WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding interspecific communication

  1. Learning and owner-stranger effects on interspecific communication in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgier, Angel M; Jakovcevic, Adriana; Mustaca, Alba E; Bentosela, Mariana

    2009-05-01

    Domestic dogs are very successful at following human cues like gazing or pointing to find hidden food in an object choice task. They solve this kind of situation at their first attempts and from early stages of their development and perform better than wolves. Most of the authors proposed that these abilities are a domestication product, and independent from learning processes. There are few systematic studies on the effects of learning on dogs' communicative skills. We aim to evaluate the effect of extinction and reversal learning procedures on the use of the pointing gesture in an object choice task. The results showed that dogs stopped following the pointing cue in the extinction and that they learned to choose the not pointed container in the reversal learning. Results suggest that instrumental learning plays an important role in interspecific communication mechanisms between humans and dogs. In both experiments for half of the subjects the pointer was the owner and for the rest was a stranger. A differential effect was found: extinction was slower but reversal learning was faster when the owner gave the cue. This data indicates that the relationship of the dog with the person who emits the cue influences performance.

  2. Understanding communicative actions : A repetitive TMS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared

  3. Understanding communicative actions: A repetitive TMS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.; Noordzij, M.L.; Volman, I.A.C.; Verhagen, L.; Overeem, S.; Elswijk, G.A.F. van; Bloem, B.R.; Hagoort, P.; Toni, I.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared

  4. Understanding communicative actions: A repetitive TMS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.; Noordzij, M.L.; Volman, I.A.C.; Verhagen, L.; Overeem, S.; Elswijk, G.A.F. van; Bloem, B.R.; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, I.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared

  5. Teachers' understanding of the communicative language teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers' understanding of the communicative language teaching approach: The case of English language teachers in Thohoyandou. ... with CLT theories and practice. Keywords: communicative competence, approach versus method, Grammar translation method, direct method, first additional language, second language ...

  6. Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Advances in interspecific pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Interspecific pregnancy in which the conceptus and female carrying the pregnancy are of different species is a key step to interspecific cloning. Cloning endangered animals by interspecific pregnancy is such a highlight catching people's eyes nowadays. In this article, the history of interspecific pregnancy, the methods for establishment of interspecific pregnancy, the corresponding theories, barriers and applied prospects are reviewed.``

  8. Between understanding and appreciation. Current science communication in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Hvidtfelt Nielsen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I use the concepts “understanding of science” and “appreciation of science” to analyze selected case studies of current science communication in Denmark. The Danish science communication system has many similarities with science communication in other countries: the increasing political and scientific interest in science communication, the co-existence of many different kinds of science communication, and the multiple uses of the concepts of understanding vs. appreciation of science. I stress the international aspects of science communication, the national politico-scientific context as well as more local contexts as equally important conditions for understanding current Danish science communication.

  9. Scientists' understanding of public communication of science and technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt; Kjaer, Carsten Rahbæk; Dahlgaard, Jørgen

    Background Research into the field of science communication has tended to focus on public understanding of science or on the processes of science communication itself, e.g. by looking at science in the media. Few studies have explored how scientists understand science communication. At present...... and technical sciences see science communication. We wanted to map their general interest in using different media of science communication as well as their active participation in current science communication. Moreover, we wanted to find out what they think about future of science communication, and what...... science communication. Results Our respondents indicated interest in doing science communication through media aimed at a broader public. In particular, news media surfaced as the most attractive media of public communication. The respondents preferred to be in charge of science communication themselves...

  10. Understanding communication networks in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite Jeffrey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency departments (EDs are high pressure health care settings involving complex interactions between staff members in providing and organising patient care. Without good communication and cooperation amongst members of the ED team, quality of care is at risk. This study examined the problem-solving, medication advice-seeking and socialising networks of staff working in an Australian hospital ED. Methods A social network survey (Response Rate = 94% was administered to all ED staff (n = 109 including doctors, nurses, allied health professionals, administrative staff and ward assistants. Analysis of the network characteristics was carried out by applying measures of density (the extent participants are concentrated, connectedness (how related they are, isolates (how segregated, degree centrality (who has most connections measured in two ways, in-degree, the number of ties directed to an individual and out-degree, the number of ties directed from an individual, betweenness centrality (who is important or powerful, degree of separation (how many ties lie between people and reciprocity (how bi-directional are interactions. Results In all three networks, individuals were more closely connected to colleagues from within their respective professional groups. The problem-solving network was the most densely connected network, followed by the medication advice network, and the loosely connected socialising network. ED staff relied on each other for help to solve work-related problems, but some senior doctors, some junior doctors and a senior nurse were important sources of medication advice for their ED colleagues. Conclusions Network analyses provide useful ways to assess social structures in clinical settings by allowing us to understand how ED staff relate within their social and professional structures. This can provide insights of potential benefit to ED staff, their leaders, policymakers and researchers.

  11. Do 6-Month-Olds Understand That Speech Can Communicate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Martin, Alia; Onishi, Kristine H.

    2014-01-01

    Adults and 12-month-old infants recognize that even unfamiliar speech can communicate information between third parties, suggesting that they can separate the communicative function of speech from its lexical content. But do infants recognize that speech can communicate due to their experience understanding and producing language, or do they…

  12. Understanding librarians communication is the issue

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Aimed at professionals and trainee professionals within the library and information service (LIS) fields, this book reminds the reader of the frequently ignored communication-gulf between the professional and the layman, and in particular the lack of true communication between LIS professionals and the user. It focuses especially on 'non-standard' users, such as non-native speakers or those with some disability. The author provides accessible examples of good practice, assesses their degree of success and suggests further ways to improve performance in information provision.written by a "poach

  13. Basics Combined: Understanding Human Communication through Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Marvin D.

    1982-01-01

    Interpersonal communication and literature are two areas of knowledge that should be pursued together. Plays offer the opportunity to explore and to participate in the process of dialog. Some plays can also lead the viewer/reader/actor to introspection. "The Night Thoreau Spent in Jail" by Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee can be studied at once…

  14. Understanding email communication of persons with aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Mahmud, A.; Martens, J.B.O.S.

    2011-01-01

    An email program has been developed by the Aphasia Union Netherlands (AVN) to enhance communication between aphasics mutually and with their therapists. In this paper we report intermediate evaluation results of the AVN email program. We evaluated the email program in two ways: a. by analyzing the

  15. How Can a Multimodal Approach to Primate Communication Help Us Understand the Evolution of Communication?

    OpenAIRE

    Bridget M. Waller; Katja Liebal; Anne M. Burrows; Katie. E. Slocombe

    2013-01-01

    Scientists studying the communication of non-human animals are often aiming to better understand the evolution of human communication, including human language. Some scientists take a phylogenetic perspective, where the goal is to trace the evolutionary history of communicative traits, while others take a functional perspective, where the goal is to understand the selection pressures underpinning specific traits. Both perspectives are necessary to fully understand the evolution of communicati...

  16. Understanding Team Communication Characteristics using Social Network Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Lee, Seung Woo; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun

    2011-01-01

    An important aspect of human behavior in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is team interaction since operating NPPs involves the coordination of several team members among and within workplaces. Since operators in main control room (MCR) get a great deal of information through communication to perform a task, communication is one of the important characteristics for team characteristics. Many researchers have been studying how to understand the characteristics of communication. Social network analysis (SNA) which is considered as an objective and easily applicable method has been already applied in many fields to investigate characteristics of team communication. Henttonen (2010) has struggled to perform the research on the impact of social networks in a team and he found some team communication characteristics could be obtained using some properties of SNA. In this paper, SNA is used to understand communication characteristics within operators in NPPs

  17. EXPERIMENTAL SEMIOTICS: AN ENGINE OF DISCOVERY FOR UNDERSTANDING HUMAN COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNO GALANTUCCI; GARETH ROBERTS

    2012-01-01

    The recent growth of Experimental Semiotics (ES) offers us a new option to investigate human communication. We briefly introduce ES, presenting results from three themes of research which emerged within it. Then we illustrate the contribution ES can make to the investigation of human communication systems, particularly in comparison with the other existing options. This comparison highlights how ES can provide an engine of discovery for understanding human communication. In fact, in complemen...

  18. Mutual understanding: a communication model for general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantho, Arne; Jensen, Lena; Malterud, Kirsti

    2002-12-01

    To present our pursuits towards development of a simple model for clinical communication intended for application by the practitioner as a tool for enhancing mutual understanding. Inspired by theories about patient-centredness and interactive modes of understanding, and supported by the perspectives of the Danish philosopher Niels Thomassen, we reviewed audiotapes from our own consultations. Recognising four dimensions assumed to be essential for mutual understanding in the transcripts, we explored these dimensions further. We present a communication model consisting of the following dimensions: The Framework, within which the communication takes place; The Subject, about which the communication takes place; The Persons, between whom the communication takes place; and The Action, verbally and non-verbally, through which communication takes place. We describe these dimensions in detail. The nature of the dimensions indicates that there is an interrelationship between them, implying that the character of the communication may change if one of the factors is changed. Analysis of an ongoing or recent consultation completed in accordance with these four dimensions allows the doctor to refocus the communication, thus leading to a more extensive mutual understanding and perhaps enhanced freedom of action.

  19. Science Communication for the Public Understanding of Nuclear Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seongkyung [Myungji Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    Uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment represent characteristics of nuclear issues in the public arena. Nuclear issue, in the public arena, is a kind of risk rather than technology that we are willing to use for good purpose. There are uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment as characteristics of nuclear. The notion of the public, here is of active, sensitive, and sensible citizens, with power and influence. The public understands nuclear issues less through direct experience or education than through the filter of mass media. Trust has been a key issue on public understanding of nuclear issues. Trust belongs to human. The public understanding process includes perception, interpretation, and evaluation. Therefore, science communication is needed for public understanding. Unfortunately, science communication is rarely performed well, nowadays, There are three important actors-the public, experts, and media. Effective science communication means finding comprehensible ways of presenting opaque and complex nuclear issues. It makes new and strong demands on experts. In order to meet that requirement, experts should fulfill their duty about developing nuclear technology for good purpose, understand the public before expecting the public to understand nuclear issues, accept the unique culture of the media process, take the responsibility for any consequence which nuclear technologies give rise to, communicate with an access route based on sensibility and rationality, have a flexible angle in the science communication process, get creative leadership for the communication process with deliberation and disagreement, make efficient use of various science technologies for science communication. We should try to proceed with patience, because science communication makes for a more credible society.

  20. Science Communication for the Public Understanding of Nuclear Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung

    2006-01-01

    Uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment represent characteristics of nuclear issues in the public arena. Nuclear issue, in the public arena, is a kind of risk rather than technology that we are willing to use for good purpose. There are uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment as characteristics of nuclear. The notion of the public, here is of active, sensitive, and sensible citizens, with power and influence. The public understands nuclear issues less through direct experience or education than through the filter of mass media. Trust has been a key issue on public understanding of nuclear issues. Trust belongs to human. The public understanding process includes perception, interpretation, and evaluation. Therefore, science communication is needed for public understanding. Unfortunately, science communication is rarely performed well, nowadays, There are three important actors-the public, experts, and media. Effective science communication means finding comprehensible ways of presenting opaque and complex nuclear issues. It makes new and strong demands on experts. In order to meet that requirement, experts should fulfill their duty about developing nuclear technology for good purpose, understand the public before expecting the public to understand nuclear issues, accept the unique culture of the media process, take the responsibility for any consequence which nuclear technologies give rise to, communicate with an access route based on sensibility and rationality, have a flexible angle in the science communication process, get creative leadership for the communication process with deliberation and disagreement, make efficient use of various science technologies for science communication. We should try to proceed with patience, because science communication makes for a more credible society

  1. WebCom: A Model for Understanding Web Site Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel; Petersen, Anja Bechmann

    2008-01-01

    of the approaches' strengths. Furthermore, it is discussed and shortly demonstrated how WebCom can be used for analytical and design purposes with YouTube as an example. The chapter concludes that WebCom is able to serve as a theoretically-based model for understanding complex Web site communication situations...

  2. Twelve-month-olds' understanding of intention transfer through communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Him; Xiao, Wen; Lai, Ching Man

    2012-01-01

    Do infants understand that intention can be transferred through communication? We answered this question by examining 12-month-olds' looking times in a violation-of-expectation paradigm with two human agents. In familiarization, the non-acting agent spoke, clapped her hands, read aloud a book, or remained silent before the acting agent grasped one (the target) of two objects. During test only the non-actor remained, grasping either the target or distractor. The infants looked longer in the distractor than target condition, suggesting violation of expectation, only if the non-actor had spoken or clapped in familiarization. Because the non-actor never had grasped any of the objects in familiarization, the infants' expectation on her behavior could have developed from the understanding that her intention was transferred to the actor, who executed it by grasping the target in familiarization, via speaking and clapping as acts of communication (but not reading aloud and remaining silent).

  3. Understanding Visual Novel As Artwork of Visual Communication Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dendi Pratama

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual Novel is a kind of audiovisual game that offers visual strength through the narrative and visual characters. The developer community of Visual Novel (VN Project Indonesia indicated a limited local game developer that produces Visual Novel of Indonesia. In addition, Indonesian Visual Novel production was also more influenced by the style of anime or manga from Japan. Actually, Visual Novel is part of the potential of  creative industries products. The study is to formulate the problem, how to understand Visual Novel as artwork of visual communication design, especially among students? This research is a case study conducted on visual communication design student at the University Indraprasta PGRI Jakarta. The results showed low levels of knowledge, understanding, and experience of  the Visual Novel game, which is below 50%. Qualitative and quantitative methods combined with structural semiotic approach is used to describe the elements of the design and the signs structure at the Visual Novel. This research can be a scientific reference for further introduce and encourage an understanding of Visual Novel as artwork of Visual Communication Design. In addition, the results may add to the knowledge of  society, and encourage the development of Visual Novel artwork that  reflect the culture of Indonesia. Visual Novel adalah sejenis permainan audiovisual yang menawarkan kekuatan visual melalui narasi dan karakter visual. Data dari komunitas pengembang Visual Novel (VN Project Indonesia menunjukkan masih terbatasnya pengembang game lokal yang memproduksi Visual Novel Indonesia. Selain itu, produksi Visual Novel Indonesia juga lebih banyak dipengaruhi oleh gaya anime dan manga dari Jepang. Padahal Visual Novel adalah bagian dari produk industri kreatif yang potensial. Studi ini merumuskan masalah, bagaimana memahami Visual Novel sebagai karya seni desain komunikasi visual, khususnya di kalangan mahasiswa? Penelitian ini merupakan studi kasus

  4. Between understanding and appreciation. Current science communication in Denmark (Danish original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Hvidtfelt Nielsen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I use the concepts “understanding of science” and “appreciation of science” to analyze selected case studies of current science communication in Denmark. The Danish science communication system has many similarities with science communication in other countries: the increasing political and scientific interest in science communication, the co-existence of many different kinds of science communication, and the multiple uses of the concepts of understanding vs. appreciation of science. I stress the international aspects of science communication, the national politico-scientific context as well as more local contexts as equally important conditions for understanding current Danish science communication.

  5. Stepfamily Communication Strengths: Understanding the Ties That Bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golish, Tamara D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the communication strategies that differentiate "strong" stepfamilies from stepfamilies having more difficulty, inductively deriving a composite of stepfamily "communication strengths." Finds that in general, strong stepfamilies reported using everyday talk, more openness, spending time together as a family, communicating clear rules and…

  6. Understanding the Abstract Role of Speech in Communication at 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alia; Onishi, Kristine H.; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2012-01-01

    Adult humans recognize that even unfamiliar speech can communicate information between third parties, demonstrating an ability to separate communicative function from linguistic content. We examined whether 12-month-old infants understand that speech can communicate before they understand the meanings of specific words. Specifically, we test the…

  7. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION AND INTERSUBJECTIVE COMMUNICATION. SOME THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL KEYS FOR ITS UNDERSTANDING

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Rizo Garcia

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the proliferation of digital communication forms, is urgent for communication research to strengthen the works around the interpersonal dimension of communicative processes. To do so, communication field needs to extend the boarding spectrum of interpersonal communication, an object that has been relegated to a secondary plane by the predominance of mass media research. This work is based on the need to distinguish intersubjective communication from interpersonal communication, tw...

  8. The impact of risk communications on public understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, R.E.; Bord, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of different modes of communicating information about risks that are cumulative, uncertain, and long-term (CULT). Do communications that emphasize potential ecological problems have a different impact from messages that discuss health concerns? Is a more emotional style more effective than a traditional standard approach? CULT risks, including those commonly associated with high-level radioactive waste, pose particular problems for risk communicators. nevertheless, the research shows that relatively simple risk communications can effectively lower risk estimates and reduce fears of negative consequences from CULT risks

  9. Human enhancement and communication: on meaning and shared understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Laura; Weckert, John

    2013-09-01

    Our technologies have enabled us to change both the world and our perceptions of the world, as well as to change ourselves and to find new ways to fulfil the human desire for improvement and for having new capacities. The debate around using technology for human enhancement has already raised many ethical concerns, however little research has been done in how human enhancement can affect human communication. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether some human enhancements could change our shared lifeworld so radically that human communication as we know it would not be possible any longer. After exploring the kinds of communication problems we are concerned with as well as mentioning some possible enhancement interventions that could bring about such problems, we will address some of the ethical implications that follow from these potential communication problems. We argue that because of the role that communication plays in human society, this issue deserves attention.

  10. Understanding Resident Performance, Mindfulness, and Communication in Critical Care Rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Kevin; Fields-Elswick, Katelyn; Bernard, Andrew C

    Evidence from the medical literature suggests that surgical trainees can benefit from mindful practices. Surgical educators are challenged with the need to address resident core competencies, some of which may be facilitated by higher levels of mindfulness. This study explores whether mindful residents perform better than their peers as members of the health care team. This study employed a multiphase, multimethod design to assess resident mindfulness, communication, and clinical performance. Academic, tertiary medical center. Residents (N = 51) working in an intensive care unit. In phase I, medical residents completed a self-report survey of mindfulness, communication, emotional affect, and clinical decision-making. In phase II, resident performance was assessed using independent ratings of mindfulness and clinical decision-making by attending physicians and registered nurses. In phase 1, a significant positive relationship was found between resident performance and mindfulness, positive affect (PA), and communication. In phase 2, attending physicians/registered nurses' perceptions of residents' mindfulness were positively correlated with communication and inversely related to negative affect (NA). The top quartile of residents for performance and mindfulness had the lowest NA. Higher-rated residents underestimated their performance/mindfulness, whereas those in the lowest quartile overestimated these factors. This study offers a number of implications for medical resident education. First, mindfulness was perceived to be a significant contributor to self-assessments of competency and performance. Second, both PA and NA were important to mindfulness and performance. Third, communication was associated with resident performance, mindfulness, and PA. These implications suggest that individual characteristics of mindfulness, communication, and affect, all potentially modifiable, influence care quality and safety. To improve low performers, surgical educators could

  11. Understanding the role of marketing communications in direct marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Naik; N. Piersma (Nanda)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe standard RFM models used by direct marketers include behavioral variables, but ignore the role of marketing communications. In addition, RFM models allow customer responsiveness to vary across different customers, but not across diiferent time periods. Hence, the authors first

  12. The Secret Life of Your Classmates: Understanding Communication Privacy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodulman, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an activity that combines this popular website, Postsecret.com, with college students' love for the internet, and course content on privacy boundaries and theory, disclosure, communicative control, and privacy rule development. By taking part in this activity, students practice privacy disclosure and are able to examine their…

  13. Young Children's Understanding of Markedness in Non-Verbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may "mark" their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing…

  14. Understanding Family Caregiver Communication to Provide Family-Centered Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Elaine; Buller, Haley; Ferrell, Betty; Koczywas, Marianna; Borneman, Tami

    2017-12-01

    To describe a family caregiver communication typology and demonstrate identifiable communication challenges among four caregiver types: Manager, Carrier, Partner, and Lone. Case studies based on interviews with oncology family caregivers. Each caregiver type demonstrates unique communication challenges that can be identified. Recognition of a specific caregiver type will help nurses to adapt their own communication to provide tailored support. Family-centered cancer care requires attention to the communication challenges faced by family caregivers. Understanding the challenges among four family caregiver communication types will enable nurses to better address caregiver burden and family conflict. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION AND INTERSUBJECTIVE COMMUNICATION. SOME THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL KEYS FOR ITS UNDERSTANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rizo Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the proliferation of digital communication forms, is urgent for communication research to strengthen the works around the interpersonal dimension of communicative processes. To do so, communication field needs to extend the boarding spectrum of interpersonal communication, an object that has been relegated to a secondary plane by the predominance of mass media research. This work is based on the need to distinguish intersubjective communication from interpersonal communication, two terms that are often conceived as synonymous. Even though both share the same empirical referents, their theoretical foundations are different. This essay presents three theoretical perspectives to define intersubjective communication –symbolic interactionism, phenomenological sociology and the Theory of Communicative Action– that share an interest beyond the situations of face to face interaction in which all subjects are daily immersed. A documentary and interpretive methodology is used in this work, because it's an argumentative essay that tries to outline some theoretical and conceptual guidelines to think –and make complex– interpersonal and intersubjective communication. It is relevant the approach of both communication types from different fields aside the strictly communicational; for that reason, in this essay are emphasized contributions made from other areas such as philosophy and social psychology.

  16. Appreciation first requires an understanding - technological progress needs communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    The RWE workshop 'Energy' held in Braunlage in November 1987 more intensively than in the years before discussed the social and economic implications of energy utilisation, as well as aspects of public relations and public acceptance. Two exemplary lectures presented to the Workshop are reviewed in this contribution, namely: (1) Ethical and moral positions taken in the energy debate, by W. Stoll, ALKEM. (2) Risk and communication in a high-tech society, by K. Heilmann. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Retrospective Analysis of Communication Events - Understanding the Dynamics of Collaborative Multi-Party Discourse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Haack, Jereme N.; McColgin, Dave W.

    2006-06-08

    This research is aimed at understanding the dynamics of collaborative multi-party discourse across multiple communication modalities. Before we can truly make sig-nificant strides in devising collaborative communication systems, there is a need to understand how typical users utilize com-putationally supported communications mechanisms such as email, instant mes-saging, video conferencing, chat rooms, etc., both singularly and in conjunction with traditional means of communication such as face-to-face meetings, telephone calls and postal mail. Attempting to un-derstand an individual’s communications profile with access to only a single modal-ity is challenging at best and often futile. Here, we discuss the development of RACE – Retrospective Analysis of Com-munications Events – a test-bed prototype to investigate issues relating to multi-modal multi-party discourse.

  18. Understanding ironic criticism and empathic praise: The role of emotive communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostino, Alba; Im-Bolter, Nancie; Stefanatos, Arianna K; Dennis, Maureen

    2017-06-01

    Ironic criticism and empathic praise are forms of social communication that influence the affective states of others in a negative or positive way. In a sample of 76 typically developing children and adolescents (mean age = 11 years; 4 months; SD: 2 years; 8 months), we studied how understanding of emotional expression (facial expression of emotion) and emotive communication (affective theory of mind) was related to the ability to understand negatively valenced ironic criticism and positively valenced empathic praise. We modelled comprehension of irony and empathy in school-aged children in relation to age and understanding of emotional expression and emotive communication. As expected, children showed significantly better understanding of emotional expression than emotive communication, which requires understanding why someone might mask their inner emotions. Meditational analyses showed that emotive communication partially mediated the relation between age and understanding ironic criticism and empathic praise. These findings suggest that the development of understanding irony and empathy over the school-age years is associated with affective attributions or affective theory of mind. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Theory of mind has been found to be related to the developmental understanding of social communication. Correct interpretation of facial emotional cues is also important for interpreting social communication. What does this study add? Affective components (i.e., affective theory of mind) also contribute to the development of social communication. Emotive communication, the ability to modulate one's emotional expression according to social display rules may be predictive of social communication competency. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Understanding and Supporting Visual Communication within Costume Design Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Rachael Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Theatres provide artistic value to many people and generate revenue for communities, yet little research has been conducted to understand or support theatrical designers. Over 1,800 non-profit theatres and 3,522 theatre companies and dinner theatres operate in the United States. In 2008, 11 million people attended 1,587 Broadway shows for a total…

  20. Understanding Organizational Culture and Communication through a Gyroscope Metaphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisel, Ryan S.; Messersmith, Amber S.; Keyton, Joann

    2010-01-01

    To fill a critical void in organizational culture pedagogy, the authors present an instructional system that employs the metaphor of a gyroscope to help students understand implicit assumptions in culture research. Working from Martin's nexus approach to organizational culture and Fairhurst and Putnam's tripartite theory of organizational…

  1. Understanding Decision-Making, Communication Rules, and Communication Satisfaction as Culture: Implications for Organizational Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockley-Zalabak, Pamela

    A study of decision making processes and communication rules, in a corporate setting undergoing change as a result of organizational ineffectiveness, examined whether (1) decisions about formal communication reporting systems were linked to management assumptions about technical creativity/effectiveness, (2) assumptions about…

  2. How to make a complex story understandable. Communication on nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, A.; Hensen, A.; Erisman, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding is the first step towards solving the nitrogen problem. Various applications have been developed to gain insight in the complex interactions between the nitrogen cycle and the social-economic and environmental aspects. Experience has learned that many users have not only gained a clearer picture of the urgency and complexity of the problem; now they also have options for dealing with the nitrogen problem. [nl

  3. Brief Communication: Understanding disasters and early-warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaños, H.; Lomnitz, C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses some methodological questions on understanding disasters. Destructive earthquakes continue to claim thousands of lives. Tsunamis may be caused by recoil of the upper plate. Darwin's twin-epicenter hypothesis is applied to a theory of tsunamis. The ergodicity hypothesis may help to estimate the return periods of extremely rare events. A social science outline on the causation of the Tôhoku nuclear disaster is provided.

  4. Imaging for understanding speech communication: Advances and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2005-04-01

    Research in speech communication has relied on a variety of instrumentation methods to illuminate details of speech production and perception. One longstanding challenge has been the ability to examine real-time changes in the shaping of the vocal tract; a goal that has been furthered by imaging techniques such as ultrasound, movement tracking, and magnetic resonance imaging. The spatial and temporal resolution afforded by these techniques, however, has limited the scope of the investigations that could be carried out. In this talk, we focus on some recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging that allow us to perform near real-time investigations on the dynamics of vocal tract shaping during speech. Examples include Demolin et al. (2000) (4-5 images/second, ultra-fast turbo spin echo) and Mady et al. (2001,2002) (8 images/second, T1 fast gradient echo). A recent study by Narayanan et al. (2004) that used a spiral readout scheme to accelerate image acquisition has allowed for image reconstruction rates of 24 images/second. While these developments offer exciting prospects, a number of challenges lie ahead, including: (1) improving image acquisition protocols, hardware for enhancing signal-to-noise ratio, and optimizing spatial sampling; (2) acquiring quality synchronized audio; and (3) analyzing and modeling image data including cross-modality registration. [Work supported by NIH and NSF.

  5. Informing people about radiation risks: a review of obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, V.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on informing people about radiation risks. The paper focuses on obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication. The paper concludes with a set of guidelines for communicating information about radiation risks to the public. The paper also includes an appendix that reviews the literature on one of the most important tools for communicating information about radiation risks: risk comparisons

  6. Early human communication helps in understanding language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenti Boero, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    Building a theory on extant species, as Ackermann et al. do, is a useful contribution to the field of language evolution. Here, I add another living model that might be of interest: human language ontogeny in the first year of life. A better knowledge of this phase might help in understanding two more topics among the "several building blocks of a comprehensive theory of the evolution of spoken language" indicated in their conclusion by Ackermann et al., that is, the foundation of the co-evolution of linguistic motor skills with the auditory skills underlying speech perception, and the possible phylogenetic interactions of protospeech production with referential capabilities.

  7. Using Patient Case Video Vignettes to Improve Students’ Understanding of Cross-cultural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryder, Brian; Mazan, Jennifer; Quiñones-Boex, Ana; Cyganska, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To develop, implement, and assess whether simulated patient case videos improve students’ understanding of and attitudes toward cross-cultural communication in health care. Design. Third-year pharmacy students (N=159) in a health care communications course participated in a one-hour lecture and two-hour workshop on the topic of cross-cultural communication. Three simulated pharmacist-patient case vignettes highlighting cross-cultural communication barriers, the role of active listening, appropriate use of medical interpreters, and useful models to overcome communication barriers were viewed and discussed in groups of 20 students during the workshop. Assessment. A pre-lecture and post-workshop assessed the effect on students’ understanding of and attitudes toward cross-cultural communication. Understanding of cross-cultural communication concepts increased significantly, as did comfort level with providing cross-cultural care. Conclusion. Use of simulated patient case videos in conjunction with an interactive workshop improved pharmacy students' understanding of and comfort level with cross-cultural communication skills and can be useful tools for cultural competency training in the curriculum. PMID:28496276

  8. Using Patient Case Video Vignettes to Improve Students' Understanding of Cross-cultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Sally; Cryder, Brian; Mazan, Jennifer; Quiñones-Boex, Ana; Cyganska, Angelika

    2017-04-01

    Objective. To develop, implement, and assess whether simulated patient case videos improve students' understanding of and attitudes toward cross-cultural communication in health care. Design. Third-year pharmacy students (N=159) in a health care communications course participated in a one-hour lecture and two-hour workshop on the topic of cross-cultural communication. Three simulated pharmacist-patient case vignettes highlighting cross-cultural communication barriers, the role of active listening, appropriate use of medical interpreters, and useful models to overcome communication barriers were viewed and discussed in groups of 20 students during the workshop. Assessment. A pre-lecture and post-workshop assessed the effect on students' understanding of and attitudes toward cross-cultural communication. Understanding of cross-cultural communication concepts increased significantly, as did comfort level with providing cross-cultural care. Conclusion. Use of simulated patient case videos in conjunction with an interactive workshop improved pharmacy students' understanding of and comfort level with cross-cultural communication skills and can be useful tools for cultural competency training in the curriculum.

  9. Evolutionary disarmament in interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisdi, E; Geritz, S A

    2001-12-22

    Competitive asymmetry, which is the advantage of having a larger body or stronger weaponry than a contestant, drives spectacular evolutionary arms races in intraspecific competition. Similar asymmetries are well documented in interspecific competition, yet they seldom lead to exaggerated traits. Here we demonstrate that two species with substantially different size may undergo parallel coevolution towards a smaller size under the same ecological conditions where a single species would exhibit an evolutionary arms race. We show that disarmament occurs for a wide range of parameters in an ecologically explicit model of competition for a single shared resource; disarmament also occurs in a simple Lotka-Volterra competition model. A key property of both models is the interplay between evolutionary dynamics and population density. The mechanism does not rely on very specific features of the model. Thus, evolutionary disarmament may be widespread and may help to explain the lack of interspecific arms races.

  10. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...... and growth of pollen tubes, as well as lower frequencies of pollen tubes were observed in specific cross-combinations. Post-fertilization barriers related to endosperm development and hybrid incompatibility were also observed in Kalanchoë and Hibiscus genus, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative...

  11. Introgression in interspecific hybrids of lily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.; Maas, I.W.G.M.; Lim, K.B.

    2002-01-01

    In order to introduce new desirable characters into the cultivar assortment of lily a range of interspecific crossing barriers has to be overcome. By using various pollination and embryo rescue techniques pre- and postfertilization barriers were overcome and a range of wide interspecific lily

  12. Interspecific hybridization of flower bulbs: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In order to introduce new characters such as resistances, flower shape and colour, from wild species into the cultivar assortment of lily it is necessary to overcome interspecific crossing barriers.. Several techniques have been used for wide interspecific lily crosses with species and cultivars

  13. From loquacious to reticent: understanding patient health information communication to guide consumer health IT design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Rupa S; Guterbock, Thomas M; Fitzgibbon, Kara; Williams, Ishan C; Wellbeloved-Stone, Claire A; Bears, Jaime E; Menefee, Hannah K

    2017-07-01

    It is increasingly recognized that some patients self-manage in the context of social networks rather than alone. Consumer health information technology (IT) designed to support socially embedded self-management must be responsive to patients' everyday communication practices. There is an opportunity to improve consumer health IT design by explicating how patients currently leverage social media to support health information communication. The objective of this study was to determine types of health information communication patterns that typify Facebook users with chronic health conditions to guide consumer health IT design. Seven hundred participants with type 2 diabetes were recruited through a commercial survey access panel. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct approaches to health information communication both on and off Facebook. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods were used to identify demographic and behavioral differences among profiles. Secondary analysis of qualitative interviews ( n  = 25) and analysis of open-ended survey questions were conducted to understand participant rationales for each profile. Our analysis yielded 7 distinct health information communication profiles. Five of 7 profiles had consistent patterns both on and off Facebook, while the remaining 2 demonstrated distinct practices, with no health information communication on Facebook but some off Facebook. One profile was distinct from all others in both health information communication practices and demographic composition. Rationales for following specific health information communication practices were categorized under 6 themes: altruism, instrumental support, social support, privacy and stigma, convenience, and Facebook knowledge. Facebook has been widely adopted for health information communication; This study demonstrates that Facebook has been widely adopted for health information communication. It also shows that the ways in which patients communicate health

  14. Improvement of mutual understanding in risk communication by application of a debate support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Koji; Ishii, Hirotake; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent problem of climate change, nuclear power has become perhaps the world's most important energy source. In Japan, however, it is difficult to build new nuclear facilities. One of the reasons for such difficulty lies in problems in risk communication. In this study, a support method has been proposed to improve mutual understanding in risk communication. The authors paid especial attention at the learning effect of debating and the benefits of employing a debate support system. A laboratory experiment including 30 university students was conducted in order to evaluate the proposed method. Results showed that the use of the system could improve mutual understanding especially with respect to the factors of risk 'reduction measures' and 'accident management'. In addition, it was found that using the system and debating from 'opposite positions' could improve subjective mutual understanding; however, this practice showed no effectiveness in terms of improving objective mutual understanding. (author)

  15. New Semantics of Communication; Making Possible a Deeper Understanding of Relationship between Culture and Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bashir

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the current age is called “communication age” so far many definitions have been presented for the concept of communications. This concept still requires a more appropriate and comprehensive definite. One of the serious problems in defining communication is the fact that its meaning is taken for granted and diffused in all aspects of life. This situation creates many difficulties in presenting a comprehensive definition of communication. The precise definition of communication not only can contribute to a deeper understanding of this concept but also, it can explain relationship between culture and media in another way. This article tries to study the different definitions and meanings of the concept of “communication”, by using semantic analysis for this concept. This definition, not only provides a new perception of the conceptual meaning of communication, but also, makes possible a deeper understanding of relationship between culture and media as the most important mass media at the different individual, social and intercultural levels.

  16. Toward understanding the active SETI debate: Insights from risk communication and perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbitz, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Insights from the robust field of risk communication and perception have to date been almost totally absent from the policy debate regarding the relative risks and merits of Active SETI or Messaging to Extraterrestrial Intelligence (METI). For many years, the practice (or proposed practice) of Active SETI has generated a vigorous and sometimes heated policy debate within the scientific community. There have also been some negative reactions in the media toward the activities of those engaged in Active SETI. Risk communication is a scientific approach to communication regarding situations involving potentially sensitive or controversial situations in which there may be high public concern and low public trust. The discipline has found wide acceptance and utility in fields such as public health, industrial regulation and environmental protection. Insights from the scientific field of risk communication (such as omission bias, loss aversion, the availability heuristic, probability neglect, and the general human preference for voluntary over involuntary risks) may help those who have participated in either side of the debate over Active SETI to better understand why the debate has taken on this posture. Principles of risk communication and risk perception may also help those engaged in Active SETI to communicate more effectively with other scientists, the public, with the media, and with policy makers regarding their activities and to better understand and respond to concerns expressed regarding the activity.

  17. Tracking traders' understanding of the market using e-communication data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Duch, Jordi; Uzzi, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tracking the volume of keywords in Internet searches, message boards, or Tweets has provided an alternative for following or predicting associations between popular interest or disease incidences. Here, we extend that research by examining the role of e-communications among day traders and their collective understanding of the market. Our study introduces a general method that focuses on bundles of words that behave differently from daily communication routines, and uses original data covering the content of instant messages among all day traders at a trading firm over a 40-month period. Analyses show that two word bundles convey traders' understanding of same day market events and potential next day market events. We find that when market volatility is high, traders' communications are dominated by same day events, and when volatility is low, communications are dominated by next day events. We show that the stronger the traders' attention to either same day or next day events, the higher their collective trading performance. We conclude that e-communication among traders is a product of mass collaboration over diverse viewpoints that embodies unique information about their weak or strong understanding of the market.

  18. Tracking traders' understanding of the market using e-communication data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Saavedra

    Full Text Available Tracking the volume of keywords in Internet searches, message boards, or Tweets has provided an alternative for following or predicting associations between popular interest or disease incidences. Here, we extend that research by examining the role of e-communications among day traders and their collective understanding of the market. Our study introduces a general method that focuses on bundles of words that behave differently from daily communication routines, and uses original data covering the content of instant messages among all day traders at a trading firm over a 40-month period. Analyses show that two word bundles convey traders' understanding of same day market events and potential next day market events. We find that when market volatility is high, traders' communications are dominated by same day events, and when volatility is low, communications are dominated by next day events. We show that the stronger the traders' attention to either same day or next day events, the higher their collective trading performance. We conclude that e-communication among traders is a product of mass collaboration over diverse viewpoints that embodies unique information about their weak or strong understanding of the market.

  19. Understanding Eating Behaviors through Parental Communication and the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinfeld, Emily; Shim, Minsun

    2017-05-01

    Emerging adulthood (EA) is an important yet overlooked period for developing long-term health behaviors. During these years, emerging adults adopt health behaviors that persist throughout life. This study applies the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) to examine the role of childhood parental communication in predicting engagement in healthful eating during EA. Participants included 239 college students, ages 18 to 25, from a large university in the southern United States. Participants were recruited and data collection occurred spring 2012. Participants responded to measures to assess perceived parental communication, eating behaviors, attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control over healthful eating. SEM and mediation analyses were used to address the hypotheses posited. Data demonstrated that perceived parent-child communication - specifically, its quality and target-specific content - significantly predicted emerging adults' eating behaviors, mediated through subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. This study sets the stage for further exploration and understanding of different ways parental communication influences emerging adults' healthy behavior enactment.

  20. A social network approach to understanding science communication among fire professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita Wright

    2012-01-01

    Studies of science communication and use in the fire management community suggest manager's access research via informal information networks and that these networks vary by both agency and position. We used a phone survey followed by traditional statistical analyses to understand the informal social networks of fire professionals in two western regions of the...

  1. A social network approach to understanding science communication among fire professionals (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita Wright; Andrea Thode; Anne Mottek-Lucas; Jacklynn Fallon; Megan Matonis

    2012-01-01

    Studies of science communication and use in the fire management community suggest manager's access research via informal information networks and that these networks vary by both agency and position. We used a phone survey followed by traditional statistical analyses to understand the informal social networks of fire professionals in two western regions of the...

  2. In e-mail to students, Annan urges communication to build understanding

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Using the original computer on which the Internet was created, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan today sent an electronic message to young people around the world urging them to keep communicating with each other to build bridges of understanding between cultures and societies" (1 page)

  3. Telecollaboration in Foreign Language Curricula: A Case Study on Intercultural Understanding in Video Communication Exchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kroon, Linda; Jauregi Ondarra, M.K.; ten Thije, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The development of intercultural communicative competence is increasingly important in this globalised and highly digitalised world. This implies the adequate understanding of otherness, which entails a myriad of complex cognitive competences, skills and behaviour. The TILA project aims to study how

  4. Reflective Learning and Prospective Teachers' Conceptual Understanding, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Mathematical Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junsay, Merle L.

    2016-01-01

    This is a quasi-experimental study that explored the effects of reflective learning on prospective teachers' conceptual understanding, critical thinking, problem solving, and mathematical communication skills and the relationship of these variables. It involved 60 prospective teachers from two basic mathematics classes of an institution of higher…

  5. Using Cooperative Teams-Game-Tournament in 11 Religious School to Improve Mathematics Understanding and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Md-Ali, Ruzlan; Chairany, Sitie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper was part of a larger study which looked into the effect of implementing Cooperative Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT) on understanding of and communication in mathematics. The study had identified the main and interaction effect of using Cooperative TGT for learning mathematics in religious secondary school classrooms. A…

  6. Children's Understanding of Communicative Intentions in the Middle of the Second Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Tiziana; Perucchini, Paola; Genco, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Two tasks were administered to 40 children aged from 16 to 20 months (mean age = 18;1), to evaluate children's understanding of declarative and informative intention [Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2005). One-year-olds comprehend the communicative intentions behind gestures in a hiding game. "Developmental Science", 8, 492-499;…

  7. Scaffolds for design communication : research through design of shared understanding in design meetings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.; Lugt, van der R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the influence of the physical and social environment (the design space) son the formation of shared understanding in multidisciplinary design teams. We concentrate on the creative design meeting as a microenvironment for studying processes of design communication. Our

  8. Interspecific Competition Underlying Mutualistic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Seong Eun; Lee, Jae Woo; Lee, Deok-Sun

    2012-03-01

    Multiple classes of interactions may exist affecting one another in a given system. For the mutualistic networks of plants and pollinating animals, it has been known that the degree distribution is broad but often deviates from power-law form more significantly for plants than animals. To illuminate the origin of such asymmetry, we study a model network in which links are assigned under generalized preferential-selection rules between two groups of nodes and find the sensitive dependence of the resulting connectivity pattern on the model parameters. The nonlinearity of preferential selection can come from interspecific interactions among animals and among plants. The model-based analysis of real-world mutualistic networks suggests that a new animal determines its partners not only by their abundance but also under the competition with existing animal species, which leads to the stretched-exponential degree distributions of plants.

  9. Understanding discharge communication behaviours in a pediatric emergency care context: a mixed methods observation study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A; Bishop, Andrea; Plint, Amy; MacPhee, Shannon; Zemek, Roger; Chorney, Jill; Jabbour, Mona; Porter, Stephen; Sawyer, Scott

    2017-04-17

    One of the most important transitions in the continuum of care for children is discharge to home. Optimal discharge communication between healthcare providers and caregivers (e.g., parents or other guardians) who present to the emergency department (ED) with their children is not well understood. The lack of policies and considerable variation in practice regarding discharge communication in pediatric EDs pose a quality and safety risk for children and their parents. The aim of this mixed methods study is to better understand the process and structure of discharge communication in a pediatric ED context to contribute to the design and development of discharge communication interventions. We will use surveys, administrative data and real-time video observation to characterize discharge communication for six common illness presentations in a pediatric ED: (1) asthma, (2) bronchiolitis, (3) abdominal pain, (4) fever, (5) diarrhea and vomiting, and (6) minor head injury. Participants will be recruited from one of two urban pediatric EDs in Canada. Video recordings will be analyzed using Observer XT. We will use logistic regression to identify potential demographic and visit characteristic cofounders and multivariate logistic regression to examine association between verbal and non-verbal behaviours and parent recall and comprehension. Video recording of discharge communication will provide an opportunity to capture important data such as temporality, sequence and non-verbal behaviours that might influence the communication process. Given the importance of better characterizing discharge communication to identify potential barriers and enablers, we anticipate that the findings from this study will contribute to the development of more effective discharge communication policies and interventions.

  10. Unified theory of interspecific allometric scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jafferson K L da; Barbosa, Lauro A; Silva, Paulo Roberto

    2007-01-01

    A general simple theory for the interspecific allometric scaling is developed in the d + 1-dimensional space (d biological lengths and a physiological time) of metabolic states of organisms. It is assumed that natural selection shaped the metabolic states in such a way that the mass and energy d + 1-densities are size-invariant quantities (independent of body mass). The different metabolic states (basal and maximum) are described by considering that the biological lengths and the physiological time are related by different transport processes of energy and mass. In the basal metabolism, transportation occurs by ballistic and diffusion processes. In d = 3, the 3/4 law occurs if the ballistic movement is the dominant process, while the 2/3 law appears when both transport processes are equivalent. Accelerated movement during the biological time is related to the maximum aerobic sustained metabolism, which is characterized by the scaling exponent 2d/(2d + 1) (6/7 in d = 3). The results are in good agreement with empirical data and a verifiable empirical prediction about the aorta blood velocity in maximum metabolic rate conditions is made. (fast track communication)

  11. Concept Communication and Interpretation of Illness: A Holistic Model of Understanding in Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Halvor

    To ensure patient communication in nursing, certain conditions must be met that enable successful exchange of beliefs, thoughts, and other mental states. The conditions that have received most attention in the nursing literature are derived from general communication theories, psychology, and ethical frameworks of interpretation. This article focuses on a condition more directly related to an influential coherence model of concept possession from recent philosophy of mind and language. The basic ideas in this model are (i) that the primary source of understanding of illness experiences is communicative acts that express concepts of illness, and (ii) that the key to understanding patients' concepts of illness is to understand how they depend on patients' lifeworlds. The article argues that (i) and (ii) are especially relevant in caring practice since it has been extensively documented that patients' perspectives on disease and illness are shaped by their subjective horizons. According to coherentism, nurses need to focus holistically on patients' horizons in order to understand the meaning of patients' expressions of meaning. Furthermore, the coherence model implies that fundamental aims of understanding can be achieved only if nurses recognize the interdependence of patients' beliefs and experiences of ill health. The article uses case studies to elucidate how the holistic implications of coherentism can be used as conceptual tools in nursing.

  12. The senior pupils’ understanding of the essence of manipulative strategies in communicative sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валентина Григорівна Кучерявець

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of an adequate understanding of the manipulative strategy in educational process of the modern school by the high school aged pupils. The topicality of the problem is connected with inadequate spread of manipulative interaction in all life spheres. The deficiency of the skill of expedient use of manipulation in pedagogical process as well as fixing manipulation as the main way of relation construction are the unfavorable variants of human development. There were characterized the main influence strategies in communication. There were cited the results of techniques and creative tasks that allow to reveal the understanding of essence of manipulative strategy and to study its functioning in the senior pupils’ communicative plane. The special authors’ attention was concentrated on determination of pedagogical conditions of mastering the experience of manipulative communication by the high school aged pupils. In the process of research there were determined the certain threatening moments: the significant part of senior pupils does not understand their own manipulative actions, but see it in surrounding people and is ready to aggressive response. The ability to use the ways of flexible, adaptive countermanipulation that allow retain communicative connections between pupils and teachers is not sufficiently developed in the pupils of high school age

  13. The distinction between risk and hazard: understanding and use in stakeholder communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Dirk; Benighaus, Christina; Benighaus, Ludger; Renn, Ortwin; Gold, Stefan; Röder, Bettina; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2014-07-01

    A major issue in all risk communication efforts is the distinction between the terms "risk" and "hazard." The potential to harm a target such as human health or the environment is normally defined as a hazard, whereas risk also encompasses the probability of exposure and the extent of damage. What can be observed again and again in risk communication processes are misunderstandings and communication gaps related to these crucial terms. We asked a sample of 53 experts from public authorities, business and industry, and environmental and consumer organizations in Germany to outline their understanding and use of these terms using both the methods of expert interviews and focus groups. The empirical study made clear that the terms risk and hazard are perceived and used very differently in risk communication depending on the perspective of the stakeholders. Several factors can be identified, such as responsibility for hazard avoidance, economic interest, or a watchdog role. Thus, communication gaps can be reduced to a four-fold problem matrix comprising a semantic, conceptual, strategic, and control problem. The empirical study made clear that risks and hazards are perceived very differently depending on the stakeholders' perspective. Their own worldviews played a major role in their specific use of the two terms hazards and risks in communication. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Macro-reasoning and cognitive gaps: understanding post-Soviet Russians’ communication styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena FELL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Russians and Westerners access, process and communicate information in different ways. Whilst Westerners favour detailed analysis of subject matter, Russians tend to focus on certain components that are, in their view, significant. This disparity makes it difficult to achieve constructive dialogues between Western and Russian stakeholders contributing to cross-cultural communication problems. The author claims that the difference in the ways Russians and Westerners negotiate information is a significant cultural difference between Russia and West rather than an irritating (and in principle amenable lack of analytical skills on the Russian partners’ part. Understanding the reasons behind the Russian-specific approaches to dealing with information would be a positive step towards a more effective cross-cultural communication, important in business situations and essential in diplomacy.

  15. Children’s Third-Party Understanding of Communicative Interactions in a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Afshordi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two studies explored young children’s understanding of the role of shared language in communication by investigating how monolingual English-speaking children interact with an English speaker, a Spanish speaker, and a bilingual experimenter who spoke both English and Spanish. When the bilingual experimenter spoke in Spanish or English to request objects, four-year-old children, but not three-year-olds, used her language choice to determine whom she addressed (e.g. requests in Spanish were directed to the Spanish speaker. Importantly, children used this cue – language choice – only in a communicative context. The findings suggest that by four years, monolingual children recognize that speaking the same language enables successful communication, even when that language is unfamiliar to them. Three-year-old children’s failure to make this distinction suggests that this capacity likely undergoes significant development in early childhood, although other capacities might also be at play.

  16. Interspecific Hybridisation in Campanula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röper, Anna Catharina

    In the present thesis, economically important Campanula species were selected for interspecific hybridisation to increase the genetic viability in plant breeding material. To reach this goal, ovule culture was established as an embryo rescue technique to overcome post-fertilisation barriers...... had an influence on the number of ovules and germination success in some cross combinations. In the second research part interspecific hybrids obtained from ovule culture were genotypically and phenotypically characterised by AFLP analysis, flow cytometry and biometrical parameters. Hybridity...

  17. New perspectives on understanding cultural diversity in nurse–patient communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Tonia; Candlin, Sally; Roger, Peter

    Effective communication is essential in developing rapport with patients, and many nursing roles such as patient assessment, education, and counselling consist only of dialogue. With increasing cultural diversity among nurses and patients in Australia, there are growing concerns relating to the potential for miscommunication, as differences in language and culture can cause misunderstandings which can have serious impacts on health outcomes and patient safety (Hamilton & Woodward-Kron, 2010). According to Grant and Luxford (2011)) there is little research into the way health professionals approach working with cultural difference or how this impacts on their everyday practice. Furthermore, there has been minimal examination of intercultural nurse–patient communication from a linguistic perspective. Applying linguistic frameworks to nursing practice can help nurses understand what is happening in their communication with patients, particularly where people from different cultures are interacting. This paper discusses intercultural nurse–patient communication and refers to theoretical frameworks from applied linguistics to explain how miscommunication may occur. It illustrates how such approaches will help to raise awareness of underlying causes and potentially lead to more effective communication skills, therapeutic relationships and therefore patient satisfaction and safety.

  18. THE ROLE OF PRAGMATICS IN UNDERSTANDING HUMAN COMMUNICATION IN AN INSTITUTIONAL SETTING

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain AL SHAROUFI

    2013-01-01

    This study tries to show the importance of pragmatics in understanding human communication in an institutional setting. Speakers and listeners are actively involved in a negotiating process that leads to creating a cycle of actively changing contexts in which speech acts win their legitimacy of being real doers of action in real-time situations. Particular cultural repertoires in human societies facilitate language with a wealth of contextual resources that can help anchor meaning by favourin...

  19. Understanding the main barriers to immunization in Colombia to better tailor communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García L, Diego Alejandro; Velandia-González, Martha; Trumbo, Silas Pierson; Pedreira, M Cristina; Bravo-Alcántara, Pamela; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina

    2014-06-30

    The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Colombia has made great advances since its inception in 1979; however, by 2010 vaccination coverage rates had been declining. In 2010, the EPI commissioned a nationwide study on practices on immunization, attitudes and knowledge, perceived service quality, and barriers to childhood immunization in order to tailor EPI communication strategies. Colombia's 32 geographical departments were divided into 10 regions. Interviewers from an independent polling company administered a survey to 4802 parents and guardians of children aged communication preferences, and parental attitudes on vaccination. Although all respondents indicated that vaccines have health benefits, and 4738 (98.7%) possessed vaccination cards for their children, attitudes and knowledge were not always favorable to immunization. Six groups of immunization barriers were identified: 1) factors related to caregivers (24.4%), 2) vaccinators (19.7%), 3) health centers (18.0%), 4) the health system (13.4%), 5) concerns about adverse events (13.1%), and 6) cultural and religious beliefs (11.4%); groups 1, 5 and 6 together represented almost half (48.9%) of users, indicating problems related to the demand for vaccines as the primary barriers to immunization. Differences in demographics, communication preferences, and reported service quality were found among participants in the six groups and among participants in the 10 regions. Additionally, differences between how participants reported receiving information on vaccination and how they believed such information should be communicated were observed. Better understanding immunization barriers and the users of the EPI can help tailor communication strategies to increase demand for immunization services. Results of the study have been used by Colombia's EPI to inform the design of new communication strategies.

  20. Understanding the influences and impact of patient-clinician communication in cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Shay, Laura A; Winship, Jodi M

    2017-12-01

    Patient-clinician communication is thought to be central to care outcomes, but when and how communication affects patient outcomes is not well understood. We propose a conceptual model and classification framework upon which the empirical evidence base for the impact of patient-clinician communication can be summarized and further built. We use the proposed model and framework to summarize findings from two recent systematic reviews, one evaluating the use of shared decision making (SDM) on cancer care outcomes and the other evaluating the role of physician recommendation in cancer screening use. Using this approach, we identified clusters of studies with positive findings, including those relying on the measurement of SDM from the patients' perspective and affective-cognitive outcomes, particularly in the context of surgical treatment decision making. We also identify important gaps in the literature, including the role of SDM in post-surgical treatment and end-of-life care decisions, and those specifying particular physician communication strategies when recommending cancer screening. Transparent linkages between key conceptual domains and the influence of methodological approaches on observed patient outcomes are needed to advance our understanding of how and when patient-clinician communication influences patient outcomes. The proposed conceptual model and classification framework can be used to facilitate the translation of empirical evidence into practice and to identify critical gaps in knowledge regarding how and when patient-clinician communication impacts care outcomes in the context of cancer and health care more broadly. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Getting on the same page: Communication, patient involvement and shared understanding of "decisions" in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppin, Aaron L; Kunneman, Marleen; Hathaway, Julie; Fernandez, Cara; Montori, Victor M; Tilburt, Jon C

    2018-02-01

    Patients and clinicians do not often agree on whether a decision has been made about cancer care. This could be explained by factors related to communication quality and/or the type of decision being made. We used a self-developed coding scheme to code a random sample of 128 encounters in which patients and clinicians either agreed (n=64) or disagreed (n=64) that a cancer care decision was made and tested for associations between concordance and key communication behaviours. We also identified and characterized cancer care decisions by topic and level of patient involvement and looked for trends. We identified 378 cancer care decisions across 128 encounters. Explicit decisions were most commonly made about topics wherein decision control could be easily delegated to a clear and present expert (eg either the patient or the clinician). Related to this, level of patient involvement varied significantly by decision topic. Explicit decisions were rarely made in an observable way about social, non-clinical or self-management related topics, although patients and clinicians both reported having made a cancer care decision in encounters where no decisions were observed. We found no association between communication behaviours and concordance in our sample. What counts as a "decision" in cancer care may be constructed within disparate social roles that leave many agendas unaddressed and decisions unmade. Changing the content of conversations to encourage explicit decisions about self-management and life context-related topics may have greater value in enabling shared understanding than promoting communication behaviours among already high-performing communicators. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Understanding How Mindful Parenting May Be Linked to Mother-Adolescent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; Duncan, Larissa G; Coatsworth, J Douglas; Nix, Robert L; Greenberg, Mark T

    2015-09-01

    Researchers have sought to understand the processes that may promote effective parent-adolescent communication because of the strong links to adolescent adjustment. Mindfulness, a relatively new construct in Western psychology that derives from ancient Eastern traditions, has been shown to facilitate communication and to be beneficial when applied in the parenting context. In this article, we tested if and how mindful parenting was linked to routine adolescent disclosure and parental solicitation within a longitudinal sample of rural and suburban, early adolescents and their mothers (n = 432; mean adolescent age = 12.14, 46 % male, 72 % Caucasian). We found that three factors-negative parental reactions to disclosure, adolescent feelings of parental over-control, and the affective quality of the parent-adolescent relationship-mediated the association between mindful parenting and adolescent disclosure and parental solicitation. Results suggest that mindful parenting may improve mother-adolescent communication by reducing parental negative reactions to information, adolescent perceptions of over-control, and by improving the affective quality of the parent-adolescent relationship. The discussion highlights intervention implications and future directions for research.

  3. Communication activity for residents to understand radiation after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itabashi, Kiyoshi; Tagawa, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Kenji; Yamamoto, Tomoyo

    2015-01-01

    'Question-and-Answer Session on Radiation and Health' ('Kotaeru-kai' in Japanese) has started in July 2011 in Fukushima Prefecture, which was influenced by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011. The purpose of the Session is to have mainly parents and teachers (kindergartens, schools etc.) understand correctly about radiation and its influence on health. At the requests of the teachers in Fukushima Prefecture, about 4 staff members made a team, and visited Fukushima. The members of the team were selected from 500 JAEA staffs nominated beforehand. The members explained about radiation and its influence on health by using illustrations and metaphors. After the lecture, they answered the questions asked in advance at schools. Also they answered the questions asked in the Session. In the Session, the members placed much value on the communication with participants. Until the end of December 2014, the Question-and-Answer Sessions on Radiation and Health have been held 241 times for about twenty thousand participants. According to 7,613 participants' questionnaires, which were collected from July 2011 to the end of 2012, it seems that participants were able to understand well about radiation and its influence on health. Besides parents and teachers, some of the junior high schools requested to explain for students. JAEA will continue this communication activity in order to meet these expectations and requirements. (author)

  4. Interspecific interactions in phytophagous insects revisited: a quantitative assessment of competition theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ian; Denno, Robert F

    2007-10-01

    The importance of interspecific competition is a highly controversial and unresolved issue for community ecology in general, and for phytophagous insects in particular. Recent advancements, however, in our understanding of indirect (plant- and enemy-mediated) interactions challenge the historical paradigms of competition. Thus, in the context of this rapidly developing field, we re-evaluate the evidence for interspecific competition in phytophagous insects using a meta-analysis of published studies. Our analysis is specifically designed to test the assumptions underlying traditional competition theory, namely that competitive interactions are symmetrical, necessitate spatial and temporal co-occurrence, and increase in intensity as the density, phylogenetic similarity, and niche overlap of competing species increase. Despite finding frequent evidence for competition, we found very little evidence that plant-feeding insects conform to theoretical predictions for interspecific competition. Interactions were highly asymmetrical, similar in magnitude within vs. between feeding guilds (chewers vs. sap-feeders), and were unaffected by the quantity of resources removed (% defoliation). There was mixed support for the effects of phylogeny, spatial/temporal separation, and the relative strength of intra- vs. interspecific competition. Clearly, a new paradigm that accounts for indirect interactions and facilitation is required to describe how interspecific competition contributes to the organization of phytophagous insect communities, and perhaps to other plant and animal communities as well.

  5. Molecular markers unravel intraspecific and interspecific genetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Kotwal S., Dhar M. K., Kour B., Raj K. and Kaul S. 2013 Molecular markers unravel intraspecific and interspecific genetic variability in ... of bowel problems including chronic constipation, amoebic ..... while to select parents from accessions, Pov80 and Pov79 ... nology (DBT), Govt. of India, for financial assistance in the form.

  6. Interspecific nest use by aridland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    1982-01-01

    Nest holes drilled by woodpeckers (Picidae) are frequently used by secondary cavity-nesting species, but interspecific use of open and domed nests is less well known. Nests constructed by many southwestern desert birds last longer than one year (pers. obs.) and are consequently reused by the same pair (e.g., Abert's Towhees [Pipilo aberti], pers. obs.) or by other...

  7. Synthesis and characterization of interspecific trigenomic hybrids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... Interspecific reciprocal crosses between three cultivated Brassica ... environmental conditions, which impacts the qualitative and quantitative crop and oil production to a greater extent. ... Brassica rapa L. (2n= 20, AA) (Nanda Kumar et al., 1991; ... breeding potential for the crop brassicas as a trigenomic.

  8. Asymmetric interspecific territorial competition over food resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rock-dwelling cichlids in Lake Malawi comprise the most diverse freshwater fish community in the world. Individuals frequently interact with heterospecifics through feeding territoriality. Underwater observations and experiments were conducted to examine interspecific variation in the frequencies of territorial behaviour ...

  9. Understanding attitudes toward information and communication technology in home-care: Information and communication technology as a market good within Norwegian welfare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øyen, Karianne Røssummoen; Sunde, Olivia Sissil; Solheim, Marit; Moricz, Sara; Ytrehus, Siri

    2018-09-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand nurses' and other staff members' attitudes toward the usefulness of information and communication technology in home-care settings. Research has found that beliefs about the expected benefits of information and communication technology impact the use of technology. Furthermore, inexperience with using information and communication technology may cause negative attitudes. This article is based on a questionnaire to 155 nurses and other staff members in home-care in Sogn og Fjordane county in Norway. The results revealed minimal use of information and communication technology at work; however, participants had positive attitudes regarding the potential benefits of information and communication technology use in home-care. Individuals' extensive use of and familiarity with different solutions in private lives could be an important context for explaining employees' attitudes. Given that information and communication technology is both a welfare service and a market good, this may explain individuals' positive attitudes toward information and communication technology despite their lack of experience with it at work. Experiences with information and communication technology as a market good and the way new technologies can affect work routines will affect the implementation of information and communication technology in home-care.

  10. Uncertainty in geohazard understanding and communicating hazards and risk between scientists and the UK Insurance industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, Russell; Lee, Kathryn; Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    At BGS, expert elicitation has been used to evaluate the relative impacts arising from multiple geohazards that can affect UK housing stock. In turn this 'consensus' understanding has been developed into a tool to assist the UK insurance industry underwrite the domestic property market. BGS models six geohazards deemed relevant to UK Housing: Landslides, Shrink-swell (heave), Compressibles, Dissolution (Karst), collapsibles and running sand. The models are widely used and have been developed over 2 decades of research. However, stakeholders such as the insurance industry are not well equipped to managed geohazard models directly and need the information to be categorised in a meaningful way, appropriate to their business models. Creating terminologies to communicate the relative threats for each geohazard has been relatively straightforward, but communicating the impacts of multiple geohazards, or comparing the relative risks of one geohazard against another has proved more difficult. Expert elicitation has been used since 2010 to try and build a consensus model for geohazards and to help BGS communicate its knowledge to stakeholders. Typically, the BGS geohazard models are provided with 5 levels of susceptibility: A (low or absent) ,B, C, D and E (high). Resolving individual models is relatively simple, but the insurance market is extremely dynamic and a need to simplify and convey the possible threats from all geohazards into a single 'rating' of susceptibility has emerged. This poses a problem when trying to convey the geological understanding behind the models. For example, how do you convey the combined (or comparative) susceptibility of a high susceptibility to Dissolution, with a moderate susceptibility to Landslides. This complexity is further hampered when needing to consider that stakeholders resolve spatial distributions via use of frameworks such as 'Postcode' sectors, and that the outputs of most geohazard models are sensitive to scope and scale of

  11. Context and Communication Strategies in Naturalistic Behavioural Intervention: A Framework for Understanding How Practitioners Facilitate Communication in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, Hannah; Perkins, Mick; Clegg, Judy

    2011-01-01

    There are many different approaches to intervention aimed at facilitating the social and communicative abilities of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Behavioural interventions seek to improve the social and communicative abilities of children with ASD through interaction. Recently there has been a move towards naturalistic…

  12. Do you know what I mean? Brain oscillations and the understanding of communicative intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella eBrunetti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pointing gesture allows children to communicate their intentions before the acquisition of language. In particular, two main purposes seem to underlie the gesture: to request a desired object (imperative pointing or to share attention on that object (declarative pointing. Since the imperative pointing has an instrumental goal and the declarative an interpersonal one, only the latter gesture is thought to signal the infant’s awareness of the communicative partner as a mental agent. The present study examined the neural responses of adult subjects with the aim to test the hypothesis that declarative rather than imperative pointing reflects mentalizing skills. Fourteen subjects were measured in a MEG environment including 4 conditions, based on the goal of the pointing–imperative or declarative–and the role of the subject–sender or receiver of pointing. Time-Frequency modulations of brain activity in each condition (Declarative Production and Comprehension, Imperative Production and Comprehension were analyzed. Both low BETA and high BETA power were stronger during Declarative than Imperative condition, in anterior cingulated cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus, respectively. Furthermore, high GAMMA activity was higher in right temporo-parietal junction during the sender than receiving condition. This suggests that communicative pointing modulated brain regions previously described in neuroimaging research as linked to social cognitive skills and that declarative pointing is more capable of eliciting that activation than imperative. Our results contribute to the understanding of the roles of brain rhythm dynamics in social cognition, thus supporting neural research on that topic during developmental both in typical and atypical conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder. In particular, the identification of relevant regions in a mature brain may stimulate a future work on the developmental changes of neural activation in

  13. Primate vocal communication: a useful tool for understanding human speech and language evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedurek, Pawel; Slocombe, Katie E

    2011-04-01

    Language is a uniquely human trait, and questions of how and why it evolved have been intriguing scientists for years. Nonhuman primates (primates) are our closest living relatives, and their behavior can be used to estimate the capacities of our extinct ancestors. As humans and many primate species rely on vocalizations as their primary mode of communication, the vocal behavior of primates has been an obvious target for studies investigating the evolutionary roots of human speech and language. By studying the similarities and differences between human and primate vocalizations, comparative research has the potential to clarify the evolutionary processes that shaped human speech and language. This review examines some of the seminal and recent studies that contribute to our knowledge regarding the link between primate calls and human language and speech. We focus on three main aspects of primate vocal behavior: functional reference, call combinations, and vocal learning. Studies in these areas indicate that despite important differences, primate vocal communication exhibits some key features characterizing human language. They also indicate, however, that some critical aspects of speech, such as vocal plasticity, are not shared with our primate cousins. We conclude that comparative research on primate vocal behavior is a very promising tool for deepening our understanding of the evolution of human speech and language, but much is still to be done as many aspects of monkey and ape vocalizations remain largely unexplored.

  14. Activity theory and genre ecology: Conceptual tools for understanding technical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winberg, Christine

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a year-long project in an architectural technology department, which studied students’ oral language development in plenary discussions in a first year History and Appreciation of Architecture course. Data was obtained by videotaping classroom activities, and by interviewing the lecturer and students who were participants in the course. The data was analysed, using categories suggested by Activity Theory. The category of ‘rules’ was selected from the activity system for further analysis, using a Genre Ecology approach. The findings of the study show how technical communication is managed within a classroom based activity system comprising lecturer and students, and graphic and verbal texts, in a context of learning. Learning, teaching, and expert discourses of the architectural review genre interact and are negotiated by participants. Through participation in plenary discussion, students from diverse backgrounds contribute to one another’s experience of architectural design, and by valuing and responding to students’ contributions, the lecturer facilitates students’ understanding of the ‘rules’ of architectural communication, and enables students to access an expanded repertoire of the genre of architectural review.

  15. Communication Access for Deaf People in Healthcare Settings: Understanding the Work of American Sign Language Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Andrea M; Swabey, Laurie

    Despite federal laws that mandate equal access and communication in all healthcare settings for deaf people, consistent provision of quality interpreting in healthcare settings is still not a reality, as recognized by deaf people and American Sign Language (ASL)-English interpreters. The purpose of this study was to better understand the work of ASL interpreters employed in healthcare settings, which can then inform on training and credentialing of interpreters, with the ultimate aim of improving the quality of healthcare and communication access for deaf people. Based on job analysis, researchers designed an online survey with 167 task statements representing 44 categories. American Sign Language interpreters (N = 339) rated the importance of, and frequency with which they performed, each of the 167 tasks. Categories with the highest average importance ratings included language and interpreting, situation assessment, ethical and professional decision making, manage the discourse, monitor, manage and/or coordinate appointments. Categories with the highest average frequency ratings included the following: dress appropriately, adapt to a variety of physical settings and locations, adapt to working with variety of providers in variety of roles, deal with uncertain and unpredictable work situations, and demonstrate cultural adaptability. To achieve health equity for the deaf community, the training and credentialing of interpreters needs to be systematically addressed.

  16. Theory-based approaches to understanding public emergency preparedness: implications for effective health and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hilyard, Karen; Freimuth, Vicki; Barge, J Kevin; Mindlin, Michele

    2010-06-01

    Recent natural and human-caused disasters have awakened public health officials to the importance of emergency preparedness. Guided by health behavior and media effects theories, the analysis of a statewide survey in Georgia reveals that self-efficacy, subjective norm, and emergency news exposure are positively associated with the respondents' possession of emergency items and their stages of emergency preparedness. Practical implications suggest less focus on demographics as the sole predictor of emergency preparedness and more comprehensive measures of preparedness, including both a person's cognitive stage of preparedness and checklists of emergency items on hand. We highlight the utility of theory-based approaches for understanding and predicting public emergency preparedness as a way to enable more effective health and risk communication.

  17. Does Your Heart Forecast help practitioner understanding and confidence with cardiovascular disease risk communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Sue; Kerr, Andrew; Broadbent, Elizabeth; MacKenzie, Craig; Cole, Karl; McLachlan, Andy

    2011-03-01

    Explaining what cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk means and engaging in shared decision-making regarding risk factor modification is challenging. An electronic CVD risk visualisation tool containing multiple risk communication strategies (Your Heart Forecast) was designed in 2009. To assess whether this tool facilitated explaining CVD risk to primary care patients. Health professionals who accessed a Primary Health Organisation website or who attended educational peer groups over a three-month period were invited to complete questionnaires before and after viewing a four-minute video about the tool. Respondents were asked to make an informed guess of the CVD risk of a 35-year-old patient (actual CVD risk 5%) and rate the following sentence as being true or false: 'If there were 100 people like Mr Andrews, five would go on to have a cardiac event in the next five years.' They also were asked to rank their understanding of CVD risk and confidence in explaining the concept to patients. Fifty health professionals (37 GPs, 12 practice nurses, one other) completed before and after questionnaires. Respondents' CVD risk estimates pre-video ranged from confidence in explaining risk reduced in range and shifted towards greater efficacy. Whether this tool facilitates discussions of CVD risk with patients and improves patient understanding and lifestyle behaviour needs to be evaluated in a randomised trial.

  18. THE ROLE OF PRAGMATICS IN UNDERSTANDING HUMAN COMMUNICATION IN AN INSTITUTIONAL SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain AL SHAROUFI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to show the importance of pragmatics in understanding human communication in an institutional setting. Speakers and listeners are actively involved in a negotiating process that leads to creating a cycle of actively changing contexts in which speech acts win their legitimacy of being real doers of action in real-time situations. Particular cultural repertoires in human societies facilitate language with a wealth of contextual resources that can help anchor meaning by favouring particular speech acts to other ones. In investigating some dialogical tactics practiced by some Kuwaiti customer service employees in Kuwait, I found that Mey’s pragmeme is the ideal outcome of these dialogic encounters. In Mey’s viewpoint, no speech act means anything without the cultural context in which it originates, a stance which casts a serious doubt on the semantico-syntactic analysis of speech acts in a Searlean sense. The communicative value of ethos in institutional encounters relies primarily on looking at meaning from a pragmatic perspective, to be more precise here from a pragmemic perspective. In order to assess the level of their socio-pragmatic awareness and their ability to depend on their socio-pragmatic resources to persuade their customers, I interviewed a group of customer service employees at some Kuwaiti banks. The results of the study showed cogently that bank employees in Kuwait have high socio-pragmatic awareness, which helped them significantly in attracting more customers to their banks. Those employees showed clear awareness of strategic positive politeness and effective usage of appropriate pragmemes, contextualized speech acts (Mey 2001, Capone 2005. Making promises, guaranteeing exceptional services, and pampering clients with versatile banking products are some of the socio-pragmatic strategies used by the aforementioned employees.

  19. Education and communication to increase public understanding of nuclear technology peaceful uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Denise S.; Passos, Igor S., E-mail: denise@omiccron.com.br [Omiccron Programacao Grafica, Atibaia, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear technology helps to improve the quality of our everyday life. Nevertheless, there is still great misinformation and the issue divides public opinion. Several surveys were conducted over the past years to study public acceptance of Nuclear Technology in Brazil and worldwide. GlobeScan (2005), for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Eurobarometers (2010), published by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD), report similar socio-demographic trends: the higher the education level, the more favorable is public opinion towards nuclear power. Taking into account education and communication are crucial to increase public knowledge and understanding of the benefits of Nuclear Technology and that Internet access has increased strongly all over the country, this educational project aims to take advantage of the potential of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to disseminate the peaceful use of nuclear technology and its benefits, informing children and teenagers, as well as parents and teachers, who are most often unaware of the matter. Whereas Internet access has increased strongly for both public and private schools all over the country, this web-based educational project, entitled Radioatividades (Radioactivities), provides short courses, curiosities and interactive activities covering topics related to Nuclear Technology and its beneficial applications in several areas, such as medicine, agriculture, industry, art and electric power generation. The project uses the combination of multiple technologies and last generation internet resources. Our target is the dissemination of information, promoting the benefits of Nuclear Technology for new generations, contributing to public acceptance of Nuclear Technology, combating misinformation in our society, omission of the media and knowledge fragmentation. Education transforms old prejudices and inspires new thoughts, stimulating

  20. Understanding human - bat interactions in NSW, Australia: improving risk communication for prevention of Australian bat lyssavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Emma K; Massey, Peter D; Cox-Witton, Keren; Paterson, Beverley J; Eastwood, Keith; Durrheim, David N

    2014-07-02

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infects a number of flying fox and insectivorous bats species in Australia. Human infection with ABLV is inevitably fatal unless prior vaccination and/or post-exposure treatment (PET) is given. Despite ongoing public health messaging about the risks associated with bat contact, surveillance data have revealed a four-fold increase in the number of people receiving PET for bat exposure in NSW between 2007 and 2011. Our study aimed to better understand these human - bat interactions in order to identify additional risk communication messages that could lower the risk of potential ABLV exposure. All people aged 18 years or over whom received PET for non-occupation related potential ABLV exposure in the Hunter New England Local Health District of Australia between July 2011 and July 2013 were considered eligible for the study. Eligible participants were invited to a telephone interview to explore the circumstances of their bat contact. Interviews were then transcribed and thematically analysed by two independent investigators. Of 21 eligible participants that were able to be contacted, 16 consented and participated in a telephone interview. Participants reported bats as being widespread in their environment but reported a general lack of awareness about ABLV, particularly the risk of disease from bat scratches. Participants who attempted to 'rescue' bats did so because of a deep concern for the bat's welfare. Participants reported a change in risk perception after the exposure event and provided suggestions for public health messages that could be used to raise awareness about ABLV. Reframing the current risk messages to account for the genuine concern of people for bat welfare may enhance the communication. The potential risk to the person and possible harm to the bat from an attempted 'rescue' should be promoted, along with contact details for animal rescue groups. The potential risk of ABLV from bat scratches merits greater emphasis.

  1. Education and communication to increase public understanding of nuclear technology peaceful uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Denise S.; Passos, Igor S.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear technology helps to improve the quality of our everyday life. Nevertheless, there is still great misinformation and the issue divides public opinion. Several surveys were conducted over the past years to study public acceptance of Nuclear Technology in Brazil and worldwide. GlobeScan (2005), for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Eurobarometers (2010), published by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD), report similar socio-demographic trends: the higher the education level, the more favorable is public opinion towards nuclear power. Taking into account education and communication are crucial to increase public knowledge and understanding of the benefits of Nuclear Technology and that Internet access has increased strongly all over the country, this educational project aims to take advantage of the potential of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to disseminate the peaceful use of nuclear technology and its benefits, informing children and teenagers, as well as parents and teachers, who are most often unaware of the matter. Whereas Internet access has increased strongly for both public and private schools all over the country, this web-based educational project, entitled Radioatividades (Radioactivities), provides short courses, curiosities and interactive activities covering topics related to Nuclear Technology and its beneficial applications in several areas, such as medicine, agriculture, industry, art and electric power generation. The project uses the combination of multiple technologies and last generation internet resources. Our target is the dissemination of information, promoting the benefits of Nuclear Technology for new generations, contributing to public acceptance of Nuclear Technology, combating misinformation in our society, omission of the media and knowledge fragmentation. Education transforms old prejudices and inspires new thoughts, stimulating

  2. Understanding the role of visual communication in marketing amongst highschool students

    OpenAIRE

    Praznik, Daša

    2017-01-01

    Communication, visual communication, graphic design, and marketing are all closely connected concepts. Today they accompany us at every step of our lives. Communication enables us to govern relations, express feelings, opinions, decisions, to lead our lives. The messages we exchange can be verbal or non-verbal in nature, such as (pictorial) symbols, gestures, expressions, mimicry. Communication can take place at various different levels, ranging from a discussion between two individuals to gl...

  3. Business Communication and the Natural Environment: Using Traditional and Contemporary Perspectives to Understand the Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Connie

    1997-01-01

    Argues that business communication scholarship has not attended to the natural environment. Notes that organizational scholarship has theorized business as it relates to the natural environment but has not thoroughly understood how communication functions in this relationship. Argues that business communication should adopt a Gaian perspective…

  4. Understanding and Using the Relationships between Business and Professional Communication and Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrose, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of research and pedagogy from the public relations discipline can benefit the business and professional communication instructor seeking new dimensions for the business and professional communication classroom. Elements of public relations (PR) found in Association for Business Communication articles and journals may be incorporated in the…

  5. Understanding the Picture Exchange Communication System and Its Application in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amanda; Sandt, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and its applications in physical education. The PECS is an appropriate communication intervention for students with autism who lack functional communication skills. It is often confused with other visual support strategies, so the authors delineate the six phases of PECS and…

  6. "What do you think I should do?": Understanding intercultural medical communication in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, S.

    2015-01-01

    Adequate communication between doctors and patients is a crucial aspect of good quality health care. Research has shown that medical communication between doctors and patients from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds is less effective than medical communication between doctors and patients

  7. (S)-(+)-Ipsdienol: Interspecific Inhibition of Ips latidens (LeConte) by Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; John H. Borden

    1992-01-01

    In south-central British Columbia, the attraction of Ips latidens (LeConte) to its pheromone, ipsenol, was inhibited by (S)-(+)-ipsdienol, a pheromone for I. pini (Say). (R)-(-)-Ipsdienol had no effect on I. latidens. (S)-(+)-lpsdienol probably plays a role in interspecific communication between the two species...

  8. An understanding about the process of communicative interactions in Joint Planning Groups among professors of the physics degree course based on Theory of Communicative Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Neves da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study that aims to understand the possibilities from the accession of professors who teach specific topics of physics and physics teaching in the teachers formation degree in a Joint Planning Group about the relations among their disciplines. The study was built from the establishment and monitoring of a group of professors who met regularly during a year to plan their courses in the degree in physics together. Based on the theoretical perspective of the Theory of Communicative Acts, by Jürgen Habermas, the analysis aimed to understand the planning process through the use of language as a means of inter-subjective interaction and intention of understanding through the use of valid claims. The possibilities presented enable conceptualize the elements of a Joint Planning Group from the perspective of joint construction of concepts and practices, actions coordinating and theming of the practice in a an environment that enables communicative acts.

  9. Understanding the Complexities of Communicating Management Decisions on the Subsistence Use of Yukon River Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J. F.; Trainor, S.

    2017-12-01

    Over 20,000 residents in Alaska and Yukon Territory rely upon the Yukon River to provide them harvests of Pacific salmon each year. Salmon are a highly valued food resource and the practice of salmon fishing along the Yukon is deep rooted in local cultures and traditions. Potential future impacts of climate change on the health of Yukon River salmon stocks could be significant. Collaborative managerial processes which incorporate the viewpoints of subsistence stakeholders will be crucial in enabling communities and managerial institutions to adapt and manage these impacts. However, the massive extent of the Yukon River makes it difficult for communities rich with highly localized knowledge to situate themselves within a drainage-wide context of resource availability, and to fully understand the implications that management decisions may have for their harvest. Differences in salmon availability and abundance between the upper and lower Yukon, commercial vs. subsistence fishery interests, and enforcement of the international Pacific Salmon Treaty further complicate understanding and makes the topic of salmon as a subsistence resource a highly contentious issue. A map which synthesizes the presence and absence of Pacific salmon throughout the entire Yukon River drainage was requested by both subsistence fishers and natural resource managers in Alaska in order to help facilitate productive conversations about salmon management decisions. Interviews with Alaskan stakeholders with managerial, biological, and subsistence harvest backgrounds were carried out and a literature review was conducted in order to understand what such a map should and could accomplish. During the research process, numerous data gaps concerning the distribution of salmon along the Yukon River were discovered, and insights about the complexities involved in translating science when it is situated within a charged political, economic, and cultural context were revealed. Preliminary maps depicting

  10. Understanding animal health communication networks among smallholder livestock producers in Australia using stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, L; Woodgate, R; Rast, L; Toribio, J-A L M L; Hernández-Jover, M

    2017-09-01

    Smallholder livestock producers are a diverse population with wide ranging motivations for keeping livestock. The biosecurity risk posed by smallholders has been the subject of much conjecture, with comparisons often made between the level of animal health and biosecurity knowledge of smallholders, versus that of commercial livestock producers. This research aimed to gain a better understanding of current knowledge of smallholder production in Australia, particularly in relation to biosecurity and emergency animal disease, and to investigate the relationships that exist between smallholders and the organisations and individuals from which they seek information, assistance and support. Engagement with stakeholders is an important component of an effective biosecurity communication strategy as the dissemination of biosecurity related information from a single source cannot be expected to satisfy the needs of such a broad ranging population. A qualitative study involving a review of literature, semi-structured interviews with government and non-government stakeholders and the development of smallholder and stakeholder influence and interest grids was undertaken. This paper forms part of a broader mixed methods research project among smallholders. Results from the stakeholder analysis showed variation in the parameters used to define smallholders and in the level of stakeholder involvement. Smallholders identified breeding consultants, other producers, private veterinarians and family, friends and colleagues as having a significant to high level of interest and potential to influence their practices. Government agencies were perceived to only have some level of interest but significant influence. Industry stakeholders and rural suppliers were positioned in the quadrant reflecting perceived low levels of interest and influence. The interest and influence grid developed from stakeholder's perspectives demonstrate a clustering around the mid points for both interest and

  11. How do you perceive this author? Understanding and modeling authors’ communication quality in social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we leverage human evaluations, content analysis, and computational modeling to generate a comprehensive analysis of readers’ evaluations of authors’ communication quality in social media with respect to four factors: author credibility, interpersonal attraction, communication competence, and intent to interact. We review previous research on the human evaluation process and highlight its limitations in providing sufficient information for readers to assess authors’ communication quality. From our analysis of the evaluations of 1,000 Twitter authors’ communication quality from 300 human evaluators, we provide empirical evidence of the impact of the characteristics of the reader (demographic, social media experience, and personality), author (profile and social media engagement), and content (linguistic, syntactic, similarity, and sentiment) on the evaluation of an author’s communication quality. In addition, based on the author and message characteristics, we demonstrate the potential for building accurate models that can indicate an author’s communication quality. PMID:29389979

  12. How do you perceive this author? Understanding and modeling authors' communication quality in social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyungsik

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we leverage human evaluations, content analysis, and computational modeling to generate a comprehensive analysis of readers' evaluations of authors' communication quality in social media with respect to four factors: author credibility, interpersonal attraction, communication competence, and intent to interact. We review previous research on the human evaluation process and highlight its limitations in providing sufficient information for readers to assess authors' communication quality. From our analysis of the evaluations of 1,000 Twitter authors' communication quality from 300 human evaluators, we provide empirical evidence of the impact of the characteristics of the reader (demographic, social media experience, and personality), author (profile and social media engagement), and content (linguistic, syntactic, similarity, and sentiment) on the evaluation of an author's communication quality. In addition, based on the author and message characteristics, we demonstrate the potential for building accurate models that can indicate an author's communication quality.

  13. Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice populations derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice populations ... Both cluster and principal component analyses revealed two major groups ...... simulations. Theor ... inheritance, chromosomal location, and population dynamics.

  14. Hydrological Conditions Affect the Interspecific Interaction between Two Emergent Wetland Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological conditions determine the distribution of plant species in wetlands, where conditions such as water depth and hydrological fluctuations are expected to affect the interspecific interactions among emergent wetland species. To test such effects, we conducted a greenhouse experiment with three treatment categories, interspecific interaction (mixed culture or monoculture, water depth (10 or 30 cm depth, and hydrological fluctuation (static or fluctuating water level, and two common emergent wetland plant species, Scirpus planiculumis Fr. (Cyperaceae and Phragmites australis var. baiyangdiansis (Gramineae. An increase in the water depth significantly restrained the growth of both S. planiculumis and P. australis, while hydrological fluctuations did not obviously alter the growth of either species. In addition, both water depth and hydrological fluctuations significantly affected the interspecific interaction between these two wetland species. P. australis benefited from interspecific interaction under increasing water depth and hydrological fluctuations, and the RII values were clearly positive for plants grown at a water depth that fluctuated around 30 cm. The results may have some implications for understanding how S. planiculumis and P. australis, as well as wetland communities, respond to the natural variation or human modification of hydrological conditions.

  15. Two-Year-Old Children but Not Domestic Dogs Understand Communicative Intentions without Language, Gestures, or Gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard; Mueller, Bettina; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Infants can see someone pointing to one of two buckets and infer that the toy they are seeking is hidden inside. Great apes do not succeed in this task, but, surprisingly, domestic dogs do. However, whether children and dogs understand these communicative acts in the same way is not yet known. To test this possibility, an experimenter did not…

  16. Naming as Strategic Communication: Understanding Corporate Name Change through an Integrative Framework Encompassing Branding, Identity and Institutional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line; Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for understanding corporate name change as strategic communication. From a corporate branding perspective, the choice of a new name can be seen as a wish to stand out from a group of similar organizations. Conversely, from an institutional perspective, name change...

  17. Understanding the impact of simulated patients on health care learners' communication skills: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplonyi, Jessica; Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Nestel, Debra; Kiegaldie, Debra; Maloney, Stephen; Haines, Terry; Williams, Cylie

    2017-12-01

    Effective communication skills are at the core of good health care. Simulated patients (SPs) are increasingly engaged as an interactive means of teaching, applying and practising communication skills with immediate feedback. There is a large body of research into the use of manikin-based simulation but a gap exists in the body of research on the effectiveness of SP-based education to teach communication skills that impact patient outcomes. The aim of this systematic review was to critically analyse the existing research, investigating whether SP-based communication skills training improves learner-patient communication, how communication skill improvement is measured, and who measures these improvements. The databases Medline, ProQuest (Health & Medical Complete, Nursing and Allied Health Source) and CINAHL (EBSCOhost) Education Resources Information Centre (ERIC) were searched for articles that investigated the effects of SP-based education on the communication skills of medical, nursing and allied health learners. There were 60 studies included in the review. Only two studies reported direct patient outcomes, one reporting some negative impact, and no studies included an economic analysis. Many studies reported statistically significant third-party ratings of improved communication effectiveness following SP-based education; however, studies were unable to be pooled for meta-analysis because of the outcome collection methods. There were a small number of studies comparing SP with no training at all and there were no differences between communication skills, contradicting the results from studies reporting benefits. Of the 60 studies included for analysis, 54 (90%) met the minimum quality score of 7/11, with four articles (7%) scoring 11/11. SP-based education is widely accepted as a valuable and effective means of teaching communication skills but there is limited evidence of how this translates to patient outcomes and no indication of economic benefit for this

  18. Two-year-old children but not domestic dogs understand communicative intentions without language, gestures, or gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard; Mueller, Bettina; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Infants can see someone pointing to one of two buckets and infer that the toy they are seeking is hidden inside. Great apes do not succeed in this task, but, surprisingly, domestic dogs do. However, whether children and dogs understand these communicative acts in the same way is not yet known. To test this possibility, an experimenter did not point, look, or extend any part of her body towards either bucket, but instead lifted and shook one via a centrally pulled rope. She did this either intentionally or accidentally, and did or did not address her act to the subject using ostensive cues. Young 2-year-old children but not dogs understood the experimenter's act in intentional conditions. While ostensive pulling of the rope made no difference to children's success, it actually hindered dogs' performance. We conclude that while human children may be capable of inferring communicative intent from a wide variety actions, so long as these actions are performed intentionally, dogs are likely to be less flexible in this respect. Their understanding of communicative intention may be more dependent upon bodily markers of communicative intent, including gaze, orientation, extended limbs, and vocalizations. This may be because humans have come under selective pressure to develop skills for communicating with absent interlocutors - where bodily co-presence is not possible. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Adopting a critical intercultural communication approach to understanding health professionals' encounter with ethnic minority patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    professionals and their approach to ethnic minority patients influence the accessibility of healthcare and availability of health prevention resources of ethnic minorities. When adapting healthcare practice to minority patients, healthcare professionals draw on insights from intercultural communication...... and anthropology. However, within these disciplines such concepts as culture, interculturality, and ethnicity are subjected to contestation due to co-existing, but competing paradigms. This paper demonstrates how healthcare discourses on ethnic minority patients reflect shifting intercultural communication...... paradigms and advocates the adoption of a critical intercultural communication approach in relation to ethnicity-based health inequality....

  20. Interspecific associations and community structure: A local survey and analysis in a grass community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific associations in the plant community may help to understand the self-organizing assembly and succession of the community. In present study, Pearson correlation, net correlation, Spearman rank correlation, and point correlation were used to detect the interspecific (inter-family associations of grass species (families using the sampling data collected in a grass community of Zhuhai, China. We found that most associations between grass species (families were positive associations. The competition/interference/niche separation between grass species (families was not significant. A lot of pairs of grass species and families with statistically significant interspecific (inter-family associations based on four correlation measures were discovered. Cluster trees for grass species/families were obtained by using cluster analysis. Relationship among positive/negative associations, interspecific relationship and community succession/stability/robustness was discussed. I held that species with significant positive or negative associations are generally keystone species in the community. Although both negative and positive associations occur in the community succession, the adaptation and selection will finally result in the successful coexistence of the species with significant positive associations in the climax community. As the advance of community succession, the significant positive associations increase and maximize in climax community, and the significant negative associations increase to a maximum and then decline into climax community. Dominance of significant positive associations in the climax community means the relative stablility and equilibrium of the community. No significant associations usually account for the majority of possible interspecific associations at each phase of community succession. They guarantee the robustness of community. They are candidates of keystone species. Lose of some existing keystone species might be

  1. Using Team Communication to Understand Team Cognition in Distributed vs. Co-Located Mission Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooke, Nancy J; Gorman, Jamie C; Kiekel, Preston A; Foltz, Peter; Martin, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    This report documents a 30-month effort sponsored by the Office of Naval Research that refined, applied and evaluated methods for analyzing the communication flow and content surrounding collaboration...

  2. Backcrosses in interspecific hybridization in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atlagić Jovanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When incorporating desirable traits (resistance to causal agents of various diseases from the wild relatives into the cultivated sunflower, some undesirable ones are introduced too (branching, small head diameter, low oil content, etc. To overcome this problem, backcrosses (F1 interspecific hybrids x cultivated sunflower are used, although very often desirable traits are lost in the process. Cytological analysis (meiosis and pollen viability and molecular markers (RAPD were used to estimate what portion of the parental species genome was present in (be interspecific hybrids of the F1 and BC1F1 generations. The results showed that the percentage of irregularities at meiosis increased from F1 to BC1F1 gen. They also indicated the presence of aneuploids and sterility in the cross between the hexaploid species H.rigidus and cultivated sunflower. The genetic distance between the parents was 83%, that between H.rigidus and the F1 hybrid 54 61%, and that between H.annuus and F1 hybrid 70-76%. In the BC1F1 generation, the genetic distance from Hannuus decreased to 58-66% and that from H.rigidus increased to 69-76%.

  3. Interspecific lily hybrids: a promise for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.; Chi, H.S.; Kronenburg-van de Ven, van B.C.E.; Meijer, B.

    1997-01-01

    In order to introduce new characters such as resistances, flower shape and colour, from wild species into the cultivar assortment of lily it is necessary to overcome interspecific crossing barriers.. Several techniques have been used for wide interspecific lily crosses with species and cultivars

  4. Understanding the Effect of Audio Communication Delay on Distributed Team Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    means for members to socialize and learn about each other, engenders development cooperative relationships, and lays a foundation for future interaction...length will result in increases in task completion time and mental workload. 3. Audiovisual technology will moderate the effect of communication...than audio alone. 4. Audiovisual technology will moderate the effect of communication delays such that task completion time and mental workload will

  5. How do you perceive this author? Understanding and modeling authors’ communication quality in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Kyungsik

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we leverage human evaluations, content analysis, and computational modeling to generate a comprehensive analysis of readers' evaluations of authors' communication quality in social media with respect to four factors: author credibility, interpersonal attraction, communication competence, and intent to interact. We review previous research on the human evaluation process and highlight its limitations in providing sufficient information for readers to assess authors' communicatio...

  6. Understanding the relationship between family communication and the development of weight stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Asbury

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background This study examined the relationship between family communication and weight stigma. The Family Communication Patterns Theory was used as a framework to explain the relationships between two dimensions of family communication (i.e., conversation orientation and conformity orientation and antifat attitudes (i.e., physical unattractiveness and weight blame. Participants and procedure A total of 585 college-aged participants completed an on-line questionnaire. We used the following instruments: body mass index (BMI, Antifat Attitudes Scale (AFAT, Revised Family Communication Patterns Scale (RFCP. Results Significant relationships were found between the two dimensions of family communication and antifat attitudes. Conversation orientation was negatively associated with antifat attitudes and conformity orientation was positively associated with antifat attitudes. In addition, pluralistic families were less likely to stigmatize the overweight and obese by demonstrating less discrimination with physical attraction and personal weight blame. Conclusions These findings highlight the important association between family communication and antifat attitudes. Families that endorse a pluralistic family type (i.e., high conversation orientation and low conformity orientation appear to engage in the least amount of discrimination with regard to weight stigma. These families are not only less discriminating of others, they perhaps bring about more awareness and information to family members as compared to other family types.

  7. Short communications: Interspecific variation in the distribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of humans and man-made structures may cause increased wariness in wildlife, causing displacement from traditional habitat ranges. Potential species differences in such responses could affect the composition of wildlife communities around human settlements. We examined the position of ungulate groups ...

  8. Effective Two-way Communication of Environmental Hazards: Understanding Public Perception in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorono-Leturiondo, Maria; O'Hare, Paul; Cook, Simon; Hoon, Stephen R.; Illingworth, Sam

    2017-04-01

    Climate change intensified hazards, such as floods and landslides, require exploring renewed ways of protecting at-risk communities (World Economic Forum 2016). Scientists are being encouraged to explore new pathways to work closely with affected communities in search of experiential knowledge that is able to complement and extend scientific knowledge (see for instance Whatmore and Landström 2011 and Höpner et al. 2010). Effective two-way communication of environmental hazards is, however, a challenge. Besides considering factors such as the purpose of communication, or the characteristics of the different formats; effective communication has to carefully acknowledge the personal framework of the individuals involved. Existing experiences, values, beliefs, and needs are critical determinants of the way they perceive and relate to these hazards, and in turn, of the communication process in which they are involved (Longnecker 2016 and Gibson et al. 2016). Our study builds on the need to analyze how the public perceives environmental hazards in order to establish forms of communication that work. Here we present early findings of a survey analysing the UK public's perception and outline how survey results can guide more effective two-way communication practices between scientists and affected communities. We explore the perception of environmental hazards in terms of how informed and concerned the public is, as well as how much ownership they claim over these phenomena. In order to gain a more accurate image, we study environmental hazards in relation to other risks threatening the UK, such as large-scale involuntary migration or unemployment (World Economic Forum 2016, Bord et al. 1998). We also explore information consumption in relation to environmental hazards and the public's involvement in advancing knowledge. All these questions are accompanied by an extensive demographics section that allows us to ascertain how the context or environment in which an

  9. A systems medicine clinical platform for understanding and managing non- communicable diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cesario, Alfredo; Auffray, Charles; Agusti, Alvar; Apolone, Giovanni; Balling, Rudi; Barbanti, Piero; Bellia, Alfonso; Boccia, Stefania; Bousquet, Jean; Cardaci, Vittorio; Cazzola, Mario; Dall'Armi, Valentina; Daraselia, Nikolai; Ros, Lucio Da; Bufalo, Alessandra Del; Ducci, Giuseppe; Ferri, Luigi; Fini, Massimo; Fossati, Chiara; Gensini, Gianfranco; Granone, Pierluigi Maria; Kinross, James; Lauro, Davide; Cascio, Gerland Lo; Lococo, Filippo; Lococo, Achille; Maier, Dieter; Marcus, Frederick; Margaritora, Stefano; Marra, Camillo; Minati, Gianfranco; Neri, Monica; Pasqua, Franco; Pison, Christophe; Pristipino, Christian; Roca, Joseph; Rosano, Giuseppe; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Russo, Patrizia; Salinaro, Gianluca; Shenhar, Shani; Soreq, Hermona; Sterk, Peter J.; Stocchi, Fabrizio; Torti, Margherita; Volterrani, Maurizio; Wouters, Emiel F. M.; Frustaci, Alessandra; Bonassi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are among the most pressing global health problems of the twenty-first century. Their rising incidence and prevalence is linked to severe morbidity and mortality, and they are putting economic and managerial pressure on healthcare systems around the world. Moreover,

  10. Developing Understanding of Pupil Feedback Using Habermas' Notion of Communicative Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this article is to explore the notion of pupil feedback and the possible ways in which it can be understood and developed using Jürgen Habermas' theory of Communicative Action. The theoretical position adopted is framed within the concept of assessment for learning, and is particularly related to the notion of assessment as learning…

  11. Understanding the development and diffusion of integrated marketing communications (IMC) : A metaphorical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.P.; Thøger, L.; Vijn, P.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, theoretical commentaries and empirical research on the concept of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) have been concerned with its development and specification as a theoretical construct, and its diffusion among academics and practitioner populations across the globe. In this

  12. Understanding and Overcoming Pragmatic Failure in Intercultural Communication: From Focus on Speakers to Focus on Hearers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla Cruz, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    For learners to communicate efficiently in the L2, they must avoid pragmatic failure. In many cases, teachers' praxis centres on the learner's performance in the L2 or his role as a speaker, which neglects the importance of his role as interpreter of utterances. Assuming that, as hearers, learners also have a responsibility to avoid…

  13. Getting on the same page: Communication, patient involvement and shared understanding of "decisions" in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leppin, Aaron L.; Kunneman, Marleen; Hathaway, Julie; Fernandez, Cara; Montori, Victor M.; Tilburt, Jon C.

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundPatients and clinicians do not often agree on whether a decision has been made about cancer care. This could be explained by factors related to communication quality and/or the type of decision being made. MethodsWe used a self-developed coding scheme to code a random sample of 128

  14. Preschoolers' Understanding of the Role of Communication and Cooperation in Establishing Property Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Federico; Fiedler, Lydia; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Property as a social "agreement" comprises both a communicative component, in which someone makes a claim that she is entitled to some piece of property, and a cooperative component, in which others in the community respect that claim as legitimate. In the current study, preschool children were (a) given the opportunity to mark some…

  15. Referential Communication Skills of Children with Williams Syndrome: Understanding when Messages Are Not Adequate

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Angela E.; Rowe, Melissa L.; Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2009-01-01

    Although children with Williams syndrome have relatively good structural language and concrete vocabulary abilities, they have difficulty with pragmatic aspects of language. To investigate the impact of pragmatic difficulties on listener-role referential communication, we administered a picture placement task designed to measure ability to…

  16. Improved communication, understanding of risk perception and ethics related to ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja; Raskob, Wolfgang; Jourdain, Jean-Rene

    2016-06-06

    In Europe today, institutions, media and the general public exchange information about ionizing radiation and associated risks. However, communication about ionising radiation with the general public has to be further improved, as has been previously highlighted by international responses to the 2011 accident in Japan. This article reports the main activities and findings in this field from the following three FP7 projects: EAGLE, PREPARE and OPERRA and discussed by a broad spectrum of stakeholders at the conference RICOMET 2015. These projects, among other aims, also investigate how communication about ionising radiation in different fields could be improved and harmonised, how radiological risks are perceived, how to encourage ethical considerations in all fields of nuclear applications and what kind of transdisciplinary research is needed. The projects relate to several domains; the first relates to education, training and communication, the second to nuclear emergency preparedness and response, and the third to research and development in the radiation protection field. Incorporation of stakeholder engagement activities such as the RICOMET conference broadens social and ethical aspects and takes them into account during coordination activities as well as during core scientific and nuclear research and development performed in the projects. These activities offered opportunities for moving closer to a citizen-centred ideal of risk communication in particular and nuclear research and development in general.

  17. An Application of Kohlberg's Moral Reasoning Theory to Understanding Problems of Marital and Family Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Jerry L.; Lower, Frank J.

    The concepts of moral reasoning developed by Lawrence Kohlberg can be applied to the analysis of communication in intimate relationships in an attempt to deal with the high rate of marital dissolution. Kohlberg has identified three levels of moral reasoning: (1) preconventional, in which a person reasons in terms of punishment, reward, or exchange…

  18. Understanding and improving communication processes in an increasingly multicultural aged care workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Pam; Horner, Barbara; Fyfe, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how culture shapes relationships in aged care and the extent to which the residential aged care sector supports a cohesive multicultural workforce. An exploratory methodology utilising semi-structured questionnaires collected data from 58 participants comprising: staff who provide direct care to residents; managers; and family members from six residential care facilities in Perth, Western Australia. Communication issues emerged as an over-arching theme, and included interpersonal communication, the effect of cultural norms on communication and the impact of informal and formal workplace policies relating to spoken and written language. Sixty percent of participants from a culturally and linguistically diverse (CaLD) background had experienced negative reactions from residents with dementia, linked to visible cultural difference. They used a range of coping strategies including ignoring, resilience and avoidance in such situations. CaLD participants also reported prejudicial treatment from non-CaLD staff. The findings highlight the need for organisations to incorporate explicit processes which address the multiple layers of influence on cross cultural communication: internalised beliefs and values; moderating effects of education, experience and social circumstance; and factors external to the individuals, including workplace culture and the broader political economy, to develop a cohesive multicultural workplace. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. What Do Teachers Do to Stimulate the Understanding of the Other in Interreligious Classroom Communication? Empirical Research into Dialogical Communication in Religiously Pluriform Learning Situations in Catholic Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eersel, San; Hermans, Chris; Sleegers, Peter

    2010-01-01

    How do pupils in dialogical classroom communication understand the otherness of peers who belong to religions different from their own? We distinguish between three aspects of dialogical communication that are conducive to understanding pupils' otherness: orientation, appropriation, and evaluation. To what extent do teachers apply these three…

  20. I See Your Point: Infants under 12 Months Understand that Pointing Is Communicative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehm, Madelaine; Onishi, Kristine H.; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Do young infants understand that pointing gestures allow the pointer to change the information state of a recipient? We used a third-party experimental scenario to examine whether 9- and 11-month-olds understand that a pointer's pointing gesture can inform a recipient about a target object. When the pointer pointed to a target, infants…

  1. Plant-mediated interspecific horizontal transmission of an intracellular symbiont in insects

    KAUST Repository

    Gonella, Elena

    2015-11-13

    Intracellular reproductive manipulators, such as Candidatus Cardinium and Wolbachia are vertically transmitted to progeny but rarely show co-speciation with the host. In sap-feeding insects, plant tissues have been proposed as alternative horizontal routes of interspecific transmission, but experimental evidence is limited. Here we report results from experiments that show that Cardinium is horizontally transmitted between different phloem sap-feeding insect species through plants. Quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization experiments indicated that the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus releases Cardinium from its salivary glands during feeding on both artificial media and grapevine leaves. Successional time-course feeding experiments with S. titanus initially fed sugar solutions or small areas of grapevine leaves followed by feeding by the phytoplasma vector Macrosteles quadripunctulatus or the grapevine feeder Empoasca vitis revealed that the symbionts were transmitted to both species. Explaining interspecific horizontal transmission through plants improves our understanding of how symbionts spread, their lifestyle and the symbiont-host intermixed evolutionary pattern.

  2. Plant-mediated interspecific horizontal transmission of an intracellular symbiont in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonella, Elena; Pajoro, Massimo; Marzorati, Massimo; Crotti, Elena; Mandrioli, Mauro; Pontini, Marianna; Bulgari, Daniela; Negri, Ilaria; Sacchi, Luciano; Chouaia, Bessem; Daffonchio, Daniele; Alma, Alberto

    2015-11-13

    Intracellular reproductive manipulators, such as Candidatus Cardinium and Wolbachia are vertically transmitted to progeny but rarely show co-speciation with the host. In sap-feeding insects, plant tissues have been proposed as alternative horizontal routes of interspecific transmission, but experimental evidence is limited. Here we report results from experiments that show that Cardinium is horizontally transmitted between different phloem sap-feeding insect species through plants. Quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization experiments indicated that the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus releases Cardinium from its salivary glands during feeding on both artificial media and grapevine leaves. Successional time-course feeding experiments with S. titanus initially fed sugar solutions or small areas of grapevine leaves followed by feeding by the phytoplasma vector Macrosteles quadripunctulatus or the grapevine feeder Empoasca vitis revealed that the symbionts were transmitted to both species. Explaining interspecific horizontal transmission through plants improves our understanding of how symbionts spread, their lifestyle and the symbiont-host intermixed evolutionary pattern.

  3. Understanding and Using the Controller Area Network Communication Protocol Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Di Natale, Marco; Giusto, Paolo; Ghosal, Arkadeb

    2012-01-01

    This is the first book to offer a hands-on guide to designing, analyzing and debugging a communication infrastructure based on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus.  Although the CAN bus standard is well established and currently used in most automotive systems, as well as avionics, medical systems and other devices, its features are not fully understood by most developers, who tend to misuse the network. This results in lost opportunities for better efficiency and performance.   This book offers a comprehensive range of architectural solutions and domains of analysis. It also provides formal models and analytical results, with thorough discussion of their applicability, so that it serves as an invaluable reference for researchers and students, as well as practicing engineers.    Offers the first comprehensive guide to bridging the gap between theory and implementation of the widely accepted Controller Area Network (CAN) bus; Provides examples and best practices for design of communication systems, as w...

  4. Understanding and acknowledging the ice throw hazard - consequences for regulatory frameworks, risk perception and risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredesen, R. E.; Drapalik, M.; Butt, B.

    2017-11-01

    This study attempts to provide the necessary framework required to make sufficiently informed decisions regarding the safety implications of ice throw. The framework elaborates on how to cope with uncertainties, and how to describe results in a meaningful and useful manner to decision makers. Moreover, it points out the moral, judicial and economical obligations of wind turbine owners such that they are able to minimize risk of ice throws as much as possible. Building on the strength of knowledge as well as accounting for uncertainty are also essential in enabling clear communication with stakeholders on the most important/critical/vital issues. With increasing empirical evidence, one can assign a higher confidence level on the expert opinions on safety. Findings regarding key uncertainties of ice risk assessments are presented here to support the ongoing IEA Wind Task 19's work on creating the international guidelines on ice risk assessment due in 2018 (Krenn et al. 2017)[1-6]. In addition the study also incorporates the findings of a Norwegian information project, which focuses on the ice throw hazard for the public (Bredesen, Flage, Butt, Winterwind 2018)[7-9]. This includes measures to reduce damage and hazard from wind turbines for the general public. Recent theory of risk assessment questions the use of risk criteria for achieving optimum risk reduction and favours the use of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle. Given the several practical problems associated with the ALARA approach (e.g. judicial realization), a joint approach, which uses a minimum set of criteria as well as the obligation to meet ALARA is suggested (associated with acceptable cost). The actual decision about acceptance criteria or obligations is a societal one, thus suggestions can be made at best. Risk acceptance, risk perception and risk communication are inextricably linked and should thus never be considered separately. Risk communication can shape risk perception

  5. Motorboat noise disrupts co-operative interspecific interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Sophie L; Mills, Suzanne C; Radford, Andrew N; Beldade, Ricardo; Simpson, Stephen D; Nedelec, Brendan; Côté, Isabelle M

    2017-08-01

    Human-made noise is contributing increasingly to ocean soundscapes. Its physical, physiological and behavioural effects on marine organisms are potentially widespread, but our understanding remains largely limited to intraspecific impacts. Here, we examine how motorboats affect an interspecific cleaning mutualism critical for coral reef fish health, abundance and diversity. We conducted in situ observations of cleaning interactions between bluestreak cleaner wrasses (Labroides dimidiatus) and their fish clients before, during and after repeated, standardised approaches with motorboats. Cleaners inspected clients for longer and were significantly less cooperative during exposure to boat noise, and while motorboat disturbance appeared to have little effect on client behaviour, as evidenced by consistency of visit rates, clientele composition, and use of cleaning incitation signals, clients did not retaliate as expected (i.e., by chasing) in response to increased cheating by cleaners. Our results are consistent with the idea of cognitive impairments due to distraction by both parties. Alternatively, cleaners might be taking advantage of distracted clients to reduce their service quality. To more fully understand the importance of these findings for conservation and management, further studies should elucidate whether the efficacy of ectoparasite removal by cleaners is affected and explore the potential for habituation to boat noise in busy areas.

  6. Mundane science use in a practice theoretical perspective: Different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public communication initiatives build on scientific claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkier, Bente

    2015-08-13

    Public communication initiatives play a part in placing complicated scientific claims in citizen-consumers' everyday contexts. Lay reactions to scientific claims framed in public communication, and attempts to engage citizens, have been important subjects of discussion in the literatures of public understanding and public engagement with science. Many of the public communication initiatives, however, address lay people as consumers rather than citizens. This creates specific challenges for understanding public engagement with science and scientific citizenship. The article compares five different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public issue communication involving science, where the first four types are widely represented in the Public Understanding of Science discussions. The fifth understanding is a practice theoretical perspective. The article suggests how the public understanding of and engagement in science literature can benefit from including a practice theoretical approach to research about mundane science use and public engagement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Evolutionary and Ecological Consequences of Interspecific Hybridization in Cladocerans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenk, K.; Spaak, P.

    1995-01-01

    The evolutionary process of interspecific hybridization in cladocerans is reviewed based on ecological and population genetic data. The evolutionary consequences of hybridization, biogeographic patterns and fitness comparisons are analyzed within the conceptual framework of theories on

  8. Meiotic behaviour in three interspecific three-way hybrids between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The meiotic behaviour of three three-way interspecific promising hybrids (H17, H27, and H34) was evaluated. ... Arrangement of parental genomes in distinct ... vanna due to its physiological tolerance to low fertility acid ... nomic evaluations.

  9. Understanding speech when wearing communication headsets and hearing protectors with subband processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Anthony J; Yu, Gongqiang; Bernstein, Eric R; Cherniack, Martin G; Peterson, Donald R; Tufts, Jennifer B

    2014-08-01

    An adaptive, delayless, subband feed-forward control structure is employed to improve the speech signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the communication channel of a circumaural headset/hearing protector (HPD) from 90 Hz to 11.3 kHz, and to provide active noise control (ANC) from 50 to 800 Hz to complement the passive attenuation of the HPD. The task involves optimizing the speech SNR for each communication channel subband, subject to limiting the maximum sound level at the ear, maintaining a speech SNR preferred by users, and reducing large inter-band gain differences to improve speech quality. The performance of a proof-of-concept device has been evaluated in a pseudo-diffuse sound field when worn by human subjects under conditions of environmental noise and speech that do not pose a risk to hearing, and by simulation for other conditions. For the environmental noises employed in this study, subband speech SNR control combined with subband ANC produced greater improvement in word scores than subband ANC alone, and improved the consistency of word scores across subjects. The simulation employed a subject-specific linear model, and predicted that word scores are maintained in excess of 90% for sound levels outside the HPD of up to ∼115 dBA.

  10. Understanding communication pathways to foster community engagement for health improvement in North West Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Lhussier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the community engagement process undertaken to ascertain the focus, development and implementation of an intervention to improve iodised salt consumption in rural communities in North West Pakistan. The Jirga is a traditional informal structure, which gathers men respected within their community and acts in a governing and decision-making capacity in the Pukhtoon culture. The Jirga system had a dual purpose for the study: to access men from the community to discuss the importance of iodised salt, and as an engagement process for the intervention. Methods A number of qualitative data collection activities were undertaken, with Jirga members and their wives, male and female outreach workers and two groups of women, under and over 40 years old. The aim of these was to highlight the communication channels and levers of influence on health behaviour, which were multiple and complex and all needed to be taken into consideration in order to ensure successful and locally sensitive community engagement. Results Communication channels are described within local families and the communities around them. The key influential role of the Jirga is highlighted as linked both to the standing of its members and the community cohesion ethos that it embodies. Engaging Jirga members in discussions about iodised salt was key in designing an intervention that would activate the most influential levers to decision making in the community. Gendered decision-making processes within the household have been highlighted as restricting women’s autonomy. Whilst in one respect our data confirm this, a more complex hierarchy of decisional power has been highlighted, whereby the concept of ‘wisdom’- an amalgamation of age, experience and education- presents important possibilities. Community members with the least autonomy are the youngest uneducated females, who rely on a web of socially and culturally determined ways to influence

  11. The Inquiry, Communication, Construction and Expression (ICCE) Framework for Understanding Learning Experiences in Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research frameworks that focus on aiding game selection and use, analyzing the game as a holistic system, and studying learner experiences in games. There is a need for frameworks that provide a lens for understanding learning experiences afforded in digital games and facilitating knowledge construction and motivation to…

  12. Using Online Tools for Communication and Collaboration: Understanding Educators' Experiences in an Online Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Erica C.; Holan, Erica; Horbatt, Brent; Hough, Mary; Jean-Louis, Jennifer; Khurana, Chesta; Krinsky, Hindi; Spiezio, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This designed-based research study explored educators' experiences in an online course to better understand how course design and pedagogical delivery can best support student learning. Using the Cognitive Apprenticeship Model (Collins et al., 1987) as a theoretical lens, researchers investigated the following: 1) What methods of instruction, as…

  13. Examining the Native Speakers' Understanding of Communicative Purposes of a Written Genre in Modern Standard Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunxia, Zhu

    1997-01-01

    Examines the different attitudes of native speakers in understanding a written genre of Modern Standard Chinese--sales letters. The study focuses on the use of formulaic components appearing in real Chinese sales letters and compares these components with the advice given in textbooks. Findings reveal a gap between business teaching and business…

  14. Prairie dogs increase fitness by killing interspecific competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogland, John L; Brown, Charles R

    2016-03-30

    Interspecific competition commonly selects for divergence in ecology, morphology or physiology, but direct observation of interspecific competition under natural conditions is difficult. Herbivorous white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) employ an unusual strategy to reduce interspecific competition: they kill, but do not consume, herbivorous Wyoming ground squirrels (Urocitellus elegans) encountered in the prairie dog territories. Results from a 6-year study in Colorado, USA, revealed that interspecific killing of ground squirrels by prairie dogs was common, involving 47 different killers; 19 prairie dogs were serial killers in the same or consecutive years, and 30% of female prairie dogs killed at least one ground squirrel over their lifetimes. Females that killed ground squirrels had significantly higher annual and lifetime fitness than non-killers, probably because of decreased interspecific competition for vegetation. Our results document the first case of interspecific killing of competing individuals unrelated to predation (IK) among herbivorous mammals in the wild, and show that IK enhances fitness for animals living under natural conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Comparison of food hoarding of two sympatric rodent species under interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Feng; Tong, Lei; Ji, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ji-Qi

    2013-01-01

    Competition can greatly affect the food hoarding strategies of rodents and the fate of seeds hoarded. In order to understand the influence of interspecific competition on food caching behavior of sympatric rodents, we investigated food hoarding patterns of two sympatric rodent species, buff-breasted rat (Rattus flavipectus) and Chinese white-bellied rat (Niviventor confucianus), and compared their responses and adjustment in hoarding behavior under interspecific competition. The results showed that: (1) the buff-breasted rat larder hoarded seeds only, while Chinese white-bellied rat hoarded seeds in both larder and scatter forms; (2) two species of rodents both larder hoarded more seeds when competitors were present; and (3) the Chinese white-bellied rats adjusted their seed hoarding from scatter to larder when competitors were introduced, which reduced the seed availability. Therefore, we concluded that rodents would adjust their food hoarding strategy when interspecific competitors were present, and this may produce a different effect on the fate of seeds and the recruitment of plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Communication dynamics in hospice teams: understanding the role of the chaplain in interdisciplinary team collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Oliver, Debra Parker; Demiris, George; Baldwin, Paula; Regehr, Kelly

    2008-12-01

    Hospice chaplains provide a specific expertise to patient and family care, however, individual roles and responsibilities that facilitate the interdisciplinary team environment are less well known. The primary aim of this study was to investigate how hospice chaplains perceive their role in interdisciplinary team meetings and to what extent hospice chaplains share common experiences within the interdisciplinary team approach in hospice. Hospice chaplains within a 10-state region participated in a 39-item phone survey about professional roles, group roles, and structural characteristics that influence their ability to participate in interdisciplinary collaboration. Findings revealed that professional role conflict is experienced, primarily with social workers. Informal group task and maintenance roles included team spiritual care advisor and conflict manager, and structural characteristics consisted of extracurricular communication outside of the organization. Although chaplains foster interdisciplinary collaboration within the hospice team, future research needs to address improvements to the chaplain's role within the interdisciplinary team process.

  17. Understanding physical activity in spinal cord injury rehabilitation: translating and communicating research through stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brett; Papathomas, Anthony; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop an evidence-based resource for knowing and communicating the complexities involved for both males and females in implementing and sustaining a physically active lifestyle shortly after spinal cord injury (SCI). Synthesizing a set of qualitative and quantitative studies with over 500 spinal cord injured people, the article represents research utilizing the genre of ethnographic creative non-fiction. This genre of representation holds enormous potential for researchers in terms of disseminating their findings to diverse audiences beyond the academy, and having real impact. The ethnographic creative non-fictions show together for the first time the barriers, determinants, benefits, trajectories, emotions, fears, preferred methods and messengers for delivering important physical activity information to men and women with a SCI. The article contributes to knowledge by showing the embodied complexities involved when in rehabilitation for both males and females in implementing and sustaining a physically active lifestyle shortly after SCI. It also makes a contribution to practice by providing researchers, health care professionals and disability user-groups with a theory and evidence based resource to assist in informing, teaching and enabling people living with SCI to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle. Stories may be a highly effective tool to communicate with and to influence spinal cord injured people's activity. The findings of this research showed the many benefits and barriers to developing and sustaining a physically active lifestyle shortly after spinal cord injury. The preferred methods and messengers for delivering physical activity information as well as the activity types, intensities and durations of physical activity for men and women were also shown. Within rehabilitation, spinal cord injured people need to be offered accessible knowledge about how to implement and sustain a physically active

  18. Evaluating the effects of ideology on public understanding of climate change science: how to improve communication across ideological divides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Asim; Todd, Anne Marie

    2010-11-01

    While ideology can have a strong effect on citizen understanding of science, it is unclear how ideology interacts with other complicating factors, such as college education, which influence citizens' comprehension of information. We focus on public understanding of climate change science and test the hypotheses: [H1] as citizens' ideology shifts from liberal to conservative, concern for global warming decreases; [H2] citizens with college education and higher general science literacy tend to have higher concern for global warming; and [H3] college education does not increase global warming concern for conservative ideologues. We implemented a survey instrument in California's San Francisco Bay Area, and employed regression models to test the effects of ideology and other socio-demographic variables on citizen concern about global warming, terrorism, the economy, health care and poverty. We are able to confirm H1 and H3, but reject H2. Various strategies are discussed to improve the communication of climate change science across ideological divides.

  19. Interspecific social networks promote information transmission in wild songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Aplin, Lucy M; Sheldon, Ben C; Hoppitt, William

    2015-03-22

    Understanding the functional links between social structure and population processes is a central aim of evolutionary ecology. Multiple types of interactions can be represented by networks drawn for the same population, such as kinship, dominance or affiliative networks, but the relative importance of alternative networks in modulating population processes may not be clear. We illustrate this problem, and a solution, by developing a framework for testing the importance of different types of association in facilitating the transmission of information. We apply this framework to experimental data from wild songbirds that form mixed-species flocks, recording the arrival (patch discovery) of individuals to novel foraging sites. We tested whether intraspecific and interspecific social networks predicted the spread of information about novel food sites, and found that both contributed to transmission. The likelihood of acquiring information per unit of connection to knowledgeable individuals increased 22-fold for conspecifics, and 12-fold for heterospecifics. We also found that species varied in how much information they produced, suggesting that some species play a keystone role in winter foraging flocks. More generally, these analyses demonstrate that this method provides a powerful approach, using social networks to quantify the relative transmission rates across different social relationships.

  20. 'Fracking' Controversy and Communication: Using National Survey Data to Understand Public Perceptions of Hydraulic Fracturing (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, H. S.

    2013-12-01

    The recent push to develop unconventional sources of oil and gas both in the U.S. and abroad via hydraulic fracturing ('fracking') has generated a great deal of controversy. Effectively engaging stakeholders and setting appropriate policies requires insights into current public perceptions of this issue. Using a nationally representative U.S. sample (N=1,061), we examine public perceptions of hydraulic fracturing including: 'top of mind' associations; familiarity with the issue; levels of support/opposition; and predictors of such judgments. Similar to findings on other emerging technologies, our results suggest limited familiarity with the process and its potential impacts and considerable uncertainty about whether to support it. Multiple regression analysis (r2 = 0.49) finds that women, those holding egalitarian worldviews, those who read newspapers more than once a week, those more familiar with hydraulic fracturing, and those who associate the process with environmental impacts are more likely to oppose fracking. In contrast, people more likely to support fracking tend to be older, hold a bachelor's degree or higher, politically conservative, watch TV news more than once a week, and associate the process with positive economic or energy supply outcomes. Based on these findings, we discuss recommendations for future research, risk communication, and energy policy.

  1. Knowledge Workers, Identities, and Communication Practices: Understanding Code Farmers in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Sun Ping

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Extending the concept of “knowledge workers”, this paper studies the identity dynamics of IT programmers from small companies in China. Through the discursive analysis of programmers’ personal memoirs (collected via personal interviews and online ethnography, four themes of identity dynamics emerge: IT programmers demonstrate identification with professionalism and technology; they naturalize the high mobility and internal precarity of their work via discourses of the self and social improvement; the term manong (“code monkey” or “code farmer” in English is used to support a sense of selfhood amidst high pressure schedules and “panoptic control”; the disparaging term diaosi (“loser” in English is appropriated in order to activate a sense of self-expression and collective resistance regarding the programmers’ working and living conditions. These four themes are integrated into: 1 hegemonic discourses of economic development and technical innovation; and 2 the processes of individualization among IT programmers on a global scale. Our findings suggest that being a knowledge worker means not only to provide professional expertise, communication, creativity and knowledge, it also interrogates questions of survival, struggle, and solidarity.

  2. Understanding, representing and communicating earth system processes in weather and climate within CNRCWP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushama, Laxmi; Arora, Vivek; de Elia, Ramon; Déry, Stephen; Duguay, Claude; Gachon, Philippe; Gyakum, John; Laprise, René; Marshall, Shawn; Monahan, Adam; Scinocca, John; Thériault, Julie; Verseghy, Diana; Zwiers, Francis

    2017-04-01

    The Canadian Network for Regional Climate and Weather Processes (CNRCWP) provides significant advances and innovative research towards the ultimate goal of reducing uncertainty in numerical weather prediction and climate projections for Canada's Northern and Arctic regions. This talk will provide an overview of the Network and selected results related to the assessment of the added value of high-resolution modelling that has helped fill critical knowledge gaps in understanding the dynamics of extreme temperature and precipitation events and the complex land-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks in Canada's northern and Arctic regions. In addition, targeted developments in the Canadian regional climate model, that facilitate direct application of model outputs in impact and adaptation studies, particularly those related to the water, energy and infrastructure sectors will also be discussed. The close collaboration between the Network and its partners and end users contributed significantly to this effort.

  3. Using Weather Types to Understand and Communicate Weather and Climate Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prein, A. F.; Hale, B.; Holland, G. J.; Bruyere, C. L.; Done, J.; Mearns, L.

    2017-12-01

    A common challenge in atmospheric research is the translation of scientific advancements and breakthroughs to decision relevant and actionable information. This challenge is central to the mission of NCAR's Capacity Center for Climate and Weather Extremes (C3WE, www.c3we.ucar.edu). C3WE advances our understanding of weather and climate impacts and integrates these advances with distributed information technology to create tools that promote a global culture of resilience to weather and climate extremes. Here we will present an interactive web-based tool that connects historic U.S. losses and fatalities from extreme weather and climate events to 12 large-scale weather types. Weather types are dominant weather situations such as winter high-pressure systems over the U.S. leading to very cold temperatures or summertime moist humid air masses over the central U.S. leading to severe thunderstorms. Each weather type has a specific fingerprint of economic losses and fatalities in a region that is quantified. Therefore, weather types enable a direct connection of observed or forecasted weather situation to loss of life and property. The presented tool allows the user to explore these connections, raise awareness of existing vulnerabilities, and build resilience to weather and climate extremes.

  4. Opportunistic activation of TRP receptors by endogenous lipids: exploiting lipidomics to understand TRP receptor cellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B; Raboune, Siham; Hollis, Jennifer L

    2013-03-19

    Transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) form a large family of ubiquitous non-selective cation channels that function as cellular sensors and in many cases regulate intracellular calcium. Identification of the endogenous ligands that activate these TRP receptors is still under intense investigation with the majority of these channels still remaining "orphans." That these channels respond to a variety of external stimuli (e.g. plant-derived lipids, changes in temperature, and changes in pH) provides a framework for their abilities as cellular sensors, however, the mechanism of direct activation is still under much debate and research. In the cases where endogenous ligands (predominately lipids) have shown direct activation of a channel, multiple ligands have been shown to activate the same channel suggesting that these receptors are "promiscuous" in nature. Lipidomics of a growing class of endogenous lipids, N-acyl amides, the most famous of which is N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (the endogenous cannabinoid, Anandamide) is providing a novel set of ligands that have been shown to activate some members of the TRP family and have the potential to deorphanize many more. Here it is argued that activation of TRPV receptors, a subset of the larger family of TRPs, by multiple endogenous lipids that are structurally analogous is a model system to drive our understanding that many TRP receptors are not promiscuous, but are more characteristically "opportunistic" in nature; exploiting the structural similarity and biosynthesis of a narrow range of analogous endogenous lipids. In addition, this manuscript will compare the activation properties of TRPC5 to the activity profile of an "orphan" lipid, N-palmitoyl glycine; further demonstrating that lipidomics aimed at expanding our knowledge of the family of N-acyl amides has the potential to provide novel avenues of research for TRP receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Laymen's demand on an understandable safety analysis for a nuclear waste repository. A communication challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, T L; Thunberg, A M [KASAM - Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    This paper is a summary in English of some impressions from a seminar 'Safety Analysis of the Final Disposal of Nuclear Waste. An issue for specialists only or for all of us?' The seminar was held in Swedish and was arranged by KASAM in Nykoeping, Sweden in November 1997. A report in Swedish from the seminar has been published. The seminar was arranged in response to a request from representatives from some of the municipalities concerned by the feasibility studies, which are part of the siting process. They had noticed that it is very hard for people without specialist competence to get an understanding of the safety issues based on the available information. There is a need for a presentation of the safety analysis, which is adopted not only for the need of the safety authorities, which have their own expertise, but also for the need of laymen who are involved in issues about the design, siting and safety of a final repository. Therefore, the seminar was mainly intended for representatives for the citizens (i.e. politicians) from the municipalities involved in the ongoing feasibility studies in Sweden. Some representatives from different environmental organisations opposing final disposal were also invited as well as representatives from the nuclear industry and from the concerned Swedish authorities. The seminar was structured in four sessions The handling of risk in the modern society - risk assessment and risk comparisons; The safety analysis and its role for the citizens; What can actually happen - in our own time and in the future?; Group discussions. In order to give a realistic picture of the intense debate, which at least in some of the municipalities had been very apparent, the organisers had chosen to make SKB and Greenpeace main actors at the seminar, such as they appeared in connection with campaign before the referendum at Malaa. Parts of the seminar were arranged like a hearing, led by a science journalist. The intention with this paper is not to

  6. Laymen's demand on an understandable safety analysis for a nuclear waste repository. A communication challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, T.L.; Thunberg, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a summary in English of some impressions from a seminar 'Safety Analysis of the Final Disposal of Nuclear Waste. An issue for specialists only or for all of us?' The seminar was held in Swedish and was arranged by KASAM in Nykoeping, Sweden in November 1997. A report in Swedish from the seminar has been published. The seminar was arranged in response to a request from representatives from some of the municipalities concerned by the feasibility studies, which are part of the siting process. They had noticed that it is very hard for people without specialist competence to get an understanding of the safety issues based on the available information. There is a need for a presentation of the safety analysis, which is adopted not only for the need of the safety authorities, which have their own expertise, but also for the need of laymen who are involved in issues about the design, siting and safety of a final repository. Therefore, the seminar was mainly intended for representatives for the citizens (i.e. politicians) from the municipalities involved in the ongoing feasibility studies in Sweden. Some representatives from different environmental organisations opposing final disposal were also invited as well as representatives from the nuclear industry and from the concerned Swedish authorities. The seminar was structured in four sessions The handling of risk in the modern society - risk assessment and risk comparisons; The safety analysis and its role for the citizens; What can actually happen - in our own time and in the future?; Group discussions. In order to give a realistic picture of the intense debate, which at least in some of the municipalities had been very apparent, the organisers had chosen to make SKB and Greenpeace main actors at the seminar, such as they appeared in connection with campaign before the referendum at Malaa. Parts of the seminar were arranged like a hearing, led by a science journalist. The intention with this paper is not to

  7. Some results of applied interspecific hybridization in sunflower breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations on the interspecific hybridization in sunflower, aimed at developing a diversified initial selection material, were carried out Wild species of the diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid groups, varieties, hybrids, and selfed-lines of cultivated sunflower were used for crossings. To overcome incrossability between the species and sterility in the hybrids the method of f;cilitating of crossability by mutual gra'fting and gamma-rays treatment of seeds and pollen were applied. Results showed that: 1. By the method of interspecific hybridization forms might be produced resistant to more important diseases. 2. Interspecific hybridization in combination with other methods of selection might produce varieties and hybrids with a complex of valuable qualities. 3. Crossings between wild species and cultivated sunflower gave progenies with gene rale sterility. 4. The species H.tuberosus, H.scaberimus, H.arωphylus and H.lenticularis possess genes of full fertility restoration. (author)

  8. Experimental evolution of protozoan traits in response to interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    terHorst, C P

    2011-01-01

    Decades of experiments have demonstrated the ecological effect of competition, but experimental evidence for competitive effects on trait evolution is rare. I measured the evolution of six protozoan traits in response to competitors from the inquiline community of pitcher plants. Replicate populations of Colpoda, a ciliated protozoan, were allowed to evolve in response to intra- and interspecific competition for 20 days (approximately 100 generations), before traits were measured in two common garden environments. Populations that evolved with interspecific competition had smaller cell sizes, produced fewer cysts and had higher population growth rates relative to populations grown in monoculture. The presence of interspecific competitors led to differential lineage sorting, most likely by increasing the strength of selection. These results are the first to demonstrate protozoan evolution in response to competition and may have implications for species coexistence in this system. © 2010 The Author. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS OF THE GENUS ALLIUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Romanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection based on interspecific hybridization of fundamentally new plant forms with a unique combination of genetic material allows expanding the scope of genotypic and phenotypic variability. In this work the comparative analysis of plants of interspecific hybrids of genus Allium L. from various inbred descendants of combinations of crossing of species A. cepa х A. vavilovii and A. cepa х A. fistulosum on selection traits is carried out.Forms were identified: by mass of the bulb more than 100 g; with contrasting coloration of dry cover scales bulbs; by the index of the shape of the bulb; on the resistance to peronosporosis of plants of the first year of vegetation and seed plants; by the number of arrows; height of the arrow; on seed production with a sufficiently high percentage of fertile plants. Plants of interspecific hybrids of onions formed bulbs weighing from 20 to 120 g, with white, golden-yellow, dark golden-yellow, brownish and dark purple color of dry covering scales of a bulb. Plants of interspecific hybrids of onions were flat and round-flat shape of the bulb with the frequency of symptoms ranging from 6.9 to 93.3% and from 11.7 to 93.3%. In a phytopathological evaluation of interspecific hybrids of onions the first year of vegetation identified plants with resistance to downy mildew is from 0 to 4.0 points. Was studied the frequency of occurrence of plants in the progenies weight, colour, bulb type, number, height of the seedstalk, seed productivity and resistance to downy mildew. The increase of genetic diversity in onion plants obtained on the basis of interspecific hybridization, backcrossing and inbreeding is shown.

  10. Understanding the Merits and Demerits of High and Low Context Oriented Communication Cultures in Intercultural Business Conflict : the case of Fukushima and Japanese communication schema

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shall highlight the merits and demerits of both high and low context oriented communication cultures - particularly in cross-cultural business contexts. Intercultural Communication (IC) theories such as high . low context, universalism . particularism and monochromic . polychromic time are meant to serve as guideposts for the international sojourner to communicate effectively in the host country. We shall also briefly discuss the idea that the English language serves as a low conte...

  11. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  12. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  13. Interdisciplinary Area of Research Offers Tool of Cross-Cultural Understanding: Cross-Cultural Student Seminar for Communication Training on Biomedical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Hashimoto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Misunderstanding often occurs in a multidisciplinary field of study, because each field has its own background of thinking. Communication training is important for students, who have a potential to develop the multidisciplinary field of study. Because each nation has its own cultural background, communication in an international seminar is not easy, either. A cross-cultural student seminar has been designed for communication training in the multidisciplinary field of study. Students from a variety of back grounds have joined in the seminar. Both equations and figures are effective tools for communication in the field of science. The seminar works well for communication training in the multidisciplinary field of study of biomedical engineering. An interdisciplinary area of research offers the tool of cross-cultural understanding. The present study refers to author's several experiences: the student internship abroad, the cross-cultural student camp, multi PhD theses, various affiliations, and the creation of the interdisciplinary department.

  14. Interspecific semantic alarm call recognition in the solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Seiler

    Full Text Available As alarm calls indicate the presence of predators, the correct interpretation of alarm calls, including those of other species, is essential for predator avoidance. Conversely, communication calls of other species might indicate the perceived absence of a predator and hence allow a reduction in vigilance. This "eavesdropping" was demonstrated in birds and mammals, including lemur species. Interspecific communication between taxonomic groups has so far been reported in some reptiles and mammals, including three primate species. So far, neither semantic nor interspecific communication has been tested in a solitary and nocturnal lemur species. The aim of this study was to investigate if the nocturnal and solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis, is able to access semantic information of sympatric species. During the day, this species faces the risk of falling prey to aerial and terrestrial predators and therefore shows high levels of vigilance. We presented alarm calls of the crested coua, the Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial, terrestrial and agitation alarm calls of the blue-eyed black lemur to 19 individual Sahamalaza sportive lemurs resting in tree holes. Songs of both bird species' and contact calls of the blue-eyed black lemur were used as a control. After alarm calls of crested coua, Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial alarm of the blue-eyed black lemur, the lemurs scanned up and their vigilance increased significantly. After presentation of terrestrial alarm and agitation calls of the blue-eyed black lemur, the animals did not show significant changes in scanning direction or in the duration of vigilance. Sportive lemur vigilance decreased after playbacks of songs of the bird species and contact calls of blue-eyed black lemurs. Our results indicate that the Sahamalaza sportive lemur is capable of using information on predator presence as well as predator type of different sympatric species, using their referential

  15. Genetic Identification of Hyalodaphnia Species and Interspecific Hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billiones, R.; Brehm, G.M.; Klee, J.; Schwenk, K.

    2004-01-01

    Species of the genus Daphnia, in particular the subgenus Hyalodaphnia, represent a taxonomically problematic group due to their phenotypic plasticity, local races and the formation of interspecific hybrids and backcrosses. In this study, we present a genetic approach utilising nuclear DNA to

  16. Sex-specific asymmetry in eye development in interspecific hybrids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 94; Issue 3. Sex-specific asymmetry in eye development in interspecific hybrids in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Bashisth N. Singh Parul Banerjee. Research Note Volume 94 Issue 3 September 2015 pp 493-495 ...

  17. Quantitative trait loci mapping for stomatal traits in interspecific ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dr.YASODHA

    seedling raising, field planting and maintenance of the mapping population. ... tereticornis and production of interspecific hybrids displaying hybrid vigour in terms of .... A total of 114, 115 and 129 SSR, ISSR and SRAP markers were generated .... stomatal traits with yield and adaptability would help to improve productivity of ...

  18. Evaluation of interspecific DNA variability in poplars using AFLP and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to examine interspecific DNA variation in poplars using AFLP and SSR markers. The AFLP and SSR markers polymorphism and its power of discrimination were determined within 13 genotypes of different genetic background (clones, cultivars, hybrids) of two sections (Aigeiros and ...

  19. Interspecific and interploidal gene flow in Central European Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Marte H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of polyploidisation on gene flow between natural populations are little known. Central European diploid and tetraploid populations of Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata are here used to study interspecific and interploidal gene flow, using a combination of nuclear and plastid markers. Results Ploidal levels were confirmed by flow cytometry. Network analyses clearly separated diploids according to species. Tetraploids and diploids were highly intermingled within species, and some tetraploids intermingled with the other species, as well. Isolation with migration analyses suggested interspecific introgression from tetraploid A. arenosa to tetraploid A. lyrata and vice versa, and some interploidal gene flow, which was unidirectional from diploid to tetraploid in A. arenosa and bidirectional in A. lyrata. Conclusions Interspecific genetic isolation at diploid level combined with introgression at tetraploid level indicates that polyploidy may buffer against negative consequences of interspecific hybridisation. The role of introgression in polyploid systems may, however, differ between plant species, and even within the small genus Arabidopsis, we find very different evolutionary fates when it comes to introgression.

  20. Construction of an EST-SSR-based interspecific transcriptome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Construction of an EST-SSR-based interspecific transcriptome linkage map of fibre development in cotton. CHUANXIANG LIU, DAOJUN YUAN and ZHONGXU LIN. ∗. National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement and National Centre of Plant Gene Research (Wuhan),. Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan ...

  1. The promise of intercultural understanding and the transformative power of intercultural awareness: a problematization of Intercultural Communication theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri, G.

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with a problematization of the field of intercultural communication. Philosophical inquiry is employed in this thesis to examine intercultural communication from the perspective of existing critical intercultural frameworks, particularly in relation to conceptualisations of cultural difference and the acquisition of communicative competence. In proposing this philosophical approach, the thesis reconfigures the relationship between self and other in dialogic terms, and ...

  2. Using the CAUSE Model to Understand Public Communication about Water Risks: Perspectives from Texas Groundwater District Officials on Drought and Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDyke, Matthew S; King, Andy J

    2017-12-05

    Public communication about drought and water availability risks poses challenges to a potentially disinterested public. Water management professionals, though, have a responsibility to work with the public to engage in communication about water and environmental risks. Because limited research in water management examines organizational communication practices and perceptions, insights into research and practice can be gained through investigation of current applications of these risk communication efforts. Guided by the CAUSE model, which explains common goals in communicating risk information to the public (e.g., creating Confidence, generating Awareness, enhancing Understanding, gaining Satisfaction, and motivating Enactment), semistructured interviews of professionals (N = 25) employed by Texas groundwater conservation districts were conducted. The interviews examined how CAUSE model considerations factor in to communication about drought and water availability risks. These data suggest that many work to build constituents' confidence in their districts. Although audiences and constituents living in drought-prone areas were reported as being engaged with water availability risks and solutions, many district officials noted constituents' lack of perceived risk and engagement. Some managers also indicated that public understanding was a secondary concern of their primary responsibilities and that the public often seemed apathetic about technical details related to water conservation risks. Overall, results suggest complicated dynamics between officials and the public regarding information access and motivation. The article also outlines extensions of the CAUSE model and implications for improving public communication about drought and water availability risks. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Drosophila interspecific hybrids phenocopy piRNA-pathway mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin S Kelleher

    Full Text Available The Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA pathway defends the germline of animals from the deleterious activity of selfish transposable elements (TEs through small-RNA mediated silencing. Adaptation to novel invasive TEs is proposed to occur by incorporating their sequences into the piRNA pool that females produce and deposit into their eggs, which then propagates immunity against specific TEs to future generations. In support of this model, the F1 offspring of crosses between strains of the same Drosophila species sometimes suffer from germline derepression of paternally inherited TE families, caused by a failure of the maternal strain to produce the piRNAs necessary for their regulation. However, many protein components of the Drosophila piRNA pathway exhibit signatures of positive selection, suggesting that they also contribute to the evolution of host genome defense. Here we investigate piRNA pathway function and TE regulation in the F1 hybrids of interspecific crosses between D. melanogaster and D. simulans and compare them with intraspecific control crosses of D. melanogaster. We confirm previous reports showing that intraspecific crosses are characterized by derepression of paternally inherited TE families that are rare or absent from the maternal genome and piRNA pool, consistent with the role of maternally deposited piRNAs in shaping TE silencing. In contrast to the intraspecific cross, we discover that interspecific hybrids are characterized by widespread derepression of both maternally and paternally inherited TE families. Furthermore, the pattern of derepression of TE families in interspecific hybrids cannot be attributed to their paucity or absence from the piRNA pool of the maternal species. Rather, we demonstrate that interspecific hybrids closely resemble piRNA effector-protein mutants in both TE misregulation and aberrant piRNA production. We suggest that TE derepression in interspecific hybrids largely reflects adaptive divergence of pi

  4. African American men's understanding and perceptions about prostate cancer: why multiple dimensions of health literacy are important in cancer communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Daniela B; Corwin, Sara J; Dominick, Gregory M; Rose, India D

    2009-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCA) is the most diagnosed cancer among men in the United States, especially among African American (AA) men. The purpose of this formative study was to explore the implications of applying Nutbeam's multidimensional health literacy framework to AA men's understanding of PrCA information. Participants were 25 AA men aged 45 and older in South Carolina. Their functional health literacy was assessed using two modified Cloze tests and the Shortened Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA). Men also participated in interviews or focus groups during which they were asked questions about PrCA risk, prevention, and screening. Transcripts were reviewed for recurrent themes and analyzed qualitatively using NVivo7. Mean S-TOFHLA was 28.28 (+/-1.98), implying "adequate" comprehension. Mean Cloze was .71 (+/-.05) for a Grade 8 document and .66 (+/-.04) for a Grade 13 document, also showing "adequate" comprehension. Cloze scores for the Grade 8 resource were lower for participants with less education (P = .047). Despite having satisfactory literacy test scores, results from interviews and focus groups revealed participants' limited understanding and misconceptions about PrCA risk. Many wanted information about screening and family history delivered word-of-mouth by AA women and church pastors as few of them had ever received or actively sought out PrCA resources. Using Nutbeam's framework, gaps in health literacy which were not adequately captured by the validated tools emerged during the interviews and focus groups. Study findings provide important implications for PrCA communication with AA men to correct misperceptions about cancer risk and motivate preventive behaviors.

  5. Risk communication of terrorist acts, natural disasters, and criminal violence: comparing the processes of understanding and responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbrun, Kirk; Wolbransky, Melinda; Shah, Sanjay; Kelly, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Risk communication is an important vehicle for the scientific understanding of the perception of and response to various kinds of threats. The present study provides apparently the first empirical attempt to compare perceptions, decision-making, and anticipated action in response to threats of three kinds: natural disaster, violent crime, and terrorism. A total of 258 college undergraduates were surveyed using a vignette-based, 2 × 2 × 3 between-subjects design that systematically manipulated threat imminence (high vs. low), risk level (high vs. low), and nature of the threat (natural disaster vs. crime vs. terrorism). There were substantial differences in participants' perceptions and reported actions in response to natural disaster, relative to the other domains of risk, under conditions of high risk. The risk of natural disaster was more likely to lead participants to report that they would change their daily activities and to relocate. It was also more likely than terrorism to lead to action securing the home. It appears that the mechanisms for perception, decision-making, and action in response to threats cannot be generalized in a straightforward way across these domains of threat. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Root cause analysis underscores the importance of understanding, addressing, and communicating cold chain equipment failures to improve equipment performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Pat; Atuhaire, Brian; Yavari, Shahrzad; Sampath, Vidya; Mvundura, Mercy; Ramanathan, Nithya; Robertson, Joanie

    2017-04-19

    Vaccine cold chain equipment (CCE) in developing countries is often exposed to harsh environmental conditions, such as extreme temperatures and humidity, and is subject to many additional challenges, including intermittent power supply, insufficient maintenance capacity, and a scarcity of replacement parts. Together, these challenges lead to high failure rates for refrigerators, potentially damaging vaccines and adversely affecting immunization coverage. Providing a sustainable solution for improving CCE performance requires an understanding of the root causes of failure. Project teams conducted small-scale studies to determine the root causes of CCE failure in selected locations in Uganda and Mozambique. The evaluations covered 59 failed refrigerators and freezers in Uganda and 27 refrigerators in Mozambique. In Uganda, the vast majority of failures were due to a cooling unit fault in one widely used refrigerator model. In Mozambique, 11 of the 27 problems were attributable to solar refrigerators with batteries that were unable to hold a charge, and another eight problems were associated with a need to adjust thermostat settings. The studies showed that tracking and evaluation of equipment performance and failure can yield important, actionable information for a range of stakeholders, including local CCE technicians, the ministry of health, equipment manufacturers, and international partners such as the United Nations Children's Fund, World Health Organization, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Collaborative efforts to systematically collect and communicate data on CCE performance and causes of failure will help to improve the efficiency and reach of immunization programs in low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. New lager yeast strains generated by interspecific hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Gibson, Brian

    2015-05-01

    The interspecific hybrid Saccharomyces pastorianus is the most commonly used yeast in brewery fermentations worldwide. Here, we generated de novo lager yeast hybrids by mating a domesticated and strongly flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale strain with the Saccharomyces eubayanus type strain. The hybrids were characterized with respect to the parent strains in a wort fermentation performed at temperatures typical for lager brewing (12 °C). The resulting beers were analysed for sugar and aroma compounds, while the yeasts were tested for their flocculation ability and α-glucoside transport capability. These hybrids inherited beneficial properties from both parent strains (cryotolerance, maltotriose utilization and strong flocculation) and showed apparent hybrid vigour, fermenting faster and producing beer with higher alcohol content (5.6 vs 4.5 % ABV) than the parents. Results suggest that interspecific hybridization is suitable for production of novel non-GM lager yeast strains with unique properties and will help in elucidating the evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast.

  8. Production of interspecific Campanula hybrids by ovule culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röper, A. C.; Lütken, H.; Christensen, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Campanula genus comprises several economically important ornamental plants species. Wide hybridisation is a method to increase phenotypic variability, but is limited due to interspecies hybridisation barriers. In this study we investigated whether ovule culture could be used to increase....... With this study, a protocol for ovule culture was established and the usefulness of ovule culture to obtain interspecific hybrids of selected Campanula species was demonstrated....

  9. Predators induce interspecific herbivore competition for food in refuge space

    OpenAIRE

    Pallini, A.; Janssen, A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    Resource competition among herbivorous arthropods has long been viewed as unimportant because herbivore populations are controlled by predators. Although recently resurrected as an organizing force in arthropod communities on plants, there is still general agreement that resource competition among herbivores is reduced by predators. Here we show the reverse: predators induce interspecific resource competi-tion among herbivores. We found that thrips larvae (Frankliniella occidentalis) use the ...

  10. Interspecific variations in the gastrointestinal microbiota in penguins

    OpenAIRE

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Dann, Peter; Trathan, Phil; Groscolas, Rene; Smith, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous amount of data available on the importance of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in vertebrate (especially mammals), information on the GI microbiota of seabirds remains incomplete. As with many seabirds, penguins have a unique digestive physiology that enables them to store large reserves of adipose tissue, protein, and lipids. This study used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to characterize the interspecific vari...

  11. Theoretical Foundations of the Web: Cognition, Communication, and Co-Operation. Towards an Understanding of Web 1.0, 2.0, 3.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bichler

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is much talk of Web 2.0 and Social Software. A common understanding of these notions is not yet in existence. The question of what makes Social Software social has thus far also remained unacknowledged. In this paper we provide a theoretical understanding of these notions by outlining a model of the Web as a techno-social system that enhances human cognition towards communication and co-operation. According to this understanding, we identify three qualities of the Web, namely Web 1.0 as a Web of cognition, Web 2.0 as a Web of human communication, and Web 3.0 as a Web of co-operation. We use the terms Web 1.0, Web 2.0, Web 3.0 not in a technical sense, but for describing and characterizing the social dynamics and information processes that are part of the Internet.

  12. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Asparagus (Asparagaceae) explains interspecific crossability between the garden asparagus (A. officinalis) and other Asparagus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shosei; Konno, Itaru; Kanno, Akira

    2012-02-01

    The genus Asparagus comprises approximately 200 species, some of which are commercially cultivated, such as the garden asparagus (A. officinalis). Many Asparagus species, including A. officinalis, are dioecious and have been grouped into a subgenus distinct from that of hermaphroditic species. Although many interspecific crossings have been attempted to introduce useful traits into A. officinalis, only some of the dioecious species were found to be cross-compatible with A. officinalis. Here, molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine whether interspecific crossability is proportional to the genetic distance between the crossing pairs and to further clarify the evolutionary history of the Asparagus genus. A clade with all cross-compatible species and no cross-incompatible species was recovered in the phylogenetic tree based on analyses of non-coding cpDNA regions. In addition, a sex-linked marker developed for A. officinalis amplified a male-specific region in all cross-compatible species. The phylogenetic analyses also provided some insights about the evolutionary history of Asparagus; for example, by indicating that the genus had its origin in southern Africa, subsequently spreading throughout the old world through intensive speciation and dispersal. The results also suggest that dioecious species were derived from a single evolutionary transition from hermaphroditism in Asparagus. These findings not only contribute towards the understanding of the evolutionary history of the genus but may also facilitate future interspecific hybridization programs involving Asparagus species.

  13. Interspecific Plastome Recombination Reflects Ancient Reticulate Evolution in Picea (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alexis R; Schiffthaler, Bastian; Thompson, Stacey Lee; Street, Nathaniel R; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2017-07-01

    Plastid sequences are a cornerstone in plant systematic studies and key aspects of their evolution, such as uniparental inheritance and absent recombination, are often treated as axioms. While exceptions to these assumptions can profoundly influence evolutionary inference, detecting them can require extensive sampling, abundant sequence data, and detailed testing. Using advancements in high-throughput sequencing, we analyzed the whole plastomes of 65 accessions of Picea, a genus of ∼35 coniferous forest tree species, to test for deviations from canonical plastome evolution. Using complementary hypothesis and data-driven tests, we found evidence for chimeric plastomes generated by interspecific hybridization and recombination in the clade comprising Norway spruce (P. abies) and 10 other species. Support for interspecific recombination remained after controlling for sequence saturation, positive selection, and potential alignment artifacts. These results reconcile previous conflicting plastid-based phylogenies and strengthen the mounting evidence of reticulate evolution in Picea. Given the relatively high frequency of hybridization and biparental plastid inheritance in plants, we suggest interspecific plastome recombination may be more widespread than currently appreciated and could underlie reported cases of discordant plastid phylogenies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Interspecific Hybridization May Provide Novel Opportunities for Coral Reef Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Yan Chan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances have created an era characterized by the inability of most ecosystems to maintain their original, pristine states, the Anthropocene. Investigating new and innovative strategies that may facilitate ecosystem restoration is thus becoming increasingly important, particularly for coral reefs around the globe which are deteriorating at an alarming rate. The Great Barrier Reef (GBR lost half its coral cover between 1985 and 2012, and experienced back-to-back heat-induced mass bleaching events and high coral mortality in 2016 and 2017. Here we investigate the efficacy of interspecific hybridization as a tool to develop coral stock with enhanced climate resilience. We crossed two Acropora species pairs from the GBR and examined several phenotypic traits over 28 weeks of exposure to ambient and elevated temperature and pCO2. While elevated temperature and pCO2 conditions negatively affected size and survival of both purebreds and hybrids, higher survival and larger recruit size were observed in some of the hybrid offspring groups under both ambient and elevated conditions. Further, interspecific hybrids had high fertilization rates, normal embryonic development, and similar Symbiodinium uptake and photochemical efficiency as purebred offspring. While the fitness of these hybrids in the field and their reproductive and backcrossing potential remain to be investigated, current findings provide proof-of-concept that interspecific hybridization may produce genotypes with enhanced climate resilience, and has the potential to increase the success of coral reef restoration initiatives.

  15. Heterosis and correlation in interspecific and intraspecific hybrids of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, S; Hussain, S B; Manzoor, H; Quereshi, M K; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Shehzad, A N; Rasul, S; Manzoor, S A

    2016-06-24

    Interspecific and intraspecific hybrids show varying degrees of heterosis for yield and yield components. Yield-component traits have complex genetic relationships with each other. To determine the relationship of yield-component traits and fiber traits with seed cotton yield, six lines (Bt. CIM-599, CIM-573, MNH-786, CIM-554, BH-167, and GIZA-7) and three test lines (MNH-886, V4, and CIM-557) were crossed in a line x tester mating design. Heterosis was observed for seed cotton yield, fiber traits, and for other yield-component traits. Heterosis in interspecific hybrids for seed cotton yield was more prominent than in intraspecific hybrids. The interspecific hybrid Giza-7 x MNH-886 had the highest heterosis (114.77), while among intraspecific hybrids, CIM-554 x CIM-557 had the highest heterosis (61.29) for seed cotton yield. A major trait contributing to seed cotton yield was bolls/plant followed by boll weight. Correlation studies revealed that bolls/plant, boll weight, lint weight/boll, lint index, seed index, lint/seed, staple length, and staple strength were significantly and positively associated with seed cotton yield. Selection based on boll weight, boll number, lint weight/boll, and lint index will be helpful for improving cotton seed yield.

  16. Interspecific nematode signals regulate dispersal behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Kaplan

    Full Text Available Dispersal is an important nematode behavior. Upon crowding or food depletion, the free living bacteriovorus nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces stress resistant dispersal larvae, called dauer, which are analogous to second stage juveniles (J2 of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. and infective juveniles (IJs of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN, e.g., Steinernema feltiae. Regulation of dispersal behavior has not been thoroughly investigated for C. elegans or any other nematode species. Based on the fact that ascarosides regulate entry in dauer stage as well as multiple behaviors in C. elegans adults including mating, avoidance and aggregation, we hypothesized that ascarosides might also be involved in regulation of dispersal behavior in C. elegans and for other nematodes such as IJ of phylogenetically related EPNs.Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of C. elegans dauer conditioned media, which shows strong dispersing activity, revealed four known ascarosides (ascr#2, ascr#3, ascr#8, icas#9. A synthetic blend of these ascarosides at physiologically relevant concentrations dispersed C. elegans dauer in the presence of food and also caused dispersion of IJs of S. feltiae and J2s of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. Assay guided fractionation revealed structural analogs as major active components of the S. feltiae (ascr#9 and C. elegans (ascr#2 dispersal blends. Further analysis revealed ascr#9 in all Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp. infected insect host cadavers.Ascaroside blends represent evolutionarily conserved, fundamentally important communication systems for nematodes from diverse habitats, and thus may provide sustainable means for control of parasitic nematodes.

  17. Mode of Communication, Perceived Level of Understanding, and Perceived Quality of Life in Youth Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, P.; Topolski, T. D.; Schick, B.; Edwards, T. C.; Skalicky, A. M.; Patrick, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Given the important role of parent–youth communication in adolescent well-being and quality of life, we sought to examine the relationship between specific communication variables and youth perceived quality of life in general and as a deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH) individual. A convenience sample of 230 youth (mean age = 14.1, standard deviation = 2.2; 24% used sign only, 40% speech only, and 36% sign + speech) was surveyed on communication-related issues, generic and DHH-specific quality of life, and depression symptoms. Higher youth perception of their ability to understand parents’ communication was significantly correlated with perceived quality of life as well as lower reported depressive symptoms and lower perceived stigma. Youth who use speech as their single mode of communication were more likely to report greater stigma associated with being DHH than youth who used both speech and sign. These findings demonstrate the importance of youths’ perceptions of communication with their parents on generic and DHH-specific youth quality of life. PMID:21536686

  18. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    beyond, but not past instrumental, rational plans in order to become better able to understand and manage the concrete, incremental practices and contexts in which communication becomes strategic. Thus, we argue that although strategic communicators do (and should) make plans, a plan in itself does...... of the specific communicative disciplines and practices employed by the organization and/or its individual members, be they marketing, public relations, corporate communication, branding, public affairs or social advocacy. In all cases, strategic communicators do well to focus more on the process of communicating...... for understanding and managing strategic communication processes....

  19. The great Irish famine: a further understanding of its complexities through the use of human communication theory

    OpenAIRE

    Derby, Lisa Kelly

    2000-01-01

    The Great Irish Famine cleared a minimum of two million Irish individuals from the land by either death or emigration. These individuals, both those that died and those that left, did not have their needs met for many deep-seated political and economic reasons, but also because of failed communication practices. It is this latter, neglected aspect of famine studies that is the focus of this thesis By using the lexicon of communication studies, many controversial aspects of famine historv will...

  20. Polar Bears or People?: How Framing Can Provide a Useful Analytic Tool to Understand & Improve Climate Change Communication in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Not only will young adults bear the brunt of climate change's effects, they are also the ones who will be required to take action - to mitigate and to adapt. The Next Generation Science Standards include climate change, ensuring the topic will be covered in U.S. science classrooms in the near future. Additionally, school is a primary source of information about climate change for young adults. The larger question, though, is how can the teaching of climate change be done in such a way as to ascribe agency - a willingness to act - to students? Framing - as both a theory and an analytic method - has been used to understand how language in the media can affect the audience's intention to act. Frames function as a two-way filter, affecting both the message sent and the message received. This study adapted both the theory and the analytic methods of framing, applying them to teachers in the classroom to answer the research question: How do teachers frame climate change in the classroom? To answer this question, twenty-five lessons from seven teachers were analyzed using semiotic discourse analysis methods. It was found that the teachers' frames overlapped to form two distinct discourses: a Science Discourse and a Social Discourse. The Science Discourse, which was dominant, can be summarized as: Climate change is a current scientific problem that will have profound global effects on the Earth's physical systems. The Social Discourse, used much less often, can be summarized as: Climate change is a future social issue because it will have negative impacts at the local level on people. While it may not be surprising that the Science Discourse was most often heard in these science classrooms, it is possibly problematic if it were the only discourse used. The research literature on framing indicates that the frames found in the Science Discourse - global scale, scientific statistics and facts, and impact on the Earth's systems - are not likely to inspire action-taking. This

  1. Structured nursing communication on interdisciplinary acute care teams improves perceptions of safety, efficiency, understanding of care plan and teamwork as well as job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausvik, Christian; Lautar, Ashley; Miller, Lisa; Pallerla, Harini; Schlaudecker, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, accurate, and timely communication is required for quality health care and is strongly linked to health care staff job satisfaction. Developing ways to improve communication is key to increasing quality of care, and interdisciplinary care teams allow for improved communication among health care professionals. This study examines the patient- and family-centered use of structured interdisciplinary bedside rounds (SIBR) on an acute care for the elderly (ACE) unit in a 555-bed metropolitan community hospital. This mixed methods study surveyed 24 nurses, therapists, patient care assistants, and social workers to measure perceptions of teamwork, communication, understanding of the plan for the day, safety, efficiency, and job satisfaction. A similar survey was administered to a control group of 38 of the same staff categories on different units in the same hospital. The control group units utilized traditional physician-centric rounding. Significant differences were found in each category between the SIBR staff on the ACE unit and the control staff. Nurse job satisfaction is an important marker of retention and recruitment, and improved communication may be an important aspect of increasing this satisfaction. Furthermore, improved communication is key to maintaining a safe hospital environment with quality patient care. Interdisciplinary team rounds that take place at the bedside improve both nursing satisfaction and related communication markers of quality and safety, and may help to achieve higher nurse retention and safer patient care. These results point to the interconnectedness and dual benefit to both job satisfaction and patient quality of care that can come from enhancements to team communication.

  2. SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF INTERSPECIFIC INTERACTIONS IN A GROUP “HUMAN - PET”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Gagarin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the features of interspecific interaction “Human - Pet” in aspects of psychology and behaviorism. This direction is shown to be promising in the theoretical and applied aspects. This is significant for the study of individual social activity and human life, as well as social groups. The article identifies the promising areas of the research of such interaction: in the development of family and child-parent relations; in the asocial individual development under the influence of various factors (social and personal; in various directions of media development (social advertising on television and in print, in fiction and film; in socially-significant communicating in social networks (communication through video sharing, etc.. It is shown that this perspective is important for research in education and upbringing. We have come to the conclusion that the problems are of social significance because the direct and/or indirect human contact with natural objects contributes to the development of different spheres of his/her personality (cognitive, communicative, aesthetic, ethical, emotional, volitional.

  3. Interspecific aggression, not interspecific mating, drives character displacement in the wing coloration of male rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, J. P.; Grether, G. F.

    2014-01-01

    Traits that mediate intraspecific social interactions may overlap in closely related sympatric species, resulting in costly between-species interactions. Such interactions have principally interested investigators studying the evolution of reproductive isolation via reproductive character displacement (RCD) or reinforcement, yet in addition to reproductive interference, interspecific trait overlap can lead to costly between-species aggression. Previous research on rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina spp.) demonstrated that sympatric shifts in male wing colour patterns and competitor recognition reduce interspecific aggression, supporting the hypothesis that agonistic character displacement (ACD) drove trait shifts. However, a recent theoretical model shows that RCD overshadows ACD if the same male trait is used for both female mate recognition and male competitor recognition. To determine whether female mate recognition is based on male wing coloration in Hetaerina, we conducted a phenotype manipulation experiment. Compared to control males, male H. americana with wings manipulated to resemble a sympatric congener (H. titia) suffered no reduction in mating success. Thus, female mate recognition is not based on species differences in male wing coloration. Experimental males did, however, experience higher interspecific fighting rates and reduced survival compared to controls. These results greatly strengthen the case for ACD and highlight the mechanistic distinction between ACD and RCD. PMID:25339724

  4. Transfer Entails Communication: The Public Understanding of (Social) Science as a Stage and a Play for Implementing Evidence-Based Prevention Knowledge and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromme, Rainer; Beelmann, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Many social science-based interventions entail the transfer of evidence-based knowledge to the "target population," because the acquisition and the acceptance of that knowledge are necessary for the intended improvement of behavior or development. Furthermore, the application of a certain prevention program is often legitimated by a reference to science-based reasons such as an evaluation according to scientific standards. Hence, any implementation of evidence-based knowledge and programs is embedded in the public understanding of (social) science. Based on recent research on such public understanding of science, we shall discuss transfer as a process of science communication.

  5. Harnessing Reddit to Understand the Written-Communication Challenges Experienced by Individuals With Mental Health Disorders: Analysis of Texts From Mental Health Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert; Conway, Mike

    2018-04-10

    online health communities. Our results also suggest that participating in these platforms has the potential to improve members' written communication. For example, members of all three mental health communities showed statistically significant improvement in both lexical diversity and readability compared with members of the OHC focusing on positive emotion. We provide new insights into the written communication challenges faced by individuals suffering from depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. A comparison with three other online health communities suggests that written communication in mental health communities is significantly more difficult to read, while also consisting of a significantly less diverse lexicon. We contribute practical suggestions for utilizing our findings in Web-based communication settings to enhance members' communicative experience. We consider these findings to be an important step toward understanding and addressing everyday written communication challenges among individuals suffering from mental disorders. ©Albert Park, Mike Conway. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 10.04.2018.

  6. Understanding and improving communication and decision-making in palliative care for Turkish and Moroccan immigrants: a multiperspective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, F.M.; Francke, A.L.; van den Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C.; van der Geest, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to explore how communication and decision-making in palliative care among Turkish and Moroccan patients is influenced by different styles of care management between Turkish and Moroccan families and Dutch professional care providers. Problems as well as solutions

  7. Understanding Accumulation: The Relevance of Marx’s Theory of Primitive Accumulation in Media and Communication Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Ekman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to discuss and use Marx’s theory on primitive accumulation, outlined in the first volume of Capital, in relation to media and communication research. In order to develop Marx’s argument the discussion is revitalized through Harvey’s concept of accumulation by dispossession. The article focuses on two different fields within media and communication research where the concept of accumulation by dispossession is applicable. First, the role of news media content, news flows and news media systems are discussed in relation to social mobilization against capitalism, privatizations, and the financial sector. Second, Marx’s theory is used to examine how communication in Web 2.0 and the development of ICTs could advance the processes of capital accumulation by appropriating the work performed by users of Web 2.0 and by increasing the corporate surveillance of Internet users. In conclusion, by analyzing how primitive accumulation is intertwined with contemporary expanded reproduction of capital, the article shows that Marx’s theory can contribute to critical media and communication research in several ways.

  8. Understanding Why Speech-Language Pathologists Rarely Pursue a PhD in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myotte, Theodore; Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Belin, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Masters-level speech-language pathologists in communication sciences and disorders (n = 122) completed a survey soliciting their reasons for not pursuing doctoral study. Factor analysis revealed a four-factor solution including one reflecting a lack of interest in doctoral study (Factor 2) and one reflecting practical financial concerns (Factor…

  9. Understanding the Role of Culture and Communication in Implementing Planned Organizational Change: The Case of Compstat in Police Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Despite the popularity of planned change efforts, the failure rates of implementation are as high as 50 to 70 percent (Lewis & Seibold, 1998). While these efforts are affected by technical issues, the organizations' approach to change, structure, technological capabilities, and organizational culture and communication practices are…

  10. Interspecific variation of ontogeny and skull shape among porpoises (Phocoenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatius, Anders; Berta, Annalisa; Frandsen, Marie Schou; Goodall, R Natalie P

    2011-02-01

    All extant members of Phocoenidae (porpoises) have been characterized as pedomorphic based on skeletal characters. To investigate the ontogenetic background for pedomorphosis and assess interspecific differences in ontogeny among phocoenids, samples of the six extant species were compared in terms of development of both epiphyseal and cranial suture fusion. Across all species, full maturity of the vertebral column was rare. Vertebral epiphyseal development did not progress so far in most Phocoena phocoena as in Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena dioptrica. P. phocoena, Phocoena spinipinnis, Ph. dalli, and P. dioptrica, for which large series were available, were further compared in terms of ontogeny of cranial shape by three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Ph. dalli and P. dioptrica generally showed further development of cranial sutures than the other species. Postnatal skull shape development was similar for all species studied; the majority of interspecific shape differences are present at parturition. Smaller species had a higher rate of shape development relative to growth in size than Ph. dalli and P. dioptrica, but they still showed less allometric development due to less postnatal growth. Interspecific shape differences indicate phylogenetic relationships similar to that proposed based on morphology or convergent evolution of the two pelagic species, Ph. dalli and P. dioptrica, under the scenarios suggested by recent molecular studies. A shape trend coinciding with habitat preference was detected; in species with pelagic preference the position and orientation of the foramen magnum aligned the skull with the vertebral column; the rostrum showed less ventral inclination, and the facial region was larger and more concave in lateral aspect. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Coexistence facilitates interspecific biofilm formation in complex microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Røder, Henriette Lyng; Russel, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions in which bacteria respond to one another by modifying their phenotype are central determinants of microbial communities. It is known that interspecific interactions influence the biofilm phenotype of bacteria; a phenotype that is central to the fitness of bacteria. However......, the underlying role of fundamental ecological factors, specifically coexistence and phylogenetic history, in biofilm formation remains unclear. This study examines how social interactions affect biofilm formation in multi-species co-cultures from five diverse environments. We found prevalence of increased...

  12. Working with the ineffable: Toward a process of understanding and communicating qualitative research knowledge and experience through design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coxon, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    The work described in this paper addresses the conference call for "New processes, tools or approaches that facilitate knowledge exchange and collaboration" between academia and creative people. It introduces a research-for-design program that we at the Experience-based Designing Centre in Denmar...... found to others. It requires creative thinking and collaborative effort to make the kinds of breakthroughs that we have so far. We would like the opportunity to continue this process at this conference with the help of our peers...... thinking. All of these stages involve researchers either academic or from practice, trying to communicate ineffable forms of knowledge to others. It is difficult enough to gain access to this knowledge in the first place, then to know what to do with it when you find it or how to communicate what you have...

  13. Understanding consumer preferences for communication channels to create consumer-directed health promotion efforts in psychiatric rehabilitation settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranco, Evelina; Bressi, Sara K; Salzer, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    People with serious mental illnesses experience increased rates of physical illnesses. Drop-in centers and psychosocial rehabilitation programs can serve as important settings for health promotion efforts, but such efforts should utilize communication strategies that are used by consumers and are perceived to be reliable. Focus groups involving 23 consumers at drop-in centers in Philadelphia were conducted to assess the perceived usefulness of health information from a variety of sources. Consumers especially liked getting information from other people, including health care professionals, friends, and family, and found the information to be reliable and useful. Print literature, the Internet, and a library had various limitations. Respondents were generally unfamiliar with community health fairs and related events. Consumers considered trustworthiness, proximity and availability, and the specificity and depth of information provided by a communication source when getting health information. Implications for health promotion efforts are discussed.

  14. Volume transmission and receptor-receptor interactions in heteroreceptor complexes: understanding the role of new concepts for brain communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Fuxe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the central monoamine neurons not only demonstrated novel types of brain stem neurons forming global terminal networks all over the brain and the spinal cord, but also to a novel type of communication called volume transmission. It is a major mode of communication in the central nervous system that takes places in the extracellular fluid and the cerebral spinal fluid through diffusion and flow of molecules, like neurotransmitters and extracellular vesicles. The integration of synaptic and volume transmission takes place through allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in heteroreceptor complexes. These heterocomplexes represent major integrator centres in the plasma membrane and their protomers act as moonlighting proteins undergoing dynamic changes and their structure and function. In fact, we propose that the molecular bases of learning and memory can be based on the reorganization of multiples homo and heteroreceptor complexes into novel assembles in the post-junctional membranes of synapses.

  15. Interspecific hybridization between Crassostrea angulata and C. ariakensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tuo; Zhang, Yuehuan; Yan, Xiwu; Wang, Zhaoping; Li, Dongchun; Su, Jiaqi; Yu, Ruihai

    2015-08-01

    Interspecific hybridization can generate heterosis, which is proven to be a useful tool in selective breeding programs for oyster culture. Crassostrea angulata and C. ariakensis are two important economic shellfish species in China. We conducted 2 × 2 reciprocal crosses to determine whether these two species can cross-fertilize and their hybrids can hatch, survive and perform heterosis. Fertilization was found symmetrical without delay. The rate of fertilization success of C. angulata ♀ × C. ariakensis ♂ was lower than that of C. ariakensis ♀ × C. angulata ♂, and the success rate of both hybridizations was lower than that of two intraspecific crosses each. During the planktonic period, survival rate of the progeny was lower in the hybrid crosses than in the intraspecific crosses. On day 360, mean shell height of the progeny of C. angulata ♀ × C. angulata ♂ was highest, which was followed by that of C. angulata ♀ × C. ariakensis ♂, C. ariakensis ♀ × C. ariakensis ♂ and C. ariakensis ♀ × C. angulata ♂ in a descending order. Morphology of adults produced by the hybrid crosses was similar to that of C. angulata. Both hybrids underwent normal gonad development and produced mature gametes in the mating season. This study provided new insights into the quantitative traits in interspecific crosses of Crassostrea species, thus being of guidance value for selective breeding of oyster.

  16. The pharmacokinetics of xylazine hydrochloride: an interspecific study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Villar, R; Toutain, P L; Alvinerie, M; Ruckebusch, Y

    1981-06-01

    The pharmacokinetic disposition of xylazine hydrochloride is described after both intravenous and intramuscular injection of a single dose, in four domestic species: horse, cattle, sheep and dog, by an original high performance liquid chromatographic technique. Remarkably small interspecific differences are reported. After intravenous administration, systemic half-life (t1/2 beta) ranged between 22 min (sheep) and 50 min (horse) while the distribution phase is transient with half-life (t1/2 alpha) ranging from 1.2 min (cattle) to 5.9 min (horse). The peak level of drug concentration in the plasma is reached after 12-14 min in all the species studied following intramuscular administration. Xylazine bioavailability, as measured by the ratios of the areas under the intravenous and intramuscular plasma concentration versus time curves, ranged from 52% to 90% in dog, 17% to 73% in sheep and 40% to 48% in horse. The low dosage in cattle did not permit calculation. Kinetic data are correlated with clinical data and the origins of interspecific differences are discussed.

  17. Interspecific gene flow and maintenance of species integrity in oaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gailing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oak species show a wide variation in morphological and physiological characters, and species boundaries between closely related species are often not clear-cut. Still, despite frequent interspecific gene flow, oaks maintain distinct morphological and physiological adaptations. In sympatric stands, spatial distribution of species with different ecological requirements is not random but constrained by soil and other microenvironmental factors. Pre-zygotic isolation (e.g. cross incompatibilities, asynchrony in flowering, pollen competition and post-zygotic isolation (divergent selection contribute to the maintenance of species integrity in sympatric oak stands. The antagonistic effects of interspecific gene flow and divergent selection are reflected in the low genetic differentiation between hybridizing oak species at most genomic regions interspersed by regions with signatures of divergent selection (outlier regions. In the near future, the availability of high-density genetic linkage maps anchored to scaffolds of a sequenced Q. robur genome will allow to characterize the underlying genes in these outlier regions and their putative role in reproductive isolation between species. Reciprocal transplant experiments of seedlings between parental environments can be used to characterize selection on outlier genes. High transferability of gene-based markers will enable comparative outlier screens in different oak species.

  18. Snake co-occurrence patterns are best explained by habitat and hypothesized effects of interspecific interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Steen; Christopher J. W. McClure; Jean C. Brock; D. Craig Rudolph; Josh B. Pierce; James R. Lee; W. Jeffrey Humphries; Beau B. Gregory; William B. Sutton; Lora L. Smith; Danna L. Baxley; Dirk J. Stevenson; Craig Guyer

    2014-01-01

    1. Snakes often occur in species-rich assemblages, and sympatry is thought to be facilitated primarily by low diet overlap, not interspecific interactions. 2. We selected, a priori, three species pairs consisting of species that are morphologically and taxonomically similar and may therefore be likely to engage in interspecific, consumptive competition. We then...

  19. Using DNA to describe and quantify interspecific killing of fishers in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greta M. Wengert; Mourad W. Gabriel; Sean M. Matthews; J. Mark Higley; Rick A. Sweitzer; Craig. M. Thompson; Kathryn L. Purcell; Reginald H. Barrett; Leslie W. Woods; Rebecca E. Green; Stefan M. Keller; Patricia M. Gaffney; Megan Jones; Benjamin N. Sacks

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific killing is common among carnivores and can have population-level effects on imperiled species. The fisher (Pekania [Martes] pennant) is a rare forest carnivore in western North America and a candidate for listing under the United States Endangered Species Act. Interspecific killing and...

  20. Structured nursing communication on interdisciplinary acute care teams improves perceptions of safety, efficiency, understanding of care plan and teamwork as well as job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gausvik C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Christian Gausvik,1 Ashley Lautar,2 Lisa Miller,2 Harini Pallerla,3 Jeffrey Schlaudecker4,5 1University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 2The Christ Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, 4Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 5Geriatric Medicine Fellowship Program, University of Cincinnati/The Christ Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, USA Abstract: Efficient, accurate, and timely communication is required for quality health care and is strongly linked to health care staff job satisfaction. Developing ways to improve communication is key to increasing quality of care, and interdisciplinary care teams allow for improved communication among health care professionals. This study examines the patient- and family-centered use of structured interdisciplinary bedside rounds (SIBR on an acute care for the elderly (ACE unit in a 555-bed metropolitan community hospital. This mixed methods study surveyed 24 nurses, therapists, patient care assistants, and social workers to measure perceptions of teamwork, communication, understanding of the plan for the day, safety, efficiency, and job satisfaction. A similar survey was administered to a control group of 38 of the same staff categories on different units in the same hospital. The control group units utilized traditional physician-centric rounding. Significant differences were found in each category between the SIBR staff on the ACE unit and the control staff. Nurse job satisfaction is an important marker of retention and recruitment, and improved communication may be an important aspect of increasing this satisfaction. Furthermore, improved communication is key to maintaining a safe hospital environment with quality patient care. Interdisciplinary team rounds that take place at the bedside improve both nursing satisfaction and related communication markers of quality and safety, and may help to achieve higher nurse retention and safer

  1. Genetic Confirmation of Mungbean (Vigna radiata) and Mashbean (Vigna mungo) Interspecific Recombinants using Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghulam; Hameed, Amjad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ahsan, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad J; Iqbal, Nayyer

    2015-01-01

    Molecular confirmation of interspecific recombinants is essential to overcome the issues like self-pollination, environmental influence, and inadequacy of morphological characteristics during interspecific hybridization. The present study was conducted for genetic confirmation of mungbean (female) and mashbean (male) interspecific crosses using molecular markers. Initially, polymorphic random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), universal rice primers (URP), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers differentiating parent genotypes were identified. Recombination in hybrids was confirmed using these polymorphic DNA markers. The NM 2006 × Mash 88 was most successful interspecific cross. Most of true recombinants confirmed by molecular markers were from this cross combination. SSR markers were efficient in detecting genetic variability and recombination with reference to specific chromosomes and particular loci. SSR (RIS) and RAPD identified variability dispersed throughout the genome. In conclusion, DNA based marker assisted selection (MAS) efficiently confirmed the interspecific recombinants. The results provided evidence that MAS can enhance the authenticity of selection in mungbean improvement program.

  2. Interspecific competition of early successional plant species in ex-arable fields as influenced by plant-soil feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Jingying; Bezemer, T. Martijn; Van der Putten, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Plant–soil feedback can affect plants that belong to the same (intraspecific feedback) or different species (interspecific feedback). However, little is known about how intra- and interspecific plant–soil feedbacks influence interspecific plant competition. Here, we used plants and soil from early-stage ex-arable fields to examine how intra- and interspecific plant–soil feedbacks affect the performance of 10 conditioning species and the focal species, Jacobaea vulgaris. Plants were grown alon...

  3. Interspecific competition of early successional plant species in ex-arable fields as influenced by plant–soil feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Y.; Bezemer, T.M.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Plant–soil feedback can affect plants that belong to the same (intraspecific feedback) or different species (interspecific feedback). However, little is known about how intra- and interspecific plant–soil feedbacks influence interspecific plant competition. Here, we used plants and soil from

  4. Interspecific competition of early successional plant species in ex-arable fields as influenced by plant-soil feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Jingying; Bezemer, T. Martijn; Van der Putten, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Plant–soil feedback can affect plants that belong to the same (intraspecific feedback) or different species (interspecific feedback). However, little is known about how intra- and interspecific plant–soil feedbacks influence interspecific plant competition. Here, we used plants and soil from

  5. Appreciating the ties that bind technical communication to culture: A dynamic model to help us understand differences in discourse structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter; Kampf, Constance

    In order to support an explicit understanding of cultural patterns as both dynamic and structured, we will examine Hofstede?s model for stabilization of cultural patterns, and use this model to explore some cultural consequences for patterns of logic and signs that influence the effectiveness of ...

  6. Communicating global cardiovascular risk: are icon arrays better than numerical estimates in improving understanding, recall and perception of risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jorge G; Andrade, Allen D; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Anam, Ramanakumar; Rodriguez, Remberto; Sharit, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Experts recommend that adults have their global cardiovascular risk assessed. We investigated whether icon arrays increase understanding, recall, perception of CVR, and behavioral intent as compared with numerical information. Male outpatient veterans, at an intermediate to high cardiovascular risk participated in a randomized controlled trial of a computer tutorial presenting individualized risk. Message format was presented in 3 formats: percentages, frequencies, and frequencies with icon arrays. We assessed understanding immediately (T1) and recall at 20 min (T2) and 2 weeks (T3) after the intervention. We assessed perceptions of importance/seriousness, intent to adhere, and self-efficacy at T1. Self-reported adherence was assessed at T3. One-hundred and twenty male veterans participated. Age, education, race, health literacy and numeracy were comparable at baseline. There were no differences in understanding at T1 [p = .31] and recall at T3 [p = .10]. Accuracy was inferior with frequencies with icon arrays than percentages or frequencies at T2 [p ≤ .001]. There were no differences in perception of seriousness and importance for heart disease, behavioral intent, self-efficacy, actual adherence and satisfaction. Icon arrays may impair short-term recall of CVR. Icon arrays will not necessarily result in better understanding and recall of medical risk in all patients. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Modelling Engagement in Multi-Party Conversations : Data-Driven Approaches to Understanding Human-Human Communication Patterns for Use in Human-Robot Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Oertel, Catharine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study human-human interaction in order to provide virtual agents and robots with the capability to engage into multi-party-conversations in a human-like-manner. The focus lies with the modelling of conversational dynamics and the appropriate realization of multi-modal feedback behaviour. For such an undertaking, it is important to understand how human-human communication unfolds in varying contexts and constellations over time. To this end, multi-modal human-human...

  8. Understanding human – bat interactions in NSW, Australia: improving risk communication for prevention of Australian bat lyssavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Emma K; Massey, Peter D; Cox-Witton, Keren; Paterson, Beverley J; Eastwood, Keith; Durrheim, David N

    2014-01-01

    Background Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infects a number of flying fox and insectivorous bats species in Australia. Human infection with ABLV is inevitably fatal unless prior vaccination and/or post-exposure treatment (PET) is given. Despite ongoing public health messaging about the risks associated with bat contact, surveillance data have revealed a four-fold increase in the number of people receiving PET for bat exposure in NSW between 2007 and 2011. Our study aimed to better understand...

  9. Signals and cues in the evolution of plant–microbe communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Padje, A.; Whiteside, M.D.; Kiers, E.T.

    2016-01-01

    Communication has played a key role in organismal evolution. If sender and receiver have a shared interest in propagating reliable information, such as when they are kin relatives, then effective communication can bring large fitness benefits. However, interspecific communication (among different

  10. Reproductive characterization of interspecific hybrids among Capsicum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the reproductive characterization of Capsicum accessions as well as of interspecifichybrids, based on pollen viability. Hybrids were obtained between Capsicum species. Pollen viability was high in most accessions,indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. The pollen viability of species C. pubescens was the lowest (27%. The interspecific hybrids had varying degrees of pollen viability, from fertile combinations (C. chinense x C. frutescens and C.annuum x C. baccatum to male sterile combinations. Pollen viability also varied within the hybrid combination according toaccessions used in the cross. Results indicate that male sterility is one of the incompatibility barriers among Capsicum species sincehybrids can be established, but may be male sterile.

  11. Interspecific bacterial interactions are reflected in multispecies biofilm spatial organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzheng; Røder, Henriette Lyng; Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke

    2016-01-01

    not only the enabling sub-populations. However, the specific molecular mechanisms of cellular processes affecting spatial organization, and vice versa, are poorly understood and very complex to unravel. Therefore, detailed description of the spatial organization of individual bacterial cells...... environments. Species residing in these complex bacterial communities usually interact both intra- and interspecifically. Such interactions are considered to not only be fundamental in shaping overall biomass and the spatial distribution of cells residing in multispecies biofilms, but also to result......, industrial, and clinical implications. This review briefly presents the state of the art of studying interspecies interactions and spatial organization of multispecies communities, aiming to support theoretical and practical arguments for further advancement of this field....

  12. Rethinking physical activity communication: using focus groups to understand women's goals, values, and beliefs to improve public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, Michelle; Taber, Jennifer M; Patrick, Heather; Thai, Chan L; Oh, April

    2017-05-18

    Communication about physical activity (PA) frames PA and influences what it means to people, including the role it plays in their lives. To the extent that PA messages can be designed to reflect outcomes that are relevant to what people most value experiencing and achieving in their daily lives, the more compelling and effective they will be. Aligned with self-determination theory, this study investigated proximal goals and values that are salient in everyday life and how they could be leveraged through new messaging to better support PA participation among women. The present study was designed to examine the nature of women's daily goals and priorities and investigate women's PA beliefs, feelings, and experiences, in order to identify how PA may compete with or facilitate women's daily goals and priorities. Preliminary recommendations are proposed for designing new PA messages that align PA with women's daily goals and desired experiences to better motivate participation. Eight focus groups were conducted with White, Black, and Hispanic/Latina women aged 22-49, stratified by amount of self-reported PA (29 low active participants, 11 high active participants). Respondents discussed their goals, values, and daily priorities along with beliefs, feelings about and experiences being physically active. Data were collected, coded, and analyzed using a thematic analysis strategy to identify emergent themes. Many of the goals and values that both low and high active participants discussed as desiring and valuing map on to key principles of self-determination theory. However, the discussions among low active participants suggested that their beliefs, feelings, experiences, and definitions of PA were in conflict with their proximal goals, values, and priorities, also undermining their psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Findings from this study can be used to inform and evaluate new physical activity communication strategies that leverage more

  13. Obtaining of interspecific hybrids for pea introgressive breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vasilevich Bobkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Overcoming of reproductive isolation, identification and transfer of agronomic value genes from wild relatives into cultivated pea genomes is an important task for pea introgressive breeding. Materials and methods. Reciprocal hybridization of cultivated pea with wide set of P. fulvum accessions was conducted. Identification of hybrids was carried out with use of biochemical and morphological markers. Identification of unique protein was conducted with use of electrophoretic spectra of mature seeds. Results. Pea interspecific hybrids were obtained in two reciprocal directions of crosses. Cross efficiency in Р. sativum × P. fulvum and P. fulvum × Р. sativum combinations was 36 % and 7 %, respectively. All tested seeds in crosses Р. sativum × P. fulvum were hybrids. Crosses in direction P. fulvum × Р. sativum led to formation of puny seeds restricted in embryo growth. Protein markers of one seed derived in cross P. fulvum × Р. sativum proved its hybrid nature. Morphological markers demonstrated that plant derived from another cross was also a hybrid. Culture of immature embryos was developed for recovering plants in interspecific crosses. Morphogenic calli and regenerated plants were obtained in culture of immature embryos P. fulvum (И592589 × Р. sativum (Aest. Identification of unique protein 7 of P. fulvum was conducted. Inheritance of that protein was proved as monogenic dominant. Conclusion. Efficiency of hybridization in combination P. fulvum × Р. sativum was significantly less in compare to reciprocal one. All products of that cross combination were tested as hybrids. Unique protein 7 of P. fulvum was revealed as a result of mature seed electrophoretic spectra analysis. Inheritance of that protein was determined as monogenic dominant.

  14. “Fracking” controversy and communication: Using national survey data to understand public perceptions of hydraulic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudet, Hilary; Clarke, Christopher; Bugden, Dylan; Maibach, Edward; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The recent push to develop unconventional sources of oil and gas both in the U.S. and abroad via hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) has generated a great deal of controversy. Effectively engaging stakeholders and setting appropriate policies requires insights into current public perceptions of this issue. Using a nationally representative U.S. sample (N=1061), we examine public perceptions of hydraulic fracturing including: “top of mind” associations; familiarity with the issue; levels of support/opposition; and predictors of such judgments. Similar to findings on other emerging technologies, our results suggest limited familiarity with the process and its potential impacts and considerable uncertainty about whether to support it. Multiple regression analysis (r 2 =.49) finds that women, those holding egalitarian worldviews, those who read newspapers more than once a week, those more familiar with hydraulic fracturing, and those who associate the process with environmental impacts are more likely to oppose fracking. In contrast, people more likely to support fracking tend to be older, hold a bachelor's degree or higher, politically conservative, watch TV news more than once a week, and associate the process with positive economic or energy supply outcomes. Based on these findings, we discuss recommendations for future research, risk communication, and energy policy. - Highlights: • We conducted a survey of Americans' views on hydraulic fracturing in September 2012. • A majority of Americans have heard little or nothing about hydraulic fracturing. • Many Americans do not know if they support/oppose it or are undecided. • Those who have made a decision are evenly split between support and opposition. • Predictors of support include education, media use and top of mind associations

  15. Climate and foraging mode explain interspecific variation in snake metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupoué, Andréaz; Brischoux, François; Lourdais, Olivier

    2017-11-29

    The energy cost of self-maintenance is a critical facet of life-history strategies. Clarifying the determinant of interspecific variation in metabolic rate (MR) at rest is important to understand and predict ecological patterns such as species distributions or responses to climatic changes. We examined variation of MR in snakes, a group characterized by a remarkable diversity of activity rates and a wide distribution. We collated previously published MR data ( n = 491 observations) measured in 90 snake species at different trial temperatures. We tested for the effects of metabolic state (standard MR (SMR) versus resting MR (RMR)), foraging mode (active versus ambush foragers) and climate (temperature and precipitation) while accounting for non-independence owing to phylogeny, body mass and thermal dependence. We found that RMR was 40% higher than SMR, and that active foragers have higher MR than species that ambush their prey. We found that MR was higher in cold environments, supporting the metabolic cold adaptation hypothesis. We also found an additive and positive effect of precipitation on MR suggesting that lower MR in arid environments may decrease dehydration and energetic costs. Altogether, our findings underline the complex influences of climate and foraging mode on MR and emphasize the relevance of these facets to understand the physiological impact of climate change. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. TAI vacuolar invertase orthologs: the interspecific variability in tomato plants (Solanum section Lycopersicon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slugina, M A; Shchennikova, A V; Kochieva, E Z

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying carbohydrate metabolism can promote the development of biotechnological advances in fruit plants. The flesh tomato fruit represents an ideal system for examining the role of sucrose cleavage enzymes in fruit development, and wild tomato species differing in storage sugars serve as an excellent research material for this purpose. Plant vacuolar invertase is a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism in the sink organs. In the present study, we identified complete gene sequences encoding the TAI vacuolar invertase in 11 wild and one cultivated tomato accessions of the Solanum section Lycopersicon. The average level of interspecific polymorphism in TAI genes was 8.58%; however, in the green-fruited tomatoes, the TAI genes contained 100 times more SNPs than those in the red-fruited accessions. The TAI proteins demonstrated 8% variability, whereas the red-fruited species had none. A TAI-based phylogenetic tree revealed two main clusters containing self-compatible and self-incompatible species, which concurs with the previous crossability-based division and demonstrates that the TAI genes reflect the evolutionary relationships between the red- and green-fruited tomatoes. Furthermore, we detected differential expression patterns of the TAI genes in the fruits of wild and cultivated tomatoes, which corresponded to sugar composition. The polymorphism analysis of the TAI acid invertases of Solanum section Lycopersicon species will contribute to the understanding of the genetic potential of TAI genes to impact tomato breeding through genetic engineering of the carbohydrate composition in the fruit.

  17. Understanding why cancer patients accept or turn down psycho-oncological support: a prospective observational study including patients' and clinicians' perspectives on communication about distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwahlen, Diana; Tondorf, Theresa; Rothschild, Sacha; Koller, Michael T; Rochlitz, Christoph; Kiss, Alexander

    2017-05-30

    International standards prioritize introducing routine emotional distress screening in cancer care to accurately identify patients who most need psycho-oncological treatment, and ensure that patients can access appropriate supportive care. However, only a moderate proportion of distressed patients accepts referrals to or uses psycho-oncological support services. Predictors and barriers to psycho-oncological support service utilization are under-studied. We know little about how patients and oncologists perceive the discussions when oncologists assess psychosocial distress with a screening instrument. We aim to 1) assess the barriers and predictors of uptake of in-house psycho-oncological support along the distress screening pathway in cancer patients treated at a University Oncology Outpatient Clinic and, 2) determine how patients and clinicians perceive communication about psychosocial distress after screening with the Distress Thermometer. This is a quantitative prospective observational study with qualitative aspects. We will examine medical and demographic variables, cancer patient self-reports of various psychological measures, and aspects of the patient-clinician communication as variables that potentially predict uptake of psycho-oncological support service. We will also assess the patients' reasons for accepting or refusing psycho-oncological support services. We assess at three points in time, based on paper-and-pencil questionnaires and two patient interviews during the study period. We will monitor outcomes (psycho-oncology service uptake) four months after study entry. The study will improve our understanding of characteristics of patients who accept or refuse psycho-oncological support, and help us understand how patients' and oncologists perceive communication about psychosocial distress, and referral to a psycho-oncologist. We believe this is the first study to focus on factors that affect uptake or rejection of psycho-oncological support services

  18. Material Exchange in Photoreceptor Transplantation: Updating Our Understanding of Donor/Host Communication and the Future of Cell Engraftment Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Philip E B; Ortin-Martinez, Arturo; Wallace, Valerie A

    2018-01-01

    Considerable research effort has been invested into the transplantation of mammalian photoreceptors into healthy and degenerating mouse eyes. Several platforms of rod and cone fluorescent reporting have been central to refining the isolation, purification and transplantation of photoreceptors. The tracking of engrafted cells, including identifying the position, morphology and degree of donor cell integration post-transplant is highly dependent on the use of fluorescent protein reporters. Improvements in imaging and analysis of transplant recipients have revealed that donor cell fluorescent reporters can transfer into host tissue though a process termed material exchange (ME). This recent discovery has chaperoned a new era of interpretation when reviewing the field's use of dissociated donor cell preparations, and has prompted scientists to re-examine how we use and interpret the information derived from fluorescence-based tracking tools. In this review, we describe the status of our understanding of ME in photoreceptor transplantation. In addition, we discuss the impact of this discovery on several aspects of historical rod and cone transplantation data, and provide insight into future standards and approaches to advance the field of cell engraftment.

  19. Material Exchange in Photoreceptor Transplantation: Updating Our Understanding of Donor/Host Communication and the Future of Cell Engraftment Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip E. B. Nickerson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research effort has been invested into the transplantation of mammalian photoreceptors into healthy and degenerating mouse eyes. Several platforms of rod and cone fluorescent reporting have been central to refining the isolation, purification and transplantation of photoreceptors. The tracking of engrafted cells, including identifying the position, morphology and degree of donor cell integration post-transplant is highly dependent on the use of fluorescent protein reporters. Improvements in imaging and analysis of transplant recipients have revealed that donor cell fluorescent reporters can transfer into host tissue though a process termed material exchange (ME. This recent discovery has chaperoned a new era of interpretation when reviewing the field’s use of dissociated donor cell preparations, and has prompted scientists to re-examine how we use and interpret the information derived from fluorescence-based tracking tools. In this review, we describe the status of our understanding of ME in photoreceptor transplantation. In addition, we discuss the impact of this discovery on several aspects of historical rod and cone transplantation data, and provide insight into future standards and approaches to advance the field of cell engraftment.

  20. Intra and Interspecific Variations of Gene Expression Levels in Yeast Are Largely Neutral: (Nei Lecture, SMBE 2016, Gold Coast).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Rong; Maclean, Calum J; Park, Chungoo; Zhao, Huabin; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2017-09-01

    It is commonly, although not universally, accepted that most intra and interspecific genome sequence variations are more or less neutral, whereas a large fraction of organism-level phenotypic variations are adaptive. Gene expression levels are molecular phenotypes that bridge the gap between genotypes and corresponding organism-level phenotypes. Yet, it is unknown whether natural variations in gene expression levels are mostly neutral or adaptive. Here we address this fundamental question by genome-wide profiling and comparison of gene expression levels in nine yeast strains belonging to three closely related Saccharomyces species and originating from five different ecological environments. We find that the transcriptome-based clustering of the nine strains approximates the genome sequence-based phylogeny irrespective of their ecological environments. Remarkably, only ∼0.5% of genes exhibit similar expression levels among strains from a common ecological environment, no greater than that among strains with comparable phylogenetic relationships but different environments. These and other observations strongly suggest that most intra and interspecific variations in yeast gene expression levels result from the accumulation of random mutations rather than environmental adaptations. This finding has profound implications for understanding the driving force of gene expression evolution, genetic basis of phenotypic adaptation, and general role of stochasticity in evolution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Development and Meiosis of Three Interspecific Hybrids with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Flink, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1986-01-01

    The development and meiosis of three interspecific hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and H. secalinum Schreb., H. tetraploidum Covas, and H. parodii Covas, respectively, were studied. All three hybrid combinations developed very slowly vegetatively. Meiosis of the hybrids...

  2. Laymen's demand on an understandable safety analysis for a nuclear waste repository. A communication challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, T.L.; Thunberg, A.M. [KASAM - Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    This paper is a summary in English of some impressions from a seminar 'Safety Analysis of the Final Disposal of Nuclear Waste. An issue for specialists only or for all of us?' The seminar was held in Swedish and was arranged by KASAM in Nykoeping, Sweden in November 1997. A report in Swedish from the seminar has been published. The seminar was arranged in response to a request from representatives from some of the municipalities concerned by the feasibility studies, which are part of the siting process. They had noticed that it is very hard for people without specialist competence to get an understanding of the safety issues based on the available information. There is a need for a presentation of the safety analysis, which is adopted not only for the need of the safety authorities, which have their own expertise, but also for the need of laymen who are involved in issues about the design, siting and safety of a final repository. Therefore, the seminar was mainly intended for representatives for the citizens (i.e. politicians) from the municipalities involved in the ongoing feasibility studies in Sweden. Some representatives from different environmental organisations opposing final disposal were also invited as well as representatives from the nuclear industry and from the concerned Swedish authorities. The seminar was structured in four sessions The handling of risk in the modern society - risk assessment and risk comparisons; The safety analysis and its role for the citizens; What can actually happen - in our own time and in the future?; Group discussions. In order to give a realistic picture of the intense debate, which at least in some of the municipalities had been very apparent, the organisers had chosen to make SKB and Greenpeace main actors at the seminar, such as they appeared in connection with campaign before the referendum at Malaa. Parts of the seminar were arranged like a hearing, led by a science journalist. The intention with this paper is

  3. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Newly Obtained Interspecific Hybrids in the Campanula Genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Catharina Röper

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridisation creates new phenotypes within several ornamental plant species including the Campanula genus. We have employed phenotypic and genotypic methods to analyse and evaluate interspecific hybridisation among cultivars of four Campanula species, i.e. C. cochleariifolia, C. isophylla, C. medium and C. formanekiana. Hybrids were analysed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, flow cytometry and biometrical measurements. Results of correlation matrices demonstrated heterogeneous phenotypes for the parental species, which confirmed our basic premise for new phenotypes of interspecific hybrids. AFLP assays confirmed the hybridity and identified self-pollinated plants. Limitation of flow cytometry analysis detection was observed while detecting the hybridity status of two closely related parents, e.g. C. cochleariiafolia × C. isophylla. Phenotypic characteristics such as shoot habitus and flower colour were strongly influenced by one of the parental species in most crosses. Rooting analysis revealed that inferior rooting quality occurred more often in interspecific hybrids than in the parental species. Only interspecific hybrid lines of C. formanekiana 'White' × C. medium 'Pink' showed a high rooting level. Phenotype analyses demonstrated a separation from the interspecific hybrid lines of C. formanekiana 'White' × C. medium 'Pink' to the other clustered hybrids of C. formanekiana and C. medium. In our study we demonstrated that the use of correlation matrices is a suitable tool for identifying suitable cross material. This study presents a comprehensive overview for analysing newly obtained interspecific hybrids. The chosen methods can be used as guidance for analyses for further interspecific hybrids in Campanula, as well as in other ornamental species.

  4. Obtaining interspecific hybrids, and molecular analysis by microsatellite markers in grapevine

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane Ruzza Schuck; Luiz Antonio Biasi; Ada Michele Mariano; Bernardo Lipski; Summaira Riaz; Michael Andrew Walker

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the potential of interspecific hybridization of Vitis labruscana and Muscadinia rotundifolia by using artificial cross-pollinations. Microsatellite markers were used to confirm interspecific hybridizations and the identity of the parental genotypes. In crosses in which M. rotundifolia was used as the female parent, no true hybrids were obtained. In the reciprocal crosses, 114 seedlings were identified as true V. labruscana x M. rotundifolia hybrids. Se...

  5. From Forecasters to the General Public: A Communication Tool to Understand Decision-making Challenges in Weather-related Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terti, G.; Ruin, I.; Kalas, M.; Lorini, V.; Sabbatini, T.; i Alonso, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    New technologies are currently adopted worldwide to improve weather forecasts and communication of the corresponding warnings to the end-users. "EnhANcing emergency management and response to extreme WeatHER and climate Events" (ANYWHERE) project is an innovating action that aims at developing and implementing a European decision-support platform for weather-related risks integrating cutting-edge forecasting technology. The initiative is built in a collaborative manner where researchers, developers, potential users and other stakeholders meet frequently to define needs, capabilities and challenges. In this study, we propose a role-playing game to test the added value of the ANYWHERE platform on i) the decision-making process and the choice of warning levels under uncertainty, ii) the management of the official emergency response and iii) the crisis communication and triggering of protective actions at different levels of the warning system (from hazard detection to citizen response). The designed game serves as an interactive communication tool. Here, flood and flash flood focused simulations seek to enhance participant's understanding of the complexities and challenges embedded in various levels of the decision-making process under the threat of weather disasters (e.g., forecasting/warnings, official emergency actions, self-protection). Also, we facilitate collaboration and coordination between the participants who belong to different national or local agencies/authorities across Europe. The game is first applied and tested in ANYWHERE's workshop in Helsinki (September, 2017) where about 30-50 people, including researchers, forecasters, civil protection and representatives of related companies, are anticipated to play the simulation. The main idea is to provide to the players a virtual case study that well represents realistic uncertainties and dilemmas embedded in the real-time forecasting-warning processes. At the final debriefing step the participants are

  6. Interspecific studies of circadian genes period and timeless in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Shumaila; Pegoraro, Mirko; Nouroz, Faisal; Tauber, Eran; Kyriacou, Charalambos P

    2018-03-30

    The level of rescue of clock function in genetically arrhythmic Drosophila melanogaster hosts using interspecific clock gene transformation was used to study the putative intermolecular coevolution between interacting clock proteins. Among them PER and TIM are the two important negative regulators of the circadian clock feedback loop. We transformed either the D. pseudoobscura per or tim transgenes into the corresponding arrhythmic D. melanogaster mutant (per01 or tim01) and observed >50% rhythmicity but the period of activity rhythm was either longer (D. pseudoobscura-per) or shorter than 24 h (D. pseudoobscura-tim) compared to controls. By introducing both transgenes simultaneously into double mutants, we observed that the period of the activity rhythm was rescued by the pair of hemizygous transgenes (~24 h). These flies also showed a more optimal level of temperature compensation for the period. Under LD 12:12 these flies have a D. pseudoobscura like activity profile with the absence of morning anticipation as well as a very prominent earlier evening peak of activity rhythm. These observation are consistent with the view that TIM and PER form a heterospecific coevolved module at least for the circadian period of activity rhythms. However the strength of rhythmicity was reduced by having both transgenes present, so while evidence for a coevolution between PER and TIM is observed for some characters it is not for others. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Interspecific bacterial interactions are reflected in multispecies biofilm spatial organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzheng Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Interspecies interactions are essential for the persistence and development of any kind of complex community, and microbial biofilms are no exception. Multispecies biofilms are structured and spatially defined communities that have received much attention due to their omnipresence in natural environments. Species residing in these complex bacterial communities usually interact both intra- and interspecifically. Such interactions are considered to not only be fundamental in shaping overall biomass and the spatial distribution of cells residing in multispecies biofilms, but also to result in coordinated regulation of gene expression in the different species present. These communal interactions often lead to emergent properties in biofilms, such as enhanced tolerance against antibiotics, host immune responses and other stresses, which have been shown to provide benefits to all biofilm members not only the enabling sub-populations. However, the specific molecular mechanisms of cellular processes affecting spatial organization, and vice versa, are poorly understood and very complex to unravel. Therefore, detailed description of the spatial organization of individual bacterial cells in multispecies communities can be an alternative strategy to reveal the nature of interspecies interactions of constituent species. Closing the gap between visual observation and biological processes may become crucial for resolving biofilm related problems, which is of utmost importance to environmental, industrial, and clinical implications. This review briefly presents the state of the art of studying interspecies interactions and spatial organization of multispecies communities, aiming to support theoretical and practical arguments for further advancement of this field.

  8. [Interspecific interaction between Moina mongolica and Brachionus plicatilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Taoying; Wang, Yan; Huang, Changzhi; Hu, Shiheng; Zhang, Jun

    2004-07-01

    In a laboratory experiment, Moina mongolica and Brachionus plicatilis were polycultured at four relatively inoculating densities, i.e., 0.06/0.30, 0.10/0.30, 0.30/0.30 and 0.60/0.30 (ind x ml(-1)/ind x ml(-1)), while M. mongolica monocultured at 0.06, 0.10, 0.30 and 0.60 ind x ml(-1) and B. plicatilis at 0.30 ind x ml(-1) were used as the control. Interspecific interference did exist between M. mongolica and B. plicatilis when these two species coexisted in a microcosm. In the polycultured microcosms, depressed population density of M. mongolica resulted from the coexistence of B. plicatilis, and M. mongolica maintained at extremely low density. In opposite, M. mongolica had negligibly negative influence on the population of B. plicatilis. Further experiment showed that the mortality of M. mongolica deprived of food for 120 h was 100%, while 90% of B. plicatilis survived after 144 h of food deprivation. The relatively strong capacity of B. plicatilis in tolerating starvation may be one of the important reasons for it wins the competition against M. mongolica.

  9. Interspecific competition between alien and native congeneric species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Serrano, H.; Sans, F. X.; Escarré, J.

    2007-01-01

    A good way to check hypotheses explaining the invasion of ecosystems by exotic plants is to compare alien and native congeneric species. To test the hypothesis that invasive alien plants are more competitive than natives, we designed a replacement series experiment to evaluate interspecific competition between three Senecio species representing the same bushy life form: two alien species ( S. inaequidens and S. pterophorus, both from South Africa) and a native species from the south-east of the Iberian Peninsula and Maghreb ( S. malacitanus). While S. inaequidens is widespread throughout western Europe and is expanding towards the south of Spanish-French border, the geographical distribution of the recently introduced S. pterophorus is still limited to north-eastern Spain. Plants from each species were grown in pure and in mixed cultures with one of their congeners, and water availability was manipulated to evaluate the effects of water stress on competitive abilities. Our results show that the alien S. inaequidens is the most competitive species for all water conditions. The native S. malacitanus is more competitive that the alien S. pterophorus in water stress conditions, but this situation is reversed when water availability is not limiting.

  10. Interspecific variation of total seed protein in wild rice germplasm using SDS-Page

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.A.; Hidayat-ur-Rahman; Abbasi, F.M.; Ashiq, M.; Rabbani, A.M.; Khan, I.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Shah, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in seed protein of 14 wild rice species (Oryza spp.) along with cultivated rice species (O. sativa) was studied using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to assess genetic diversity in the rice germplasm. SDS bands were scored as present (1) or absent (0) for protein sample of each genotype. On the basis of cluster analysis, four clusters were identified at a similarity level of 0.85. O. nivara, O. rufipogon and O. sativa with AA genomes constituted the first cluster. The second cluster comprised O. punctata of BB genome and wild rice species of CC genome i.e., O. rhizomatis and O. officinalis. However, it also contained O. barthii and O. glumaepatula of AA genome. O. australiensis with EE genome, and O. latifolia, O. alta and O. grandiglumis having CCDD genomes comprised the third cluster. The fourth cluster consisted of wild rice species, O. brachyantha with EE genome along with two other wild rice species, O. longistaminata and O. meridionalis of AA genome. Overall, on the basis of total seed protein, the grouping pattern of rice genotypes was mostly compatible with their genome status. The results of the present work depicted considerable interspecific genetic variation in the investigated germplasm for total seed protein. Moreover, the results obtained in this study also suggest that analysis of seed protein can also provide a better understanding of genetic affinity of the germplasm. (author)

  11. Interspecific shared collective decision-making in two forensically important species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Julien; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Hédouin, Valéry; Charabidzé, Damien

    2016-02-10

    To date, the study of collective behaviour has mainly focused on intraspecific situations: the collective decision-making of mixed-species groups involving interspecific aggregation-segregation has received little attention. Here, we show that, in both conspecific and heterospecific groups, the larvae of two species (Lucilia sericata and Calliphora vomitoria, calliphorid carrion-feeding flies) were able to make a collective choice. In all groups, the choice was made within a few minutes and persisted throughout the period of the experiment. The monitoring of a focal individual within a group showed that these aggregations were governed by attractive and retentive effects of the group. Furthermore, the similarity observed between the conspecific and heterospecific groups suggested the existence of shared aggregation signals. The group size was found to have a stronger influence than the species of necrophagous larvae. These results should be viewed in relation to the well-known correlation between group size and heat generation. This study provides the first experimental examination of the dynamics of collective decision-making in mixed-species groups of invertebrates, contributing to our understanding of the cooperation-competition phenomenon in animal social groups. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Widespread evidence for interspecific mating between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargielowski, I E; Lounibos, L P; Shin, D; Smartt, C T; Carrasquilla, M C; Henry, A; Navarro, J C; Paupy, C; Dennett, J A

    2015-12-01

    Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, two important vectors of the dengue and chikungunya viruses to humans, often come in contact in their invasive ranges. In these circumstances, a number of factors are thought to influence their population dynamics, including resource competition among the larval stages, prevailing environmental conditions and reproductive interference in the form of satyrization. As the distribution and abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus have profound epidemiological implications, understanding the competitive interactions that influence these patterns in nature is important. While evidence for resource competition and environmental factors had been gathered from the field, the evidence for reproductive interference, though strongly inferred through laboratory trials, remained sparse (one small-scale field trial). In this paper we demonstrate that low rates (1.12-3.73%) of interspecific mating occur in nature among populations of these species that have co-existed sympatrically from 3 to 150yrs. Finally this report contributes a new species-specific primer set for identifying the paternity of sperm extracted from field collected specimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Life span and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourocq, Emeline; Bize, Pierre; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Bradley, Russell; Charmantier, Anne; de la Cruz, Carlos; Drobniak, Szymon M; Espie, Richard H M; Herényi, Márton; Hötker, Hermann; Krüger, Oliver; Marzluff, John; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Phillips, Richard A; Radford, Andrew N; Roulin, Alexandre; Török, János; Valencia, Juliana; van de Pol, Martijn; Warkentin, Ian G; Winney, Isabel S; Wood, Andrew G; Griesser, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here, we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life history as well as social and ecological factors. Most individuals adopted the species-specific Optimal AFR and both the mean and Optimal AFR of species correlated positively with life span. Interspecific deviations of the Optimal AFR were associated with indices reflecting a change in LRS or survival as a function of AFR: a delayed AFR was beneficial in species where early AFR was associated with a decrease in subsequent survival or reproductive output. Overall, our results suggest that a delayed onset of reproduction beyond maturity is an optimal strategy explained by a long life span and costs of early reproduction. By providing the first empirical confirmations of key predictions of life-history theory across species, this study contributes to a better understanding of life-history evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Interspecific competition between Solenopsis invicta and two native ant species, Pheidole fervens and Monomorium chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Cheng; Kafle, Lekhnath; Shih, Cheng-Jen

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to understand the effects of the interspecific competition between red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren and two native ant species, Pheidole fervens Smith and Monomorium chinense Santschi, by conducting colony interference and individual confrontation tests under laboratory conditions. The colony interference test showed that both native ant species, owing to their numerical advantage, killed the Solenopsis invicta virus-1 (SINV-1)-infected or healthy queens of S. invicta. Significantly less time was required for M. chinense to kill all SINV-1-infected S. invicta compared with the time required to kill the healthy S. invicta. Compared with healthy S. invicta, SINV-1-infected S. invicta spent a longer time eliminating the P. fervens colonies. In confrontation tests, M. chinense killed a significantly higher number of infected S. invicta minors than they did healthy minors, but the number of S. invicta majors (either infected or healthy) killed was substantially less. This study found that the viral infection weakened the competitive ability of S. invicta and made them prone to be eliminated by M. chinense but not by P. fervens.

  15. A Pilot Study Examining a Computer-Based Intervention to Improve Recognition and Understanding of Emotions in Young Children with Communication and Social Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Neri L

    2017-06-01

    A common social impairment in individuals with ASD is difficulty interpreting and or predicting emotions of others. To date, several interventions targeting teaching emotion recognition and understanding have been utilized both by researchers and practitioners. The results suggest that teaching emotion recognition is possible, but that the results do not generalize to non-instructional contexts. This study sought to replicate earlier findings of a positive impact of teaching emotion recognition using a computer-based intervention and to extend it by testing for generalization on live models in the classroom setting. Two boys and one girl, four to eight years in age, educated in self-contained classrooms for students with communication and social skills deficits, participated in this study. A multiple probe across participants design was utilized. Measures of emotion recognition and understanding were assessed at baseline, intervention, and one month post-intervention to determine maintenance effects. Social validity was assessed through parent and teacher questionnaires. All participants showed improvements in measures assessing their recognition of emotions in faces, generalized knowledge to live models, and maintained gains one month post intervention. These preliminary results are encouraging and should be utilized to inform a group design, in order to test efficacy with a larger population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The challenge of regional accents for aviation English language proficiency standards: a study of difficulties in understanding in air traffic control-pilot communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiewtrakul, T; Fletcher, S R

    2010-02-01

    Although English has been the international aviation language since 1951, formal language proficiency testing for key aviation personnel has only recently been implemented by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). It aims to ensure minimum acceptable levels of English pronunciation and comprehension universally, but does not attend to particular regional dialect difficulties. However, evidence suggests that voice transmissions between air traffic controllers and pilots are a particular problem in international airspace and that pilots may not understand messages due to the influence of different accents when using English. This study explores the potential impact of 'non-native English' in pilot-air traffic control transmissions using a 'conversation analysis' technique to examine approach phase recordings from Bangkok International Airport. Results support that communication errors, defined by incidents of pilots not understanding, occur significantly more often when speakers are both non-native English, messages are more complex and when numerical information is involved. These results and their possible implications are discussed with reference to the development of ICAO's new language proficiency standards. Statement of Relevance: This study builds on previous work and literature, providing further evidence to show that the risks caused by language and linguistics in aviation must be explored more deeply. Findings are particularly contemporary and relevant today, indicating that recently implemented international standards would benefit from further exploratory research and development.

  17. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-05

    Nov 5, 2013 ... Brief communication. Published ... showed longer FIDs in response to a human looking at them than to a human not looking at them (Burger et al. 1992). ..... Rivas JA and Burghardt GM 2001 Understanding sexual size dimor-.

  18. Understanding and Communicating through Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    mechanisms associated with storytelling .2 This is in contrast to the actual use of narrative terminology used in U.S. military lexicon, which connotes a...A spoken or written account of connected events, a Story; (2) The narrated part of literary work, as distinct from dialogue; and (3) the practice or...difficult task as emotional scenes of violence and destruction move quickly from mobile phones to the news media.5 Although application of the story form

  19. Embedding With Scientists Results In Better Understanding Of How Science Is Really Done, More Human Stories, And More Effective Communication About Controversial Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.

    2015-12-01

    Until recently much science communication focused on press conferences and results, "Eureka"-moments issued from podiums. Recent documentaries, however, such as PARTICLE FEVER and THE YEAR OF PLUTO go behind the scenes to show long years of effort, and occasional failures, revealing a more honest—and more engaging—picture of how science is actually done. Audiences respond when researchers show a more human face, and candid moments of stress and exhaustion as well as exhilaration make eventual results more meaningful. This presentation will offer evidence that this approach is also effective on contested topics such as climate change, where long-term relationships between journalists and researchers can help structure communications that avoid distracting controversies. A cameraman spends a full week with ornithologist George Divoky on remote Cooper Island, Alaska: the resulting video podcast informs a stage play in London, and George goes on the road with POLAR-PALOOZA across America and internationally, sharing stories about the birds he studies and the polar bears he has to increasingly avoid, as climate change brings them onshore in search of food. POLAR-PALOOZA also introduced Richard Alley and other Arctic and Antarctic scientists to a team of producers and directors, resulting in a 3-part PBS series and museum outreach that is able to present climate change science in an authoritative and apolitical way. That leads, in turn, to leading researchers including video and more visually-dynamic approaches in communicating their work to the public. An upcoming public television series, THE CROWD & THE CLOUD, will devote one program to insights about climate change gained over decades of interaction between producers and scientists. Many mainstream media outlets have cut back on science coverage and released their dedicated "beat" reporters. However a wealth of new channels offer venues for this approach, and falling prices for high quality cameras and editing

  20. Interspecific variations in the gastrointestinal microbiota in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Dann, Peter; Trathan, Phil; Groscolas, Rene; Smith, Stuart

    2013-02-01

    Despite the enormous amount of data available on the importance of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in vertebrate (especially mammals), information on the GI microbiota of seabirds remains incomplete. As with many seabirds, penguins have a unique digestive physiology that enables them to store large reserves of adipose tissue, protein, and lipids. This study used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to characterize the interspecific variations of the GI microbiota of four penguin species: the king, gentoo, macaroni, and little penguin. The qPCR results indicated that there were significant differences in the abundance of the major phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroides, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. A total of 132,340, 18,336, 6324, and 4826 near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified from fecal samples collected from king, gentoo, macaroni, and little penguins, respectively. A total of 13 phyla were identified with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria dominating the composition; however, there were major differences in the relative abundance of the phyla. In addition, this study documented the presence of known human pathogens, such as Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Prevotella, Veillonella, Erysipelotrichaceae, Neisseria, and Mycoplasma. However, their role in disease in penguins remains unknown. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide an in-depth investigation of the GI microbiota of penguins. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  1. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  2. The capacity-load model of non-communicable disease risk: understanding the effects of child malnutrition, ethnicity and the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2018-05-01

    The capacity-load model is a conceptual model developed to improve understanding of the life-course aetiology of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their ecological and societal risk factors. The model addresses continuous associations of both (a) nutrition and growth patterns in early life and (b) lifestyle factors at older ages with NCD risk. Metabolic capacity refers to physiological traits strongly contingent on early nutrition and growth during the first 1000 days, which promote the long-term capacity for homeostasis in the context of fuel metabolism and cardiovascular health. Metabolic load refers to components of nutritional status and lifestyle that challenge homeostasis. The higher the load, and the lower the capacity, the greater the NCD risk. The model therefore helps understand dose-response associations of both early development and later phenotype with NCD risk. Infancy represents a critical developmental period, during which slow growth can constrain metabolic capacity, whereas rapid weight gain may elevate metabolic load. Severe acute malnutrition in early childhood (stunting, wasting) may continue to deplete metabolic capacity, and confer elevated susceptibility to NCDs in the long term. The model can be applied to associations of NCD risk with socio-economic position (SEP): lower SEP is generally associated with lower capacity but often also with elevated load. The model can also help explain ethnic differences in NCD risk, as both early growth patterns and later body composition differ systematically between ethnic groups. Recent work has begun to clarify the role of organ development in metabolic capacity, which may further contribute to ethnic differences in NCD risk.

  3. Study of a communication strategy aimed at achieving a possible better understanding of the consequence of radioactive waste management in a well defined group of public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhove, V.

    1993-01-01

    This study is performed and partially funded within the framework of the European Communities (R and D-programme on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste). The purpose of this study is to work out an information strategy on radioactive waste management for a selected target public (15-to-18 year old youngsters), with a view to raising public opinion and achieving a better understanding of this matter. The choice of this target public has been inspired among others by the importance of the youngsters as future opinion leaders. The results of an opinion poll, conducted in the autumn of 1991, were used to define the scope of the project and to determine the communication model and plan that will serve as a basis for the further development of the project. The first steps were taken to develop a pedagogical package, the structure, form and content of which have been determined. Preparations were also made to define the concept and the content of an information centre tuned to the pedagogical package and, like the other information, intended to inform 15-to-18 year old students. (author)

  4. Intra- and interspecific trait variations reveal functional relationships between specific leaf area and soil niche within a subtropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong; Chen, Yongfa; Zhao, Kangning; Cornelissen, J H C; Chu, Chengjin

    2018-02-03

    How functional traits vary with environmental conditions is of fundamental importance in trait-based community ecology. However, how intraspecific variability in functional traits is connected to species distribution is not well understood. This study investigated inter- and intraspecific variation of a key functional trait, i.e. specific leaf area (leaf area per unit dry mass; SLA), in relation to soil factors and tested if trait variation is more closely associated with specific environmental regimes for low-variability species than for high-variability species. In a subtropical evergreen forest plot (50 ha, southern China), 106 700 leaves from 5335 individuals of 207 woody species were intensively collected, with 30 individuals sampled for most species to ensure a sufficient sample size representative of intraspecific variability. Soil conditions for each plant were estimated by kriging from more than 1700 observational soil locations across the plot. Intra- and interspecific variation in SLA were separately related to environmental factors. Based on the species-specific variation of SLA, species were categorized into three groups: low-, intermediate- and high-intraspecific variability. Intraspecific habitat ranges and the strength of SLA-habitat relationships were compared among these three groups. Interspecific variation in SLA overrides the intraspecific variation (77 % vs. 8 %). Total soil nitrogen (TN, positively) and total organic carbon (TOC, negatively) are the most important explanatory factors for SLA variation at both intra- and interspecific levels. SLA, both within and between species, decreases with decreasing soil nitrogen availability. As predicted, species with low intraspecific variability in SLA have narrower habitat ranges with respect to soil TOC and TN and show a stronger SLA-habitat association than high-variability species. For woody plants low SLA is a phenotypic and probably adaptive response to nitrogen stress, which drives the

  5. Interspecific communication from people to horses (Equus ferus caballus) is influenced by different horsemanship training styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorey, Nicole R; Conover, Alicia M; Udell, Monique A R

    2014-11-01

    The ability of many domesticated animals to follow human pointing gestures to locate hidden food has led to scientific debate on the relative importance of domestication and individual experience on the origins and development of this capacity. To further explore this question, we examined the influence of different prior training histories/methods on the ability of horses (Equus ferus caballus) to follow a momentary distal point. Ten horses previously trained using one of two methods (Parelli™ natural horsemanship or traditional horse training) were tested using a standard object choice task. The results show that neither group of horses was initially able to follow the momentary distal point. However, after more experience with the point, horses previously trained using the Parelli natural horsemanship method learned to follow momentary distal points significantly faster than those previously trained with traditional methods. The poor initial performance of horses on distal pointing tasks, coupled with the finding that prior training history and experimental experience can lead to success on this task, fails to support the predictions of the domestication hypothesis and instead lends support to the two-stage hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Interspecific competition influences the organization of a diverse sessile insect community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Tatiana; de Carvalho Guimarães, Carla Daniele; Rodrigues Viana, João Paulo; Silva, Bárbara

    2013-10-01

    Interspecific competition has played a major role in determining the effects of species interactions in terrestrial communities and the perception of its role on shaping population dynamics and community structure has changed throughout the years. In this study, we evaluated the existence of interspecific competition in the herbivore community of the dioecious plant Baccharis pseudomyriocephala (Asteraceae), which holds a diverse community of gall-forming insects. Sixty plants were studied and gall richness and abundance among plants were evaluated. To address whether a plant already occupied by a gall species is preferred or avoided by another gall species, null models were used for all 60 plants combined and for male and female plants separately. Our results have shown that the 11 species of gall-formers found on B. pseudomyriocephala co-occur less than expected by chance alone, indicating that interspecific competition might be an important force structuring the insect community in this tropical host plant, regardless of plant gender.

  7. [Effect of habitat and interspecific competition on Apis cerana cerana colony distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Linsheng; Han, Shengming

    2003-04-01

    Habitat change and interspecific competition were the main factors affecting, Apis cerana cerana colony distribution among Wannan and Wanxi Dabie mountainous areas, Jianghuai area and Huaibei plain. Wannan and Wanxi Dabie mountainous areas were the ideal places for Apis cerana cerana' habitation and propogation, in which, there were integrated natural vegetation, fine ecological condition, abundant nectariferous plants, and Apis cerana cerana had large colony size, wide distribution, high density, no disturbances of natural mating, and was dominant interspecific competition. In Jianghuai area and Huaibei plain, there were small covering of natural vegetation, different degree of degradation of ecological balance, few kinds of nectariferous plants with almost the same blooming periods, natural mating perturbed by Apis mellifera ligustica for Apis cerana cerana, and which was inferior in interspecific competition, colony size sharply decreased, distribution area reduced, and density cut down to a great extent. In Huaibei plain, the negative factors were more conspicuous.

  8. Breeding of lilies and tulips—Interspecific hybridization and genetic background—

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasek-Ciolakowska, Agnieszka; Nishikawa, Tomotaro; Shea, Daniel J.; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2018-01-01

    Lilies and tulips (Liliaceae family) are economically very important ornamental bulbous plants. Here, we summarize major breeding goals, the role of an integrated method of cut-style pollination and fertilization followed by embryo rescue and mitotic and meiotic polyploidization involved in new assortment development. Both crops have been subjected to extensive interspecific hybridization followed by selection. Additionally, spontaneous polyploidization has played a role in their evolution. In lilies, there is a tendency to replace diploids with polyploid cultivars, whereas in tulip a majority of the cultivars that exist today are still diploid except for triploid Darwin hybrid tulips. The introduction of molecular cytogenetic techniques such as genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) permitted the detailed studies of genome composition in lily and tulip interspecific hybrids and to follow the chromosome inheritance in interspecific crosses. In addition, this review presents the latest information on phylogenetic relationship in lily and tulip and recent developments in molecular mapping using different DNA molecular techniques. PMID:29681746

  9. Influence of Temperature on Intra- and Interspecific Resource Utilization within a Community of Lepidopteran Maize Stemborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntiri, Eric Siaw; Calatayud, Paul-Andre; Van Den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Competition or facilitation characterises intra- and interspecific interactions within communities of species that utilize the same resources. Temperature is an important factor influencing those interactions and eventual outcomes. The noctuid stemborers, Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis and the crambid Chilo partellus attack maize in sub-Saharan Africa. They often occur as a community of interacting species in the same field and plant at all elevations. The influence of temperature on the intra- and interspecific interactions among larvae of these species, was studied using potted maize plants exposed to varying temperatures in a greenhouse and artificial stems kept at different constant temperatures (15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C) in an incubator. The experiments involved single- and multi-species infestation treatments. Survival and relative growth rates of each species were assessed. Both intra- and interspecific competitions were observed among all three species. Interspecific competition was stronger between the noctuids and the crambid than between the two noctuids. Temperature affected both survival and relative growth rates of the three species. Particularly at high temperatures, C. partellus was superior in interspecific interactions shown by higher larval survival and relative growth rates. In contrast, low temperatures favoured survival of B. fusca and S. calamistis but affected the relative growth rates of all three species. Survival and relative growth rates of B. fusca and S. calamistis in interspecific interactions did not differ significantly across temperatures. Temperature increase caused by future climate change is likely to confer an advantage on C. partellus over the noctuids in the utilization of resources (crops).

  10. Influence of Temperature on Intra- and Interspecific Resource Utilization within a Community of Lepidopteran Maize Stemborers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Siaw Ntiri

    Full Text Available Competition or facilitation characterises intra- and interspecific interactions within communities of species that utilize the same resources. Temperature is an important factor influencing those interactions and eventual outcomes. The noctuid stemborers, Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis and the crambid Chilo partellus attack maize in sub-Saharan Africa. They often occur as a community of interacting species in the same field and plant at all elevations. The influence of temperature on the intra- and interspecific interactions among larvae of these species, was studied using potted maize plants exposed to varying temperatures in a greenhouse and artificial stems kept at different constant temperatures (15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C in an incubator. The experiments involved single- and multi-species infestation treatments. Survival and relative growth rates of each species were assessed. Both intra- and interspecific competitions were observed among all three species. Interspecific competition was stronger between the noctuids and the crambid than between the two noctuids. Temperature affected both survival and relative growth rates of the three species. Particularly at high temperatures, C. partellus was superior in interspecific interactions shown by higher larval survival and relative growth rates. In contrast, low temperatures favoured survival of B. fusca and S. calamistis but affected the relative growth rates of all three species. Survival and relative growth rates of B. fusca and S. calamistis in interspecific interactions did not differ significantly across temperatures. Temperature increase caused by future climate change is likely to confer an advantage on C. partellus over the noctuids in the utilization of resources (crops.

  11. Susceptibility of parent and interspecific Fl hybrid pine trees to tip moth damage in a coastal North Carolina planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxine T. Highsmith; John Frampton; David 0' Malley; James Richmond; Martesa Webb

    2001-01-01

    Tip moth damage arnong families of parent pine species and their interspecific F1 hybrids was quantitatively assessed in a coastal planting in North Carolina. Three slash pine (Pinus elliotti var. elliotti Engelm.), two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), and four interspecific F1 hybrid pine families were used. The...

  12. Interspecific variation in persistence of buried weed seeds follows trade-offs among physiological, chemical, and physical seed defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adam S; Fu, Xianhui; Schutte, Brian J; Berhow, Mark A; Dalling, James W

    2016-10-01

    Soil seedbanks drive infestations of annual weeds, yet weed management focuses largely on seedling mortality. As weed seedbanks increasingly become reservoirs of herbicide resistance, species-specific seedbank management approaches will be essential to weed control. However, the development of seedbank management strategies can only develop from an understanding of how seed traits affect persistence.We quantified interspecific trade-offs among physiological, chemical, and physical traits of weed seeds and their persistence in the soil seedbank in a common garden study. Seeds of 11 annual weed species were buried in Savoy, IL, from 2007 through 2012. Seedling recruitment was measured weekly and seed viability measured annually. Seed physiological (dormancy), chemical (phenolic compound diversity and concentration; invertebrate toxicity), and physical traits (seed coat mass, thickness, and rupture resistance) were measured.Seed half-life in the soil ( t 0.5 ) showed strong interspecific variation ( F 10,30  = 15, p  central role of seed dormancy in controlling seed persistence.A quantitative comparison between our results and other published work indicated that weed seed dormancy and seedbank persistence are linked across diverse environments and agroecosystems. Moreover, among seedbank-forming early successional plant species, relative investment in chemical and physical seed defense varies with seedbank persistence. Synthesis and applications . Strong covariance among weed seed traits and persistence in the soil seedbank indicates potential for seedbank management practices tailored to specific weed species. In particular, species with high t 0.5 values tend to invest less in chemical defenses. This makes them highly vulnerable to physical harvest weed seed control strategies, with small amounts of damage resulting in their full decay.

  13. Spatial Patterns and Interspecific Associations of Three Canopy Species at Different Life Stages in a Subtropical Forest,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Li; Shi-Guang Wei; Zhong-Liang Huang; Wan-Hui Ye; Hong-Lin Cao

    2008-01-01

    Spatial patterns of species at different life stages are an important aspect for understanding causal mechanisms that facilitate species co-existence.Using Ripley's univariate L(t) and bivariate L12(t) functions,we analyzed the spatial patterns and interspecific associations of three canopy species at different life history stages in a 20-ha subtropical forest plot in Dinghushan Nature Reserve.Based on diameter at breast height (DBH),four life stages were distinguished.Castanopsis chinensis and Schima superba showed a unimodal DBH distribution.Engelhardtia roxburghiana showed a bimodal curve.L(t) function analysis showed significantly aggregated distributions of all three species at later life stages and random distribution at early life stages at some scales.From the analysis of L12(t) function,the results showed the positive association was a dominant pattern for most species pairs at most scales but the intensity of association decreases with the increase of life stages.Juveniles of the three species had no negative intra- and interspecific associations with the older life stages.Only premature trees were suppressed by overmature trees at some scales.Considering these results,we found three canopy-dominant species that lacked regeneration.There was no direct competition occurring between understorey individuals.Young trees can grow well under conspecific species with two other species.Longevity and lack of regeneration led to a large number of trees stored in mature and overmature stages,therefore,intra-and inter-competition can be strong at later life stages.

  14. Receding Water Line and Interspecific Competition Determines Plant Community Composition and Diversity in Wetlands in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Gong, Huili; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Climate and human-induced wetland degradation has accelerated in recent years, not only resulting in reduced ecosystem services but also greatly affecting the composition and diversity of wetland plant communities. To date, the knowledge of the differences in community parameters and their successional trends in degraded wetlands remains scarce. Here based on remote sensing images, geographic information system technology, and statistical methods, we produced a successional gradient map of the Yeyahu Wetland Nature Reserve in Beijing, which has experienced a steady decline in water level in recent decades. In addition, we analyzed community composition and diversity along with each identified gradient. The results showed that community diversity decreases while dominance increases with the progress of succession, with the highest diversity occurring during the early stage of succession. Moreover, the community demonstrates greater similarity among subareas during later successional stages, and the similarity coefficients calculated from the important value (IV) of each species are more accurate. Correlation analysis showed that the impact of soil factors on diversity was not significant at a subarea scale, although these nutrients showed an increasing trend with the community succession. Furthermore, the IVs of the dominant species had a particularly significant impact on diversity, showing a significantly negative correlation with diversity indices and a significantly positive correlation with dominance indices. Further analysis showed that the retreat of water level resulted from sustained drought and local human activities was a major extrinsic driving force resulting in observed differences in the community successional stages, which resulted in differences in community composition and diversity. On the other hand, interspecific competition was the main intrinsic mechanism, which significantly influenced the IVs of the dominant species and community diversity

  15. Interspecific competition and protistan grazing affect the coexistence of freshwater betaproteobacterial strains.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salcher, Michaela M.; Ewert, C.; Šimek, Karel; Kasalický, Vojtěch; Posch, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 2 (2016), fiv156 ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00243S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : betaproteobacteria * chemostat * co-cultivation * flagellate-selective bacterivory * interspecific competition * synergistic cooperation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2016

  16. Courtship displays of introgressed, interspecific hybrid Nasonia males : Further investigations into the 'grandfather effect'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, L.W.; Assem, J. van den

    Previously, we investigated courtship behaviour of bidirectional, interspecific hybrid males of two species of Nasonia (Beukeboom & van den Assem, 2001). Characteristics of the displays were intermediate between those of the parental species, but at the same time were biased towards the paternal

  17. Abnormal pollen mitoses (PM I and PM II) in an interspecific hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    sporocytes and pollen grains were prepared by squashing and stained with 0.5% propionic carmine. All meiotic phases and stages of pollen development were evaluated. More than 6000 microspores and pollen grains were care- fully analysed. Keywords. Brachiaria decumbens; Brachiaria ruziziensis; interspecific hybrid; ...

  18. Development of inter-specific chromosomes segment substitution libraries (CSSL) in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six libraries of inter-specific Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines (CSSLs) of rice are being developed as pre-breeding materials and genetic stocks. Three accessions of O. rufipogon were selected as donors, based on phylogenetic, geographical and morphological divergence, and crossed with two rec...

  19. Application of three pollination techniques and of hormone treatments for overcoming interspecific crossing barriers in Tulipa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creij, van M.G.M.; Kerckhoffs, D.M.F.J.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In tulip, interspecific crossing is restricted by both pre-fertilization and post-fertilization barriers. In order to introduce traits from wild species into the cultivar assortment these barriers must be bypassed. By application of embryo rescue techniques, unique hybrids have been obtained of

  20. High prevalence of biofilm synergy among bacterial soil isolates in cocultures indicates bacterial interspecific cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Dawei; Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2015-01-01

    of single-species biofilms, indicating that all the individual strains benefit from inclusion in the multispecies community. Our results show a high prevalence of synergy in biofilm formation in multispecies consortia isolated from a natural bacterial habitat and suggest that interspecific cooperation...

  1. Using Crossmatch tests for serological compatibility assessment intra- and interspecific at dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Adrian Muntean

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The intraspecific evaluations revealed a high level of blood compatibility in the case of dogs unsensitivized through previous blood transfusions, yet without excluding the possibility of some atypical sensitivization for clinical interest. Having all the interspecific tests exclusively highly positive, we can not sustain a probable xenotransfusion.

  2. Another account of interspecific aggression involving a Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyson F Brokaw; Jeff Clerc; Ted Weller

    2016-01-01

    We observed an incident of interspecific aggression between a male Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus) and a male Silver-haired Bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The Silver-haired Bat suffered few external injuries, the most conspicuous of which were a missing lower right canine and small...

  3. Interspecific and locational differences in metal levels in edible fish tissue from Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon B.; Mannalamkunnath Alikunhi, Nabeel; Aljahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Aziz, Mohammed A. M.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.

    2014-01-01

    species collected from three fishing sites and a local fish market in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. We tested the following null hypotheses: (1) there are no interspecific differences in metal levels, (2) there are no differences in metal levels in fishes between

  4. An Assessment of Phylogenetic Tools for Analyzing the Interplay Between Interspecific Interactions and Phenotypic Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, J P; Grether, G F; Garland, T; Morlon, H

    2018-05-01

    Much ecological and evolutionary theory predicts that interspecific interactions often drive phenotypic diversification and that species phenotypes in turn influence species interactions. Several phylogenetic comparative methods have been developed to assess the importance of such processes in nature; however, the statistical properties of these methods have gone largely untested. Focusing mainly on scenarios of competition between closely-related species, we assess the performance of available comparative approaches for analyzing the interplay between interspecific interactions and species phenotypes. We find that many currently used statistical methods often fail to detect the impact of interspecific interactions on trait evolution, that sister-taxa analyses are particularly unreliable in general, and that recently developed process-based models have more satisfactory statistical properties. Methods for detecting predictors of species interactions are generally more reliable than methods for detecting character displacement. In weighing the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches, we hope to provide a clear guide for empiricists testing hypotheses about the reciprocal effect of interspecific interactions and species phenotypes and to inspire further development of process-based models.

  5. Assemblage Organization in Stream Fishes: Effects of Enviromental Variation and Interspecific Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary D. Grossman; Robert E. Ratajczak; Maurice Crawford; Mary C. Freeman

    1998-01-01

    We assessed the relative importance of environmental variation, interspecific competition for space, and predator abundance on assemblage structure and microhabitat use in a stream fish assemblage inhabiting Coweeta Creek, North Carolina, USA. Our study encompassed a l0-yr time span (1983-1992) and included some of the highest and lowest flows in the last 58 years. We...

  6. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  7. Communicating science: professional, popular, literary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russell, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    .... This book critically examines the origin of this drive to improve communication, and discusses why simply improving scientists' communication skills and understanding of their audiences may not be...

  8. Inter-specific variation in avian responses to human disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel T. Blumstein; Esteban Fernandez-Juricic; Patrick A. Zollner; Susan C. Garity

    2005-01-01

    1. Increasing urbanization and recreational activities around and within biodiversity hotspots require an understanding of how to reduce the impacts of human disturbance on more than a single species; however, we lack a general framework to study multiple species. One approach is to expand on knowledge about the theory of anti-predator behaviour to understand and...

  9. The genetic and phenotypic variability of interspecific hybrid bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) used on golf course putting greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasor, Eric H; Brosnan, James T; Trigiano, Robert N; Elsner, J Earl; Henry, Gerald M; Schwartz, Brian M

    2016-10-01

    Some interspecific hybrid bermudagrass cultivars used on golf course putting greens are genetically unstable, which has caused phenotypically different off-type grasses to occur in production nurseries and putting surfaces. Management practices to reduce the occurrence of off-type grasses in putting green surfaces and the effect they can have on putting quality and performance need to be researched until genetically stable cultivars are developed. Golf course putting green surfaces in subtropical and tropical climates are typically planted with an interspecific hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy), because of the superior putting quality and performance of these cultivars. 'Tifgreen' was one of the first interspecific hybrids developed for putting green use in lieu of common bermudagrass. However, off-type grasses began appearing in established Tifgreen stands soon after commercial release. Off-type grasses are those with different morphology and performance when compared to the surrounding, desirable cultivar. Off-types have the potential to decrease surface uniformity, which negatively affects putting surface quality. However, several unique off-types from Tifgreen have been selected as commercial cultivars, the first being 'Tifdwarf'; then 'Floradwarf', 'MS-Supreme', 'Pee Dee-102', and 'TL-2', identified later. The cultivars 'Champion Dwarf', 'P-18', 'RJT', and 'Emerald Dwarf' were subsequently selected as off-types in Tifdwarf. The naturally occurring off-types and cultivars that have been identified within the Tifgreen family have widely differing phenotypes; however, they are reported to be genetically similar, supporting the hypothesis that their occurrence is a result of somatic mutations. Genetic instability in currently available commercial cultivars is likely to lead to the continued presence of off-types in production nurseries and putting greens. Additional research is needed to understand the nature of

  10. Understanding the differentiating impacts of the communication strategies of a high involvement service (investment advisory services) and a high involvement product (precious jewellery) on customer satisfaction and loyalty.

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Gauri

    2009-01-01

    While marketing literature has largely focused on high and low involvement purchases and the positive relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty; the differentiating impacts of communication strategies for a high involvement service and a high involvement product on customer satisfaction and loyalty has received little academic attention. Consequently, this study examines the differentiating impacts of the communication strategies for investment advisory services and precious jewe...

  11. Health communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mariann B.

    communication changes from information to conversation and negotiation of a chared understanding and challenges the concept of professionalism. The success of conversations depends on the interactions and the capacity to deal with several voices in a complex context. The study discusses the opportunity...

  12. Laggards No More: Understanding Effective Use of Information and Communication Technologies by West Virginian Women at the Lower End of the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Despite efforts to introduce information and communication technologies to women, internet access rates for women and the benefits they can draw from using ICTs still are not on par with men. This dissertation examines why the gender digital divide persists in America, who are the women at the lower end of the digital divide, and why they are…

  13. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  14. Signals and cues in the evolution of plant-microbe communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padje, Anouk Van't; Whiteside, Matthew D; Kiers, E Toby

    2016-08-01

    Communication has played a key role in organismal evolution. If sender and receiver have a shared interest in propagating reliable information, such as when they are kin relatives, then effective communication can bring large fitness benefits. However, interspecific communication (among different species) is more prone to dishonesty. Over the last decade, plants and their microbial root symbionts have become a model system for studying interspecific molecular crosstalk. However, less is known about the evolutionary stability of plant-microbe communication. What prevents partners from hijacking or manipulating information to their own benefit? Here, we focus on communication between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their host plants. We ask how partners use directed signals to convey specific information, and highlight research on the problem of dishonest signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of reproductive barriers contributes to the development of novel interspecific hybrids in the Kalanchoë genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Christensen, Brian

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundInterspecific hybridization is a useful tool in ornamental breeding to increase genetic variability and introduce new valuable traits into existing cultivars. The successful formation of interspecific hybrids is frequently limited by the presence of pre- and post-fertilization barriers....... In the present study, we investigated the nature of hybridization barriers occurring in crosses between Kalancho? species and evaluated possibilities of obtaining interspecific hybrids.ResultsThe qualitative and quantitative analyses of pollen tube growth in situ were performed following intra- and interspecific...... pollinations. They revealed occurrence of pre-fertilization barriers associated with inhibition of pollen germination on the stigma and abnormal growth of pollen tubes. Unilateral incongruity related to differences in pistil length was also observed. The pollen quality was identified as a strong factor...

  16. Characterization of F1 interspecific hybrids between wild Helianthus annuus L. populations and cultivated sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Sreten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotype, chromosomes pairing and pollen vitality were compared between parental populations and F1 hybrids of interspecific cross between Helianthus annuus L. and cultivated sunflower. The investigation of the simple sequence repeats (SSR polymorphism was also used to test the hybrid nature of F1 populations. The phenotypic traits of F1 hybrid plants were either closer to the wild species or intermediate. Irregular chromosome pairing was found in only 0 to 10% of meiocytes in the meiosis of F1 hybrid plants. Interspecific crosses were confirmed with SSR markers in all hybrid combinations. Alleles that were not present in parental DNA were frequently observed in F1 hybrids. That is additional evidence that those hybrid combinations were not produced by self-fertilization. The results suggest that SSR markers can be efficiently used for the F1 hybrid characterization in crosses between closely related species, in which, the changes of phenotype, meiosis and pollen vitality are not always significant.

  17. Does interspecific competition have a moderating effect on Taenia solium transmission dynamics in Southeast Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Fenwick, Stanley; Blacksell, Stuart D; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2009-09-01

    It is well understood that sociocultural practices strongly influence Taenia solium transmission; however, the extent to which interspecific parasite competition moderates Taenia transmission has yet to be determined. This is certainly the case in Southeast Asia where T. solium faces competition in both the definitive host (people) and the intermediate host (pigs). In people, adult worms of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent crowding mechanisms. In pigs, metacestodes of T. solium, T. hydatigena and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent immune-mediated interactions. Here, we describe the biological and epidemiological implications of Taenia competition and propose that interspecific competition has a moderating effect on the transmission dynamics of T. solium in the region. Furthermore, we argue that this competitive ecological scenario should be considered in future research and surveillance activities examining T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Southeast Asia.

  18. Gamma irradiation of the interspecific hybrids Gossypium hirsutum L. x G. barbadense L. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoilova, A.

    1990-01-01

    The study was aimed at combining the methods of hybridization and experimental mutagenesis and widening the possibilities of interspecific hybridization for successful breeding work. The reaction of interspecific cotton hybrids (G. hirsutum x G. barbadense) to gamma rays in the year of treatment was investigated. Four hybrid combinations resulting from reciprocal crosses between the two species were studied. Seeds of long fibre F 1 plants from each combination were divided in four equal parts (irradiated with 15, 20 and 25 krad and a control). The changes in the main biometrical indices between the control and maximum dose (25 krad) treatment showed that the F 2 hybrids were either resistant or slightly sensitive to irradiation depending on the direction of crossing in respect to growth processes, field germination and survival to the end of vegetation. 3 tabs., 2 figs., 14 refs

  19. Evaluation of cheetah and leopard spermatozoa developmental capability after interspecific ICSI with domestic cat oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, L N; Sestelo, A J; Salamone, D F

    2014-08-01

    The ICSI procedure is potentially of great value for felids, and it has not been extensively studied in these species. The objectives of this work were to determine the best conditions for ICSI in the domestic cat (DC) to generate interspecific embryos by injecting cheetah (Ch) and leopard (Leo) spermatozoa. Firstly, DC oocytes were matured with insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) or without it (MM) and cultured using atmospheric (21%) or low (5%) oxygen tension after ICSI. The group ITS-5%O2 showed the highest blastocyst rate (p cheetah and leopard spermatozoa were able to generate blastocysts without artificial activation, which suggests that developmental capacity of wild felid spermatozoa can be evaluated by interspecific ICSI. This technique should be used to assist wild felid reproduction. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 9...

  1. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (Poaceae, Poales) and their interspecific hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Techio, Vânia Helena; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Pereira, Antônio Vander

    2006-01-01

    The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28) and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14) can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21). This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their proge...

  2. Phenology of the oil palm interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Hormaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of the most important oil crops in the world. Because of its high productivity and perennial nature, it has been expanding quickly. Commercial plantations consist mostly of the African palm E. guineensis Jacq. However, producers in Latin America are increasingly planting the O × G interspecific hybrid, a cross between African palm (E. guineensis and the American palm (E. oleifera (Kunth Cortés. This interspecific hybrid has emerged as a promising solution to diseases such as the bud rot of oil palm because of the apparent partial resistance of this genotype to the disease. This work studied and described the phenology of the O × G interspecific hybrid. The phenology stages were coded using the BBCH scale. The scale for the phenophases was defined using a three-digit code. Due to the nature of the palm, no descriptions were used for stage two (formation of side shoots/tillering and stage four (development of harvestable vegetative plant parts or vegetative reproductive organs because these stages do not apply to oil palm. The scale was constructed using germinating seeds, pre-nursery and nursery plants and five year-old palms. For the description of the stem elongation, different age palms of the same O × G hybrid were used. Observations were performed during an 18-month period. Additionally, the interval for the change from one phenology stage to another was determined both in days and degree-days (DD. The interspecific O × G hybrid required 6408 DD from when the spear leaf unfolds until the bunch was ripened and harvested, and 4427.6 DD from leaf unfolding to anthesis.

  3. Species-Specific Effects on Ecosystem Functioning Can Be Altered by Interspecific Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, David S; Spencer, Matthew; Robinson, Leonie A; Frid, Christopher L J

    2016-01-01

    Biological assemblages are constantly undergoing change, with species being introduced, extirpated and experiencing shifts in their densities. Theory and experimentation suggest that the impacts of such change on ecosystem functioning should be predictable based on the biological traits of the species involved. However, interspecific interactions could alter how species affect functioning, with the strength and sign of interactions potentially depending on environmental context (e.g. homogenous vs. heterogeneous conditions) and the function considered. Here, we assessed how concurrent changes to the densities of two common marine benthic invertebrates, Corophium volutator and Hediste diversicolor, affected the ecological functions of organic matter consumption and benthic-pelagic nutrient flux. Complementary experiments were conducted within homogenous laboratory microcosms and naturally heterogeneous field plots. When the densities of the species were increased within microcosms, interspecific interactions enhanced effects on organic matter consumption and reduced effects on nutrient flux. Trait-based predictions of how each species would affect functioning were only consistently supported when the density of the other species was low. In field plots, increasing the density of either species had a positive effect on organic matter consumption (with no significant interspecific interactions) but no effect on nutrient flux. Our results indicate that species-specific effects on ecosystem functioning can be altered by interspecific interactions, which can be either facilitative (positive) or antagonistic (negative) depending on the function considered. The impacts of biodiversity change may therefore not be predictable based solely on the biological traits of the species involved. Possible explanations for why interactions were detected in microcosms but not in the field are discussed.

  4. Species-Specific Effects on Ecosystem Functioning Can Be Altered by Interspecific Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Clare

    Full Text Available Biological assemblages are constantly undergoing change, with species being introduced, extirpated and experiencing shifts in their densities. Theory and experimentation suggest that the impacts of such change on ecosystem functioning should be predictable based on the biological traits of the species involved. However, interspecific interactions could alter how species affect functioning, with the strength and sign of interactions potentially depending on environmental context (e.g. homogenous vs. heterogeneous conditions and the function considered. Here, we assessed how concurrent changes to the densities of two common marine benthic invertebrates, Corophium volutator and Hediste diversicolor, affected the ecological functions of organic matter consumption and benthic-pelagic nutrient flux. Complementary experiments were conducted within homogenous laboratory microcosms and naturally heterogeneous field plots. When the densities of the species were increased within microcosms, interspecific interactions enhanced effects on organic matter consumption and reduced effects on nutrient flux. Trait-based predictions of how each species would affect functioning were only consistently supported when the density of the other species was low. In field plots, increasing the density of either species had a positive effect on organic matter consumption (with no significant interspecific interactions but no effect on nutrient flux. Our results indicate that species-specific effects on ecosystem functioning can be altered by interspecific interactions, which can be either facilitative (positive or antagonistic (negative depending on the function considered. The impacts of biodiversity change may therefore not be predictable based solely on the biological traits of the species involved. Possible explanations for why interactions were detected in microcosms but not in the field are discussed.

  5. Impact of interspecific competition and drought on the allocation of new assimilates in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, R; Siegwolf, R; Zavadlav, S; Arend, M; Schaub, M; Galiano, L; Haeni, M; Kayler, Z E; Gessler, A

    2016-09-01

    In trees, the interplay between reduced carbon assimilation and the inability to transport carbohydrates to the sites of demand under drought might be one of the mechanisms leading to carbon starvation. However, we largely lack knowledge on how drought effects on new assimilate allocation differ between species with different drought sensitivities and how these effects are modified by interspecific competition. We assessed the fate of (13) C labelled assimilates in above- and belowground plant organs and in root/rhizosphere respired CO2 in saplings of drought-tolerant Norway maple (Acer platanoides) and drought-sensitive European beech (Fagus sylvatica) exposed to moderate drought, either in mono- or mixed culture. While drought reduced stomatal conductance and photosynthesis rates in both species, both maintained assimilate transport belowground. Beech even allocated more new assimilate to the roots under moderate drought compared to non-limited water supply conditions, and this pattern was even more pronounced under interspecific competition. Even though maple was a superior competitor compared to beech under non-limited soil water conditions, as indicated by the changes in above- and belowground biomass of both species in the interspecific competition treatments, we can state that beech was still able to efficiently allocate new assimilate belowground under combined drought and interspecific competition. This might be seen as a strategy to maintain root osmotic potential and to prioritise root functioning. Our results thus show that beech tolerates moderate drought stress plus competition without losing its ability to supply belowground tissues. It remains to be explored in future work if this strategy is also valid during long-term drought exposure. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Inter-specific competitive stress does not affect the magnitude of inbreeding depression

    OpenAIRE

    Willi, Yvonne; Dietrich, Stefan; van Kleunen, Mark; Fischer, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Hypothesis: Stressful inter-specific competition enhances inbreeding depression.Organisms: Creeping spearwort (Ranunculus reptans L.) and its common competitor, thecreeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.).Field site: Outdoor common garden experiment at the University of Potsdam.Methods: We collected plants of 12 natural populations of R. reptans differing in mean parental inbreeding coefficient (0.01–0.26). We performed within-population crosses for twogenerations and kept the offspring i...

  7. Weak interspecific interactions in a sagebrush steppe? Conflicting evidence from observations and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter B; Kleinhesselink, Andrew; Giles, Hooker; Taylor, J Bret; Teller, Brittany; Ellner, Stephen P

    2018-04-28

    Stable coexistence requires intraspecific limitations to be stronger than interspecific limitations. The greater the difference between intra- and interspecific limitations, the more stable the coexistence, and the weaker the competitive release any species should experience following removal of competitors. We conducted a removal experiment to test whether a previously estimated model, showing surprisingly weak interspecific competition for four dominant species in a sagebrush steppe, accurately predicts competitive release. Our treatments were 1) removal of all perennial grasses and 2) removal of the dominant shrub, Artemisia tripartita. We regressed survival, growth and recruitment on the locations, sizes, and species identities of neighboring plants, along with an indicator variable for removal treatment. If our "baseline" regression model, which accounts for local plant-plant interactions, accurately explains the observed responses to removals, then the removal coefficient should be non-significant. For survival, the removal coefficients were never significantly different from zero, and only A. tripartita showed a (negative) response to removals at the recruitment stage. For growth, the removal treatment effect was significant and positive for two species, Poa secunda and Pseudoroegneria spicata, indicating that the baseline model underestimated interspecific competition. For all three grass species, population models based on the vital rate regressions that included removal effects projected 1.4 to 3-fold increases in equilibrium population size relative to the baseline model (no removal effects). However, we found no evidence of higher response to removal in quadrats with higher pretreatment cover of A. tripartita, or by plants experiencing higher pre-treatment crowding by A. tripartita, raising questions about the mechanisms driving the positive response to removal. While our results show the value of combining observations with a simple removal experiment

  8. Understanding Urban Communication in Information Era: Analyzing Development Progress of Coastal Territories in the Context of West Java’s Metropolitan Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutriadi, Ridwan; Indriyani Kurniasari, Meta

    2017-07-01

    This paper explores a consequence of metropolitan and development centers policy to the development progress of coastal territories by analyzing municipal website base on urban communication functions of communicative city concept. In terms of coastal territories as a part of development center, efforts have to be made in enhancing the role and function of municipal website to show their development progress. Perceptual analysis is taken as a method to measure their position, especially kabupaten/kota as coastal territories in regional context (West Java Province). The results indicate that the availability of public information in coastal territories cities lower than other cities in metropolitan area. Innovation in specifying coastal features has to be promoted in illustrating development progress of coastal territories as a part of development centers in West Java Province.

  9. Interspecific hybrids between Paspalum plicatulum and P. oteroi: a key tool for forage breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Elda Novo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grama-tio-pedro (Paspalum oteroi Swallen is a rare stoloniferous grass of the Plicatula group of Paspalum, well adapted to continuous grazing in areas subject to seasonal flooding in the Pantanal region, in central western Brazil. The species is a facultative apomictic (asexual reproduction by seed tetraploid, sporadically cultivated on Pantanal farms, propagated either by cuttings or seed. Due to its potential for extensive cultivation and forage quality, Grama-tio-pedro appears as a candidate for genetic improvement within the Plicatula group through plant breeding. We used a colchicine-induced sexual autotetraploid genotype of P. plicatulum Michx. to obtain interspecific hybrids using the apomictic species, P. oteroi, as pollen donor. The very similar meiotic chromosome behavior observed in both parents, with main quadrivalent and bivalent associations, suggested that P. oteroi is a natural autotetraploid. The hybrids showed less irregular meiotic behavior with fewer quadrivalents and more bivalents than either parent. Fertility among interspecific hybrids varied from complete sterility in some of them to seed productions in others that were approximately twice as much as for either parent. The great variability of seed set performance may well be a drastic genetic consequence of joining two homologous chromosome sets of P. plicatulum together with two homologous sets of P. oteroi that, in turn, have some homeology between them. Most hybrids reproduce by sexual means, thus, they could be used as female parents in backcrosses and in crosses with other species of the Plicatula group for interspecific gene transferring in breeding programs.

  10. Interspecific Transmission of Double-Stranded RNA and Hypovirulence from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum to S. minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, M S; Ikeda, S S; Boland, G J

    2002-07-01

    ABSTRACT Interspecific transmission of a hypovirulence-associated double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and hypovirulent phenotype was attempted from hypovirulent isolate Ss275 of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum to five virulent isolates of S. minor. dsRNA and the hypovirulent phenotype were successfully transmitted to one of the five isolates, Sm10. Three putative converted isolates of Sm10 were slow growing and developed atypical colony morphologies characteristic of the hypovirulent phenotype. These isolates were assayed for virulence and produced significantly smaller lesions than isolate Sm10 on detached leaves of Romaine lettuce. One of these putative converted isolates, designated Sm10T, was tested to confirm interspecific transmission of dsRNA. In northern hybridizations, dsRNA isolated from Sm10T hybridized with a digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probe prepared from dsRNA isolated from Ss275. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis confirmed that isolate Sm10T was derived from Sm10 and not from Ss275 or a hybrid of the two species. The dsRNA and hypovirulent phenotype were subsequently transmitted intraspecifically from Sm10T to Sm8. To our knowledge, this is the first report of interspecific transmission of dsRNA and an associated hypovirulent phenotype between fungal plant pathogens by hyphal anastomosis.

  11. Stabilization process in Saccharomyces intra and interspecific hybrids in fermentative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Través, Laura; Lopes, Christian A; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the genetic stabilization of artificial intra- (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and interspecific (S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii) hybrids under wine fermentative conditions. Large-scale transitions in genome size and genome reorganizations were observed during this process. Interspecific hybrids seem to need fewer generations to reach genetic stability than intraspecific hybrids. The largest number of molecular patterns recovered among the derived clones was observed for intraspecific hybrids, particularly for those obtained by rare-mating. Molecular marker analyses revealed that unstable clones could change during the industrial process to obtain active dry yeast. When no changes in molecular markers and ploidy were observed after this process, no changes in genetic composition were confirmed by comparative genome hybridization, considering the clone as a stable hybrid. According to our results, under these conditions, fermentation steps 3 and 5 (30-50 generations) would suffice to obtain genetically stable interspecific and intraspecific hybrids, respectively. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  12. A large set of newly created interspecific Saccharomyces hybrids increases aromatic diversity in lager beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Stijn; Steensels, Jan; Saels, Veerle; De Rouck, Gert; Aerts, Guido; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-12-01

    Lager beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. Its production process is marked by a fermentation conducted at low (8 to 15°C) temperatures and by the use of Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecific hybrid between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the cold-tolerant Saccharomyces eubayanus. Recent whole-genome-sequencing efforts revealed that the currently available lager yeasts belong to one of only two archetypes, "Saaz" and "Frohberg." This limited genetic variation likely reflects that all lager yeasts descend from only two separate interspecific hybridization events, which may also explain the relatively limited aromatic diversity between the available lager beer yeasts compared to, for example, wine and ale beer yeasts. In this study, 31 novel interspecific yeast hybrids were developed, resulting from large-scale robot-assisted selection and breeding between carefully selected strains of S. cerevisiae (six strains) and S. eubayanus (two strains). Interestingly, many of the resulting hybrids showed a broader temperature tolerance than their parental strains and reference S. pastorianus yeasts. Moreover, they combined a high fermentation capacity with a desirable aroma profile in laboratory-scale lager beer fermentations, thereby successfully enriching the currently available lager yeast biodiversity. Pilot-scale trials further confirmed the industrial potential of these hybrids and identified one strain, hybrid H29, which combines a fast fermentation, high attenuation, and the production of a complex, desirable fruity aroma. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Interspecific variation in tree seedlings establishment in canopy gaps in relation to tree density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reader, R.J.; Bonser, S.P.; Duralia, T.E.; Bricker, B.D. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Botany

    1995-10-01

    We tested whether interspecific variation in tree seedling establishment in canopy gaps was significantly related to interspecific variation in tree density, for seven deciduous forest tree species (Quercus alba, Hamamelis virginiana, Acer rubrum, Sassafras albidum, Quercus rubra, Prunus serotina, Ostrya virginiana). For each species, seedling establishment was calculated as the difference in seedling density before experimental gap creation versus three years after gap creation. In each of the six experimentally-created gap types (33% or 66% removal of tree basal area from 0.01ha, 0.05ha or 0.20ha patches), differences in seedling establishment among species were significantly related to differences in their density in the tree canopy. A regression model with log{sub e} tree density as the independent variable accounted for between 93% and 98% of interspecific variation in seedling establishment. Our results provide empirical support for models of tree dynamics in gaps that assume seedling establishment depends on canopy tree density. 17 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  14. Obtaining interspecific hybrids, and molecular analysis by microsatellite markers in grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Ruzza Schuck

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the potential of interspecific hybridization of Vitis labruscana and Muscadinia rotundifolia by using artificial cross-pollinations. Microsatellite markers were used to confirm interspecific hybridizations and the identity of the parental genotypes. In crosses in which M. rotundifolia was used as the female parent, no true hybrids were obtained. In the reciprocal crosses, 114 seedlings were identified as true V. labruscana x M. rotundifolia hybrids. Self pollination occurred in direct and in reciprocal crosses. The crossings between 'Bordo' x 'Carlos', 'Magnolia', 'Regale' and' Roanoke', and between' Isabel' x 'Bountiful', 'Carlos', 'Magnolia', 'Regale' and 'Roanoke' were confirmed. The 15 markers evaluated showed that two M. rotundifolia parental genotypes had the same fingerprint profile, indicating a like lyplanting error. The success of hybridization depends mainly on the species and on the cultivar used as the female parent. Microsatellite markers are efficient to confirm the paternity of interspecific F1 hybrids and to determine the correct identity of M. rotundifolia cultivars.

  15. Species composition and interspecific association of plants in primary succession of Mount Merapi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTOMO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sutomo, Faradila D, Putri LSE (2011 Species composition and interspecific association of plants in primary succession of Mount Merapi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 212-217. Primary succession refers to the establishment of plant species and subsequent changes in composition following major disturbance such as volcanic activity. The study of succession may assist in recognizing the possible effects of species interactions (i.e. facilitation or inhibition. The barren landscapes created by volcanic disturbance on Mount Merapi, Java, Indonesia, provide excellent opportunities to study primary succession. Fifty-six species belonging to 26 families were recorded in the five nuées ardentes deposits. The highest number of species belonged to the Asteraceae, then Poaceae, followed by Fabaceae and Rubiaceae. In Mount Merapi primary succession, the ecosystem may be developing with time as indicated by the increase in the number of species associations. The number of positive associations was generally higher than the number of negative associations, except in the 2001 deposit where it was equal. Native and alien invasive species had different patterns of interspecific associations. This research demonstrates that in primary succession sites on Mount Merapi, positive interspecific association increased as time progressed, which may support the view that facilitation is more prominent in a severely disturbed habitat as compared to competition.

  16. [Research progress in chemical communication among insect-resistant genetically modified plants, insect pests and natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Song; Li, Yun-He; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2014-08-01

    Semiochemicals released by plants or insects play an important role in the communication among plants, phytophagous insects and their natural enemies. They thus form a chemical information network which regulates intra- and inter-specific behaviors and sustains the composition and structure of plant and insect communities. The application of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops may affect the chemical communication within and among the tritrophic levels, and thus cause disturbances to the biotic community structure and the stability of the farmland ecosystem. This has raised concerns about the environmental safety of IRGM crops and triggered research worldwide. In the current article we provided a brief summary of the chemical communication among plants, herbivores and natural enemies; analyzed the potential of IRGM crops to affect the chemical communication between plants and arthropods and the related mechanisms; and discussed the current research progress and the future prospects in this field. We hope that this will promote the research in this field by Chinese scientists and increase our understanding of the potential effects of growing of IRGM crops on the arthropod community structure.

  17. Spatial Distribution of Flower Color Induced by Interspecific Sexual Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Takahashi

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms shaping the spatiotemporal distribution of species has long been a central concern of ecology and evolutionary biology. Contemporary patterns of plant assemblies suggest that sexual interactions among species, i.e., reproductive interference, lead to the exclusive distributions of closely related species that share pollinators. However, the fitness consequences and the initial ecological/evolutionary responses to reproductive interference remain unclear in nature, since reproductive isolation or allopatric distribution has already been achieved in the natural community. In Japan, three species of blue-eyed grasses (Sisyrinchium with incomplete reproductive isolation have recently colonized and occur sympatrically. Two of them are monomorphic with white flowers, whereas the other exhibits heritable color polymorphism (white and purple morphs. Here we investigated the effects of the presence of two monomorphic species on the distribution and reproductive success of color morphs. The frequency and reproductive success of white morphs decreased in area where monomorphic species were abundant, while those of purple morphs did not. The rate of hybridization between species was higher in white morphs than in the purple ones. Resource competition and habitat preference seemed not to contribute to the spatial distribution and reproductive success of two morphs. Our results supported that color-dependent reproductive interference determines the distribution of flower color polymorphism in a habitat, implying ecological sorting promoted by pollinator-mediated reproductive interference. Our study helps us to understand the evolution and spatial structure of flower color in a community.

  18. Reframing science communication: How the use of metaphor, rhetoric, and other tools of persuasion can strengthen the public understanding of science (without weakening the integrity of the scientific process)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, Jeanne

    This paper is about "truthiness", its resulting impact on the public understanding of science (and subsequently science policy), and why scientists need to learn how to navigate truthiness in order to ensure that the scientific body of knowledge is both preserved and shared. In order to contend with truthiness, scientists must understand and acknowledge how people receive and process information, how they form their reactions and opinions about it, and how they can be manipulated by various agencies and players to feel and think in certain ways. In order to accomplish these objectives, scientists must also understand various aspects of culture, language, psychology, neuroscience, and communication. Most importantly, scientists must recognize their own humanity, and learn how to accept and work with their own human boundaries. Truth can indeed be beauty. And, there is absolutely nothing unscientific about creating beauty in order to demonstrate and explain truth.

  19. Plant distribution and stand characteristics in brackish marshes: Unravelling the roles of abiotic factors and interspecific competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carus, Jana; Heuner, Maike; Paul, Maike; Schröder, Boris

    2017-09-01

    Due to increasing pressure on estuarine marshes from sea level rise and river training, there is a growing need to understand how species-environment relationships influence the zonation and growth of tidal marsh vegetation. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and stand characteristics of the two key brackish marsh species Bolboschoenus maritimus and Phragmites australis in the Elbe estuary together with several abiotic habitat factors. We then tested the effect of these habitat factors on plant growth and zonation with generalised linear models (GLMs). Our study provides detailed information on the importance of single habitat factors and their interactions for controlling the distribution patterns and stand characteristics of two key marsh species. Our results suggest that flow velocity is the main factor influencing species distribution and stand characteristics and together with soil-water salinity even affects the inundation tolerance of the two specie investigated here. Additionally, inundation height and duration as well as interspecific competition helped explain the distribution patterns and stand characteristics. By identifying the drivers of marsh zonation and stand characteristics and quantifying their effects, this study provides useful information for evaluating a future contribution of tidal marsh vegetation to ecosystem-based shore protection.

  20. Text understanding for computers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenter, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    A long-standing challenge for computers communicating with humans is to pass the Turing test, i.e., to communicate in such a way that it is impossible for humans to determine whether they are talking to a computer or another human being. The field of natural language understanding — which studies

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prognosis Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what ...

  2. Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis is the main video in the NCI Prognosis Video Series, which offers the perspectives of three cancer patients and their doctor, an oncologist who is also a national expert in doctor-patient communication.

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what she' ... understand what prognosis means and also hard to talk about, even for doctors. Many Factors Can Affect ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what she'd like to know of her prognosis. Credit: National ...

  5. In-situ Monitoring of Plant-microbe Communication to Understand the Influence of Soil Properties on Symbiotic Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, T.; Del Valle, I.; Cheng, H. Y.; Silberg, J. J.; Masiello, C. A.; Lehmann, J.

    2016-12-01

    Plant-microbe signaling is important for many symbiotic and pathogenic interactions. While this signaling often occurs in soils, very little research has evaluated the role that the soil mineral and organic matter matrix plays in plant-microbe communication. One hurdle to these studies is the lack of simple tools for evaluating how soil mineral phases and organic matter influence the availability of plant-produced flavonoids that initiate the symbiosis between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and legumes. Because of their range of hydrophobic and electrostatic properties, flavonoids represent an informative class of signaling molecules. In this presentation, we will describe studies examining the bioavailable concentrations of flavonoids in soils using traditional techniques, such as high-pressure liquid chromatography and fluorescent microbial biosensors. Additionally, we will describe our progress developing a Rhizobium leguminosarum reporter that can be deployed into soils to report on flavonoid levels. This new microbial reporter is designed so that Rhizobium only generates a volatile gas signal when it encounters a defined concentration of flavonoids. By monitoring the output of this biosensor using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry during real time during soil incubations, we are working to establish the impact of soil organic matter, pH, and mineral phases on the reception of these signaling molecules. We expect that the findings from these studies will be useful for recommending soil management strategies that can enhance the communication between legumes and nitrogen fixing bacteria. This research highlights the importance of studying the role of soil as a mediator of plant-microbe communication.

  6. Terrorism as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Warren; Rainey, Daniel

    Terrorism has become not merely a political act, but a carefully designed and rhetorically sophisticated attempt at communication. What role should the communication scholar play in the investigation of terrorism? Specifically, there are six areas within which the communication scholar may actively contribute to an understanding of terrorism as…

  7. TIC and energy: Digital technologies and the environment; Understanding the energy challenges for technologies of information and communication; Data Centres; Energy savings and reduction of CO_2 emissions, objectives and action plan of the Orange Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, Patrice; Gossart, Cedric; Garello, Rene; Richard, Philippe; Hauet, Jean-Pierre; Bourgoint, Jean-Claude; Zeddam, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of four articles which give an overview of the present situation of technologies of information and communication (TICs) in terms of energy consumption, and of their perspectives of evolution. More precisely, the authors propose an overview of negative and positive impacts of TICs on the environment (Digital technologies and the environment), discuss an analysis of energy consumption by the different components of the Internet (Understanding the energy challenges for technologies of information and communication), comment efforts which have been already achieved to reduce the energy consumed by data centre equipment (Data Centres), and present action developed and implemented by the Orange Group to manage its energy consumption in its networks and in its information system (Energy savings and reduction of CO_2 emissions, objectives and action plan of the Orange Group)

  8. Diet of four annual killifishes: an intra and interspecific comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Laufer

    Full Text Available We examined the diet of 4 annual fishes, Austrolebias viarius, Austrolebias cheradophilus, Austrolebias luteoflammulatus and Cynopoecilus melanotaenia inhabiting temporal ponds of southeastern Uruguay, by analysis of stomach contents. Fishes were captured from fifty ephemeral ponds of Castillos Lagoon basin, in the region of the Humedales del Este. We identified 13099 individual prey items extracted from 669 stomachs of the four captured species. In the studied system, annual killifishes represents the most abundant and conspicuous top predators. Killifishes are generalist key predators at the ephemeral ponds of the studied system, consuming mostly aquatic items. Zooplancton represented the bulk of the diet in the four analyzed species, followed by eggs, algae and diatoms. Insects are the next group in prey number, as follows: Diptera larvae (especially Chironomidae and Cullicidae, Ephemeroptera (especially Betidae, and coleopteran larvae (especially Dytiscidae. Acari are also important prey in number. The four fish species differ in diet composition and in diet richness. A general pattern of differences in diet richness among killifish species and demographic groups could be related to variations in body sizes. As top predators annual killifishes are an important component of the temporal pond ecosystems. Understanding the natural history of this species and their communities is necessary in order to conserve them.

  9. Light and noise pollution interact to disrupt interspecific interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Taegan A; Rohr, Jason R; Bernal, Ximena E

    2017-05-01

    Studies on the consequences of urbanization often examine the effects of light, noise, and heat pollution independently on isolated species providing a limited understanding of how these combined stressors affect species interactions. Here, we investigate how these factors interact to affect parasitic frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp.) and their túngara frog (Engystomops pustulosus) hosts. A survey of túngara frog calling sites revealed that frog abundance was not significantly correlated with urbanization, light, noise, or temperature. In contrast, frog-biting midges were sensitive to light pollution and noise pollution. Increased light intensity significantly reduced midge abundance at low noise levels. At high noise intensity, there were no midges regardless of light level. Two field experiments controlling light and noise levels to examine attraction of the midges to their host and their feeding behavior confirmed the causality of these field patterns. These findings demonstrate that both light and noise pollution disrupt this host-parasite interaction and highlight the importance of considering interactions among species and types of pollutants to accurately assess the impacts of urbanization on ecological communities. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Small Businesses Save Big: A Guide to Help SBA Lenders Understand and Communicate the Value of Energy Efficiency Investments (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides guidelines for SBA lenders to understand the value of financing energy efficiency investments.

  11. Experimental confirmation and physical understanding of ultra-high bit rate impulse radio in the THz digital communication channels of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandehgar, Mahboubeh; Yang, Yihong; Grischkowsky, D.

    2014-09-01

    We have performed highly accurate numerical calculations of high bit rate impulse propagation through the seven digital communication channels of the atmosphere at RH 58% (10 g m-3). These calculations maximized bit rates for pathlengths equal to or longer than 100 m. We have experimentally verified our calculations for three channels with a propagation pathlength of 137 m and RH 65% (11.2 g m-3). Excellent agreement between measurement and theory was obtained for Channel 3 at 252 GHz, bit rate 84 Gb s-1, FWHM bandwidth (BW) 180 GHz; Channel 6 at 672 GHz, 45 Gb s-1, BW 84 GHz; and Channel 7 at 852 GHz, 56.8 Gb s-1, BW 108 GHz.

  12. Experimental confirmation and physical understanding of ultra-high bit rate impulse radio in the THz digital communication channels of the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandehgar, Mahboubeh; Yang, Yihong; Grischkowsky, D

    2014-01-01

    We have performed highly accurate numerical calculations of high bit rate impulse propagation through the seven digital communication channels of the atmosphere at RH 58% (10 g m −3 ). These calculations maximized bit rates for pathlengths equal to or longer than 100 m. We have experimentally verified our calculations for three channels with a propagation pathlength of 137 m and RH 65% (11.2 g m −3 ). Excellent agreement between measurement and theory was obtained for Channel 3 at 252 GHz, bit rate 84 Gb s −1 , FWHM bandwidth (BW) 180 GHz; Channel 6 at 672 GHz, 45 Gb s −1 , BW 84 GHz; and Channel 7 at 852 GHz, 56.8 Gb s −1 , BW 108 GHz. (special issue article)

  13. Management demands on information and communication technology in process-oriented health-care organizations: the importance of understanding managers' expectations during early phases of systems design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Anna; Vimarlund, Vivian; Timpka, Toomas

    2002-01-01

    There are numerous challenges to overcome before information and communication technology (ICT) can achieve its full potential in process-oriented health-care organizations. One of these challenges is designing systems that meet users' needs, while reflecting a continuously changing organizational environment. Another challenge is to develop ICT that supports both the internal and the external stakeholders' demands. In this study a qualitative research strategy was used to explore the demands on ICT expressed by managers from functional and process units at a community hospitaL The results reveal a multitude of partially competing goals that can make the ICT development process confusing, poor in quality, inefficient and unnecessarily costly. Therefore, from the perspective of ICT development, the main task appears to be to coordinate the different visions and in particular clarify them, as well as to establish the impact that these visions would have on the forthcoming ICT application.

  14. Communicacion Expresiva: Como los ninos nos envian mensajes [and] Comunicacion Receptiva: Como los ninos entienden nuestros mensajes [and] Interacciones de Comunicacion: Hacen falta dos. Hojas informativa de DB-LINK (Communication Interactions: It Takes Two [and] Receptive Communication: How Children Understand Your Messages to Them [and] Expressive Communication: How Children Send Their Messages to You. DB-LINK Fact Sheets).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremel, Kathleen

    This document consists of three separately published fact sheets combined here because of the close relationship of their subject matter. The first fact sheet, "Communication Interactions: It Takes Two" (Kathleen Stremel), defines communication; suggests ways to find opportunities for interactive communication; offers specific suggestions for…

  15. The Fertility Management Experiences of Australian Women with a Non-communicable Chronic Disease: Findings from the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Sara; Thananjeyan, Aberaami; Rowe, Heather; Kirkman, Maggie; Jordan, Lynne; McNamee, Kathleen; Bayly, Christine; McBain, John; Sinnott, Vikki; Fisher, Jane

    2018-06-01

    Introduction Despite the considerable and increasing proportion of women of reproductive age with a chronic non-communicable disease (NCD) and the potential adverse implications of many NCDs for childbearing, little is known about the fertility management experiences of women with an NCD, including their contraceptive use, pregnancy experiences and outcomes, and reproductive health care utilisation. The aim of this study was to investigate the fertility management experiences of women with an NCD and draw comparisons with women without an NCD. Method A sample of 18-50 year-old women (n = 1543) was randomly recruited from the Australian electoral roll in 2013. Of these women, 172 women reported a physical, chronic non-communicable disease: diabetes, arthritis, asthma, hypertension, heart disease, thyroid disorders, and cystic fibrosis. Respondents completed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. Factors associated with fertility management were identified in multivariable analyses. Results Women who reported having an NCD were significantly more likely than women who did not report an NCD to have ever been pregnant (75.9 vs. 67.5%, p = 0.034), have had an unintended pregnancy (33.47 vs. 25.5%, p = 0.026), and have had an abortion (20.3 vs. 14.2%, p = 0.044); they were less likely to consult a healthcare provider about fertility management (45.0 vs. 54.4%, p = 0.024). Similar proportions were using contraception (48.8 vs. 54.5%, p = 0.138). Conclusion The findings have implications for healthcare providers and women with an NCD and highlight the importance of addressing possible assumptions about the inability of women with an NCD to become pregnant, and ensuring women receive information about suitable methods of contraception and pre-pregnancy care.

  16. Seismic communication in a blind subterranean mammal: a major somatosensory mechanism in adaptive evolution underground.

    OpenAIRE

    Nevo, E; Heth, G; Pratt, H

    1991-01-01

    Seismic communication, through low-frequency and patterned substrate-borne vibrations that are generated by head thumping, and which travel long distances underground, is important in the nonvisual communication of subterranean mole rats of the Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies (2n = 52, 54, 58, and 60) in Israel. This importance pertains both intraspecifically in adaptation and interspecifically in speciation. Neurophysiologic, behavioral, and anatomic findings in this study suggest that the me...

  17. Resource quantity and quality determine the inter-specific associations between ecosystem engineers and resource users in a cavity-nest web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Hugo; Martin, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    While ecosystem engineering is a widespread structural force of ecological communities, the mechanisms underlying the inter-specific associations between ecosystem engineers and resource users are poorly understood. A proper knowledge of these mechanisms is, however, essential to understand how communities are structured. Previous studies suggest that increasing the quantity of resources provided by ecosystem engineers enhances populations of resource users. In a long-term study (1995-2011), we show that the quality of the resources (i.e. tree cavities) provided by ecosystem engineers is also a key feature that explains the inter-specific associations in a tree cavity-nest web. Red-naped sapsuckers (Sphyrapicusnuchalis) provided the most abundant cavities (52% of cavities, 0.49 cavities/ha). These cavities were less likely to be used than other cavity types by mountain bluebirds (Sialiacurrucoides), but provided numerous nest-sites (41% of nesting cavities) to tree swallows (Tachycinetabicolour). Swallows experienced low reproductive outputs in northern flicker (Colaptesauratus) cavities compared to those in sapsucker cavities (1.1 vs. 2.1 fledglings/nest), but the highly abundant flickers (33% of cavities, 0.25 cavities/ha) provided numerous suitable nest-sites for bluebirds (58%). The relative shortage of cavities supplied by hairy woodpeckers (Picoidesvillosus) and fungal/insect decay (high quality nest-sites for both bluebirds and swallows. Because both the quantity and quality of resources supplied by different ecosystem engineers may explain the amount of resources used by each resource user, conservation strategies may require different management actions to be implemented for the key ecosystem engineer of each resource user. We, therefore, urge the incorporation of both resource quantity and quality into models that assess community dynamics to improve conservation actions and our understanding of ecological communities based on ecosystem engineering.

  18. Communication without communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratina Boris R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the necessary conditions for successful communication. It is well known that post-modernity, described as an era of control, produces only decentralized, imploded subjectivities, who are neither able to question their own being nor to relate one with another in authentic bonds of communication. Today, virtual communication has become an ultimate model of every possible communication whatsoever. The authors, therefore, pose the question of conditions for possibility of subjectivities who would be able and apt for authentic communication, wherein faith, fidelity, truth, and capability of keeping one's word occupy the central place.

  19. An RNA-seq transcriptome analysis of floral buds of an interspecific Brassica hybrid between B. carinata and B. napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Pu; Liu, Huijuan; Yang, Qing; Wang, Yankun; Yan, Guixia; Guan, Rongzhan

    2014-12-01

    Interspecific hybridizations promote gene transfer between species and play an important role in plant speciation and crop improvement. However, hybrid sterility that commonly found in the first generation of hybrids hinders the utilization of interspecific hybridization. The combination of divergent parental genomes can create extensive transcriptome variations, and to determine these gene expression alterations and their effects on hybrids, an interspecific Brassica hybrid of B. carinata × B. napus was generated. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that some of the hybrid pollen grains were irregular in shape and exhibited abnormal exine patterns compared with those from the parents. Using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, 39,598, 32,403 and 42,208 genes were identified in flower buds of B. carinata cv. W29, B. napus cv. Zhongshuang 11 and their hybrids, respectively. The differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in pollen wall assembly, pollen exine formation, pollen development, pollen tube growth, pollination, gene transcription, macromolecule methylation and translation, which might be associated with impaired fertility in the F1 hybrid. These results will shed light on the mechanisms underlying the low fertility of the interspecific hybrids and expand our knowledge of interspecific hybridization.

  20. Visual implementation of computer communication

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Tobias; Johansson, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Communication is a fundamental part of life and during the 20th century several new ways for communication has been developed and created. From the first telegraph which made it possible to send messages over long distances to radio communication and the telephone. In the last decades, computer to computer communication at high speed has become increasingly important, and so also the need for understanding computer communication. Since data communication today works in speeds that are so high...

  1. Interspecific in vitro assay for the chimera-forming ability of human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Hideki; Kato-Itoh, Megumi; Umino, Ayumi; Sato, Hideyuki; Hamanaka, Sanae; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Nishimura, Ken; Ohtaka, Manami; Nakanishi, Mahito; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2015-09-15

    Functional assay limitations are an emerging issue in characterizing human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). With rodent PSCs, chimera formation using pre-implantation embryos is the gold-standard assay of pluripotency (competence of progeny to differentiate into all three germ layers). In human PSCs (hPSCs), however, this can only be monitored via teratoma formation or in vitro differentiation, as ethical concerns preclude generation of human-human or human-animal chimeras. To circumvent this issue, we developed a functional assay utilizing interspecific blastocyst injection and in vitro culture (interspecies in vitro chimera assay) that enables the development and observation of embryos up to headfold stage. The assay uses mouse pre-implantation embryos and rat, monkey and human PSCs to create interspecies chimeras cultured in vitro to the early egg-cylinder stage. Intra- and interspecific chimera assays with rodent PSC lines were performed to confirm the consistency of results in vitro and in vivo. The behavior of chimeras developed in vitro appeared to recapitulate that of chimeras developed in vivo; that is, PSC-derived cells survived and were integrated into the epiblast of egg-cylinder-stage embryos. This indicates that the interspecific in vitro chimera assay is useful in evaluating the chimera-forming ability of rodent PSCs. However, when human induced PSCs (both conventional and naïve-like types) were injected into mouse embryos and cultured, some human cells survived but were segregated; unlike epiblast-stage rodent PSCs, they never integrated into the epiblast of egg-cylinder-stage embryos. These data suggest that the mouse-human interspecies in vitro chimera assay does not accurately reflect the early developmental potential/process of hPSCs. The use of evolutionarily more closely related species as host embryos might be necessary to evaluate the developmental potency of hPSCs. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Interspecific competition between entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema is modified by their bacterial symbionts (Xenorhabdus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Sylvie

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symbioses between invertebrates and prokaryotes are biological systems of particular interest in order to study the evolution of mutualism. The symbioses between the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema and their bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus are very tractable model systems. Previous studies demonstrated (i a highly specialized relationship between each strain of nematodes and its naturally associated bacterial strain and (ii that mutualism plays a role in several important life history traits of each partner such as access to insect host resources, dispersal and protection against various biotic and abiotic factors. The goal of the present study was to address the question of the impact of Xenorhabdus symbionts on the progression and outcome of interspecific competition between individuals belonging to different Steinernema species. For this, we monitored experimental interspecific competition between (i two nematode species: S. carpocapsae and S. scapterisci and (ii their respective symbionts: X. nematophila and X. innexi within an experimental insect-host (Galleria mellonella. Three conditions of competition between nematodes were tested: (i infection of insects with aposymbiotic IJs (i.e. without symbiont of both species (ii infection of insects with aposymbiotic IJs of both species in presence of variable proportion of their two Xenorhabdus symbionts and (iii infection of insects with symbiotic IJs (i.e. naturally associated with their symbionts of both species. Results We found that both the progression and the outcome of interspecific competition between entomopathogenic nematodes were influenced by their bacterial symbionts. Thus, the results obtained with aposymbiotic nematodes were totally opposite to those obtained with symbiotic nematodes. Moreover, the experimental introduction of different ratios of Xenorhabdus symbionts in the insect-host during competition between Steinernema modified the proportion of

  3. [Niche and interspecific association of the dominant fish in the south coastal waters of Wenzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing Rui; Shui, Bo Nian; Hu, Cheng Ye; Shui, Yu Yue; DU, Xiao; Tian, Kuo

    2017-05-18

    The studies about the niche and interspecific association in China were mainly focused on the plants, birds and marine animals, and seldom on fish. Based on the fishery resources survey in spring (May) and autumn (September) in 2015, the associations among major fish species in south coastal waters of Wenzhou were investigated. The methods including niche breadth, niche overlap, variance ratio (VR), Χ 2 -test, association coefficient (AC), percentage of co-occurrence (PC) and point correlation coefficients (Ф) were used. The results showed that 47 fish species were identified, including 9 orders, 27 families and 41 genera. Four species were dominant species and 9 were important species, which together accounted for 17%. The niche breadth cluster analysis demonstrated two clearly identifiable ecological niches. The first one referred to wide niche that included Harpodon nehereus, Collichthys lucidus, Engraulis japonicas, Pampus echinogaster, Argyrosomus argentatus, Polynemus sextarius, Decapterus maruadsi and Trichiurus haumela, and the second one was narrow niche that included Muraenesox cinereus, Amblychaeturichthys hexanema, Cunoglossus robustus, Pseudosciaena polyactis and Ilisha elongate. The niche overlap value of the main fish was 0-0.90, indicating that there was difference in the resource utilization among the species. The ecological niche widths of C. robustus and M. cinereus were narrow, and the overlap values were high. This indicated that there was competition between these two species. The VR analysis revealed significant positive correlation among the main fish species. In view of the advantages of Ф value, which could reduce the impact of the analysis results of Χ 2 -test, AC and PC to the interspecific association, the Ф value method was selected in this study, and the association of 63 couples were positive. Both the interspecific association and ecological niche had different degrees of correlation with the stability of community structure

  4. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies.

  5. Species delimitation and interspecific relationships of the genus Orychophragmus (Brassicaceae inferred from whole chloroplast genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Hu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIt is rather difficult to delimit recently diverged species and construct their interspecific relationships because of insufficient informative variations of sampled DNA fragments (Schluter, 2000; Arnold, 2006. The genome-scale sequence variations were found to increase the phylogenetic resolutions of both high- and low-taxonomic groups (e.g., Yoder et al., 2013; Lamichhaney et al., 2015. It is still expensive to collect nuclear genome variations between species for most none-model genera without the reference genome. However, chloroplast genomes (plastome are relatively easy to be assembled to examine interspecific relationships for phylogenetic analyses, especially in addressing unresolved relationship at low taxonomic levels (Wu et al., 2010; Nock et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2013; Huang et al., 2014; Carbonell-Caballero et al., 2015. Plastomes are haploid with maternal inheritance in most angiosperms (Corriveau and Coleman, 1988; Zhang and Liu, 2003; Hagemann, 2004 and are highly conservative in gene order and genome structure with rare recombinations (Jansen et al., 2007; Moore et al., 2010. In this study, we aimed to examine species delimitation and interspecific relationships in Orychophragmus through assembling chloroplast genomes of multiple individuals of tentatively delimited species (Hu et al., 2015a. Orychophragmus is a small genus in the mustard family (Brassicaceae, Cruciferae distributed in northern, central, and southeastern China (Zhou et al., 2001. Its plants have been widely cultivated as ornamentals, vegetables, or source of seed oil (Sun et al., 2011. Despite controversial species delimitations in the genus (Zhou et al., 1987; Tan et al., 1998; Wu and Zhao, 2003; Al-Shehbaz and Yang, 2000; Zhou et al., 2001; Sun et al., 2012, our recent study based on nuclear (nr ITS sequence variations suggested the recognition of seven species (Hu et al., 2015a. Orychophragmus is sister to Sinalliaria, which is a genus endemic

  6. Native intra- and inter-specific reactions may cause the paradox of pest control with harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Hiromi

    2010-05-01

    We analyse a general time-discrete mathematical model of host-parasite population dynamics with harvesting, in which the host can be regarded as a pest. We harvest a portion of the host population at a moment in each year. Our model involves the density effect on the host population. We investigate the condition in which the harvesting of the host results in a paradoxical increase of its equilibrium population size. Our results imply that for a family of pest-enemy systems, the paradox of pest control could be caused essentially by the interspecific relationship and the intraspecific density effect.

  7. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-12-01

    attitudes and beliefs, which studies such as the Six Americas research help identify, is key to effective science communications (e.g. Leiserowitz, Maibach, et al, 2009). We argue that the impact of the scientific message can be substantially improved by targeting it to these additional factors. This does require an understanding of the audience and a repackaging of the message to different societal groups. Logical and dispassionate presentation of evidence works for a target scientific audience, but major decisions from the policy to the personal level are influenced by many factors including immediacy, economics, culture, community leaders, emotional framing, and ideological filters.

  8. Motor Cortex and Motor Cortical Interhemispheric Communication in Walking After Stroke: The Roles of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Animal Models in Our Current and Future Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Charalambos C; Bowden, Mark G; Adkins, DeAnna L

    2016-01-01

    Despite the plethora of human neurophysiological research, the bilateral involvement of the leg motor cortical areas and their interhemispheric interaction during both normal and impaired human walking is poorly understood. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we have expanded our understanding of the role upper-extremity motor cortical areas play in normal movements and how stroke alters this role, and probed the efficacy of interventions to improve post-stroke arm function. However, similar investigations of the legs have lagged behind, in part, due to the anatomical difficulty in using TMS to stimulate the leg motor cortical areas. Additionally, leg movements are predominately bilaterally controlled and require interlimb coordination that may involve both hemispheres. The sensitive, but invasive, tools used in animal models of locomotion hold great potential for increasing our understanding of the bihemispheric motor cortical control of walking. In this review, we discuss 3 themes associated with the bihemispheric motor cortical control of walking after stroke: (a) what is known about the role of the bihemispheric motor cortical control in healthy and poststroke leg movements, (b) how the neural remodeling of the contralesional hemisphere can affect walking recovery after a stroke, and (c) what is the effect of behavioral rehabilitation training of walking on the neural remodeling of the motor cortical areas bilaterally. For each theme, we discuss how rodent models can enhance the present knowledge on human walking by testing hypotheses that cannot be investigated in humans, and how these findings can then be back-translated into the neurorehabilitation of poststroke walking. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Sexual imprinting misguides species recognition in a facultative interspecific brood parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Michael D; Hauber, Mark E; Derrickson, Scott R

    2010-10-22

    Sexual reproduction relies on the recognition of conspecifics for breeding. Most experiments in birds have implicated a critical role for early social learning in directing subsequent courtship behaviours and mating decisions. This classical view of avian sexual imprinting is challenged, however, by studies of megapodes and obligate brood parasites, species in which reliable recognition is achieved despite the lack of early experience with conspecifics. By rearing males with either conspecific or heterospecific brood mates, we experimentally tested the effect of early social experience on the association preferences and courtship behaviours of two sympatrically breeding ducks. We predicted that redheads (Aythya americana), which are facultative interspecific brood parasites, would show a diminished effect of early social environment on subsequent courtship preferences when compared with their host and congener, the canvasback (Aythya valisineria). Contrary to expectations, cross-fostered males of both species courted heterospecific females and preferred them in spatial association tests, whereas control males courted and associated with conspecific females. These results imply that ontogenetic constraints on species recognition may be a general impediment to the initial evolution of interspecific brood parasitism in birds. Under more natural conditions, a variety of mechanisms may mitigate or counteract the effects of early imprinting for redheads reared in canvasback broods.

  10. Epigenetic patterns newly established after interspecific hybridization in natural populations of Solanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, Nicolás; Marfil, Carlos F; Masuelli, Ricardo W

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is known for triggering genetic and epigenetic changes, such as modifications on DNA methylation patterns and impact on phenotypic plasticity and ecological adaptation. Wild potatoes (Solanum, section Petota) are adapted to multiple habitats along the Andes, and natural hybridizations have proven to be a common feature among species of this group. Solanum × rechei, a recently formed hybrid that grows sympatrically with the parental species S. kurtzianum and S. microdontum, represents an ideal model for studying the ecologically and evolutionary importance of hybridization in generating of epigenetic variability. Genetic and epigenetic variability and their correlation with morphological variation were investigated in wild and ex situ conserved populations of these three wild potato species using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) techniques. We observed that novel methylation patterns doubled the number of novel genetic patterns in the hybrid and that the morphological variability measured on 30 characters had a higher correlation with the epigenetic than with the genetic variability. Statistical comparison of methylation levels suggested that the interspecific hybridization induces genome demethylation in the hybrids. A Bayesian analysis of the genetic data reveled the hybrid nature of S. × rechei, with genotypes displaying high levels of admixture with the parental species, while the epigenetic information assigned S. × rechei to its own cluster with low admixture. These findings suggested that after the hybridization event, a novel epigenetic pattern was rapidly established, which might influence the phenotypic plasticity and adaptation of the hybrid to new environments. PMID:24198938

  11. Interspecific variation in egg testosterone levels: implications for the evolution of bird song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamszegi, L Z; Biard, C; Eens, M; Møller, A P; Saino, N

    2007-05-01

    Although interspecific variation in maternal effects via testosterone levels can be mediated by natural selection, little is known about the evolutionary consequences of egg testosterone for sexual selection. However, two nonexclusive evolutionary hypotheses predict an interspecific relationship between egg testosterone levels and the elaboration of sexual traits. First, maternal investment may be particularly enhanced in sexually selected species, which should generate a positive relationship. Secondly, high prenatal testosterone levels may constrain the development of sexual characters, which should result in a negative relationship. Here we investigated these hypotheses by exploring the relationship between yolk testosterone levels and features of song in a phylogenetic study of 36 passerine species. We found that song duration and syllable repertoire size were significantly negatively related to testosterone levels in the egg, even if potentially confounding factors were held constant. These relationships imply that high testosterone levels during early development of songs may be detrimental, thus supporting the developmental constraints hypothesis. By contrast, we found significant evidence that song-post exposure relative to the height of the vegetation is positively related to egg testosterone levels. These results support the hypothesis that high levels of maternal testosterone have evolved in species with intense sexual selection acting on the location of song-posts. We found nonsignificant effects for intersong interval and song type repertoire size, which may suggest that none of the above hypothesis apply to these traits, or they act simultaneously and have opposing effects.

  12. Interspecific RNA interference of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS-like disrupts Cuscuta pentagona plant parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakonya, Amos; Kumar, Ravi; Koenig, Daniel; Kimura, Seisuke; Townsley, Brad; Runo, Steven; Garces, Helena M; Kang, Julie; Yanez, Andrea; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Machuka, Jesse; Sinha, Neelima

    2012-07-01

    Infection of crop species by parasitic plants is a major agricultural hindrance resulting in substantial crop losses worldwide. Parasitic plants establish vascular connections with the host plant via structures termed haustoria, which allow acquisition of water and nutrients, often to the detriment of the infected host. Despite the agricultural impact of parasitic plants, the molecular and developmental processes by which host/parasitic interactions are established are not well understood. Here, we examine the development and subsequent establishment of haustorial connections by the parasite dodder (Cuscuta pentagona) on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. Formation of haustoria in dodder is accompanied by upregulation of dodder KNOTTED-like homeobox transcription factors, including SHOOT MERISTEMLESS-like (STM). We demonstrate interspecific silencing of a STM gene in dodder driven by a vascular-specific promoter in transgenic host plants and find that this silencing disrupts dodder growth. The reduced efficacy of dodder infection on STM RNA interference transgenics results from defects in haustorial connection, development, and establishment. Identification of transgene-specific small RNAs in the parasite, coupled with reduced parasite fecundity and increased growth of the infected host, demonstrates the efficacy of interspecific small RNA-mediated silencing of parasite genes. This technology has the potential to be an effective method of biological control of plant parasite infection.

  13. Interspecific introgression and changes in population structure in a flatfish species complex after the Prestige accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crego-Prieto, V.; Danancher, D.; Campo, D.; Perez, J.; Garcia-Vazquez, E.; Roca, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact of Prestige oil spill was studied on two sympatric megrim fish populations. • Samples before and nine years after the accident were genetically analyzed. • A large proportion of post-F1 interspecific hybrids was found in the polluted area. • Both species’ population structure was altered by introgression of foreign alleles. • The spillage likely promoted a hybrid zone for Lepidorhombus in the areas affected. -- Abstract: Oil spills cause aggressive impacts on marine ecosystems affecting immense areas and the species inhabiting them. If wastes are not cleaned up properly, the remnants may affect local populations for a long time. This work focuses on the long-term impacts of the Prestige spillage that occurred off Galician coast (Spain) in November 2002. Model species were two sympatric flatfish, the megrims Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis and Lepidorhombus boscii. Samples obtained before and nine years after the Prestige accident from affected and unaffected areas were genotyped for six hypervariable nuclear markers and for the mitochondrial D-loop sequence. The results revealed a high proportion of post-F1 interspecific hybrids in the area affected, and also increased intraspecific population differentiation likely due to such localized introgression of foreign genes. These changes suggest the appearance of a hybrid zone following the accident and emphasize the need of paying special attention to potential evolutionary impacts of oil spills

  14. Genetic evidence for intra- and interspecific slavery in honey ants (genus Myrmecocystus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronauer, D J C; Gadau, J; Hölldobler, B

    2003-04-22

    The New World honey ant species Myrmecocystus mimicus is well known for its highly stereotyped territorial tournaments, and for the raids on conspecific nests that can lead to intraspecific slavery. Our results from mitochondrial and nuclear markers show that the raided brood emerges in the raiding colony and is subsequently incorporated into the colony's worker force. We also found enslaved conspecifics in a second honey ant species, M. depilis, the sister taxon of M. mimicus, which occurs in sympatry with M. mimicus at the study site. Colonies of this species furthermore contained raided M. mimicus workers. Both species have an effective mating frequency that is not significantly different from 1. This study provides genetic evidence for facultative intra- and interspecific slavery in the genus Myrmecocystus. Slavery in ants has evolved repeatedly and supposedly by different means. We propose that, in honey ants, secondary contact between two closely related species that both exhibit intraspecific slavery gave rise to an early form of facultative interspecific slavery.

  15. Interspecific introgression in cetaceans: DNA markers reveal post-F1 status of a pilot whale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miralles

    Full Text Available Visual species identification of cetacean strandings is difficult, especially when dead specimens are degraded and/or species are morphologically similar. The two recognised pilot whale species (Globicephala melas and Globicephala macrorhynchus are sympatric in the North Atlantic Ocean. These species are very similar in external appearance and their morphometric characteristics partially overlap; thus visual identification is not always reliable. Genetic species identification ensures correct identification of specimens. Here we have employed one mitochondrial (D-Loop region and eight nuclear loci (microsatellites as genetic markers to identify six stranded pilot whales found in Galicia (Northwest Spain, one of them of ambiguous phenotype. DNA analyses yielded positive amplification of all loci and enabled species identification. Nuclear microsatellite DNA genotypes revealed mixed ancestry for one individual, identified as a post-F1 interspecific hybrid employing two different Bayesian methods. From the mitochondrial sequence the maternal species was Globicephala melas. This is the first hybrid documented between Globicephala melas and G. macrorhynchus, and the first post-F1 hybrid genetically identified between cetaceans, revealing interspecific genetic introgression in marine mammals. We propose to add nuclear loci to genetic databases for cetacean species identification in order to detect hybrid individuals.

  16. Genomic Characterization of Interspecific Hybrids and an Admixture Population Derived from Panicum amarum × P. virgatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Heffelfinger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass ( L. and its relatives are regarded as top bioenergy crop candidates; however, one critical barrier is the introduction of useful genetic diversity and the development of new cultivars and hybrids. Combining genomes from related cultivars and species provides an opportunity to introduce new traits. In switchgrass, a breeding advantage would be achieved by combining the genomes of intervarietal ecotypes or interspecific hybrids. The recovery of wide crosses, however, is often tedious and may involve complicated embryo rescue and numerous backcrosses. Here, we demonstrate a straightforward approach to wide crosses involving the use of a selectable transgene for recovery of interspecific [ cv. Alamo × Ell var or Atlantic Coastal Panicgrass (ACP] F hybrids followed by backcrossing to generate a nontransgenic admixture population. A nontransgenic herbicide-sensitive (HbS admixture population of 83 FBC progeny was analyzed by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS to characterize local ancestry, parental contribution, and patterns of recombination. These results demonstrate a widely applicable breeding strategy that makes use of transgenic selectable resistance to identify and recover true hybrids.

  17. The cytology, isozyme, HPLC fingerprint, and interspecific hybridization studies of genus epimedium (berberidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jiao; Sheng, Mao-Yin

    2013-01-01

    104 samples from 27 accessions belonging to 12 species of genus Epimedium were studied on the basis of cytology observation, POD (i.e., peroxide) isozyme, high performance liquid chromatography (i.e., HPLC) fingerprint, and interspecific hybridization. The cytology observation showed karyotypes of twelve species studied; all are 2A symmetry type of Stebbins standard and similar to each other, and except for karyotype of E. leptorrhizum which is 2n = 2x = 8m (2SAT) + 4sm, the rest are 2n = 2x = 6m (2SAT) + 6sm. Chromosomes C-banding of barrenwort species varies, with 15 to 22 bands, consisting of centromeric bands, intercalary bands, terminal bands, and middle satellite bands. Results of POD isozyme showed that the zymographs vary greatly and sixteen bands were detected in the eleven species, and each species has its own characteristic bands different from the others. Studies on the HPLC fingerprint showed that the HPLC fingerprint of different species has characteristic peaks, divided into two regions (retention time 10 min). Results of interspecific hybridization showed that crosses of any combination among seven species studied are successful and the rates of grain set vary greatly. Based on these results, the system and phylogeny of this genus were inferred.

  18. Social phenotype extended to communities: expanded multilevel social selection analysis reveals fitness consequences of interspecific interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobello, Daniela; Hare, James F; Sarà, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    In social species, fitness consequences are associated with both individual and social phenotypes. Social selection analysis has quantified the contribution of conspecific social traits to individual fitness. There has been no attempt, however, to apply a social selection approach to quantify the fitness implications of heterospecific social phenotypes. Here, we propose a novel social selection based approach integrating the role of all social interactions at the community level. We extended multilevel selection analysis by including a term accounting for the group phenotype of heterospecifics. We analyzed nest activity as a model social trait common to two species, the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and jackdaw (Corvus monedula), nesting in either single- or mixed-species colonies. By recording reproductive outcome as a measure of relative fitness, our results reveal an asymmetric system wherein only jackdaw breeding performance was affected by the activity phenotypes of both conspecific and heterospecific neighbors. Our model incorporating heterospecific social phenotypes is applicable to animal communities where interacting species share a common social trait, thus allowing an assessment of the selection pressure imposed by interspecific interactions in nature. Finally, we discuss the potential role of ecological limitations accounting for random or preferential assortments among interspecific social phenotypes, and the implications of such processes to community evolution. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Arbuscular common mycorrhizal networks mediate intra- and interspecific interactions of two prairie grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremijewicz, Joanna; da Silveira Lobo O'Reilly Sternberg, Leonel; Janos, David P

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi form extensive common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) that may interconnect neighboring root systems of the same or different plant species, thereby potentially influencing the distribution of limiting mineral nutrients among plants. We examined how CMNs affected intra- and interspecific interactions within and between populations of Andropogon gerardii, a highly mycorrhiza dependent, dominant prairie grass and Elymus canadensis, a moderately dependent, subordinate prairie species. We grew A. gerardii and E. canadensis alone and intermixed in microcosms, with individual root systems isolated, but either interconnected by CMNs or with CMNs severed weekly. CMNs, which provided access to a large soil volume, improved survival of both A. gerardii and E. canadensis, but intensified intraspecific competition for A. gerardii. When mixed with E. canadensis, A. gerardii overyielded aboveground biomass in the presence of intact CMNs but not when CMNs were severed, suggesting that A. gerardii with intact CMNs most benefitted from weaker interspecific than intraspecific interactions across CMNs. CMNs improved manganese uptake by both species, with the largest plants receiving the most manganese. Enhanced growth in consequence of improved mineral nutrition led to large E. canadensis in intact CMNs experiencing water-stress, as indicated by 13 C isotope abundance. Our findings suggest that in prairie plant communities, CMNs may influence mineral nutrient distribution, water relations, within-species size hierarchies, and between-species interactions.

  20. Testing spatial theories of plant coexistence: no consistent differences in intra- and interspecific interaction distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Deborah R; Murrell, David J; Stoll, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Plants stand still and interact with their immediate neighbors. Theory has shown that the distances over which these interactions occur may have important consequences for population and community dynamics. In particular, if intraspecific competition occurs over longer distances than interspecific competition (heteromyopia), coexistence can be promoted. We examined how intraspecific and interspecific competition scales with neighbor distance in a target-neighbor greenhouse competition experiment. Individuals from co-occurring forbs from calcareous grasslands were grown in isolation and with single conspecific or heterospecific neighbors at distances of 5, 10, or 15 cm (Plantago lanceolata vs. Plantago media and Hieracium pilosella vs. Prunella grandiflora). Neighbor effects were strong and declined with distance. Interaction distances varied greatly within and between species, but we found no evidence for heteromyopia. Instead, neighbor identity effects were mostly explained by relative size differences between target and neighbor. We found a complex interaction between final neighbor size and identity such that neighbor identity may become important only as the neighbor becomes very large compared with the target individual. Our results suggest that species-specific size differences between neighboring individuals determine both the strength of competitive interactions and the distance over which these interactions occur.

  1. Interspecific competition and the structure of bird guilds in boreal Europe: the importance of doing fieldwork in the right season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, L

    1987-12-01

    Bird studies have gained a central role in the debate on the importance of interspecific competition in nature. Thus, the negative results reported from a breeding bird community in a North American shrubsteppe area have created ripples throughout community ecology. However, the set of coexisting breeding birds might be an inappropriate operational definition of a bird community, because the intensity of interspecific competition can be expected to peak in autumn-winter. A review of North European data on wintering birds suggests that the case for the competition theory remains strong when bird communities are defined on the basis of winter coexistence. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR Genetic Linkage Map of D Genome Diploid Cotton Derived from an Interspecific Cross between Gossypium davidsonii and Gossypium klotzschianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Nyangasi Kirungu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in tetraploid cotton cultivars is the narrow genetic base and therefore, the bottleneck is how to obtain interspecific hybrids and introduce the germplasm directly from wild cotton to elite cultivars. Construction of genetic maps has provided insight into understanding the genome structure, interrelationships between organisms in relation to evolution, and discovery of genes that carry important agronomic traits in plants. In this study, we generated an interspecific hybrid between two wild diploid cottons, Gossypium davidsonii and Gossypium klotzschianum, and genotyped 188 F2:3 populations in order to develop a genetic map. We screened 12,560 SWU Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR primers and obtained 1000 polymorphic markers which accounted for only 8%. A total of 928 polymorphic primers were successfully scored and only 728 were effectively linked across the 13 chromosomes, but with an asymmetrical distribution. The map length was 1480.23 cM, with an average length of 2.182 cM between adjacent markers. A high percentage of the markers on the map developed, and for the physical map of G. raimondii, exhibited highly significant collinearity, with two types of duplication. High level of segregation distortion was observed. A total of 27 key genes were identified with diverse roles in plant hormone signaling, development, and defense reactions. The achievement of developing the F2:3 population and its genetic map constructions may be a landmark in establishing a new tool for the genetic improvement of cultivars from wild plants in cotton. Our map had an increased recombination length compared to other maps developed from other D genome cotton species.

  3. Relationships between morphology, diet and spatial distribution: testing the effects of intra and interspecific morphological variations on the patterns of resource use in two Neotropical Cichlids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia A. Sampaio

    Mantel test performed at inter and intraspecific levels. Therefore the hypothesis was accepted suggesting that analyses incorporating both intraspecific and interspecific morphological variations can contribute to a greater understanding about the ecological structure of fish assemblages by providing evidences on the niche characteristics of each species.

  4. Microdiversification of a Pelagic Polynucleobacter Species Is Mainly Driven by Acquisition of Genomic Islands from a Partially Interspecific Gene Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Johanna; Jezberová, Jitka; Koll, Ulrike; Hahn, Martin W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microdiversification of a planktonic freshwater bacterium was studied by comparing 37 Polynucleobacter asymbioticus strains obtained from three geographically separated sites in the Austrian Alps. Genome comparison of nine strains revealed a core genome of 1.8 Mb, representing 81% of the average genome size. Seventy-five percent of the remaining flexible genome is clustered in genomic islands (GIs). Twenty-four genomic positions could be identified where GIs are potentially located. These positions are occupied strain specifically from a set of 28 GI variants, classified according to similarities in their gene content. One variant, present in 62% of the isolates, encodes a pathway for the degradation of aromatic compounds, and another, found in 78% of the strains, contains an operon for nitrate assimilation. Both variants were shown in ecophysiological tests to be functional, thus providing the potential for microniche partitioning. In addition, detected interspecific horizontal exchange of GIs indicates a large gene pool accessible to Polynucleobacter species. In contrast to core genes, GIs are spread more successfully across spatially separated freshwater habitats. The mobility and functional diversity of GIs allow for rapid evolution, which may be a key aspect for the ubiquitous occurrence of Polynucleobacter bacteria. IMPORTANCE Assessing the ecological relevance of bacterial diversity is a key challenge for current microbial ecology. The polyphasic approach which was applied in this study, including targeted isolation of strains, genome analysis, and ecophysiological tests, is crucial for the linkage of genetic and ecological knowledge. Particularly great importance is attached to the high number of closely related strains which were investigated, represented by genome-wide average nucleotide identities (ANI) larger than 97%. The extent of functional diversification found on this narrow phylogenetic scale is compelling. Moreover, the transfer of

  5. Neural activity patterns in response to interspecific and intraspecific variation in mating calls in the túngara frog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Chakraborty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During mate choice, individuals must classify potential mates according to species identity and relative attractiveness. In many species, females do so by evaluating variation in the signals produced by males. Male túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus can produce single note calls (whines and multi-note calls (whine-chucks. While the whine alone is sufficient for species recognition, females greatly prefer the whine-chuck when given a choice.To better understand how the brain responds to variation in male mating signals, we mapped neural activity patterns evoked by interspecific and intraspecific variation in mating calls in túngara frogs by measuring expression of egr-1. We predicted that egr-1 responses to conspecific calls would identify brain regions that are potentially important for species recognition and that at least some of those brain regions would vary in their egr-1 responses to mating calls that vary in attractiveness. We measured egr-1 in the auditory brainstem and its forebrain targets and found that conspecific whine-chucks elicited greater egr-1 expression than heterospecific whines in all but three regions. We found no evidence that preferred whine-chuck calls elicited greater egr-1 expression than conspecific whines in any of eleven brain regions examined, in contrast to predictions that mating preferences in túngara frogs emerge from greater responses in the auditory system.Although selectivity for species-specific signals is apparent throughout the túngara frog brain, further studies are necessary to elucidate how neural activity patterns vary with the attractiveness of conspecific mating calls.

  6. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms dire...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction.......Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...

  7. Object-oriented communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    OOC is a high-level communications protocol based on the object-oriented paradigm. OOC's syntax, semantics, and pragmatics balance simplicity and expressivity for controls environments. While natural languages are too complex, computer protocols are often insufficiently expressive. An object-oriented communications philosophy provides a base for building the necessary high-level communications primitives like I don't understand and the current value of X is K. OOC is sufficiently flexible to express data acquisition, control requests, alarm messages, and error messages in a straightforward generic way. It can be used in networks, for inter-task communication, and even for intra-task communication

  8. Eldercare at Home: Communication Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join our e-newsletter! Resources Eldercare at Home: Communication Problems Caregiving How Tos Understanding the Problem Communication ... when the older person is most alert. Talk face-to-face and maintain eye contact. A good way to ...

  9. Astronomy Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.; Madsen, C.

    2003-07-01

    Astronomers communicate all the time, with colleagues of course, but also with managers and administrators, with decision makers and takers, with social representatives, with the news media, and with the society at large. Education is naturally part of the process. Astronomy communication must take into account several specificities: the astronomy community is rather compact and well organized world-wide; astronomy has penetrated the general public remarkably well with an extensive network of associations and organizations of aficionados all over the world. Also, as a result of the huge amount of data accumulated and by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have pioneered the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies, often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This book is filling up a gap in the astronomy-related literature by providing a set of chapters not only of direct interest to astronomy communication, but also well beyond it. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in communication techniques while providing specific detailed information, as well as plenty of pointers and bibliographic elements. This book will be very useful for researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, computer scientists, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as for students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1345-0

  10. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  11. Understanding Organizational Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Diego; Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    The attention-based view (ABV) of the firm highlights the role of decision makers’ attention in firm behavior. The ABV vastly improves our understanding of decision makers’ focus of attention; how that focus is situated in an organization’s procedural and communication channels; and how the distr......The attention-based view (ABV) of the firm highlights the role of decision makers’ attention in firm behavior. The ABV vastly improves our understanding of decision makers’ focus of attention; how that focus is situated in an organization’s procedural and communication channels; and how...... the distribution of the focus of attention among decision makers participating in those procedural and communication channels affects their understanding of a situation, their motivation to act, and, ultimately, their behavior. Significant progress has been made in recent years in refining and extending the ABV...

  12. Induction of Tetraploid Male Sterile Tagetes erecta by Colchicine Treatment and Its Application for Interspecific Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tagetes erecta is an annual multifunctional plant which can be cultivated under a broad range of climatic conditions. Polyploidization and interspecific hybridization are applied to facilitate breeding cultivars of T. erecta with improved ornamental qualities. Colchicine treatment to the germinating seeds was proved to be a useful tool for chromosome doubling of the male sterile two-type line ‘M525AB’, with the resulting frequency of polyploid seedlings ranging from 88.89% (following 0.05% w/v colchicine applied for a 3–6 h exposure period to a maximum of 100.00% (following 0.1% for 3–6 h, or 0.2% for 3 h. Morphological observation, stomatal size and density analysis, flow cytometric analysis and chromosome counting were conducted to identify the tetraploid plants. Distinctive morphological changes were observed in a notable proportion of polyploid plants. The colchicine-treated polyploid T. erecta plants showed dwarfed and more robust growth, thicker, larger and greener leaves, larger inflorescences and florets. The mutant plants identified through morphological observation all aligned as polyploid plants, thus morphological observation could be an effective method for the detection of polyploidy. The polyploid plants had significant larger stomata size over the abaxial leaf surface, whereas the density of stomata distribution was remarkably reduced. The survival rate of tetraploid cuttings (i.e. 38% was greatly reduced compared to that of diploid plants. The fertility of tetraploid plants was also decreased, as shown by cross-pollination yields. Interspecific hybridizations between colchicine-induced tetraploid plants of a male sterile T. erecta line and the naturally tetraploid fully fertile Tagetes patula species resulted in hybrid progeny. Most of these hybrids displayed the dwarfed growth stature and compact, larger-flower morphology which is the typical ideotype of herbaceous flowers. Thus, polyploidization may be employed

  13. Carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression during fruit development in novel interspecific inbred squash lines and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkanong, Korakot; Yang, Jing Hua; Zhang, Ming Fang

    2012-06-13

    Carotenoid levels and composition during squash fruit development were compared in Cucurbita moschata , Cucurbita maxima , and two lines of their interspecific inbred lines, namely, Maxchata1 and Maxchata2. Eight genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The two squash species and their interspecific inbred lines exhibited different qualitative and quantitative carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms. C. moschata had the lowest total carotenoid content and mainly accumulated α-carotene and β-carotene, as expected in a fruit with pale-orange flesh. Low carotenoid content in this species was probably due to the comparatively low expression of all genes investigated, especially PSY1 gene, compared to the other squashes. The predominant carotenoids in C. maxima were violaxanthin and lutein, which produced a corresponding yellow flesh color in mature fruit. The relationship between the expression of the CHYB and ZEP genes may result in almost equal concentrations of violaxanthin and lutein in C. maxima at fruit ripening. In contrast, their interspecific inbred lines principally accumulated lutein and β-carotene, leading to orange flesh color. The PSY1 gene exhibited higher expression levels at earlier stages of fruit development in the Maxchata lines, potentially triggering the increased carotenoid accumulation seen in these fruits. Likewise, the higher transcription level of CHYB gene observed in the two interspecific inbred lines might be correlated with high lutein in these hybrids. However, this study could not explain the observed β-carotene accumulation on the basis of gene expression.

  14. Evidence for the Emergence of New Rice Types of Interspecific Hybrid Origin in West African Farmers' Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, H.A.C.P.; Treuren, van R.; Struik, P.C.; Mokuwa, G.A.; Okry, F.; Teeken, B.W.E.; Richards, P.

    2009-01-01

    In West Africa two rice species (Oryza glaberrima Steud. and Oryza sativa L.) co-exist. Although originally it was thought that interspecific hybridization is impossible without biotechnological methods, progenies of hybridization appear to occur in farmer fields. AFLP analysis was used to assess

  15. Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Jennifer R; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L; Dunn, Barbara L; Chambers, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.

  16. Somatic embryogenesis from corolla tubes of interspecific amphiploids between cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and its wild species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somatic embryogenesis in vitro provides an efficient means of plant multiplication, facilitating sunflower improvement and germplasm innovation. In the present study, using interspecific amphiploids (2n=4x=68) between cultivated sunflower and wild perennial Helianthus species as explant donors, soma...

  17. Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Bellon

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade, has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.

  18. Introducing a New Breed of Wine Yeast: Interspecific Hybridisation between a Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Jennifer R.; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L.; Dunn, Barbara L.; Chambers, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment. PMID:23614011

  19. Karl Marx & Communication @ 200: Towards a Marxian Theory of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution takes Marx’s bicentenary as occasion for reflecting on foundations of a Marxian theory of communication. It aims to show that Marx provides a consistent account as foundation for a critical, dialectical theory of communication. The article first discusses the relationship of communication and materialism in order to ground a communicative materialism that avoids the dualist assumption that communication is a superstructure erected on a material base. Second, the paper provides an overview of how Marx’s approach helps us to understand the role of the means of communication and communicative labour in capitalism. Third, it conceives of ideology as a form of fetishised communication and fetishism as ideological communication. Given that communicative capitalism is a significant dimension of contemporary society, it is about time to develop a Marxian theory of communication.

  20. Reinventing Corporate Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Elizabeth L.; Trujillo, Nick

    1987-01-01

    Urges a "re-inventing" of corporate communications in today's organizations, and provides information about how corporations can change in new and positive ways during the current "information age." Discusses specific public relations and organizational communication concepts essential for a comprehensive understanding of…

  1. Abnormal spindle orientation during microsporogenesis in an interspecific Brachiaria (Gramineae hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Beatriz Mendes-Bonato

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of abnormal spindle orientation during microsporogenesis in an interspecific hybrid of the tropical grass Brachiaria. In the affected plant, prophase I was normal. In metaphase I, bivalents were regularly co-oriented but distantly positioned and spread over the equatorial plate. In anaphase I, chromosomes failed to converge into focused poles due to parallel spindle fibers. As a consequence, in telophase I, an elongated nucleus or several micronuclei were observed in each pole. In the second division, the behavior was the same, leading to polyads with several micronuclei. A total of 40% of meiotic products were affected. The use of this hybrid in production systems needing good-quality seeds is discussed.

  2. Embryogenic calli induced in interspecific (Elaeis guineensis x E. oleifera hybrid zygotic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina da Silva Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybridization between oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and caiaué (E. oleifera plants is directed to obtainprogenies presenting high yields like oil palm but with reduced shoot height and resistance to lethal yellowing like caiaué.Cloning F1, BC1 and BC2 progenies can make the replication of selection trials easier. The objective of this work was to inducesomatic embryogenesis in interspecific zygotic embryos collected 100 days after pollination. Three progenies were cultivatedin an induction medium developed for Tenera (E. guineensis tp. dura x pisifera embryos. The number of embryos bearing calliand germinating was recorded and submitted to the Z test. Calli were weighted and submitted to histological analysis.Progenies differed in the number of embryos presenting plumules and calli simultaneously. By the ninth month, the apices ofincompletely developed somatic embryos were observed protruding from the surfaces of nodular calli. Highly embryogenicand friable secondary calli producing globular somatic embryos were not observed.

  3. Erosion of interspecific reproductive barriers resulting from hatchery supplementation of rainbow trout sympatric with cutthroat trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docker, Margaret F; Dale, Angie; Heath, Daniel D

    2003-12-01

    The frequency of hybridization between cutthroat (Onchorhynchus clarki clarki) and rainbow (O. mykiss irideus) trout from coastal habitats in British Columbia, Canada, was examined in seven populations where the two species are sympatric with no history of rainbow trout stocking and compared with areas where native rainbow trout populations have been supplemented with hatchery fish (three populations). Four nuclear markers were used to identify each species and interspecific hybrids and one mitochondrial marker showed the direction of gene exchange between species. The frequency of hybrids was significantly higher (Fisher exact test, P < 0.001) in river systems where hatchery rainbow trout have been introduced (50.6% hybrids) than in populations where the two species naturally co-occur without supplementation (9.9% hybrids).

  4. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.

  5. Gamma irradiation of the interspecific hybrids Gossypium hirsutum L. x G. barbadense L. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoilova, A.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to combine the methods of hybridization and experimental mutagenesis and to widen the possibilities of interspecific hybridization for successful breeding work. Four hybrid combinations resulting from reciprocal crosses between the two species were studied. Seeds of long fibre F 1 plants from each combination were devided in four equal parts, three of which were irradiated with doses 15, 20 and 25 krad and one remained as control. The complex radiosensitivity evaluation of the four hybrid combinations investigated was based on the changes in the main biometrical indices comparing the control with 25 krad treatment and showed that the F 2 hybrids were either resistant or slightly sensitive to irradiation depending on the direction of crossing in respect to growth process, field germination and survival to the end of vegetation. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 14 refs

  6. Interspecific sex in grass smuts and the genetic diversity of their pheromone-receptor system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Kellner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The grass smuts comprise a speciose group of biotrophic plant parasites, so-called Ustilaginaceae, which are specifically adapted to hosts of sweet grasses, the Poaceae family. Mating takes a central role in their life cycle, as it initiates parasitism by a morphological and physiological transition from saprobic yeast cells to pathogenic filaments. As in other fungi, sexual identity is determined by specific genomic regions encoding allelic variants of a pheromone-receptor (PR system and heterodimerising transcription factors. Both operate in a biphasic mating process that starts with PR-triggered recognition, directed growth of conjugation hyphae, and plasmogamy of compatible mating partners. So far, studies on the PR system of grass smuts revealed diverse interspecific compatibility and mating type determination. However, many questions concerning the specificity and evolutionary origin of the PR system remain unanswered. Combining comparative genetics and biological approaches, we report on the specificity of the PR system and its genetic diversity in 10 species spanning about 100 million years of mating type evolution. We show that three highly syntenic PR alleles are prevalent among members of the Ustilaginaceae, favouring a triallelic determination as the plesiomorphic characteristic of this group. Furthermore, the analysis of PR loci revealed increased genetic diversity of single PR locus genes compared to genes of flanking regions. Performing interspecies sex tests, we detected a high potential for hybridisation that is directly linked to pheromone signalling as known from intraspecies sex. Although the PR system seems to be optimised for intraspecific compatibility, the observed functional plasticity of the PR system increases the potential for interspecific sex, which might allow the hybrid-based genesis of newly combined host specificities.

  7. Phenology and interspecific association of Forficula auricularia and Forficula pubescens in apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Lordan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The European earwig Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae has been widely studied as a key predator of pests in temperate regions, but its phenology and behavior may differ in warmer areas such as the Mediterranean. Here we assessed the phenology, aggregation, and interspecific association of F. auricularia and Forficula pubescens Gené, the only two species found consistently in both ground and canopy shelters in Mediterranean apple orchards. In addition to F. auricularia and F. pubescens, three other earwig species, namely Labidura riparia Pallas, Nala lividipes Dufour and Euborellia moesta Gené, were found occasionally. The mature stages of F. auricularia were observed mainly from May to November in tree shelters and immature ones from October to June in ground shelters. Adult individuals of F. pubescens were observed year-round and nymph instars were detected from April to June in ground as well as in tree shelters. The suitability of the current degree-days models for temperate regions was evaluated for the prediction of European earwig phenology in a Mediterranean climate. Regarding interspecific association, F. auricularia and F. pubescens co-occurred in canopies without apparent competition. This study provides useful weekly data about the phenology of the two earwig species throughout the year that can be used to detect the key periods during which to enhance their populations in pip fruit orchards or to control them in stone fruit crops. Furthermore, our results are of relevance for the development of new phenological models of earwigs in Mediterranean areas where nymphs hibernate, a feature that makes current models inaccurate.

  8. Host responses to interspecific brood parasitism: a by-product of adaptations to conspecific parasitism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samas, Peter; Hauber, Mark E; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Why have birds evolved the ability to reject eggs? Typically, foreign egg discrimination is interpreted as evidence that interspecific brood parasitism (IP) has selected for the host's ability to recognize and eliminate foreign eggs. Fewer studies explore the alternative hypothesis that rejection of interspecific eggs is a by-product of host defenses, evolved against conspecific parasitism (CP). We performed a large scale study with replication across taxa (two congeneric Turdus thrushes), space (populations), time (breeding seasons), and treatments (three types of experimental eggs), using a consistent design of egg rejection experiments (n = 1057 nests; including controls), in areas with potential IP either present (Europe; native populations) or absent (New Zealand; introduced populations). These comparisons benefited from the known length of allopatry (one and a half centuries), with no gene flow between native and introduced populations, which is rarely available in host-parasite systems. Hosts rejected CP at unusually high rates for passerines (up to 60%). CP rejection rates were higher in populations with higher conspecific breeding densities and no risks of IP, supporting the CP hypothesis. IP rejection rates did not covary geographically with IP risk, contradicting the IP hypothesis. High egg rejection rates were maintained in the relatively long-term isolation from IP despite non-trivial rejection costs and errors. These egg rejection patterns, combined with recent findings that these thrushes are currently unsuitable hosts of the obligate parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), are in agreement with the hypothesis that the rejection of IP is a by-product of fine-tuned egg discrimination evolved due to CP. Our study highlights the importance of considering both IP and CP simultaneously as potential drivers in the evolution of egg discrimination, and illustrates how populations introduced to novel ecological contexts can provide critical insights

  9. Spatial distribution and interspecific associations of tree species in a tropical seasonal rain forest of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Lan

    Full Text Available Studying the spatial pattern and interspecific associations of plant species may provide valuable insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain species coexistence. Point pattern analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of twenty dominant tree species, their interspecific spatial associations and changes across life stages in a 20-ha permanent plot of seasonal tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna, China, to test mechanisms maintaining species coexistence. Torus-translation tests were used to quantify positive or negative associations of the species to topographic habitats. The results showed: (1 fourteen of the twenty tree species were negatively (or positively associated with one or two of the topographic variables, which evidences that the niche contributes to the spatial pattern of these species. (2 Most saplings of the study species showed a significantly clumped distribution at small scales (0-10 m which was lost at larger scales (10-30 m. (3 The degree of spatial clumping deceases from saplings, to poles, to adults indicates that density-dependent mortality of the offspring is ubiquitous in species. (4 It is notable that a high number of positive small-scale interactions were found among the twenty species. For saplings, 42.6% of all combinations of species pairs showed positive associations at neighborhood scales up to five meters, but only 38.4% were negative. For poles and adults, positive associations at these distances still made up 45.5% and 29.5%, respectively. In conclusion, there is considerable evidence for the presence of positive interactions among the tree species, which suggests that species herd protection may occur in our plot. In addition, niche assembly and limited dispersal (likely contribute to the spatial patterns of tree species in the tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, China.

  10. Development of a set of SSR markers for genetic polymorphism detection and interspecific hybrid jute breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipnarayan Saha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corchorus capsularis (white jute and C. olitorius (dark jute are the two principal cultivated species of jute that produce natural bast fiber of commercial importance. We have identified 4509 simple sequence repeat (SSR loci from 34,163 unigene sequences of C. capsularis to develop a non-redundant set of 2079 flanking primer pairs. Among the SSRs, trinucleotide repeats were most frequent (60% followed by dinucleotide repeats (37.6%. Annotation of the SSR-containing unigenes revealed their putative functions in various biological and molecular processes, including responses to biotic and abiotic signals. Eighteen expressed gene-derived SSR (eSSR markers were successfully mapped to the existing single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP linkage map of jute, providing additional anchor points. Amplification of 72% of the 74 randomly selected primer pairs was successful in a panel of 24 jute accessions, comprising five and twelve accessions of C. capsularis and C. olitorius, respectively, and seven wild jute species. Forty-three primer pairs produced an average of 2.7 alleles and 58.1% polymorphism in a panel of 24 jute accessions. The mean PIC value was 0.34 but some markers showed PIC values higher than 0.5, suggesting that these markers can efficiently measure genetic diversity and serve for mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs in jute. A primer polymorphism survey with parents of a wide-hybridized population between a cultivated jute and its wild relative revealed their efficacy for interspecific hybrid identification. For ready accessibility of jute eSSR primers, we compiled all information in a user-friendly web database, JuteMarkerdb (http://jutemarkerdb.icar.gov.in/ for the first time in jute. This eSSR resource in jute is expected to be of use in characterization of germplasm, interspecific hybrid and variety identification, and marker-assisted breeding of superior-quality jute.

  11. Environmental determinism, and not interspecific competition, drives morphological variability in Australasian warblers (Acanthizidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navas, Vicente; Rodríguez-Rey, Marta; Marki, Petter Z; Christidis, Les

    2018-04-01

    Interspecific competition is thought to play a key role in determining the coexistence of closely related species within adaptive radiations. Competition for ecological resources can lead to different outcomes from character displacement to, ultimately, competitive exclusion. Accordingly, divergent natural selection should disfavor those species that are the most similar to their competitor in resource use, thereby increasing morphological disparity. Here, we examined ecomorphological variability within an Australo-Papuan bird radiation, the Acanthizidae, which include both allopatric and sympatric complexes. In addition, we investigated whether morphological similarities between species are related to environmental factors at fine scale (foraging niche) and/or large scale (climate). Contrary to that predicted by the competition hypothesis, we did not find a significant correlation between the morphological similarities found between species and their degree of range overlap. Comparative modeling based on both a priori and data-driven identification of selective regimes suggested that foraging niche is a poor predictor of morphological variability in acanthizids. By contrast, our results indicate that climatic conditions were an important factor in the formation of morphological variation. We found a significant negative correlation between species scores for PC1 (positively associated to tarsus length and tail length) and both temperature and precipitation, whereas PC2 (positively associated to bill length and wing length) correlated positively with precipitation. In addition, we found that species inhabiting the same region are closer to each other in morphospace than to species outside that region regardless of genus to which they belong or its foraging strategy. Our results indicate that the conservative body form of acanthizids is one that can work under a wide variety of environments (an all-purpose morphology), and the observed interspecific similarity is

  12. Phenology and interspecific association of Forficula auricularia and Forficula pubescens in apple orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lordan, J.; Alegre, S.; Moerkens, R.; Sarasúa, M.J.; Alins, G.

    2015-07-01

    The European earwig Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) has been widely studied as a key predator of pests in temperate regions, but its phenology and behavior may differ in warmer areas such as the Mediterranean. Here we assessed the phenology, aggregation, and interspecific association of F. auricularia and Forficula pubescens Gené, the only two species found consistently in both ground and canopy shelters in Mediterranean apple orchards. In addition to F. auricularia and F. pubescens, three other earwig species, namely Labidura riparia Pallas, Nala lividipes Dufour and Euborellia moesta Gené, were found occasionally. The mature stages of F. auricularia were observed mainly from May to November in tree shelters and immature ones from October to June in ground shelters. Adult individuals of F. pubescens were observed year-round and nymph instars were detected from April to June in ground as well as in tree shelters. The suitability of the current degree-days models for temperate regions was evaluated for the prediction of European earwig phenology in a Mediterranean climate. Regarding interspecific association, F. auricularia and F. pubescens co-occurred in canopies without apparent competition. This study provides useful weekly data about the phenology of the two earwig species throughout the year that can be used to detect the key periods during which to enhance their populations in pip fruit orchards or to control them in stone fruit crops. Furthermore, our results are of relevance for the development of new phenological models of earwigs in Mediterranean areas where nymphs hibernate, a feature that makes current models inaccurate. (Author)

  13. Interspecific variation in the tetradactyl manus of modern tapirs (Perissodactyla: Tapirus) exposed using geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Jamie A; Nauwelaerts, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    The distal forelimb (autopodium) of quadrupedal mammals is a key morphological unit involved in locomotion, body support, and interaction with the substrate. The manus of the tapir (Perissodactyla: Tapirus) is unique within modern perissodactyls, as it retains the plesiomorphic tetradactyl (four-toed) condition also exhibited by basal equids and rhinoceroses. Tapirs are known to exhibit anatomical mesaxonic symmetry in the manus, although interspecific differences and biomechanical mesaxony have yet to be rigorously tested. Here, we investigate variation in the manus morphology of four modern tapir species (Tapirus indicus, Tapirus bairdii, Tapirus pinchaque, and Tapirus terrestris) using a geometric morphometric approach. Autopodial bones were laser scanned to capture surface shape and morphology was quantified using 3D-landmark analysis. Landmarks were aligned using Generalised Procrustes Analysis, with discriminant function and partial least square analyses performed on aligned coordinate data to identify features that significantly separate tapir species. Overall, our results support the previously held hypothesis that T. indicus is morphologically separate from neotropical tapirs; however, previous conclusions regarding function from morphological differences are shown to require reassessment. We find evidence indicating that T. bairdii exhibits reduced reliance on the lateral fifth digit compared to other tapirs. Morphometric assessment of the metacarpophalangeal joint and the morphology of the distal facets of the lunate lend evidence toward high loading on the lateral digits of both the large T. indicus (large body mass) and the small, long limbed T. pinchaque (ground impact). Our results support other recent studies on T. pinchaque, suggesting subtle but important adaptations to a compliant but inclined habitat. In conclusion, we demonstrate further evidence that the modern tapir forelimb is a variable locomotor unit with a range of interspecific features

  14. Climate as possible reproductive barrier in Pinus radiata (D. Don interspecific hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannél Ham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, interspecific hybridisation with Pinus radiata D. Don had limited success. The effect of environmental conditions and position of pollination bags in the tree were investigated as possible hybridisation barriers. The study was conducted in a P. radiata seed orchard in the Southern Cape (South Africa. Field data were compared to the climatic conditions at natural and commercial provenances of seven Mesoamerican Pinus species identified as possible hybrid partners. In vitro pollen studies were used to confirm whether interspecific crosses with P. radiata might be feasible within predefined climatic parameters. The temperature ranges for both top and northern side of P. radiata pine trees in the seed orchard was similar to the natural distribution of P. radiata, P. elliottii Engelm. and P. taeda L. in the USA. Results suggested that pollen of P. elliottii and P. taeda might be more suited to result in the successful pollination of P. radiata than the other Mesoamerican pine species tested in this study.  Furthermore, the combination of minimum temperature and precipitation also showed a closer correlation to successful hybridisation with P. radiata for both P. elliotii and P. taeda. However, pollen tube elongation studies did not support these results, suggesting that mean temperature might not be the only determining factor of hybridisation success. Three circadian temperature models that mimic natural conditions were developed for Karatara and Sabie (Tweefontein, Witklip and Spitskop.  These models will be tested in future in vitro studies to further evaluate temperature fluctuations between day and night regimes as a possible reproductive barrier limiting hybridisation success between P. radiata and other Mesoamerican pine species.

  15. PROPAGATION OF KHAYA ANTHOTHECA: INTERSPECIFIC GRAFTING WITH SWIETENIA MACROPHYLLA AND AIR LAYERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joamir Barbosa Filho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla yields high-quality wood; however, its vulnerability to extinction coupled with challenges for its cultivation have brought attention to its replacement for alternative species such as the Khaya anthotheca. The species has been recently introduced to South America, with potential for the production of high-quality wood. However, limited background on breeding and efficient strategies for its vegetative propagation exist. Here, we achieved significant results with the application of cleft grafting and air layering for the propagation of K. anthotheca plants grown from seeds. First, we analyzed the compatibility of scions and rootstocks for intraspecific and interspecific cleft grafting combinations of K. anthotheca and S. macrophylla. Second, air layering was performed in K. anthotheca seedlings irrigated with three nutrient solution (100%, 50% and 25% of the initial concentration of nutrients combined with the application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA to evaluate adventitious rooting. From cleft grafting, we achieved an overall graft compatibility and survival of 48% after 200 days. However, the interspecific combination of S. macrophylla (scion and K. anthotheca (rootstock implicated in no compatibility, while the reciprocal resulted in 52% of compatibility. Through air layering, the irrigation with the nutrient solution with at least 50% of the nutrients concentration and with IBA (3.0 or 8.0 g.L-1 resulted in the best adventitious rooting. Overall, we recommend cleft grafting, except for the combination S. macrophylla(scion and K. anthotheca (rootstock, with no compatibility. Air layering might also be useful for the propagation of K. anthotheca genotypes in breeding programs.

  16. Interspecific differences between D. pulex and D. magna in tolerance to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J Kuster

    Full Text Available It is known that cyanobacteria negatively affect herbivores due to their production of toxins such as protease inhibitors. In the present study we investigated potential interspecific differences between two major herbivores, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex, in terms of their tolerance to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors. Seven clones each of D. magna and of D. pulex were isolated from different habitats in Europe and North America. To test for interspecific differences in the daphnids' tolerance to cyanobacteria, their somatic and population growth rates were determined for each D. magna and D. pulex clone after exposure to varying concentrations of two Microcystis aeruginosa strains. The M. aeruginosa strains NIVA and PCC(- contained either chymotrypsin or trypsin inhibitors, but no microcystins. Mean somatic and population growth rates on a diet with 20% NIVA were significantly more reduced in D. pulex than in D. magna. On a diet with 10% PCC(-, the population growth of D. pulex was significantly more reduced than that of D. magna. This indicates that D. magna is more tolerant to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors than D. pulex. The reduction of growth rates was possibly caused by an interference of cyanobacterial inhibitors with proteases in the gut of Daphnia, as many other conceivable factors, which might have been able to explain the reduced growth, could be excluded as causal factors. Protease assays revealed that the sensitivities of chymotrypsins and trypsins to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors did not differ between D. magna and D. pulex. However, D. magna exhibited a 2.3-fold higher specific chymotrypsin activity than D. pulex, which explains the observed higher tolerance to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors of D. magna. The present study suggests that D. magna may control the development of cyanobacterial blooms more efficiently than D. pulex due to differences in their tolerance to cyanobacteria with protease

  17. Interspecific reciprocity explains mobbing behaviour of the breeding chaffinches, Fringilla coelebs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Krama, Tatjana

    2002-01-01

    When prey animals discover a predator close by, they mob it while uttering characteristic sounds that attract other prey individuals to the vicinity. Mobbing causes a predator to vacate its immediate foraging area, which gives an opportunity for prey individuals to continue their interrupted daily activity. Besides the increased benefits, mobbing behaviour also has its costs owing to injuries or death. The initiator of mobbing may be at increased risk of predation by attracting the predator's attention, especially if not joined by other neighbouring prey individuals. Communities of breeding birds have always been considered as temporal aggregations. Since an altruist could not prevent cheaters from exploiting its altruism in an anonymous community, this excluded any possibility of explaining mobbing behaviour in terms of reciprocal altruism. However, sedentary birds may have become acquainted since the previous non-breeding season. Migrant birds, forming anonymous communities at the beginning of the breeding season, may also develop closer social ties during the course of the breeding season. We tested whether a male chaffinch, a migrant bird, would initiate active harassment of a predator both at the beginning of the breeding season and a week later when it has become a member of a non-anonymous multi-species aggregation of sedentary birds. We expected that male chaffinches would be less likely to initiate a mob at the beginning of the breeding season when part of an anonymous multi-species aggregation of migratory birds. However, their mobbing activity should increase as the breeding season advances. Our results support these predictions. Cooperation among individuals belonging to different species in driving the predator away may be explained as interspecific reciprocity based on interspecific recognition and temporal stability of the breeding communities. PMID:12495502

  18. The mitochondrial genome impacts respiration but not fermentation in interspecific Saccharomyces hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Albertin

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has high rate of nucleotide substitution leading to different mitochondrial haplotypes called mitotypes. However, the impact of mitochondrial genetic variant on phenotypic variation has been poorly considered in microorganisms because mtDNA encodes very few genes compared to nuclear DNA, and also because mitochondrial inheritance is not uniparental. Here we propose original material to unravel mitotype impact on phenotype: we produced interspecific hybrids between S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum species, using fully homozygous diploid parental strains. For two different interspecific crosses involving different parental strains, we recovered 10 independent hybrids per cross, and allowed mtDNA fixation after around 80 generations. We developed PCR-based markers for the rapid discrimination of S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum mitochondrial DNA. For both crosses, we were able to isolate fully isogenic hybrids at the nuclear level, yet possessing either S. cerevisiae mtDNA (Sc-mtDNA or S. uvarum mtDNA (Su-mtDNA. Under fermentative conditions, the mitotype has no phenotypic impact on fermentation kinetics and products, which was expected since mtDNA are not necessary for fermentative metabolism. Alternatively, under respiratory conditions, hybrids with Sc-mtDNA have higher population growth performance, associated with higher respiratory rate. Indeed, far from the hypothesis that mtDNA variation is neutral, our work shows that mitochondrial polymorphism can have a strong impact on fitness components and hence on the evolutionary fate of the yeast populations. We hypothesize that under fermentative conditions, hybrids may fix stochastically one or the other mt-DNA, while respiratory environments may increase the probability to fix Sc-mtDNA.

  19. Interspecific and locational differences in metal levels in edible fish tissue from Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-07-06

    Metal levels in fish have been extensively studied, but little data currently exists for the Middle East. We examined the levels of metals and metalloids (aluminum, arsenic, copper, manganese, selenium, zinc, and mercury) in the flesh of 13 fish species collected from three fishing sites and a local fish market in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. We tested the following null hypotheses: (1) there are no interspecific differences in metal levels, (2) there are no differences in metal levels in fishes between market and fishing sites, (3) there are no size-related differences in metal levels, and (4) there are no differences in selenium:mercury molar ratio among different fish species. There were significant interspecific differences in concentrations for all metals. There was an order of magnitude difference in the levels of aluminum, arsenic, mercury, manganese, and selenium, indicating wide variation in potential effects on the fish themselves and on their predators. Fishes from Area II, close to a large commercial port, had the highest levels of arsenic, mercury, and selenium, followed by market fishes. Mercury was positively correlated with body size in 6 of the 13 fish species examined. Mercury was correlated positively with arsenic and selenium, but negatively with aluminum, cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc. Selenium:mercury molar ratios varied significantly among species, with Carangoides bajad, Cephalopholis argus, Variola louti, and Ephinephelus tauvina having ratios below 10:1. These findings can be used in risk assessments, design of mercury reduction plans, development of fish advisories to protect public health, and future management decision-making.

  20. Unified communications

    OpenAIRE

    Kravos, Urban

    2011-01-01

    In the modern business world, communication are becoming more and more complex. As a solution to this problem unified communications occurred. Using a single communication approach unified communications are the integration of various communication technologies (eg, telephony, unified messaging, audio, video and web conferencing and collaboration tools). Unified Messaging, which represents only part of the unified communications means the integration of different non real time communication t...

  1. Comparative intra-and inter-specific sexual organ reciprocity in four distylous Primula species in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Dong; Ren, Zong-Xin; Zhou, Wei; Bernhardt, Peter; Zhao, Yan-Hui; Wu, Zhi-Kun; Li, De-Zhu; Wang, Hong

    2018-04-23

    Distyly is a mechanism promoting cross-pollination within a balanced polymorphism. Numerous studies show that the degree of inter-morph sexual organ reciprocity (SOR) within species relates to its pollen-mediated gene flow. Similarly, a lower inter-specific SOR should promote inter-specific isolation when congeners are sympatric, co-blooming, and share pollinators. In this comparative study, we address the significance of SOR at both intra- and inter-specific levels. Seventeen allopatric and eight sympatric populations representing four Primula species (P. anisodora, P. beesiana, P. bulleyana and P. poissonii) native to the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains were measured for eight floral traits in both long- and short-styled morphs. GLMM and spatial overlap methods were used to compare intra- and inter-specific SOR. While floral morphology differed among four Primula species. SOR within species was generally higher than between species, but species pairs P. poissonii / P. anisodora and P. beesiana / P. bulleyana, the SOR was high at both intra- and inter-specific levels. We didn't detect a significant variation in intra-specific SOR or inter-specific SOR when compare allopatric vs. sympatric populations for all species studied. As intra-specific SOR increased, disassortative mating may be promoted. As inter-specific SOR decreased, inter-specific isolation between co-flowering species pairs also may increase. Hybridization between congeners occurred when inter-specific SOR increased in sympatric populations was confirmed in two species pairs, P. poissonii / P. anisodora and P. beesiana / P. bulleyana. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Semiochemical -Based Communication in interspecific interactions between IPS PINI and Pityogenes Knecteli (Swaine) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Lodgepole Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; John H. Borden

    1994-01-01

    The pine engraver, Ips pini Say, and Pityogenes knechteli Swaine often co-exist in lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelmann. We tested the hypotheses that P. knechteli produces an attractive pheromone and that the attraction of P. knechteli...

  3. Understanding intercellular communication in the brain: Identified ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The transmission of information between nerve cells in the brain takes place at specialized sites of ... period of 10 days, and the giant chromosomes of larval salivary glands. ... extensive use of Drosophila in order to assay the effects of the genetic changes in ... the muscle responds only to a small percentage of the stimuli.

  4. Trust and understanding: vital in nuclear communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    Rather than attempting to defend itself against the anti-nuclear lobby, the author argues that the nuclear industry can only start to regain public trust when it declares honestly that it has the potential for great harm, as well as good. The general public is generally hostile to and distrustful of many large industries including the oil, gas, chemical and automobile industries, yet their demise is not demanded. The author argues that the nuclear industry needs to become perceived as a trustworthy institution which can be relied upon to prevent its most dangerous potential from being realised, by individual companies highlighting their own corporate excellence and identity. (U.K.)

  5. Formal system of communication and understanding. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zsuzsanna, M

    1982-01-01

    For pt.I see IBID., no.5, p.252-8 (1982). In this article G. Pask's (1975) formal theory of dialogues and talk is summarized. Part II describes the talk-environment and modelling. The conscious systems and machine-intelligence are mainly dealt with. Finally a couple of cases with Pask's theory implemented are looked at. 7 references.

  6. Interviewing to Understand Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…

  7. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    communicative affordances of mobile devices in order to understand how people choose between them for different purposes. It is argued that mobile communication makes intermediality especially central, as the choice of medium is detached from the location of stationary media and begins to follow the user across......The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...

  8. INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena ALBU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication is involved in all social life acts, being the constituent factor of creation and of cultural processes. Cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue are intensely discussed topics in today's society which is marked by globalization. Cultural differences are the core subject for studies addressing intercultural communication. Good knowledge of other cultures is a necessary step to get to recognize the nature of these differences and to relate to others through attitudes of understanding and tolerance which are premises for genuine intercultural dialogue, especially in the tourism industry. While communication is an act of human relationships, culture is the motive of this act. In tourism, quality of communication is related to the level of the culture involved and to the degree of improvement of the means of which is done. Intercultural communication experiences help tourists to know and to appreciate other cultures, but also help them to a better understanding of their own culture.

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF BULBOUS FORMS OF INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS OF ONION ALLIUM CEPA x A. FISTULOSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Romanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the way of increasing of genetic variability of onion (Allium cepa L. is the interspecific hybridization. Development of onion interspecific hybrids consists of the study of initial breeding forms, its heterogeneity, ways of crossing and pollination, overcoming of outbreeding problem, sterility and weak fertility of the hybrids of first and next generations, specifics of hybrid’s seeds development, identification and selection of recombinant forms with breeding valuable traits. The stages of development of the bulbous forms of interspecific hybrids of onion are presented in the article. The study was conducted in the “All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of vegetable breeding and seed production” of the Moscow region. The plants of inbreed progenies I1-5 from BC1-2F5 of bulb forms of interspecific hybrids A. cepa х A. Fistulosum as well as the parental forms were analyzed. The breeding and phytopathological assessment of recombinant forms of onion interspecific hybrids was done for qualitative and quantitative traits and for resistance to downy mildew. Using the individual selection for quality and quantity traits, it was found that the forms, whose traits were not undergo the inbreeding depression because of the higher homozygosity can be used for development of linear initial material for breeding for heterosis. The forms with the inbreeding depression have to be used for crossbreeding. Along with increasing of homozygosity, the new modified genotypes appear because of potential variability and genes recombination. It allows to make the purposive selection of recombinant forms for valuable traits. The selected onion forms from inbreed progenies of I1-5 from BC1-2F5 which have bulbs of flat and well-rounded-flat shape are characterized by high resistance to downy mildew and bulbs with good storage ability. The selection process of the recombinant forms from progenies of onion interspecific hybrids obtained based on repeated

  10. Communications article

    KAUST Repository

    Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Seamless, covert communications using a communications system integrated or incorporated within an article of clothing is described. In one embodiment, the communications system is integrated or incorporated into a shoe insole and includes a haptic

  11. Pseudo-communication vs Quasi-communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Константиновна Черничкина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of such specific forms of human interaction as quasi- and pseudo-communication. The authors specify the terms which sometimes are used interchangeably. The aim of the conducted research is to find out and demonstrate existing differences and similarities of these communicative phenomena on the basis of theoretical and empirical analysis of the research material in the Russian and English languages. The authors describe communicative features of these phenomena and consider the reasons for such forms of communication and their increased use at present. The research material is represented fiction extracts, film scripts, jokes, print media, a collection of oral speech records both in Russian and English. The authors make use of the following research methods: definitional analysis (to define the terminology of the research, the method of linguistic observation and introspection (to select the communicative situations, the descriptive-analytical method and the method of comparative analysis (to identify similarities and differences of the target phenomena, and the conversational analysis method (to view productivity and effectiveness of a dialogue, etc. The classification of possible forms of their existence in different discourses is suggested. The authors assume that both pseudo- and quasi-communication are characterized as fictitious forms of human interaction with some noticeable violation of the basic communicative model. Pseudo-communication suffers from the discrepancy of the meaning of a coded and decoded message. The authors put forward the main parameters of scientific classification of it as follows: adequate understanding, intentionality, and the stage of communicative action where the failure takes place. At the same time they stress the necessity to distinguish the cases of pseudo talks from phatic and indirect communication. Quasi-communcation is marked by the lack of a real partner and hence

  12. Do Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs use vibrational communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuche, Julien; Thiéry, Denis; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2011-07-01

    Small Auchenorrhyncha use substrate-borne vibrations to communicate. Although this behaviour is well known in adult leafhoppers, so far no studies have been published on nymphs. Here we checked the occurrence of vibrational communication in Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs as a possible explanation of their aggregative distributions on host plants. We studied possible vibratory emissions of isolated and grouped nymphs, as well as their behavioural responses to vibration stimuli that simulated presence of conspecifics, to disturbance noise, white noise and predator spiders. None of our synthetic stimuli or pre-recorded substrate vibrations from nymphs elicited specific vibration responses and only those due to grooming or mechanical contacts of the insect with the leaf were recorded. Thus, S. titanus nymphs showed to not use species-specific vibrations neither for intra- nor interspecific communication and also did not produce alarm vibrations when facing potential predators. We conclude that their aggregative behaviour is independent from a vibrational communication.

  13. Designing for Networked Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Designing for Networked Communications: Strategies and Development explains how to plan, use, and understand the products and the dynamic social processes and tasks some of the most vital innovations in the knowledge society depend upon– social as well as technological. Focusing on various forms...... of design, implementation and integration of computer mediated communication, this book bridges the academic fields of computer science and communication studies. Designing for Networked Communications: Strategies and Development uses an interdisciplinary approach, and presents results from recent...... and important research in a variety of forms for networked communications. A constructive and critical view of the interplay between the new electronic and the more conventional modes of communication are utilized, while studies of organizational work practices demonstrate that the use of new technologies...

  14. Emergency Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Resources » Emergency Communication Emergency Communication Stay informed of emergencies, weather delays, closures, other alerts. Find links to

  15. Tactile Communications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Communication with the crew is vital and must be maintained regardless of environmental conditions and crew activity. Current spacecraft communication systems depend...

  16. Communications article

    KAUST Repository

    Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-07-20

    Seamless, covert communications using a communications system integrated or incorporated within an article of clothing is described. In one embodiment, the communications system is integrated or incorporated into a shoe insole and includes a haptic feedback mechanism, a communications module, a flexible pressure sensor, and a battery. The communications module includes a wireless communications module for wireless communications, a wired interface for wired communications, a microcontroller, and a battery charge controller. The flexible pressure sensor can be actuated by an individual\\'s toe, for example, and communication between two communications nodes can be achieved using coded signals sent by individuals using a combination of long and short presses on the pressure sensor. In response to the presses, wireless communications modules can transmit and receive coded signals based on the presses.

  17. Interspecific cross of the Bactrocera dorsalis Complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): How did it happen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee, Suk-Ling; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2000-01-01

    consumption, males of B. papayae and B. carambolae produce a common sex pheromonal component, coniferyl alcohol, CF (Nishida et al. 1988a, Nishida et al. 1988b, Tan and Nishida 1996). Therefore, is CF the sole factor that causes the interspecific attraction before copulation can take place? Secondly, will the acquisition of ME enhance the interspecific mating competitiveness? Lastly, do the females (of these species) show preference for their conspecific males or any males that have ingested ME in their diet and vice versa? The objective of the current investigation was to shed some light on these questions

  18. Heavy metals in fish from the Aleutians: Interspecific and locational differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Donio, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium in edible tissue of seven species of marine fish collected from several Aleutian islands (in 2004) to determine: (1) interspecific differences, (2) locational differences (among Aleutian Islands), (3) size-related differences in any metal levels within a species, and (4) potential risk to the fish or to predators on the fish, including humans. We also compared metals levels to those of three other fish species previously examined in detail, as well as examining metals in the edible tissue of octopus (Octopus dofleini). Octopus did not have the highest levels of any metal. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels among the fish species, although the differences were less than an order of magnitude, except for arsenic (mean of 19,500 ppb in Flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon). Significant intraisland variation occurred among the four sites on Amchitka, but there was not a consistent pattern. There were significant interisland differences for some metals and species. Mercury levels increased significantly with size for several species; lead increased significantly for only one fish species; and cadmium and selenium decreased significantly with size for halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). The Alaskan Department of Health and Social Services supports unrestricted consumption of most Alaskan fish species for all people, including pregnant women. Most mean metal concentrations were well below the levels known to adversely affect the fish themselves, or predators that consume them (including humans), except for mercury in three fish species (mean levels just below 0.3 ppm), and arsenic in two fish species. However, even at low mercury levels, people who consume fish almost daily will exceed guideline values from the Centers for Disease Control and the Environmental Protection Agency. - Highlights: • Cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium

  19. Heavy metals in fish from the Aleutians: Interspecific and locational differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Donio, Mark [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium in edible tissue of seven species of marine fish collected from several Aleutian islands (in 2004) to determine: (1) interspecific differences, (2) locational differences (among Aleutian Islands), (3) size-related differences in any metal levels within a species, and (4) potential risk to the fish or to predators on the fish, including humans. We also compared metals levels to those of three other fish species previously examined in detail, as well as examining metals in the edible tissue of octopus (Octopus dofleini). Octopus did not have the highest levels of any metal. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels among the fish species, although the differences were less than an order of magnitude, except for arsenic (mean of 19,500 ppb in Flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon). Significant intraisland variation occurred among the four sites on Amchitka, but there was not a consistent pattern. There were significant interisland differences for some metals and species. Mercury levels increased significantly with size for several species; lead increased significantly for only one fish species; and cadmium and selenium decreased significantly with size for halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). The Alaskan Department of Health and Social Services supports unrestricted consumption of most Alaskan fish species for all people, including pregnant women. Most mean metal concentrations were well below the levels known to adversely affect the fish themselves, or predators that consume them (including humans), except for mercury in three fish species (mean levels just below 0.3 ppm), and arsenic in two fish species. However, even at low mercury levels, people who consume fish almost daily will exceed guideline values from the Centers for Disease Control and the Environmental Protection Agency. - Highlights: • Cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium

  20. Parrotfish grazing ability: interspecific differences in relation to jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae on an Okinawan coral reef

    OpenAIRE

    Nanami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Parrotfishes (family Labridae: Scarini) are regarded to have important roles for maintaining the ecosystem balance in coral reefs due to their removal of organic matter and calcic substrates by grazing. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the interspecific differences in grazing ability of five parrotfish species (Chlorurus sordidus, C. bowersi, Scarus rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni) in relation to interspecific differences in jaw-lever mechanics and the relative weight of th...

  1. Interspecific competition changes photosynthetic and oxidative stress response of barley and barnyard grass to elevated CO2 and temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Januskaitiene; Jūratė Žaltauskaitė; Austra Dikšaitytė; Gintarė Sujetovienė; Diana Miškelytė; Giedrė Kacienė; Sandra Sakalauskienė; Jurga Miliauskienė; Romualdas Juknys

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the investigation of competition interaction between C3 crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and C4 weed barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.) at 2 times higher than ambient [CO2] and +4 0C higher ambient temperature climate conditions. It was hypothesized that interspecific competition will change the response of the investigated plants to increased [CO2] and temperature. The obtained results showed that in the current climate conditions, a higher biomass and photosynth...

  2. Niche filtering, not interspecific resource competition, explains the co-occurrence of butterfly species across the Japanese archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Sato, Yasuhiro; Nakadai, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Koya

    2017-01-01

    The relevance of interspecific resource competition in the context of community assembly by herbivorous insects is a well-known topic in ecology. Most previous studies focused on local species assemblies, that shared host plants. Few studies evaluated species pairs within a single taxon when investigating the effects of host plant sharing at the regional scale. Herein, we explore the effect of plant sharing on the geographical co-occurrence patterns of 229 butterflies distributed across the J...

  3. Variation in foraging behavior and body mass in broods of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica): Evidence for interspecific density dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, J.A.; Laing, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    Broods of geese spend time feeding according to availability and quality of food plants, subject to inherent foraging and digestive constraints. We studied behavioral patterns of broods of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, and examined how feeding and alert behavior varied in relation to habitat and goose density. During 1994–1996, time spent feeding by Emperor Goose goslings and adult females was positively related to multispecies goose densities near observation blinds, and not to just Emperor Goose density. Similarly, body mass of Emperor Goose goslings was more strongly related (negatively) to multispecies goose densities than intraspecific densities. A grazing experiment in 1995 indicated that most above ground primary production by Carex subspathacea, a preferred food plant, was consumed by grazing geese. Those results demonstrate that interspecific competition for food occurred, with greatest support for goslings whose behavioral repertoire is limited primarily to feeding, digesting, and resting. Although the more abundant Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) differed from Emperor Geese in their preferred use of habitats during brooding rearing (Schmutz 2001), the two species occurred in equal abundance in habitats preferred by Emperor Goose broods. Thus, Cackling Canada Geese were a numerically significant competitor with Emperor Geese. Comparing these results to an earlier study, time spent feeding by goslings, adult females, and adult males were greater during 1993–1996 than during 1985–1986. During the interval between those studies, densities of Cackling Canada Geese increased two to three times whereas Emperor Goose numbers remained approximately stable, which implies that interspecific competition affected foraging behavior over a long time period. These density-dependent changes in foraging behavior and body mass indicate that interspecific competition affects nutrient acquisition and gosling

  4. Importance of intra- and interspecific plant interactions for the phytomanagement of semiarid mine tailings using the tree species Pinus halepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Oró, Duli; Parraga-Aguado, Isabel; Querejeta, Jose Ignacio; Conesa, Héctor M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of plant interactions (intra- and interspecific) on the growth and metal(loid) uptake of the tree species Pinus halepensis to determine its suitability for the phytomanagement of semiarid mine tailings. The pioneer tailings colonizer grass Piptatherum miliaceum was selected for assessing interspecific interactions. The experiment was conducted following a pot experimental design employing mine tailings soil. Pots containing single individuals of P. halepensis or P. miliaceum and pots containing combinations with pines (two pines per pot, or one pine and one grass per pot) were used. The analyses included the determination of plant biomass, foliar element status and stable isotope composition, metal(loid) uptake and its translocation to different plant organs. P. halepensis strongly favoured the growth of P. miliaceum by increasing 9-fold the latter's biomass and alleviating its P limitation. In this interspecific treatment P. halepensis showed a strong N limitation (N/P = 7), which negatively affected its growth, (to about half the biomass of that obtained for the other treatments) and exhibited a significant increase in some metals translocation (especially Cd) into aerial parts. Interestingly, P. miliaceum showed a decrease in the root to leaves translocation factor for most of metals when growing together with pines. The effects of the intraespecific combination on growth and metal uptake in P. halepensis were less relevant than those obtained for the interspecific one. Further research should be focused on testing the behaviour of plant co-cultures under the addition of N or P amendments which could alleviate the negative effects of plant competition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interspecific interactions between Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora along a tidal gradient in the Dongtan wetland, Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yuan

    Full Text Available The invasive species Spartina alterniora Loisel was introduced to the eastern coast of China in the 1970s and 1980s for the purposes of land reclamation and the prevention of soil erosion. The resulting interspecific competition had an important influence on the distribution of native vegetation, which makes studying the patterns and mechanisms of the interactions between Spartina alterniora Loisel and the native species Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin ex Steud in this region very important. There have been some researches on the interspecific interactions between P. australis and S. alterniora in the Dongtan wetland of Chongming, east China, most of which has focused on the comparison of their physiological characteristics. In this paper, we conducted a neighbor removal experiment along a tidal gradient to evaluate the relative competitive abilities of the two species by calculating their relative neighbor effect (RNE index. We also looked at the influence of environmental stress and disturbance on the competitive abilities of the two species by comparing interaction strength (I among different tidal zones both for P. australis and S. alterniora. Finally, we measured physiological characteristics of the two species to assess the physiological mechanisms behind their different competitive abilities. Both negative and positive interactions were found between P. australis and S. alterniora along the environmental gradient. When the direction of the competitive intensity index for P. australis and S. alterniora was consistent, the competitive or facilitative effect of S. alterniora on P. australis was stronger than that of P. australis on S. alterniora. The interspecific interactions of P. australis and S. alterniora varied with environmental conditions, as well as with the method used, to measure interspecific interactions.

  6. Interspecific competition changes photosynthetic and oxidative stress response of barley and barnyard grass to elevated CO2 and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Januskaitiene

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the investigation of competition interaction between C3 crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and C4 weed barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L. at 2 times higher than ambient [CO2] and +4 0C higher ambient temperature climate conditions. It was hypothesized that interspecific competition will change the response of the investigated plants to increased [CO2] and temperature. The obtained results showed that in the current climate conditions, a higher biomass and photosynthetic rate and a lower antioxidant activity were detected for barley grown under interspecific competition effect. While in the warmed climate and under competition conditions opposite results were detected: a higher water use efficiency, a higher photosynthetic performance, a lower dissipated energy flux and a lower antioxidant enzymes activity were detected for barnyard grass plants. This study highlights that in the future climate conditions, barnyard grass will become more efficient in performance of the photosynthetic apparatus and it will suffer from lower oxidative stress caused by interspecific competition as compared to barley.

  7. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica: Large-scale effects of interspecific densities and food availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, B.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Lindberg, M.S.; Ely, Craig R.; Eldridge, W.D.; Broerman, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica at three locations across the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, during 1990-2004 to investigate whether large-scale variation in body mass was related to interspecific competition for food. From 1990 to 2004, densities of Cackling Geese Branta hutchinsii minima more than doubled and were c. 2-5?? greater than densities of Emperor Geese, which were relatively constant over time. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese was strongly related (negatively) to interspecific densities of geese (combined density of Cackling and Emperor Geese) and positively related to measures of food availability (grazing lawn extent and net above-ground primary productivity (NAPP)). Grazing by geese resulted in consumption of ??? 90% of the NAPP that occurred in grazing lawns during the brood-rearing period, suggesting that density-dependent interspecific competition was from exploitation of common food resources. Efforts to increase the population size of Emperor Geese would benefit from considering competitive interactions among goose species and with forage plants. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  8. Assessment of interspecific interactions in plant communities: an illustration from the cold desert saltbush grasslands of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Carl D.; Emlen, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Interspecific interactions influence both the productivity and composition of plant communities. Here, we propose new field procedures and analytical approaches for assessing interspecific interactions in nature and apply these procedures to the salt desert shrub grasslands of western Utah. Data were collected from two grazing treatments over a period of 2 years. The proposed equations were fairly consistent across both treatments and years. In addition to illustrating how to assess interspecific interactions within a community, we also develop a new approach for projecting the community composition as a result of some alteration, i.e. increase or decrease in the abundance of one or more species. Results demonstrate competition both within and between plant life-form groups. While introduced annuals were found to depress profoundly the likelihood of perennial plants replacing themselves, perennials had little influence on annuals. Thus, as native perennials die, they are more likely to be replaced by perennials than for the reverse to occur. Our results suggest that unless conditions change, these communities will become increasingly dominated by introduced annuals.

  9. Interspecific variation in the phenology of advertisement calling in a temperate Australian frog community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Geoffrey W; Canessa, Stefano; Parris, Kirsten M

    2015-09-01

    Spatial and temporal partitioning of resources underlies the coexistence of species with similar niches. In communities of frogs and toads, the phenology of advertisement calling provides insights into temporal partitioning of reproductive effort and its implications for community dynamics. This study assessed the phenology of advertisement calling in an anuran community from Melbourne, in southern Australia. We collated data from 1432 surveys of 253 sites and used logistic regression to quantify seasonality in the nightly probability of calling and the influence of meteorological variables on this probability for six species of frogs. We found limited overlap in the predicted seasonal peaks of calling among these species. Those shown to have overlapping calling peaks are unlikely to be in direct competition, due to differences in larval ecology (Crinia signifera and Litoria ewingii) or differences in calling behavior and acoustics (Limnodynastes dumerilii and Litoria raniformis). In contrast, closely related and ecologically similar species (Crinia signfera and Crinia parinsignifera;Litoria ewingii and Litoria verreauxii) appear to have staggered seasonal peaks of calling. In combination with interspecific variation in the meteorological correlates of calling, these results may be indicative of temporal partitioning of reproductive activity to facilitate coexistence, as has been reported for tropical and temperate anurans from other parts of the globe.

  10. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae, Poales and their interspecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28 and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14 can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21. This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their progenitors. Panicles were prepared according to the conventional protocol for meiotic studies and Alexander’s stain was used for assessing pollen viability. Pearl millet accessions presented regular meiosis with seven bivalents and high pollen viability. For elephant grass, 14 bivalents in diakinesis and metaphase I were observed. The BAG 63 elephant grass accession, derived from tissue culture, presented a high frequency of meiotic abnormalities. The three hybrid accessions presented a high frequency of abnormalities characterized by irregular chromosomal segregation which resulted in the formation of sterile pollen.

  11. Newly generated interspecific wine yeast hybrids introduce flavour and aroma diversity to wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Jennifer R; Eglinton, Jeffery M; Siebert, Tracey E; Pollnitz, Alan P; Rose, Louisa; de Barros Lopes, Miguel; Chambers, Paul J

    2011-08-01

    Increasingly, winemakers are looking for ways to introduce aroma and flavour diversity to their wines as a means of improving style and increasing product differentiation. While currently available commercial yeast strains produce consistently sound fermentations, there are indications that sensory complexity and improved palate structure are obtained when other species of yeast are active during fermentation. In this study, we explore a strategy to increase the impact of non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae inputs without the risks associated with spontaneous fermentations, through generating interspecific hybrids between a S. cerevisiae wine strain and a second species. For our experiments, we used rare mating to produce hybrids between S. cerevisiae and other closely related yeast of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex. These hybrid yeast strains display desirable properties of both parents and produce wines with concentrations of aromatic fermentation products that are different to what is found in wine made using the commercial wine yeast parent. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the introduction of genetic material from a non-S. cerevisiae parent into a wine yeast background can impact favourably on the wine flavour and aroma profile of a commercial S. cerevisiae wine yeast.

  12. Identification of interspecific hybrids between loquat (eriobotrya japonica lindl.) and bengal loquat (e. bengalensis hook.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Deng, Q.; Zeng, J.; Zhang, J.

    2017-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is an important subtropical fruit; however, loquat fruitlets are vulnerable to cold injury in winter, which significantly decreases loquat yield in most production regions. In the present study, two loquat cultivars ('Dawuxing' and '4-1-5') and one wild loquat (E. bengalensis Hook., Bengal loquat), were used for interspecific hybridization to produce hybrids with characteristics of spring blooming to avoid cold injury of fruitlets. Hybrid seedlings were derived from direct cross (loquat as female parent and Bengal loquat as male parent) and reciprocal cross. The authenticity of 47 hybrid seedlings was confirmed using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers; and leaf morphological characteristics of the hybrid offspring and parents were preliminarily studied and compared. The results suggested that 23 true direct cross hybrids and 12 true reciprocal cross hybrids were obtained, with hybrid authenticity rates of 100 and 50.0%, respectively. Thus, a novel method of distant hybridization for loquat breeding was developed, and with their various genetic and morphological characteristics these hybrids could be valuable germplasms for horticultural use. (author)

  13. Evaluation of wheat genotypes originated from interspecific crossing and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, C.E.O.; Ferreira Filho, A.W.P.; Freitas, J.G.; Tulmann Neto, A.; Pettinelli Junior, A.; Castro, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty three inbred HEXAPLOID wheat lines were evaluated. They were originated by selections made in populations submitted to gamma radiation (27.5 krad), in the F 4 generation, from the interspecific hybrid between BH-1146 (triticum aestivum L.) and Anhinga S x Winged S (Triticum durum L.) and the cultivars BH-1146 and Yavaros S (T. durum L.) Nine trials were carried out with irrigation and in upland conditions. Several agronomic characteristics were assessed. Under laboratory conditions the genotypes were evaluated with respect to Al toxicity using nutrient solutions. Semi dwarf line 11 and 19, with moderate lodging resistance, medium cycle from emergence to flowering, tolerance to aluminum toxicity, were the most productive. Seven lines showed resistance to the causal agent of mildew, but all genotypes were susceptible to the causal agents of leaf spots. Some of the genotypes could be used in cross breeding as genetic sources for short plant, long head, large number of spikelets per head, large number of grains per head and per spikelet and heavy grains. BH-1146 and seven from the 23 lines were considered the most tolerant to aluminium toxicity, presenting good regrowth after treatment in nutrient solutions with 10 mg/liter of Al +3 . (author). 15 refs., 7 tabs

  14. Meta-analysis of the effects of forest fragmentation on interspecific interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Laurance, William F; Larrinaga, Asier R; Santamaria, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Forest fragmentation dramatically alters species persistence and distribution and affects many ecological interactions among species. Recent studies suggest that mutualisms, such as pollination and seed dispersal, are more sensitive to the negative effects of forest fragmentation than antagonisms, such as predation or herbivory. We applied meta-analytical techniques to evaluate this hypothesis and quantified the relative contributions of different components of the fragmentation process (decreases in fragment size, edge effects, increased isolation, and habitat degradation) to the overall effect. The effects of fragmentation on mutualisms were primarily driven by habitat degradation, edge effects, and fragment isolation, and, as predicted, they were consistently more negative on mutualisms than on antagonisms. For the most studied interaction type, seed dispersal, only certain components of fragmentation had significant (edge effects) or marginally significant (fragment size) effects. Seed size modulated the effect of fragmentation: species with large seeds showed stronger negative impacts of fragmentation via reduced dispersal rates. Our results reveal that different components of the habitat fragmentation process have varying impacts on key mutualisms. We also conclude that antagonistic interactions have been understudied in fragmented landscapes, most of the research has concentrated on particular types of mutualistic interactions such as seed dispersal, and that available studies of interspecific interactions have a strong geographical bias (arising mostly from studies carried out in Brazil, Chile, and the United States). © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Pesticide-mediated interspecific competition between local and invasive thrips pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyin; Reitz, Stuart R.; Yuan, Huiguo; Lei, Zhongren; Paini, Dean Ronald; Gao, Yulin

    2017-01-01

    Competitive interactions between species can be mitigated or even reversed in the presence of anthropogenic influences. The thrips species Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci are highly invasive and damaging agricultural pests throughout the world. Where the species co-occur, one species tends to eventually predominate over the other. Avermectin and beta-cypermethrin are commonly used insecticides to manage thrips in China, and laboratory bioassays demonstrated that F. occidentalis is significantly less susceptible than T. tabaci to these insecticides. In laboratory cage trials in which both species were exposed to insecticide treated cabbage plants, F. occidentalis became the predominant species. In contrast, T. tabaci completely displaced F. occidentalis on plants that were not treated with insecticides. In field trials, the species co-existed on cabbage before insecticide treatments began, but with T. tabaci being the predominant species. Following application of avermectin or beta-cypermethrin, F. occidentalis became the predominant species, while in plots not treated with insecticides, T. tabaci remained the predominant species. These results indicate that T. tabaci is an intrinsically superior competitor to F. occidentalis, but its competitive advantage can be counteracted through differential susceptibilities of the species to insecticides. These results further demonstrate the importance of external factors, such as insecticide applications, in mediating the outcome of interspecific interactions and produce rapid unanticipated shifts in the demographics of pest complexes. PMID:28084404

  16. Rin4 causes hybrid necrosis and race-specific resistance in an interspecific lettuce hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, Marieke J W; Zhang, Ningwen W; McHale, Leah K; Pelgrom, Koen; den Boer, Erik; Lindhout, Pim; Michelmore, Richard W; Visser, Richard G F; Niks, Rients E

    2009-10-01

    Some inter- and intraspecific crosses may result in reduced viability or sterility in the offspring, often due to genetic incompatibilities resulting from interactions between two or more loci. Hybrid necrosis is a postzygotic genetic incompatibility that is phenotypically manifested as necrotic lesions on the plant. We observed hybrid necrosis in interspecific lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Lactuca saligna) hybrids that correlated with resistance to downy mildew. Segregation analysis revealed a specific allelic combination at two interacting loci to be responsible. The allelic interaction had two consequences: (1) a quantitative temperature-dependent autoimmunity reaction leading to necrotic lesions, lethality, and quantitative resistance to an otherwise virulent race of Bremia lactucae; and (2) a qualitative temperature-independent race-specific resistance to an avirulent race of B. lactucae. We demonstrated by transient expression and silencing experiments that one of the two interacting genes was Rin4. In Arabidopsis thaliana, RIN4 is known to interact with multiple R gene products, and their interactions result in hypersensitive resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Site-directed mutation studies on the necrosis-eliciting allele of Rin4 in lettuce showed that three residues were critical for hybrid necrosis.

  17. Genetic analysis of Vitis interspecific hybrids occurring in vineyards of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, R.; Andrea, S.; Radek, S.; Baranek, M.

    2016-01-01

    SSR analysis of 18 unknown uncultured Vitis genotypes planted in an area mostly dedicated to viticulture in the Czech Republic was performed in this work. The aim of this study was to identify analysed samples by comparing their SSR profiles with described standards and classify their mutual relationships based on their distribution in obtained dendrogram. Results show that 50 percent of unknown genotypes belongs to old American interspecific cultivar Noah and 11 percent belong to another old American cultivar Isabella. The rest of analysed genotypes remain unidentified, but three of them suggest relatedness with Noah cultivar, one genotype shows relatednessto Isabella cultivar. From practical point of view the most interesting ones are three genotypes, which were clearly clustered with the genotypes of cultural varities (botanically V. vinifera L.) used as standard. Based on this it is then possible to assume that those genotypes probably originated from crossing of non-V. vinifera genotype specimen with unknown cultural variety. Potential importance of analysed hybrids for further investigation and breeding, especialy in an eco-friendly viticulture, is also discussed. (author)

  18. Global warming increases the interspecific competitiveness of the invasive plant alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Ismail, Mohannad; Ding, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Global warming could accelerate the spread of invasive species to higher latitudes and intensify their effects on native species. Here, we report results of two years of field surveys along a latitudinal gradient (21°N to 31°N) in southern China, to determine the species structure of the invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides community. We also performed a replacement series experiment (mono and mixed) to evaluate the effects of elevated temperature on the competitiveness of A. philoxeroides with the native co-occurring species Digitaria sanguinalis. In the field survey, we found that the dominance of A. philoxeroides increased with increasing of latitude gradient while cover of D. sanguinalis decreased. In monospecific plantings, artificial warming reduced the length of D. sanguinalis roots. In mixed plantings, warming reduced both A. philoxeroides abundance and D. sanguinalis stem length when A. philoxeroides was more prevalent in the planting. Warming also significantly reduced D. sanguinalis biomass, but increased that of A. philoxeroides. In addition, elevated temperatures significantly reduced the relative yield (RY) of D. sanguinalis, particularly when A. philoxeroides was planted in higher proportion in the plot. These results suggest that the invasiveness of A. philoxeroides increased with increasing latitude, and that warming may increase the effectiveness of its interspecific competition with D. sanguinalis. Hence, under global warming conditions, the harm to native species from A. philoxeroides would increase at higher latitudes. Our findings are critical for predicting the invasiveness of alien species under climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Interspecific Plant Interactions Reflected in Soil Bacterial Community Structure and Nitrogen Cycling in Primary Succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Knelman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Past research demonstrating the importance plant–microbe interactions as drivers of ecosystem succession has focused on how plants condition soil microbial communities, impacting subsequent plant performance and plant community assembly. These studies, however, largely treat microbial communities as a black box. In this study, we sought to examine how emblematic shifts from early successional Alnus viridus ssp. sinuata (Sitka alder to late successional Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce in primary succession may be reflected in specific belowground changes in bacterial community structure and nitrogen cycling related to the interaction of these two plants. We examined early successional alder-conditioned soils in a glacial forefield to delineate how alders alter the soil microbial community with increasing dominance. Further, we assessed the impact of late-successional spruce plants on these early successional alder-conditioned microbiomes and related nitrogen cycling through a leachate addition microcosm experiment. We show how increasingly abundant alder select for particular bacterial taxa. Additionally, we found that spruce leachate significantly alters the composition of these microbial communities in large part by driving declines in taxa that are enriched by alder, including bacterial symbionts. We found these effects to be spruce specific, beyond a general leachate effect. Our work also demonstrates a unique influence of spruce on ammonium availability. Such insights bolster theory relating the importance of plant–microbe interactions with late-successional plants and interspecific plant interactions more generally.

  20. Interspecific Plant Interactions Reflected in Soil Bacterial Community Structure and Nitrogen Cycling in Primary Succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knelman, Joseph E; Graham, Emily B; Prevéy, Janet S; Robeson, Michael S; Kelly, Patrick; Hood, Eran; Schmidt, Steve K

    2018-01-01

    Past research demonstrating the importance plant-microbe interactions as drivers of ecosystem succession has focused on how plants condition soil microbial communities, impacting subsequent plant performance and plant community assembly. These studies, however, largely treat microbial communities as a black box. In this study, we sought to examine how emblematic shifts from early successional Alnus viridus ssp. sinuata (Sitka alder) to late successional Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce) in primary succession may be reflected in specific belowground changes in bacterial community structure and nitrogen cycling related to the interaction of these two plants. We examined early successional alder-conditioned soils in a glacial forefield to delineate how alders alter the soil microbial community with increasing dominance. Further, we assessed the impact of late-successional spruce plants on these early successional alder-conditioned microbiomes and related nitrogen cycling through a leachate addition microcosm experiment. We show how increasingly abundant alder select for particular bacterial taxa. Additionally, we found that spruce leachate significantly alters the composition of these microbial communities in large part by driving declines in taxa that are enriched by alder, including bacterial symbionts. We found these effects to be spruce specific, beyond a general leachate effect. Our work also demonstrates a unique influence of spruce on ammonium availability. Such insights bolster theory relating the importance of plant-microbe interactions with late-successional plants and interspecific plant interactions more generally.

  1. Caffeine inheritance in interspecific hybrids of Coffea arabica x Coffea canephora (Gentianales, Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina H.G. Priolli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine inheritance was investigated in F2 and BC1F1 generations between Coffea arabica var. Bourbon Vermelho (BV and Coffea canephora var. Robusta 4x (R4x. The caffeine content of seeds and leaves was determined during 2004 and 2005. Microsatellite loci-markers were used to deduce the meiotic pattern of chromosome pairing of tetraploid interspecific hybrids. Genetic analysis indicated that caffeine content in seeds was quantitatively inherited and controlled by genes with additive effects. The estimates of broad-sense heritability of caffeine content in seeds were high for both generations. In coffee leaves, the caffeine content (BSH from the same populations showed transgressive segregants with enhanced levels and high BSH. Segregation of loci-markers in BC1F1 populations showed that the ratios of the gametes genotype did not differ significantly from those expected assuming random associations and tetrasomic inheritance. The results confirm the existence of distinct mechanisms controlling the caffeine content in seeds and leaves, the gene exchange between the C. arabica BV and C. canephora R4x genomes and favorable conditions for improving caffeine content in this coffee population.

  2. Concentration of trace elements in feathers of three Antarctic penguins: Geographical and interspecific differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerez, Silvia [Area de Toxicologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Motas, Miguel, E-mail: motas@um.es [Area de Toxicologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Palacios, Maria Jose; Valera, Francisco [Departamento de Ecologia Funcional y Evolutiva, Estacion Experimental de Zonas Aridas, CSIC, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, 04120 La Canada de San Urbano, Almeria (Spain); Cuervo, Jose Javier; Barbosa, Andres [Departamento de Ecologia Funcional y Evolutiva, Estacion Experimental de Zonas Aridas, CSIC, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, 04120 La Canada de San Urbano, Almeria (Spain); Departamento de Ecologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Antarctica is often considered as one of the last pristine regions, but it could be affected by pollution at global and local scale. Concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were determinated by ICP-MS in feathers (n = 207 individuals) of gentoo, chinstrap and Adelie penguin collected in 8 locations throughout the Antarctic Peninsula (2006-2007). The highest levels of several elements were found in samples from King George Island (8.08, 20.29 and 1.76 {mu}g g{sup -1} dw for Cr, Cu and Pb, respectively) and Deception Island (203.13, 3.26 and 164.26 {mu}g g{sup -1} dw for Al, Mn and Fe, respectively), where probably human activities and large-scale transport of pollutants contribute to increase metal levels. Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Cu, Se or Pb, which are similar to others found in different regions of the world, show that some areas in Antarctica are not utterly pristine. - Highlights: > We study levels of trace elements in feathers of Antarctic penguins. > Eight different rookeries throughout the Antarctic Peninsula were sampled. > Interspecific (gentoo, chinstrap, Adelie) and geographical differences were tested. > Relatively high metal levels were found in areas with major human presence. > Penguin feather can be useful for metals monitoring in the Antarctic environment. - Trace element levels in feathers of three penguin species from the Antarctic Peninsula indicate the presence of pollution in certain locations.

  3. Modeling plant interspecific interactions from experiments with perennial crop mixtures to predict optimal combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halty, Virginia; Valdés, Matías; Tejera, Mauricio; Picasso, Valentín; Fort, Hugo

    2017-12-01

    The contribution of plant species richness to productivity and ecosystem functioning is a longstanding issue in ecology, with relevant implications for both conservation and agriculture. Both experiments and quantitative modeling are fundamental to the design of sustainable agroecosystems and the optimization of crop production. We modeled communities of perennial crop mixtures by using a generalized Lotka-Volterra model, i.e., a model such that the interspecific interactions are more general than purely competitive. We estimated model parameters -carrying capacities and interaction coefficients- from, respectively, the observed biomass of monocultures and bicultures measured in a large diversity experiment of seven perennial forage species in Iowa, United States. The sign and absolute value of the interaction coefficients showed that the biological interactions between species pairs included amensalism, competition, and parasitism (asymmetric positive-negative interaction), with various degrees of intensity. We tested the model fit by simulating the combinations of more than two species and comparing them with the polycultures experimental data. Overall, theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experiments. Using this model, we also simulated species combinations that were not sown. From all possible mixtures (sown and not sown) we identified which are the most productive species combinations. Our results demonstrate that a combination of experiments and modeling can contribute to the design of sustainable agricultural systems in general and to the optimization of crop production in particular. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Inter-specific coral chimerism: Genetically distinct multicellular structures associated with tissue loss in Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Forsman, Zac H.; Szabo, Zoltan; Lewis, Teresa D.; Aeby, Greta S.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Montipora white syndrome (MWS) results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS) that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR), while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata). Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss.

  5. Pesticide-mediated interspecific competition between local and invasive thrips pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyin; Reitz, Stuart R; Yuan, Huiguo; Lei, Zhongren; Paini, Dean Ronald; Gao, Yulin

    2017-01-13

    Competitive interactions between species can be mitigated or even reversed in the presence of anthropogenic influences. The thrips species Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci are highly invasive and damaging agricultural pests throughout the world. Where the species co-occur, one species tends to eventually predominate over the other. Avermectin and beta-cypermethrin are commonly used insecticides to manage thrips in China, and laboratory bioassays demonstrated that F. occidentalis is significantly less susceptible than T. tabaci to these insecticides. In laboratory cage trials in which both species were exposed to insecticide treated cabbage plants, F. occidentalis became the predominant species. In contrast, T. tabaci completely displaced F. occidentalis on plants that were not treated with insecticides. In field trials, the species co-existed on cabbage before insecticide treatments began, but with T. tabaci being the predominant species. Following application of avermectin or beta-cypermethrin, F. occidentalis became the predominant species, while in plots not treated with insecticides, T. tabaci remained the predominant species. These results indicate that T. tabaci is an intrinsically superior competitor to F. occidentalis, but its competitive advantage can be counteracted through differential susceptibilities of the species to insecticides. These results further demonstrate the importance of external factors, such as insecticide applications, in mediating the outcome of interspecific interactions and produce rapid unanticipated shifts in the demographics of pest complexes.

  6. Naked Mole Rat Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Their Contribution to Interspecific Chimera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Goo Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Naked mole rats (NMRs are exceptionally long-lived, cancer-resistant rodents. Identifying the defining characteristics of these traits may shed light on aging and cancer mechanisms. Here, we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from NMR fibroblasts and their contribution to mouse-NMR chimeric embryos. Efficient reprogramming could be observed under N2B27+2i conditions. The iPSCs displayed a characteristic morphology, expressed pluripotent markers, formed embryoid bodies, and showed typical differentiation patterns. Interestingly, NMR embryonic fibroblasts and the derived iPSCs had propensity for a tetraploid karyotype and were resistant to forming teratomas, but within mouse blastocysts they contributed to both interspecific placenta and fetus. Gene expression patterns of NMR iPSCs were more similar to those of human than mouse iPSCs. Overall, we uncovered unique features of NMR iPSCs and report a mouse-NMR chimeric model. The iPSCs and associated cell culture systems can be used for a variety of biological and biomedical applications.

  7. Interspecific competition and allelopathic interaction between Karenia mikimotoi and Dunaliella salina in laboratory culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong; Liu, Jiao; Hao, Qiang; Ran, Lihua; Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-03-01

    Algal allelopathy is a manifold ecological/physiological phenomenon that is focused on chemical interactions and autotoxicity. We investigated the allelopathic interactions between Karenia mikimotoi and Dunaliella salina in laboratory cultures based on diff erent temperature (15°C, 20°C, and 25°C) and lighting (40, 80, and 160 μmol/(m2·s)) conditions. The growth of D. salina in bi-algae culture (1:1 size/density) was significantly restrained. The results of cell-free filtrate culture indicate that direct cell-tocell contact was not necessary in interspecific competition. Further experimental results demonstrated that allelochemicals released from K. mikimotoi were markedly influenced by both temperature ( P =0.013) and irradiance ( P =0.003), resulting in diff erent growth characteristics of D. salina in filtrate mediums. Compared with the plateau period, K. mikimotoi exudates in the exponential phase had a stronger short-term inhibition effect on D. salina in normal conditions. A clear concentration-dependent relationship was observed in the effect of allelochemicals released from K. mikimotoi with low-promoting and high-repressing effects on D. Salina in a short time-scale. In addition, allelopathic substances remain stable and effective under high temperature and pressure stress. Many flocculent sediments adhering with D. salina cells were observed in all filtrate mediums, while the quantity and color depended on the original culture conditions.

  8. Positive selection and propeptide repeats promote rapid interspecific divergence of a gastropod sperm protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, M E; Moy, G W; Vacquier, V D

    2000-03-01

    Male-specific proteins have increasingly been reported as targets of positive selection and are of special interest because of the role they may play in the evolution of reproductive isolation. We report the rapid interspecific divergence of cDNA encoding a major acrosomal protein of unknown function (TMAP) of sperm from five species of teguline gastropods. A mitochondrial DNA clock (calibrated by congeneric species divided by the Isthmus of Panama) estimates that these five species diverged 2-10 MYA. Inferred amino acid sequences reveal a propeptide that has diverged rapidly between species. The mature protein has diverged faster still due to high nonsynonymous substitution rates (> 25 nonsynonymous substitutions per site per 10(9) years). cDNA encoding the mature protein (89-100 residues) shows evidence of positive selection (Dn/Ds > 1) for 4 of 10 pairwise species comparisons. cDNA and predicted secondary-structure comparisons suggest that TMAP is neither orthologous nor paralogous to abalone lysin, and thus marks a second, phylogenetically independent, protein subject to strong positive selection in free-spawning marine gastropods. In addition, an internal repeat in one species (Tegula aureotincta) produces a duplicated cleavage site which results in two alternatively processed mature proteins differing by nine amino acid residues. Such alternative processing may provide a mechanism for introducing novel amino acid sequence variation at the amino-termini of proteins. Highly divergent TMAP N-termini from two other tegulines (Tegula regina and Norrisia norrisii) may have originated by such a mechanism.

  9. Effects of local adaptation and interspecific competition on species' responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocedi, Greta; Atkins, Katherine E; Liao, Jishan; Henry, Roslyn C; Travis, Justin M J; Hellmann, Jessica J

    2013-09-01

    Local adaptation and species interactions have been shown to affect geographic ranges; therefore, we need models of climate impact that include both factors. To identify possible dynamics of species when including these factors, we ran simulations of two competing species using an individual-based, coupled map-lattice model using a linear climatic gradient that varies across latitude and is warmed over time. Reproductive success is governed by an individual's adaptation to local climate as well as its location relative to global constraints. In exploratory experiments varying the strength of adaptation and competition, competition reduces genetic diversity and slows range change, although the two species can coexist in the absence of climate change and shift in the absence of competitors. We also found that one species can drive the other to extinction, sometimes long after climate change ends. Weak selection on local adaptation and poor dispersal ability also caused surfing of cooler-adapted phenotypes from the expanding margin backwards, causing loss of warmer-adapted phenotypes. Finally, geographic ranges can become disjointed, losing centrally-adapted genotypes. These initial results suggest that the interplay between local adaptation and interspecific competition can significantly influence species' responses to climate change, in a way that demands future research. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Concentration of trace elements in feathers of three Antarctic penguins: Geographical and interspecific differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerez, Silvia; Motas, Miguel; Palacios, Maria Jose; Valera, Francisco; Cuervo, Jose Javier; Barbosa, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Antarctica is often considered as one of the last pristine regions, but it could be affected by pollution at global and local scale. Concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were determinated by ICP-MS in feathers (n = 207 individuals) of gentoo, chinstrap and Adelie penguin collected in 8 locations throughout the Antarctic Peninsula (2006-2007). The highest levels of several elements were found in samples from King George Island (8.08, 20.29 and 1.76 μg g -1 dw for Cr, Cu and Pb, respectively) and Deception Island (203.13, 3.26 and 164.26 μg g -1 dw for Al, Mn and Fe, respectively), where probably human activities and large-scale transport of pollutants contribute to increase metal levels. Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Cu, Se or Pb, which are similar to others found in different regions of the world, show that some areas in Antarctica are not utterly pristine. - Highlights: → We study levels of trace elements in feathers of Antarctic penguins. → Eight different rookeries throughout the Antarctic Peninsula were sampled. → Interspecific (gentoo, chinstrap, Adelie) and geographical differences were tested. → Relatively high metal levels were found in areas with major human presence. → Penguin feather can be useful for metals monitoring in the Antarctic environment. - Trace element levels in feathers of three penguin species from the Antarctic Peninsula indicate the presence of pollution in certain locations.

  11. Informational mismatches: a neglected threat of climate change to interspecific interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deseada eParejo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific interactions are deeply affected by the current scenario of climate change. This is because interactions are sensitive to many traits of interacting species as phenology, distribution, behaviour and relative abundances which may be differently influenced by climate change in each species. In this scenario, positive interactions, which require temporal coordination of events of life history of interacting species, could be particularly altered due to differential effects of climate change on phenology, apart from by the effects on abundance and distribution. Hitherto, studies focusing on the effects of climate change on positive biotic interactions are scarce and mainly focused on plant-pollinator interactions. Here I propose that, by inducing informational mismatches, climate change may lead to individuals from competing species relying on heterospecific social information to making mis- or un-informed decisions. The idea is that competing species are valuable sources of social information to each other provided overlap of their activities occurs. However, whenever coordination of events fails, competing species will co-occur at the wrong moment, co-occur only in small numbers or even not co-occur at all and thus they will not be able to access useful or any social information from heterospecifics. In that scenario, interacting species would be mis- or un- informed, and, consequently, decision taking will be impaired, leading to disequilibrium in the community. Throughout the manuscript, I will develop the idea of mismatches of information and illustrate it with some case studies.

  12. Interspecific competition alters natural selection on shade avoidance phenotypes in Impatiens capensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoey, Brechann V; Stinchcombe, John R

    2009-08-01

    Shade avoidance syndrome is a known adaptive response for Impatiens capensis growing in dense intraspecific competition. However, I. capensis also grow with dominant interspecific competitors in marshes. Here, we compare the I. capensis shade-avoidance phenotypes produced in the absence and presence of heterospecific competitors, as well as selection on those traits. Two treatments were established in a marsh; in one treatment all heterospecifics were removed, while in the other, all competitors remained. We compared morphological traits, light parameters, seed output and, using phenotypic selection analysis, examined directional and nonlinear selection operating in the different competitive treatments. Average phenotypes, light parameters and seed production all varied depending on competitive treatment. Phenotypic selection analyses revealed different directional, disruptive, stabilizing and correlational selection. The disparities seen in both phenotypes and selection between the treatments related to the important differences in elongation timing depending on the presence of heterospecifics, although environmental covariances between traits and fitness could also contribute. Phenotypes produced by I. capensis depend on their competitive environment, and differing selection on shade-avoidance traits between competitive environments could indirectly select for increased plasticity given gene flow between populations in different competitive contexts.

  13. [Effects of precipitation and interspecific competition on Quercus mongolica and pinus koraiensis seedlings growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing-Lian; Wang, Miao; Lin, Fei; Hao, Zhan-Qing; Ji, Lan-Zhu; Liu, Ya-Qin

    2009-02-01

    Aiming at the variation of precipitation pattern caused by global warming, a field simulation experiment was conducted to study the effects of 30% increase (+W) and decrease (-W) of precipitation on the morphology, growth, and biomass partitioning of mono- and mixed cultured seedlings of Quercus mongolica and Pinus koraiensis, the two dominant tree species in temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains. Comparing with monoculture, mixed culture increased the canopy width and main root length of Q. mongolica seedlings, but decreased the basal diameter, plant height, leaf number, and dry masses of root, stem, leaf and whole plant of P. koraiensis seedlings significantly. Treatment (-W) increased the stem/mass ratio while decreased the main root length of Q. mongolica seedlings, and decreased the main root length, leaf number, dry masses of leaf and whole plant, and leaf/mass ratio, while increased the stem/mass ratio of P. koraiensis seedlings significantly, compared with treatment CK. Treatment (+W) had no significant effect on these indices of the two species. At early growth stage, interspecific competition and precipitation pattern had significant effects on the morphology and growth of the seedlings, and the responses were much stronger for P. koraiensis than for Q. mongolica.

  14. Intra- and interspecific competition between western flower thrips and sweetpotato whitefly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Jun; Hou, Wen-Jie; Li, Fei; Xu, Bao-Yun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shao-Li; Zhang, You-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), are both invasive insect pests and are present in most of the same agricultural crops without a clear dominance of either species. Here, intra- and interspecific competition in B. tabaci and F. occidentalis was determined under controlled experiments. The results showed that intraspecific competition was distinct in F. occidentalis and that the co-occurrence of B. tabaci had a strong effect on F. occidentalis, resulting in a decrease in oviposition. Significant intraspecific competition was found in B. tabaci, and the coexistence of F. occidentalis had limited effect on the oviposition of B. tabaci. In a selective host plant preference experiment, both F. occidentalis and B. tabaci preferred eggplants most, followed by cucumbers and tomatoes. On cucumber plants, B. tabaci was predominant, whereas on eggplant and tomato plants, F. occidentalis and B. tabaci exhibited comparative competitive abilities during the initial stage. However, over time, higher numbers of B. tabaci than that of F. occidentalis were found on the two host plants. Our in vitro and potted plant experiments indicate that B. tabaci is competitively superior to F. occidentalis, which might help to explain their differential distribution patterns in China. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  15. Interspecific competition in plants: how well do current methods answer fundamental questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J; Wayne, P; Bazzaz, F A

    2001-02-01

    Accurately quantifying and interpreting the processes and outcomes of competition among plants is essential for evaluating theories of plant community organization and evolution. We argue that many current experimental approaches to quantifying competitive interactions introduce size bias, which may significantly impact the quantitative and qualitative conclusions drawn from studies. Size bias generally arises when estimates of competitive ability are erroneously influenced by the initial size of competing individuals. We employ a series of quantitative thought experiments to demonstrate the potential for size bias in analysis of four traditional experimental designs (pairwise, replacement series, additive series, and response surfaces) either when only final measurements are available or when both initial and final measurements are collected. We distinguish three questions relevant to describing competitive interactions: Which species dominates? Which species gains? and How do species affect each other? The choice of experimental design and measurements greatly influences the scope of inference permitted. Conditions under which the latter two questions can give biased information are tabulated. We outline a new approach to characterizing competition that avoids size bias and that improves the concordance between research question and experimental design. The implications of the choice of size metrics used to quantify both the initial state and the responses of elements in interspecific mixtures are discussed. The relevance of size bias in competition studies with organisms other than plants is also discussed.

  16. Spatial heterogeneity of plant-soil feedback affects root interactions and interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Marloes; Ravenek, Janneke M; Smit-Tiekstra, Annemiek E; van der Paauw, Jan Willem; de Caluwe, Hannie; van der Putten, Wim H; de Kroon, Hans; Mommer, Liesje

    2015-08-01

    Plant-soil feedback is receiving increasing interest as a factor influencing plant competition and species coexistence in grasslands. However, we do not know how spatial distribution of plant-soil feedback affects plant below-ground interactions. We investigated the way in which spatial heterogeneity of soil biota affects competitive interactions in grassland plant species. We performed a pairwise competition experiment combined with heterogeneous distribution of soil biota using four grassland plant species and their soil biota. Patches were applied as quadrants of 'own' and 'foreign' soils from all plant species in all pairwise combinations. To evaluate interspecific root responses, species-specific root biomass was quantified using real-time PCR. All plant species suffered negative soil feedback, but strength was species-specific, reflected by a decrease in root growth in own compared with foreign soil. Reduction in root growth in own patches by the superior plant competitor provided opportunities for inferior competitors to increase root biomass in these patches. These patterns did not cascade into above-ground effects during our experiment. We show that root distributions can be determined by spatial heterogeneity of soil biota, affecting plant below-ground competitive interactions. Thus, spatial heterogeneity of soil biota may contribute to plant species coexistence in species-rich grasslands. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION BETWEEN NATIVE AND EXOTIC FRUIT FLY PARASITOIDSIN MIXED ORCHARDS IN MACEIO, ALAGOAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAKELINE MARIA DOS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effects of the release and establishment of the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, 1905 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and its interspecific competitive relationship with native fruit fly parasitoids in organic and conventional orchards in Maceio, State of Alagoas, Brazil. The exotic parasitoids were reared in the Radio - Entomology Laboratory of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo, and released (112,350 individuals between five and eight days old in orchards from June 8 to July12, 2013.Fruit samples were collected randomly every week during one year to assess the D. longicaudata recaptured from plants and fallen fruits on the ground, which were taken to the Entomology Laboratory of the CECA - UFAL, classified and individually placed in plastic containers, containing a layer of 1 cm of sand for pupation of the host larvae. The pupae, obtained after 10 days, were placed in Petri dishes with a layer of sand until the emergence of adults, which were then kept in plastic microtubes, containing ethanol 70%. The release of exotic parasitoids did not displace native species. The same species were found before and after the release in both cultures: Doryctobracon areolatus , Asobara anastrephae , Utetes anastrephae and Opius bellus (Braconidae, Aganaspis pelleranoi (Figitidae and individuals of the Pteromalidae family. One year after the last release, 44 individuals of the exotic parasitoid were found, showing its establishment in the studied areas.

  18. Behavioral and life-history evidence for interspecific competition in the larvae of two heliconian butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, Carolina; Borges, Simone Silva; Rodrigues, Daniela; Moreira, Gilson Rudinei Pires

    2013-10-01

    Interspecific competition in herbivorous insects remains a controversial issue. To date, many studied systems have not met assumptions of the traditional competition theory, and a new paradigm has been emerging. We examined the behavioral and life-history consequences of common host plant use of Heliconius erato and Dryas iulia (Nymphalidae) in relation to Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae). Larvae of the former use the apical portion of this host; the latter is presumably able to explore all plant parts. We assessed host use pattern in relation to leaf age, when reared either alone ( D. iulia) or together ( D. iulia and H. erato). Larval feeding choice tests with respect to leaf age were performed, and performance was recorded. Observations were made to assess antagonistic behavior of H. erato and D. iulia towards each other, if any. Similarly to H. erato, D. iulia fed on the young leaves significantly more than the mature ones; larvae were not induced to prefer mature leaves. First instars of H. erato used only the apical parts of P. suberosa and displayed aggressive behavior towards D. iulia, which moved to the lower shoot portions. Larval mortality and development time of both species significantly increased when reared together; such performance costs were more pronounced in D. iulia than H. erato. Our study gathers evidences that use of P. suberosa by these heliconian butterflies represent a case of competitive exclusion resulting in niche differentiation, where costs are higher for D. iulia than H. erato.

  19. The dynamic process of interspecific interactions of competitive nitrogen capture between intercropped wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Faba Bean (Vicia faba L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjie Li

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L./faba bean (Vicia faba L. intercropping shows significant overyielding and high nitrogen (N-use efficiency, but the dynamics of plant interactions have rarely been estimated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of competitive N acquisition between intercropped wheat and faba bean with the logistic model. Wheat and faba bean were grown together or alone with limited N supply in pots. Data of shoot and root biomass and N content measured from 14 samplings were fitted to logistic models to determine instantaneous rates of growth and N uptake. The superiority of instantaneous biomass production and N uptake shifted from faba bean to wheat with their growth. Moreover, the shift of superiority on N uptake occurred 7-12 days earlier than that of biomass production. Interspecific competition stimulated intercropped wheat to have a much earlier and stronger superiority on instantaneous N uptake compared with isolated wheat. The modeling methodology characterized the temporal dynamics of biomass production and N uptake of intercropped wheat and faba bean in different planting systems, which helps to understand the underlying process of plant interaction for intercropping plants.

  20. The dynamic process of interspecific interactions of competitive nitrogen capture between intercropped wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Shen, Jianbo; Zhang, Fusuo

    2014-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping shows significant overyielding and high nitrogen (N)-use efficiency, but the dynamics of plant interactions have rarely been estimated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of competitive N acquisition between intercropped wheat and faba bean with the logistic model. Wheat and faba bean were grown together or alone with limited N supply in pots. Data of shoot and root biomass and N content measured from 14 samplings were fitted to logistic models to determine instantaneous rates of growth and N uptake. The superiority of instantaneous biomass production and N uptake shifted from faba bean to wheat with their growth. Moreover, the shift of superiority on N uptake occurred 7-12 days earlier than that of biomass production. Interspecific competition stimulated intercropped wheat to have a much earlier and stronger superiority on instantaneous N uptake compared with isolated wheat. The modeling methodology characterized the temporal dynamics of biomass production and N uptake of intercropped wheat and faba bean in different planting systems, which helps to understand the underlying process of plant interaction for intercropping plants.

  1. CSR communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golob, Ursa; Podnar, Klement; Elving, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to introduce the special issue on CSR communication attached to the First International CSR Communication Conference held in Amsterdam in October 2011. The aim of the introduction is also to review CSR communication papers published in scholarly journals in order to make...... a summary of the state of CSR communication knowledge. Design/methodology/approach – The existing literature on CSR communication was approached via systematic review. with a combination of conventional and summative qualitative content analysis. The final dataset contained 90 papers from two main business...... communications. The most important outlets for CSR communication-related topics are Journal of Business Ethics and Corporate Communications: An International Journal. Originality/value – This paper represents the first attempt to perform a systematic and comprehensive overview of CSR communication papers...

  2. Risk communication basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrado, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information

  3. Advanced digital optical communications

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a fundamental understanding of digital communication applications in optical communication technologies. Emphasizing operation principles versus mathematical analysis, the Second Edition includes new coverage of superchannel optical transmission systems, metropolitan and long-haul optical systems and networks, and Nyquist pulse shaping and high spectral efficiency of optical transmission systems, as well as new homework problems and examples. Featuring theoretical foundations as well as practical case studies, the text focuses on enhancements to digital technologies that are

  4. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  5. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...

  6. Strategic Communication Institutionalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2013-01-01

    of institutionalization when strategic communication is not yet visible as organizational practice, and how can such detections provide explanation for the later outcome of the process? (2) How can studies of strategic communication benefit from an institutional perspective? How can the virus metaphor generate a deeper...... understanding of the mechanisms that interact from the time an organization is exposed to a new organizational idea such as strategic communication until it surfaces in the form of symptoms such as mission and vision statements, communication manuals and communication positions? The first part of the article...... focuses on a discussion of the virus metaphor as an alternative to the widespread fashion metaphor for processes of institutionalization. The second part of the article provides empirical examples of the virus metaphor employed, examples that are drawn from a study of the institutionalization of strategic...

  7. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  8. Understanding traditional African healing

    OpenAIRE

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of tradition...

  9. Resonant communicators, effective communicators. Communicator’s flow and credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene García-Ureta, Ph.D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication studies have been integrating the latest developments in cognitive sciences and acknowledging the importance of understanding the subjective processes involved in communication. This article argues that communication studies should also take into account the psychology of the communicator. This article presents the theoretical basis and the results of a training programme designed for audiovisual communicators. The programme is based on the theories of self-efficacy and flow and seeks to improve students’ communication competencies through the use of presentation techniques and psychological skills to tackle communication apprehension. The programme involves an active methodology that is based on modelling, visualisation, immediate feedback and positive reinforcement. A repeated-measures ANOVA shows that the programme successfully decreases the level of communication apprehension, improves the perceived self-efficacy, improves the psychological state needed to perform better in front of the cameras (flow, and improves students’ communication skills. A path analysis proved that the perceived self-efficacy and anxiety levels predict the level of flow during the communication act. At the end of the training programme, those who experienced higher levels of flow and enjoyment during the communication task achieved higher quality levels in their communication exercise. It is concluded that the concepts of self-efficacy and flow facilitate advancing in the understanding of the factors that determine a communicator’s credibility and ability to connect with the audience.

  10. Communication of the Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Słomski

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication always takes place by means of symbols. Information must be coded by the sender, i.e. expressed by the use of symbols (mostly language symbols, and then decoded by the recipient. The process of message decoding may be divided into two stages: the acquisition and the interpretation of the message, so-called "understanding" through the attaching of the meaning to symbols, which made up the message. Itself the understanding of the message is a not a sufficient condition of communication, as it may happen so, that the recipient interprets (understands the message in a more or less different way from what the sender intended to transfer, what in practice may lead to the consequences more or less similar to the total impossibility of decoding the message. We may speak about communication only if the meanings attached by the sender to the individual symbols are close or identical to the meanings attached to these symbols by the recipient.

  11. A guide to help children understand cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approach will depend on your child's age and maturity. Here is a general guide. CHILDREN AGES 0 ... child understands cancer. www.cancer.net/coping-and-emotions/communicating-loved-ones/how-child-understands-cancer . Updated ...

  12. Disentangling the effects of species diversity, and intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation on aboveground biomass in dry zone homegarden agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad; Mattsson, Eskil

    2017-11-15

    The biodiversity - aboveground biomass relationship has been intensively studied in recent decades. However, no consensus has been arrived to consider the interplay of species diversity, and intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation in driving aboveground biomass, after accounting for the effects of plot size heterogeneity, soil fertility and stand quality in natural forest including agroforests. We tested the full, partial and no mediations effects of species diversity, and intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation on aboveground biomass by employing structural equation models (SEMs) using data from 45 homegarden agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka. The full mediation effect of either species diversity or intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation was rejected, while the partial and no mediation effects were accepted. In the no mediation SEM, homegarden size had the strongest negative direct effect (β=-0.49) on aboveground biomass (R 2 =0.65), followed by strong positive direct effect of intraspecific tree size variation (β=0.32), species diversity (β=0.29) and interspecific tree size variation (β=0.28). Soil fertility had a negative direct effect on interspecific tree size variation (β=-0.31). Stand quality had a significant positive total effect on aboveground biomass (β=0.28), but homegarden size had a significant negative total effect (β=-0.62), while soil fertility had a non-significant total effect on aboveground biomass. Similar to the no mediation SEM, the partial mediation SEMs had explained almost similar variation in aboveground biomass because species diversity, and intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation had non-significant indirect effects on aboveground biomass via each other. Our results strongly suggest that a multilayered tree canopy structure, due to high intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation, increases light capture and efficient utilization of resources among component species, and

  13. Representation of pheromones, interspecific signals, and plant odors in higher olfactory centers; mapping physiologically identified antennal-lobe projection neurons in the male heliothine moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Cheng eZhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the primary olfactory centre of the moth brain, for example, a few enlarged glomeruli situated dorsally, at the entrance of the antennal nerve, are devoted to information about female-produced substances whereas a set of more numerous ordinary glomeruli receives input about general odorants. Heliothine moths are particularly suitable for studying central chemosensory mechanisms not only because of their anatomically separated systems for plant odours and pheromones but also due to their use of female-produced substances in communication across the species. Thus, the male-specific system of heliothine moths includes two sub arrangements, one ensuring attraction and mating behavior by carrying information about pheromones released by conspecifics, and the other reproductive isolation via signal information emitted from heterospecifics. Based on previous tracing experiments, a general chemotopic organization of the male-specific glomeruli has been demonstrated in a number of heliothine species. As compared to the well explored organization of the moth antennal lobe, demonstrating a non-overlapping representation of the biologically relevant stimuli, less is known about the neural arrangement residing at the following synaptic level, i.e. the mushroom body calyces and the lateral horn. In the study presented here, we have labelled physiologically characterized antennal-lobe projection neurons in males of the two heliothine species, Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa assulta, for the purpose of mapping their target regions in the protocerebrum. In order to compare the representation of plant odours, pheromones, and interspecific signals in the higher brain regions of each species, we have created standard brain atlases and registered three-dimensional models of distinct uniglomerular projection neuron types into the relevant atlas.

  14. Data communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining computer communication systems used in nuclear power plants. The recommendations cover three areas important to these communications systems: system design, communication protocols, and communication media. The first area, system design, considers three aspects of system design--questions about architecture, specific risky design elements or omissions to look for in designs being reviewed, and recommendations for multiplexed data communication systems used in safety systems. The second area reviews pertinent aspects of communication protocol design and makes recommendations for newly designed protocols or the selection of existing protocols for safety system, information display, and non-safety control system use. The third area covers communication media selection, which differs significantly from traditional wire and cable. The recommendations for communication media extend or enhance the concerns of published IEEE standards about three subjects: data rate, imported hazards and maintainability

  15. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Relationships between Nutrient Heterogeneity, Root Growth, and Hormones: Evidence for Interspecific Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jia; Jones, Robert H; Mou, Pu

    2018-02-28

    (1) Background: Plant roots respond to nutrients through root architecture that is regulated by hormones. Strong inter-specific variation in root architecture has been well documented, but physiological mechanisms that may control the variation have not. (2) Methods: We examined correlations between root architecture and hormones to seek clues on mechanisms behind root foraging behavior. In the green house at Beijing Normal University, hydroponic culture experiments were used to examine the root responses of four species- Callistephus chinensis , Solidago canadensis , Ailanthus altissima , Oryza sativa- to two nitrogen types (NO₃ - or NH₄⁺), three nitrogen concentrations (low, medium, and high concentrations of 0.2, 1, and 18 mM, respectively) and two ways of nitrogen application (stable vs. variable). The plants were harvested after 36 days to measure root mass, 1st order root length, seminal root length for O. sativa , density of the 1st order laterals, seminal root number for O. sativa , the inter-node length of the 1st order laterals, and root hormone contents of indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, and cytokinins (zeatin + zeatinriboside). (3) Results: Species differed significantly in their root architecture responses to nitrogen treatments. They also differed significantly in hormone responses to the nitrogen treatments. Additionally, the correlations between root architecture and hormone responses were quite variable across the species. Each hormone had highly species-specific relationships with root responses. (4) Conclusions: Our finding implies that a particular root foraging behavior is probably not controlled by the same biochemical pathway in all species.

  17. Relationships between Nutrient Heterogeneity, Root Growth, and Hormones: Evidence for Interspecific Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Dong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Plant roots respond to nutrients through root architecture that is regulated by hormones. Strong inter-specific variation in root architecture has been well documented, but physiological mechanisms that may control the variation have not. (2 Methods: We examined correlations between root architecture and hormones to seek clues on mechanisms behind root foraging behavior. In the green house at Beijing Normal University, hydroponic culture experiments were used to examine the root responses of four species—Callistephus chinensis, Solidago canadensis, Ailanthus altissima, Oryza sativa—to two nitrogen types (NO3− or NH4+, three nitrogen concentrations (low, medium, and high concentrations of 0.2, 1, and 18 mM, respectively and two ways of nitrogen application (stable vs. variable. The plants were harvested after 36 days to measure root mass, 1st order root length, seminal root length for O. sativa, density of the 1st order laterals, seminal root number for O. sativa, the inter-node length of the 1st order laterals, and root hormone contents of indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, and cytokinins (zeatin + zeatinriboside. (3 Results: Species differed significantly in their root architecture responses to nitrogen treatments. They also differed significantly in hormone responses to the nitrogen treatments. Additionally, the correlations between root architecture and hormone responses were quite variable across the species. Each hormone had highly species-specific relationships with root responses. (4 Conclusions: Our finding implies that a particular root foraging behavior is probably not controlled by the same biochemical pathway in all species.

  18. Intra- and interspecific differences in diet quality and composition in a large herbivore community.

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    Claire Redjadj

    Full Text Available Species diversity in large herbivore communities is often explained by niche segregation allowed by differences in body mass and digestive morphophysiological features. Based on large number of gut samples in fall and winter, we analysed the temporal dynamics of diet composition, quality and interspecific overlap of 4 coexisting mountain herbivores. We tested whether the relative consumption of grass and browse differed among species of different rumen types (moose-type and intermediate-type, whether diet was of lower quality for the largest species, whether we could identify plant species which determined diet quality, and whether these plants, which could be "key-food-resources" were similar for all herbivores. Our analyses revealed that (1 body mass and rumen types were overall poor predictors of diet composition and quality, although the roe deer, a species with a moose-type rumen was confirmed as an "obligatory non grazer", while red deer, the largest species, had the most lignified diet; (2 diet overlap among herbivores was well predicted by rumen type (high among species of intermediate types only, when measured over broad plant groups, (3 the relationship between diet composition and quality differed among herbivore species, and the actual plant species used during winter which determined the diet quality, was herbivore species-specific. Even if diets overlapped to a great extent, the species-specific relationships between diet composition and quality suggest that herbivores may select different plant species within similar plant group types, or different plant parts and that this, along with other behavioural mechanisms of ecological niche segregation, may contribute to the coexistence of large herbivores of relatively similar body mass, as observed in mountain ecosystems.

  19. Interspecific variation in life history relates to antipredator decisions by marine mesopredators on temperate reefs.

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    Alejandro Frid

    Full Text Available As upper-level predatory fishes become overfished, mesopredators rise to become the new 'top' predators of over-exploited marine communities. To gain insight into ensuing mechanisms that might alter indirect species interactions, we examined how behavioural responses to an upper-level predatory fish might differ between mesopredator species with different life histories. In rocky reefs of the northeast Pacific Ocean, adult lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus are upper-level predators that use a sit-and-wait hunting mode. Reef mesopredators that are prey to adult lingcod include kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus, younger lingcod, copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus and quillback rockfish (S. maliger. Across these mesopredators species, longevity and age at maturity increases and, consequently, the annual proportion of lifetime reproductive output decreases in the order just listed. Therefore, we hypothesized that the level of risk taken to acquire resources would vary interspecifically in that same order. During field experiments we manipulated predation risk with a model adult lingcod and used fixed video cameras to quantify interactions between mesopredators and tethered prey (Pandalus shrimps. We predicted that the probabilities of inspecting and attacking tethered prey would rank from highest to lowest and the timing of these behaviours would rank from earliest to latest as follows: kelp greenling, lingcod, copper rockfish, and quillback rockfish. We also predicted that responses to the model lingcod, such as avoidance of interactions with tethered prey, would rank from weakest to strongest in the same order. Results were consistent with our predictions suggesting that, despite occupying similar trophic levels, longer-lived mesopredators with late maturity have stronger antipredator responses and therefore experience lower foraging rates in the presence of predators than mesopredators with faster life histories. The corollary is that the fishery

  20. Local climate determines intra- and interspecific variation in sexual size dimorphism in mountain grasshopper communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, P; Illera, J C; Obeso, J R

    2013-10-01

    The climate is often evoked to explain broad-scale clines of body size, yet its involvement in the processes that generate size inequality in the two sexes (sexual size dimorphism) remains elusive. Here, we analyse climatic clines of sexual size dimorphism along a wide elevation gradient (i) among grasshopper species in a phylogenetically controlled scenario and (ii) within species differing in distribution and cold tolerance, to highlight patterns generated at different time scales, mainly evolutionary (among species or higher taxa) and ontogenetic or microevolutionary (within species). At the interspecific level, grasshoppers were slightly smaller and less dimorphic at high elevations. These clines were associated with gradients of precipitation and sun exposure, which are likely indicators of other factors that directly exert selective pressures, such as resource availability and conditions for effective thermoregulation. Within species, we found a positive effect of temperature and a negative effect of elevation on body size, especially on condition-dependent measures of body size (total body length rather than hind femur length) and in species inhabiting the highest elevations. In spite of a certain degree of species-specific variation, females tended to adjust their body size more often than males, suggesting that body size in females can evolve faster among species and can be more plastic or dependent on nutritional conditions within species living in adverse climates. Natural selection on female body size may therefore prevail over sexual selection on male body size in alpine environments, and abiotic factors may trigger consistent phenotypic patterns across taxonomic scales. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Influence of Interspecific Competition and Landscape Structure on Spatial Homogenization of Avian Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Oliver J.; McAlpine, Clive; House, Alan; Maron, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced biotic homogenization resulting from landscape change and increased competition from widespread generalists or ‘winners’, is widely recognized as a global threat to biodiversity. However, it remains unclear what aspects of landscape structure influence homogenization. This paper tests the importance of interspecific competition and landscape structure, for the spatial homogeneity of avian assemblages within a fragmented agricultural landscape of eastern Australia. We used field observations of the density of 128 diurnal bird species to calculate taxonomic and functional similarity among assemblages. We then examined whether taxonomic and functional similarity varied with patch type, the extent of woodland habitat, land-use intensity, habitat subdivision, and the presence of Manorina colonies (a competitive genus of honeyeaters). We found the presence of a Manorina colony was the most significant factor positively influencing both taxonomic and functional similarity of bird assemblages. Competition from members of this widespread genus of native honeyeater, rather than landscape structure, was the main cause of both taxonomic and functional homogenization. These species have not recently expanded their range, but rather have increased in density in response to agricultural landscape change. The negative impacts of Manorina honeyeaters on assemblage similarity were most pronounced in landscapes of moderate land-use intensity. We conclude that in these human-modified landscapes, increased competition from dominant native species, or ‘winners’, can result in homogeneous avian assemblages and the loss of specialist species. These interacting processes make biotic homogenization resulting from land-use change a global threat to biodiversity in modified agro-ecosystems. PMID:23724136

  2. Interspecific competition for shelters in territorial and gregarious intertidal grazers: consequences for individual behaviour.

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    Moisés A Aguilera

    Full Text Available Experiments have shown that interspecific interactions within consumer guilds can alter patterns of distribution, abundance and size of species. Plastic behavioural responses can be modulated by agonistic interactions. In many cases, consumers compete for space and shelters, and these interactions change the manner in which they exploit food. This study investigates the consequences of competition in the spatial and temporal organization of behaviour of intertidal grazers, which share algal resources and the use of rock crevices while resting, but exhibit different body sizes, spatial behaviour and foraging modes. We evaluate interaction strength between small gregarious Siphonaria lessoni and the larger territorial keyhole limpet Fissurella crassa and between S. lessoni and the medium-size gregarious chiton Chiton granosus. Using field manipulations and artificial arenas in the laboratory, we tested whether the use of crevices, micro-spatial distribution and activity are modified by the density of conspecifics and the presence of heterospecifics. Our results show that small-scale spatial segregation observed in the field between S. lessoni and C. granosus result from species-specific differences in habitat use. In turn, we found evidence that spatial segregation between F. crassa and S. lessoni results from highly asymmetric interference competition in the use of shelters. The presence of F. crassa reduced the use of crevices and growth rates of S. lessoni. Effects on growth rates are assumed to result from exposure to harsh environmental conditions rather than food limitation. Thus, neither gregarious behaviour nor differences in activity were sufficient to prevent competition with the larger grazer. Our study illustrates the importance of competition for shelters, which results in behavioural changes of the smaller-sized species, and how these plastic responses can translate into differences in growth rates. Use of shelters can thus be

  3. Different intra- and interspecific facilitation mechanisms between two Mediterranean trees under a climate change scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa E; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In harsh environments facilitation alleviates biotic and abiotic constraints on tree recruitment. Under ongoing drier climate change, we expect facilitation to increase as a driver of coexistence. However, this might not hold under extreme abiotic stress and when the outcome depends on the interaction with other drivers such as altered herbivore pressure due to land use change. We performed a field water-manipulation experiment to quantify the importance of facilitation in two coexisting Mediterranean trees (dominant Juniperus thurifera and coexisting Quercus ilex subsp. ballota) under a climate change scenario. Shifts in canopy dominance favouring Q. ilex could be based on the extension of heterospecific facilitation to the detriment of conspecific alleviation. We found that saplings of both species transplanted under the canopy of nurse trees had greater survival probability, growth and photochemical efficiency. Intra- and interspecific facilitation mechanisms differed: alleviation of abiotic stress benefited both species during summer and J. thurifera during winter, whereas browsing protection was relevant only for Q. ilex. Facilitation was greater under the dry treatment only for Q. ilex, which partially agreed with the predictions of the stress gradient hypothesis. We conclude that present rainfall availability limits neither J. thurifera nor Q. ilex establishment. Nevertheless, under current global change scenarios, imposing increasing abiotic stress together with altered herbivore browsing, nurse trees could differentially facilitate the establishment of Q. ilex due to species-specific traits, i.e. palatability; drought, heat and cold tolerance, underlying species differences in the facilitation mechanisms and eventually triggering a change from pure juniper woodlands to mixed formations.

  4. In situ cardiac perfusion reveals interspecific variation of intraventricular flow separation in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, William; Axelsson, Michael; Altimiras, Jordi; Wang, Tobias

    2016-07-15

    The ventricles of non-crocodilian reptiles are incompletely divided and provide an opportunity for mixing of oxygen-poor blood and oxygen-rich blood (intracardiac shunting). However, both cardiac morphology and in vivo shunting patterns exhibit considerable interspecific variation within reptiles. In the present study, we develop an in situ double-perfused heart approach to characterise the propensity and capacity for shunting in five reptile species: the turtle Trachemys scripta, the rock python Python sebae, the yellow anaconda Eunectes notaeus, the varanid lizard Varanus exanthematicus and the bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps To simulate changes in vascular bed resistance, pulmonary and systemic afterloads were independently manipulated and changes in blood flow distribution amongst the central outflow tracts were monitored. As previously demonstrated in Burmese pythons, rock pythons and varanid lizards exhibited pronounced intraventricular flow separation. As pulmonary or systemic afterload was raised, flow in the respective circulation decreased. However, flow in the other circulation, where afterload was constant, remained stable. This correlates with the convergent evolution of intraventricular pressure separation and the large intraventricular muscular ridge, which compartmentalises the ventricle, in these species. Conversely, in the three other species, the pulmonary and systemic flows were strongly mutually dependent, such that the decrease in pulmonary flow in response to elevated pulmonary afterload resulted in redistribution of perfusate to the systemic circuit (and vice versa). Thus, in these species, the muscular ridge appeared labile and blood could readily transverse the intraventricular cava. We conclude that relatively minor structural differences between non-crocodilian reptiles result in the fundamental changes in cardiac function. Further, our study emphasises that functionally similar intracardiac flow separation evolved independently in

  5. Interspecific variation in life history relates to antipredator decisions by marine mesopredators on temperate reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Alejandro; Marliave, Jeff; Heithaus, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    As upper-level predatory fishes become overfished, mesopredators rise to become the new 'top' predators of over-exploited marine communities. To gain insight into ensuing mechanisms that might alter indirect species interactions, we examined how behavioural responses to an upper-level predatory fish might differ between mesopredator species with different life histories. In rocky reefs of the northeast Pacific Ocean, adult lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) are upper-level predators that use a sit-and-wait hunting mode. Reef mesopredators that are prey to adult lingcod include kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus), younger lingcod, copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus) and quillback rockfish (S. maliger). Across these mesopredators species, longevity and age at maturity increases and, consequently, the annual proportion of lifetime reproductive output decreases in the order just listed. Therefore, we hypothesized that the level of risk taken to acquire resources would vary interspecifically in that same order. During field experiments we manipulated predation risk with a model adult lingcod and used fixed video cameras to quantify interactions between mesopredators and tethered prey (Pandalus shrimps). We predicted that the probabilities of inspecting and attacking tethered prey would rank from highest to lowest and the timing of these behaviours would rank from earliest to latest as follows: kelp greenling, lingcod, copper rockfish, and quillback rockfish. We also predicted that responses to the model lingcod, such as avoidance of interactions with tethered prey, would rank from weakest to strongest in the same order. Results were consistent with our predictions suggesting that, despite occupying similar trophic levels, longer-lived mesopredators with late maturity have stronger antipredator responses and therefore experience lower foraging rates in the presence of predators than mesopredators with faster life histories. The corollary is that the fishery removal of top

  6. Constitutive type VI secretion system expression gives Vibrio cholerae intra- and interspecific competitive advantages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Unterweger

    Full Text Available The type VI secretion system (T6SS mediates protein translocation across the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae - the causative agent of cholera. All V. cholerae strains examined to date harbor gene clusters encoding a T6SS. Structural similarity and sequence homology between components of the T6SS and the T4 bacteriophage cell-puncturing device suggest that the T6SS functions as a contractile molecular syringe to inject effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic target cells. Regulation of the T6SS is critical. A subset of V. cholerae strains, including the clinical O37 serogroup strain V52, express T6SS constitutively. In contrast, pandemic strains impose tight control that can be genetically disrupted: mutations in the quorum sensing gene luxO and the newly described regulator gene tsrA lead to constitutive T6SS expression in the El Tor strain C6706. In this report, we examined environmental V. cholerae isolates from the Rio Grande with regard to T6SS regulation. Rough V. cholerae lacking O-antigen carried a nonsense mutation in the gene encoding the global T6SS regulator VasH and did not display virulent behavior towards Escherichia coli and other environmental bacteria. In contrast, smooth V. cholerae strains engaged constitutively in type VI-mediated secretion and displayed virulence towards prokaryotes (E. coli and other environmental bacteria and a eukaryote (the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Furthermore, smooth V. cholerae strains were able to outcompete each other in a T6SS-dependent manner. The work presented here suggests that constitutive T6SS expression provides V. cholerae with an advantage in intraspecific and interspecific competition.

  7. Bathymetric and interspecific variability in maternal reproductive investment and diet of eurybathic echinoderms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A. N.; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2013-10-01

    While conditions in shallow-water and deep-sea environments differ markedly, it remains unclear how eurybathic species adapt their life histories to cope with these changes. The present study compared indicators of maternal reproductive investment of three common echinoderms collected shallower than 20 m and deeper than 850 m: Cucumaria frondosa (Holothuroidea), Solaster endeca and Henricia sanguinolenta (Asteroidea). Depth-specific and species-specific differences were found in gonad indices (GI), potential fecundity, oocyte size frequency, as well as lipid classes and fatty acids measured in gonad tissue and oocytes. The asteroids, S. endeca and H. sanguinolenta, exemplified the interspecific trade-off between size and number of oocytes: the former had fewer larger oocytes than the latter, with higher total lipid proportions in them. However, intraspecifically, larger oocytes found in deep specimens of S. endeca did not translate into lower fecundity but rather into a seemingly higher GI, indicating greater investment per oocyte without reducing fecundity. Oocytes were absent in specimens of C. frondosa sampled in deep water, suggesting delayed or impaired maturation at the limit of their depth tolerance. Analysis of S. endeca sterol proportions in gonads and oocytes across depths showed higher sterol input into oocytes in females from the deep. Gonads of S. endeca and H. sanguinolenta contained similar essential fatty acids, but showed significant differences in major fatty acids and some of the less dominant ones, indicating diet specificities. Analyses within S. endeca showed evidence of similar feeding mode (carnivory) at both depths, but suggested shifts in the diet or synthesis of fatty acids, presumably reflecting differences in available food sources and/or adaptations to their respective environments.

  8. Interspecific correlates of plasticity in relative growth rate following a decrease in nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Antonio; Shipley, Bill

    2010-02-01

    Nitrogen availability varies greatly over short time scales. This requires that a well-adapted plant modify its phenotype by an appropriate amount and at a certain speed in order to maximize growth and fitness. To determine how plastic ontogenetic changes in each trait interact and whether or not these changes are likely to maximize growth, ontogenetic changes in relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and root weight ratio (RWR), before and after a decrease in nitrogen supply, were studied in 14 herbaceous species. Forty-four plants of each species were grown in hydroponic culture under controlled conditions in a control treatment where the supply of nitrogen remained constant at 1 mm, and in a stress treatment where the nitrogen supply was abruptly decreased from 1 to 0.01 mm during the growth period. In the treatment series, and in comparison with the control, NAR and RGR decreased, RWR increased, and SLA did not change except for the timing of ontogenetic change. Species having greater increases in the maximum rate of change in RWR also had smaller reductions in RGR; plasticity in RWR is therefore adaptive. In contrast, species which showed a greater decrease in NAR showed stronger reductions in RGR; plasticity in NAR is therefore not adaptive. Plasticity in RGR was not related to plasticity in SLA. There were no significant relationships among the plasticities in NAR, RWR or SLA. Potentially fast-growing species experienced larger reductions in RGR following the nitrogen reduction. These results suggest that competitive responses to interspecific competition for nitrogen might be positively correlated with the plasticity in the maximum rate of change in RWR in response to a reduction in nitrogen supply.

  9. Interspecific variation in prey capture behavior by co-occurring Nepenthes pitcher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lijin; Chung, Arthur YC; Clarke, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes capture a wide range of arthropod prey for nutritional benefit, using complex combinations of visual and olfactory signals and gravity-driven pitfall trapping mechanisms. In many localities throughout Southeast Asia, several Nepenthes different species occur in mixed populations. Often, the species present at any given location have strongly divergent trap structures and preliminary surveys indicate that different species trap different combinations of arthropod prey, even when growing at the same locality. On this basis, it has been proposed that co-existing Nepenthes species may be engaged in niche segregation with regards to arthropod prey, avoiding direct competition with congeners by deploying traps that have modifications that enable them to target specific prey types. We examined prey capture among 3 multi-species Nepenthes populations in Borneo, finding that co-existing Nepenthes species do capture different combinations of prey, but that significant interspecific variations in arthropod prey combinations can often be detected only at sub-ordinal taxonomic ranks. In all lowland Nepenthes species examined, the dominant prey taxon is Formicidae, but montane Nepenthes trap few (or no) ants and 2 of the 3 species studied have evolved to target alternative sources of nutrition, such as tree shrew feces. Using similarity and null model analyses, we detected evidence for niche segregation with regards to formicid prey among 5 lowland, sympatric Nepenthes species in Sarawak. However, we were unable to determine whether these results provide support for the niche segregation hypothesis, or whether they simply reflect unquantified variation in heterogeneous habitats and/or ant communities in the study sites. These findings are used to propose improvements to the design of field experiments that seek to test hypotheses about targeted prey capture patterns in Nepenthes. PMID:24481246

  10. Seasonal Occurrence and Interspecific Interactions of Egg Parasitoids of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Keisuke; Adati, Tarô; Olson, Dawn M; Takasu, Keiji

    2017-06-01

    We conducted a field study to determine seasonal egg parasitism rates of the kudzu bug Megacopta cribraria (F.) on the kudzu plant, Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen et Almeida ex Sanjappa and Pradeep, in Tokyo, Japan, during the period from May 2014 to September 2014. The eggs of M. cribraria per 1 m2 of kudzu at four locations in Tokyo were collected weekly and parasitism rates were assessed. Eggs of M. cribraria were laid on the kudzu plant from May to September. Megacopta cribraria eggs were parasitized by two parasitoid species, Paratelenomus saccharalis (Dodd) and Ooencyrtus nezarae Ishii. Paratelenomus saccharalis first appeared in May, and its parasitism rates peaked in July and September. Ooencyrtus nezarae first appeared in June and its parasitism rates peaked in July. Except for one location which could not be statistically analyzed because of the small sample size, occurrence of parasitism by P. saccharalis and O. nezarae in M. cribraria egg masses was independent at one location and positively associated at two locations, suggesting that the use of host egg masses by P. saccharalis and O. nezarae is not mutually exclusive. Parasitism rates by P. saccharalis and O. nezarae were significantly lower for egg masses parasitized by both species than for those parasitized by a single species. The proportion of males among O. nezarae progeny was significantly higher for egg masses parasitized by O. nezarae together with P. saccharalis than for those parasitized by O. nezarae alone. These results suggest that parasitism of host egg masses by the two species is influenced by their interspecific interactions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Mechanosensing of stem bending and its interspecific variability in five neotropical rainforest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutand, Catherine; Chevolot, Malia; Lacointe, André; Rowe, Nick; Scotti, Ivan

    2010-02-01

    In rain forests, sapling survival is highly dependent on the regulation of trunk slenderness (height/diameter ratio): shade-intolerant species have to grow in height as fast as possible to reach the canopy but also have to withstand mechanical loadings (wind and their own weight) to avoid buckling. Recent studies suggest that mechanosensing is essential to control tree dimensions and stability-related morphogenesis. Differences in species slenderness have been observed among rainforest trees; the present study thus investigates whether species with different slenderness and growth habits exhibit differences in mechanosensitivity. Recent studies have led to a model of mechanosensing (sum-of-strains model) that predicts a quantitative relationship between the applied sum of longitudinal strains and the plant's responses in the case of a single bending. Saplings of five different neotropical species (Eperua falcata, E. grandiflora, Tachigali melinonii, Symphonia globulifera and Bauhinia guianensis) were subjected to a regimen of controlled mechanical loading phases (bending) alternating with still phases over a period of 2 months. Mechanical loading was controlled in terms of strains and the five species were subjected to the same range of sum of strains. The application of the sum-of-strain model led to a dose-response curve for each species. Dose-response curves were then compared between tested species. The model of mechanosensing (sum-of-strain model) applied in the case of multiple bending as long as the bending frequency was low. A comparison of dose-response curves for each species demonstrated differences in the stimulus threshold, suggesting two groups of responses among the species. Interestingly, the liana species B. guianensis exhibited a higher threshold than other Leguminosae species tested. This study provides a conceptual framework to study variability in plant mechanosensing and demonstrated interspecific variability in mechanosensing.

  12. Designing and creating Saccharomyces interspecific hybrids for improved, industry relevant, phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Jennifer R; Yang, Fei; Day, Martin P; Inglis, Debra L; Chambers, Paul J

    2015-10-01

    To remain competitive in increasingly overcrowded markets, yeast strain development programmes are crucial for fermentation-based food and beverage industries. In a winemaking context, there are many yeast phenotypes that stand to be improved. For example, winemakers endeavouring to produce sweet dessert wines wrestle with fermentation challenges particular to fermenting high-sugar juices, which can lead to elevated volatile acidity levels and extended fermentation times. In the current study, we used natural yeast breeding techniques to generate Saccharomyces spp. interspecific hybrids as a non-genetically modified (GM) strategy to introduce targeted improvements in important, wine-relevant traits. The hybrids were generated by mating a robust wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a wine isolate of Saccharomyces bayanus, a species previously reported to produce wines with low concentrations of acetic acid. Two hybrids generated from the cross showed robust fermentation properties in high-sugar grape juice and produced botrytised Riesling wines with much lower concentrations of acetic acid relative to the industrial wine yeast parent. The hybrids also displayed suitability for icewine production when bench-marked against an industry standard icewine yeast, by delivering icewines with lower levels of acetic acid. Additionally, the hybrid yeast produced wines with novel aroma and flavour profiles and established that choice of yeast strain impacts on wine colour. These new hybrid yeasts display the desired targeted fermentation phenotypes from both parents, robust fermentation in high-sugar juice and the production of wines with low volatile acidity, thus establishing their suitability for wine styles that are traditionally troubled by excessive volatile acidity levels.

  13. Communication, Communication, Communication! Growth through Laboratory Instructing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jamie J.; DeAngelo, Samantha; Mack, Nancy; Thompson, Claudia; Cooper, Jennifer; Sesma, Arturo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined gains undergraduate students made in their communication and collaboration skills when they served as peer teachers, i.e., laboratory instructors (LIs), for a General Psychology laboratory. Self-ratings of communication and collaboration skills were completed before and after teaching the laboratory. When compared to before the…

  14. Participatory Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical exp......, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society....

  15. Cultural Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  16. Stereotypes Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuli; Deng, Dongyuan

    2009-01-01

    We live in a world, which is becoming a Global Village in which information and communication attract people's attention more than ever before. Our desire to communicate with strangers and our relationships with them depend on the degree to which we are effective in communicating with them. There are so many factors restricting or improving…

  17. Communication Speaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinman, Robin Lynn

    2010-01-01

    When the author recently turned her attention to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) "Principles and Standards," she was startled to see communication as key. She adjusted her teaching to meet the NCTM Communication Standard and promote communication in her classroom by providing a safe environment, developing discourse and…

  18. Ripple Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, R. Stimson

    1980-01-01

    Discusses how surface-dwelling animals use the water surface as a mode of communication by making ripple signals while they swim about. Provides information about surfaces and surface waves, ripple communication in water striders, ripple signal characteristics, sensing and orienting, other modes of communication, and evolution of ripple…

  19. Communication of the popular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božilović Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of the communication of popular culture. It considers the more specialized meaning of popular culture, which primarily encompasses the works of artistic forms which have a popular character - easily understandable and entertaining contents and wide audience. The aesthetic communication of the popular through popular literature, film, pop and rock music is examined. The paper is divided into three parts. The first parts deals with the aesthetics of the communication of popular culture. It contains the analysis of the major formal-aesthetic procedures embedded in the creative expression of the popular. In the part which is dedicated to social aspects of the communication of popular art, the author examines the industrial, market and commercial principles upon which this whole culture is based. It is a time of new technologies and mass consumption, which represent, in the words of Eric Hobsbawm, a 'cultural landscape' that has transformed the manner in which a new audience experiences the artistic. Finally, popular culture stars are observed as communicators. The author adds them as a new, even crucial, link in the already known chain of communication comprising the author, the work and the audience. Stars (film, popular music are active factors of communication as well as its bearers. They are the intermediaries through which the audience establishes relationships with the authors (writers, directors, composers and the works in which those stars appear. Stars as 'new Olympians' (Morin are, indeed, another significant category that distinguishes the communication of popular culture.

  20. Communication as Relational Practice of Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Hersted; Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This chapter highlights how communication, especially leadership communication, can be understood and practised within a relational perspective. An analysis of a specific example of communication forms the basis for a discussion of six central themes that we consider significant in a relational u...... understanding of communication and leading. The chapter ends with a discussion of how leadership communication can be understood as polyphony of voices.......This chapter highlights how communication, especially leadership communication, can be understood and practised within a relational perspective. An analysis of a specific example of communication forms the basis for a discussion of six central themes that we consider significant in a relational...