, and social networks among a sample of 386 homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Results revealed that one fifth of the sample experienced IPV in the past year. Stratified regression models revealed that IPV was not significantly related to any measure of male social networks; however, females who experienced IPV had more male friends (β = 2.03, SE = 0.89, p homeless youth who witnessed family violence during childhood had more male friends (β = 2.75, SE = 1.08, p homeless youth. These results provide insight into future program development. PMID:24421071

  2. Intimate partner violence theoretical considerations: moving towards a contextual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kathryn M; Naugle, Amy E

    2008-10-01

    Several theories have been developed to provide a conceptual understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) episodes. Although each of these theories has found some degree of empirical support, they are limited in their explanatory power of IPV episodes and their ability to significantly impact the efficacy of IPV prevention and treatment programs. The current paper provides a review and critique of current IPV theories and highlights strategies for improving upon these theories. An alternative theoretical conceptualization is introduced that incorporates existing IPV and functional analytic literature into a contextual framework for conceptualizing IPV episodes. Components of the IPV contextual framework include distal, static and proximal antecedents; motivating factors; behavioral repertoire; discriminative stimuli (i.e. environmental cues/signals); verbal rules; and IPV consequences. The proposed theoretical framework offers two primary advantages over former IPV theories. First, it provides a comprehensive conceptualization of IPV by integrating components of previous IPV theories and their related empirical findings into one, cohesive conceptual framework. Additionally, it allows for a more fine-grained analysis of more proximal variables potentially related to discrete IPV episodes. A discussion of how the proposed theoretical framework may influence future IPV research and clinical practice is provided.

  3. Women With Dissociative Identity Disorder Who Experience Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Briana L

    2018-02-15

    Women with dissociative identity disorder (DID) are significantly more likely than other women to experience intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explicate the experiences of women with DID who experience IPV and describe how they cope. Grounded theory was used to conduct this investigation. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants (N = 5) for face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. Verbatim transcripts were coded and categorized, and reflective memos were developed to explicate substantive categories. Women with DID used coping strategies that were consistent with their diagnoses, such as switching and dissociating. These coping mechanisms reflect past self-preservation strategies that were developed in association with severe childhood maltreatment. Women with DID who experienced IPV sought to mitigate and safeguard themselves from danger using strategies they developed as maltreated children. Nurses can use these findings to better recognize and understand the motivations and behaviors of women with DID who experience IPV. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x), xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Intimate partner violence, women, and work: coping on the job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer E; Macke, Caroline; Logan, T K

    2006-10-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant health problem for women, with consequences extending to work as well as society at large. This article describes workplace interference tactics, how women cope with violence at work, and workplace supports for a sample of recently employed women with domestic violence orders (DVO; n = 518). Results indicate that violent partners used a wide range of work interference tactics, that women were more likely to tell someone at work about the victimization than they were to hide the information, and that coworkers and supervisors provided a range of supports to women who did disclose their situation. Implications for further research and practice are discussed.

  5. Cooperative Decision-Making and Intimate Partner Violence in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svec, Joseph; Andic, Tanja

    2018-03-01

    Using the continuous Demographic and Health Surveys (2005-2012) for Peru, we employ multinomial logistic regression estimates to assess risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Using empowerment and gender frameworks for IPV, we find that women making more household decisions jointly are less likely to experience physical violence. We also find that education is negatively associated with IPV, unless a woman's attainment exceeds her partner's. Although women earning more than their partners are more likely to experience violence, joint decision-makers have a lower risk of moderate physical violence even when their status exceeds that of a male partner. By adding measures for relationship dynamics, we highlight the ways decision-making within the household contributes to violence risk for women. While deviating from male-breadwinning norms can result in violence, risk factors are conditioned on the nature of cooperation within a partnership. Our findings suggest that shared power within the household reduces IPV risk.

  6. Association between intimate partner violence against women and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Claudia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; França-Junior, Ivan

    2011-04-01

    To analyze the association between intimate partner violence against women and infection or suspected infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A cross-sectional study was conducted, based on data from questionnaires applied face-to-face and medical records of 2,780 women aged between 15 and 49 years, cared for in Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Health System) units of the Greater São Paulo area, Southeastern Brazil, in 2001-2002. Women were categorized into: users in treatment because they are "HIV seropositive", those "suspected of having HIV" and others who sought health services for different reasons. Intimate partner violence against women throughout life was categorized according to the severity and recurrence of episodes of violence. The association with the outcome was tested using the Poisson model with robust and adjusted variance for sociodemographic, sexual and reproductive variables. The prevalence of violence was 59.8%. Suffering repeated and severe violence was more closely associated with confirmed HIV infection (PR = 1.91). Violence independent from severity and recurrence of episodes showed greater association with suspected HIV infection (PR = 1.29). Intimate partner violence against women has a key role in situations of suspected and confirmed HIV infection. Thus, it is essential to include its detection, control and prevention as part of the comprehensive care provided for women's health.

  7. Substance abuse and intimate partner violence: treatment considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klostermann Keith C

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Given the increased use of marital- and family-based treatments as part of treatment for alcoholism and other drug disorders, providers are increasingly faced with the challenge of addressing intimate partner violence among their patients and their intimate partners. Yet, effective options for clinicians who confront this issue are extremely limited. While the typical response of providers is to refer these cases to some form of batterers' treatment, three fundamental concerns make this strategy problematic: (1 most of the agencies that provide batterers' treatment only accept individuals who are legally mandated to complete their programs; (2 among programs that do accept nonmandated patients, most substance-abusing patients do not accept such referrals or drop out early in the treatment process; and (3 available evidence suggests these programs may not be effective in reducing intimate partner violence. Given these very significant concerns with the current referral approach, coupled with the high incidence of IPV among individuals entering substance abuse treatment, providers need to develop strategies for addressing IPV that can be incorporated and integrated into their base intervention packages.

  8. [Intimate partner violence: social and health determinants and responses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Blanco-Prieto, Pilar; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    The present study aims to review the problem of intimate partner violence, as well as its causes and consequences. It will also specifically analyze the role of health professionals. In opposition to the classical epidemiological view of risk factors, Heise proposes an ecological framework to study violence against women. This framework analyzes the interplay among the personal, situational and sociocultural factors that combine to cause abuse. Regarding the frequency of intimate partner violence in Spain, in January 2003 there were 2.519 formal complaints and 69 women died between January and November 2003. No geographical patterns in mortality or the incidence of formal complaints of intimate partner violence or among the provinces with the highest incidence of formal complains and those with highest mortality were observed. The only national survey published in Spain was performed by the Women's Institute in 1999, which reported a prevalence of domestic violence of 9.2%. A frequency of 22.8% was found in a primary health care center in Granada. Health services can play a key role in helping victims of domestic violence, since most women contact the health services at some time in their lives. Professionals in administrative or managerial positions can contribute to raising awareness of this health problem, which is one of the main causes of poor health and disability. Evidently, beyond consciousness-raising and early detection campaigns, public health strategies should be designed to prevent this serious health problem the causes of which can be changed.

  9. Intimate partner femicide in South Africa in 1999 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl; Jewkes, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Death is the most extreme consequence of intimate partner violence. Female homicide studies with data on the perpetrator-victim relationship can provide insights. We compare the results of two South African national studies of female homicide with similar sampling done 10 y apart. We conducted a retrospective national survey using a weighted cluster design of a proportionate random sample of 38 mortuaries to identify homicides committed in 2009. We abstracted victim data from mortuary and autopsy reports, and perpetrator data from police interviews. We compared homicides of women 14 y and older in 2009 with previously published data collected with the same methodology for homicides committed in 1999. The study found that the rate of female homicide per 100,000 female population in 2009 was 12.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.3, 16.5), compared to 24.7 (95% CI: 17.7, 31.6) in 1999. The incidence rate ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.84) reflects a significantly lower rate in 2009. The rate of intimate partner femicide was 5.6/100,000 in 2009 versus 8.8/100,000 in 1999, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.24, 1.02), indicating no difference between rates. Logistic regression analysis of homicide characteristics showed that the odds ratio of suspected rape among non-intimate femicides in 2009 compared to 1999 was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.23, 4.08) and among intimate partner femicides it was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.42). The OR of homicide by gunshot was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.99) in 2009 versus 1999. There was a significant drop in convictions of perpetrators of non-intimate femicide in 2009 versus 1999 (OR = 0.32 [95% CI: 0.19, 0.53]). Limitations of the study include the relatively small sample size and having only two time points. Female homicide in South Africa was lower in 2009 than 1999, but intimate partner femicide and suspected rape homicide rates were not statistically different. The cause of the difference is unknown. The findings suggest that South Africa

  10. Intimate partner femicide in South Africa in 1999 and 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemah Abrahams

    Full Text Available Death is the most extreme consequence of intimate partner violence. Female homicide studies with data on the perpetrator-victim relationship can provide insights. We compare the results of two South African national studies of female homicide with similar sampling done 10 y apart.We conducted a retrospective national survey using a weighted cluster design of a proportionate random sample of 38 mortuaries to identify homicides committed in 2009. We abstracted victim data from mortuary and autopsy reports, and perpetrator data from police interviews. We compared homicides of women 14 y and older in 2009 with previously published data collected with the same methodology for homicides committed in 1999. The study found that the rate of female homicide per 100,000 female population in 2009 was 12.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.3, 16.5, compared to 24.7 (95% CI: 17.7, 31.6 in 1999. The incidence rate ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.84 reflects a significantly lower rate in 2009. The rate of intimate partner femicide was 5.6/100,000 in 2009 versus 8.8/100,000 in 1999, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.24, 1.02, indicating no difference between rates. Logistic regression analysis of homicide characteristics showed that the odds ratio of suspected rape among non-intimate femicides in 2009 compared to 1999 was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.23, 4.08 and among intimate partner femicides it was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.42. The OR of homicide by gunshot was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.99 in 2009 versus 1999. There was a significant drop in convictions of perpetrators of non-intimate femicide in 2009 versus 1999 (OR = 0.32 [95% CI: 0.19, 0.53]. Limitations of the study include the relatively small sample size and having only two time points.Female homicide in South Africa was lower in 2009 than 1999, but intimate partner femicide and suspected rape homicide rates were not statistically different. The cause of the difference is unknown. The findings suggest that

  11. Sexual Relationship Power and Intimate Partner Violence Among Sex Workers with Non-Commercial Intimate Partners in a Canadian Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Katherine; Deering, Kathleen N.; Feng, Cindy X.; Shoveller, Jean S.; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, ‘AESHA’ (An Evaluation of Sex Workers’ Health Access), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence Against Women scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI:0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for gender-focused and coupled-based interventions tailored to noncommercial intimate partnerships of sex workers. PMID:25402720

  12. Ideologia, Cinismo e Interpassividade: aportes para compreensão da violência entre parceiros íntimos (Ideology, Cinism and Interpassivity: contributions to understanding the intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael De Tilio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: As violências ocorridas entre parceiros íntimos podem ser compreendidas como manifestações da violência de gênero, isto é, decorrências de construções sociais que atribuem atitudes (ações, representações e afetos específicas aos homens e mulheres. Essa pesquisa é um estudo de casos múltiplos de coorte transversal com delineamento qualitativo, cujo objetivo foi investigar como a desigualdade de gênero ocasiona e mantém práticas conjugais violentas. As cinco participantes consideram que a violência é uma consequência (da cultura do machismo, mas no geral não conseguem romper com estes relacionamentos. Os conceitos de ideologia, cinismo e interpassividade (além da dependência emocional e financeira podem fornecer elementos para compreender as razões pelas quais essas vítimas permanecem nestes relacionamentos abusivos. Assim, entender os sentidos que circunscrevem as relações de violência de gênero entre parceiros íntimos pode possibilitar, juntamente com debates e lutas, condições para a construção de relações menos assimétricas entre homens e mulheres.Palavras chave: Violência contra mulher. Ideologia. Gênero.Abstract:The violence between intimate partners can be understood as manifestations of gender violence, e.g. social constructions that attributes attitudes (actions, representations and affections specific to men and women. This research is a study of multiple cases with cross-sectional cohort with qualitative design, aimed to investigate how gender inequality causes violent marital practices. Five women were interviewed and considered that violence is a consequence (of culture of male chauvinist, but in general cannot break away from these relationships. The concepts of ideology, cinism and interpassivity (besides the emotional and financial dependence can provide elements to understand why these women remained in abusive relationships. Thus, to understand the meanings that circumscribe the

  13. Education and Income Imbalances Among Married Couples in Malawi as Predictors for Likelihood of Physical and Emotional Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnes, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a social and public health problem that is prevalent across the world. In many societies, power differentials in relationships, often supported by social norms that promote gender inequality, lead to incidents of intimate partner violence. Among other factors, both a woman's years of education and educational differences between a woman and her partner have been shown to have an effect on her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner abuse. Using the 2010 Malawian Demographic and Health Survey data to analyze intimate partner violence among 3,893 married Malawian women and their husbands, this article focuses on understanding the effect of educational differences between husband and wife on the likelihood of physical and emotional abuse within a marriage. The results from logistic regression models show that a woman's level of education is a significant predictor of her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner violence by her current husband, but that this effect is contingent on her husband's level of education. This study demonstrates the need to educate men alongside of women in Malawi to help decrease women's risk of physical and emotional intimate partner violence.

  14. Accounting for Intimate Partner Violence: A Biographical Analysis of Narrative Strategies Used by Men Experiencing IPV From Their Female Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbally, Melissa

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious social issue which affects the medium- and long-term health outcomes of many individuals worldwide. The cost of IPV on the physical and psychological well-being of individuals, in addition to its wider economic costs in responding to abused persons, is significant. Presently, there is a lack of understanding about the nature of female-initiated IPV and how men account for their experiences of it. This study examined male victims' life stories of their IPV experiences from their intimate partners. Using the biographical narrative interpretive method, three cases were analyzed from a social constructionist perspective to examine what narrative strategies men used to account for their experiences of being abused by their female partners. Three dominant narrative strategies were used by respondents: the fatherhood narrative, the good husband narrative, and the abuse narrative. The abuse narrative had a unique narrative form, which reflected respondents' disassociation between their identities as men and also as abused persons. Dominant conflicting discourses of masculinity and intimate partner abuse disadvantaged men in identifying IPV and secondly in responding appropriately. This study found that men prefer to use dominant discursive identities as legitimate means from which to disclose IPV experiences. The findings from this study illustrate that broad questioning by professionals regarding fatherhood may be most helpful in promoting disclosures of IPV if this is suspected. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Discrepant Alcohol Use, Intimate Partner Violence, and Relationship Adjustment among Lesbian Women and their Relationship Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Lewis, Robin J; Mason, Tyler B

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the association between relationship adjustment and discrepant alcohol use among lesbian women and their same-sex intimate partners after controlling for verbal and physical aggression. Lesbian women ( N = 819) who were members of online marketing research panels completed an online survey in which they reported both their own and same-sex intimate partner's alcohol use, their relationship adjustment, and their own and their partner's physical aggression and psychological aggression (i.e., verbal aggression and dominance/isolation). Partners' alcohol use was moderately correlated. Discrepancy in alcohol use was associated with poorer relationship adjustment after controlling for psychological aggression and physical aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the similarity and differences with previous literature primarily focused on heterosexual couples.

  16. Coping styles used by sexual minority men who experience intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J; Calton, Jenna M

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the coping styles used by sexual minority men who have experienced intimate partner violence, including sexual, emotional and physical victimisation, as well as physical injury. Although sexual minority men experience intimate partner violence at least as often as do heterosexuals, there is currently limited knowledge of intimate partner violence in this community or resources for sexual minority men who experience intimate partner violence. Cross-sectional design. Sexual minority men (N = 89) were recruited as part of a national online survey and completed questionnaires assessing lifetime experiences of intimate partner violence as well as various coping strategies. In terms of intimate partner violence, 34·8% of participants reported having been targets of sexual abuse, 38·2% targets of physical abuse, 69·7% targets of psychological abuse and 28·1% had experienced an injury as a result of intimate partner violence during their lifetime. Canonical correlation analyses found that intimate partner violence victimisation explained 32·5% of the variance in adaptive and 31·4% of the variance in maladaptive coping behaviours. In the adaptive coping canonical correlation, standardised loadings suggested that sexual minority men who experienced intimate partner violence resulting in injury were more likely to use religious coping, but less likely to use planning coping. In the maladaptive coping canonical correlation, sexual minority men who had been targets of intimate partner sexual victimisation and intimate partner violence resulting in injury tended to engage in increased behavioural disengagement coping. This study revealed several coping behaviours that are more or less likely as the severity of different forms of intimate partner violence increases. The identification of these coping styles could be applied to the development and modification of evidence-based interventions to foster effective and discourage ineffective coping styles

  17. The Social Networks of Homeless Youth Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Robin; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey

    2014-08-01

    While there is a growing body of research on intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by the housed youth population, a limited amount is known about IPV experienced by homeless youth. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined how homeless youths' experience of IPV is related to their social network, even though the social networks of homeless youth have been shown to be significant indicators of health and mental health. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between IPV, gender, and social networks among a sample of 386 homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Results revealed that one fifth of the sample experienced IPV in the past year. Stratified regression models revealed that IPV was not significantly related to any measure of male social networks; however, females who experienced IPV had more male friends (β = 2.03, SE = 0.89, p < .05) than females who did not experience IPV. Female homeless youth who witnessed family violence during childhood had more male friends (β = 2.75, SE = 1.08, p < .05), but those who experienced sexual abuse during childhood had fewer male friends (β = -2.04, SE = 0.93, p < .05). Although there was no significant difference in the rate of IPV victimization across genders, the context of this abuse appears to be drastically different. The results suggest that females with more male friendships are at greater risk for exposure to IPV. To date, there are few effective youth-targeted IPV prevention programs and none have been shown to be effective with homeless youth. These results provide insight into future program development. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Neighborhood environment and intimate partner violence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten; Wallis, Anne Baber; Hamberger, L Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important global public health problem, affecting women across the life span and increasing risk for a number of unfavorable health outcomes. Typically conceptualized as a private form of violence, most research has focused on individual-level risk markers. Recently, more scholarly attention has been paid to the role that the residential neighborhood environment may play in influencing the occurrence of IPV. With research accumulating since the 1990s, increasing prominence of the topic, and no comprehensive literature reviews yet undertaken, it is time to take stock of what is known, what remains unknown, and the methods and concepts investigators have considered. In this article, we undertake a comprehensive, systematic review of the literature to date on the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, asking, "what is the status of scholarship related to the association between neighborhood environment and IPV occurrence?" Although the literature is young, it is receiving increasing attention from researchers in sociology, public health, criminology, and other fields. Obvious gaps in the literature include limited consideration of nonurban areas, limited theoretical motivation, and limited consideration of the range of potential contributors to environmental effects on IPV--such as built environmental factors or access to services. In addition, explanations of the pathways by which place influences the occurrence of IPV draw mainly from social disorganization theory that was developed in urban settings in the United States and may need to be adapted, especially to be useful in explaining residential environmental correlates of IPV in rural or non-U.S. settings. A more complete theoretical understanding of the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, especially considering differences among urban, semiurban, and rural settings and developed and developing country settings, will be necessary to advance

  19. Intimate partner violence in Spain (1975-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Wheeler

    2008-12-01

    In this article, I examine how gender-based violence has been framed in Spanish legal, social and cultural discourses since the fall of the dictatorship. Prior to 1997, far less attention was paid to intimate partner abuse than in most other democratic states. In the last ten years, this situation has been reversed. There has been heavy media coverage, and new legislation that adopts an holistic approach to the problem. I will attempt to place these changes in context and to provide extensive bibliographical information for those readers seeking information in more specialised fields.

  20. Postpartum depression among women who have experienced intimate partner violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogathi, Jane J.; Manongi, Rachael; Mushi, Declare

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-partum depression (PPD) in many low-income countries, including Tanzania, is not well recognized, and the underlying predictors and causes of PPD remain unclear. Results from previous studies suggest that PPD is associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced during...... the perinatal period. In the present study, we assessed the relationship between IPV and PPD among women attending antenatal services in Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study from March 1, 2014 to May 30, 2015, in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, among pregnant women of less than 24 weeks...

  1. Intimate partner violence in early adolescence: The role of gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate partner violence in early adolescence: The role of gender, socioeconomic factors and the school. A J Mason-Jones,1,2 PhD, MPH, MSc, RGN, RHV; P De Koker,2,3 MA; S M Eggers,4 MSc; C Mathews,5,2 PhD;. M Temmerman,3,6 MB ChB, PhD; E Leye,3 PhD; P J de Vries,2 MB ChB, MRCPsych, PhD; H de Vries,4 ...

  2. Justification of Intimate Partner Violence in Rural Bangladesh: What Survey Questions Fail to Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Lenzi, Rachel; Yount, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents qualitative findings from a project designed to develop better methodological tools for clarifying women’s and men’s attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) in rural Bangladesh and their perceptions of norms about IPV in their communities. Cognitive interviews and focus-group discussions were used to explore respondents’ subjective understanding of standard survey questions meant to elicit attitudes about IPV. We find that the proportion of participants who justi...

  3. Intimate partner violence and the meaning of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marilyn; Nunley, Barbara; Martin, Evelyn

    2013-06-01

    Despite physical, emotional, verbal, and sexual abuse from their partner, many women remain in an abusive relationship, often proclaiming to love the one who is hurting them. Nineteen females who had experienced intimate partner violence were interviewed and asked to share their experiences and describe their meaning of love. An analysis of the transcripts was done using qualitative content analysis. With this approach, the contents of the verbal data were summarized and arranged in three major categories: (1) What love is not; (2) Attributes of a loving relationship; and (3) Attachment to the relationship. The findings demonstrate a woman's clear recognition of being in an abusive relationship, yearning to be truly loved, but often finding herself unable to detach from the relationship.

  4. Community perceptions of intimate partner violence--a qualitative study from urban Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisser, Rose M; Nyström, Lennarth; Lugina, Helen I; Emmelin, Maria

    2011-04-18

    Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to intervene but further consciousness-raising of the human rights

  5. Community perceptions of intimate partner violence - a qualitative study from urban Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmelin Maria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. Results The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Conclusions Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to

  6. Pregnancy-associated violent deaths: the role of intimate partner violence.

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    Martin, Sandra L; Macy, Rebecca J; Sullivan, Kristen; Magee, Melissa L

    2007-04-01

    This literature review examines intimate partner violence in relation to pregnancy-associated femicide and suicide. Empirical publications were eligible for review if they included information on intimate partner violence and examined females who were pregnant/postpartum and who were victims of femicide/attempted femicide and/or suicide/attempted suicide. Nine publications met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Results suggest that intimate partners perpetrate one- to two-thirds of the pregnancy-associated femicides in the United States and that pregnant women make up 5% of urban intimate partner femicides. Intimate partner abuse during pregnancy appears to be a risk factor for severe intimate partner violence, including attempted/completed femicide. So little information exists concerning intimate partner violence in pregnancy-associated suicides that it is impossible to draw conclusions regarding this topic; however, a hospital-based study suggests that intimate partner violence may be a risk factor for attempting suicide while pregnant. More research is needed concerning intimate partner pregnancy-associated femicide and suicide so that evidenced-based preventive/therapeutic interventions may be developed.

  7. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

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    Siziya Seter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be

  8. Employers' Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence among a Diverse Workforce.

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    Samuel, Laura J; Tudor, Carrie; Weinstein, Marc; Moss, Helen; Glass, Nancy

    2011-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant global public health concern, affecting 5.3 million US individuals annually. An estimated 1 in 3 women globally are abused by an intimate partner in their lifetime, and the effects carry over into the workplace. This article examines employers' perceptions of IPV in the workplace, targeting supervisors of Latina employees. Fourteen employers and supervisors of small service-sector companies in Oregon were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Interpretive description was used to identify themes. These qualitative interviews preceded and helped to formulate a larger workplace intervention study. THE FOLLOWING THEMES WERE FOUND AND ARE DETAILED: (1) factors associated with recognizing IPV in the workplace, (2) effects of IPV on the work environment and (3) supervisors' responses to IPV-active vs. passive involvement. Also, supervisors' suggestions for addressing IPV in the workplace are summarized. These findings demonstrate the need for more IPV-related resources in the workplace to be available to supervisors as well as survivors and their coworkers. The needs of supervisors and workplaces vary by site, demonstrating the need for tailored interventions, and culturally appropriate workplace interventions are needed for Latinas and other racially and ethnically diverse populations.

  9. Trauma-Informed Approach to Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence.

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    Anyikwa, Victoria A

    2016-01-01

    Trauma leads to deleterious effects on individuals and families causing many to seek treatment from social work practitioners across systems of care. Trauma comes in all forms, from community violence to domestic violence, including physical and sexual abuse of children and violence among intimate partners that leaves its victims devastatingly impacted. Women make up the majority of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) with studies revealing significant associated mental health problems. Social workers are bound to work with survivors of IPV and must be prepared to deliver effective trauma-informed services. While trauma-specific services exist for specific populations, researchers are finding that negative events in childhood and in family functioning can impact individuals' lives in negative ways thus having implications for treatment across systems. For women survivors of IPV, the traumatic stress may be cumulative with varied emotional and mental health impacts that may force them to seek services across systems, not just domestic violence specific systems. As such it is imperative that social workers increase awareness of trauma, its impact on women, and the importance of the approach and environment in which they provide services. In this article the author aims to broaden social workers knowledge of the use of a TIC approach developed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration that's applicable across systems of care, particularly when working with women survivors of IPV.

  10. Intimate partner violence victimization and parenting: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Antonia E; Kallechey, Leigh; Harlaar, Nicole; Rashaan Ford, C; Garrido, Edward F; Betts, William R; Maguire, Sabine

    2018-04-14

    Early studies examining parenting in the setting of intimate partner violence (IPV) often focus on abuse by the IPV perpetrator or effects of long term exposure. This review addresses how intimate partner violence impacts victim parenting. Seven databases were searched for the time period 1970-2015. Included were comparative studies involving children 11 years or younger. Quality ranking was based on: confirmation of victim status, consideration of co-perpetration, heterogeneity of the population, and standardization of measurements. Of 13,038 studies reviewed, 33 included studies showed that victimization is associated with negative parenting practices. Based on data presented within individual studies, 21 studies were eligible for meta-analysis which demonstrated modest effect sizes with high levels of heterogeneity. There was a negative correlation between IPV and positive parenting (r = -0.08; 95% CI: -.12, - .04); positive correlation between IPV and physical aggression (r = .17; 95% CI: .11, .23) and neglect (r = .12; 95% CI: .01, .23); and a trend toward positive correlation between IPV and psychological aggression (r = .23; 95% CI: -.94, .47). A synthesis of studies unsuitable for meta-analysis reinforced these findings. The review demonstrated ongoing methodological issues with extant literature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Economic Insecurity and Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiding, Matthew J; Basile, Kathleen C; Klevens, Joanne; Smith, Sharon G

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has consistently found that low SES is associated with higher levels of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) victimization. Though associated with poverty, two indicators of economic insecurity, food and housing insecurity, have been identified as conceptually distinct social determinants of health. This study examined the relationship between food and housing insecurity experienced in the preceding 12 months and IPV and SV victimization experienced in the preceding 12 months, after controlling for SES and other demographic variables. Data were from the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, a nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. adults. In 2016, multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to examine the association between food and housing insecurity and multiple forms of IPV and SV victimization. Robust associations were found between food and housing insecurity experienced in the preceding 12 months and IPV and SV experienced in the preceding 12 months, for women and men, even after controlling for age, family income, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. Food and housing insecurity may be important considerations for the prevention of SV and IPV or the reductions of their consequences, although future research is needed to disentangle the direction of the association. Strategies aimed at buffering economic insecurity may reduce vulnerability to IPV and SV victimization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Marital infidelity and intimate partner violence in rural Malawi: a dyadic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Amy A

    2014-10-01

    Extramarital sexual partnerships are a common reason for intimate partner violence (IPV) in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the fact that IPV requires an interaction between two partners, the majority of the research focuses on individuals rather than the broader relationship context where such violence takes place. Using a sample of 422 married couples from rural Malawi, this study examined the dyadic environment of marital infidelity and two types of IPV victimization: sexual coercion and physical abuse. We considered both self-reported marital infidelity and perceived partner infidelity to assess how well partners knew each other and to compare their respective associations with IPV. Logistic regression was used to test for associations between self-reported marital infidelity and IPV. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine actor and partner effects of perceived partner infidelity on an individual's and their partner's experience of IPV. The results show that self-reported marital infidelity was not significantly associated with IPV for men or women. However, the perception of a partner's infidelity was significantly associated with both an individual's and their partner's risk for sexual coercion and physical abuse. Contrary to the "sexual double standard" hypothesis, women were not significantly more likely than men to report being physically abused when their partners suspected infidelity. Future studies should continue to explore the relationship context of IPV in sub-Saharan Africa in order to understand how spouses mutually shape each other's experience of IPV and subsequent health outcomes.

  13. Musculoskeletal manifestations of physical abuse after intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Mohit; Dosanjh, Sonia; Tornetta, Paul; Matthews, David

    2006-12-01

    Domestic violence is the most common cause of nonfatal injury to women in the United States, with an estimated cost of $50 billion annually. Little is known about the spectrum of musculoskeletal injuries in victims of domestic violence. We examined the characteristics of abused women, the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries, and the variables associated with increasing frequency of physical violence against women. We identified all female survivors of intimate partner violence who were referred to the Minnesota Domestic Abuse Program from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2003. Characteristics of each woman's background, abuse history, and injuries were obtained by a trained program therapist in an in-depth, 2-hour intake interview. Specific data forms were completed for each interview. Five forms of experienced abuse were explored (physical, emotional, psychological, sexual, and financial). Injuries were subcategorized as (1) head and neck, (2) musculoskeletal, (3) chest, (4) abdomen, and (5) skin (integumentary system). We conducted regression analyses to determine factors associated with the frequency of physical abuse. Of 270 potentially eligible women, 263 (97%) with complete records were included. Women were commonly Caucasian (62%) in their third decade of life with one or more children (87%). A history of abuse was recalled by over half of the women (54%). The most prevalent forms of abuse were emotional (84%), psychological (68%), physical (43%), sexual (41%), and financial (38%). Child protective services were concomitantly involved in half of the women living in abusive relationships. Among those women who reported physical abuse, 36% sought medical attention. We identified 144 injuries in 218 physically abused women. Head and neck injuries were the most prevalent after intimate partner violence (40%). Musculoskeletal injuries were the second most common manifestation of intimate partner violence (28%). The spectrum of injuries included sprains (n

  14. Motherhood, Empowerment, and Resilience within the Context of Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bach

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We conducted twenty in-depth interviews with residents of a domestic violence shelter in a southeastern metropolitan area to understand how low-income women experience mothering within the context of intimate partner violence (IPV. Interview questions explored the women’s feelings about motherhood, their relationships with their children, and the effects of IPV on their children. Despite the difficulties of raising children with an abusive partner, the women did not regret becoming a mother. In fact, respondents identified their children as one of few positives in their lives and mothering as central to their identity. Relationships with their children enabled the women to feel empowered in ways that their intimate partnerships did not and motivated them to escape the violence and persevere.

  15. Examining the Relationship Between Intimate Partner Violence and Concern for Animal Care and Safekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuerch, Melissa A; Giesbrecht, Crystal J; Price, Jill A B; Knutson, Tracy; Wach, Frances

    2017-03-01

    The current study examined the knowledge and experience of animal welfare and human service providers in urban and rural communities of Saskatchewan, Canada. Nine exploratory qualitative interviews were conducted to gather a more in-depth understanding of whether the concern for animal care and safekeeping impacts the decision to leave situations of intimate partner violence. The interviews were semistructured and guided by four questions, which were designed, reviewed, and revised based on feedback from a community-based research team. Thematic analysis highlighted important findings, allowing for the generation of suggestions for improvement of current supports and services offered. The current study findings suggest that concern for animal care and safekeeping creates significant barriers regarding the decision to leave situations of intimate partner violence and abuse, warranting further research to inform support services and resources within a Canadian context.

  16. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Substance Use Patients and their Intimate Partners: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has documented that substance users have a number of early maladaptive schemas that may underlie their substance use and that treatment that addresses these schemas may result in improved outcomes. Research has also shown that intimate partners of substance users have a number of mental and physical health problems, although no known research has examined the early maladaptive schemas of these relationship partners. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of substance use treatment patients and their intimate partners (N = 80). Findings showed that both patients and intimate partners had a number of problematic early maladaptive schemas; that patients scored significantly higher than their intimate partners on a few early maladaptive schemas; and that patient and intimate partner schemas may be interrelated. Implications of these findings for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:22745593

  17. The Relationship Between Marijuana Use and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nationally Representative, Longitudinal Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use and intimate partner violence using a longitudinal survey of adolescents and young adults ages 15 to 26 years. Data were obtained from 9,421 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves 1 through 4 (1995–2008). Marijuana use was measured in the past year at each wave and participants were categorized as “users” or “nonusers.” Partner violence was constructed using six items (three pertaining to victimization and three concerning perpetration) from Wave 4 (2007–2008). Using these six items, participants were categorized as “victims only,” “perpetrators only,” or “victims and perpetrators.” Survey multinomial regression was used to examine the relationship between marijuana use and intimate partner violence. Consistent use of marijuana during adolescence was most predictive of intimate partner violence (OR = 2.08, p intimate partner violence perpetration. Adolescent marijuana use, particularly consistent use throughout adolescence, is associated with perpetration or both perpetration of and victimization by intimate partner violence in early adulthood. These findings have implications for intimate partner violence prevention efforts, as marijuana use should be considered as a target of early intimate partner violence intervention and treatment programming. PMID:22080574

  18. Posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate partner violence in a women's headache center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Megan R; Fried, Lise E; Pineles, Suzanne L; Shipherd, Jillian C; Bernstein, Carolyn A

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder has been linked to women's ill health, including headaches. Intimate partner violence, which may result in posttraumatic stress disorder, is often reported by women with headaches. Prior studies of intimate partner violence and headache have estimated lifetime but not 12-month prevalence. The researchers in this study examined the relationship between headache and posttraumatic stress disorder in a novel population, and estimated 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of intimate partner violence. Patients were recruited from a women's headache center (n = 92) during 2006-07 and completed the Migraine Disability Assessment measure of headache severity. Posttraumatic stress disorder was measured using a modified Breslau scale. Twelve-month and lifetime physical intimate partner violence were measured with the Partner Violence Screen and the STaT ("slapped, threatened and throw") measure. Multivariable regression determined factors independently associated with headache severity. Among all participants, 28.3% screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder; 9.8% and 36.9% of women endorsed recent and lifetime intimate partner violence. Posttraumatic stress disorder was strongly associated with headache severity (β = 34.12, p = 0.01). Patients reporting lifetime intimate partner violence exhibited a trend of nine additional days of disability due to headache over 90 days. Posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate partner violence occur among a sizable proportion of women referred for headache. The authors' findings reaffirm that clinicians treating women with headaches must be aware of the possibility of posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate partner violence in such patients.

  19. Intimate partner violence, employment,and the workplace: consequences and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer E; Logan, Tk; Macke, Caroline

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the literature on violence against women and employment. After a brief discussion of the definition and consequences of intimate partner violence, the article reviews the research and related literatures to describe the (a) types of job interference tactics used by abusers, (b) employee-level consequences of partner violence, (c) victimized employee responses to intimate partner violence, (d) organizational-level consequences of partner violence, and (e) employer responses to intimate partner violence. Future research directions and workplace implications are discussed.

  20. Intimate partner violence among adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marcia; Cupp, Pamela K; Jewkes, Rachel K; Gevers, Anik; Mathews, Catherine; LeFleur-Bellerose, Chantel; Small, Jeon

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to describe potentially preventable factors in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization among South African 8th grade students. Data were collected during a pilot evaluation of a classroom 8th grade curriculum on gender-based violence prevention in nine public schools in Cape Town through self-completed interviews with 549 8th grade students, 238 boys and 311 girls. Structural equation models (SEM) predicting IPV were constructed with variables a priori hypothesized to be associated. The majority of students (78.5 %) had had a partner in the past 3 months, and they reported high rates of IPV during that period (e.g., over 10 % of boys reported forcing a partner to have sex, and 39 % of girls reported physical IPV victimization). A trimmed version of the hypothesized SEM (CFI = .966; RMSEA = .051) indicated that disagreement with the ideology of male superiority and violence predicted lower risk of IPV (p conflict resolution styles (e.g., walking off angrily, sending angry text messages, or refusing to talk to them) predicted high IPV risk (p conflict more strongly among girls than boys. Findings suggest that interventions to reduce IPV among South African adolescents should challenge attitudes supportive of male superiority and violence; encourage use of positive conflict resolution styles; and discourage heavy alcohol use among both boys and girls.

  1. Depression and intimate partner violence among college students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Nourian, Maziar M; Assasnik, Nushean; Franchek-Roa, Kathy

    2016-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health threat and causes mental as well as physical health problems. Depression is a common mental health consequence of IPV. While Iran has a high prevalence of IPV and depression, the association between IPV and depression has not been well examined. The Iranian data from the International Dating Violence Study (IDVS) 2001-2006 (ICPSR 29583) were analyzed. Twenty-three male and 75 female college students were selected in the IDVS Iranian data. Nearly all of the participants, male and female, reported being victims and perpetrators of IPV. Female participants were more likely to report depression compared to male participants. Participants who had experienced sexual IPV reported significantly higher levels of depression compared to those who did not experience sexual IPV. However, when substance abuse and partner conflict were analyzed, the contribution of sexual IPV on depression was no longer significant. This study suggests that IPV prevention and intervention programs should take into consideration that college-aged men and women frequently experience and use violence in dating relationships. Depression interventions should be included for female students. Substance abuse and partner conflict are important risk factors for depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sexting Coercion as a Component of Intimate Partner Polyvictimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jody M; Drouin, Michelle; Coupe, Amanda

    2016-07-01

    We examined the role of sexting coercion as a component of the intimate partner abuse (IPA) construct among young adults to determine whether sexting coercion would emerge alongside other forms of partner aggression as a cumulative risk factor for psychological, sexual, and attachment problems. In a sample of 885 undergraduates (301 men and 584 women), 40% had experienced some type of coercion. Although there was some overlap between sexual coercion and sexting coercion (21% of participants had experienced both), some individuals had experienced only sexting coercion (8%) and some only sexual coercion (11%). Women were more likely than men to be coerced into sexting. Both sexting coercion and sexual coercion were significantly and independently related to negative mental health symptoms, sexual problems, and attachment dysfunction, and, notably, sexting coercion was found to be a cumulative risk factor for nearly all of these negative effects. These data support the idea that digital sexual victimization is a new component of IPA polyvictimization, potentially increasing the negative effects experienced by victims of multiple forms of partner aggression.

  3. Pregnant adolescents: experiences and behaviors associated with physical assault by an intimate partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemann, C M; Agurcia, C A; Berenson, A B; Volk, R J; Rickert, V I

    2000-06-01

    To better understand the experiences and behaviors of battered pregnant adolescents and the characteristics of their intimate partners. As part of a longitudinal multiracial/ethnic study of drug use among pregnant and parenting adolescents, 724 adolescents mothers reported on demographic characteristics, social support and peer contact, level of substance use before and during pregnancy, nonconforming behaviors, and both lifetime and concurrent exposure to violence. Information about the father of her baby included his level of substance use, gang and police involvement, and intimate partner violence. Chi-square and Student's t tests were used to identify victim, partner, and relationship characteristics associated with being assaulted by the father of her baby during the preceding year. Eighty-six (11.9%) adolescents reported being physically assaulted by the fathers of their babies. Assaulted adolescents were significantly more likely than nonassaulted adolescents to have been exposed to other forms of violence over the same 12-month period, including verbal abuse, assault by family members, being in a fight where someone was badly hurt, reporting fear of being hurt by other teens, witnessing violence perpetrated on others, and carrying a weapon for protection. A history of nonconforming behavior and frequent or recent substance use was more common among both battered adolescents and their perpetrator partners. The age and race/ethnicity of the pregnant adolescent and the length of her relationship with the father of her baby were not associated with assault status. Pregnant adolescents who are assaulted by intimate partners appear to live in violence-prone environments and to have partners who engage in substance use and other nonconforming behaviors. Comprehensive assessments are critical for all adolescent females at risk of assault, and direct questions about specific behaviors or situations must be used.

  4. The association between disability and intimate partner violence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiding, Matthew J; Armour, Brian S

    2015-06-01

    Prior research has shown that people with disabilities are at greater risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. This study seeks to examine the link between disability and IPV in a nationally representative sample of U.S. women and men. Also, by establishing that disability preceded recent IPV victimization, this study allows for a more thorough understanding of whether people with disabilities are at greater risk of victimization subsequent to having a disability. Data were analyzed from the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, an ongoing, national random digit dial telephone survey of U.S. adults. Estimates of age-adjusted 12-month IPV prevalence by disability status were calculated. Compared to women without a disability, women with a disability were significantly more likely to report experiencing each form of IPV measured, which includes rape, sexual violence other than rape, physical violence, stalking, psychological aggression, and control of reproductive or sexual health. For men, significant associations were found with respect to stalking and psychological aggression by an intimate partner. The results suggest that people with a disability are at greater risk of victimization and that primary and secondary prevention efforts might be targeted to those with a disability. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. [Factors associated with primary care professionals' readiness to respond to intimate partner violence in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Pilar; Sebastián, Miguel San; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Goicolea, Isabel

    2017-05-22

    To analyse the Spanish primary care professionals' readiness to respond to intimate partner violence (IPV) in primary care and identify possible determinants that could facilitate a better response. A cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic sampling by convenience was performed among healthcare professionals working in 15 primary care centres in Spain. The Physician Readiness to Manage Intimate Partner Violence Survey (PREMIS), the version validated and translated into Spanish, was the instrument used to collect information about knowledge, opinions and practices regarding intimate partner violence. Descriptive analysis and, simple and multiple linear regression analysis were performed. A total of 265 completed questionnaires were received, with a response rate of 80.3%. An exposure-response effect was observed, where at higher hours of training a higher score was obtained on the questionnaire sections (p <0.05). Age, type of profession, years of experience in primary care, hours of IPV training and reading the protocol showed positive association with knowledge (perceived preparation, perceived knowledge, actual knowledge), opinions (staff preparation, legal requirements, self-efficacy, workplace issues, constraints, understanding of the victim) and practice of healthcare professionals. Reading the regional/national protocol for action and receiving training in IPV were the most important interventions associated to a better primary care professionals' readiness to respond to IPV in Spanish primary care settings. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Bidirectional Intimate Partner Violence and Drug Use Among Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Robin; Rhoades, Harmony; Rice, Eric; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda

    2015-07-10

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) among homeless youth (HY) is common, yet it has continuously been understudied, especially in relation to substance use. As part of a longitudinal study of Los Angeles area HY, drop-in service seeking youth completed a self-administered questionnaire. The presented results are from the third panel of data collection (N = 238), and the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) was used to assess IPV behavior regarding the participant's most recent intimate relationship. Approximately 38% of participants reported IPV behavior in their most recent relationship, and the majority of this behavior was bidirectional. It was unlikely that a HY was only a victim or only a perpetrator. Multivariable models revealed that bidirectional IPV was related to increased odds of recent methamphetamine; whereas sole perpetration was associated with an increased likelihood of ecstasy use. Specific substance use and IPV are closely related to risk behaviors for HY. Comprehensive interventions should be developed to address both these risk behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Risk Factors for Hispanic Male Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, Bibiana M.; Dorgo, Sandor; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2015-01-01

    The literature review analyzed 24 studies that explored male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration risk factors among men, in particular Hispanics, using the socioecological model framework composed of four socioecological levels for violence prevention. Six databases were reviewed within the EBSCO search engine for articles published from 2000 to 2014. Articles reviewed were specific to risk factors for IPV perpetration among Hispanic men, focusing particularly on Mexican American men. Many key factors have previously been associated with risk for IPV perpetration; however, certain determinants are unique to Hispanics such as acculturation, acculturation stress, and delineated gender roles that include Machismo and Marianismo. These risk factors should be incorporated in future targeted prevention strategies and efforts and capitalize on the positive aspects of each to serve as protective factors. PMID:25891392

  8. Risk Factors for Hispanic Male Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, Bibiana M; Dorgo, Sandor; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2017-07-01

    The literature review analyzed 24 studies that explored male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration risk factors among men, in particular Hispanics, using the socioecological model framework composed of four socioecological levels for violence prevention. Six databases were reviewed within the EBSCO search engine for articles published from 2000 to 2014. Articles reviewed were specific to risk factors for IPV perpetration among Hispanic men, focusing particularly on Mexican American men. Many key factors have previously been associated with risk for IPV perpetration; however, certain determinants are unique to Hispanics such as acculturation, acculturation stress, and delineated gender roles that include Machismo and Marianismo. These risk factors should be incorporated in future targeted prevention strategies and efforts and capitalize on the positive aspects of each to serve as protective factors.

  9. Portrayal of women as intimate partner domestic violence perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Marianne

    2012-09-01

    The article explores some of the ways heterosexual women are portrayed as perpetrators of intimate partner domestic violence (IPV) in police domestic violence records in England and is the first study in the United Kingdom to examine the issue of gender and domestic violence perpetrators in any detail and over time. The article is based on a study of 128 IPV cases tracked longitudinally over 6 years, including 32 cases where women were the sole perpetrators and a further 32 cases where women were "dual" perpetrators alongside men. Women were 3 times more likely than men to be arrested when they were construed as the perpetrator. However, Pence and Dasgupta's category of "pathological violence" appeared more useful as an analytical category in the construction of women as "perpetrators" and men as "victims" than the notion of "battering."

  10. Women's expectations of healthcare professionals in case of intimate partner violence in Serbia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djikanovic, B.; Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Stevanovic, S.; Celik, H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Women who have experienced intimate partner violence use health care services more often than non-abused women, but it is unclear what they expect from physicians in relation to their intimate partner violence experience. In this study the authors explored whether women in Serbia expect physicians

  11. Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

  12. Racializing Intimate Partner Violence among Black, Native American, Asian American and Latina Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) continues to attract much attention and awareness as an increasing social problem in the U.S. While intimate partner violence scholars and experts have developed an inclusive conceptualization of IPV, research highlights the need to construct a framework of IPV incorporating the sociocultural and sociohistorical…

  13. Utility of Hospital Emergency Department Data for Studying Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Linda E.; Mahendra, Reshma R.; Ikeda, Robin M.; Ingram, Eben M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examine 12 months of emergency department visit data (N = 2,521) from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program and explore its utility for measuring and studying intimate partner violence. Given the dearth of national data on intimate partner violence-related injury and its potential value for public health…

  14. The Danger Assessment: Validation of a Lethality Risk Assessment Instrument for Intimate Partner Femicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Webster, Daniel W.; Glass, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The Danger Assessment (DA) is an instrument designed to assess the likelihood of lethality or near lethality occurring in a case of intimate partner violence. This article describes the development, psychometric validation, and suggestions for use of the DA. An 11-city study of intimate partner femicide used multivariate analysis to test the…

  15. Does Powerlessness Explain the Relationship between Intimate Partner Violence and Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filson, Jennifer; Ulloa, Emilio; Runfola, Cristin; Hokoda, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to test whether relationship power could act as a mediator of the relationship between intimate partner violence and depression. The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power and on previous research of intimate partner violence and depression. Survey results from a sample of 327 single…

  16. Factors influencing beliefs about intimate partner violence among adults in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young Ran; Jeong, Geum Hee; Kim, Shin-Jeong

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to identify factors influencing beliefs about intimate partner violence among Korean adults. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study that analyzed data from 466 adults. Beliefs about intimate partner violence were measured using a self-report questionnaire with a total of 28 items consisting of four subscales: perpetrator's justification for beating women, blaming women for violence against them, perpetrator's responsibility for violence, and giving help to victims. Men and women had significantly different beliefs about intimate partner violence (t = -7.19, p South Korea, men, older individuals, and those with less formal education or who have witnessed parental violence need education to foster healthier beliefs about intimate partner violence. Nurses can play a vital role in efforts to decrease intimate partner violence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Intimate partner violence against South Asian women in greater Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G

    2002-01-01

    to identify the prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) against South Asian women (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan, Bhutanese, Nepalese, Maldive Islanders) residing in Greater Boston; to identify forms of abuse, abuse-related injuries, and help-seeking behaviors of South Asian women reporting IPV; and to assess the relationship between current IPV victimization and history of nonpartner abuse, acculturation, and victim-blaming attitudes. A community-based volunteer sample of South Asian women (n=160) in relationships with male partners participated in a cross-sectional study of women's health. Participants were recruited via community outreach (eg, fliers, snowball sampling, referrals) and were interviewed in person by trained South Asian women. Participants were 18 to 62 years old (mean age=31.6) and predominantly immigrant (87.5%); 74.4% were married, 51.6% had children, and 71.9% had family incomes of more than $2100 per month. Forty percent of the sample reported physical IPV, sexual IPV, or injury/need for medical services due to IPV from current male partners; few women (9.4%) who reported ever experiencing IPV from current male partners reported no abuse in the past year. Twice as many participants reported needing to see a doctor for abuse-related injuries, but not seeing one (6.3%), as actually seeing a doctor (3.1%). Only 11.3% of women reporting IPV reported having received any counseling related to the abuse. Other variables assessed were not related to abuse in current relationships. Domestic violence is a serious and highly prevalent concern among this group of South Asian women. Their knowledge of available services is limited, and victim-blaming attitudes are not uncommon. Culturally tailored domestic violence services and IPV education are needed for this underserved population.

  18. Induced abortion, pregnancy loss and intimate partner violence in Tanzania: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöckl Heidi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence by an intimate partner is increasingly recognized as an important public and reproductive health issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence is associated with induced abortion and pregnancy loss from other causes and to compare this with other, more commonly recognized explanatory factors. Methods This study analyzes the data of the Tanzania section of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, a large population-based cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania, conducted from 2001 to 2002. All women who answered positively to at least one of the questions about specific acts of physical or sexual violence committed by a partner towards her at any point in her life were considered to have experienced intimate partner violence. Associations between self reported induced abortion and pregnancy loss with intimate partner violence were analysed using multiple regression models. Results Lifetime physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence was reported by 41% and 56% of ever partnered, ever pregnant women in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya respectively. Among the ever pregnant, ever partnered women, 23% experienced involuntary pregnancy loss, while 7% reported induced abortion. Even after adjusting for other explanatory factors, women who experienced intimate partner violence were 1.6 (95%CI: 1.06,1.60 times more likely to report an pregnancy loss and 1.9 (95%CI: 1.30,2.89 times more likely to report an induced abortion. Intimate partner violence had a stronger influence on induced abortion and pregnancy loss than women's age, socio-economic status, and number of live born children. Conclusions Intimate partner violence is likely to be an important influence on levels of induced abortion and pregnancy loss in Tanzania. Preventing intimate partner violence may therefore be beneficial

  19. Intimate partner violence: IPV in the LGBT community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D

    2013-09-01

    Nationally, the rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals are similar to or greater than rates for heterosexuals. Many have experienced psychological and physical abuse as sexual minorities, making it difficult for them to seek help for IPV. Physician behavior, such as not assuming that all patients are heterosexual, being nonjudgmental, and using inclusive language, can empower LGBT patients to disclose IPV. Also, physicians should ascertain the degree to which the patient is out. The threat of being outed can be an aspect of the power and control exerted by an abusive partner and a significant barrier to seeking help. Physicians should screen for IPV and intervene in a similar manner with LGBT and non-LGBT patients, but they should be aware of potential limitations in resources for LGBT patients, such as shelters. As sexual minorities experiencing IPV, LGBT individuals are at greater risk of depression and substance abuse than are non-LGBT individuals. Minority stress, resulting from stigmatization and discrimination, can be exacerbated by IPV. Physicians should learn about legal issues for LGBT individuals and the availability of community or advocacy programs for LGBT perpetrators or victims of IPV. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  20. Intimate partner stalking and femicide: urgent implications for women's safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Judith; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Watson, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the type and extent of intimate partner stalking and threatening behaviors that occurred within 12 months prior to a major assault or attempted or actual partner femicide and specifies which behaviors were associated with an increased risk of potential or actual lethality. The design was a ten-city case-control study of 821 women: 384 abuse victims and 437 attempted or actual femicide informants. Data were derived using a 16-item inventory. Logistic regressions, with adjustments for demographic variables, were used to identify the significant perpetrator behaviors associated with attempted/actual femicide. Women who reported the perpetrator followed or spied on them were more than twice as likely t o become attempted/actual femicide victims. Threats by the perpetrator to harm the children if the woman left or did not return to the relationship place the woman at a ninefold increase in the risk of attempted/actual femicide. Conclusions are that certain stalking and threatening behaviors are strong risk factors for lethality, and women must be so advised.

  1. Intimate partner violence among individuals in methadone maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, Marcel A; Anderson, Bradley J; Caviness, Celeste M; Stein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a highly prevalent and concerning problem among methadone maintenance populations, and previous studies have shown a relationship between a history of IPV and increased substance use and affective disturbances. The current study examined (1) the association between recent IPV victimization and alcohol and cocaine use and (2) the relationship between recent IPV victimization and depression in a sample of smokers (N = 203) in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Participants in this study completed a battery of assessments that included standard questionnaires of trauma, alcohol and substance use, and depression. Parallel logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the adjusted association of IPV victimization and depressive symptoms and evaluate the adjusted association of victimization with recent substance use. Participants recently victimized by partners were shown to have significantly higher mean Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores (b = 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.07; 1.02], P <.05) and were found to have a 6 times greater likelihood of cocaine use (odds ratio [OR] = 6.65, 95% CI: [1.61; 27.46], P <.01) after controlling for age, gender, education, opiate use, and ethnicity. These findings support the notion that IPV victimization can potentially increase depression and other substance use among MMT patients, which can have a deleterious impact on treatment.

  2. Intimate partner violence and incidence of common mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Marcela Franklin Salvador de; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2017-04-10

    To investigate the association of intimate partner violence against women reported in the last 12 months and seven years with the incidence of common mental disorders. A prospective cohort study with 390 women from 18 to 49 years, registered in the Family Health Program of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco; from July 2013 to December 2014. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) assessed mental health. Intimate partner violence consists of concrete acts of psychological, physical or sexual violence that the partner inflicts on the woman. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR) of the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence. The incidence of common mental disorders was 44.6% among women who reported intimate partner violence in the last 12 months and 43.4% among those who reported in the past seven years. Mental disorders remained associated with psychological violence (RR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.9-4.7 and RR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.0-3.7 in the last 12 months, and seven years, respectively), even in the absence of physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence were related to physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher, both in the last 12 months (RR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.1-4.7) and in the last seven years (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7-3.8). Intimate partner violence is associated with the incidence of common mental disorders in women. The treatment of the consequences of IPV and support for women in seeking protection for themselves for public services is essential. Investigar a associação da violência por parceiros íntimos relatada contra as mulheres nos últimos 12 meses e últimos sete anos com a incidência dos transtornos mentais comuns. Estudo de coorte prospectivo com 390 mulheres de 18 a 49 anos, cadastradas no Programa Saúde da Família da cidade do Recife, PE, entre julho de 2013 e dezembro de 2014. A saúde mental foi avaliada pelo Self Reporting

  3. Characteristics of the residential neighborhood environment differentiate intimate partner femicide in urban versus rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Layde, Peter M; Hamberger, L Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W

    2013-06-01

    A growing body of work examines the association between neighborhood environment and intimate partner violence (IPV). As in the larger literature examining the influence of place context on health, rural settings are understudied and urban and rural residential environments are rarely compared. In addition, despite increased attention to the linkages between neighborhood environment and IPV, few studies have examined the influence of neighborhood context on intimate partner femicide (IPF). In this paper, we examine the role for neighborhood-level factors in differentiating urban and rural IPFs in Wisconsin, USA. We use a combination of Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports from 2004 to 2008, in concert with neighborhood-level information from the US Census Bureau and US Department of Agriculture, to compare urban and rural IPFs. Rates of IPF vary based on degree of rurality, and bivariate analyses show differences between urban and rural victims in race/ethnicity, marital status, country of birth, and neighborhood characteristics. After controlling for individual characteristics, the nature of the residential neighborhood environment significantly differentiates urban and rural IPFs. Our findings suggest a different role for neighborhood context in affecting intimate violence risk in rural settings, and that different measures may be needed to capture the qualities of rural environments that affect intimate violence risk. Our findings reinforce the argument that multilevel strategies are required to understand and reduce the burden of intimate violence, and that interventions may need to be crafted for specific geographical contexts. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  4. Empowerment, partner's behaviours and intimate partner physical violence among married women in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwagala, Betty; Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Ndugga, Patricia; Kabagenyi, Allen

    2013-12-01

    There is dearth of knowledge and research about the role of empowerment, partners' behaviours and intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) among married women in Uganda. This paper examined the influence of women's empowerment and partners' behaviours on IPPV among married women in Uganda. The 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data were used, selecting a weighted sample of 1,307 women in union considered for the domestic violence module. Cross tabulations (chi-square tests) and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with IPPV. The prevalence of IPPV among women in union in Uganda is still high (41%). Women's occupation was the only measure of empowerment that was significantly associated with IPPV, where women in professional employment were less likely to experience IPPV. Women from wealthy households were less likely to experience IPPV. IPPV was more likely to be reported by women who had ever had children and witnessed parental IPPV. IPPV was also more likely to be reported by women whose husbands or partners: accused them of unfaithfulness, did not permit them to meet female friends, insisted on knowing their whereabouts and sometimes or often got drunk. Women who were afraid their partners were also more likely to report IPPV. In the Ugandan context, women's empowerment as assessed by the UDHS has limited mitigating effect on IPPV in the face of partners' negative behaviours and history of witnessing parental violence.

  5. Acceptability of Family Violence: Underlying Ties Between Intimate Partner Violence and Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Rodriguez, Christina M; Martín-Fernández, Manuel; Lila, Marisol

    2017-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse (CA) are two forms of family violence with shared qualities and risk factors, and are forms of violence that tend to overlap. Acceptability of violence in partner relationships is a known risk factor in IPV just as acceptability of parent-child aggression is a risk factor in CA. We hypothesized that these acceptability attitudes may be linked and represent the expression of a general, underlying nonspecific acceptance of violence in close family relationships. The sample involved 164 male IPV offenders participating in a batterer intervention program. Implicit measures, which assess constructs covertly to minimize response distortions, were administered to assess acceptability of partner violence against women and acceptability of parent-child aggression. To determine whether acceptability attitudes regarding both forms of violence were related to a higher order construct tapping general acceptance of family violence, Bayesian confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. Findings supported a hierarchical (bifactor) model with a general factor expressing a nonspecific acceptance of family violence, and two specific factors reflecting acceptability of violence in intimate partner and parent-child relationships, respectively. This hierarchical model supporting a general acceptance of violence in close family relationships can inform future research aiming to better understand the connections between IPV and CA.

  6. Mental Health Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence in Marital Relationships in a Nationally Representative Sample of Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet; Cox, Brian J.; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.; Stein, Murray B.; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by both males and females. Data were drawn from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The relationships between physical IPV and child abuse, mental disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts among males and females were examined. The…

  7. The Interplay between Interpersonal Stress and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence over Time for Young At-Risk Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.

    2013-01-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples' interpersonal stress related to not liking…

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: The Clinical Picture of Physiological Arousal Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Sarah R.; Miller-Graff, Laura E.; Galano, Maria M.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have focused on acquiring a better understanding of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children under the age of six following exposure to chronic trauma, such as intimate partner violence (IPV). Despite a number of empirical studies on early childhood PTSD, few have examined how children differ…

  9. Children’s Experiences of Companion Animal Maltreatment in Households Characterized by Intimate Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A.; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O.; Ascione, Frank R.; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children’s relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance ...

  10. The Interplay Between Interpersonal Stress and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence Over Time for Young At-Risk Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.

    2013-01-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples’ interpersonal stress related to not liking partners’ friends and not getting along with parents as contextual factors associated with couples’ psychological partner violence and determined whet...

  11. The role of heavy episodic drinking and hostile sexism in men's sexual aggression toward female intimate partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra Teten

    2012-11-01

    Research indicates that men's heavy episodic drinking is a significant risk factor for their perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimate partners. The aim of this investigation was to examine how hostile sexism (i.e., antipathy toward women) and benevolent sexism (i.e., subjectively positive, yet patriarchal, views of women) influence the relation between men's heavy episodic drinking and their perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimate partners. Participants were 205 heterosexual drinking men who completed self-report measures of quantity of alcohol consumption during the past 12 months, hostile sexism, and sexual aggression toward an intimate partner during the past 12 months. Men's heavy episodic drinking was positively associated with sexual aggression perpetration toward intimate partners amongst men who endorsed high, but not low, levels of hostile sexism. No such interactive effect emerged for men's endorsement of benevolent sexism. These results have important implications for understanding cumulative risk factors for the perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dyadic, Partner, and Social Network Influences on Intimate Partner Violence among Male-Male Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Stephenson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite a recent focus on intimate partner violence (IPV among men who have sex with men (MSM, the male-male couple is largely absent from the IPV literature. Specifically, research on dyadic factors shaping IPV in male-male couples is lacking.Methods: We took a subsample of 403 gay/bisexual men with main partners from a 2011 survey of approximately 1,000 gay and bisexual men from Atlanta. Logistic regression models of recent (,12 month experience and perpetration of physical and sexual IPV examined dyadic factors, including racial differences, age differences, and social network characteristics of couples as key covariates shaping the reporting of IPV.Results: Findings indicate that men were more likely to report perpetration of physical violence if they were a different race to their main partner, whereas main partner age was associated with decreased reporting of physical violence. Having social networks that contained more gay friends was associated with significant reductions in the reporting of IPV, whereas having social networks comprised of sex partners or closeted gay friends was associated with increased reporting of IPV victimization and perpetration.Conclusion: The results point to several unique factors shaping the reporting of IPV within male-male couples and highlight the need for intervention efforts and prevention programs that focus on male couples, a group largely absent from both research and prevention efforts. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:316–323.

  13. Nurses' roles in screening for intimate partner violence: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natour, A; Qandil, A; Gillespie, G L

    2016-09-01

    To describe Jordanian nurses' roles and practices in screening for intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence is a recognized global health problem with a prevalence of 37% for the Eastern Mediterranean region. Jordanian nurses screening for intimate partner violence is as low as 10.8%. Nurses have encountered institutional and personal barriers hindering their screening practice. A descriptive phenomenological design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 12 male and female Jordanian nurses working at a university hospital in Jordan participated. Participants were interviewed in 2014 using a semi-structured, face-to-face interview. Steps of Colaizzi's phenomenological method were used to analyse the qualitative data. Four themes were derived from the data: (1) screening practices and roles for suspected IPV cases, (2) advantages for screening and disadvantages for not screening for intimate partner violence, (3) factors hindering screening practice and (4) feelings towards screening and not screening for intimate partner violence. Increasing Jordanian nurses' awareness of the need for intimate partner violence screening in this sample was needed. Professional education and training may facilitate the adoption of intimate partner violence screening practices. A key barrier to intimate partner violence screening is Jordanian nurses' personal beliefs. Overcoming these personal beliefs will necessitate a multi-faceted approach starting with schools of nursing and bridging into healthcare settings. Healthcare professionals including nursing and policy makers at health institutions should enforce screening policies and protocols for all receipt of care at first contact. In addition, an emphasis on modelling culturally congruent approaches to develop the trusting nurse-patient relationships and process for screening patients for intimate partner violence. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  14. Area-Level Normative Social Context and Intimate Partner Physical Violence in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Boaventura M

    2017-04-01

    Violence against women is considered a serious public health problem. It is estimated that about 30% of women who have been in a relationship in the world have experienced some form of physical or sexual violence from their intimate partners. In sub-Saharan Africa, one of the regions in the world with the highest prevalence of intimate partner violence, there have been studies of factors associated with intimate partner violence. However, few studies have explicitly examined the influence of the normative social context on women's accepting attitudes toward spousal abuse and their risk of experiencing intimate partner violence in the region. Using data from the 2011 Demographic and Health Survey in Mozambique, we employ multilevel logistic regression to examine the influence of area-level normative social context factors on 4,864 women's accepting attitudes toward spousal abuse and their likelihood of experiencing intimate partner physical violence in Mozambique. Our findings revealed the importance of religious norms in geographic areas as key predictors of women's acceptance of intimate partner violence. Specifically, area-level normative religious predictors were negatively associated with women's acceptance of spousal abuse. The prevalence of early marriages in a given geographic area was positively associated with both acceptance of spousal abuse and experiencing intimate partner physical violence. The level of female education in a geographic area was negatively associated with accepting spousal abuse and having experienced intimate partner physical violence. As intimate partner physical violence in sub-Saharan Africa continues unabated, programs and interventions to address the problem will need to consider the normative context of geographic areas.

  15. A Prospective Study of Adolescents' Sexual Partnerships on Emerging Adults' Relationship Satisfaction and Intimate Partner Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D; Copp, Jennifer E; Giordano, Peggy C

    2016-12-01

    We examined whether the influence of adolescents' sexual partnerships, both dating and casual, carried over to affect emerging adults' relationship satisfaction and experiences of intimate partner aggression. Analyses of longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 294) showed that net of control variables (delinquency, depression, family violence, relational and sociodemographic characteristics), adolescents' number of dating, but not casual, sexual partners led to greater odds of intimate partner aggression during emerging adulthood. Further, relationship churning (breaking-up and getting back together) and sexual non-exclusivity during emerging adulthood mediated the influence of adolescents' number of dating sexual partnerships on intimate partner aggression. The positive effect of dating sexual partnerships on intimate partner aggression was stronger for women compared with men. These findings confirm the long reach of adolescent experiences into emerging adulthood.

  16. A Prospective Study of Adolescents’ Sexual Partnerships on Emerging Adults’ Relationship Satisfaction and Intimate Partner Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Copp, Jennifer E.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether the influence of adolescents’ sexual partnerships, both dating and casual, carried over to affect emerging adults’ relationship satisfaction and experiences of intimate partner aggression. Analyses of longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 294) showed that net of control variables (delinquency, depression, family violence, relational and sociodemographic characteristics), adolescents’ number of dating, but not casual, sexual partners led to greater odds of intimate partner aggression during emerging adulthood. Further, relationship churning (breaking-up and getting back together) and sexual non-exclusivity during emerging adulthood mediated the influence of adolescents’ number of dating sexual partnerships on intimate partner aggression. The positive effect of dating sexual partnerships on intimate partner aggression was stronger for women compared with men. These findings confirm the long reach of adolescent experiences into emerging adulthood. PMID:28546885

  17. Intimate partner stalking victimization and posttraumatic stress symptoms in post-abuse women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kimberly N; Newton, Tamara L; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J; Ellison Burns, Vicki

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to further understanding of intimate partner stalking victimization in post-abuse women, with particular attention to the definition of stalking (with or without fear and threat) most predictive of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. In community midlife women with histories of divorce (N = 192), a history of stalking victimization accompanied by fear and threat was positively correlated with PTS symptom severity, after accounting for other partner abuse. The presence, compared with absence, of fear-and-threat stalking history doubled the odds of symptomatic levels of hyperarousal. Greater physical assault and injury chronicity differentiated fear-and-threat stalked women from other stalked women. Stalking contributed to a fuller understanding of PTS symptoms in women, showing particular relevance for hyperarousal.

  18. BIRTHPLACE, CULTURE, SELF-ESTEEM AND INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING HISPANIC WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L.; McCabe, Brian E.; Peragallo, Nilda P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore variations in demographics, culture, self-esteem and intimate partner violence among Hispanic women according to birthplace, and to identify factors that are associated with these differences in intimate partner violence. Baseline data from a randomized control trial testing the efficacy of an HIV prevention program was used. Path analyses identified differences in intimate partner violence between Colombian women and women from other Central/South American. Self-esteem was the only factor that was associated with these differences. Interventions that address the unique needs of Hispanic women from different subgroups are needed. PMID:23363655

  19. Intimate partner violence and pregnancy: a systematic review of interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Sofie Van Parys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV around the time of pregnancy is a widespread global health problem with many negative consequences. Nevertheless, a lot remains unclear about which interventions are effective and might be adopted in the perinatal care context. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to provide a clear overview of the existing evidence on effectiveness of interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy. METHODS: Following databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched and expanded by hand search. The search was limited to English peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials published from 2000 to 2013. This review includes all types of interventions aiming to reduce IPV around the time of pregnancy as a primary outcome, and as secondary outcomes to enhance physical and/or mental health, quality of life, safety behavior, help seeking behavior, and/or social support. RESULTS: We found few randomized controlled trials evaluating interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy. Moreover, the nine studies identified did not produce strong evidence that certain interventions are effective. Nonetheless, home visitation programs and some multifaceted counseling interventions did produce promising results. Five studies reported a statistically significant decrease in physical, sexual and/or psychological partner violence (odds ratios from 0.47 to 0.92. Limited evidence was found for improved mental health, less postnatal depression, improved quality of life, fewer subsequent miscarriages, and less low birth weight/prematurity. None of the studies reported any evidence of a negative or harmful effect of the interventions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Strong evidence of effective interventions for IPV during the perinatal period is lacking, but some interventions show promising results. Additional large-scale, high-quality research is essential to provide further evidence about the effect

  20. Psychological adjustment and victim-blaming among intimate partner violence offenders: The role of social support and stressful life events

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    Sergio Murgui

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence offenders often use victim-blaming attributions to explain their own violentbehavior. These attributions represent an important challenge for intervention programs for intimatepartnerviolence offenders. The main objectives of this study were to analyze both the influence of socialsupport and stressful life events on the psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depressivesymptomatology of intimate partner violence offenders and the relationship between offenders’psychological adjustment and their victim-blaming attributions. The sample consists of 314 men convictedof intimate partner violence who were referred to a community-based intervention program. Results froma structural equation model showed that social support and stressful life events were related topsychological adjustment. Psychological adjustment also was related to victim-blaming attributions amongintimate partner violence offenders. A better understanding of the relationships between psychologicaladjustment of intimate partner violence offenders and its determinants, as well as its impact on victimblamingattributions, may provide support to new intervention strategies. Implications of these results forimproving the effectiveness of intervention programs are discussed.

  1. Ambivalent Sexism, Alcohol Use, and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzetti, Claire M; Lynch, Kellie R; DeWall, C Nathan

    2015-09-09

    Research on risk factors for men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) has shown a high correlation with problem alcohol use. Additional studies, however, indicate that the alcohol-IPV link is neither simple nor necessarily direct and that a range of factors may moderate this relationship. Using a national, community-based sample of 255 men, the present study examined the moderating effects of ambivalent sexism (i.e., hostile and benevolent sexism) on the relationship between alcohol use and IPV perpetration. The findings show that both greater alcohol consumption and high hostile sexism are positively associated with IPV perpetration, and that hostile sexism moderates the alcohol-IPV relationship for perpetration of physical IPV, but not for psychological IPV. Moreover, high levels of alcohol consumption have a greater impact on physical IPV perpetration for men low in hostile sexism than for men high in hostile sexism, lending support to the multiple threshold model of the alcohol-IPV link. Implications of the findings for prevention, intervention, and future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Social ecological factors and intimate partner violence in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashaw, Bosena Tebeje; Schei, Berit; Magnus, Jeanette H

    2018-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy increases adverse pregnancy outcomes. Knowledge of societal, community, family and individual related factors associated with IPV in pregnancy is limited in Ethiopia. Our study examined these factors in an Ethiopian context. A cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women attending antenatal care at governmental health institutions, using a consecutive probability sampling strategy. A total of 720 pregnant women were interviewed by five trained nurses or midwives, using a standardized and /pretested survey questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to assess factors contributing to IPV. We used Akaike's information criteria, to identify the model that best describes the factors influencing IPV in pregnancy. Among the women interviewed, physical IPV was reported by 35.6%, and lifetime emotional or physical abuse by 81.0%. Perceiving violence as a means to settle interpersonal conflicts, presence of supportive attitudes of wife beating in the society, regarding violence as an expression of masculinity, and presence of strict gender role differences in the society, were all positively associated to IPV in pregnancy. The presence of groups legitimizing men's violence in the community, feeling isolated, having no social support for victims, and presence of high unemployment, were the perceived community related factors positively associated with IPV in pregnancy. IPV in pregnancy is very prevalent in Ethiopia and is associated with multiple social ecologic factors. Reduction of IPV in pregnancy calls for cross sectorial efforts from stakeholders at different levels.

  3. Community matters: intimate partner violence among rural young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M; Mattingly, Marybeth J; Dixon, Kristiana J; Banyard, Victoria L

    2014-03-01

    Drawing on social disorganization theory, the current study examined the extent to which community-level poverty rates and collective efficacy influenced individual reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, victimization, and bystander intervention among a sample of 178 young adults (18-24; 67.4% women) from 16 rural counties across the eastern US who completed an online survey that assessed demographic information, IPV perpetration, victimization, bystander intervention, and collective efficacy. We computed each county's poverty rate from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey. Generalized estimating equations demonstrated that after controlling for individual-level income status, community-level poverty positively predicted IPV victimization and perpetration for both men and women. Collective efficacy was inversely related to IPV victimization and perpetration for men; however, collective efficacy was unrelated to IPV victimization and perpetration for women. Whereas IPV bystander intervention was positively related to collective efficacy and inversely related to individual-level income status for both men and women, community-level poverty was unrelated to IPV bystander intervention for both men and women. Overall, these findings provide some support for social disorganization theory in explaining IPV among rural young adults, and underscore the importance of multi-level IPV prevention and intervention efforts focused around community-capacity building and enhancement of collective efficacy.

  4. Association between intimate partner violence and induced abortion in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Amina P; Salihu, Hamisu M; Nana, Philip N; Clayton, Heather B; Mbah, Alfred K; Marty, Phillip J

    2011-02-01

    To examine the association between intimate partner violence (IPV; physical, sexual, and emotional violence) and induced abortion in Cameroon. We used data from the 2004 Cameroon Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and hierarchic multivariate modeling to compare the rates of induced abortion by IPV type. In 2004, 2570 women were administered the domestic violence module of the DHS. Of those women, 126 (4.9%) reported having had at least 1 induced abortion. Cameroonian women reported high rates of IPV: physical violence (995 [38.7%]); emotional violence (789 [30.7%]); and sexual violence (381 [14.8%]). After adjusting for covariates, physical and sexual IPV increased the risk for induced abortion, whereas the association between emotional violence and induced abortion was not significant in multivariate models. Given the increased risk for maternal morbidity and mortality following unsafe induced abortions in Cameroon, the association between induced abortion and IPV is of interest in terms of public health. Programs targeted at preventing IPV might reduce the rate of maternal morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Women's Work, Gender Roles, and Intimate Partner Violence in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J; Thomas, Nicholas J

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of women's labor force participation to the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in the past 12 months, using data for 20,635 currently married women aged 15-49 years from the 2013 nationally representative Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Multilevel logistic regression models of sexual and physical IPV, with interactions between women's work and social norms regarding traditional gender roles, were developed. Approximately 23% of women aged 15-49 years reported IPV victimization in the past 12 months. Results revealed that non-cash work relative to unemployment was positively associated with both forms of IPV victimization, after controlling for other factors. Women's engagement in cash work was positively correlated with sexual IPV. The positive association between cash work and physical IPV victimization was significantly larger for women who resided in localities with greater male approval of wife beating. In localities where husband-dominated decision making was more common, a spousal education gap that favored husbands was more positively associated with sexual IPV. The findings call for integrated IPV prevention and economic empowerment programs that consider gender norms and gender-role beliefs and are adapted to the locality setting, in order to promote social environments in which women can reap the full benefits of their economic empowerment.

  6. The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Towfiqua Mahfuza; Tareque, Md Ismail; Tiedt, Andrew D; Hoque, Nazrul

    2014-01-01

    A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV) was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-2.8) times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0-3.0) times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8-3.0) times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4-2.3) times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh.

  7. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 518: Intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant yet preventable public health problem that affects millions of women regardless of age, economic status, race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or educational background. Individuals who are subjected to IPV may have lifelong consequences, including emotional trauma, lasting physical impairment, chronic health problems, and even death. Although women of all ages may experience IPV, it is most prevalent among women of reproductive age and contributes to gynecologic disorders, pregnancy complications, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Obstetrician–gynecologists are in a unique position to assess and provide support for women who experience IPV because of the nature of the patient–physician relationship and the many opportunities for intervention that occur during the course of pregnancy, family planning, annual examinations, and other women’s health visits. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has recommended that IPV screening and counseling should be a core part of women’s preventive health visits. Physicians should screen all women for IPV at periodic intervals, including during obstetric care (at the first prenatal visit, at least once per trimester, and at the postpartum checkup), offer ongoing support, and review available prevention and referral options. Resources are available in many communities to assist women who experience IPV.

  8. The Relationship Between Postpartum Depression and Intimate Partner Violence

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    Suheyla Dogan Bulut

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It has been suggested that intimate partner violence (IPV triggers depression. We aim to examine the effect of exposure to IPV on women who experience postpartum depression as compared with postpartum women without depression. Material and Method: The study sample included 128 women whose week 4 postpartum check was done in Family Practice. A psychiatric evaluation was completed for 128 postpartum women with no history of mental illness or drug use. We administered the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS and a sociodemographic form. A statistical analysis of the women%u2019s exposure to IPV was assessed in relation to their levels of depression as measured by the EPDS along with their sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Postpartum depression was detected in 56.3% (n=72 of the women. The average age and length of marriage of the women showing depression were found to be statistically significantly higher than for those that did not score as depressed (respectively p=0.035 and p=0.003. Rates of exposure to emotional and physical abuse were statistically significantly higher for depressed women (respectively p

  9. The Spatial Epidemiology of Intimate Partner Violence: Do Neighborhoods Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; López-Quílez, Antonio; Marco, Miriam; Lladosa, Silvia; Lila, Marisol

    2015-07-01

    We examined whether neighborhood-level characteristics influence spatial variations in the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). Geocoded data on IPV cases with associated protection orders (n = 1,623) in the city of Valencia, Spain (2011-2013), were used for the analyses. Neighborhood units were 552 census block groups. Drawing from social disorganization theory, we explored 3 types of contextual influences: concentrated disadvantage, concentration of immigrants, and residential instability. A Bayesian spatial random-effects modeling approach was used to analyze influences of neighborhood-level characteristics on small-area variations in IPV risk. Disease mapping methods were also used to visualize areas of excess IPV risk. Results indicated that IPV risk was higher in physically disordered and decaying neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with low educational and economic status levels, high levels of public disorder and crime, and high concentrations of immigrants. Results also revealed spatially structured remaining variability in IPV risk that was not explained by the covariates. In this study, neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and immigrant concentration emerged as significant ecological risk factors explaining IPV. Addressing neighborhood-level risk factors should be considered for better targeting of IPV prevention. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Does economic empowerment protect women from intimate partner violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Koustuv

    2011-01-01

    The current study compared working and non-working groups of women in relation to intimate partner violence. The paper aims to explore the relationship between women's economic empowerment, their exposures to IPV and their help seeking behavior using a nationally representative sample in India. This was a cross sectional study of 124,385 ever married women of reproductive age from all 29 member states in India. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in proportions of dependent variables (exposure to IPV) and independent variables. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess the independent contribution of the variables of economic empowerment in predicting exposure to IPV. Out of 124,385 women, 69432 (56%) were eligible for this study. Among those that were eligible 35% were working. In general, prevalence of IPV (ever) among women in India were: emotional violence 14%, less severe physical violence 31%, severe physical violence 10% and sexual violence 8%. For working women, the IPV prevalence was: emotional violence 18%, less severe physical violence 37%, severe physical violence 14% and sexual violence 10%; whilst for non-working women the rate was 12, 27, 8 and 8 percents, respectively. Working women seek more help from different sources. Economic empowerment is not the sole protective factor. Economic empowerment, together with higher education and modified cultural norms against women, may protect women from IPV. ‎

  11. Intimate partner violence: childhood exposure to domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D

    2013-09-01

    Children who are exposed to domestic violence (DV) may experience many short- and long-term negative effects. They are up to 3.8 times more likely to become perpetrators or victims in adulthood than are children not exposed to DV. They also are at high risk of health problems, risky health behaviors, violence, and social functioning problems. Girls who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) are more likely to experience depression, anxiety, and trauma symptoms, and boys exposed to IPV are more likely to exhibit aggression and delinquent behaviors. To prepare the practice to identify and assist children exposed to DV, physicians should undergo training, implement screening protocols, use caution when documenting findings, collaborate with local agencies, and learn about the state's reporting laws. State and local DV service programs or other community resources can provide assessment and intervention assistance. Social workers, mental health professionals, and child and DV advocates can assist in providing treatment for children exposed to violence. Physicians should schedule follow-up appointments for children who need treatment, monitor behavior, and coordinate intervention services. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  12. Intimate Partner Violence in Pakistan: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Parveen Azam; Naylor, Paul B; Croot, Elizabeth; O'Cathain, Alicia

    2015-07-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major social and public health problem affecting people in various cultures and societies. Though the issue of IPV in Pakistan has been researched since the 1990 s, no attempt has been made systematically to review the available evidence on IPV in Pakistan. This article presents findings of a systematic review of available empirical literature related to IPV in Pakistan. Using various key words, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched to identify relevant studies. This resulted in the identification of 55 potential studies for inclusion. After application of exclusion criteria 23 studies were identified, 20 of which used quantitative research designs, two used qualitative designs and one adopted a mixed method case study approach. All studies reported men as the perpetrators of IPV and women as its victims. Findings are presented and discussed for IPV for its forms, predictors, effects and victims' responses. Pakistani peoples' perceived reasons for and their attitudes towards IPV are also presented and discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Binge drinking and violence against intimate partners in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysova, Aleksandra V; Hines, Denise A

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to provide information on the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and binge drinking among Russian university students. Using data from 500 (58% female) university students from the four Russian sites of the International Dating Violence Study, we found gender differences in rates of IPV perpetration and in the association between binge drinking and IPV. Specifically, more females than males perpetrated IPV, and the associations between binge drinking and IPV were stronger for the female students than for the male students. In addition, antisocial traits and behavior (ATSB) were significantly related to both binge drinking and IPV perpetration for males and females. For males, the relatively weak associations between binge drinking and IPV perpetration disappeared once ASTB was accounted for. For females, the relationship decreased but remained significant when ATSB was statistically controlled. Path analyses confirmed that this pattern of relationships would be consistent with ATSB serving as a partial mediator between binge drinking and IPV perpetration. However, other alternative mediation and moderation models for the relationships between binge drinking, IPV perpetration, and ATSB could not be ruled out with this one-wave correlational study.

  14. Agreement on Intimate Partner Violence among a Sample of Blue-Collar Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Bersamin, Melina; Ames, Genevieve

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed agreement level about the occurrence of past-year male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) among a sample of 897 blue-collar couples. Intimate partner violence (IPV) was measured with the Physical Assault subscale of the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). Agreement level was…

  15. Associations between dysfunctional personality traits and intimate partner violence in perpetrators and victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J.J.; Baan, L.; Bogaerts, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, the role of borderline and antisocial personality traits and psychological and physical forms of intimate partner violence were examined. Using self- and partner-reports, 30 perpetrators (28 males) and 30 victims (29 females) of partner violence, including 23 (former) couples,

  16. Intimate partner violence among speaking immigrant adult Portuguese women in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Queiroga Souto

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to understand the experiences of intimate partner violence among women from Portuguese-speaking countries living in the Greater Toronto Area. METHOD A social phenomenological study was conducted with ten Portuguese-speaking women who had experienced intimate partner violence who were selected by community centre leaders. The interviews were transcribed, translated and analysed by categories. RESULTS The consequences of violence included health problems, effects on children, and negative feelings among the victims. Factors preventing the women from leaving abusive partners included religious beliefs, challenging daily jobs, and the need to take care of their husband. Factors that encouraged them to leave included getting support and calling the police. Some women expressed hope for the future either with their husband. Others, desired divorce or revenge. Their plans to rebuild their lives without their husband included being happy, learning English, and being financially stable. CONCLUSION Using these findings can implicate in the improvement of care for these women.

  17. Evidence for biological roots in the transgenerational transmission of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, M I; Poirier, G L; Marquez, C; Veenit, V; Fontana, X; Salehi, B; Ansermet, F; Sandi, C

    2012-04-24

    Intimate partner violence is a ubiquitous and devastating phenomenon for which effective interventions and a clear etiological understanding are still lacking. A major risk factor for violence perpetration is childhood exposure to violence, prompting the proposal that social learning is a major contributor to the transgenerational transmission of violence. Using an animal model devoid of human cultural factors, we showed that male rats became highly aggressive against their female partners as adults after exposure to non-social stressful experiences in their youth. Their offspring also showed increased aggression toward females in the absence of postnatal father-offspring interaction or any other exposure to violence. Both the females that cohabited with the stressed males and those that cohabited with their male offspring showed behavioral (including anxiety- and depression-like behaviors), physiological (decreased body weight and basal corticosterone levels) and neurobiological symptoms (increased activity in dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons in response to an unfamiliar male) resembling the alterations described in abused and depressed women. With the caution required when translating animal work to humans, our findings extend current psychosocial explanations of the transgenerational transmission of intimate partner violence by strongly suggesting an important role for biological factors.

  18. Gender inequality and intimate partner violence among women in Moshi, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Laura Ann; Williams, Corrine; Larsen, Ulla

    2005-09-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, where rates of intimate partner violence are high, knowing the prevalence of abuse and associated patterns of risk is crucial to ensuring women's health and development. Intimate partner violence in Tanzania has not been assessed through a population-based survey. A household-based sample of women aged 20-44 in the urban district of Moshi, Tanzania, participated in face-to-face interviews in 2002-2003. The lifetime prevalence of exposure to intimate partner violence and the prevalence of exposure during the past 12 months were assessed among 1,444 women who reported having a current partner. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with intimate partner violence. Twenty-one percent of women reported having experienced intimate partner violence (i.e., having been threatened with physical abuse, subjected to physical abuse or forced into intercourse by a partner) during the previous 12 months; 26% reported such an experience at any time, including the past 12 months. The likelihood of violence in the past year was elevated if the woman had had problems conceiving or had borne five or more children (odds ratios, 1.9 and 2.4, respectively); if her husband or partner had other partners (2.0) or contributed little to expenses for her and her children (3.3); and if she had had no more than a primary education (1.7). Gender inequality within sexual unions is associated with intimate partner violence. Policies and programs that discourage men from blaming women for infertility, promote monogamous unions and expand access to education for women may reduce intimate partner violence in northern urban Tanzania.

  19. Reproductive coercion and co-occurring intimate partner violence in obstetrics and gynecology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lindsay E; Allen, Rebecca H; Goyal, Vinita; Raker, Christina; Gottlieb, Amy S

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive coercion is male behavior to control contraception and pregnancy outcomes of female partners. We examined the prevalence of reproductive coercion and co-occurring intimate partner violence among women presenting for routine care at a large, urban obstetrics and gynecology clinic. Women aged 18-44 years completed a self-administered, anonymous survey. Reproductive coercion was defined as a positive response to at least 1 of 14 questions derived from previously published studies. Women who experienced reproductive coercion were also assessed for intimate partner violence in the relationship where reproductive coercion occurred. Of 641 women who completed the survey, 16% reported reproductive coercion currently or in the past. Among women who experienced reproductive coercion, 32% reported that intimate partner violence occurred in the same relationship. Single women were more likely to experience reproductive coercion as well as co-occurring intimate partner violence. Reproductive coercion with co-occurring intimate partner violence is prevalent among women seeking general obstetrics and gynecology care. Health care providers should routinely assess reproductive-age women for reproductive coercion and intimate partner violence and tailor their family planning discussions and recommendations accordingly. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Latent Class Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration and Victimization among Latino Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grest, Carolina Villamil; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Gilreath, Tamika; Unger, Jennifer B

    2018-03-01

    While there are known developmental consequences and correlates of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization, research focused on bidirectional and multiple forms of partner violence among Latino emerging adults is needed. This longitudinal study identified latent classes of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization patterns among emerging adult Latinos (N = 1060; 60.6% female). A second aim examined acculturation and cumulative substance use correlates in high school, as predictors of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization classes in emerging adulthood. Average age of participants was 15.5 years in 10th grade and 22.7 years in emerging adulthood. We identified four distinct subgroups of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization, with 22% of individuals identified in a violence perpetration and victimization subgroup. Cumulative heavy episodic drinking and marijuana use in high school predicted belonging to the psychological bidirectional intimate partner violence group rather than the group with no violence. Cumulative marijuana use in high school, predicted belonging to the sexual bidirectional partner violence group compared to the no violence group. Our study extends the literature across developmental periods among Latino youth. The findings have implications for early adolescent prevention strategies and promotion of healthy intimate relationships.

  1. Identifying unique and shared risk factors for physical intimate partner violence and clinically-significant physical intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slep, Amy M Smith; Foran, Heather M; Heyman, Richard E; Snarr, Jeffery D; Usaf Family Advocacy Research Program

    2015-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health concern. To date, risk factor research has not differentiated physical violence that leads to injury and/or fear (i.e., clinically significant IPV; CS-IPV) from general physical IPV. Isolating risk relations is necessary to best inform prevention and treatment efforts. The current study used an ecological framework and evaluated relations of likely risk factors within individual, family, workplace, and community levels with both CS-IPV and general IPV to determine whether they were related to one type of IPV, both, or neither for both men and women. Probable risk and promotive factors from multiple ecological levels of influence were selected from the literature and assessed, along with CS-IPV and general IPV, via an anonymous, web-based survey. The sample comprised US Air Force (AF) active duty members and civilian spouses (total N = 36,861 men; 24,331 women) from 82 sites worldwide. Relationship satisfaction, age, and alcohol problems were identified as unique risk factors (in the context of the 23 other risk factors examined) across IPV and CS-IPV for men and women. Other unique risk factors were identified that differed in prediction of IPV and CS-IPV. The results suggest a variety of both established and novel potential foci for indirectly targeting partner aggression and clinically-significant IPV by improving people's risk profiles at the individual, family, workplace, and community levels. Aggr. Behav. 41:227-241, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrated by College Women within the Context of a History of Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Kelly N.; Sechrist, Stacy M.; White, Jacquelyn W.; Paradise, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a longitudinal design, the current study explored intimate partner violence perpetration among 1,300 college women within the context of one's history of physical and sexual victimization across 4 years of college. Structural equation modeling indicated that sexual victimization does not predict concurrent use of women's intimate partner…

  3. Love matters: exploring conceptions of love in Rwanda and Swaziland and relationship to HIV and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruark, Allison; Stern, Erin; Dlamini-Simelane, Thandeka; Kakuze, Marie Fidele

    2017-12-01

    Health risks such as intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV infection often occur within intimate sexual relationships, yet the study of love and intimacy is largely absent from health research on African populations. This study explores how women and men in Rwanda and Swaziland understand and represent love in their intimate sexual partnerships. In Rwanda, 58 in-depth interviews with 15 couples, 12 interviews with activists, and 24 focus group discussions were carried out during formative and evaluative research of the Indashyikirwa programme, which aims to reduce IPV and support healthy couple relationships. In Swaziland, 117 in-depth, life-course interviews with 14 women and 14 men focused on understanding intimate sexual partnerships. We analysed these qualitative data thematically using a Grounded Theory approach. Participants described love as being foundational to their intimate sexual partnerships. Women and men emphasised that love is seen and expressed through actions and tangible evidence such as gifts and material support, acts of service, showing intentions for marriage, sexual faithfulness, and spending time together. Some participants expressed ambivalent narratives regarding love, gifts, and money, acknowledging that they desired partners who demonstrated love through material support while implying that true love should be untainted by desires for wealth. IPV characterised many relationships and was perceived as a threat to love, even as love was seen as a potential antidote to IPV. Careful scholarship of love is critical to better understand protective and risk factors for HIV and IPV and for interventions that seek to ameliorate these risks.

  4. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting : Criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, J.; Bogaerts, S.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Klerx, F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and

  5. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on interference with birth control. This includes the refusal by an intimate partner to use acondom. For ... for safety, any PTSD symptoms, need for health care, injury, contacting a crisis hotline, need for housing ...

  6. Professionals’ perception of intimate partner violence in young people: a qualitative study in northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Maquibar Landa, Amaia; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem with devastating effects on young women's health. These negative effects increase when the exposure to IPV lasts for a long time and exposure at an early age increases the risk of adult IPV. Despite efforts made in the last few decades, data show little progress has been made towards its reduction. Thus, the aim of the study reported here is to explore professionals' perceptions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) am...

  7. Burden of intimate partner violence in The Gambia - a cross sectional study of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idoko, Patrick; Ogbe, Emmanuel; Jallow, Oley; Ocheke, Amaka

    2015-04-21

    Intimate partner violence is an important public health problem that cuts across geographic and cultural barriers. Intimate partner violence refers to the range of sexually, psychologically and physically coercive acts used against women by current or former male intimate partners. The frequency and severity of violence varies greatly but the main goal is usually to control the victims through fear and intimidation. About 80% of Gambian women believe it is acceptable for a man to beat his wife thus encouraging the perpetuation of violence against women. The objective was to ascertain the burden of intimate partner violence amongst pregnant women in Gambia. A cross sectional survey was carried out at Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital, Banjul, The Gambia, on antenatal clinic attendees between October and December 2012, using a pre-tested structured interviewer administered questionnaire. All pregnant women were informed about the study at the antenatal booking clinic. Of the 161 pregnant women informed, 136 (84.5%) consented to take part and were recruited in the study. Descriptive analysis was done using the Epi info statistical software. Any pregnant woman booking for the first time during the period of the study was eligible to be recruited into the study. Majority of enrolled participants (61.8%) reported intimate partner violence. Verbal forms of intimate partner violence were the commonest forms, with 12% requiring medical care on account of intimate partner violence and 3% prevented from seeking healthcare as a result of such violence. Intimate partner violence is common in The Gambia, West Africa and is a threat to women's health.

  8. Postpartum depression and intimate partner violence in urban mothers: co-occurrence and child healthcare utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld, Benjamin D; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Frosch, Emily; Solomon, Barry S

    2012-08-01

    To assess the prevalence, timing, and co-occurrence of positive screens for maternal postpartum depression and intimate partner violence and examine their relationships with children's healthcare utilization from birth to 2 years. Between February and March 2008, mothers bringing newborn, 2-, 4-, or 6-month-old children to an urban primary care clinic were screened for postpartum depression and intimate partner violence. A retrospective chart review abstracted demographic data, maternal responses on the postpartum depression/intimate partner violence screen at the initial and subsequent visits, and, from the child's birth to second birthday, adherence with well-child care and use of pediatric acute care and emergency department visits. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted. A total of 173 mothers completed at least one postpartum depression/intimate partner violence screening survey. Overall, 26% screened positive for postpartum depression and 7% screened positive for intimate partner violence; most positive screens occurred at the initial visit. About 60% of mothers with a positive intimate partner violence screen also had a positive postpartum depression screen. Well-child care adherence and acute care visit utilization were not associated with maternal postpartum depression/intimate partner violence screening. Children of women with a positive screen for postpartum depression had greater emergency department utilization. The co-occurrence of postpartum depression and intimate partner violence is high in urban mothers. Primary care providers should routinely screen for both problems in this population and recognize the importance of screening for one problem if the other problem is identified. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Scoping Review of Intimate Partner Violence Screening Programs for Health Care Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Sprague, Sheila; Slobogean, Gerard P.; Spurr, Hayley; McKay, Paula; Scott, Taryn; Arseneau, Erika; Memon, Muzammil; Bhandari, Mohit; Swaminathan, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Between 38 and 59 percent of women presenting to health care professionals have experienced intimate partner violence. Consequently, multiple intimate partner violence identification or screening programs within health care settings have been developed; however, substantial variations in program content and interpretation of program effectiveness has resulted in conflicting practice guidelines. The purpose of our scoping review is to broadly identify and synthesize the available ...

  10. Religion and Intimate Partner Violence in Chile: Macro- and Micro-Level Influences

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, Evelyn L.; Lehrer, Vivian L.; Krauss, Ramona

    2009-01-01

    The Catholic Church has had a strong influence on the Chilean legal and social landscape in ways that have adversely affected victims of intimate partner violence; e.g., it succeeded until just five years ago in blocking efforts to legalize divorce. At the same time, quantitative studies based on survey data from the United States and other countries show a generally favorable influence of religion on health and many other domains of life, including intimate partner violence. The present stud...

  11. Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence and Related Injuries Among Women in Yokohama, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihama, Mieko; Horrocks, Julie; Kamano, Saori

    2007-01-01

    We estimated rates of intimate partner violence and related injuries in a sample of 1371 women aged 18 to 49 years in Yokohama, Japan. By the age of 30 years, 14.3% of women who had ever had a partner had experienced violence from that partner, and 3.3% had suffered injuries related to such violence. By the time women had reached the age of 49 years, these percentages were 19% and 4%, respectively. In addition to the need for increased prevention efforts, our findings indicate the need for an expanded legal definition of intimate partner violence in Japan given that the current definition excludes premarital violence. PMID:17194862

  12. Standardized Patients to Teaching Medical Students about Intimate Partner Violence

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    Heron, Sheryl L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To use 360-degree evaluations within an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE to assess medical student comfort level and communication skills with intimate partner violence (IPV patients.Methods: We assessed a cohort of fourth year medical students’ performance using an IPV standardized patient (SP encounter in an OSCE. Blinded pre- and post-tests determined the students’ knowledge and comfort level with core IPV assessment. Students, SPs and investigators completed a 360-degree evaluation that focused on each student’s communication and competency skills. We computed frequencies, means and correlations.Results: Forty-one students participated in the SP exercise during three separate evaluation periods. Results noted insignificant increase in students’ comfort level pre-test (2.7 and post-test (2.9. Although 88% of students screened for IPV and 98% asked about the injury, only 39% asked about verbal abuse, 17% asked if the patient had a safety plan, and 13% communicated to the patient that IPV is illegal. Using Likert scoring on the competency and overall evaluation (1, very poor and 5, very good, the mean score for each evaluator was 4.1 (competency and 3.7 (overall. The correlations between trainee comfort level and the specific competencies of patient care, communication skill and professionalism were positive and significant (p<0.05.Conclusion: Students felt somewhat comfortable caring for patients with IPV. OSCEs with SPs can be used to assess student competencies in caring for patients with IPV. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:500-505.

  13. Assessing Intimate Partner Violence in a Control Balance Theory Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Erin D; Nobles, Matt R; Zavala, Egbert

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that control occupies in the motivation for, and development of, intimate partner violence (IPV). The research literature often theorizes about the importance of control in gender-based crimes; however, few studies have empirically tested these assumptions. Given the breath of theoretical approaches in examining IPV and the need for individualized explanations, the current study used concepts from Tittle's control balance theory. This integrated theory accounts for many of the known risk factors, such as self-control and routine activities, while accounting for individual perceptions of control. A college student sample ( N = 401) was used, in accordance with the literature that has found this subpopulation to be at high risk for IPV. An online survey was distributed to potential participants to capture self-reported incidents of victimization and perpetration of IPV within the past year. Statistical analysis using segmented nonlinear regression models was estimated to assess sex difference effects. The results showed no difference in control continuums between the sexes but did find significant associations between control deficits and female victimization and perpetration, as well as significant association between control deficits and male perpetration of IPV. These findings have implications beyond the theoretical confirmation that control is key factor to this type of violence. In addition to greater education regarding dating expectations, control deficits may be particularly important for socially marginalized groups, such as those from the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. Efforts can then be made to identify issues with control in IPV counseling, victim services, treatments for offenders, and other gender-based crimes, such as rape, sexual assault, and stalking.

  14. Informal support for women and intimate partner violence: the crucial yet ambivalent role of neighbours in urban India.

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    Snell-Rood, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence often rely on informal support to mitigate intimate partner violence's health effects. Yet there is little known about who gives the support and how it is provided. This paper explores from whom and how low-income women experiencing domestic violence in urban India seek informal support. In South Asia, women's reliance on kin for support is culturally valued, yet the urban social context makes it more likely that they will access such support from non-kin when they experience intimate partner violence. The paper draws on observations and interviews with 10 families collected over 14 months of in-depth ethnographic research in one Delhi slum community. Using a case study approach to explore women's responses to violence longitudinally, it was possible to track how women drew on support. Results show that even as women sought emotional support and direct intervention from their neighbours to deal with their domestic violence, they restricted these relationships, faced stigma, and emphasised the need to protect their families. Understanding the informal, but deeply ambivalent, systems of social support that women engage to deal with intimate partner violence is a first step toward strengthening such networks, a key recommendation to stem the health impacts of domestic violence.

  15. Intimate partner violence against women in Maputo city, Mozambique

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    Zacarias Antonio Eugenio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited research about IPV against women and associated factors in Sub-Saharan Africa, not least Mozambique. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence, severity, chronicity and “predictors” of IPV against women in Maputo City (Mozambique. Methods Data were collected during a 12 month-period (consecutive cases, with each woman seen only once from 1,442 women aged 15–49 years old seeking help for abuse by an intimate partner at the Forensic Services at the Maputo Central Hospital, Maputo City, Mozambique. Interviews were conducted by trained female interviewers, and data collected included demographics and lifestyle variables, violence (using the previously validated Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2, and control (using the Controlling Behaviour Scale Revised (CBS-R. The data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate methods. Results The overall experienced IPV during the past 12 months across severity (one or more types, minor and severe was 70.2% (chronicity, 85.8 ± 120.9.a Severe IPV varied between 26.3-45.9% and chronicity between 3.1 ± 9.1-12.8 ± 26.9, depending on IPV type. Severity and chronicity figures were higher in psychological aggression than in the other IPV types. Further, 26.8% (chronicity, 55.3 ± 117.6 of women experienced all IPV types across severity. The experience of other composite IPV types across severity (4 combinations of 3 types of IPV varied between 27.1-42.6% and chronicity between 35.7 ± 80.3-64.9 ± 110.9, depending on the type of combination. The combination psychological aggression, physical assault and sexual coercion had the highest figures compared with the other combinations. The multiple regressions showed that controlling behaviours, own perpetration and co-occurring victimization were more important in “explaining” the experience of IPV than other variables (e.g. abuse as a child. Conclusions In our study

  16. Empowerment and Intimate Partner Violence in Pakistan: Results From a Nationally Representative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta; Critelli, Filomena M

    2017-02-01

    Using empowerment theory, the current study examines antecedents of lifetime experience of intimate partner violence, intimate partner violence experienced in the last 12 months, emotional violence, and husbands' controlling behaviors toward their wives in Pakistan. Using data from a subsample of 658 women from the nationally representative Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012-2013, this study examined whether empowerment variables, such as household decision-making power, economic decision-making power, and adherence to patriarchy, operationalized as justification of wife beating, contribute to intimate partner violence using logistic regression analyses. Results indicate that adherence to patriarchal norms, household decision-making power, and higher education was found to be associated with lifetime prevalence of intimate partner violence. Adherence to patriarchal norms, economic decision-making power, and higher education was found significantly associated with intimate partner violence in the past 12 months. Adherence to patriarchal norms was significantly associated with experiencing emotional violence as well as controlling behaviors by husbands. In conclusion, women's adherence to patriarchal norms is a reflection of the patriarchal society in which they live; indeed, this was found to be the most important predictor of women's experience of intimate partner violence, when different types of violence were assessed. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  17. Emergency nurses' experiences of caring for survivors of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wath, Annatjie; van Wyk, Neltjie; Janse van Rensburg, Elsie

    2013-10-01

    To report a study of emergency nurses' experiences of caring for survivors of intimate partner violence. Emergency nurses have the opportunity to intervene during the period following exposure to intimate partner violence when survivors are most receptive for interventions. The confrontation with the trauma of intimate partner violence can, however, affect emergency nurses' ability to engage empathetically with survivors, which is fundamental to all interventions. The research was guided by the philosophical foundations of phenomenology as founded by Husserl. A descriptive phenomenological inquiry grounded in Husserlian philosophy was used. The phenomenological reductions were applied throughout data collection and analysis. During 2010, concrete descriptions were obtained from interviewing 11 nurses working in emergency units of two public hospitals in an urban setting in South Africa. To arrive at a description of the essence, the data were analysed by searching for the meaning given to the experience of caring for survivors of intimate partner violence. Emergency nurses in South Africa are often witnesses of the emotional and physical effects of intimate partner violence. Exposure to the vulnerability and suffering of survivors elicits sympathy and emotional distress. Emergency nurses are left with the emotional impact and disruptive and recurrent memories. Exploring the tacit internal experiences related to caring for survivors of intimate partner violence revealed emergency nurses' vulnerability to the effects of secondary traumatic stress. The findings generated an opportunity to develop guidelines through which to support and empower emergency nurses. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Effect of physical intimate partner violence on body mass index in low-income adult women

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    Marcela de Freitas Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether physical intimate partner violence affects the nutritional status of adult women with different levels of body mass index (BMI. This was a population-based cross-sectional study with 625 women selected through complex multistage cluster sampling. Information on physical intimate partner violence was obtained with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, and nutritional status was measured as BMI (kg/m2. A quantile regression model was used to assess the effect of physical intimate partner violence at all percentiles of BMI distribution. Physical intimate partner violence occurred in 27.6% of the women (95%CI: 20.0; 35.2. Mean BMI was 27.9kg/m2 (95%CI: 27.1; 28.7. The results showed that physical intimate partner violence was negatively associated with BMI between the 25th and 85th percentiles, corresponding to 22.9 and 31.2kg/m2. The findings support previous studies indicating that physical intimate partner violence can reduce BMI in low-income women.

  19. Longitudinal Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration and Victimization in Latino Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grest, Carolina Villamil; Amaro, Hortensia; Unger, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    Despite the prevalence of intimate partner violence in emerging adulthood, literature focused on this life stage among Latinos remains limited. This longitudinal study examined acculturation; traditional gender role attitudes; use of alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco; and depressive symptoms in 10th grade as predictors of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization among Latino emerging adults (N = 823; 58% female). Average age of participants was 15.5 years in 10th grade and 22.7 years in emerging adulthood. The results indicate important gender differences in intimate partner violence outcomes for Latino emerging adults. Higher U.S. acculturation predicted physical intimate partner violence perpetration among young men. More traditional gender role attitudes were significantly associated with psychological and physical intimate partner violence perpetration among male Latino emerging adults. Among Latinas, alcohol use in 10th grade predicted psychological perpetration and victimization in emerging adulthood. The findings have implications for developing gender- and ethnic-relevant prevention interventions focused on intimate partner violence among Latino adolescents and emerging adults.

  20. Collective violence and attitudes of women toward intimate partner violence: Evidence from the Niger Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai, Diddy; Antai, Justina

    2009-06-09

    The Niger Delta region of Nigeria has been undergoing collective violence for over 25 years, which has constituted a major public health problem. The objectives of this study were to investigate the predictors of women's attitudes toward intimate partner violence in the Niger Delta in comparison to that of women in other parts of Nigeria. The 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was used for this study. Respondents were selected using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling procedure through which 3725 women were selected and interviewed. These women contributed 6029 live born children born to the survey. Internal consistency of the measure of the women's attitudes towards intimate partner violence against a woman was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (alpha). Percentage distributions of the relevant characteristics of the respondents were carried out, and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to measure the magnitude and direction of the relationship between the outcome and predictor variables were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and statistical significance was determined at the 95 percent confident interval level (CI). Tolerance for intimate partner violence among the women in the Niger delta (47 percent) was higher than that of women from the rest of the country (42 percent). Rural residence, lower household wealth, lower status occupations, and media access (newspaper and radio) were associated with lower risk of justifying IPV among the women in the Niger Delta. In contrast full or partial autonomy in household decisions regarding food to be cooked, and access to television were associated with a lower risk of justifying violence. The increased justification of intimate partner violence among the women in the Niger Delta could be explained by a combination of factors, among which are cognitive dissonance theory (attitudes that do not fit with other opinions they hold as a means of coping with their situation), ecological theory (behaviour or

  1. Collective violence and attitudes of women toward intimate partner violence: Evidence from the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antai Diddy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Niger Delta region of Nigeria has been undergoing collective violence for over 25 years, which has constituted a major public health problem. The objectives of this study were to investigate the predictors of women's attitudes toward intimate partner violence in the Niger Delta in comparison to that of women in other parts of Nigeria. Methods The 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was used for this study. Respondents were selected using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling procedure through which 3725 women were selected and interviewed. These women contributed 6029 live born children born to the survey. Internal consistency of the measure of the women's attitudes towards intimate partner violence against a woman was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (α. Percentage distributions of the relevant characteristics of the respondents were carried out, and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to measure the magnitude and direction of the relationship between the outcome and predictor variables were expressed as odds ratios (OR and statistical significance was determined at the 95 percent confident interval level (CI. Results Tolerance for intimate partner violence among the women in the Niger delta (47 percent was higher than that of women from the rest of the country (42 percent. Rural residence, lower household wealth, lower status occupations, and media access (newspaper and radio were associated with lower risk of justifying IPV among the women in the Niger Delta. In contrast full or partial autonomy in household decisions regarding food to be cooked, and access to television were associated with a lower risk of justifying violence. Conclusion The increased justification of intimate partner violence among the women in the Niger Delta could be explained by a combination of factors, among which are cognitive dissonance theory (attitudes that do not fit with other opinions they hold as a means of

  2. Measuring financial strain in the lives of survivors of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetling, Andrea; Stylianou, Amanda Mathisen; Postmus, Judy L

    2015-03-01

    Agencies serving survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) often include economic empowerment programs and approaches as a way to assist survivors struggling with avoiding poverty and gaining financial independence. Understanding and addressing the economic needs of IPV survivors are more complex than just knowing their income. Indeed, survivors' ability to manage their finances and any financial stress or strain should also be assessed to fully understand their needs. The Financial Strain Survey (FSS) provides a useful tool for screening and understanding survivors' complex financial needs. Using data from 457 IPV survivors from seven U.S. states and Puerto Rico, the current study evaluates the factor structure, reliability, and validity of using the FSS with IPV survivors. Findings indicate that the FSS is a reliable instrument for use with IPV survivors. The conclusion discusses the FSS as a practical tool for both practice and research with this population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Induced abortion, pregnancy loss and intimate partner violence in Tanzania: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Filippi, Veronique; Watts, Charlotte; Mbwambo, Jessie K K

    2012-03-05

    Violence by an intimate partner is increasingly recognized as an important public and reproductive health issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence is associated with induced abortion and pregnancy loss from other causes and to compare this with other, more commonly recognized explanatory factors. This study analyzes the data of the Tanzania section of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, a large population-based cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania, conducted from 2001 to 2002. All women who answered positively to at least one of the questions about specific acts of physical or sexual violence committed by a partner towards her at any point in her life were considered to have experienced intimate partner violence. Associations between self reported induced abortion and pregnancy loss with intimate partner violence were analysed using multiple regression models. Lifetime physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence was reported by 41% and 56% of ever partnered, ever pregnant women in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya respectively. Among the ever pregnant, ever partnered women, 23% experienced involuntary pregnancy loss, while 7% reported induced abortion. Even after adjusting for other explanatory factors, women who experienced intimate partner violence were 1.6 (95%CI: 1.06,1.60) times more likely to report an pregnancy loss and 1.9 (95%CI: 1.30,2.89) times more likely to report an induced abortion. Intimate partner violence had a stronger influence on induced abortion and pregnancy loss than women's age, socio-economic status, and number of live born children. Intimate partner violence is likely to be an important influence on levels of induced abortion and pregnancy loss in Tanzania. Preventing intimate partner violence may therefore be beneficial for maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. © 2012 Stöckl et al

  4. RISK FACTORS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN PRISON INMATES

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    José Antonio Ruiz-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Etiological models of intimate partner violence (IPV identify general risk factors in delinquency (sociodemographic, delinquent, and psychopathological and specific factors in this type of aggression (characteristics of the couple relationship and attitudes favoring IPV. The goal of the present work is to study these factors in individuals convicted for drug trafficking and/or theft, so-called common delinquents (n = 89, comparing them with a group of partner aggressors (n = 50. Assessment was carried out with a mixed method, reviewing case files, clinical interviews for personality disorders, and self-reports. The results show a similar profile in sociodemographic and criminal characteristics and in attitudes favoring IPV. The differences emerge in variables of the couple relationship and psychopathological variables, finding higher prevalence of the antisocial disorder in common delinquents and of the borderline disorder in aggressors. The final model identifies the level of relationship satisfaction, control over the partner, blaming female victims, and incidence of borderline personality disorder as relevant variables. The implications of these results for penitentiary treatment as a preventive measure of IPV, both in IPV aggressors and in the general prison population, are discussed. Los modelos etiológicos de la violencia contra la pareja (VCP identifican factores de riesgo generales en delincuencia (sociodemográficos, delictivos y psicopatológicos y factores específicos en este tipo de agresión (características en la relación de pareja y actitudes que facilitan la VCP. El objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar estos factores en sujetos condenados por tráfico de drogas y/o robo, denominados delincuentes comunes (n = 89, comparándolos con un grupo de agresores contra la pareja (n = 50. La evaluación se ha realizado a través de un método mixto, con supervisión de expedientes penitenciarios y entrevistas clínicas para los

  5. Intimate partner violence influence on deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel

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    Amany Refaat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Millennium Development Goal 5 calls for increasing proportions of deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel to reduce maternal mortality. This study aims to identifying the implication of exposure to intimate partner violence on these proportions. Methodology: This study used domestic violence modules data of Demographic and Health Surveys of six countries from 2005 to 2007. Proportions of assisted deliveries were examined by sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to intimate partner violence in the studied countries. Influence on the proportion was examined against exposure to intimate partner violence through odds ratio and 95% of logistic regression analysis after controlling for women age, residence (urban/rural, household wealth level, economic level of country, educational level and working status of women and their husbands/partners. Results: Data sets of 18,507 participants over 20 years of age showed that almost three-quarters (73% of women had deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel. One-third of the women were ever exposed to intimate partner violence (37% and 9% of them to the severe level. Exposure to intimate partner violence statistically significantly lowered this proportion to 69% (odds ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval: 0.67–0.78 meanwhile severe violence lowered it to 65% (odds ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.58–0.72. When running multiple regression analysis, exposure to intimate partner violence retained its statistically significant decreasing influence on proportions and was not biased by the other stronger socioeconomic characteristics. Conclusion and recommendations: Intimate partner violence has an independent influence on reducing assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel. Programs working for increasing proportions of assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel are recommended to integrate protection women from violence.

  6. Intimate partner violence influence on deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Amany

    2013-01-01

    Millennium Development Goal 5 calls for increasing proportions of deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel to reduce maternal mortality. This study aims to identifying the implication of exposure to intimate partner violence on these proportions. This study used domestic violence modules data of Demographic and Health Surveys of six countries from 2005 to 2007. Proportions of assisted deliveries were examined by sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to intimate partner violence in the studied countries. Influence on the proportion was examined against exposure to intimate partner violence through odds ratio and 95% of logistic regression analysis after controlling for women age, residence (urban/rural), household wealth level, economic level of country, educational level and working status of women and their husbands/partners. Data sets of 18,507 participants over 20 years of age showed that almost three-quarters (73%) of women had deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel. One-third of the women were ever exposed to intimate partner violence (37%) and 9% of them to the severe level. Exposure to intimate partner violence statistically significantly lowered this proportion to 69% (odds ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.78) meanwhile severe violence lowered it to 65% (odds ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.58-0.72). When running multiple regression analysis, exposure to intimate partner violence retained its statistically significant decreasing influence on proportions and was not biased by the other stronger socioeconomic characteristics. Intimate partner violence has an independent influence on reducing assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel. Programs working for increasing proportions of assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel are recommended to integrate protection women from violence.

  7. Differential effects of psychological maltreatment on children of mothers exposed to intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Ariadna; de la Osa, Nuria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; Domènech, Josep María

    2011-07-01

    Psychological maltreatment (PM) is the most prevalent form of child abuse, and is the core component of most of what is considered as child maltreatment. The aim of this work was to explore differential adverse outcomes of the different types of PM in the mental health and functioning of children living in homes in which they are exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). Participants were 168 children, aged between 4 and 17, whose mothers experienced IPV. They were assessed using different measures of psychopathology and functioning: Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-IV, Child Behavior Checklists and Child and Adolescent Functioning Assessment Scale. Furthermore, IPV was assessed with the Schedule for Assessment of Intimate Partner Violence Exposure in Children and the Index of Spouse Abuse. Statistical analyses were carried out with regression models adjusted by means of Generalized Estimating Equations. Spurning was the PM subtype with the greatest global effect on the children, as it was significantly associated with internalizing and externalizing problems. Denying emotional responsiveness specifically increased the risk of internalizing psychopathology and impairment in the emotional area. Terrorizing was not significantly associated with a greater number of negative outcomes in children's psychopathology or functioning in this population. The results suggest the importance of taking PM types into account in order to fully understand the problems of children exposed to IPV at home, and for the design of effective treatment and prevention programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Marital Infidelity and Intimate Partner Violence in Rural Malawi: A Dyadic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Extramarital sexual partnerships are a common reason for intimate partner violence (IPV) in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the fact that IPV requires an interaction between two partners, the majority of the research focuses on individuals rather than the broader relationship context where such violence takes place. Using a sample of 422 married couples from rural Malawi, this study examined the dyadic environment of marital infidelity and two types of IPV victimization: sexual coercion and physical abuse. We considered both self-reported marital infidelity and perceived partner infidelity to assess how well partners knew each other and to compare their respective associations with IPV. Logistic regression was used to test for associations between self-reported marital infidelity and IPV. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine actor and partner effects of perceived partner infidelity on an individual’s and their partner’s experience of IPV. The results show that self-reported marital infidelity was not significantly associated with IPV for men or women. However, the perception of a partner’s infidelity was significantly associated with both an individual’s and their partner’s risk for sexual coercion and physical abuse. Contrary to the “sexual double standard” hypothesis, women were not significantly more likely than men to report being physically abused when their partners suspected infidelity. Future studies should continue to explore the relationship context of IPV in sub-Saharan Africa in order to understand how spouses mutually shape each other’s experience of IPV and subsequent health outcomes. PMID:24789050

  9. [Female intimate partner homicide: clinical and criminological issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechova-Vayleux, E; Leveillee, S; Lhuillier, J-P; Garre, J-B; Senon, J-L; Richard-Devantoy, S

    2013-12-01

    Female intimate partner homicide (FIPH) is a fatal complication of domestic violence. The aim of this study was to describe the socio-demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of male perpetrators of FIPH and to compare them to the perpetrators of extrafamilial homicide and the perpetrators of intrafamilial homicide other than FIPH. Between 1975 and 2005, 32 FIPH were perpetrated in the region of Angers (France), and these were compared to 26 intrafamilial homicides other than FIPH and to 97 extrafamilial homicides perpetrated in the same period, in the same region. The socio-demographic, clinical and criminological data were collected from psychiatric expert reports and medical files. The mean age of the FIPH perpetrators was 37.8years. They were professionally active, in majority as manual workers. They had a psychiatric record (69%), a previous criminal record (31%), and a history of violence against others (47%). Half of these perpetrators also had experienced a traumatic event before the age of 18. Compared to extrafamilial homicide perpetrators, FIPH perpetrators occupied more frequently a manual job and had prior criminal records less frequently. In the majority of cases of FIPH and intrafamilial homicide, the murder occurred in the evening, at the victim's home, and while the perpetrator was intoxicated. FIPH was mostly premeditated and was accompanied four times less frequently by another criminal behaviour compared to extrafamilial homicide. The FIPH perpetrators had more depressive symptoms and suicidal ideations when committing the crime and remained on the crime scene more often than extrafamilial homicide perpetrators who mostly attempted to flee the crime scene. FIPH perpetrators and extra- and intrafamilial homicide perpetrators were found criminally responsible in half of the cases. The socio-demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of FIPH perpetrators were not statistically different from those of perpetrators of

  10. Gender, power, and intimate partner violence: a study on couples from rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Amy A

    2014-03-01

    Gender-based power imbalances are perhaps the most compelling underlying explanation for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women in sub-Saharan Africa. However, an overemphasis on female victimization results in an incomplete understanding of men's experiences as victims and the broader dyadic context in which violence occurs. This study examines the role of three domains of relationship power (power resources, processes, and outcomes) on sexual and physical IPV victimization in a unique sample of 466 young couples from Malawi. Two power resources were studied, namely, income and education level. Power processes were captured with a measure of couple communication and collaboration called unity. Power outcomes included a measure of relationship dominance (male dominated or female-dominated/egalitarian). Multilevel logistic regression using the Actor Partner Interpersonal Model framework was used to test whether respondent and partner data were predictive of IPV. The findings show that unity and male dominance were salient power factors that influenced young people's risk for sexual IPV. Unity had a stronger protective effect on sexual IPV for women than for men. Involvement in a male-dominated relationship increased the risk of sexual IPV for women, but decreased the risk for men. The findings also showed that education level and unity were protective against physical IPV for both men and women. Contrary to what was expected, partner data did not play a role in the respondent's experience of IPV. The consistency of these findings with the literature, theory, and study limitations are discussed.

  11. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence in Orthopedic Patients: A Comparison of Three Screening Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Dosanjh, Sonia; Petrisor, Brad; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    Accurately identifying victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be a challenge for clinicians and clinical researchers. Multiple instruments have been developed and validated to identify IPV in patients presenting to health care practitioners, including the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). The purpose…

  12. An Examination of Intimate Partner Violence and Psychological Stressors in Adult Abortion Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Gretchen E.; Otis, Melanie D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe an exploratory study examining the relationship between intimate partner violence and psychological stressors in a sample of 188 adult abortion patients. Results indicate the almost 15% of respondents report a history of abuse by the coconceiving partner. In addition, women who reported having had one or…

  13. Who Is Most at Risk for Intimate Partner Violence? A Canadian Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans, Sarah; Forte, Tonia; Cohen, Marsha M.; Du Mont, Janice; Hyman, Ilene

    2007-01-01

    Whole population studies on intimate partner violence (IPV) have given contradictory information about prevalence and risk factors, especially concerning gender. The authors examined the 1999 Canadian General Social Survey data for gender patterns of physical, sexual, emotional, or financial IPV from a current or ex-partner. More women (8.6%) than…

  14. Longitudinal Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence among Men in Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Casey T.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Doron-Lamarca, Susan; Panuzio, Jillian; Suvak, Michael K.; Gagnon, David R.; Murphy, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined static and time-varying risk factors for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among men in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Method: Participants were 178 men diagnosed with alcohol abuse or dependence and their partners. Most (85%) of the men were European American; their average age was 41.0 years.…

  15. ADDRESSING VIEWS OF KEY INFORMANTS WHO ARE WORKING FOR WOMEN RIGHTS REGARDING INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Kyi Pyar Si

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some married women are experiencing different types of intimate partner violence by their current or former husband. However, the awareness and services for those women are still needed. This study explored the key informants’ perspectives to provide more comprehensive services to those women. Qualitative feminist method was used and five participants were purposefully selected to interview in depth. Key informants reflected upon intimate partner violence as causes of intimate partner violence, why intimate partner violence cases were underreported, why didn’t women leave their violent partner, what they actually felt for intimate partner violence, gaps with intervention for survivors and planning for better outcome. It was found that awareness among women who experiencing violence and the people around them needed to be raised. And services provided for them also needed to be more concise and updated. Therefore, it is essentially important to extend education session to all people regarding violence against women. Collaboration and cooperation of government and non-governmental organizations is also helpful to decrease various kinds of violence committed to women.

  16. Nurse and midwifery education and intimate partner violence: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, Nerissa; Hooker, Leesa; Reisenhofer, Sonia

    2017-08-01

    This scoping review aims to identify the scope of current literature considering nurse/midwife educational practices in the areas of intimate partner violence to inform future nursing/midwifery educational policy and practice. Intimate partner violence is a global issue affecting a significant portion of the community. Healthcare professionals including nurses/midwives in hospital- and community-based environments are likely to encounter affected women and need educational strategies that support best practice and promote positive outcomes for abused women and their families. Scoping review of relevant literature from January 2000 to July 2015. Search of databases: CINHAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PROQUEST Central and COCHRANE Library. Reference lists from included articles were searched for relevant literature as were several grey literature sources. This review demonstrates low levels of undergraduate or postregistration intimate partner violence education for nursing/midwifery staff and students. Existing intimate partner violence education strategies are varied in implementation, method and content. Outcomes of these educational programmes are not always rigorously evaluated for staff or client-based outcomes. Further research is needed to evaluate existing intimate partner violence education programmes for nurses/midwives and identify the most effective strategies to promote improved clinical practice and outcomes for abused women and their families. Intimate partner violence has a significant social and public health impact. The World Health Organization has identified the need to ensure that healthcare professionals are adequately trained to meet the needs of abused women. Intimate partner violence education programmes, commencing at undergraduate studies for nurses/midwives, need to be implemented with rigorously evaluated programmes to ensure they meet identified objectives, promote best practice and improve care for abused women. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN INTIMATE PARTNER HOMICIDES AMONG ETHNIC SUBGROUPS OF ASIANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    SABRI, BUSHRA; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.; DABBY, FIROZA CHIC

    2013-01-01

    This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 was analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly nine out of ten cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. PMID:26391620

  18. Gender Differences in Intimate Partner Homicides Among Ethnic Sub-Groups of Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Dabby, Firoza Chic

    2016-03-01

    This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 were analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly 9 out of 10 cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within-group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. [Intimate partner violence against pregnant women: the environment according to Levine's nursing theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Selma Villas Boas; Moura, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos; Silva, Leila Rangel da; Queiroz, Ana Beatriz Azevedo; Souza, Kleyde Ventura de; Albuquerque, Leônidas Netto

    2015-12-01

    Analyzing the elements that compose the environment of pregnant women who have experienced intimate partner violence in the light of Levine's Nursing Theory. A qualitative, descriptive study conducted from September to January 2012, with nine pregnant women in a Municipal Health Center in Rio de Janeiro. The interviews were semi-structured and individual. The theoretical framework was based on Levine's Nursing Theory. Thematic analysis evidenced the elements that composed the external environment, such as violence perpetrated by intimate partners before and during pregnancy, violence in childhood and adolescence, alcohol consumption and drug use by the partner, unemployment, low education and economic dependency, which affected health and posed risks to the pregnancy. Violence perpetrated by an intimate partner was the main external factor that influenced the internal environment with repercussions on health. This theory represents a tool in nursing care which will aid in detecting cases and the fight against violence.

  20. Intimate partner violence against pregnant women: the environment according to Levine's nursing theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Villas Boas Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Analyzing the elements that compose the environment of pregnant women who have experienced intimate partner violence in the light of Levine's Nursing Theory. METHOD A qualitative, descriptive study conducted from September to January 2012, with nine pregnant women in a Municipal Health Center in Rio de Janeiro. The interviews were semi-structured and individual. The theoretical framework was based on Levine's Nursing Theory. RESULTS Thematic analysis evidenced the elements that composed the external environment, such as violence perpetrated by intimate partners before and during pregnancy, violence in childhood and adolescence, alcohol consumption and drug use by the partner, unemployment, low education and economic dependency, which affected health and posed risks to the pregnancy. CONCLUSION Violence perpetrated by an intimate partner was the main external factor that influenced the internal environment with repercussions on health. This theory represents a tool in nursing care which will aid in detecting cases and the fight against violence.

  1. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Anselm Crombach; Manassé Bambonyé

    2015-01-01

    Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies.Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we ...

  2. Witnessing intimate partner violence as a child does not increase the likelihood of becoming an adult intimate partner violence victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Amy A; Weiss, Steven J; Del Castillo, Christie; Aagaard, Jaime; Marvez-Valls, Eduardo; D'Angelo, Juliet; Combs, Shanna; Feuchter, Alexander; Hegyi, Michael; Clark, Ross; Coffman, Brittany

    2007-05-01

    To determine whether adults who witnessed intimate partner violence (IPV) as children would have an increased rate of being victims of ongoing IPV, as measured by the Ongoing Violence Assessment Tool (OVAT), compared with adult controls who did not witness IPV as children. The authors also sought to determine whether there were differences in demographics in these two groups. This was a cross sectional cohort study of patients presenting to a high-volume academic emergency department. Emergency department patients presenting from November 16, 2005, to January 5, 2006, during 46 randomized four-hour shifts were included. A confidential computer touch-screen data entry program was used for collecting demographic data, including witnessing IPV as a child and the OVAT. Main outcome measures were witnessing IPV as a child, ongoing IPV, and associated demographics. Assuming a prevalence of IPV of 20% and a clinically significant difference of 20% between adults who witnessed IPV as children and adult controls who did not witness IPV as children, the study was powered at 80%, with 215 subjects included. A total of 280 subjects were entered; 256 had complete data sets. Forty-nine percent of subjects were male, 45% were Hispanic, 72 (28%) were adults who witnessed IPV as children, and 184 (72%) were adult controls who did not witness IPV as children. Sixty-three (23.5%) were positive for ongoing IPV. There was no correlation of adults who witnessed IPV as children with the presence of ongoing IPV, as determined by univariate and bivariate analysis. Twenty-three of 72 (32%) of the adults who witnessed IPV as children, and 39 of 184 (21%) of the adult controls who did not witness IPV as children, were positive for IPV (difference, 11%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -2% to 23%). Significant correlations with having witnessed IPV as a child included age younger than 40 years (odds ratio [OR], 4.2; 95% CI = 1.7 to 9.1), income less than $20,000/year (OR, 5.1; 95% CI = 1.6 to 12

  3. Intimate partner violence (physical and sexual) and sexually transmitted infection: results from Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Liladhar; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Aro, Arja R

    2014-01-01

    Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health consequences are rare in Nepal. Hence, this study aimed to examine the relationships between intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections. This study used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011, which collected data through a two-stage complex sampling technique. Women 15-49 years were asked about domestic violence including intimate partner violence. For this analysis, 3,084 currently married women were included. Questions about domestic violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale. Relationships between different forms of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and reported signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Approximately 15% of currently young and middle-aged married women experienced some form of violence in the last 12 months. About one in four women who were exposed to physical and sexual intimate partner violence reported sexually transmitted infection in the last 12 months. The odds of getting sexually transmitted infection were 1.88 [95% CI:1.29, 2.73] times higher among women exposed to any form of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months compared to women not exposed to any form of intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence was common among currently married women in Nepal. Being exposed to intimate partner violence and getting signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted disease were found to be associated. Integration of intimate partner violence prevention and reproductive health programs is needed to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted disease

  4. Intimate partner violence (physical and sexual) and sexually transmitted infection: results from Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakal, Liladhar; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Aro, Arja R

    2014-01-01

    Liladhar Dhakal, Gabriele Berg-Beckhoff, Arja R AroUnit of Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, DenmarkIntroduction: Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health c...

  5. Workplace homicides among U.S. women: the role of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesman, Hope M; Gurka, Kelly K; Konda, Srinivas; Coben, Jeffrey H; Amandus, Harlan E

    2012-04-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue with serious consequences for the workplace. Workplace homicides occurring to U.S. women over a 6-year period, including those perpetrated by an intimate partner, are described. Workplace homicides among U.S. women from 2003 to 2008 were categorized into type I (criminal intent), type II (customer/client), type III (co-worker), or type IV (personal relations) events using the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. Fatality rates were calculated and compared among workplace violence (WPV) types, occupations, and characteristics including location of homicide, type of workplace, time of day, and weapon used. Between 2003 and 2008, 648 women were feloniously killed on the job. The leading cause of workplace homicide for U.S. women was criminal intent, such as robbing a store (n = 212; 39%), followed by homicides perpetrated by a personal relation (n = 181; 33%). The majority of these personal relations were intimate partners (n = 142; 78%). Over half of workplace homicides perpetrated by intimate partners occurred in parking lots and public buildings (n = 91; 51%). A large percentage of homicides occurring to women at work are perpetrated by intimate partners. WPV prevention programs should incorporate strategies to prevent and respond to IPV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Intimate partner violence among health professionals: distribution by autonomous communities in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence among health care professionals who work in the Spanish National Health System, according to the autonomous communities of Spain. METHOD This was a descriptive cross-sectional multicenter study conducted with male and female health professionals (doctors, nurses, and nursing aides in the different autonomous communities that are part of the Spanish National Health System. The following instruments were employed: among women, an intimate partner violence screening questionnaire; and among men, a questionnaire that screened for violence in the family environment. RESULTS A total of 1,039 health professionals participated in the study. Of these, 26% had suffered some type of abuse. Among the men, this prevalence was 2.7%, while among the women, it was 33.8%. There were differences in the prevalence of intimate partner violence among different autonomous communities, with the highest percentages in the Canary Islands. In terms of profession, 19.5% of the doctors had been exposed to intimate partner violence, while this percentage was 31% and 48.6% for nurses and nursing professionals, respectively. CONCLUSION The results indicate the presence of intimate partner violence among healthcare personnel in most of the autonomous communities of Spain. The data demonstrate the need to implement action plans, both to support victims and to mitigate the problem.

  7. Intimate partner violence among health professionals: distribution by autonomous communities in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; Recio-Andrade, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence among health care professionals who work in the Spanish National Health System, according to the autonomous communities of Spain. METHOD This was a descriptive cross-sectional multicenter study conducted with male and female health professionals (doctors, nurses, and nursing aides) in the different autonomous communities that are part of the Spanish National Health System. The following instruments were employed: among women, an intimate partner violence screening questionnaire; and among men, a questionnaire that screened for violence in the family environment. RESULTS A total of 1,039 health professionals participated in the study. Of these, 26% had suffered some type of abuse. Among the men, this prevalence was 2.7%, while among the women, it was 33.8%. There were differences in the prevalence of intimate partner violence among different autonomous communities, with the highest percentages in the Canary Islands. In terms of profession, 19.5% of the doctors had been exposed to intimate partner violence, while this percentage was 31% and 48.6% for nurses and nursing professionals, respectively. CONCLUSION The results indicate the presence of intimate partner violence among healthcare personnel in most of the autonomous communities of Spain. The data demonstrate the need to implement action plans, both to support victims and to mitigate the problem.

  8. Parental intimate partner homicide and its consequences for children: protocol for a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisic, Eva; Groot, Arend; Snetselaar, Hanneke; Stroeken, Tielke; van de Putte, Elise

    2015-07-29

    The loss of a parent due to intimate partner homicide has a major impact on children. Professionals involved have to make far-reaching decisions regarding placement, guardianship, mental health care and contact with the perpetrating parent, without an evidence base to guide these decisions. We introduce a study protocol to a) systematically describe the demographics, circumstances, mental health and wellbeing of children bereaved by intimate partner homicide and b) build a predictive model of factors associated with children's mental health and wellbeing after intimate partner homicide. This study focuses on children bereaved by parental intimate partner homicide in the Netherlands over a period of 20 years (1993 - 2012). It involves an incidence study to identify all Dutch intimate partner homicide cases between 1993 and 2012 by which children have been bereaved; systematic case reviews to describe the demographics, circumstances and care trajectories of these children; and a mixed-methods study to assess mental health, wellbeing, and experiences regarding decisions made and care provided. Clinical experience and initial research suggest that the children involved often need long-term intensive mental health and case management. The costs of these services are extensive and the stakes are high. This study lays the foundation for an international dataset and evidence-informed decision making.

  9. Prevalence of male intimate partner abuse in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyen D

    2006-08-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of both current and lifetime physical partner abuse among Vietnamese males who reside in Vietnam. Participants (N = 315) were randomly selected to participate in the study. Participants completed the Vietnamese version of the Conflict Tactics Scale-2. A total of 47% (n = 148) of the sampled participants were identified as current physical abusers and 68% (n = 214) as past abusers. Four of the most common abusive tactics abusers exhibited toward their partner were (a) throwing something at their wife (80%), (b) pushing or shoving their partner (78%), (c) beating up their partner (54%), and (d) twisting their partner's arm or hair (60%).

  10. Development and properties of a brief scale to assess intimate partner relationship in the postnatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynter, Karen; Tran, Thach Duc; Rowe, Heather; Fisher, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Poor quality intimate partner relationship is associated with postnatal depression and anxiety among women. Existing scales assessing the quality of this relationship are long and measure stable aspects of the relationship rather than specific behaviours which may respond to targeted interventions. The aim was to develop and investigate the properties of a brief, life stage-specific scale to assess potentially modifiable partner behaviours in the postpartum period. Participants were primiparous women from diverse geographical and socio-economic backgrounds in Victoria, Australia. Seven study-specific items were developed to assess potentially modifiable aspects of the intimate partner relationship at 6 months postpartum. Women's mental health was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Patient Health Questionnaire depression and generalised anxiety modules. Factor analysis was conducted on the 7 items, and associations calculated between factor scores. Factor scores were compared for women with and without mental health problems. Mean inter-item correlations were computed to assess internal consistency. Factor analysis on data from 355 women revealed two factors with good internal consistency: Caring Partner Behaviours and Emotionally Abusive Partner Behaviours. Having mental health problems was associated with lower Caring Partner Behaviours and higher Emotionally Abusive Partner Behaviours scores. Interaction between partners was not observed; thus external criterion validity was not assessed. This brief scale is a promising means of assessing potentially modifiable aspects of the intimate partner relationship in the postnatal period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Domains of concern of intimate partners of sudden cardiac arrest survivors after ICD implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Cynthia M; Pyper, Gail P; Benoliel, Jeanne Q

    2004-01-01

    There is limited research that describes the experiences of intimate partners of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) survivors. The purposes of this article are to (1) describe the domains of concern of intimate partners of SCA survivors during the first year after internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation and (2) outline strategies used by partners of SCA survivors in dealing with the concerns and demands of recovery in the first year after ICD implantation. This is a secondary analysis of interview data collected for the primary study "Family Experiences Following Sudden Cardiac Arrest." A grounded theory method was used to identify experiences of SCA survivors and their family members from hospitalization through the first year after ICD implantation. Data were collected from the SCA survivor and one intimate partner at 5 times: hospital discharge, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postdischarge. Eight Domains of Concern were identified for intimate partners following SCA and ICD implantation during the first year. These included (1) Care of the survivor, (2) My (partner) self-care, (3) Relationship, (4) ICD, (5) Money, (6) Uncertain future, (7) Health care providers, and (8) Family. Five categories of strategies to deal with the Domains of Concerns were identified (1) Care of the survivor, (2) My (partner) self-care, (3) Relationship, (4) Uncertain future, and (5) Controlling the environment. Nursing intervention programs should include the intimate partner of SCA survivors and contain education and support in the following areas: (1) information on the function of the ICD, (2) normal progression of physical and emotional recovery experiences, (3) safety and maintenance of the ICD, (4) activities of daily living after an ICD, (5) strategies to assist with the survivors care, and (6) strategies to assist with partner self care.

  12. Intimate partner homicide and corollary victims in 16 states: National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sharon G; Fowler, Katherine A; Niolon, Phyllis H

    2014-03-01

    We estimated the frequency and examined the characteristics of intimate partner homicide and related deaths in 16 US states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a state-based surveillance system. We used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze NVDRS data from 2003 to 2009. We selected deaths linked to intimate partner violence for analysis. Our sample comprised 4470 persons who died in the course of 3350 intimate partner violence-related homicide incidents. Intimate partners and corollary victims represented 80% and 20% of homicide victims, respectively. Corollary homicide victims included family members, new intimate partners, friends, acquaintances, police officers, and strangers. Our findings, from the first multiple-state study of intimate partner homicide and corollary homicides, demonstrate that the burden of intimate partner violence extends beyond the couple involved. Systems (e.g., criminal justice, medical care, and shelters) whose representatives routinely interact with victims of intimate partner violence can help assess the potential for lethal danger, which may prevent intimate partner and corollary victims from harm.

  13. Intimate Partner Homicide and Corollary Victims in 16 States: National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Niolon, Phyllis H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the frequency and examined the characteristics of intimate partner homicide and related deaths in 16 US states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a state-based surveillance system. Methods. We used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze NVDRS data from 2003 to 2009. We selected deaths linked to intimate partner violence for analysis. Results. Our sample comprised 4470 persons who died in the course of 3350 intimate partner violence–related homicide incidents. Intimate partners and corollary victims represented 80% and 20% of homicide victims, respectively. Corollary homicide victims included family members, new intimate partners, friends, acquaintances, police officers, and strangers. Conclusions. Our findings, from the first multiple-state study of intimate partner homicide and corollary homicides, demonstrate that the burden of intimate partner violence extends beyond the couple involved. Systems (e.g., criminal justice, medical care, and shelters) whose representatives routinely interact with victims of intimate partner violence can help assess the potential for lethal danger, which may prevent intimate partner and corollary victims from harm. PMID:24432943

  14. Screening for intimate partner violence in a pediatric primary care clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Prescott, Leslie; Feigelman, Susan; Lane, Wendy; Kim, Jeongeun

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence among parents at a pediatric primary care clinic and to evaluate the stability, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios of a very brief screen for intimate partner violence. A total of 200 parents (mostly mothers) bringing in children less than 6 years of age for child health supervision completed the Parent Screening Questionnaire in a primary care clinic. The Parent Screening Questionnaire, a brief screen for psychosocial problems developed for the study, includes 3 questions on intimate partner violence. Mothers then completed the computerized study protocol within 2 months. This included the Parent Screening Questionnaire as well as the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. Different combinations of the intimate partner violence questions were evaluated against the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. A total of 12.0% of the mothers answered "yes" to at least one of the screening questions. On the standardized Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, responses ranged from 9% reporting a physical injury in the past year to 76% reporting psychological aggression. There was moderate stability of the screening questions. A single question, "Have you ever been in a relationship in which you were physically hurt or threatened by a partner?" in relation to the "physically injured" Revised Conflict Tactics Scale subscale was most effective. Sensitivity was 29%, specificity was 92%, positive predictive value was 41%, and negative predictive value was 88%. The positive likelihood ratio was 3.8, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.77. Intimate partner violence is a prevalent problem. A very brief screen can reasonably identify some mothers who could benefit from additional evaluation and possible services. Additional research is needed to find a more sensitive screen and to examine whether identifying intimate partner violence leads to interventions that benefit mothers, families, and

  15. Controlling behavior, power relations within intimate relationships and intimate partner physical and sexual violence against women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antai Diddy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlling behavior is more common and can be equally or more threatening than physical or sexual violence. This study sought to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior and power relations within intimate relationships in the lifetime risk of physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. Methods This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional nationally-representative survey collected by face-to-face interviews from women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Utilizing a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, data was collected frrm 19 216 eligible with the DHS domestic violence module, which is based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior in the risk of ever experiencing physical and sexual violence among 2877 women aged 15 - 49 years who were currently or formerly married or cohabiting with a male partner. Results Women who reported controlling behavior by husband/partner had a higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.50 - 3.69, and women resident in rural areas and working in low status occupations had increased likelihood of experiencing physical IPV. Controlling behavior by husband/partner was associated with higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 2.54 - 6.34. In addition, women who justified wife beating and earned more than their husband/partner were at higher likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. In contrast, women who had decision-making autonomy had lower likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Conclusion Controlling behavior by husband/partner significantly increases the likelihood of physical and sexual IPV, thus acting as a precursor to violence. Findings emphasize the need to adopt a proactive integrated approach to controlling behavior and

  16. Intimate partner violence is everyone's problem, but how should we ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA's female homicide rate is six times higher than global estimatesand the high- est reported intimate femicide rate internationally.[5,6] IPV harms sexual and reproductive health, ... patient's concerns; Relevant clinical assessment; Risk assessment; cRisis plan; and Refer as needed for medical, social, psychological and/or.

  17. Socio-demographic factors associated with intimate partner violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional descriptive study was done of 373 women who attended the antenatal clinic and welfare units of a primary health center in Ile-Ife. The objective of this study was to determine, among a sample of women attending a primary health center in Ile-Ife, the socio-demographic factors associated with intimate ...

  18. Resistance, rupture and repetition: Civil society strategies against intimate partner violence in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, Mona; Baaz, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a new interpretation of the 'resistance' carried out by local civil society organisations in Cambodia against intimate partner violence (IPV). In this, the paper explores the nexus between 'rupture', 'resistance' and 'repetition' and concludes that different 'repetitions' can contribute to acts of violence while simultaneously creating possibilities for resisting IPV. In regard to the latter, the concept of 'rupture' is investigated as a performative politics through which organisations try to disrupt the 'repetitions' of violent masculinities. Furthermore, it is argued that the importance of 'repetitions' and the concept of time should be acknowledged. The French criminal defence lawyer Jacques Vergès' understanding of 'rupture' and the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze's notions of 'repetition' inform the analysis. To exemplify our discussion and findings, the paper embraces stories of a number of civil society workers who facilitate various men's groups in Cambodia in order to negotiate the practice of IPV.

  19. An Intersectional Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence and Workplace Violence among Women Working in Prostitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PILAR RODRÍGUEZ MARTÍNEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a qualitative analysis of violence against women (intimate partner violence and workplace violence. The subject of the research is a qualitative sample of 12 autochthonous and migrant women who work in low-paid prostitution in Almería. The study uses an intersectional and multi-level approach, focusing on the perspectives of groups who experience multiple discrimination. The results show that violence has an impact on the identity of women. It also shows that in the different paths of the women in the study, different webs of violence occur, which lead them to distinct understandings of the violence they experience. In addition, we have analyzed how age, education level, and above all, social stigma, are related to the possibility of these women experiencing violence in their work and to their perceptions of that work.

  20. Looking beyond prevalence: a demographic profile of survivors of intimate partner violence with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballan, Michelle S; Freyer, Molly Burke; Marti, C Nathan; Perkel, Jules; Webb, Katie A; Romanelli, Meghan

    2014-11-01

    The abuse of individuals with disabilities is a widespread problem that has received minimal attention in scholarly research on intimate partner violence (IPV). As a result, the literature offers neither a general demographic profile of IPV survivors with disabilities nor an examination of the relationships between IPV and individuals with specific types of disabilities. This article addresses these gaps by reporting the results of a retrospective case study review of 886 client files, covering an 8-year service period in a non-residential domestic violence disability program. The study examined key demographics along with familial, social, and contextual aspects of IPV among women with disabilities, and provides crucial information for service providers who must understand the multifaceted and unique needs of survivors. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to abuse-related outcomes and corresponding best practices with this population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Conceptualizing acts and behaviours that comprise intimate partner violence: a concept map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Campo, Patricia; Smylie, Janet; Minh, Anita; Omand, Mairi; Cyriac, Ajitha

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to explore the conceptualization of intimate partner violence (IPV) among men and women from diverse subpopulations in Toronto, ON, Canada. Relatively few research efforts have been made to examine differences in conceptualizations of IPV across populations of different race and ethnic backgrounds. Using concept mapping methodology, we sampled 67 women and men identified concepts and groups of concepts (domains) that reflected their understandings of the behaviours and attitudes that comprised IPV. We also determined the relative importance of each concept and domain as a contributor to IPV. 'External and Cultural Influences', 'Victim Response to Abuse' and 'Social and Emotional Manipulation' were a few domains that participants rated as moderately or highly important contributors to IPV. These conceptual domains are often left out of commonly used IPV measures. Our findings have important implications for the conceptualization of IPV and for future IPV measurement and measurement tool development. © 2014 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Norms of Masculinity and the Cultural Narrative of Intimate Partner Violence Among Men in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Hawkins, Laurie; Salazar, Kelsey; Hennink, Monique M; Ha, Vu Song; Yount, Kathryn M

    2016-10-01

    Semi-structured interviews with 31 men in Hung Yen Province in Northern Vietnam are used to elucidate a conceptual narrative to understand men's perceptions and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Vietnam. This narrative suggests that cultural definitions of masculinity and changes in women's participation in the labor force have contributed to status conflicts that normalize IPV as part of masculine superiority. The narratives of both IPV perpetrators and non-perpetrators demonstrate how violence is incorporated into the cultural definition of masculinity and illustrates how men use this definition to minimize their own and other men's perpetration. We suggest that attempts to reduce IPV in Vietnam must address constructions of masculinity and the socio-historical context of IPV by providing gender-sensitivity training and opportunities for men to evaluate critically how constructions of masculinity in their families and communities contribute to IPV perpetration.

  3. The overlap between offending trajectories, criminal violence, and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Alex R; Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P

    2014-03-01

    This article investigates the overlap between offending trajectories, criminal violence, and intimate partner violence (IPV) and the factors associated with these behaviors. Knowledge on these questions is relevant to theory and policy. For the former, this article considers the extent to which specific theories are needed for understanding crime, criminal violence, and/or IPV, whereas for the latter, it may suggest specific offense- and offender-based policies. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development that traces the offending, criminal violence, and IPV of males to age 50. Findings show that there is significant overlap between criminal violence and IPV, high-rate offending trajectories have increased odds of criminal violence and IPV, and early childhood risk factors have no additional effect on criminal violence and IPV in adulthood over and above the offending trajectories.

  4. Intimate partner violence in adolescence: an analysis of gender and generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancaglioni, Bianca de Cássia Alvarez; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da

    2016-01-01

    to analyze the intimate partner violence in adolescence from the perspective of gender and generation. Quantitative, descriptive, and exploratory research. 111 adolescents participated in this study, with ages from 15 to 19 years old. We found that 91% of participants have perpetrated and 90.1% have undergone at least one of the natures of violence. The intimate partner violence in adolescence constitutes a form of gender violence, and gender constructions have determined the suffered and perpetrated aggressions, possibly also determining the naturalization and legitimization of such aggressions. The inequality of power between generations may determine greater vulnerability of youngsters to the phenomenon. The historical and social construction of masculinity and femininity and the power inequalities set by these constructions converge with the power inequality between generations. Thus, gender and generation are determinants of intimate partner violence in adolescence, as well as of the vulnerability of adolescents to this phenomenon.

  5. Proactive retention and therapeutic adherence in programs for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montse Subirana-Malaret

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to treatment in intervention programs for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence is one of the most relevant factors of the effectiveness of prevention of intimate partner violence. Despite controversies arising from different studies on this subject, there is unanimity in highlighting the key role that participants' motivation plays in adherence to treatment and program completion. Techniques ensuring participants' motivation in therapeutic programs include proactive retention techniques. In this paper we analyze the effect of proactive retention techniques at the beginning and throughout the treatment sessions in an intervention program for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. The results indicate that both proactive retention techniques and support influence adherence to treatment

  6. Intimate partner femicide-suicides in Ghana: victims, offenders, and incident characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the scope, nature, and determinants of intimate partner femicide-suicides (IPFS) that occurred in Ghana during 1990 to 2009. All 35 reported cases of intimate partner homicide-suicides with female homicide victims that occurred during the study period were extracted from a major Ghanaian daily newspaper. Findings indicate that offenders were of lower socioeconomic background and tended to be older than their victims. The results further show that shooting with a firearm and hacking with a machete were the primary homicide methods, whereas self-inflicted gunshots and hanging were the dominant suicide methods. Results showed that suspicion of infidelity and sexual jealousy were core contributing factors in arguments, disputes, and altercations that preceded the femicide-suicides. Furthermore, estrangement and threatened divorce or separation by the female intimate partner was a major precipitant of femicide-suicides. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Patterns of intimate partner violence victimization from adolescence to young adulthood in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Spriggs, Aubrey L; Martin, Sandra L; Kupper, Lawrence L

    2009-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of patterns of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization from adolescence to young adulthood, and document associations with selected sociodemographic and experiential factors. We used prospective data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to group 4134 respondents reporting only opposite-sex romantic or sexual relationships in adolescence and young adulthood into four victimization patterns: no IPV victimization, adolescent-limited IPV victimization, young adult onset IPV victimization, and adolescent-young adult persistent IPV victimization. Forty percent of respondents reported physical or sexual victimization by young adulthood. Eight percent experienced IPV only in adolescence, 25% only in young adulthood, and 7% showed persistent victimization. Female sex, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, an atypical family structure (something other than two biologic parents, step-family, single parent), more romantic partners, experiencing childhood abuse, and early sexual debut (before age 16) were each associated with one or more patterns of victimization versus none. Number of romantic partners and early sexual debut were the most consistent predictors of violence, its timing of onset, and whether victimization persisted across developmental periods. These associations did not vary by biological sex. Substantial numbers of young adults have experienced physical or sexual IPV victimization. More research is needed to understand the developmental and experiential mechanisms underlying timing of onset of victimization, whether victimization persists across time and relationships, and whether etiology and temporal patterns vary by type of violence. These additional distinctions would inform the timing, content, and targeting of violence prevention efforts.

  8. Relationship Factors and Condom Use Among Women with a History of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane Minton, Heather A; Mittal, Mona; Elder, Heather; Carey, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk for HIV infection. To further the understanding of the dyadic factors that impact condom use among women, we investigated the impact of three relationship factors (i.e., power, fear, and dependence) on the association between HIV-related information, motivation, and behavioral skills [constructs from the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model] and condom use among abused women. Data from 133 urban, low-income women recruited from several community-based agencies (e.g., domestic violence agencies, women's health organizations, hospitals, Department of Health and Human Services, and Family Court) showed that these women experienced high levels of IPV and that relationship power, fear of abuse, and partner dependence were all associated with condom use. Multivariable models revealed that fear of abuse and partner dependence moderated the association between IMB constructs and condom use but relationship power did not. Results highlight the critical need to incorporate strategies to address relationship factors in HIV prevention programs with abused women.

  9. The experience of intimate partner violence in the context of the rural setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, karen

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a pervasive health and social problem in the United States; one in three women report being abused by an intimate partner at least once in their lifetime. IPV presents unique challenges to women living in rural areas that increase their vulnerability, limit their options for safety, and hamper efforts to leave an abusive relationship. Yet there is little research examining the lived experience of WV in a general population of women in the rural setting. Also, though there is a large body of research on TV screening and health care providers' attitudes and beliefs, little is known about rural providers specifically. A mixed methods study exploring the lived experience of IPV in women in the context of the rural setting was conducted. Along with qualitative interviews with women with experience of IPV, I conducted a survey to examine the TV-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of the health care providers who interact with the women. The results from this study form a picture of the lives of women who experience IPV in the rural setting as one of isolation, fear, and uncertainty tempered by determination to understand and overcome the violence. Six major themes were identified, 1) living with violence, 2) protect self, 3) isolation, 4) search for understanding, 5) system level abuse, and 6) creating a new life. In contrast to earlier studies, health care providers demonstrated good overall knowledge and judicious attitudes about IPV and beliefs congruent with available evidence related to IPV. When looked at together the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of the health care providers were aligned with the experiences voiced by the women participating in the interviews. The results of this study highlight the need for an interprofessional, public health approach that addresses the complex web of individual, social, cultural, economic, and political factors that create and feed the problem.

  10. Guns, alcohol, and intimate partner violence: the epidemiology of female suicide in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, L; Huyler, F; Lynch, A W; Fullerton, L; Werenko, D; Sklar, D; Zumwalt, R

    1999-01-01

    Suicide is among the leading causes of death in the United States, and in women the second leading cause of injury death overall. Previous studies have suggested links between intimate partner violence and suicide in women. We examined female suicide deaths to identify and describe associated risk factors. We reviewed all reports from the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator for female suicide deaths occurring in New Mexico from 1990 to 1994. Information abstracted included demographics, mechanism of death, presence of alcohol/drugs, clinical depression, intimate partner violence, health problems, and other variables. Annual rates were calculated based on the 1990 census. The New Mexico female suicide death rate was 8.2/100,000 persons per year (n = 313), nearly twice the U.S. rate of 4.5/100,000. Non-Hispanic whites were overrepresented compared to Hispanics and American Indians. Decedents ranged in age from 14 to 93 years (median = 43 years). Firearms accounted for 45.7% of the suicide deaths, followed by ingested poisons (29.1%), hanging (10.5%), other (7.7%), and inhaled poisons (7.0%). Intimate partner violence was documented in 5.1% of female suicide deaths; in an additional 22.1% of cases, a male intimate partner fought with or separated from the decedent immediately preceding the suicide. Nearly two-thirds (65.5%) of the decedents had alcohol or drugs present in their blood at autopsy. Among decedents who had alcohol present (34.5%), blood alcohol levels were far higher among American Indians compared to Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites (p = .01). Interpersonal conflict was documented in over 25% of cases, indicating that studies of the mortality of intimate partner violence should include victims of both suicide and homicide deaths to fully characterize the mortality patterns of intimate partner violence.

  11. A Scoping Review of Intimate Partner Violence Screening Programs for Health Care Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Sheila; Slobogean, Gerard P; Spurr, Hayley; McKay, Paula; Scott, Taryn; Arseneau, Erika; Memon, Muzammil; Bhandari, Mohit; Swaminathan, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Between 38 and 59 percent of women presenting to health care professionals have experienced intimate partner violence. Consequently, multiple intimate partner violence identification or screening programs within health care settings have been developed; however, substantial variations in program content and interpretation of program effectiveness has resulted in conflicting practice guidelines. The purpose of our scoping review is to broadly identify and synthesize the available literature evaluating intimate partner violence identification programs within health care settings to identify key areas for potential evidence-based recommendations and to focus research priorities in the field. We conducted a search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and psycINFO. We used broad eligibility criteria to identify studies that evaluated intimate partner violence identification programs in health care settings. We completed all screening and data extraction independently and in duplicate. We used descriptive statistics to summarize all data. We identified 59 eligible studies evaluating intimate partner violence identification programs within health care settings. The most commonly reported outcome themes were IPV disclosure (69%, n = 35), number of patients screened (39%, n = 20), HCP opinions towards screening (37%, n = 19), and patient opinions towards screening (29%, n = 15). The majority of studies (36 studies (70.6%)) reported positive program evaluation results. The majority of studies reported positive program evaluation results. This may suggest that many different intimate partner violence identification programs are beneficial for identifying victims of abuse, however, it remains unknown as to whether identification programs prevent future episodes of abuse. Additionally, the substantial heterogeneity of the intervention characteristics

  12. A Scoping Review of Intimate Partner Violence Screening Programs for Health Care Professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Sprague

    Full Text Available Between 38 and 59 percent of women presenting to health care professionals have experienced intimate partner violence. Consequently, multiple intimate partner violence identification or screening programs within health care settings have been developed; however, substantial variations in program content and interpretation of program effectiveness has resulted in conflicting practice guidelines. The purpose of our scoping review is to broadly identify and synthesize the available literature evaluating intimate partner violence identification programs within health care settings to identify key areas for potential evidence-based recommendations and to focus research priorities in the field.We conducted a search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and psycINFO. We used broad eligibility criteria to identify studies that evaluated intimate partner violence identification programs in health care settings. We completed all screening and data extraction independently and in duplicate. We used descriptive statistics to summarize all data.We identified 59 eligible studies evaluating intimate partner violence identification programs within health care settings. The most commonly reported outcome themes were IPV disclosure (69%, n = 35, number of patients screened (39%, n = 20, HCP opinions towards screening (37%, n = 19, and patient opinions towards screening (29%, n = 15. The majority of studies (36 studies (70.6% reported positive program evaluation results.The majority of studies reported positive program evaluation results. This may suggest that many different intimate partner violence identification programs are beneficial for identifying victims of abuse, however, it remains unknown as to whether identification programs prevent future episodes of abuse. Additionally, the substantial heterogeneity of the intervention

  13. Intimate partner violence and maternal cigarette smoking before and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Diana; Salimi, Shabnam; Terplan, Mishka; Chisolm, Margaret S

    2015-02-01

    To determine the association of intimate partner violence with maternal cigarette smoking before and during pregnancy. Data were obtained for 196,391 U.S. mothers who delivered live neonates from 2004-2008 and completed the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey 2-9 months postpartum. Intimate partner violence was defined as being physically hurt by a current or expartner in the year before or during pregnancy. Weighted descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed. Compared with nonphysically abused women, those who experienced physical abuse were 2.1 times more likely to smoke before pregnancy (44.0% compared with 21.0%, P<.001) and 2.6 times more likely to smoke during pregnancy (29.6% compared with 11.4%, P<.001). Smoking prevalence during pregnancy was highest for abused women who were non-Hispanic white (42.3% smoked) and lowest for nonabused college graduates (2.2% smoked). Smoking rates more than tripled for college graduates in abusive relationships (2.2% compared with 7.1%). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, abused women were significantly more likely to smoke during pregnancy than nonabused women (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, P<.001, 95% confidence interval 1.80-2.12). Women who experienced intimate partner violence had significantly higher rates of smoking before pregnancy and were less likely to quit during pregnancy than women who did not experience intimate partner violence. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the U.S. Public Services Task Force recommend routine intimate partner violence screening with appropriate interventions to prevent violence against women, optimize safety, and improve health. Additional and targeted intimate partner violence assessment of women who smoke during pregnancy may prove especially beneficial.

  14. A comparison of intimate partner violence between Jordanian nurses and Jordanian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natour, Ahlam; Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Wang, Lihshing Leigh; Felblinger, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious international problem. It is not known if the extent of intimate partner violence for Jordanian nurses is similar to that of Jordanian women. Until the rate is known, implementation of nursing interventions for Jordanian women may be thwarted. The study purpose was to determine the rate of intimate partner violence among Jordanian nurses working in governmental health settings in a northern city of Jordan and to compare the rate to published statistics for a community sample of Jordanian women. A cross-sectional survey design was used for this study. A stratified random sample of 80 Jordanian nurses working in governmental women's health centers and public hospitals in a northern city of Jordan was invited to participate. Institutional review board approval was granted. Participants completed the Woman Abuse Screening Tool in a private room at their work site. No identifiers were added to the survey forms. Chi-squared goodness-of-fit tests were computed to compare the rate of intimate partner violence between the study sample and reported statistics for Jordanian women. Approximately 59% of participants experienced psychological violence, 12.5% experienced physical violence, and 5.1% experienced sexual violence. No significant differences were found in the rates of violence for the study sample and published data for a community sample of Jordanian women. Intimate partner violence is as prevalent against Jordanian nurses as it is for Jordanian women. Intimate partner violence needs to be addressed to prevent potential sequelae such as decreased work productivity and an inability to provide safe patient care.

  15. Intimate Partner Violence among New HIV Positive Mothers in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall, 12.9% of women reported to having ever experienced physical partner violence and 11.9% emotional partner violence in the past 12 months. In bivariate logistic regression, having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (other than HIV) in the past 12 months and having had two or more sexual ...

  16. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting: criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Bogaerts, Stefan; Sijtsema, Jelle; Klerx-van Mierlo, Fanny

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and victimological factors between IPV perpetrators (n = 61, 51.3%) and non-intimate violence (NIV) perpetrators (n = 58, 48.7%) were examined. All data, including information on demographics, criminal history, history of psychological, sexual, and physical victimization during childhood or adolescence, family history of psychopathology, history of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence, and mental disorders, were derived from archival electronic medical records. Mental disorders were measured using structured psychiatric interviews and final consensus diagnoses were established during weekly case consultations. Both IPV and NIV perpetrators displayed high rates of criminal history, psychopathology, and previous victimization, but the two groups did not differ in these factors with two exceptions. IPV perpetrators were significantly more likely to have higher rates of previous physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder than NIV perpetrators. The current study suggests that a history of physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder are specific characteristics of IPV perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting. Future research should focus on mechanisms explaining the association of childhood victimization and IPV and increase our understanding of the role of intermittent explosive disorder in IPV. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Doing more harm than good: negative health effects of intimate-partner violence campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jean Jaymes

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates unintended negative effects of health communication campaigns surrounding intimate-partner violence. Major health organizations have identified this issue as an urgent health problem for women, but the effects of these campaigns have rarely been tested with the target audience most affected by the issue. Using qualitative methodology, 10 focus groups were conducted with female survivors of intimate-partner violence. It was found that this group viewed the campaigns as emotionally harmful, inaccurate, and misleading. The results of this research suggest these campaigns may do more harm than good for the audience most severely affected by this issue.

  18. The association of mental health conditions with employment, interpersonal, and subjective functioning after intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J Gayle; Clapp, Joshua D; Jacobs-Lentz, Jason; McNiff, Judiann; Avery, Megan; Olsen, Shira A

    2014-11-01

    This study explored the associations of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and depressive symptoms with employment, social support, and subjective functioning in 100 women who were seeking mental health assistance after intimate partner violence. Depressive disorders showed significant associations with low levels of social support, diminished self-esteem, reduced quality of life, and elevated negative social problem-solving orientation. PTSD severity was significantly associated with low self-esteem and elevated negative problem orientation, while severity of GAD was only associated with negative problem orientation. Results are discussed in light of current service models for women who have experienced intimate partner violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Intimate partner violence against women in the Erbil city of the Kurdistan region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Atrushi, Hazha H; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Shabila, Nazar P; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S

    2013-10-10

    Violence against women is a worldwide problem and serious human rights abuse that occurs among all social, cultural, economic and religious groups. There is a paucity of research on intimate partner violence against women in Iraq, particularly in the Kurdistan region. This study assessed the prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual intimate partner violence against women and the impact of physical violence in Erbil, the main city of the Iraqi Kurdistan region. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a convenience sample of 800 Kurdish ever married women. Women (aged 16 to 65 years) attending two public hospitals in Erbil city for reproductive health problems were included in the study. The study was conducted between 1st of October 2009 and 30th of March 2011. Each woman was seen only once. Intimate partner violence was assessed by administering a modified version of the World Health Organization's domestic violence questionnaire through direct interview by a female doctor. Prevalence of intimate partner violence was assessed by timing (lifetime or past year), frequency (once, 2-5 times, > 5 times), and type (emotional, physical, and sexual violence). Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted with calculation of frequencies and percentages of women who reported different types, severities and impact of intimate partner violence. The prevalence of the overall lifetime and the overall past year intimate partner violence against women was 58.6% and 45.3%, respectively. The proportions of women experienced at least one form of lifetime intimate partner violence were: 52.6% for emotional abuse; 38.9% for physical violence; and 21.1% for sexual violence, while 43.3%, 15.1%, and 12.1% of women experienced at least one form of past year emotional, physical and sexual violence, respectively. Among those with lifetime physical violence, 11.6% were subjected to more serious injuries like stab wound, broken teeth or broken bones. There is a high prevalence of

  20. The Experience of Resilience for Adult Female Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Phenomenological Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crann, Sara E; Barata, Paula C

    2016-06-01

    While resilience research in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) is increasing, there remains little known about women's lived experience of resilience. Using a phenomenological approach, this study examined the experience of resilience for adult female survivors of IPV. Sixteen women who were currently experiencing or had previously experienced abuse by an intimate partner participated in semi-structured interviews. Resilience was experienced as multiple cognitive, emotional, and behavioral shifts across three theme areas: toward resistance, in the experience of control, and toward positivity. The results of this study suggest a number of applications for clinical practice and intervention. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Intimate partner violence, depression, and barriers to service utilization in Arab American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulwicki, Anahid; Ballout, Suha; Kilgore, Colleen; Hammad, Adnan; Dervartanian, Hermine

    2015-01-01

    How intimate partner violence (IPV), depression, and barriers to services affect Arab American women in the United States is not very well documented. This cross-sectional exploratory descriptive study examines (a) the relationship between depression and IPV and (b) whether living in the United States 10 or more years decreases barriers to reporting intimate partner violence and depression in a sample (N = 312) of Arab American women 19 years and older. Findings demonstrate significant relationships between women who were at risk for IPV and depression scores (r = .44, p Arab American women experiencing IPV and depression. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence among women in Recife/Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Érika Neves; Silva, Maria Arleide; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Lucena, Sara Gomes; Ponzo, Lucas; Pimentel, Amanda Patrícia

    2016-02-01

    Intimate partner violence is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among women. Although there are no official statistics, data reveal a high prevalence worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence among women in a community in Recife, Pernambuco. A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted with 245 women in the 15 to 49-year age bracket. A questionnaire with sociodemographic variables was used, together with the WHO Violence Against Women (VAW) study tools and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). The participants all signed an informed consent form. The prevalence of intimate partner violence was classified by type of violence: emotional - 52.7%; physical - 46.1 %; and sexual - 13.6%. Bivariate analysis revealed an association between experiencing violence with not having a partner (p = 0.001) and drug use (p ≤ 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the variables were strongly associated with the outcome: sexual intercourse for fear (OR 5.58); depressive-anxious mood (OR 2.69); drug use (OR 2.57). A high prevalence of intimate partner violence in the community, especially emotional violence, emerges as an important finding, indicating the need for care in prevention and the overall health of this population.

  3. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Crombach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods: Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results: We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries.

  4. The role of alcohol as men desist from physical intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although researchers have examined the relationship between alcohol and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV), little research has examined the role of alcohol within the process of desistance from IPV, which was the aim of this study. A mixed-methods approach was taken as both psychometric test and interview data were analysed. Scores on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III alcohol dependence subscale of 37 men deemed to have desisted from IPV, 50 deemed to be persisting with IPV and 49 non-violent controls were compared. In addition, data about alcohol use from interviews with 13 desisters, 9 persisters, 9 IPV intervention facilitators and 7 female survivors were analysed using thematic analysis to understand the role of alcohol in IPV desistance and persistence. No differences were found between the groups' self-reported alcohol dependence based on their Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III scores. However, analysis of the interview data revealed that compared with persisters, desisters reported having changed their attitudes towards alcohol and their consumption of it in order to facilitate their cessation of violence. Static measures of alcohol dependence need to be used with caution if looking to identify progress with desistance from IPV. For individuals for whom alcohol played a role in their IPV, changing attitudes and their use of alcohol were described as being important in the process of desistance. Self-reported attitudes and alcohol use could therefore be used to identify men who are making progress in the process of desistance from IPV. [Walker K. The role of alcohol as men desist from physical intimate partner violence. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:134-142]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. What's age got to do with it? Partner age difference, power, intimate partner violence, and sexual risk in urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Ellen M; Hardie, Thomas L; Cerulli, Catherine; Sommers, Marilyn S; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent girls with older male main partners are at greater risk for adverse sexual health outcomes than other adolescent girls. One explanation for this finding is that low relationship power occurs with partner age difference. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, we investigated the effect of partner age difference between an adolescent girl and her male partner on sexual risk behavior through the mediators of sexual relationship power, and physical intimate partner violence (IPV), and psychological IPV severity. We chose Blanc's framework to guide this study as it depicts the links among demographic, social, economic, relationship, family and community characteristics, and reproductive health outcomes with gender-based relationship power and violence. Urban adolescent girls (N = 155) completed an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview survey to examine partner and relationship factors' effect on consistent condom use. Our sample had an average age of 16.1 years with a mean partner age of 17.8 years. Partners were predominantly African American (75%), non-Hispanic (74%), and low-income (81%); 24% of participants reported consistent condom use in the last 3 months. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Partner age difference was negatively associated with consistent condom use (-.4292, p sexual risk factors within adolescent sexual relationships. Nonetheless, for clinicians and researchers, these findings underscore the heightened risk associated with partner age differences and impact of relationship dynamics on sexual risk behavior.

  6. Mathematical Modeling of Hidden Intimate Partner Violence in Spain: A Quantitative and Qualitative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. De la Poza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fact that women are abused by their male partner is something that happens worldwide in the 21st century. In numerous cases, abuse only becomes publicly known when a fatal event occurs and is beyond any possible remedy, that is, when men murder their female partner. Since 2003, 793 (September 4, 2015 women have been assassinated by their significant other or excouple in Spain. Only 7.2% of murdered women had reported their fear and previous intimate partner violence (IPV to the police. Even when the number of female victims is comparable to the number of victims by terrorism, the Government has not assigned an equal amount of resources to diminish the magnitude of this hidden social problem. In this paper, a mathematical epidemiological model to forecast intimate partner violence in Spain is constructed. Both psychological and physical aggressor subpopulations are predicted and simulated. The model’s robustness versus uncertain parameters is studied by a sensitivity analysis.

  7. Children bereaved by fatal intimate partner violence : A population-based study into demographics, family characteristics and homicide exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisic, Eva; Groot, Arend; Snetselaar, Hanneke; Stroeken, Tielke; Van De Putte, Elise

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the context of violence against women, intimate partner homicide increasingly receives research and policy attention. Although the impact of losing a parent due to intimate partner homicide is intuitively obvious, little is known about the children involved. We aimed to identify all

  8. New data on intimate partner violence and intimate relationships: Implications for gun laws and federal data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B; Spear, Devan

    2018-02-01

    Age at first marriage has risen substantially and birth rates are at a record low; people are spending more time in relationships that, by comparison, have fewer emotional, financial, and legal commitments. Little research has examined intimate partner violence (IPV) prevalence in current and former adult (vs. adolescent) dating relationships. Such information is relevant to federal firearms policies that are based on the nature of an intimate relationship. We examined assaultive behaviors by the type and status of the relationship - current spouse, former spouse, current boyfriend or girlfriend, and former boyfriend or girlfriend - in 31,206 IPV incidents responded to by Philadelphia police in 2013. Over 80% of the IPV incidents involved individuals in non-marital relationships. Incidents involving current boyfriends or girlfriends had the highest percentage of violent behaviors (e.g., punch, strangle). They also were more likely than current spouses to use bodily weapons (hands, fists, or feet) or non-gun weapons (knives, bats, etc.) (AOR = 1.19 and 1.43, respectively), to injure their victims (AOR = 1.37), and to be arrested (AOR = 1.46). Former unmarried partners had the highest odds of stalking their intimate (AOR = 3.37) and violating a restraining order (AOR = 2.61). Gun use was similar across relationship type. A growing portion of the population is not protected by federal policies designed to keep guns out of the hands of abusers. Current boyfriends and girlfriends are a risk to their intimates. Federal data collection practices and firearm policies merit updating to more fully take into account dating, same-sex marriage, and other partnerships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Animal Maltreatment as a Risk Marker of More Frequent and Severe Forms of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Betty Jo; Fitzgerald, Amy; Stevenson, Rochelle; Cheung, Chi Ho

    2017-07-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature documenting the co-occurrence of animal abuse and intimate partner violence (IPV), only a few studies have examined the relationship between animal maltreatment, types of IPV, and abuse severity. The results of those studies have been inconclusive and in some cases even contradictory. The current study contributes new findings to that specific segment of the literature and sheds some light on the inconsistent findings in previous studies. Data were gathered from 86 abused women receiving services from domestic violence shelters across Canada via a structured survey about pet abuse and the level and types of IPV perpetrated by abusive partners. Type and severity of IPV was measured using subscales of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) and the Checklist of Controlling Behaviors (CCB). Animal maltreatment was measured using the Partner's Treatment of Animals Scale (PTAS). Participants were divided into three groups: women who did not have pets during their abusive relationship ( n = 31), women who had pets and reported little or no animal maltreatment ( n = 21), and women who had pets and reported frequent or severe animal maltreatment ( n = 34). Examining within-group variations in experiences of IPV and pet abuse using a series of one-way between-groups ANOVA tests, this study provides evidence to support the conclusion that women who report that their partner mistreated their pets are themselves at significantly greater risk of more frequent and severe forms of IPV, most specifically psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. The findings point to the urgency of better understanding and mitigating the unique barriers to leaving an abusive relationship faced by women with companion animals.

  10. #MaybeHeDoesntHitYou: Social Media Underscore the Realities of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Heather L; Bonomi, Amy E; Maas, Megan K; Bogen, Katherine W; O'Malley, Teagen L

    2018-03-22

    Public intimate partner violence (IPV) discourse emphasizes physical violence. In May 2016, the Twitter hashtag #MaybeHeDoesntHitYou generated a public conversation about abuse beyond physical IPV. Because of the often-disconnect between IPV research and what survivors struggle to name as abuse in their daily lives, we sought to understand how IPV discourse was unfolding as a result of the #MaybeHeDoesntHitYou hashtag. NCapture was used to collect publically available Twitter data containing the hashtag "#MaybeHeDoesntHitYou" from May 10, 2016 to May 17, 2016. Using the Duluth Power and Control Wheel (a range of tactics used by abusers to control and harm their partners) and the Women's Experience with Battering (WEB) framework (emotional and behavioral responses to being abused), we analyzed 1,229 original content tweets using qualitative content analysis. All dimensions of the Power and Control Wheel and five of six dimensions of the WEB framework were expressed via #MaybeHeDoesntHitYou; users did not express yearning for intimacy with their abusive partners. Users described one form of IPV not currently represented within the Power and Control Wheel-reproductive coercion (e.g., "#MaybeHeDoesntHitYou but he refuses to use condoms and forces you not to use contraception so you try to do it behind his back"). Two additional themes emerged; users challenged the gender pronoun of the hashtag, highlighting that abuse may happen with partners of all genders, and users provided social support for others (e.g., "#MaybeHeDoesntHitYou is real. Bruises and scars aren't the only measure of abuse! If this is you, help is there…"). Results from our study underscore the potential for social media platforms to be powerful agents for engaging public dialogue about the realities of IPV, as well as a space for seeking and providing social support about this critical women's health issue.

  11. Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol Problems in Interethnic and Intra-ethnic Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing number of interethnic marriages in the U.S., few studies have examined intimate partner violence (IPV) in interethnic couples. This article examined past-year occurrences of IPV across interethnic and intra-ethnic couples and tested correlates of IPV specifically in interethnic couples. Data were from a national survey of couples 18 years of age and older from the 48 contiguous states. Interethnic couples (n = 116) included partners from different ethnic backgrounds, inclu...

  12. A Prospective Study of Adolescents’ Sexual Partnerships on Emerging Adults’ Relationship Satisfaction and Intimate Partner Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Copp, Jennifer E.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether the influence of adolescents’ sexual partnerships, both dating and casual, carried over to affect emerging adults’ relationship satisfaction and experiences of intimate partner aggression. Analyses of longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 294) showed that net of control variables (delinquency, depression, family violence, relational and sociodemographic characteristics), adolescents’ number of dating, but not casual, sexual partners led to g...

  13. Priorities for research in child maltreatment, intimate partner violence and resilience to violence exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wathen, C Nadine; MacGregor, Jennifer C D; Hammerton, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) are major global public health problems. The Preventing Violence Across the Lifespan (PreVAiL) Research Network, an international group of over 60 researchers and national and international knowledge-user partners in CM and IPV, sought...... to identify evidence-based research priorities in IPV and CM, with a focus on resilience, using a modified Delphi consensus development process....

  14. Psychological and Relational Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Profiles Among Pregnant Adolescent Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Jessica B.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Angley, Meghan; Callands, Tamora; Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick M.; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify relationship and individual psychological factors that related to four profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescent couples: no IPV, male IPV victim only, female IPV victim only, mutual IPV, and how associations differ by sex. Using data from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents and partners (n = 291 couples), we used a multivariate profile analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance with between and within-subjects effects to comp...

  15. More than re-establishing the partner relationship: Intimate aftercare for Somali parents in diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Pauline; Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-08-01

    -based recommendations, which have been identified for parents who are ethnically-congruent to a western study setting. Our findings suggest that aftercare meant for Somali parents living in these settings requires an understanding of how traditional intimate support and the postpartum sexual relationship are re-negotiated in the diasporic context. This includes recognition of the father as a willing and supportive partner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Concerted Practice-Based Actions in Intimate Partner and Family Violence: When the Children’s Well-Being Is the Central Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Lessard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Canada, the exposure of children to intimate partner violence is, along with negligence, one of the most frequent forms of maltreatment. Intimate partner violence raises important issues with regard to child custody and to the exercising of parental roles. The aid provided for children exposed to intimate partner violence covers a range of programs, in particular community services specializing in intimate partner violence, frontline social and health services, and child protection. However, these resource services do not share the same missions, or the same understanding of the problems and possible solutions, since they often operate in parallel networks. The complex situations of families confronted with intimate partner violence present considerable challenges in terms of collaboration between the different organizations. Action research was employed to develop an innovative concertation strategy that fostered collaboration between practitioners from different family resource services. The strategy, which was implemented in the Québec City region between 2011 and 2013, was then evaluated. This article presents the results of this evaluation as well as the positive outcomes that the concertation strategy had for the practitioners’ practice and for the improvement of family services.

  17. Needs and preferences for the prevention of intimate partner violence among Hispanics: a community's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, R M; Cummings, A M; Becerra, M; Fernandez, M C; Mesa, I

    2013-08-01

    Research suggest that Hispanics in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by the consequences of intimate partner violence. Nevertheless, few intimate partner violence prevention interventions have been developed to address the unique needs and preferences of this population. The Partnership for Domestic Violence Prevention is a community-based participatory research project that assessed the needs and preferences for prevention programs for Hispanics in Miami-Dade County. Nine focus groups with domestic violence service providers, victims and general community members were conducted (N = 76). Four major themes emerged from the focus groups. These included immigrants and teens as the highest priority groups to target in prevention efforts, culture as a double-edged sword, the system that helps and hurts the victim, and the need for wide-scale prevention programs that would reach Hispanics systematically. The results from this study have important implications for the development of intimate violence prevention interventions targeting Hispanics in the U.S.

  18. Intimate Partner Maltreatment Recidivism in U.S. Air Force Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Sarah L; McCarthy, Randy J; Milner, Joel S; Ormsby, LaJuana; Travis, Wendy J

    2016-08-01

    Research has demonstrated that perpetrator characteristics (gender, age, and military status) and incident characteristics (perpetrator substance use and initial incident severity) are associated with intimate partner maltreatment recidivism. This study assessed whether these variables were associated with intimate partner maltreatment recidivism in U.S. Air Force families during a 16-yr period (1997-2013). During the study period, 21% of the intimate partner maltreatment perpetrators in the U.S. Air Force committed more than one incident of maltreatment. In terms of perpetrator characteristics, male perpetrators reoffended more than female perpetrators, younger perpetrators reoffended more than older perpetrators, and active duty perpetrators reoffended more than civilians. Whether a perpetrator was enlisted or an officer was not associated with the likelihood of recidivism. In terms of incident characteristics, substance use (which was mainly alcohol use) during an initial maltreatment incident was associated with recidivism, but the severity of perpetrators' initial maltreatment incident was not. However, for perpetrators who reoffended, the severity of their initial incident was associated with the severity of subsequent incidents. On the basis of these findings, the need for targeted interventions to reduce intimate partner maltreatment recidivism is discussed. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  19. Risk Factors for Clinically Significant Intimate Partner Violence among Active-Duty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Slep, Amy M.; Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesized risk factors for men's and women's clinically significant intimate partner violence (CS-IPV) from four ecological levels (i.e., individual, family, workplace, community) were tested in a representative sample of active-duty U.S. Air Force members (N = 42,744). When considered together, we expected only individual and family factors to…

  20. Maternal Exposure to Intimate Partner Abuse before Birth Is Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Lyall, Kristen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine whether maternal (a) physical harm from intimate partner abuse during pregnancy or (b) sexual, emotional, or physical abuse before birth increased risk of autism spectrum disorder. We calculated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorder associated with abuse in a population-based cohort of women and their children (54,512…

  1. Social Norms for Intimate Partner Violence in Situations Involving Victim Infidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Tricia H.; Mulla, Mazheruddin M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated perceived descriptive norms (i.e., perceived prevalence) for male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) following victim infidelity (i.e., girlfriend had sex with another man). While watching a video-taped vignette of a young, dating couple in an argument that escalated to male-to-female violence, male…

  2. A Path Model of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence among Couples in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, John; Caetano, Raul; Cunradi, Carol B.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify the impact of drinking problems, impulsivity, and a history of childhood physical abuse on both male-to-female (MFIPV) and female-to-male intimate partner violence (FMIPV). The data were collected in 1995 from a representative national sample of couples living in the contiguous 48 states. Using a…

  3. Intimate Partner Violence and Contribution of Drinking and Sociodemographics: The Brazilian National Alcohol Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Marcos; Pinsky, Ilana; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Caetano, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Brazilian couples and to assess the contribution of drinking and sociodemographic factors to the risk of IPV. Methods: A sample consisting of 1,445 married or cohabitating males and females in the Brazilian population was interviewed. The survey response rate was 66%.…

  4. Associations between Intimate Partner Violence and Emotional Distress among Pregnant Women in Durban, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K.; Kagee, Ashraf; Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre; Rouse, Petrica

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy has been associated with multiple negative health outcomes including emotional distress during pregnancy. However, little is known about IPV during pregnancy and its association with emotional distress among South African women. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of both…

  5. The Assessment of Intimate Partner Violence in Spanish Women: The Index of Spouse Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazaola-Castano, Juncal; Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta; Montero-Pinar, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) in a representative sample of 8,995 women attending general practice in Spain in 2006-2007. The factor structure analysis shows that the ISA measures four intimate partner violence (IPV) dimensions: emotional, physical, and…

  6. The Effects of Change in Spousal Power on Intimate Partner Violence among Chinese Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaochun; Keat, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored how changes in power relations within couples after immigrating from more patriarchal societies contribute to intimate partner violence (IPV). Both subjective decision-making power and objective power bases were examined in Chinese immigrant couples. Batterers and nonviolent men both experienced loss of decision-making power in…

  7. Parental Intimate Partner Violence, Parenting Practices, and Adolescent Peer Bullying: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knous-Westfall, Heather M.; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; MacDonell, Kathleen Watson; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a major public health concern, with millions of children exposed to parental violence each year. Childhood exposure to parental violence has been linked to both maladaptive parenting practices and a host of adjustment difficulties in the exposed children. The Children in the Community Study…

  8. Adult Psychopathology and Intimate Partner Violence among Survivors of Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ariel J.; Stein, Murray B.; Kennedy, Colleen M.; Foy, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with psychopathology and revictimization in adulthood. Whether different types of childhood maltreatment have different long-term consequences, however, is largely unknown. The participants in this study included 42 female victims of intimate partner violence and 30 women with no history of serious trauma.…

  9. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Intimate Partner Violence in a Community Study of Chinese American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei

    2006-01-01

    A community probability-sampled survey was done of 181 Chinese American women to investigate the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Chinese Americans. Of participants, 42% knew a Chinese woman who had experienced IPV. Also, 14% had experienced IPV themselves in their lifetime (8% severe and 6% minor), 3% in the previous…

  10. Women's Employment Status, Coercive Control, and Intimate Partner Violence in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Andres

    2007-01-01

    Findings from previous studies examining the relation between women's employment and the risk of intimate partner violence have been mixed. Some studies find greater violence toward women who are employed, whereas others find the opposite relation or no relation at all. I propose a new framework in which a woman's employment status and her risk of…

  11. Intimate Partner Violence: The Role of the Relationship between Perpetrators and Children Who Witness Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Emily; Stover, Carla

    2009-01-01

    The issue of the father-child relationship has been greatly ignored in the domestic violence research literature. This study investigated whether intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated by biological fathers resulted in higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms and behavior problems than violence perpetrated by nonbiological fathers and…

  12. Adolescent Psychosocial Risk Factors for Severe Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…

  13. Feminist Group Counseling with South Asian Women Who Have Survived Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Hays, Danica G.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how to use a feminist approach in group counseling with South Asian women who have survived intimate partner violence (IPV). South Asian culture, including gender-role expectations and attitudes about family violence, is discussed. A case study detailing a feminist counseling group conducted with this population is presented.…

  14. Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Status among Ever-Married and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study used logistic regression to analyze the 2,830 ever-married or cohabitating women who also answered the violence and spousal traits questionnaire as well as provided blood samples. The logistic regression revealed that women who had experienced any type of intimate partner violence (odds ratio=1.29, ...

  15. Changes in Intimate Partner Violence among Women Mandated to Community Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Guo, Shenyang; Ermentrout, Dania M.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) are charged with IPV perpetration and mandated by courts or child protective services to receive domestic violence services. A critical need exists for evidence-based interventions targeting the needs of this unique population, but such research is scarce. To address this gap, we…

  16. Intimate Partner Violence among Female Caregivers of Children Reported for Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Andrea L.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Barth, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence among female caregivers of children reported to child protective services. Method: Data were derived from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability study of children investigated for child abuse and…

  17. Persistence of Intimate Partner Violence among Families Referred to Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Cynthia D.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Kelleher, Kelly J.; Barth, Richard P.; Landsverk, John A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal course of intimate partner violence (IPV) among female caregivers of children receiving child welfare services. Data are derived from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability study of children investigated for child abuse and neglect in the United…

  18. College Men's Intimate Partner Violence Attitudes: Contributions of Adult Attachment and Gender Role Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdermott, Ryon C.; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2013-01-01

    Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence…

  19. Vulva injury inflicted by an intimate partner: A case report | Buowari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gender based violence is found in all races, ethnicities, social and economic status. Violence by an intimate partner is one of the most common forms of violence against women. Method: This is a case of a single mother who had vulva injury inflicted on her by a man who is the father of her child. However, both ...

  20. Assessing Risk Markers in Intimate Partner Femicide and Severe Violence: A New Assessment Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeburua, Enrique; Fernandez-Montalvo, Javier; de Corral, Paz; Lopez-Goni, Jose J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scale to predict intimate partner femicide and severe violence. The sample consists of 1,081 batterer men who were reported to the police station. First, the most significant differences between the severe violence group (n = 269) and the less severe violence group (n = 812) in sociodemographic variables are…

  1. Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Gronroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in intimate partner homicide (IPH) and offender characteristics with the focus on putative gender-specific risk factors in a nationwide consecutive sample of homicide offenders. Data on all offenders (N = 642; 91 females, 551 males) convicted of homicide and subjected to a forensic psychiatric…

  2. Do Laws Restricting Access to Firearms by Domestic Violence Offenders Prevent Intimate Partner Homicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdor, Elizabeth Richardson; Mercy, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Domestic violence imposes a large cost on society. The authors exploit state variation in timing to examine the impact of three types of law on intimate partner homicides. These laws restrict access to firearms by individuals who are subject to a restraining order or have been convicted of a domestic violence misdemeanor or allow law enforcement…

  3. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  4. Exploring Negative Emotion in Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence: Shame, Guilt, and PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. Gayle; McNiff, Judiann; Clapp, Joshua D.; Olsen, Shira A.; Avery, Megan L.; Hagewood, J. Houston

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the association of shame and guilt with PTSD among women who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Sixty-three women were assessed by a research clinic serving the mental health needs of women IPV survivors. Results indicated that shame, guilt-related distress, and guilt-related cognitions showed significant…

  5. Fathers' Emotional Awareness and Children's Empathy and Externalizing Problems: The Role of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliken, Ashley C.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that fathers, more so than mothers, socialize emotions in a gender-stereotyped manner. Gender-stereotyped emotion socialization may be particularly pronounced in men perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV), and may be detrimental to child adjustment, particularly for boys. This study explored the relation between…

  6. The Role of Adolescent Physical Abuse in Adult Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…

  7. The Effects of Adolescent Intimate Partner Violence on Women's Educational Attainment and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Adrienne E.; Greeson, Megan R.; Kennedy, Angie C.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, widespread problem that negatively affects women's lives, including their economic status. The current study explored whether the financial harm associated with IPV begins as early as adolescence. With longitudinal data from a sample of 498 women currently or formerly receiving welfare, we used latent…

  8. Intimate Partner Violence among Midlife and Older Women: A Descriptive Analysis of Women Seeking Medical Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormanti, Mary; Shibusawa, Tazuko

    2008-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence (IPV) may occur throughout a woman's life course, there has been a paucity of research on the experiences of victimization among midlife and older women. This article examines both the prevalence of IPV among a sample of women ages 50 to 64 (N = 620), who were recruited at an emergency department and primary care…

  9. Study of intimate partner violence against women in an urban locality of Pune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Intimate partner violence against women has an adverse effect on the health of women. Aims: To estimate the proportion of physical, emotional, economical and sexual violence against women by the husband (intimate partner and to identify factors that may put women at risk of violence by their husbands. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A convenience consecutive sample of 369 married women (18-49 years age attending the Out Patient Department (OPD of the Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC of a Medical College in Pune was interviewed using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire after obtaining informed consent. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square test and Odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were used to identify the risk factors. Results: Almost half of the study sample had experienced some form of violence. The associated factors with intimate partner violence were drinking alcohol by husband (OR = 4.54, 95% CI = 2.52, 8.18, P < 0.001, aggressive nature of husband (OR = 11.81, 95% CI = 3.53, 39.47, P < 0.001 and family history of domestic violence (OR = 11.0, 95% CI = 3.83, 31.63, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Intimate partner violence was high in our study. Risk factors for domestic violence were alcohol use by husband, aggressive nature of husband and family history of domestic violence.

  10. An Evaluation of Healthy Relationship Education to Reduce Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, Becky F.; Karam, Eli; Christensen, Dana N.; Barbee, Anita P.; Sar, Bibhuti K.

    2011-01-01

    This research evaluated the impact of the Within My Reach healthy relationship education program on intimate partner violence for 419 high-risk adults in an urban area. Key outcomes such as relationship knowledge, communication/conflict resolution skills, relationship quality, and physical and emotional abuse were evaluated through survey research…

  11. Mediators and Moderators of Change in Adjustment Following Intervention for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Lilly, Michelle; DeVoe, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Children aged 6 to 12 who were exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) within the last year participated in an intervention program found to be successful in reducing their internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. However, little is known about factors that may contribute to this efficacy. Both fixed and modifiable risk factors that…

  12. Dissimilarity in Vulnerability: Self-Reported Symptoms among Children with Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgsson, Anna; Almqvist, Kjerstin; Broberg, Anders G.

    2011-01-01

    Children with experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) are at risk. Not all children, however, display symptoms, and differences connected to gender and age have been demonstrated. In this exploratory study, children's own reports of symptoms were used. The 41 recruited children, between 7 and 19 years old, were entered into a group program…

  13. Efficacy of an intervention program for court-ordered intimate partner offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Pérez Ramírez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women is a serious social and public health problem that has promoted significant legislative changes in Spain during the last years. Batterer intervention programs are some of the measures adopted by the Government to reduce the impact of this problem. Domestic violence treatment programs have a long trajectory in the Spanish prisons and their effectiveness has been evaluated by several studies. However, in the community services a new court-ordered treatment for intimate partner offenders (PRIA has been implemented recently. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the court-ordered treatment for intimate partner offenders in the community. The sample consists of 770 intimate partner offenders serving a sentence in the community. The subjects were divided in two groups: an experimental group, assessed pre and post intervention, and a control group, assessed in two temporal moments similar to the experimental group. Results show a significant therapeutic change among the intimate partner offenders after the treatment program. These changes are also confirmed by the comparison between the experimental and control group. Finally, the implications and limits of this study are analysed.

  14. Intimate Partner Violence Attitudes and Experience among Women and Men in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines intimate partner violence (IPV) attitudes and experience among women and men in Uganda to inform IPV-prevention programs in the region. Nationally representative population-based data from women aged 15 to 49 and men aged 15 to 54 were collected between May and October 2006 as part of the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey.…

  15. Community-Based Intervention for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: An Efficacy Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.; Lynch, Shannon; Banyard, Victoria; DeVoe, Ellen R.; Halabu, Hilda

    2007-01-01

    A community-based intervention program was tested with 181 children ages 6-12 and their mothers exposed to intimate partner violence during the past year. A sequential assignment procedure allocated participants to 3 conditions: child-only intervention, child-plus-mother intervention (CM), and a wait-list comparison. A 2-level hierarchical linear…

  16. School Counseling Prevention and Intervention for Child Witnesses of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Juleen K.; Saponara, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Children who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) often suffer a range of physical, behavioral, emotional, and familial consequences (Holt, Buckley, & Whelan, 2008). School counselors may be in a key position to implement prevention programs around this issue, identify children who have witnessed IPV, and to engage in intervention efforts.…

  17. Using Action Planning to Build Organizational Capacity for the Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    The DELTA PREP Project aims to reduce risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). It engaged leadership and staff from 19 statewide domestic violence coalitions in building capacity to prevent IPV before it occurs (rather than solely responding to IPV). This article describes the process and outcomes associated with action planning to create…

  18. A Community-Based Trial of Online Intimate Partner Violence CME

    OpenAIRE

    Short, Lynn M.; Surprenant, Zita J.; Harris, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is a broad need to improve physician continuing medical education (CME) in the management of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, there are only a few examples of successful IPV CME programs and none of these are suitable for widespread distribution.

  19. Client Narratives about Experiences with a Multicouple Treatment Program for Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todahl, Jeff; Linville, Deanna; Tuttle Shamblin, Abby F.; Ball, David

    2012-01-01

    A handful of clinical trials have concluded that conjoint couples treatment for intimate partner violence is safe and at least as effective as conventional batterer intervention programs, yet very few researchers have explored couples' perspectives on conjoint treatment. Using qualitative narrative analysis methodology, the researchers conducted…

  20. Psychometric Properties of an Intimate Partner Violence Tool for Health Care Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Pamela D.; Nouer, Simonne S.; Mackey, See Trail N.; Tipton, Nathan G.; Lloyd, Angela K.

    2011-01-01

    Health care professionals have acknowledged intimate partner violence (IPV) as a highly prevalent public health problem necessitating the creation of standardized education programs, survey tools, and well-defined outcome measures. Testing and evaluation of these measures, however, has been limited to specific populations of health care…

  1. Enhancing Employment Outcomes for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Developmental Work Personality Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Jeanmarie; Strauser, David R.; Olguin, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) are high. Many survivors elect to leave abusive relationships and seek treatment to address the abusive cycle and psychiatric symptoms that may result. Programs to assist survivors often include an employment component. This article discusses the use of the Developmental Work Personality Scale (D. R.…

  2. Results of a Multifaceted Intimate Partner Violence Training Program for Pediatric Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColgan, Maria D.; Cruz, Mario; McKee, Jessica; Dempsey, Sandra H.; Davis, Martha B.; Barry, Patricia; Yoder, Ana Lisa; Giardino, Angelo P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a multifaceted Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) intervention on knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices of pediatric residents. Methods: The intervention included: an on-site IPV counselor, IPV training for attending physicians, residents and social workers, and screening prompts. Evaluation included…

  3. Engaging Intercollegiate Athletes in Preventing and Intervening in Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Mary M.; Banyard, Victoria L.; Arnold, Julie S.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Stapleton, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The object of this exploratory evaluation was to evaluate the "Bringing in the Bystander" sexual and intimate partner violence prevention program with a new sample of intercollegiate athletes. Participants and Methods: Fifty-three male and female athletes participated in the program (experimental group), and 86 were in the control…

  4. The Relationship between Marijuana Use and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nationally Representative, Longitudinal Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use…

  5. Adverse Childhood Experiences of Referred Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Consequences for their Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Willemen, Agnes M.; Visser, Margreet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the relationships among Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in a high risk clinical sample of Dutch children whose mothers were abused by an intimate partner, and the severity of behavioral and emotional problems and trauma symptoms. Methods: The study population comprised 208 children (M = 7.81 years, SD =…

  6. Exploring the Literature on Relationships between Gender Roles, Intimate Partner Violence, Occupational Status, and Organizational Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwesiga, Eileen; Bell, Myrtle P.; Pattie, Marshall; Moe, Angela M.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) and work have been primarily conducted with women in low-wage low-status (LWLS) positions, as much of this research has focused on poverty, welfare, and homelessness. Although women in LWLS positions represent a large percentage of working women in the United States, it is also important to investigate…

  7. Parental intimate partner homicide and its consequences for children : protocol for a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisic, Eva; Groot, Arend; Snetselaar, Hanneke; Stroeken, Tielke; van de Putte, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Background: The loss of a parent due to intimate partner homicide has a major impact on children. Professionals involved have to make far-reaching decisions regarding placement, guardianship, mental health care and contact with the perpetrating parent, without an evidence base to guide these

  8. Relations among Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and Maternal Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relations among intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal harsh intrusive parenting. Using a cross-lagged, autoregressive path model, they sought to clarify the directionality of the relations among these 3 variables over the first 2 years of the child's life. The results indicated that,…

  9. Risk of Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adult Males with Childhood ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…

  10. Measuring Attitudes about Intimate Partner Violence against Women: The ATT-IPV Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yount, K.M.; VanderEnde, K.; Zureick-Brown, S.; Hoang, T.A.; Tran, H.M.; Schuler, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    In lower-income settings, women more often than men justify intimate partner violence (IPV). Yet, the role of measurement invariance across gender is unstudied. We developed the ATT-IPV scale to measure attitudes about physical violence against wives in 1,055 married men and women ages 18-50 in My

  11. Recourse seeking and intervention in the context of intimate partner violence in Vietnam: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, S.R.; Lenzi, R.; Hoang, T.A.; Vu, S.H.; Yount, K.M.; Quach, T.T

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study examines attitudes toward recourse seeking and intervention in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in periurban Vietnam. The data come from 20 open-ended interviews, 4 focus group discussions, and 40 cognitive interviews conducted with married men and women.

  12. Men's perpetration of intimate partner violence in Vietnam: gendered social learning and the challenges of masculinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yount, K.M.; Higgins, E.M.; VanderEnde, K.E.; Krause, K.H.; Tran, H.M.; Schuler, S.R.; Hoang, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    Using the survey responses of 522 married men (eighteen to fifty-one years) in Vietnam, we explored how gendered social learning in boyhood and challenges to men’s expected status in marriage may increase the risk that men perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) against their wives. Over

  13. Predictors of Preschoolers' Appraisals of Conflict in Families Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Factors that may contribute to preschool-aged children's appraisals of their parent's violent conflicts in families experiencing recent intimate partner violence (IPV) were evaluated for 116 mother-child dyads. Mothers and children were interviewed using empirically-validated measures to assess level of violence, maternal and child mental health,…

  14. Help-seeking behaviour of Serbian women who experienced intimate partner violence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djikanovic, B.; Wong, S.L.; Jansen, H.A.; Koso, S.; Simic, S.; Otasevic, S.; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify whom women in Serbia approach for help in case of intimate partner violence (IPV), their reasons for seeking help and their satisfaction with the received help. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based household survey of a random sample of women aged

  15. Alcohol Outlet Density, Drinking Contexts and Intimate Partner Violence: A Review of Environmental Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Mair, Christina; Todd, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is a robust predictor of intimate partner violence (IPV). A critical barrier to progress in preventing alcohol-related IPV is that little is known about how an individual's specific drinking contexts (where, how often, and with whom one drinks) are related to IPV, or how these contexts are affected by environmental characteristics,…

  16. Personality Profiles of Intimate Partner Violence Offenders with and without PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Tim; Wray, Alisha M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Gerstle, Melissa; Maclean, Peggy C.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious forensic and clinical problem throughout the United States. Research aimed at defining and differentiating subgroups of IPV offenders using standardized personality instruments may eventually help with matching treatments to specific individuals to reduce recidivism. The current study used a convenience…

  17. Traumatic Stress Symptoms of Women Exposed to Different Forms of Childhood Victimization and Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Interviews of women with (n = 193) and without (n = 170) recent exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) were used to examine how IPV and past exposure to child abuse influence self-reports of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The measurement of IPV included assessing psychological, physical, escalated physical, and sexual abuse.…

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sociodemographic Factors Prospectively Associated with Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among South African Heterosexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelman, Anne M; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Jemmott, John B; Icard, Larry; O'Leary, Ann; Ali, Samira; Ngwane, Zolani; Makiwane, Monde

    2017-04-01

    Intimate partner violence directed at women by men continues to be a global concern. However, little is known about the factors associated with perpetrating intimate partner violence among heterosexual men. History of childhood sexual abuse and other sociodemographic variables were examined as potential factors associated with severe intimate partner violence perpetration toward women in a sample of heterosexual men in South Africa. Longitudinal logistic generalized estimating equations examined associations of childhood sexual abuse and sociodemographic variables at baseline with intimate partner violence perpetration at subsequent time points. Among participants with a steady female partner, 21.81 % (190/ 871) reported perpetrating intimate partner violence in the past year at baseline. Having a history of childhood sexual abuse (p sexual impulses in order to use a condom (p = .006) at baseline were associated with self-reported intimate partner violence perpetration in the past year at subsequent time points. With high levels of recent severe physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence perpetration in South Africa, comprehensive interventions are urgently needed. To more fully address gender-based violence, it is important to address associated factors, including exposure to childhood sexual abuse that could impact behavior later in life and that have long-lasting and deleterious effects on men and their female partners.

  19. Social skills deficits as a mediator between PTSD symptoms and intimate partner aggression in returning veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Adam D; Taft, Casey T; Weatherill, Robin P; Eckhardt, Christopher I

    2017-02-01

    This study examined social skills deficits as a mediator of the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and use of intimate partner aggression (IPA) among returning veterans. Prior research with veterans has focused on PTSD-related deficits at the decoding stage of McFall's (1982) social information processing model, and the current study adds to this literature by examining social skills deficits at the decision stage. Participants were 92 male veterans recruited from the greater Boston area. PTSD symptoms were assessed through clinician interview, IPA use was assessed through self- and partner report, and social skills deficits were assessed in a laboratory task in which veterans listened to a series of problematic marital situations and responded with what they would say or do in the situation. Responses were coded for social competency. Bivariate correlations revealed several significant associations among PTSD symptoms, social skills deficits, and use of IPA. When all PTSD symptom clusters were entered into a regression predicting social skills deficits, only emotional numbing emerged as a unique predictor. Finally, social skills deficits significantly mediated the relationship between veterans' PTSD symptoms and use of psychological (but not physical) IPA. Findings extend prior research on McFall's (1982) social information processing model as it relates to veterans' PTSD symptoms and use of IPA. More research is needed to understand the associations between PTSD symptoms and deficits at each individual step of this model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Intimate partner violence: counseling, community resources, and legal issues for IPV victims and perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D

    2013-09-01

    The family physician's office is a potentially safe place to discuss intimate partner violence (IPV). RADAR (Remember to ask routinely, Ask directly [in private], Document findings, Assess safety, Review options) is a tool for identifying and responding to IPV. Physicians should ask permission to document abuse, consider using a body map, and ensure confidentiality. They should also assess immediate safety by asking about weapons in the home, children's safety, and the likelihood that the perpetrator will harm him- or herself or others. Federal privacy laws require physicians to inform patients about health information disclosure. Because mandatory reporting varies by state, physicians should communicate clearly the office's responsibilities. Interventions are based on an advocacy model that requires appropriate training and establishment of links to community-based resources. Brief advocacy includes providing information cards, whereas intensive intervention includes IPV education, danger assessment, prevention options, safety planning, and community referrals. The Stages of Change Model may help physicians understand a patient's readiness and ability to make a change. For the IPV survivor who has left an abusive partner, physicians should be aware of the challenges of safety, health, legal, and financial issues; protection orders are a possible safety strategy. The most common intervention for perpetrators is a batterer intervention program. Couples counseling by family physicians is contraindicated. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  1. Barriers to Help Seeking for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calton, Jenna M; Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett; Gebhard, Kris T

    2016-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive and devastating social problem that is estimated to occur in one of every four opposite-sex relationships and at least one of every five same-sex romantic relationships. These estimates may not represent violence against those who identify as transgender or genderqueer, and very little comprehensive research has been conducted on IPV within these populations. One statewide study on IPV found rates of IPV were as high as one of every two transgender individuals. In order to cope with the effects of abuse or leave an abusive partner, many lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and genderqueer (LGBTQ) IPV survivors seek support from others. However, LGBTQ IPV survivors may experience unique difficulties related to their sexual orientation and gender identity when seeking assistance. This article reviews the literature on LGBTQ IPV and suggests three major barriers to help-seeking exist for LGBTQ IPV survivors: a limited understanding of the problem of LGBTQ IPV, stigma, and systemic inequities. The significance and consequences of each barrier are discussed, and suggestions for future research, policy, and practice are provided. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Evalina; Duma, Sinegugu E; Mayers, Pat M

    2014-09-23

    Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP), irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident. The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner's rape. We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1) within 14 days of, (2) a month after, (3) three months after, and (4) six months after the rape. Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant's familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  3. Leave or Stay? Battered Women's Decision after Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinseok; Gray, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    Battered women's reasons for staying with or leaving their male partners are varied and complex. Using data from the Domestic Violence Experience in Omaha, Nebraska, a discrete-time hazard model was employed to examine a woman's decision based on four factors: financial independence, witness of parental violence, psychological factors, and the…

  4. Prevalence, Pattern and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in both developed and developing countries of the world.[1] The. World Health Organization (WHO) defines IPV as the range of sexually, psychologically and physically coercive acts used against adult and adolescent women by a current or former male partner.[2]. IPV is one of the most important reproductive health and.

  5. Burden of intimate partner violence in a Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main partner characteristics significantly associated with IPV included age 25-34 years, history of previous violent behaviour with other people and report of extra-marital affairs. Predictors of experience of physical IPV included: being in a polygamous family (OR= 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.8), being a skilled worker (OR= 7.2, ...

  6. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Intimate Partner Violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    lifetime prevalence for physical violence, sexual violence and psychological violence were 50.5%, 33.8% and 85.0% respectively. Predictive .... Table 1: Socio-demographic Characteristics of. Respondents and Partners. Variable. Frequency (%) n=400. Respondents. Age group(years). 15-24. 19 (4.8). 25-34. 184(46.0).

  7. "Demonstrating Masculinity" Via Intimate Partner Aggression: The Moderating Effect of Heavy Episodic Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisco, Claire G; Leone, Ruschelle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men's history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men's attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men's adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed.

  8. The relationship between intimate partner violence, rape and HIV amongst South African men: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between intimate partner violence, rape and HIV among South African men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study involving a randomly-selected sample of men. METHODS: We tested hypotheses that perpetration of physical intimate partner violence and rape were associated with prevalent HIV infections in a cross-sectional household study of 1229 South African men aged 18-49. Violence perpetration was elicited in response to a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant and blood samples were tested for HIV. A multivariable logistic regression model was built to identify factors associated with HIV. RESULTS: 18.3% of men had HIV. 29.6% (358/1211 of men disclosed rape perpetration, 5.2% (63/1208 rape in the past year and 30.7% (362/1180 of had been physically violent towards an intimate partner more than once. Overall rape perpetration was not associated with HIV. The model of factors associated with having HIV showed men under 25 years who had been physically violent towards partners were more likely to have HIV than men under 25 who had not (aOR 2.08 95% CI 1.07-4.06, p = 0.03. We failed to detect any association in older men. CONCLUSIONS: Perpetration of physical IPV is associated with HIV sero-prevalence in young men, after adjusting for other risk factors. This contributes to our understanding of why women who experience violence have a higher HIV prevalence. Rape perpetration was not associated, but the HIV prevalence among men who had raped was very high. HIV prevention in young men must seek to change ideals of masculinity in which male partner violence is rooted.

  9. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-09-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape. Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape. Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  10. Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Northwestern Botswana: The Maun Women's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchi, Francis; Winter, Samantha; Dougherty, Danielle; Ramaphane, Peggie

    2018-02-01

    Factors characterizing intimate partner violence (IPV) against women vary according to setting and must be understood in localized environments if effective interventions are to be identified. This 2009-2010 exploratory study in Maun, Botswana, used semistructured interviews to elicit information from 469 women about their experiences with IPV. Characteristics found to be important included suicide attempts, childhood exposure to familial violence, access to and control over certain tangible assets, number of children, household location and monthly income, controlling behavior by a partner, and alcohol consumption. Controlling behavior by a partner was the single greatest predictor of physical or psychological IPV.

  11. Knowledge, Awareness, Perceptions, and Use of Emergency Contraceptives among Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Kathleen J.; Guise, Jeane-Marie; Perrin, Nancy A.; Hanson, Ginger C.; Hernandez, Rebecca; Glass, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The study examines emergency contraception (EC) knowledge, awareness, perceptions, and prior use and identifies predictors of EC use among a sample of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). The majority (66.2%) of 154 survivors at risk of pregnancy reported EC awareness, only 15.3% reported prior EC use. Logistic regression identified perceived abusive intimate partner approval (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.15–4.41) and lack of moral/religious objections (OR = 12.83; 95% CI = 5.48–30.03) as the strongest predictors of EC use. Health care provider interventions acknowledging barriers to EC use, such as partner approval, and education that improves awareness of and knowledge about EC, may have the impact of empowering survivors in their reproductive choices, reducing unwanted pregnancies. PMID:19960056

  12. Knowledge, Awareness, Perceptions, and Use of Emergency Contraceptives among Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

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    Kathleen J. Wilder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines emergency contraception (EC knowledge, awareness, perceptions, and prior use and identifies predictors of EC use among a sample of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV. The majority (66.2% of 154 survivors at risk of pregnancy reported EC awareness, only 15.3% reported prior EC use. Logistic regression identified perceived abusive intimate partner approval (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.15–4.41 and lack of moral/religious objections (OR = 12.83; 95% CI = 5.48–30.03 as the strongest predictors of EC use. Health care provider interventions acknowledging barriers to EC use, such as partner approval, and education that improves awareness of and knowledge about EC, may have the impact of empowering survivors in their reproductive choices, reducing unwanted pregnancies.

  13. Parenting in females exposed to intimate partner violence and childhood sexual abuse.

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    Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.

  14. Intimate partner violence (physical and sexual and sexually transmitted infection: results from Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011

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    Dhakal L

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liladhar Dhakal, Gabriele Berg-Beckhoff, Arja R AroUnit of Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, DenmarkIntroduction: Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health consequences are rare in Nepal. Hence, this study aimed to examine the relationships between intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections.Method: This study used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011, which collected data through a two-stage complex sampling technique. Women 15–49 years were asked about domestic violence including intimate partner violence. For this analysis, 3,084 currently married women were included. Questions about domestic violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale. Relationships between different forms of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and reported signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis.Results: Approximately 15% of currently young and middle-aged married women experienced some form of violence in the last 12 months. About one in four women who were exposed to physical and sexual intimate partner violence reported sexually transmitted infection in the last 12 months. The odds of getting sexually transmitted infection were 1.88 [95% CI:1.29, 2.73] times higher among women exposed to any form of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months compared to women not exposed to any form of intimate partner violence.Conclusion: Intimate partner violence was common among currently married women in Nepal. Being exposed to intimate partner violence and getting signs and symptoms of sexually

  15. The interplay between interpersonal stress and psychological intimate partner violence over time for young at-risk couples.

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    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Tiberio, Stacey S

    2013-04-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples' interpersonal stress related to not liking partners' friends and not getting along with parents as contextual factors associated with couples' psychological partner violence and determined whether and when couples' friend and parent stress increased the likelihood of couples' psychological partner violence. A linear latent growth curve modeling approach was used with multiwave measures of psychological partner violence, friend stress, parent stress, and relationship satisfaction obtained from 196 men at risk for delinquency and their women partners over a 12-year period. At the initial assessment, on average, the men were age 21.5 years and the women were age 21 years. Findings indicated that couples experiencing high levels of friend and parent stress were more likely to engage in high levels of psychological partner violence and that increases in couples' friend stress predicted increases in couples' partner violence over time, even when accounting for the couples' relationship satisfaction, marital status, children in the home, and financial strain. Interactive effects were at play when the couples were in their early 20s, with couples being most at risk for increases in psychological partner violence if they experienced both high friend stress and low relationship satisfaction. Couples' friend stress had the greatest effect on psychological partner violence when the couples were in their early to mid 20s when levels of friend stress were high. As the couples reached their 30s, low relationship satisfaction became the leading predictor of couples' psychological partner violence.

  16. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP, irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident.Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape.Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape.Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain.Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  17. Double jeopardy: Predictors of elevated lethality risk among intimate partner violence victims seen in emergency departments.

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    Brignone, Laura; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2017-10-01

    Many intimate partner homicide victims visit emergency departments (EDs) prior to their deaths, yet their lethality risk is not well understood. eHealth interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV) improve provider information, tailor care to victim need and link victims to services. We analyzed ED patients' lethality risk using one such intervention, Domestic Violence Report and Referral (DVRR). DVRR records were assessed for 263 female patients aged 16 and older seen for IPV at an urban, high-traffic, Northern California ED in 2014-15. Multiple linear regression was used to test the association of children's presence at home, pregnancy, age, and abuser-victim relationship with victim's lethality risk using the Danger Assessment (DA) score from the Lethality Risk Assessment for Intimate Partner Femicide. Differences in means were assessed using t- and F-tests. The mean DA score indicated high lethality risk, with a third of respondents (33.1%) reporting very high DA scores. Multiple linear regression models indicated that increasing victim age (β=0.20/year; 95% CI: 0.11-0.29), children's presence at home (β=2.61, 95% CI: 0.63-4.58), and perpetrator reported as dating partner (β=4.50, 95% CI: 1.62-7.38) or ex-partner (β=4.38, 95% CI: 1.10-7.66) were significantly associated with the DA score (p<0.05). Use of DA scores as ED risk assessment tools in response to IPV victimization could help hospital staff and IPV advocates direct resources toward highest-need patients, improving health outcomes without additional burden on hospitals. These results also foreground eHealth interventions' utility in linking providers and IPV advocates and reducing the risk of intimate partner homicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dyadic Characteristics and Intimate Partner Violence among Men Who Have Sex with Men

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    Stephenson, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although the research community has begun to recognize intimate partner violence (IPV as an important issue in same-sex relationships, there has been a lack of attention to characteristics of these relationships that may be associated with IPV. In particular, there has been a lack of attention paid to the associations between dyadic characteristics and IPV in same-sex relationships. This paper examined associations between dyadic characteristics, including relationship satisfaction, communal coping and efficacy, and perpetrating and experiencing IPV among a sample of United States men who have sex with men (MSM. Methods: We collected data via an online survey with 528 MSM, who were greater than 18 years of age and reported at least one male sex partner in the last 12 months. The analysis examined dyadic factors associated with reporting of experiencing and perpetrating emotional violence, physical violence, and sexual violence. Results: The prevalence of violence in the sample ranged from nine percent reporting perpetrating sexual violence to 33% of men reporting experiencing emotional violence. MSM who reported greater satisfaction with their relationship or who reported a higher degree of concordance with their partner on lifestyle choices were less likely to report experiencing or perpetrating emotional violence. MSM who perceived a stigma to being in a male same-sex couple were less likely to report experiencing or perpetrating sexual violence. Conclusion: The results presented here demonstrate high levels of IPV among MSM and that dyadic characteristics are associated with the occurrence of IPV. Understanding relationship characteristics associated with increased IPV among same-sex male couples can contribute to the development of more accurate IPV screening tools, and more sensitively and appropriately designed intervention messages. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(3:324-332.

  19. Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and dissociative experiences during men's intimate partner violence perpetration.

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    LaMotte, Adam D; Murphy, Christopher M

    2017-09-01

    Research with partner-violent men has found that a subset of this population reports dissociative experiences during their violence (e.g., inability to remember violence [despite admission that it had occurred]; flashbacks during violence). However, the literature examining this phenomenon has been primarily limited to clinical observations and case studies, and there is a need for more thorough empirical investigation regarding the prevalence and correlates of dissociative violence among individuals in intimate partner violence (IPV) intervention programs. The primary goals of this study were to provide descriptive information about the rates of endorsement of dissociative experiences during IPV perpetration and to examine their associations with trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 302 men presenting for services at a community-based IPV intervention program. All variables were assessed via self-report and clinician interview at program intake. Results indicated that 22.2% of participants reported 1 or more dissociative experiences during partner violence perpetration. Additionally, frequency of dissociative IPV perpetration showed significant positive correlations with the total number of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) reported and PTSD symptoms, with effect sizes in the small and medium ranges of magnitude, respectively. Finally, PTSD symptoms significantly mediated the relationship between total number of PTEs and dissociative IPV perpetration. Findings indicate a potentially meaningful relationship between trauma, PTSD symptoms, and dissociative experiences during IPV perpetration. Further qualitative and quantitative investigation is needed to better understand this phenomenon and how it can be addressed in IPV treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Exploring gender differences in the patterns of intimate partner violence in Canada: a latent class approach.

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    Ansara, Donna L; Hindin, Michelle J

    2010-10-01

    There has been an ongoing debate about the extent and nature of gender differences in the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV). Disagreement about the appropriate definition of IPV is central to this debate. This study used latent class analysis (LCA) to map the patterns of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and controlling behaviour, and examined whether LCA can better illuminate the gendered nature of this experience than conventional measures of IPV. Data from the 2004 Canadian General Social Survey were analysed, which included 8360 women and 7056 men 15 years of age and over who reported a current or ex-spouse or common-law partner. Results revealed more variation in the patterns of IPV for women than for men. Six classes were found for women, whereas four classes were found for men. Women and men were equally likely to experience less severe acts of physical aggression that were not embedded in a pattern of control. However, only women experienced a severe and chronic pattern of violence and control involving high levels of fear and injury. For women and men, intermediate patterns of violence and control, and patterns describing exclusively non-physical acts of abuse were also found. The results also revealed substantial differences in the IPV subtypes for those reporting about a current versus an ex-partner. These results support the use of LCA in identifying meaningful patterns of IPV and provide a more nuanced understanding of the role of gender than conventional measures. Implications for sampling within IPV research are discussed.

  1. Intimate partner physical violence among women in Shimelba refugee camp, northern Ethiopia

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    Feseha Girmatsion

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic violence has unwanted effects on the physical and psychological well-being of women, which have been recognized globally as an important public health problem. Violence perpetrated by intimate partner is one form of domestic violence, a serious human rights abuse and a public health issue, among refugees owing to its substantial consequences for women's physical, mental and reproductive health problems. Because the incidents are under-reported, the true scale of the problem is unknown and unexamined among refugee women in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aim to assess the magnitude of intimate partner physical violence and associated factors among women in Shimelba refugee camp, Northern Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 422 refugee women from March to April 2011. A simple random sampling method was used to select the study subjects from seven zones of the refugee camp. Census was done to identify all households with women having an intimate partner. A pre-tested interviewer guided structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done where applicable. A p-value less than 0.05 with 95% CI were set and used as a cut-off point to examine the statistical association between the explanatory and outcome variables. Results The prevalence of physical violence in the last 12 months and lifetime were 107(25.5% and 131(31.0% respectively. The commonest forms of physical violence reported included slapping 101(61.6% and throwing objects 32(19.5%. Significant risk factors associated with experiencing physical violence were being a farmer (AOR = 3.0[95%CI: 1.7, 5.5], knowing women in neighborhood whose husband to beat them (AOR = 1.87[95%CI: 1.0, 3.5], being a Muslim (AOR = 2.4 [95%C.I: 1.107, 5.5], and having a drunkard partner

  2. The Influence of Non-Misogynous and Mixed Portrayals of Intimate Partner Violence in Music on Beliefs About Intimate Partner Violence.

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    Franiuk, Renae; Coleman, Jill; Apa, Bethany

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we investigated the effect of songs that offer non-misogynous and ambivalent portrayals of intimate partner violence (IPV). Participants (N = 103) were exposed to a misogynous song about IPV, a song critical of IPV, and a song that offered an ambivalent portrayal of IPV. Our results showed positive effects of the anti-IPV song, and both positive and negative effects of the ambivalent portrayal on participants' beliefs about a violent relationship. These findings suggest that the context in which IPV is portrayed should be considered when evaluating the impact of media depicting IPV. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Emergency nurses’ ways of coping influence their ability to empower women to move beyond the oppression of intimate partner violence

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    Annatjie van der Wath

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Millennium Developmental Goal 3 (MDG 3 aims at enhancing gender equity and empowerment of women. Emergency nurses who often encounter women injured by their intimate partners are at risk of developing vicarious traumatisation, which may influence their ability to empower women to move beyond the oppression of intimate partner violence. Aim: This article aims to, (1 describe emergency nurses’ ways of coping with the exposure to survivors of intimate partner violence, and (2 recommend a way towards effective coping that will enhance emergency nurses’ abilities to empower women to move beyond the oppression of intimate partner violence to contribute to the achievement of MDG 3. Setting: The study was conducted in emergency units of two public hospitals in an urban setting in South Africa. Method: A qualitative design and descriptive phenomenological method was used. Emergency nurses working in the setting were purposively sampled and interviewed. The data were analysed by searching for the essence and meaning attached to the exposure of emergency nurses to survivors of intimate partner violence. Results: Emergency nurses’ coping responses were either aimed at avoiding or dealing with their exposure to survivors of intimate partner violence. Coping aimed at dealing with the exposure included seeking support, emotion regulation and accommodative coping. Conclusion: Emergency nurses employ either effective or ineffective ways of coping. Less effective ways of coping may increase their risk of vicarious and secondary traumatisation, which in turn may influence their ability to empower women to move beyond the oppression of intimate partner violence.

  4. Intimate partner violence and pregnant and parenting adolescents in out-of-home care: reflections on a data set and implications for intervention.

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    Herrman, Judith W; Finigan-Carr, Nadine; Haigh, Katherine M

    2017-08-01

    To present the findings from a data set reflecting intimate partner violence among adolescents who are pregnant and parenting and living in out-of-home care and to analyse these findings in order to generate potential interventions to address this significant issue. Because of their developmental stage, coupled with the stress of pregnancy and new parenthood, adolescent women who are pregnant or postpartum are often at a high risk of abuse. Violence may include physical, emotional/psychological, verbal and sexual abuse, along with birth control sabotage and pregnancy coercion. Adolescent mothers in out-of-home care such as foster care, juvenile detention facilities, kinship care or living in complex family circumstances may be at an even higher risk of intimate partner violence related to the increase in stress, conflict and tenuous situations. This descriptive study was designed, using baseline self-report and demographic data, to examine the relationship of pregnancy or parenting among adolescents with a fear of or reported involvement in intimate partner violence. A total of 151 sexually active, urban, system-involved youths in out-of-home care were assessed between 2012-2015 with a survey questionnaire assessment of sexual reproductive health behaviours, areas of risk and protective factors. The findings indicated a significant association between ever having been pregnant and fear of intimate partner violence. In this population, fear of intimate partner violence was prevalent among adolescent mothers, adding to the complexity of an already difficult family situation. Due to the small sample size and the potential correlation between intimate partner violence and adolescent motherhood, future longitudinal studies with larger samples of adolescents residing in out-of-home care are needed to better understand how this relationship impacts adolescent mothers, their children and families. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Lifetime intimate partner violence exposure, attitudes and comfort among Canadian health professions students

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    Gerber Megan R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a widespread public health problem and training of health professions students has become common. Understanding students' prior knowledge, attitudes and personal exposure to IPV will aid educators in designing more effective curriculum. As interprofessional educational efforts proliferate, understanding differences across disciplines will be critical. Findings Students in the schools of Medicine, Nursing and Rehabilitation at a university in Ontario attend an annual daylong interprofessional IPV training. To measure perceived role and comfort with IPV and prior personal exposure, we administered a brief Likert scale survey to a convenience sample of students over three years. 552 students completed the survey; the overall response rate was 73%. The majority (82% agreed that it was their role to intervene in cases of IPV; however Rehabilitation students expressed lower overall comfort levels than did their peers in other schools (p Conclusion While the majority of professional students believe it is their role to address IPV in clinical practice, comfort level varied significantly by field of study. More than one fifth of the students reported some personal exposure to IPV. However this did not impact their level of comfort in addressing this issue. Educators need to take students' preexisting attitudes and personal exposure into account when planning curriculum initiatives in this area.

  6. Intimate partner violence against women in western Ethiopia: prevalence, patterns, and associated factors

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    Abeya Sileshi G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence against women is the psychological, physical, and sexual abuse directed to spouses. Globally it is the most pervasive yet underestimated human rights violation. This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of intimate partner violence against women in Western Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional, population based household survey was conducted from January to April, 2011 using standard WHO multi-country study questionnaire. A sample of 1540 ever married/cohabited women aged 15-49 years was randomly selected from urban and rural settings of East Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. Data were principally analyzed using logistic regression. Results Lifetime and past 12 months prevalence of intimate partner violence against women showed 76.5% (95% CI: 74.4-78.6% and 72.5% (95% CI: 70.3-74.7%, respectively. The overlap of psychological, physical, and sexual violence was 56.9%. The patterns of the three forms of violence are similar across the time periods. Rural residents (AOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.98, literates (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.88, female headed households (AOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.27-0.76 were at decreased likelihood to have lifetime intimate partner violence. Yet, older women were nearly four times (AOR 3.36, 95% CI 1.27-8.89 more likely to report the incident. On the other hand, abduction (AOR 3.71, 95% CI 1.01-13.63, polygamy (AOR 3.79, 95% CI 1.64-0.73, spousal alcoholic consumption (AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.21-3.22, spousal hostility (AOR 3.96, 95% CI 2.52-6.20, and previous witnesses of parental violence (AOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.54-2.56 were factors associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime intimate partner violence against women. Conclusion In their lifetime, three out of four women experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence. This needs an urgent attention at all levels of societal hierarchy including policymakers, stakeholders and

  7. The Relationship Between Parents' Intimate Partner Victimization and Youths' Adolescent Relationship Abuse.

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    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Bruce G

    2018-02-01

    Witnessing inter-parental intimate partner violence has been found to be associated with adolescents' own relationship abuse. This study investigates the relationship between patterns of inter-parental intimate partner verbal and physical violence victimization reported by parents and their children's reports of dating abuse experiences and behavior. Latent class analysis was performed on a sample of 610 parents (42% male and 67% white) and their dating adolescent children (ages 12-21 years; 52% male). Parents reported five types of victimization by their partners in the past year, while youth concurrently reported their own victimization and perpetration within their dating relationships. Three profiles of parents' intimate partner victimization were related to youth relationship abuse experiences and behaviors. Children of parents who experienced verbal abuse were more likely to experience similar patterns in their own relationships, whereas children of parents who report physical and verbal abuse were more likely to report psychological, physical and sexual abusive encounters in their partnerships. Findings indicate that parents' relationship quality and abusive behaviors may have a long lasting effect on their children as they enter mid and late adolescence. Parents should pay attention to their own relationship quality and behavior even as their teen-age children gain independence.

  8. The Interplay Between Interpersonal Stress and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence Over Time for Young At-Risk Couples

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    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.

    2013-01-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples’ interpersonal stress related to not liking partners’ friends and not getting along with parents as contextual factors associated with couples’ psychological partner violence and determined whether and when couples’ friend and parent stress increased the likelihood of couples’ psychological partner violence. A linear latent growth curve modeling approach was used with multiwave measures of psychological partner violence, friend stress, parent stress, and relationship satisfaction obtained from 196 men at risk for delinquency and their women partners over a 12-year period. At the initial assessment, on average, the men were age 21.5 years and the women were age 21 years. Findings indicated that couples experiencing high levels of friend and parent stress were more likely to engage in high levels of psychological partner violence and that increases in couples’ friend stress predicted increases in couples’ partner violence over time, even when accounting for the couples’ relationship satisfaction, marital status, children in the home, and financial strain. Interactive effects were at play when the couples were in their early 20s, with couples being most at risk for increases in psychological partner violence if they experienced both high friend stress and low relationship satisfaction. Couples’ friend stress had the greatest effect on psychological partner violence when the couples were in their early to mid 20s when levels of friend stress were high. As the couples reached their 30s, low relationship satisfaction became the leading predictor of couples’ psychological partner violence. PMID:23358887

  9. Intimate Partner Violence: A Rare Case of Reciprocal Homicide.

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    Cauchois, Aurélie; Paraire, François; Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2017-06-01

    We present the case of a reciprocal homicide by stabbing that occurred within an unmarried couple without known history of spousal violence. Each partner killed the other one at the same time and at the same place using kitchen knives. They were both found dead at home lying on the floor after the neighbors heard an argument and screams coming from the couple's apartment, so they called the police and the fire department. The door was locked from the inside, and the fire department was forced to break the door. Two kitchen knives supporting blood traces were found at the scene. At autopsy, both bodies showed multiple stab wounds, and the lethal ones were due to heart injuries. Defense injuries were also found in both bodies. To our knowledge, this is the first case of reciprocal homicide described in the literature. Other manners of death are discussed, including homicide by a third party, homicide-suicide, and suicide pact.

  10. Women's Mental Health and Intimate Partner Violence Following Natural Disaster: A Scoping Review.

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    Bell, Sue Anne; Folkerth, Lisa A

    2016-12-01

    Introduction Survivors of natural disasters in the United States experience significant health ramifications. Women particularly are vulnerable to both post-disaster posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, and research has documented that these psychopathological sequelae often are correlated with increased incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV). Understanding the link between these health concerns is crucial to informing adequate disaster response and relief efforts for victims of natural disaster. Purpose The purpose of this review was to report the results of a scoping review on the specific mental health effects that commonly impact women following natural disasters, and to develop a conceptual framework with which to guide future research. A scoping review of mental and physical health effects experienced by women following natural disasters in the United States was conducted. Articles from 2000-2015 were included. Databases examined were PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane, JSTOR, Web of Science, and databases available through ProQuest, including ProQuest Research Library. A total of 58 articles were selected for inclusion, out of an original 149 that were selected for full-text review. Forty-eight articles, or 82.8%, focused on mental health outcomes. Ten articles, or 17.2%, focused on IPV. Discussion Certain mental health outcomes, including PTSD, depression, and other significant mental health concerns, were recurrent issues for women post-disaster. Despite the strong correlation between experience of mental health consequences after disaster and increased risk of domestic violence, studies on the risk and mediating factors are rare. The specific challenges faced by women and the interrelation between negative mental health outcomes and heightened exposure to IPV following disasters require a solid evidence base in order to facilitate the development of effective interventions. Additional research informed by theory on probable health impacts is

  11. EMOTION DYSREGULATION IN ALCOHOL RELATED INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

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    Mario D'Aguanno

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the association between emotion dysregulation and alcohol related intimate partner violence. A systematic review was conducted through a literature research for relevant studies on Medline, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Psycoinfo and PsycArticle from inception through April 11, 2015. Additional articles were retrieved manually searching in reference lists. All relevant articles were accessed in full text. Data on study type; cases; controls; country; effect estimate; adjustments for confounders and quality of publication were extracted. The quality of the publications were scored by adherence to the STROBE and CONSORT 2010 checklists. Four studies satisfied the predefined criteria for inclusion and were included in this review. Results highlighted support for future research on emotion dysregulation and alcohol related intimate partner violence.

  12. CDC's DELTA FOCUS Program: Identifying Promising Primary Prevention Strategies for Intimate Partner Violence.

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    Armstead, Theresa L; Rambo, Kirsten; Kearns, Megan; Jones, Kathryn M; Dills, Jenny; Brown, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    According to 2011 data, nearly one in four women and one in seven men in the United States experience severe physical violence by an intimate partner, creating a public health burden requiring population-level solutions. To prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) before it occurs, the CDC developed Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancements and Leadership Through Alliances, Focusing on Outcomes for Communities United with States to identify promising community- and societal-level prevention strategies to prevent IPV. The program funds 10 state domestic violence coalitions for 5 years to implement and evaluate programs and policies to prevent IPV by influencing the environments and conditions in which people live, work, and play. The program evaluation goals are to promote IPV prevention by identifying promising prevention strategies and describing those strategies using case studies, thereby creating a foundation for building practice-based evidence with a health equity approach.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among court-referred male perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

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    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Febres, Jeniimarie; Elmquist, JoAnna; Zapor, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-02-01

    Despite the documented association between intimate partner violence perpetration and suicidal ideation, few studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in men attending batterer intervention programs. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in 294 males court-ordered to a batterer intervention program. Twenty-two percent of the sample reported experiencing suicidal ideation within the 2 weeks prior to entering the batterer intervention program. Multiple linear regression indicated that depression and borderline personality disorder symptoms, but not intimate partner violence perpetration, victimization, or antisocial personality disorder symptoms, accounted for significant variance in suicidal ideation. These results suggest that symptoms of depression and borderline personality disorder observed in males attending batterer intervention programs should warrant thorough suicide risk assessment. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed.

  14. [Intimate partner violence. Types and risk in primary care health users in Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico].

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    Sandoval-Jurado, Luis; Jiménez-Báez, María Valeria; Rovira Alcocer, Gloria; Vital Hernandez, Omar; Pat Espadas, Fany Guadalupe

    2017-10-01

    To identify the prevalence and type of intimate partner violence in women assigned at primary care health and estimates the risks for violence. Case (incident cases)-control. Primary health care unit in Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Women over 18years old living in couple at last 12months. Validated violence scale for Mexican population was evaluated: total partner violence, physical, psychological and sexual violence. History of violence and sociodemographic variables. Chi square for categorical variables and odds ratio (OR) for risk estimate was determined. The total intimate partner violence was 15.05%, psychological violence in 37.3%. Overall violence, age differences, socioeconomic status, marital status, history of violence and alcohol intake by the partner (P<.05) were observed. The risk increased in over 40 years old (OR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.07 to 4.11), history of violence (OR: 5.9; 95%CI: 2.8 to 12.44) and alcohol intake by partner (OR=12.38; 95%CI: 2.15 to 29.59). Low socioeconomic status (OR: 0.384; 95%CI: 0.19 to 0.74) and free union (OR: 0.507; 95%CI: 0.27 to 0.95) were relation factors to lower intimate violence partner. Sexual violence predominated among users of primary health care and the risk that present this behavior increases with the consumption of alcoholic beverages in the couple and a history of violence, but the free union and socioeconomic status were possibility protected for violence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Intimate Partner Violence and Social Pressure among Gay Men in Six Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Finneran, Catherine; Chard, Anna; Sineath, Craig; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recent research suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at significantly higher rates than heterosexual men. Few studies, however, have investigated implications of heterosexist social pressures – namely, homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heterosexism– on risk for IPV among MSM, and no previous studies have examined cross-national variations in the relationship between IPV and social pressure. This paperexami...

  16. Fatal intimate partner violence against women in Portugal: a forensic medical national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Rita; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Magalhães, Teresa

    2013-11-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important cause of women's health and socio-familial severe problems, the most extreme being the victims' homicide. This is the first nationwide Portuguese autopsy-based and judicial-proven study about female intimate partner homicide. At least 62 women over 15 years old were killed by current or former men-intimate partners, corresponding to an IPV-related female mortality rate of 0.44/100.000 women; intimate partner violence was the reason of homicide in 60.8% of all autopsied women. The typical Portuguese victim showed to be a young adult woman, employed, killed by a current husband in a long-term relationship, usually with children in common and with a history of previous IPV. The typical Portuguese perpetrator showed to be older than the victim, employed, owning a firearm and without criminal records. At the time of the fatal event 59.7% of the relationships were current. In 57.9% of the former relationships women were killed during the 1st year after its terminus. Near half of the perpetrators attempted or committed suicide afterward. Most women were killed by gunshot wounds (45.2%), especially in the thorax (48.4%), with multiple fatal injuries; 56.5% also presented non-fatal injuries. The detection of prior IPV and the risk evaluation seems to be fundamental to decrease these fatal outcomes, but also, the prevention of perpetrators' alcohol abuse and carrying weapons. This work emphasizes the need to deepen the research on this issue, aiming to contribute to prevent both fatal and non-fatal IPV-related cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Reproduction, functional autonomy and changing experiences of intimate partner violence within marriage in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourey, Christine; Stephenson, Rob; Hindin, Michelle J

    2013-12-01

    The literature on intimate partner violence in resource-poor contexts relies primarily on cross-sectional studies. Because changes in women's status and empowerment are hypothesized to influence violence vulnerability, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the potential benefits and harms associated with such changes. Data were collected prospectively from a representative cohort of 4,749 married women in rural areas of four socially and demographically diverse states in India in 1998-1999 and 2002-2003. A multinomial regression model including social and demographic characteristics and intersurvey changes and events related to functional autonomy and reproduction was fitted to a categorical outcome measuring the absence (reference), initiation, cessation and continuation of intimate partner violence. Continued freedom of movement, increased freedom of movement and continued financial autonomy between baseline and follow-up were associated with a lower risk of violence initiation rather than no violence (relative risk ratio, 0.7 for each). Having a first child was associated with lower risk of violence initiation and continuation rather than no violence (0.6 and 0.2, respectively). Women who reported that their relative economic contribution to the household decreased or increased and women who experienced an unwanted pregnancy had a higher risk of violence continuation rather than no violence (1.8, 1.8 and 1.5, respectively). The death of a child was associated with higher risk of violence initiation rather than no violence (1.4). Future research to inform interventions to reduce intimate partner violence should consider how changes in women's reproductive experiences and functional autonomy may be linked to changes in intimate partner violence.

  18. Intimate partner violence among health professionals: distribution by autonomous communities in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres; Beatriz Recio-Andrade; María Aurora Rodríguez-Borrego

    2017-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence among health care professionals who work in the Spanish National Health System, according to the autonomous communities of Spain. METHOD This was a descriptive cross-sectional multicenter study conducted with male and female health professionals (doctors, nurses, and nursing aides) in the different autonomous communities that are part of the Spanish National Health System. The following instruments were employed: am...

  19. Intimate partner violence influence on deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Amany Refaat

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Millennium Development Goal 5 calls for increasing proportions of deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel to reduce maternal mortality. This study aims to identifying the implication of exposure to intimate partner violence on these proportions. Methodology: This study used domestic violence modules data of Demographic and Health Surveys of six countries from 2005 to 2007. Proportions of assisted deliveries were examined by sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to i...

  20. Income inequality and intimate partner violence against women: Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Rashada, Ahmed Shoukry; Sharaf, Mesbah Fathy

    2016-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) has been consistently linked to poor health and adverse social outcomes. Though there is substantial empirical evidence on the determinants of IPV, little attention has been given to the potential impact of income inequality on domestic violence, especially in the developing world. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the IPV and contextual income inequality in India, a country with high prevalence of IPV and substantial income inequality. We...

  1. The relationship between intimate partner violence and other forms of family and societal violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Peggy E

    2006-11-01

    Intimate partner violence was previously considered a private matter sometimes requiring law enforcement intervention. It is increasingly accepted as not only a medical issue for the victim, but a public and safety issue. Some of these other related issues, including unplanned pregnancy, same-sex relationships, overlap with elder, child, and animal abuse, and effects on workplace and school violence are explored. Screening, medical manifestations, documentation, reporting intervention, and referral are also discussed.

  2. Stereotypes of Intimate Partner Violence: Do Sex and Sexual Orientation Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Meza-de-Luna, Maria Elena; Cantera, Leonor María; Blanch, Josep María; Beiras, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed stereotypes on intimate partner violence (IPV) of heterosexual and same-sex couples. The participants, 232 Mexican college students, evaluated physical and psychological IPV exerted by men and women with different sexual orientations. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The results indicate that men evaluated women and gay men as having a similar IPV, while men´s perceptions of IPV for these groups were higher than those of women. Women viewed heterosexual men ...

  3. Effects of Intimate Partner Physical Violence on Newborns' Birth Outcomes Among Jordanian Birthing Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujilban, Sanaa; Mrayan, Lina; Al-Modallal, Hanan; Isaa, Esra'a

    2015-09-07

    Intimate partner physical violence against women (VAW) during pregnancy is a common experience all over the world. In Jordan, the number is double the reported international average. Data on effect of violence on birth outcomes are important for planning, implementing, and evaluating maternal health programs. The research question was, "Does intimate partner physical VAW during pregnancy increase the risk of negative birth outcomes for newborns among birthing women in Jordan?" Natural experiment design was used for this study. A consecutive sampling technique was used for selecting the victims of physical violence (n = 79) and a simple random sampling for selecting non-victims (n = 79). Intimate partner physical violence was measured by using the Arabic version of World Health Organization's (WHO) domestic violence questionnaire, which has an accepted interrater validity. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and chi-square were used to detect the differences in birth outcomes between the victims and non-victims of physical violence. The results showed that there is a significant difference in newborn's birth weight between the victims of violence and non-victims with a small effect size. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in preterm birth and assisted newborn ventilation. The non-significant effect of violence on the incidence of preterm birth contradicts the published literature. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is rooted in Jordanian culture and widely accepted among married Jordanian women. Midwives, doctors, educators, and policy makers should work together to eradicate violence and detect victims of it, to improve birth outcomes and decrease newborn morbidity and mortality rates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Depressive Symptoms, Substance Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence among Pregnant Women of Diverse Ethnicities

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Kisha B.; McKenzie, Robetta; Pruitt, Vikki; Aaron, Katrina; Hall, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms, substance abuse and intimate partner violence among 602 African American, Hispanic, White, Asian American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander pregnant women who are clients of the Augusta Partnership for Children, Inc., a nonprofit collaborative that works with agencies, organizations, and individuals to improve the lives of children and families in Augusta-Richmond County, Georgia. D...

  5. Maternal Parenting as a Mediator of the Relationship between Intimate Partner Violence and Effortful Control

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.; Blair, Clancy

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal parenting behaviors, and child effortful control in a diverse sample of 705 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities. Using structural equation modeling, the authors simultaneously tested whether observed sensitive parenting and/or harsh-intrusive parenting over the toddler years mediated the relationship between early IPV and later effortful control. Results suggest that parent...

  6. The Intimate Partner Violence Stigmatization Model and Barriers to Help-Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Overstreet, Nicole M.; Quinn, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    The Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Stigmatization Model identifies how three stigma components hinder IPV help-seeking behaviors: cultural stigma, stigma internalization, and anticipated stigma. Cultural stigma highlights societal beliefs that de-legitimize people experiencing abuse. Stigma internalization involves the extent to which people come to believe that the negative stereotypes about those who experience IPV may be true of themselves. Anticipated stigma emphasizes concern about what...

  7. Intimate partner violence among women with eating disorders during the perinatal period

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari, Radha; Easter, Abigail; Lewis, Rebecca; Howard, Louise M.; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective ?Prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is estimated to be 4%?8%. Women with mental health difficulties are at increased risk for IPV during the perinatal period. Prevalence of IPV is high among women with eating disorders (ED); however, prevalence of IPV during the perinatal period among women with ED is unknown. Method ?We studied women from a population?based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Prevalence and odds of physi...

  8. Testosterone and attention deficits as possible mechanisms underlying impaired emotion recognition in intimate partner violence perpetrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Romero-Martínez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported impairments in decoding emotional facial expressions in intimate partner violence (IPV perpetrators. However, the mechanisms that underlie these impaired skills are not well known. Given this gap in the literature, we aimed to establish whether IPV perpetrators (n = 18 differ in their emotion decoding process, attentional skills, and testosterone (T, cortisol (C levels and T/C ratio in comparison with controls (n = 20, and also to examine the moderating role of the group and hormonal parameters in the relationship between attention skills and the emotion decoding process. Our results demonstrated that IPV perpetrators showed poorer emotion recognition and higher attention switching costs than controls. Nonetheless,they did not differ in attention to detail and hormonal parameters. Finally, the slope predicting emotion recognition from deficits in attention switching became steeper as T levels increased, especially in IPV perpetrators, although the basal C and T/C ratios were unrelated to emotion recognition and attention deficits for both groups. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying emotion recognition deficits. These factors therefore constitute the target for future interventions.

  9. Rural Young Adults' Lay Theories of Intimate Partner Violence: A Qualitative Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M; Banyard, Victoria L; Moschella, Elizabeth A; Seavey, Katherine M

    2016-12-01

    This study qualitatively examined rural emerging adults' ways of thinking (i.e., lay theories) about the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) and ideas on how to prevent IPV most effectively. Participants were 74 individuals (majority Caucasian, heterosexual, low income) between the ages of 18 and 24 who resided in one of 16 rural communities. Participants' perceptions of the causes of IPV included (a) individual-level pathology, stress, and lack of education; (b) intergenerational transmission of violence and early-life factors; (c) relationship stressors and challenges; and (d) community factors. Furthermore, participants felt that IPV could most effectively be prevented through (a) education and awareness; (b) victim-focused efforts (e.g., teaching self-esteem); and (c) job creation. Overall, participants identified a number of established risk factors for IPV perpetration across the social ecological model, although a number were never or rarely mentioned (e.g., peer group norms, positive bystander action, and collective efficacy). Future research should examine if and how perceptions of the causes of IPV impact IPV prevention engagement and impact. Further, prevention initiatives that take into account understandings of lay theories about IPV may be more impactful in reducing IPV than prevention initiatives that do not. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  10. Intimate partner violence: advanced practice nurses clinical stories of success and challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brykczynski, Karen A; Crane, Patricia; Medina, Cindy K; Pedraza, Dora

    2011-03-01

    This qualitative study presents knowledge from clinical experiences of advanced practice nurses (APNs) working with women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with ten APNs to discover their ways of being with, supporting, and helping women who have experienced IPV. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using interpretive phenomenology. Analysis proceeded from whole to parts and back to whole with ongoing attention to maintaining the situational context to guide interpretation of meanings. APNs experience both challenges and successes in caring for women who live with IPV. Findings consist of interpretations of clinical stories to uncover knowledge embedded in practice. Healing practices and ways of being survival facilitators for women and children are identified and described. APNs are in a unique position to help families who live with abuse, but may lack resources and knowledge about the most effective interventions. They may become cynical and frustrated with feelings of futility when faced with the repeating patterns associated with the cycle of violence. The goals of this study are to promote more comprehensive understanding of IPV and stimulate changes in education, practice, research, and health policy. ©2011 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  11. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Among South Asian Women Living in Southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Kim; Scott, Taryn; Sholapur, Naushin; Bhandari, Mohit

    2016-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects 4 in 10 women in North America in their lifetime and 13-27 % in the past year. The basis for estimates stems largely from studies involving Caucasian women. Less is known about other minority populations such as South Asian women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of IPV in the past year among South Asian women living in Southern Ontario. We conducted a survey of South Asian women living in Southern Ontario. All adult self-identified South Asian women attending a cultural event celebrating South Asian women who could understand English or Punjabi were eligible to participate. The survey contained three IPV prevalence questions adapted from the Woman Abuse Screening Tool. A total of 188 women (45 % of potentially eligible women) participated. Nearly 1 in 5 women reported IPV within the past year (19.3 %, 95 % CI 13.9-26.1 %). In this study single women were significantly more likely to have experienced IPV in the past year compared to married women (p = 0.035). Self-identified immigrant and non-immigrant South Asian women in this sample of women living in Southern Ontario experienced violence in proportions comparable to the general population. Programs for women should ensure accessibility and support of all ethnicities given equivalent rates of violence in the community.

  12. Using Primary Care to Address Violence against Women in Intimate Partner Relationships: Professional Training Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralbas-Fernández, Aida; Calcerrada-Gutiérrez, Marybexy

    2016-10-01

    Unified, prevention- and community-oriented, Cuba's National Health System is well positioned to address social problems such as gender violence against women. It is sometimes taken for granted that family doctors, family nurses and psychologists in the health system should be able to deal with such cases. However, some studies among these professionals have revealed misconceptions about intimate partner violence, an insufficient understanding of its causes, and greater tolerance of psychological violence than of physical and sexual violence. Cuba needs to train family doctors and clinical psychologists who are knowledgeable about the subject so that they can take part in the development and implementation of intersectoral education and prevention policies and programs, provide assistance to women who have been victims of violence, and work together with community members to create support networks that serve as monitoring mechanisms. Primary care is the ideal setting for raising awareness of the need for greater intersectoral action to systematically address violence against women. KEYWORDS Professional training, doctors, clinical psychologists, gender, spousal abuse, domestic violence, family violence, family relationships, Cuba.

  13. Establishing stability: exploring the meaning of 'home' for women who have experienced intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Daoud, Nihaya; Matheson, Flora I; Dunn, James R; O'Campo, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that involuntary housing instability may undermine health and well-being. For women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV), achieving stability is likely as important for other groups, but can be challenging. Through our analysis of 41 interviews with women who have experienced low income and IPV, we argue that definitions of housing stability are multifaceted and for many centred on a shared understanding of the importance of creating an environment of "home". We found that obtaining housing that satisfied material needs was important to women. However, in asking women to define what housing stability meant to them, we found that other factors related to ontological security and the home, such as safety, community, and comfort, contributed to women's experiences of stability. Through our discussion of the importance these women placed on establishing stable homes, we argue that future research on women's experiences with housing stability and IPV should include definitions of stability that capture both material security and women's experiences with building emotionally stable homes.

  14. Substance use and intimate partner violence victimization among White, African American, and Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Kathryn M; Graves, Jennifer L

    2013-11-01

    The existing literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) does not paint a consistent portrait of the impact of race/ethnicity. In addition, although research has clearly demonstrated that there is a relationship between substance use and IPV, the temporal ordering of these variables is not clearly established. This article seeks to examine the temporal ordering of IPV victimization and drug use using longitudinal data with a nationally representative racially and ethnically diverse sample. Data from Wave III (2001-2002) and Wave IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) will serve as Time 1 and Time 2, respectively, to answer three research questions. First, does substance use during early young adulthood (Time 1) predict IPV victimization during young adulthood (Time 2) among women? Second, does IPV victimization during early young adulthood predict substance use during young adulthood for women? Finally, do these bidirectional relationships vary by race/ethnicity (i.e., White, African American, and Latina)? Four different forms of IPV (minor violence, major violence, rape/sexual coercion, and injury) are investigated along with binge drinking, marijuana use, and other drug use. Understanding not only the temporal relationship between substance use, trauma, and IPV but also the racial and ethnic differences in these relationships is critical to developing and refining culturally sensitive trauma-informed prevention and treatment services for women.

  15. Neighborhood Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Theory-Informed Analysis Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voith, Laura A; Brondino, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Due to high prevalence rates and deleterious effects on individuals, families, and communities, intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem. Because IPV occurs in the context of communities and neighborhoods, research must examine the broader environment in addition to individual-level factors to successfully facilitate behavior change. Drawing from the Social Determinants of Health framework and Social Disorganization Theory, neighborhood predictors of IPV were tested using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that concentrated disadvantage and female-to-male partner violence were robust predictors of women's IPV victimization. Implications for theory, practice, and policy, and future research are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  16. Establishing the Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Among Hair Salon Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Rebecca F; DiVietro, Susan C; Dunn, Maureen; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Clough, Meghan E; Lapidus, Garry D; Joseph, D'Andrea K

    2018-04-01

    This study determined prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among female clients at three hair salons in Connecticut using an anonymous tablet based screening tool. While many may assume that women receive services at hair salons, victims of IPV are often isolated by their partners and unable to access help. Of the 203 clients who participated, 40 (20%) had experienced IPV in her lifetime. In identifying the prevalence of IPV within the salon setting, this study provides support for community-based programs and supports their legitimacy as an important locus for identifying women experiencing IPV and connecting them to resources.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Sachiko; Yaeko, Kataoka; Porter, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy can result in adverse outcomes for both mothers and their infants. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of IPV associated with abuse during pregnancy via a self-administered questionnaire completed by 302 healthy pregnant women. Demographic information was also collected from medical records to analyze risk factors for abuse. Of the 302 women, 48 (15.9%) were identified as experiencing IPV. The identified risk factors were age over 30, multipara, previous abortion experience, and male partner aged under 30.

  18. Gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence among South African adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Jesse D; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-09-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a national sample of South African men and women. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South Africa Stress and Health Study, the authors examine data from 1,715 currently married or cohabiting adults on reporting of intimate partner violence. Our analysis include (a) demographic factors, (b) early life risk factors (including exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, parental closeness, and early onset DSM-IV disorders), and (c) adult risk factors (including experiencing the death of a child and episodes of DSM-IV disorders after age 20). Although prevalence rates of intimate partner violence are high among both genders, women are significantly more likely than men to report being victimized (29.3% vs. 20.9%). Rates of perpetrating violence are similar for women and men (25.2% and 26.5%, respectively). Men are more likely to report predictive factors for perpetration, whereas women are more likely to report predictors for victimization. Common risk factors among men and women reporting perpetration include exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and adult onset alcohol abuse/dependence. However, risk factors in male perpetrators are more likely to include cohabitation, low income, and early and adult-onset mood disorders, whereas risk factors in female perpetrators include low educational attainment and early onset alcohol abuse/dependence. The single common risk factor for male and female victims of partner violence is witnessing parental violence. Additional risk factors for male victims are low income and lack of closeness to a primary female

  19. Predicting Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Role of Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Natasha E; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Holditch Niolon, Phyllis; Ghazarian, Sharon R

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to adult intimate partner violence (IPV) places youth at risk for a range of outcomes, including perpetration of adolescent dating violence (ADV). However, there is variability in the effect of IPV exposure, as many youth who are exposed to IPV do not go on to exhibit problems. Thus, research is needed to examine contextual factors, such as parenting practices, to more fully explain heterogeneity in outcomes and better predict ADV perpetration. The current research draws from a multisite study to investigate the predictive power of IPV exposure and parenting practices on subsequent ADV perpetration. Participants included 417 adolescents (48.7% female) drawn from middle schools in high-risk, urban communities. IPV exposure, two types of parenting practices (positive parenting/involvement and parental knowledge of their child's dating), and five types of ADV perpetration (threatening behaviors, verbal/emotional abuse, relational abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse) were assessed at baseline (2012) and approximately 5 months later (2013) via adolescent report. Analyses (conducted in 2015) used a structural equation modeling approach. Structural models indicated that IPV exposure was positively related only to relational abuse at follow-up. Further, adolescents who reported parents having less knowledge of dating partners were more likely to report perpetrating two types of ADV (physical and verbal/emotional abuse) at follow-up. Analyses did not demonstrate any significant interaction effects. Results fill a critical gap in understanding of important targets to prevent ADV in middle school and highlight the important role that parents may play in ADV prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Risk factors for violence against women by intimate partners in Sakarya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağçay, Güler; Yildiz Inanici, Sinem; Çolak, Başar; İnanici, Mehmet Akif

    2015-11-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health problem in many countries including Turkey, with serious short- and long-term physical and mental health consequences, as well as significant social and public health costs. To understand the violence characteristics and the individual risk factors for both the married women victims and the perpetrator partners are the objectives of this study. 243 married women, who have consulted to hospitals and village clinics between 2008 and 2009 with the mean age of 36.76 (SD = 11.59), accepted to participate in the study voluntarily. Participants were divided into two groups as "victimized" (58.8%, n = 143) and "non-victimized" (41.2%, n = 100) women. Victimized group consisted of women who have had any type of violence from their husbands during their life. A 61-item questionnaire was prepared that included items on demographics, IPV experience, attitudes about IPV and knowledge of legal rights. As compared to non-victimized group, women in victimized group mostly lived in villages than in town/city centers, were illiterate, had bride-price agreement and were younger when married. Place of accommodation, age and number of pregnancies were associated with the risk of victimization. In order to prevent IPV, further qualitative research is required to evaluate the involved risk factors and training programs on how to behave against violence in association with the legal rights should be designed for poorly educated women in their natural settings and hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of an online tutorial on intimate partner violence for dental students: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Maureen; Pierre, Gaëlle C; Kojanis, Lee C

    2014-08-01

    This pilot study sought to determine whether New York University College of Dentistry's online tutorial on domestic violence is effective for dental students poised to embark on their professional careers. The modular program is based on the RADAR model developed by the Massachusetts Medical Society. RADAR stands for Routinely screen, Ask direct questions, Document findings, Assess patient safety, and Review options and refer as indicated. An objective and validated measure, the Physician Readiness to Manage Intimate Partner Violence Survey (PREMIS), was given pre- and post-tutorial to determine whether it impacted senior dental students' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors about intimate partner violence. Study participants were twenty-five senior dental students (7 percent of a class of 358) who had not received didactic instruction in domestic violence for over two years. A quasi-experimental research design was utilized. Data analysis indicated statistically significant improvements in composite scale scores on the PREMIS Perceived Preparation, Perceived Knowledge, and Actual Knowledge sections. There was a statistically significant improvement on the self-efficacy and constraint opinion scales. The other six opinion scale scores showed improved but not statistically significant scores. This online tutorial was found to be effective in increasing the participants' perceived preparation, knowledge, and self-efficacy and decreasing perceptions of provider constraints in managing victims of intimate partner violence.

  2. The risk of return: intimate partner violence in northern Uganda's armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Jeannie; Brier, Moriah

    2010-01-01

    The physical and psychological consequences of armed conflict and intimate partner violence are well documented. Less research focuses on their intersection and the linkages between domestic violence, gender-based discrimination, and the structural violence of poverty in armed conflict. This paper describes emerging themes from qualitative interviews with young women who have returned from abduction into the Lord's Resistance Army in northern Uganda, many of whom were forcibly given as "wives" to commanders. Their interviews reveal multiple levels of violence that some women experience in war, including physical and sexual violence in an armed group, verbal and physical abuse from extended family members, and intimate partner violence. Striking is the violence they describe after escaping from the rebels, when they are back with their families. The interviews point to how abduction into the armed group may exacerbate problems but highlight the structural factors that permit and sustain intimate partner violence, including gender inequalities, corruption in the police system, and devastating poverty. Findings suggest that decreasing household violence will depend on the strength of interventions to address all levels, including increasing educational and economic opportunities, increasing accountability of the criminal justice system, minimizing substance abuse, and improving the coping mechanisms of families and individuals exposed to extreme violence.

  3. Traumatic childhood exposures in the lives of male perpetrators of female intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Margaret E; Scrandis, Debra A

    2013-09-01

    Despite efforts to use behavior modification interventions for male perpetrators, intimate partner violence (IPV) remains a significant problem in some male-female relationships. Childhood exposure to traumatic violent experiences, especially when untreated, can influence adult behaviors. Little is known about these possible factors in the lives of male perpetrators of IPV and if they influence their violent behavior against female intimate partners. This study's aim was to explore the life perspective of men who have been violent with their female intimate partners using Gadamer's hermeneutic phenomenology. Nine men with a history of female IPV were interviewed twice over a 5-month period. Interview content focused on their experiences in childhood and adult lives. Four themes emerged from the qualitative interviews: (a) childhood and family issues, (b) school and mental health issues, (c) substance abuse and (d) legal issues. Traumatic violent experiences in childhood, such as physical and sexual abuse, frequently led to school problems, misuse of substances, and arrests for a spectrum of crimes. These results highlight the importance of identifying traumatic violent exposures through a brief two-question screen of all children in primary care. Implications for individualized mental health treatment of male perpetrators and recommendations for further research are addressed.

  4. The impact of intimate partner relationships on suicidal thoughts and behaviours: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazan, Dominique; Calear, Alison L; Batterham, Philip J

    2016-01-15

    A systematic review was conducted to identify the impact of intimate partner relationships on suicidality. The aim of the review was to identify factors within intimate partner relationships that influence suicidal ideation, attempts and completion. Fifty-one articles were identified through Scopus, PubMed and PsycINFO databases. Due to the high heterogeneity of the included studies, a narrative data synthesis was conducted. The research drew attention to specific contingents of the population, for example examining suicide risk in individuals under the age of 35 or lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals who are experiencing relationship discord, and in males who have recently separated. Interpretation of these findings is constrained by methodological limitations prevalent in much of the literature. Limitations of the existing literature and corresponding directions for future research are discussed. Relationship separation and poor quality relationships are likely to be important risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviours and are frequent triggers for a suicide attempt. This review highlights intimate partner relationships as a significant component in a suicide risk assessment, regardless of the clinical setting. Consequently, clinicians should be aware that individuals reporting relationship problems are likely to be at increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Intimate partner violence and perinatal common mental disorders among women in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jane; Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley; Dang, Tho Hai; Nguyen, Trang Thu; Tran, Tuan

    2013-03-01

    Intimate partner violence against women (IPV) is regarded increasingly as a public health problem worldwide. The overall aim of this study was to examine the associations between different exposures to IPV and women's mental health during pregnancy and after childbirth in rural Vietnam. This was a secondary analysis of data generated in a community-based longitudinal investigation in which a cohort of pregnant women were recruited and followed until 6 months after childbirth. Different forms of IPV were measured by the Intimate Partner Violence section of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Against Women questionnaire. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Vietnam Validation was used to assess symptoms of the common perinatal mental disorders of depression and anxiety (CPMD). Overall, 497 women were recruited and complete data were available from 417 (83.9%). Exposure to either lifetime or perinatal IPV including emotional abuse, physical violence and sexual violence was associated with increased CPMD symptoms (adjusted odds ratio, OR, ranges 1.3-14.3) and suicidal thoughts (OR ranges 4.7-6.1) in women during pregnancy and after childbirth. Experiencing more than one form of IPV increased the magnitude of the association between IPV and CPMD symptoms and thoughts of suicide. It is clearly essential in this and other resource-constrained settings to address emotional, physical and sexual violence perpetrated by an intimate partner in any strategies to reduce the risk of perinatal mental health problems in women.

  6. Myths and stereotypes: how registered nurses screen for intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ruthie

    2010-11-01

    Intimate partner violence, sometimes referred to as domestic violence, is a prevalent problem in the United States and across the world. Emergency nurses are often the first health care providers to ask individuals about this health issue and are often the first to offer intervention and prevention measures. This study used a phenomenological qualitative approach to examine the role of the registered nurse in the emergency setting as it relates to intimate partner violence. Thirteen emergency nurses from the South Central United States were interviewed for this study. Four major themes emerged during analysis of the interviews. The 4 themes were (1) myths, stereotypes, and fears; (2) demeanor; (3) frustrations; and (4) safety benefits. This study suggests that emergency nurses are not screening for intimate partner violence based on a protocol as suggested by many professional organizations but rather are screening certain patients for violence based on the nurses' perception of whether particular patients are likely to be victims of violence. Copyright © 2010 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Love, Trust, and HIV Risk Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Male Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Ulibarri, Monica D; Fergus, Kirkpatrick B; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-08-01

    We examined correlates of love and trust among female sex workers and their noncommercial male partners along the Mexico-US border. From 2011 to 2012, 322 partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, completed assessments of love and trust. Cross-sectional dyadic regression analyses identified associations of relationship characteristics and HIV risk behaviors with love and trust. Within 161 couples, love and trust scores were moderately high (median 70/95 and 29/40 points, respectively) and correlated with relationship satisfaction. In regression analyses of HIV risk factors, men and women who used methamphetamine reported lower love scores, whereas women who used heroin reported slightly higher love. In an alternate model, men with concurrent sexual partners had lower love scores. For both partners, relationship conflict was associated with lower trust. Love and trust are associated with relationship quality, sexual risk, and drug use patterns that shape intimate partners' HIV risk. HIV interventions should consider the emotional quality of sex workers' intimate relationships.

  8. Violence against educated women by intimate partners in Urban Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kundapur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Initially viewed as a human rights issue, partner violence is increasingly seen as an important public health problem of international concern. Objectives: To assess the extent of physical, sexual, psychological, and controlling behavior of intimate partners against women in an educated society and find the association with age, age of marriage, married years, educational status of the women and that of partner. Materials and Methods: A prevalence of 15% was taken and final sample was 200, after considering loss of follow-up. Statistical Methods: Proportion, Z-test, Chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of violence against intimate partner in educated society was found to be 40.5% in a South Indian city. Physical assault was high in 30–50 years and increased with duration of marriage from 5.5% at 5 years to 33.3% in 10–20 years of married life. Sexual and psychological assault also increased in <5 years of married life to 35% and 47.6% in 10–20 years duration of marriage, which was statistically significant. Sexual and psychological assault showed a bimodal presentation. Less educated women and their partners were found to report more violence, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Violence against women is not uncommon in the educated society.

  9. Alcohol Outlet Density and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nonmetropolitan College Town: Accounting for Neighborhood Characteristics and Alcohol Outlet Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Aleksandra J

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing evidence of an ecological association between alcohol outlet density and intimate partner violence. It is reasonable to assume, however, that not all types of alcohol outlets contribute equally to criminal behavior, and to date, most ecological studies have been of large urban cities. Using Bloomington, Indiana, block groups as units of analysis and controlling for several structural characteristics associated with violence rates, I estimated spatially lagged regression models to determine if the variation in alcohol outlet density, including total outlets and disaggregating by on- and off-premise outlets, is related to intimate partner violence density. Results suggested that total alcohol outlet density and off-premise alcohol outlet density were significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. On-premise alcohol outlet density was not significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. These results not only extend the geographic scope of this relationship beyond large metropolitan areas but also have important policy implications.

  10. Prevalence and severity of intimate partner violence in women living in eight indigenous regions of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Híjar, Martha; Rojas Martínez, Rosalba; Avila Burgos, Leticia; Arenas Monreal, María de la Luz

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) in eight indigenous regions of Mexico, as well as the socioeconomic and demographic variables that are associated with this phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was conducted in indigenous regions that have a greater availability of government medical services than other indigenous regions. Interviews were conducted with female patients (n = 3287) seeking medical care in either of the two public health institutions in these regions. The severity of intimate partner violence (SIPV) during the previous 12 months was measured using a 33-item scale. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the factors associated with SIPV. Intimate partner violence prevalence was 25.5% (95%CI 24.93-25.26). Female partner variables such as personal history of child abuse (ORA 3.48; 95%CI 2.48-4.89) and work outside the home (ORA 1.74; 95%CI 1.22-2.49) and male partner variables such as unemployment (ORA 2.31; 95%CI 1.34-3.97) and a high frequency of alcohol use (ORA 13.35; 95%CI 7.02-25.39) were the main predictors for IPV. We found a three-fold higher risk of IPV for women living in the Los Altos de Chiapas region (ORA 3.01; 95%CI 1.88-4.79) compared with women in the Mayan region (reference category). Such results should aid decision makers in the development of extended public policies and interventions to address violence against women in the indigenous populations of Mexico. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Community level effects of gender inequality on intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy in Colombia: testing the feminist perspective.

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    Pallitto, Christina C; O'Campo, Patricia

    2005-05-01

    Violence against women, especially by intimate partners, is a serious public health problem that is associated with physical, reproductive, and mental health consequences. The effect of intimate partner violence on women's ability to control their fertility and the mechanisms through which these phenomena are related merit further investigation. Building on findings from a previous analysis in which a statistically significant relationship between intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy in Colombia was found, this analysis examines the effect of gender inequality on this association using data from the 2000 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey. Specifically, the objective of this analysis is to explore whether gender inequality (as measured by women's autonomy, women's status, male patriarchal control, and intimate partner violence) in municipalities partially explains the association between intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy in Colombia. Results of logistic regression analysis with multi-level data show that living in a municipality with high rates of male patriarchal control significantly increased women's odds of having an unintended pregnancy by almost four times. Also, living in a municipality with high rates of intimate partner violence increased one's odds of unintended pregnancy by more than 2.5 times, and non-abused women living in municipalities with high rates of intimate partner violence were at a significantly increased risk of unintended pregnancy. In addition, abused women living in a municipality with high personal female decision-making autonomy had more than a fourfold increased risk of having an unintended pregnancy. These findings demonstrate the need for reproductive health programs to target areas at particularly high risk for unintended pregnancy by reducing intimate partner violence and gender inequality.

  12. Intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers in eastern China: prevalence, patterns, and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a significant public health issue among married rural-to-urban migrant workers, the largest group of internal migrants in China. This study aims to explore the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers in eastern China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhejiang province in China between July 2015 and April 2016, and a total of 1,744 married rural-to-urban migrant workers ultimately took part in the study. Conflict Tactics Scales and several short demographic questions were applied. Data were principally analyzed with logistic regression. Results The majority of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were middle-aged couples with a low education level and a relatively long-term duration of migration in fixed migrant cities. Nearly 45% of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months. The joint occurrence of multiple forms of violence is the most commonly reported features of intimate partner violence, especially three overlapping patterns of intimate partner violence. Some individual (education and age, relationship (marital satisfaction, premarital sex and extramarital affairs and social (duration of migration and number of migratory cities factors of the respondents, were negatively or positively associated with intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers. Conclusion The results indicated that one out of two married rural-to-urban migrant workers experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months in China. Accordingly, there is an obvious demand of intervention and treatment activities to prevent and reduce the occurrence of intimate partner violence among the millions of migrant workers in China.

  13. Psychological adjustment and victim-blaming among intimate partner violence offenders: The role of social support and stressful life events

    OpenAIRE

    Lila, Marisol; Gracia, Enrique; Murgui, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence offenders often use victim-blaming attributions to explain their own violentbehavior. These attributions represent an important challenge for intervention programs for intimatepartnerviolence offenders. The main objectives of this study were to analyze both the influence of socialsupport and stressful life events on the psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depressivesymptomatology) of intimate partner violence offenders and the relationship between offenders’psy...

  14. The Link Between Community-Based Violence and Intimate Partner Violence: the Effect of Crime and Male Aggression on Intimate Partner Violence Against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Hossain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-08-01

    Both intimate partner violence (IPV) and community violence are prevalent globally, and each is associated with serious health consequences. However, little is known about their potential links or the possible benefits of coordinated prevention strategies. Using aggregated data on community violence from the São Paulo State Security Department (INFOCRIM) merged with WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence data, random intercept models were created to assess the effect of crime on women's probability of experiencing IPV. The association between IPV and male aggression (measured by women's reports of their partner's fights with other men) was examined using logistic regression models. We found little variation in the likelihood of male IPV perpetration related to neighborhood crime level but did find an increased likelihood of IPV experiences among women whose partners were involved in male-to-male violence. Emerging evidence on violence prevention has suggested some promising avenues for primary prevention that address common risk factors for both perpetration of IPV and male interpersonal violence. Strategies such as early identification and effective treatment of emotional disorders, alcohol abuse prevention and treatment, complex community-based interventions to change gender social norms and social marketing campaigns designed to modify social and cultural norms that support violence may work to prevent simultaneously male-on-male aggression and IPV. Future evaluations of these prevention strategies should simultaneously assess the impact of interventions on IPV and male interpersonal aggression.

  15. Men's hostile sexism and biased perceptions of intimate partners: fostering dissatisfaction and negative behavior in close relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C

    2013-12-01

    Hostile sexism (HS) expresses attitudes that characterize women who challenge men's power as manipulative and subversive. Does endorsing HS negatively bias perceptions of women's behavior and, in turn, create animosity within intimate relationships? Committed heterosexual couples reported on their own behavior and perceptions of their partner's behavior five times across a year (Study 1) and daily for 3 weeks (Study 2). Men who more strongly endorsed HS perceived their partner's behavior as more negative than was justified by their partner's reports. Furthermore, more negative perceptions of the partner's behavior mediated the links between men's HS and feeling more manipulated by their partners, behaving more negatively toward their partners, and lower relationship quality. This indicates that men who endorse HS behave more negatively toward intimate partners and experience lower relationship satisfaction because their antagonistic attitudes toward women in general permeate the way they perceive those partners.

  16. Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner aggression in the US: Sex differences and similarities in psychosocial mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J.; Perera, Robert A.; Masho, Saba W.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression. PMID:25753285

  17. Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner aggression in the US: sex differences and similarities in psychosocial mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Perera, Robert A; Masho, Saba W; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of intimate partners in women's reasons for seeking abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibber, Karuna S; Biggs, M Antonia; Roberts, Sarah C M; Foster, Diana Greene

    2014-01-01

    The literature on partners and abortion focuses on intimate partner violence (IPV) and risk for abortion, and partners' control of women's abortion decisions. This paper examines how partners figure in women's abortion decisions, and identifies factors associated with identifying partner as a reason (PAR) for abortion. Baseline data were used from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study among women (n = 954) seeking abortion at 30 U.S. facilities between 2008 and 2010. Mixed methods were used. Data were analyzed using thematic coding and logistic regression. Nearly one third of women reported PAR for abortion. Three most common partner-related reasons were poor relationships, partners unable/unwilling to support a baby, and partner characteristics that made them undesirable to have a baby with. Eight percent who mentioned PAR identified having abusive partners as a reason for abortion. One woman in this subgroup reported being pressured by her partner to seek abortion, whereas others in this subgroup sought abortion to end abusive relationships or to avoid bringing children into abusive relationships. Factors associated with identifying PAR for seeking abortion included race, education, partner's pregnancy intentions, relationship with man involved in the pregnancy, and experience of IPV. Women make decisions to terminate pregnancies considering the quality of the relationship with and potential support they will receive from the man involved. Even women who report IPV, who may be vulnerable to coercion, report their motivation for the abortion is to end an abusive relationship, rather than coercion into abortion. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-07-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV.

  20. Hidden harms: women's narratives of intimate partner violence in a microbicide trial, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Jonathan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Palanee, Thesla; Rees, Helen

    2014-06-01

    In a context of high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV), trials of female-controlled technologies for HIV prevention such as microbicides may increase the possibility of social harms. Seeking to explore the relationship between IPV and microbicide use further, this paper documents women's narratives of participating in the Microbicide Development Program (MDP) trial in Johannesburg, South Africa, and experiences of partner violence and conflict. A social science sub-study, nested within the trial, was conducted between September 2005 and August 2009, and 401 serial in-depth-interviews were undertaken with 150 women. Using coded interview transcripts, we describe the distribution of IPV and the possible association thereof with microbicide gel use and trial participation. More than a third of these 150 women reported IPV, of which half the cases were related to involvement in the trial. In their narratives, those women reporting IPV cast their partners as authoritarian, controlling and suspicious and reported verbal abuse, abandonment, and in some cases, beatings. Shared experiences of everyday violence shaped women's feelings of unease about revealing their participation in the trial to intimate partners and attempted concealment further contributed to strains and conflict within relationships. Our findings point to the role of social scientific enquiry in identifying the less obvious, hidden negative impacts of participation in a clinical trial therefore exposing limitations in the biomedical construction of 'social harms', as well as the implications thereof for potential future use outside the clinical trial setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.