WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding image processing

  1. UNDERSTANDING AND PERCEPTION OF THE CHARACTER IMAGE BY PRIMARY SCHOOLCHILDREN IN THE PROCESS OF TEXT INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Hnatenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern literature research works practically assert that literature is a way of thinking in imagery, and the interpretation of art works is almost always the interpretation of imagery, in other words perfect reality. Psychologists confirm that educational process in primary school should be formed on the account of both present and potential abilities of the children. Literature is an important means of pupils’ development. Reading in grades 1 − 4 promotes the development of children’s positive moral and will-power qualitie. With its help children perceive the world, learn to understand and love beautiful things. The writer’s ideological content of a piece of literature can be revealed in images. The main objective of text interpretation in grades 1 − 4 is to promote pupils’ perception and comprehension. Nowadays the changes in educational sphere require more attention to the issue of literary perception. In 2011, primary school changed the training course of "Reading" into "Literary reading," which aims at the development of the following reader’s qualities: to be capable to independent reading,to perform different communicative and creative activities. However, the educational process observation showed the existence of problems in young learners’ perception and understanding of literary art, and especially the role of character and its images. Today, the methodology pays attention to the quality of the perception, its depth and awareness. The efficiency level of children’s literary work perception is set on the analysis of readers’ activity results. Difficulties in the determination of the literary work perception level lie in various interpretations, complexity of the perception process, necessity to reflect different sides and emotions of imagination and thinking. Many scientific works are devoted to the analysis of literary texts understanding, to the role of visual images and imagination in literary text understanding

  2. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Nathoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS.

  3. Image processing in aerial surveillance and reconnaissance: From pixels to understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Rajadell Rojas, O.; Burghouts, G.J.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance and reconnaissance tasks are currently often performed using an airborne platform such as a UAV. The airborne platform can carry different sensors. EO/IR cameras can be used to view a certain area from above. To support the task from the sensor analyst, different image processing

  4. An image-processing method to detect sub-optical features based on understanding noise in intensity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Tripta

    2018-02-01

    Accurate quantitative analysis of image data requires that we distinguish between fluorescence intensity (true signal) and the noise inherent to its measurements to the extent possible. We image multilamellar membrane tubes and beads that grow from defects in the fluid lamellar phase of the lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine dissolved in water and water-glycerol mixtures by using fluorescence confocal polarizing microscope. We quantify image noise and determine the noise statistics. Understanding the nature of image noise also helps in optimizing image processing to detect sub-optical features, which would otherwise remain hidden. We use an image-processing technique "optimum smoothening" to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of features of interest without smearing their structural details. A high SNR renders desired positional accuracy with which it is possible to resolve features of interest with width below optical resolution. Using optimum smoothening, the smallest and the largest core diameter detected is of width [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] nm, respectively, discussed in this paper. The image-processing and analysis techniques and the noise modeling discussed in this paper can be used for detailed morphological analysis of features down to sub-optical length scales that are obtained by any kind of fluorescence intensity imaging in the raster mode.

  5. PC image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, Mok Jin Il; Am, Ha Jeng Ung

    1995-04-01

    This book starts summary of digital image processing and personal computer, and classification of personal computer image processing system, digital image processing, development of personal computer and image processing, image processing system, basic method of image processing such as color image processing and video processing, software and interface, computer graphics, video image and video processing application cases on image processing like satellite image processing, color transformation of image processing in high speed and portrait work system.

  6. Understanding Image Virality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Example non-viral images. Figure 1: Top: Images with high viral scores in our dataset depict internet “celebrity” memes ex. “Grumpy Cat”; Bottom: Images...of images that is most similar to ours is the concurrently introduced viral meme generator of Wang et al., that combines NLP and Computer Vision (low...doing any of our tasks. The test included questions about widely spread Reddit memes and jargon so that anyone familiar with Reddit can easily get a high

  7. Processing of medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, A.

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the innovations in the technology for the processing of medical images, to the high development of better and cheaper computers, and, additionally, to the advances in the systems of communications of medical images, the acquisition, storage and handling of digital images has acquired great importance in all the branches of the medicine. It is sought in this article to introduce some fundamental ideas of prosecution of digital images that include such aspects as their representation, storage, improvement, visualization and understanding

  8. Medical image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    This book is designed for end users in the field of digital imaging, who wish to update their skills and understanding with the latest techniques in image analysis. This book emphasizes the conceptual framework of image analysis and the effective use of image processing tools. It uses applications in a variety of fields to demonstrate and consolidate both specific and general concepts, and to build intuition, insight and understanding. Although the chapters are essentially self-contained they reference other chapters to form an integrated whole. Each chapter employs a pedagogical approach to e

  9. Image Understanding Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    Reconnaissance des Formes et Intelligence Artificielle , Sept. 1981, Nancy, France. [11] T.C. Henderson and B. Bhanu, "Extraction of Planar Faces from...34Semantic Description of Aerial Images Using Stochastic Labeling," IEEE Trans. on Pattern Recognition and Machine Intelligence , Nov. 1981. [2] R. Ohlander...Tenenbaum, "MSYS: A System for Reasoning About Scenes," Tech. Note 121, Artificial Intelligence Center, SRI Intl., Menlo Park, CA, 1976. [7]. D. Marr

  10. Understanding the image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the physical principles of radiology (i.e., why you see what you see), particularly as they apply to portable radiography; to illustrate the usefulness of positioning maneuvers to produce an optimal view of suspected pathology and altered physiology; to alert one to common pitfalls in interpretation, many of which are inherent in the portable technique; and to address the role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of specific adult and pediatric diseases frequently encountered in the postoperative and intensive care setting

  11. Image understanding using sparse representations

    CERN Document Server

    Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J; Turaga, Pavan; Spanias, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Image understanding has been playing an increasingly crucial role in several inverse problems and computer vision. Sparse models form an important component in image understanding, since they emulate the activity of neural receptors in the primary visual cortex of the human brain. Sparse methods have been utilized in several learning problems because of their ability to provide parsimonious, interpretable, and efficient models. Exploiting the sparsity of natural signals has led to advances in several application areas including image compression, denoising, inpainting, compressed sensing, blin

  12. Biomedical Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deserno, Thomas Martin

    2011-01-01

    In modern medicine, imaging is the most effective tool for diagnostics, treatment planning and therapy. Almost all modalities have went to directly digital acquisition techniques and processing of this image data have become an important option for health care in future. This book is written by a team of internationally recognized experts from all over the world. It provides a brief but complete overview on medical image processing and analysis highlighting recent advances that have been made in academics. Color figures are used extensively to illustrate the methods and help the reader to understand the complex topics.

  13. Fundamentals of electronic image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Weeks, Arthur R

    1996-01-01

    This book is directed to practicing engineers and scientists who need to understand the fundamentals of image processing theory and algorithms to perform their technical tasks. It is intended to fill the gap between existing high-level texts dedicated to specialists in the field and the need for a more practical, fundamental text on image processing. A variety of example images are used to enhance reader understanding of how particular image processing algorithms work.

  14. Understanding the Budget Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the operating budget, while long-term plans are reflected in the capital budget. Since the time when cash is available to an organization does not usually coincide with the time that disbursements must be made, it is also important to carefully plan for the inflow and outflow of funds by means of a cash budget.      During the budget process an organization selects its programs and activities by providing the necessary funding; the library, along with others in the organization, must justify its requests. Because of the cyclical nature of the budget process, it is possible continually to gather information and evaluate alternatives for the next budget period so that the library may achieve its maximum potential for service to its patrons.

  15. Understanding the consultation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the consultation processes between industry, government and First Nations communities regarding resource development. The expectations of the Crown are to facilitate capacity building within First Nations, to promote traditional use studies and to participate with industry proponents on certain consultation issues. The role of industry is to encourage partnerships between established contractors and First Nations contracting firms to allow First Nations firms to grow and experience success under the guidance of a mentor company. It is important to realize that solid First Nations relations are the key to shorter time lines and lower costs in developing projects. However, consultation and involvement must be 'real' with benefits and participation that fall within the First Nations Communities' definition of success

  16. A model for understanding diagnostic imaging referrals and complex interaction processes within the bigger picture of a healthcare system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makanjee, Chandra R.; Bergh, Anne-Marie; Hoffmann, Willem A.

    2014-01-01

    Using experiences from the South African public healthcare system with limited resources, this review proposes a model that captures a holistic perspective of diagnostic imaging services embedded in a network of negotiated decision-making processes. Professional interdependency and interprofessional collaboration, cooperation and coordination are built around the central notion of integration in order to achieve a seamless transition through the continuum of various types of services needed to come to a diagnosis. Health-system role players interact with patients who enter the system from the perspective of their life-world. The distribution of diagnostic imaging services – within one setting or at multiple levels of care – demonstrates how fragments of information are filtered, interpreted and transformed at each point of care. The proposed model could contribute to alignment towards a common goal: services providing holistic quality of care within and beyond a complex healthcare system

  17. Hyperspectral image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liguo

    2016-01-01

    Based on the authors’ research, this book introduces the main processing techniques in hyperspectral imaging. In this context, SVM-based classification, distance comparison-based endmember extraction, SVM-based spectral unmixing, spatial attraction model-based sub-pixel mapping, and MAP/POCS-based super-resolution reconstruction are discussed in depth. Readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of these cutting-edge hyperspectral imaging techniques. Researchers and graduate students in fields such as remote sensing, surveying and mapping, geosciences and information systems will benefit from this valuable resource.

  18. Understanding images using knowledge based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tascini, G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to image understanding focusing on low level image processing and proposes a rule-based approach as part of larger knowledge-based system. The general system has a yerarchical structure that comprises several knowledge-based layers. The main idea is to confine at the lower level the domain independent knowledge and to reserve the higher levels for the domain dependent knowledge, that is for the interpretation

  19. What makes process models understandable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendling, J.; Reijers, H.A.; Cardoso, J.; Alonso, G.; Dadam, P.; Rosemann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Despite that formal and informal quality aspects are of significant importance to business process modeling, there is only little empirical work reported on process model quality and its impact factors. In this paper we investigate understandability as a proxy for quality of process models and focus

  20. Markov Processes in Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, E. P.; Kharina, N. L.

    2018-05-01

    Digital images are used as an information carrier in different sciences and technologies. The aspiration to increase the number of bits in the image pixels for the purpose of obtaining more information is observed. In the paper, some methods of compression and contour detection on the basis of two-dimensional Markov chain are offered. Increasing the number of bits on the image pixels will allow one to allocate fine object details more precisely, but it significantly complicates image processing. The methods of image processing do not concede by the efficiency to well-known analogues, but surpass them in processing speed. An image is separated into binary images, and processing is carried out in parallel with each without an increase in speed, when increasing the number of bits on the image pixels. One more advantage of methods is the low consumption of energy resources. Only logical procedures are used and there are no computing operations. The methods can be useful in processing images of any class and assignment in processing systems with a limited time and energy resources.

  1. Image perception and image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wackenheim, A.

    1987-01-01

    The author develops theoretical and practical models of image perception and image processing, based on phenomenology and structuralism and leading to original perception: fundamental for a positivistic approach of research work for the development of artificial intelligence that will be able in an automated system fo 'reading' X-ray pictures.

  2. Image perception and image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.

    1987-01-01

    The author develops theoretical and practical models of image perception and image processing, based on phenomenology and structuralism and leading to original perception: fundamental for a positivistic approach of research work for the development of artificial intelligence that will be able in an automated system fo 'reading' X-ray pictures. (orig.) [de

  3. A Dual Process Approach to Understand Tourists’ Destination Choice Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Florian; Josiassen, Alexander; Assaf, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Most studies that investigate tourists' choices of destinations apply the concept of mental destination representations, also referred to as destination image. The present study investigates tourists’ destination choice processes by conceptualizing how different components of destination image...... are mentally processed in tourists' minds. Specifically, the seminal dual processing approach is applied to the destination image literature. By doing this, we argue that some components of mental destination representations are processed systematically while others serve as inputs for heuristics...... that individuals apply to inform their decision making. Understanding how individuals make use of their mental destination representations and how they color their decision-making is essential in order to better explain tourist behavior....

  4. Hyperspectral image processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

  5. Image Processing: Some Challenging Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T. S.; Aizawa, K.

    1993-11-01

    Image processing can be broadly defined as the manipulation of signals which are inherently multidimensional. The most common such signals are photographs and video sequences. The goals of processing or manipulation can be (i) compression for storage or transmission; (ii) enhancement or restoration; (iii) analysis, recognition, and understanding; or (iv) visualization for human observers. The use of image processing techniques has become almost ubiquitous; they find applications in such diverse areas as astronomy, archaeology, medicine, video communication, and electronic games. Nonetheless, many important problems in image processing remain unsolved. It is the goal of this paper to discuss some of these challenging problems. In Section I, we mention a number of outstanding problems. Then, in the remainder of this paper, we concentrate on one of them: very-low-bit-rate video compression. This is chosen because it involves almost all aspects of image processing.

  6. Interactive case vignettes utilizing simulated pathologist-clinician encounters with whole slide imaging and video tutorials of whole slide scans improves student understanding of disease processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Horn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the drawbacks of studying pathology in the second year of medical school in a classroom setting is the relatively limited exposure to patient encounters/clinical rotations, making it difficult to understand and fully appreciate the significance of the course material, specifically the molecular and tissue aspects of disease. In this study, we determined if case vignettes incorporating pathologist-clinician encounters with whole slide imaging (WSI and narrated/annotated videos of whole slide (WS scans in addition to clinical data improved student understanding of pathologic disease processes. Materials and Methods: Case vignettes were created for several genitourinary disease processes that utilized clinical data including narratives of pathologist-clinician encounters, WSI, and annotated video tutorials of WS scans (designed to simulate "double-heading". The students were encouraged to view the virtual slide first, with the video tutorials being provided to offer additional assistance. The case vignettes were created to be interactive with a detailed explanation of each correct and incorrect question choice. The cases were made available to all second year medical students via a website and could be viewed only after completing a 10 question pre-test. A post-test could be completed after viewing all cases followed by a brief satisfaction survey. Results: Ninety-six students completed the pre-test with an average score of 7.7/10. Fifty-seven students completed the post-test with an average score of 9.4/10. Thirty-six students completed the satisfaction survey. 94% agreed or strongly agreed that this was a useful exercise and 91% felt that it helped them better understand the topics. Conclusion: The development of interactive case vignettes incorporating simulated pathologist-clinician encounters with WSI and video tutorials of WS scans helps to improve student enthusiasm to learn and grasp pathologic aspects of disease

  7. Structural image and video understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we have discussed how to exploit the structures in several computer vision topics. The five chapters addressed five computer vision topics using the image structures. In chapter 2, we proposed a structural model to jointly predict the age, expression and gender of a face. By modeling

  8. Image processing in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian

    This Ph.D project addresses image processing in medical ultrasound and seeks to achieve two major scientific goals: First to develop an understanding of the most significant factors influencing image quality in medical ultrasound, and secondly to use this knowledge to develop image processing...... multiple imaging setups. This makes the system well suited for development of new processing methods and for clinical evaluations, where acquisition of the exact same scan location for multiple methods is important. The second project addressed implementation, development and evaluation of SASB using...... methods for enhancing the diagnostic value of medical ultrasound. The project is an industrial Ph.D project co-sponsored by BK Medical ApS., with the commercial goal to improve the image quality of BK Medicals scanners. Currently BK Medical employ a simple conventional delay-and-sum beamformer to generate...

  9. Image understanding using geometric context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Liu, Chuancai

    2017-07-01

    A Gibbs Sampler based topic model for image annotation, which takes into account the interaction between visual geometric context and related topic, is presented. Most of the existing topic models for scene annotation use segmentation-based algorithm. However, topic models using segmentation algorithm alone sometimes can produce erroneous results when used to annotate real-life scene pictures. Therefore, our algorithm makes use of peaks of image surface instead of segmentation regions. Existing approaches use SIFT algorithm and treat the peaks as round blob features. In this paper, the peaks are treated as anisotropic blob features, which models low level visual elements more precisely. In order to better utilize visual features, our model not only takes into consideration visual codeword, but also considers influence of visual properties to topic formation, such as orientation, width, length and color. The basic idea is based on the assumption that different topics will produce distinct visual appearance, and different visual appearance is helpful to distinguish topics. During the learning stage, each topic will be associated with a set of distributions of visual properties, which depicts appearance of the topic. This paper considers more geometric properties, which will reduce topic uncertainty and learn the images better. Tested with Corel5K, SAIAPR-TC12 and Espgame100k Datasets, our method performs moderately better than some state of the arts methods.

  10. Understanding synthesis imaging dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, R.

    2013-03-01

    We develop a general framework for quantifying the many different contributions to the noise budget of an image made with an array of dishes or aperture array stations. Each noise contribution to the visibility data is associated with a relevant correlation timescale and frequency bandwidth so that the net impact on a complete observation can be assessed when a particular effect is not captured in the instrumental calibration. All quantities are parameterised as function of observing frequency and the visibility baseline length. We apply the resulting noise budget analysis to a wide range of existing and planned telescope systems that will operate between about 100 MHz and 5 GHz to ascertain the magnitude of the calibration challenges that they must overcome to achieve thermal noise limited performance. We conclude that calibration challenges are increased in several respects by small dimensions of the dishes or aperture array stations. It will be more challenging to achieve thermal noise limited performance using 15 m class dishes rather than the 25 m dishes of current arrays. Some of the performance risks are mitigated by the deployment of phased array feeds and more with the choice of an (alt,az,pol) mount, although a larger dish diameter offers the best prospects for risk mitigation. Many improvements to imaging performance can be anticipated at the expense of greater complexity in calibration algorithms. However, a fundamental limitation is ultimately imposed by an insufficient number of data constraints relative to calibration variables. The upcoming aperture array systems will be operating in a regime that has never previously been addressed, where a wide range of effects are expected to exceed the thermal noise by two to three orders of magnitude. Achieving routine thermal noise limited imaging performance with these systems presents an extreme challenge. The magnitude of that challenge is inversely related to the aperture array station diameter.

  11. Digital image processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez, Rafael C; Woods, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Completely self-contained-and heavily illustrated-this introduction to basic concepts and methodologies for digital image processing is written at a level that truly is suitable for seniors and first...

  12. Digital image processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez, Rafael C; Woods, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    ...-year graduate students in almost any technical discipline. The leading textbook in its field for more than twenty years, it continues its cutting-edge focus on contemporary developments in all mainstream areas of image processing-e.g...

  13. Understanding X-ray cargo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gongyin

    2005-01-01

    Cargo imaging is the field of imaging large objects, usually cargo containers, trains, trucks or boats. Transmission imaging with photons, especially X-rays of up to 9 MV is the dominant current technique, providing compelling details of the contents of objects this large. This paper discusses the physics aspects of a good X-ray cargo imaging system. The basic performance requirements, such as penetration, contrast and resolution and the components of a cargo imaging system are introduced. The imaging process is divided in this paper into three stages: forming information (probing the object), recording information and presenting information (image display). Their impact on performance is analyzed

  14. Methods in Astronomical Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörsäter, S.

    A Brief Introductory Note History of Astronomical Imaging Astronomical Image Data Images in Various Formats Digitized Image Data Digital Image Data Philosophy of Astronomical Image Processing Properties of Digital Astronomical Images Human Image Processing Astronomical vs. Computer Science Image Processing Basic Tools of Astronomical Image Processing Display Applications Calibration of Intensity Scales Calibration of Length Scales Image Re-shaping Feature Enhancement Noise Suppression Noise and Error Analysis Image Processing Packages: Design of AIPS and MIDAS AIPS MIDAS Reduction of CCD Data Bias Subtraction Clipping Preflash Subtraction Dark Subtraction Flat Fielding Sky Subtraction Extinction Correction Deconvolution Methods Rebinning/Combining Summary and Prospects for the Future

  15. Comic image understanding based on polygon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Luyuan; Wang, Yongtao; Tang, Zhi; Liu, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Comic image understanding aims to automatically decompose scanned comic page images into storyboards and then identify the reading order of them, which is the key technique to produce digital comic documents that are suitable for reading on mobile devices. In this paper, we propose a novel comic image understanding method based on polygon detection. First, we segment a comic page images into storyboards by finding the polygonal enclosing box of each storyboard. Then, each storyboard can be represented by a polygon, and the reading order of them is determined by analyzing the relative geometric relationship between each pair of polygons. The proposed method is tested on 2000 comic images from ten printed comic series, and the experimental results demonstrate that it works well on different types of comic images.

  16. Image processing in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammann, F.

    2002-01-01

    Medical imaging processing and analysis methods have significantly improved during recent years and are now being increasingly used in clinical applications. Preprocessing algorithms are used to influence image contrast and noise. Three-dimensional visualization techniques including volume rendering and virtual endoscopy are increasingly available to evaluate sectional imaging data sets. Registration techniques have been developed to merge different examination modalities. Structures of interest can be extracted from the image data sets by various segmentation methods. Segmented structures are used for automated quantification analysis as well as for three-dimensional therapy planning, simulation and intervention guidance, including medical modelling, virtual reality environments, surgical robots and navigation systems. These newly developed methods require specialized skills for the production and postprocessing of radiological imaging data as well as new definitions of the roles of the traditional specialities. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the state-of-the-art of medical imaging processing methods, practical implications for the ragiologist's daily work and future aspects. (orig.) [de

  17. Differential morphology and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragos, P

    1996-01-01

    Image processing via mathematical morphology has traditionally used geometry to intuitively understand morphological signal operators and set or lattice algebra to analyze them in the space domain. We provide a unified view and analytic tools for morphological image processing that is based on ideas from differential calculus and dynamical systems. This includes ideas on using partial differential or difference equations (PDEs) to model distance propagation or nonlinear multiscale processes in images. We briefly review some nonlinear difference equations that implement discrete distance transforms and relate them to numerical solutions of the eikonal equation of optics. We also review some nonlinear PDEs that model the evolution of multiscale morphological operators and use morphological derivatives. Among the new ideas presented, we develop some general 2-D max/min-sum difference equations that model the space dynamics of 2-D morphological systems (including the distance computations) and some nonlinear signal transforms, called slope transforms, that can analyze these systems in a transform domain in ways conceptually similar to the application of Fourier transforms to linear systems. Thus, distance transforms are shown to be bandpass slope filters. We view the analysis of the multiscale morphological PDEs and of the eikonal PDE solved via weighted distance transforms as a unified area in nonlinear image processing, which we call differential morphology, and briefly discuss its potential applications to image processing and computer vision.

  18. Processing Of Binary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H. S.

    1985-07-01

    An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.

  19. From Process Understanding to Process Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefland, M.

    2010-01-01

    A licensed pharmaceutical process is required to be executed within the validated ranges throughout the lifetime of product manufacturing. Changes to the process usually require the manufacturer to demonstrate that the safety and efficacy of the product remains unchanged. Recent changes in the

  20. Career management: understanding the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, J; Eckel, F M

    1985-02-01

    This article is the first of a three-part series on career management for hospital pharmacists. Work attitudes, life cycles, needs, and career trends are discussed. Three basic work attitudes exist. Some see work as punishment. Others believe work in itself is good, i.e., they have a strong work ethic. Some view work as a means to satisfy, at least partially, a range of needs. Attitudinal transition points are likely to occur at specific times in the adult life cycle. The stages of the life cycle can be labeled as leaving, reaching out, questioning, midlife crisis, settling down, and mellowing. A progression through each of these stages is required for normal adult psychological development. Every individual exhibits a blend of needs that changes throughout life. Jobs can fulfill existence, relatedness, and growth needs. Relatedness needs include the need for love, affiliation, social esteem, and power, and growth needs include the need for self-esteem, competence, achievement, and autonomy. Three important career trends are the changing opportunities for advancement, women in careers, and dual-career couples. The number of women pharmacists is increasing as is the number of two-career couples. Tips for managing two-career relationships are presented. Pharmacists can manage their careers more effectively by understanding their needs, identifying their basic attitude toward work, and being aware of the trends occurring in pharmacy.

  1. Fuzzy image processing and applications with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to classical image analysis methods that employ ""crisp"" mathematics, fuzzy set techniques provide an elegant foundation and a set of rich methodologies for diverse image-processing tasks. However, a solid understanding of fuzzy processing requires a firm grasp of essential principles and background knowledge.Fuzzy Image Processing and Applications with MATLAB® presents the integral science and essential mathematics behind this exciting and dynamic branch of image processing, which is becoming increasingly important to applications in areas such as remote sensing, medical imaging,

  2. Introduction to the Special Theme Image Understanding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Kittler, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 95 (2013), s. 9-9 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG11009 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : image understanding * visual information recognition Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/haindl-0397628.pdf

  3. Introduction to computer image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moik, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Theoretical backgrounds and digital techniques for a class of image processing problems are presented. Image formation in the context of linear system theory, image evaluation, noise characteristics, mathematical operations on image and their implementation are discussed. Various techniques for image restoration and image enhancement are presented. Methods for object extraction and the problem of pictorial pattern recognition and classification are discussed.

  4. Teaching physics and understanding infrared thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2017-08-01

    Infrared thermal imaging is a very rapidly evolving field. The latest trends are small smartphone IR camera accessories, making infrared imaging a widespread and well-known consumer product. Applications range from medical diagnosis methods via building inspections and industrial predictive maintenance etc. also to visualization in the natural sciences. Infrared cameras do allow qualitative imaging and visualization but also quantitative measurements of the surface temperatures of objects. On the one hand, they are a particularly suitable tool to teach optics and radiation physics and many selected topics in different fields of physics, on the other hand there is an increasing need of engineers and physicists who understand these complex state of the art photonics systems. Therefore students must also learn and understand the physics underlying these systems.

  5. Introduction to digital image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, William K

    2013-01-01

    CONTINUOUS IMAGE CHARACTERIZATION Continuous Image Mathematical Characterization Image RepresentationTwo-Dimensional SystemsTwo-Dimensional Fourier TransformImage Stochastic CharacterizationPsychophysical Vision Properties Light PerceptionEye PhysiologyVisual PhenomenaMonochrome Vision ModelColor Vision ModelPhotometry and ColorimetryPhotometryColor MatchingColorimetry ConceptsColor SpacesDIGITAL IMAGE CHARACTERIZATION Image Sampling and Reconstruction Image Sampling and Reconstruction ConceptsMonochrome Image Sampling SystemsMonochrome Image Reconstruction SystemsColor Image Sampling SystemsImage QuantizationScalar QuantizationProcessing Quantized VariablesMonochrome and Color Image QuantizationDISCRETE TWO-DIMENSIONAL LINEAR PROCESSING Discrete Image Mathematical Characterization Vector-Space Image RepresentationGeneralized Two-Dimensional Linear OperatorImage Statistical CharacterizationImage Probability Density ModelsLinear Operator Statistical RepresentationSuperposition and ConvolutionFinite-Area Superp...

  6. Image understanding architecture: a status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Charles C.

    1995-01-01

    The image understanding architecture (IUA) effort is now entering a new phase. The second generation IUA prototypes are nearing completion and our experience with the hardware, extensive software simulations, and additional research are guiding the development of a new generation of the IUA. Furthermore, the primary contractors have been selected for a technology reinvestment project (TRP) award to develop a commercial, off-the-shelf implementation of the new IUA for dual-use embedded applications. Thus, the IUA effort is in the process of making the transition from a research and development project to being a commercially available vision accelerator. IUA development is currently taking place at three sites (Hughes Research Laboratories in Malibu, Calif., Amerinex Artificial Intelligence Inc., and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst). This TRP consortium plans to form a new company to take over all aspects of IUA development and production. This article summarizes the previous efforts, describes the current status of the effort, expands briefly upon some of the basic research that is supporting the next generation IUA, and concludes with a section describing the efforts that will be undertaken in developing the next generation.

  7. scikit-image: image processing in Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, Stéfan; Schönberger, Johannes L; Nunez-Iglesias, Juan; Boulogne, François; Warner, Joshua D; Yager, Neil; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Yu, Tony

    2014-01-01

    scikit-image is an image processing library that implements algorithms and utilities for use in research, education and industry applications. It is released under the liberal Modified BSD open source license, provides a well-documented API in the Python programming language, and is developed by an active, international team of collaborators. In this paper we highlight the advantages of open source to achieve the goals of the scikit-image library, and we showcase several real-world image processing applications that use scikit-image. More information can be found on the project homepage, http://scikit-image.org.

  8. scikit-image: image processing in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéfan van der Walt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available scikit-image is an image processing library that implements algorithms and utilities for use in research, education and industry applications. It is released under the liberal Modified BSD open source license, provides a well-documented API in the Python programming language, and is developed by an active, international team of collaborators. In this paper we highlight the advantages of open source to achieve the goals of the scikit-image library, and we showcase several real-world image processing applications that use scikit-image. More information can be found on the project homepage, http://scikit-image.org.

  9. Implementing An Image Understanding System Architecture Using Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Randall L.

    1988-03-01

    This paper will describe PIPE and how it can be used to implement an image understanding system. Image understanding is the process of developing a description of an image in order to make decisions about its contents. The tasks of image understanding are generally split into low level vision and high level vision. Low level vision is performed by PIPE -a high performance parallel processor with an architecture specifically designed for processing video images at up to 60 fields per second. High level vision is performed by one of several types of serial or parallel computers - depending on the application. An additional processor called ISMAP performs the conversion from iconic image space to symbolic feature space. ISMAP plugs into one of PIPE's slots and is memory mapped into the high level processor. Thus it forms the high speed link between the low and high level vision processors. The mechanisms for bottom-up, data driven processing and top-down, model driven processing are discussed.

  10. Image processing and recognition for biological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Seiichi

    2013-05-01

    This paper reviews image processing and pattern recognition techniques, which will be useful to analyze bioimages. Although this paper does not provide their technical details, it will be possible to grasp their main tasks and typical tools to handle the tasks. Image processing is a large research area to improve the visibility of an input image and acquire some valuable information from it. As the main tasks of image processing, this paper introduces gray-level transformation, binarization, image filtering, image segmentation, visual object tracking, optical flow and image registration. Image pattern recognition is the technique to classify an input image into one of the predefined classes and also has a large research area. This paper overviews its two main modules, that is, feature extraction module and classification module. Throughout the paper, it will be emphasized that bioimage is a very difficult target for even state-of-the-art image processing and pattern recognition techniques due to noises, deformations, etc. This paper is expected to be one tutorial guide to bridge biology and image processing researchers for their further collaboration to tackle such a difficult target. © 2013 The Author Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  11. Image processing with ImageJ

    CERN Document Server

    Pascau, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The book will help readers discover the various facilities of ImageJ through a tutorial-based approach.This book is targeted at scientists, engineers, technicians, and managers, and anyone who wishes to master ImageJ for image viewing, processing, and analysis. If you are a developer, you will be able to code your own routines after you have finished reading this book. No prior knowledge of ImageJ is expected.

  12. Processing Visual Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litke, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The back of the eye is lined by an extraordinary biological pixel detector, the retina. This neural network is able to extract vital information about the external visual world, and transmit this information in a timely manner to the brain. In this talk, Professor Litke will describe a system that has been implemented to study how the retina processes and encodes dynamic visual images. Based on techniques and expertise acquired in the development of silicon microstrip detectors for high energy physics experiments, this system can simultaneously record the extracellular electrical activity of hundreds of retinal output neurons. After presenting first results obtained with this system, Professor Litke will describe additional applications of this incredible technology.

  13. Understanding Patients? Process to Use Medical Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Crowell, Tara L

    2016-01-01

    Given the necessity to better understand the process patients need to go through in order to seek treatment via medical marijuana, this study investigates this process to better understand this phenomenon. Specifically, Compassion Care Foundation (CCF) and Stockton University worked together to identify a solution to this problem. Specifically, 240 new patients at CCF were asked to complete a 1-page survey regarding various aspects associated with their experience prior to their use of medici...

  14. Trends in medical image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilotta, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    The function of medical image processing is analysed, mentioning the developments, the physical agents, and the main categories, as conection of distortion in image formation, detectability increase, parameters quantification, etc. (C.G.C.) [pt

  15. Methods of digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeler, W.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing use of computerized methods for diagnostical imaging of radiological problems will open up a wide field of applications for digital image processing. The requirements set by routine diagnostics in medical radiology point to picture data storage and documentation and communication as the main points of interest for application of digital image processing. As to the purely radiological problems, the value of digital image processing is to be sought in the improved interpretability of the image information in those cases where the expert's experience and image interpretation by human visual capacities do not suffice. There are many other domains of imaging in medical physics where digital image processing and evaluation is very useful. The paper reviews the various methods available for a variety of problem solutions, and explains the hardware available for the tasks discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. Industrial Applications of Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciora, Radu Adrian; Simion, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-11-01

    The recent advances in sensors quality and processing power provide us with excellent tools for designing more complex image processing and pattern recognition tasks. In this paper we review the existing applications of image processing and pattern recognition in industrial engineering. First we define the role of vision in an industrial. Then a dissemination of some image processing techniques, feature extraction, object recognition and industrial robotic guidance is presented. Moreover, examples of implementations of such techniques in industry are presented. Such implementations include automated visual inspection, process control, part identification, robots control. Finally, we present some conclusions regarding the investigated topics and directions for future investigation

  17. [Imaging center - optimization of the imaging process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, H-P

    2013-04-01

    Hospitals around the world are under increasing pressure to optimize the economic efficiency of treatment processes. Imaging is responsible for a great part of the success but also of the costs of treatment. In routine work an excessive supply of imaging methods leads to an "as well as" strategy up to the limit of the capacity without critical reflection. Exams that have no predictable influence on the clinical outcome are an unjustified burden for the patient. They are useless and threaten the financial situation and existence of the hospital. In recent years the focus of process optimization was exclusively on the quality and efficiency of performed single examinations. In the future critical discussion of the effectiveness of single exams in relation to the clinical outcome will be more important. Unnecessary exams can be avoided, only if in addition to the optimization of single exams (efficiency) there is an optimization strategy for the total imaging process (efficiency and effectiveness). This requires a new definition of processes (Imaging Pathway), new structures for organization (Imaging Center) and a new kind of thinking on the part of the medical staff. Motivation has to be changed from gratification of performed exams to gratification of process quality (medical quality, service quality, economics), including the avoidance of additional (unnecessary) exams. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Building country image process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The same branding principles are used for countries as they are used for the products, only the methods are different. Countries are competing among themselves in tourism, foreign investments and exports. Country turnover is at the level that the country's reputation is. The countries that begin as unknown or with a bad image will have limits in operations or they will be marginalized. As a result they will be at the bottom of the international influence scale. On the other hand, countries with a good image, like Germany (despite two world wars will have their products covered with a special "aura".

  19. Digital Data Processing of Images

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digital data processing was investigated to perform image processing. Image smoothing and restoration were explored and promising results obtained. The use of the computer, not only as a data management device, but as an important tool to render quantitative information, was illustrated by lung function determination.

  20. Understanding Patients’ Process to Use Medical Marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L Crowell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the necessity to better understand the process patients need to go through in order to seek treatment via medical marijuana, this study investigates this process to better understand this phenomenon. Specifically, Compassion Care Foundation (CCF and Stockton University worked together to identify a solution to this problem. Specifically, 240 new patients at CCF were asked to complete a 1-page survey regarding various aspects associated with their experience prior to their use of medicinal marijuana—diagnosis, what prompted them to seek treatment, level of satisfaction with specific stages in the process, total length of time the process took, and patient’s level of pain. Results reveal numerous patient diagnoses for which medical marijuana is being prescribed; the top 4 most common are intractable skeletal spasticity, chronic and severe pain, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Next, results indicate a little over half of the patients were first prompted to seek alternative treatment from their physicians, while the remaining patients indicated that other sources such as written information along with friends, relatives, media, and the Internet persuaded them to seek treatment. These data indicate that a variety of sources play a role in prompting patients to seek alternative treatment and is a critical first step in this process. Additional results posit that once patients began the process of qualifying to receive medical marijuana as treatment, the process seemed more positive even though it takes patients on average almost 6 months to obtain their first treatment after they started the process. Finally, results indicate that patients are reporting a moderately high level of pain prior to treatment. Implication of these results highlights several important elements in the patients’ initial steps toward seeking medical marijuana, along with the quality and quantity of the process patients must engage in prior to

  1. Microprocessor based image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.I.; Siddiqui, M.N.; Rangoonwala, A.

    1987-01-01

    Rapid developments in the production of integrated circuits and introduction of sophisticated 8,16 and now 32 bit microprocessor based computers, have set new trends in computer applications. Nowadays the users by investing much less money can make optimal use of smaller systems by getting them custom-tailored according to their requirements. During the past decade there have been great advancements in the field of computer Graphics and consequently, 'Image Processing' has emerged as a separate independent field. Image Processing is being used in a number of disciplines. In the Medical Sciences, it is used to construct pseudo color images from computer aided tomography (CAT) or positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. Art, advertising and publishing people use pseudo colours in pursuit of more effective graphics. Structural engineers use Image Processing to examine weld X-rays to search for imperfections. Photographers use Image Processing for various enhancements which are difficult to achieve in a conventional dark room. (author)

  2. AUTOMATION OF IMAGE DATA PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preuss Ryszard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the current capabilities of automate processing of the image data on the example of using PhotoScan software by Agisoft . At present, image data obtained by various registration systems (metric and non - metric cameras placed on airplanes , satellites , or more often on UAVs is used to create photogrammetric products. Multiple registrations of object or land area (large groups of photos are captured are usually performed in order to eliminate obscured area as well as to raise the final accuracy of the photogrammetric product. Because of such a situation t he geometry of the resulting image blocks is far from the typical configuration of images . For fast images georeferencing automatic image matching algorithms are currently applied . They can create a model of a block in the local coordinate system or using initial exterior orientation and measured control points can provide image georeference in an external reference frame. In the case of non - metric image application, it is also possible to carry out self - calibration process at this stage . Image matching algorithm is also used in generation of dense point clouds reconstructing spatial shape of the object ( area. In subsequent processing steps it is possible to obtain typical photogrammetric products such as orthomosaic , DSM or DTM and a photorealistic solid model of an object . All aforementioned processing steps are implemented in a single program in contrary to standard commercial software dividing all steps into dedicated modules . I mage processing leading to final geo referenced products can be fully automated including sequential implementation of the processing steps at predetermined control parameters . The paper presents the practical results of the application fully automatic generation of othomosaic for both images obtained by a metric Vexell camera and a block of images acquired by a non - metric UAV system.

  3. TECHNOLOGIES OF BRAIN IMAGES PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Klyuchko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present research was to analyze modern methods of processing biological images implemented before storage in databases for biotechnological purposes. The databases further were incorporated into web-based digital systems. Examples of such information systems were described in the work for two levels of biological material organization; databases for storing data of histological analysis and of whole brain were described. Methods of neuroimaging processing for electronic brain atlas were considered. It was shown that certain pathological features can be revealed in histological image processing. Several medical diagnostic techniques (for certain brain pathologies, etc. as well as a few biotechnological methods are based on such effects. Algorithms of image processing were suggested. Electronic brain atlas was conveniently for professionals in different fields described in details. Approaches of brain atlas elaboration, “composite” scheme for large deformations as well as several methods of mathematic images processing were described as well.

  4. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  5. Image restoration and processing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniell, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    This review will stress the importance of using image restoration techniques that deal with incomplete, inconsistent, and noisy data and do not introduce spurious features into the processed image. No single image is equally suitable for both the resolution of detail and the accurate measurement of intensities. A good general purpose technique is the maximum entropy method and the basis and use of this will be explained. (orig.)

  6. Invitation to medical image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Mori, Kensaku

    2010-01-01

    This medical essay explains the present state of CT image processing technology about its recognition, acquisition and visualization for computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) and surgery (CAS), and future view. Medical image processing has a series of history of its original start from the discovery of X-ray to its application to diagnostic radiography, its combination with the computer for CT, multi-detector raw CT, leading to 3D/4D images for CAD and CAS. CAD is performed based on the recognition of normal anatomical structure of human body, detection of possible abnormal lesion and visualization of its numerical figure into image. Actual instances of CAD images are presented here for chest (lung cancer), abdomen (colorectal cancer) and future body atlas (models of organs and diseases for imaging), a recent national project: computer anatomy. CAS involves the surgical planning technology based on 3D images, navigation of the actual procedure and of endoscopy. As guidance to beginning technological image processing, described are the national and international community like related academic societies, regularly conducting congresses, textbooks and workshops, and topics in the field like computed anatomy of an individual patient for CAD and CAS, its data security and standardization. In future, protective medicine is in authors' view based on the imaging technology, e.g., daily life CAD of individuals ultimately, as exemplified in the present body thermometer and home sphygmometer, to monitor one's routine physical conditions. (T.T.)

  7. Architecture Of High Speed Image Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Toshio; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Ohki, Tohru

    1988-01-01

    One of architectures for a high speed image processing system which corresponds to a new algorithm for a shape understanding is proposed. And the hardware system which is based on the archtecture was developed. Consideration points of the architecture are mainly that using processors should match with the processing sequence of the target image and that the developed system should be used practically in an industry. As the result, it was possible to perform each processing at a speed of 80 nano-seconds a pixel.

  8. Understanding the biological underpinnings of ecohydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxman, T. E.; Scott, R. L.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Hamerlynck, E. P.; Jenerette, D.; Tissue, D. T.; Breshears, D. D.; Saleska, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change presents a challenge for predicting ecosystem response, as multiple factors drive both the physical and life processes happening on the land surface and their interactions result in a complex, evolving coupled system. For example, changes in surface temperature and precipitation influence near-surface hydrology through impacts on system energy balance, affecting a range of physical processes. These changes in the salient features of the environment affect biological processes and elicit responses along the hierarchy of life (biochemistry to community composition). Many of these structural or process changes can alter patterns of soil water-use and influence land surface characteristics that affect local climate. Of the many features that affect our ability to predict the future dynamics of ecosystems, it is this hierarchical response of life that creates substantial complexity. Advances in the ability to predict or understand aspects of demography help describe thresholds in coupled ecohydrological system. Disentangling the physical and biological features that underlie land surface dynamics following disturbance are allowing a better understanding of the partitioning of water in the time-course of recovery. Better predicting the timing of phenology and key seasonal events allow for a more accurate description of the full functional response of the land surface to climate. In addition, explicitly considering the hierarchical structural features of life are helping to describe complex time-dependent behavior in ecosystems. However, despite this progress, we have yet to build an ability to fully account for the generalization of the main features of living systems into models that can describe ecohydrological processes, especially acclimation, assembly and adaptation. This is unfortunate, given that many key ecosystem services are functions of these coupled co-evolutionary processes. To date, both the lack of controlled measurements and experimentation

  9. The Dark Energy Survey Image Processing Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganson, E.; et al.

    2018-01-09

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a five-year optical imaging campaign with the goal of understanding the origin of cosmic acceleration. DES performs a 5000 square degree survey of the southern sky in five optical bands (g,r,i,z,Y) to a depth of ~24th magnitude. Contemporaneously, DES performs a deep, time-domain survey in four optical bands (g,r,i,z) over 27 square degrees. DES exposures are processed nightly with an evolving data reduction pipeline and evaluated for image quality to determine if they need to be retaken. Difference imaging and transient source detection are also performed in the time domain component nightly. On a bi-annual basis, DES exposures are reprocessed with a refined pipeline and coadded to maximize imaging depth. Here we describe the DES image processing pipeline in support of DES science, as a reference for users of archival DES data, and as a guide for future astronomical surveys.

  10. Medical Imaging for Understanding Sleep Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenneth

    2011-10-01

    Sleep is essential for the health of the nervous system. Lack of sleep has a profound negative effect on cognitive ability and task performance. During sustained military operations, soldiers often suffer from decreased quality and quantity of sleep, increasing their susceptibility to neurological problems and limiting their ability to perform the challenging mental tasks that their missions require. In the civilian sector, inadequate sleep and overt sleep pathology are becoming more common, with many detrimental impacts. There is a strong need for new, in vivo studies of human brains during sleep, particularly the initial descent from wakefulness. Our research team is investigating sleep using a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and electroencephalography (EEG). High resolution MRI combined with PET enables localization of biochemical processes (e.g., metabolism) to anatomical structures. MRI methods can also be used to examine functional connectivity among brain regions. Neural networks are dynamically reordered during different sleep stages, reflecting the disconnect with the waking world and the essential yet unconscious brain activity that occurs during sleep.[4pt] In collaboration with Linda Larson-Prior, Washington University; Alpay Ozcan, Virginia Tech; Seong Mun, Virginia Tech; and Zang-Hee Cho, Gachon University.

  11. Understanding the Entrepreneurial Process: a Dynamic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Maria Jorge Nassif

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable predominance in the adoption of perspectives based on characteristics in research into entrepreneurship. However, most studies describe the entrepreneur from a static or snapshot approach; very few adopt a dynamic perspective. The aim of this study is to contribute to the enhancement of knowledge concerning entrepreneurial process dynamics through an understanding of the values, characteristics and actions of the entrepreneur over time. By focusing on personal attributes, we have developed a framework that shows the importance of affective and cognitive aspects of entrepreneurs and the way that they evolve during the development of their business.

  12. Understanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronney, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    A review of research on the effects of gravity on combustion processes is presented, with an emphasis on a discussion of the ways in which reduced-gravity experiments and modeling has led to new understanding. Comparison of time scales shows that the removal of buoyancy-induced convection leads to manifestations of other transport mechanisms, notably radiative heat transfer and diffusional processes such as Lewis number effects. Examples from premixed-gas combustion, non-premixed gas-jet flames, droplet combustion, flame spread over solid and liquid fuels, and other fields are presented. Promising directions for new research are outlined, the most important of which is suggested to be radiative reabsorption effects in weakly burning flames.

  13. Existential space understanding through digital image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Iñarra Abad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The logical way to learn from the architectural space and then be able to design and represent it is, undoubtedly, that of experiencing it through all the sensitive channels that the space wakes up us.  But since the last 30 years, much of our learning about space comes from images of architecture and not from the space itself. The art of architecture is drifting towards a visual art and moving away from its existential side. In digital images that have flooded the architectural media, digital photographs of existing spaces intermingle with non-existent space renderings (photographs with a virtual camera. The first ones represent existing places but can be altered to change the perception that  the observer of the image will have, the second ones speak to us about places that do not exist yet but they present reality portions through extracts from digital photography (textures, trees, people... that compose the image.

  14. Image understanding in terms of semiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharko, E.; Kaminsky, Roman M.; Shpytko, V.

    1995-06-01

    Human perception of pictorial visual information is investigated from iconical sign view-point and appropriate semiotical model is discussed. Image construction (syntactics) is analyzed as a complex hierarchical system and various types of pictorial objects, their relations, regular configurations are represented, studied, and modeled. Relations between image syntactics, its semantics, and pragmatics is investigated. Research results application to the problems of thematic interpretation of Earth surface remote imgages is illustrated.

  15. Practical image and video processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, Oge

    2011-01-01

    "The book provides a practical introduction to the most important topics in image and video processing using MATLAB (and its Image Processing Toolbox) as a tool to demonstrate the most important techniques and algorithms. The contents are presented in a clear, technically accurate, objective way, with just enough mathematical detail. Most of the chapters are supported by figures, examples, illustrative problems, MATLAB scripts, suggestions for further reading, bibliographical references, useful Web sites, and exercises and computer projects to extend the understanding of their contents"--

  16. Computational Intelligence in Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Siarry, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Computational intelligence based techniques have firmly established themselves as viable, alternate, mathematical tools for more than a decade. They have been extensively employed in many systems and application domains, among these signal processing, automatic control, industrial and consumer electronics, robotics, finance, manufacturing systems, electric power systems, and power electronics. Image processing is also an extremely potent area which has attracted the atten­tion of many researchers who are interested in the development of new computational intelligence-based techniques and their suitable applications, in both research prob­lems and in real-world problems. Part I of the book discusses several image preprocessing algorithms; Part II broadly covers image compression algorithms; Part III demonstrates how computational intelligence-based techniques can be effectively utilized for image analysis purposes; and Part IV shows how pattern recognition, classification and clustering-based techniques can ...

  17. Digital processing of radiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A. D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1973-01-01

    Some techniques are presented and the software documentation for the digital enhancement of radiographs. Both image handling and image processing operations are considered. The image handling operations dealt with are: (1) conversion of format of data from packed to unpacked and vice versa; (2) automatic extraction of image data arrays; (3) transposition and 90 deg rotations of large data arrays; (4) translation of data arrays for registration; and (5) reduction of the dimensions of data arrays by integral factors. Both the frequency and the spatial domain approaches are presented for the design and implementation of the image processing operation. It is shown that spatial domain recursive implementation of filters is much faster than nonrecursive implementations using fast fourier transforms (FFT) for the cases of interest in this work. The recursive implementation of a class of matched filters for enhancing image signal to noise ratio is described. Test patterns are used to illustrate the filtering operations. The application of the techniques to radiographic images of metallic structures is demonstrated through several examples.

  18. Crack detection using image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, M.A.A

    2010-01-01

    This thesis contains five main subjects in eight chapters and two appendices. The first subject discus Wiener filter for filtering images. In the second subject, we examine using different methods, as Steepest Descent Algorithm (SDA) and the Wavelet Transformation, to detect and filling the cracks, and it's applications in different areas as Nano technology and Bio-technology. In third subject, we attempt to find 3-D images from 1-D or 2-D images using texture mapping with Open Gl under Visual C ++ language programming. The fourth subject consists of the process of using the image warping methods for finding the depth of 2-D images using affine transformation, bilinear transformation, projective mapping, Mosaic warping and similarity transformation. More details about this subject will be discussed below. The fifth subject, the Bezier curves and surface, will be discussed in details. The methods for creating Bezier curves and surface with unknown distribution, using only control points. At the end of our discussion we will obtain the solid form, using the so called NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline); which depends on: the degree of freedom, control points, knots, and an evaluation rule; and is defined as a mathematical representation of 3-D geometry that can accurately describe any shape from a simple 2-D line, circle, arc, or curve to the most complex 3-D organic free-form surface or (solid) which depends on finding the Bezier curve and creating family of curves (surface), then filling in between to obtain the solid form. Another representation for this subject is concerned with building 3D geometric models from physical objects using image-based techniques. The advantage of image techniques is that they require no expensive equipment; we use NURBS, subdivision surface and mesh for finding the depth of any image with one still view or 2D image. The quality of filtering depends on the way the data is incorporated into the model. The data should be treated with

  19. FITS Liberator: Image processing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nielsen, Kaspar K.; Johansen, Teis; Hurt, Robert; de Martin, David

    2012-06-01

    The ESA/ESO/NASA FITS Liberator makes it possible to process and edit astronomical science data in the FITS format to produce stunning images of the universe. Formerly a plugin for Adobe Photoshop, the current version of FITS Liberator is a stand-alone application and no longer requires Photoshop. This image processing software makes it possible to create color images using raw observations from a range of telescopes; the FITS Liberator continues to support the FITS and PDS formats, preferred by astronomers and planetary scientists respectively, which enables data to be processed from a wide range of telescopes and planetary probes, including ESO's Very Large Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, ESA's XMM-Newton Telescope and Cassini-Huygens or Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  20. Neural understanding of low-resolution images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaanenburg, L; DeGraaf, J; Nijhuis, JAG; Stevens, [No Value; Wichers, W

    1998-01-01

    Neural networks can be applied for a number of innovative applications in a production environment, ranging from security & safety in the environmental conditions to the product control & diagnosis. For visual monitoring the use of low-resolution images is promising to bridge the time elapse between

  1. JIP: Java image processing on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongyan; Lin, Bo; Zhang, Jun

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we present JIP - Java Image Processing on the Internet, a new Internet based application for remote education and software presentation. JIP offers an integrate learning environment on the Internet where remote users not only can share static HTML documents and lectures notes, but also can run and reuse dynamic distributed software components, without having the source code or any extra work of software compilation, installation and configuration. By implementing a platform-independent distributed computational model, local computational resources are consumed instead of the resources on a central server. As an extended Java applet, JIP allows users to selected local image files on their computers or specify any image on the Internet using an URL as input. Multimedia lectures such as streaming video/audio and digital images are integrated into JIP and intelligently associated with specific image processing functions. Watching demonstrations an practicing the functions with user-selected input data dramatically encourages leaning interest, while promoting the understanding of image processing theory. The JIP framework can be easily applied to other subjects in education or software presentation, such as digital signal processing, business, mathematics, physics, or other areas such as employee training and charged software consumption.

  2. Multimedia image and video processing

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Ling

    2012-01-01

    As multimedia applications have become part of contemporary daily life, numerous paradigm-shifting technologies in multimedia processing have emerged over the last decade. Substantially updated with 21 new chapters, Multimedia Image and Video Processing, Second Edition explores the most recent advances in multimedia research and applications. This edition presents a comprehensive treatment of multimedia information mining, security, systems, coding, search, hardware, and communications as well as multimodal information fusion and interaction. Clearly divided into seven parts, the book begins w

  3. Linear Algebra and Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allali, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    We use the computing technology digital image processing (DIP) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to DIP is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty. (Contains 2 tables and 11 figures.)

  4. Mathematical problems in image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    This is the second volume of a new series of lecture notes of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics. This volume contains the lecture notes given by A. Chambolle during the School on Mathematical Problems in Image Processing. The school consisted of two weeks of lecture courses and one week of conference

  5. Motion-compensated processing of image signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    In a motion-compensated processing of images, input images are down-scaled (scl) to obtain down-scaled images, the down-scaled images are subjected to motion- compensated processing (ME UPC) to obtain motion-compensated images, the motion- compensated images are up-scaled (sc2) to obtain up-scaled

  6. Image exploitation and dissemination prototype of distributed image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, N.; Huqqani, A.A.; Mahmood, A.

    2003-05-01

    Image processing applications requirements can be best met by using the distributed environment. This report presents to draw inferences by utilizing the existed LAN resources under the distributed computing environment using Java and web technology for extensive processing to make it truly system independent. Although the environment has been tested using image processing applications, its design and architecture is truly general and modular so that it can be used for other applications as well, which require distributed processing. Images originating from server are fed to the workers along with the desired operations to be performed on them. The Server distributes the task among the Workers who carry out the required operations and send back the results. This application has been implemented using the Remote Method Invocation (RMl) feature of Java. Java RMI allows an object running in one Java Virtual Machine (JVM) to invoke methods on another JVM thus providing remote communication between programs written in the Java programming language. RMI can therefore be used to develop distributed applications [1]. We undertook this project to gain a better understanding of distributed systems concepts and its uses for resource hungry jobs. The image processing application is developed under this environment

  7. Conceptualization, Cognitive Process between Image and Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Ion Clinciu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the process of constituting and organizing the system of concepts. After a comparative analysis of image and concept, conceptualization is reconsidered through raising for discussion the relations of concept with image in general and with self-image mirrored in body schema in particular. Taking into consideration the notion of mental space, there is developed an articulated perspective on conceptualization which has the images of mental space at one pole and the categories of language and operations of thinking at the other pole. There are explored the explicative possibilities of the notion of Tversky’s diagrammatic space as an element which is necessary to understand the genesis of graphic behaviour and to define a new construct, graphic intelligence.

  8. Musashi dynamic image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Yutaka; Mochiki, Koh-ichi; Taguchi, Akira

    1992-01-01

    In order to produce transmitted neutron dynamic images using neutron radiography, a real time system called Musashi dynamic image processing system (MDIPS) was developed to collect, process, display and record image data. The block diagram of the MDIPS is shown. The system consists of a highly sensitive, high resolution TV camera driven by a custom-made scanner, a TV camera deflection controller for optimal scanning, which adjusts to the luminous intensity and the moving speed of an object, a real-time corrector to perform the real time correction of dark current, shading distortion and field intensity fluctuation, a real time filter for increasing the image signal to noise ratio, a video recording unit and a pseudocolor monitor to realize recording in commercially available products and monitoring by means of the CRTs in standard TV scanning, respectively. The TV camera and the TV camera deflection controller utilized for producing still images can be applied to this case. The block diagram of the real-time corrector is shown. Its performance is explained. Linear filters and ranked order filters were developed. (K.I.)

  9. using fuzzy logic in image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashabrawy, M.A.F.

    2002-01-01

    due to the unavoidable merge between computer and mathematics, the signal processing in general and the processing in particular have greatly improved and advanced. signal processing deals with the processing of any signal data for use by a computer, while image processing deals with all kinds of images (just images). image processing involves the manipulation of image data for better appearance and viewing by people; consequently, it is a rapidly growing and exciting field to be involved in today . this work takes an applications - oriented approach to image processing .the applications; the maps and documents of the first egyptian research reactor (ETRR-1), the x-ray medical images and the fingerprints image. since filters, generally, work continuous ranges rather than discrete values, fuzzy logic techniques are more convenient.thee techniques are powerful in image processing and can deal with one- dimensional, 1-D and two - dimensional images, 2-D images as well

  10. Image processing with ImageJ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramoff, M.D.; Magalhães, Paulo J.; Ram, Sunanda J.

    2004-01-01

    Wayne Rasband of NIH has created ImageJ, an open source Java-written program that is now at version 1.31 and is used for many imaging applications, including those that that span the gamut from skin analysis to neuroscience. ImageJ is in the public domain and runs on any operating system (OS).

  11. Image quality dependence on image processing software in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image quality dependence on image processing software in computed radiography. ... Agfa CR readers use MUSICA software, and an upgrade with significantly different image ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Illuminating magma shearing processes via synchrotron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Cai, Biao; Coats, Rebecca; Kendrick, Jackie E.; von Aulock, Felix W.; Wallace, Paul A.; Le Gall, Nolwenn; Godinho, Jose; Dobson, Katherine; Atwood, Robert; Holness, Marian; Lee, Peter D.

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of geomaterial behaviour and processes has long fallen short due to inaccessibility into material as "something" happens. In volcanology, research strategies have increasingly sought to illuminate the subsurface of materials at all scales, from the use of muon tomography to image the inside of volcanoes to the use of seismic tomography to image magmatic bodies in the crust, and most recently, we have added synchrotron-based x-ray tomography to image the inside of material as we test it under controlled conditions. Here, we will explore some of the novel findings made on the evolution of magma during shearing. These will include observations and discussions of magma flow and failure as well as petrological reaction kinetics.

  13. Understanding flexible and distributed software development processes

    OpenAIRE

    Agerfalk, Par J.; Fitzgerald, Brian

    2006-01-01

    peer-reviewed The minitrack on Flexible and Distributed Software Development Processes addresses two important and partially intertwined current themes in software development: process flexibility and globally distributed software development

  14. Fast processing of foreign fiber images by image blocking

    OpenAIRE

    Yutao Wu; Daoliang Li; Zhenbo Li; Wenzhu Yang

    2014-01-01

    In the textile industry, it is always the case that cotton products are constitutive of many types of foreign fibers which affect the overall quality of cotton products. As the foundation of the foreign fiber automated inspection, image process exerts a critical impact on the process of foreign fiber identification. This paper presents a new approach for the fast processing of foreign fiber images. This approach includes five main steps, image block, image pre-decision, image background extra...

  15. Fast processing of foreign fiber images by image blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutao Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the textile industry, it is always the case that cotton products are constitutive of many types of foreign fibers which affect the overall quality of cotton products. As the foundation of the foreign fiber automated inspection, image process exerts a critical impact on the process of foreign fiber identification. This paper presents a new approach for the fast processing of foreign fiber images. This approach includes five main steps, image block, image pre-decision, image background extraction, image enhancement and segmentation, and image connection. At first, the captured color images were transformed into gray-scale images; followed by the inversion of gray-scale of the transformed images ; then the whole image was divided into several blocks. Thereafter, the subsequent step is to judge which image block contains the target foreign fiber image through image pre-decision. Then we segment the image block via OSTU which possibly contains target images after background eradication and image strengthening. Finally, we connect those relevant segmented image blocks to get an intact and clear foreign fiber target image. The experimental result shows that this method of segmentation has the advantage of accuracy and speed over the other segmentation methods. On the other hand, this method also connects the target image that produce fractures therefore getting an intact and clear foreign fiber target image.

  16. Biomedical signal and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Baselli, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Anna; Caiani, Enrico; Contini, Davide; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Dercole, Fabio; Rienzo, Luca; Liberati, Diego; Mainardi, Luca; Ravazzani, Paolo; Rinaldi, Sergio; Signorini, Maria; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Generally, physiological modeling and biomedical signal processing constitute two important paradigms of biomedical engineering (BME): their fundamental concepts are taught starting from undergraduate studies and are more completely dealt with in the last years of graduate curricula, as well as in Ph.D. courses. Traditionally, these two cultural aspects were separated, with the first one more oriented to physiological issues and how to model them and the second one more dedicated to the development of processing tools or algorithms to enhance useful information from clinical data. A practical consequence was that those who did models did not do signal processing and vice versa. However, in recent years,the need for closer integration between signal processing and modeling of the relevant biological systems emerged very clearly [1], [2]. This is not only true for training purposes(i.e., to properly prepare the new professional members of BME) but also for the development of newly conceived research projects in which the integration between biomedical signal and image processing (BSIP) and modeling plays a crucial role. Just to give simple examples, topics such as brain–computer machine or interfaces,neuroengineering, nonlinear dynamical analysis of the cardiovascular (CV) system,integration of sensory-motor characteristics aimed at the building of advanced prostheses and rehabilitation tools, and wearable devices for vital sign monitoring and others do require an intelligent fusion of modeling and signal processing competences that are certainly peculiar of our discipline of BME.

  17. Understanding the Learning Process in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James; Gannon-Leary, Pat

    2007-01-01

    A major obstacle to the diffusion of management development learning technologies from Higher Education Institutions to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is a lack of understanding about how SME learners learn. This article examines the nature of learning in SMEs and considers the incidence of informal support for informal learning.…

  18. Understanding power plant investment decision processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.; Richstein, J.C.; De Vries, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand how companies make investment decisions under conditions of deep uncertainty, we interviewed a number of actors in the Dutch electricity sector. Most of the economic literature that is devoted to this question is prescriptive in nature, describing rational methods to the

  19. Object localization in handheld thermal images for fireground understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Florian; Merci, Bart; Jalalvand, Azarakhsh; Verstockt, Steven

    2017-05-01

    Despite the broad application of the handheld thermal imaging cameras in firefighting, its usage is mostly limited to subjective interpretation by the person carrying the device. As remedies to overcome this limitation, object localization and classification mechanisms could assist the fireground understanding and help with the automated localization, characterization and spatio-temporal (spreading) analysis of the fire. An automated understanding of thermal images can enrich the conventional knowledge-based firefighting techniques by providing the information from the data and sensing-driven approaches. In this work, transfer learning is applied on multi-labeling convolutional neural network architectures for object localization and recognition in monocular visual, infrared and multispectral dynamic images. Furthermore, the possibility of analyzing fire scene images is studied and their current limitations are discussed. Finally, the understanding of the room configuration (i.e., objects location) for indoor localization in reduced visibility environments and the linking with Building Information Models (BIM) are investigated.

  20. Review of Biomedical Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaccio Edward J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is a review of the book: 'Biomedical Image Processing', by Thomas M. Deserno, which is published by Springer-Verlag. Salient information that will be useful to decide whether the book is relevant to topics of interest to the reader, and whether it might be suitable as a course textbook, are presented in the review. This includes information about the book details, a summary, the suitability of the text in course and research work, the framework of the book, its specific content, and conclusions.

  1. Topics in medical image processing and computational vision

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, Renato

    2013-01-01

      The sixteen chapters included in this book were written by invited experts of international recognition and address important issues in Medical Image Processing and Computational Vision, including: Object Recognition, Object Detection, Object Tracking, Pose Estimation, Facial Expression Recognition, Image Retrieval, Data Mining, Automatic Video Understanding and Management, Edges Detection, Image Segmentation, Modelling and Simulation, Medical thermography, Database Systems, Synthetic Aperture Radar and Satellite Imagery.   Different applications are addressed and described throughout the book, comprising: Object Recognition and Tracking, Facial Expression Recognition, Image Database, Plant Disease Classification, Video Understanding and Management, Image Processing, Image Segmentation, Bio-structure Modelling and Simulation, Medical Imaging, Image Classification, Medical Diagnosis, Urban Areas Classification, Land Map Generation.   The book brings together the current state-of-the-art in the various mul...

  2. Image processing with personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Hiroshi; Handa, Madoka; Watanabe, Yoshihiko

    1990-01-01

    The method of automating the judgement works using photographs in radiation nondestructive inspection with a simple type image processor on the market was examined. The software for defect extraction and making binary and the software for automatic judgement were made for trial, and by using the various photographs on which the judgement was already done as the object, the accuracy and the problematic points were tested. According to the state of the objects to be photographed and the condition of inspection, the accuracy of judgement from 100% to 45% was obtained. The criteria for judgement were in conformity with the collection of reference photographs made by Japan Cast Steel Association. In the non-destructive inspection by radiography, the number and size of the defect images in photographs are visually judged, the results are collated with the standard, and the quality is decided. Recently, the technology of image processing with personal computers advanced, therefore by utilizing this technology, the automation of the judgement of photographs was attempted to improve the accuracy, to increase the inspection efficiency and to realize labor saving. (K.I.)

  3. Infrared thermography quantitative image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouroliakou, A.; Kalatzis, I.; Kalyvas, N.; Grivas, TB

    2017-11-01

    Infrared thermography is an imaging technique that has the ability to provide a map of temperature distribution of an object’s surface. It is considered for a wide range of applications in medicine as well as in non-destructive testing procedures. One of its promising medical applications is in orthopaedics and diseases of the musculoskeletal system where temperature distribution of the body’s surface can contribute to the diagnosis and follow up of certain disorders. Although the thermographic image can give a fairly good visual estimation of distribution homogeneity and temperature pattern differences between two symmetric body parts, it is important to extract a quantitative measurement characterising temperature. Certain approaches use temperature of enantiomorphic anatomical points, or parameters extracted from a Region of Interest (ROI). A number of indices have been developed by researchers to that end. In this study a quantitative approach in thermographic image processing is attempted based on extracting different indices for symmetric ROIs on thermograms of the lower back area of scoliotic patients. The indices are based on first order statistical parameters describing temperature distribution. Analysis and comparison of these indices result in evaluating the temperature distribution pattern of the back trunk expected in healthy, regarding spinal problems, subjects.

  4. Digital image processing mathematical and computational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Blackledge, J M

    2005-01-01

    This authoritative text (the second part of a complete MSc course) provides mathematical methods required to describe images, image formation and different imaging systems, coupled with the principle techniques used for processing digital images. It is based on a course for postgraduates reading physics, electronic engineering, telecommunications engineering, information technology and computer science. This book relates the methods of processing and interpreting digital images to the 'physics' of imaging systems. Case studies reinforce the methods discussed, with examples of current research

  5. Radiology image orientation processing for workstation display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Fu; Hu, Kermit; Wilson, Dennis L.

    1998-06-01

    Radiology images are acquired electronically using phosphor plates that are read in Computed Radiology (CR) readers. An automated radiology image orientation processor (RIOP) for determining the orientation for chest images and for abdomen images has been devised. In addition, the chest images are differentiated as front (AP or PA) or side (Lateral). Using the processing scheme outlined, hospitals will improve the efficiency of quality assurance (QA) technicians who orient images and prepare the images for presentation to the radiologists.

  6. Digital Data Processing of Images

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be concerned with the image enhancement of scintigrams. Two applications of image ... obtained from scintigraphic equipment, image enhance- ment by computer was ... used as an example. ..... Using video-tape display, areas of interest are ...

  7. Understanding Modeling Requirements of Unstructured Business Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allah Bukhsh, Zaharah; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Quartel, Dick

    2017-01-01

    Management of structured business processes is of interest to both academia and industry, where academia focuses on the development of methods and techniques while industry focuses on the development of supporting tools. With the shift from routine to knowledge work, the relevance of management of

  8. Understanding the Sales Process by Selling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Experiential projects bring students closer to real-world situations. This is valuable in sales education because the complexities of the sales process are difficult to learn from a textbook. A student project was developed that involved the selling of advertising space in a one-time newspaper insert. The project included a substantial minimum…

  9. Obsolescence – understanding the underlying processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.F.

    2017-01-01

    Obsolescence, defined as the process of declining performance of buildings, is a serious threat for the value, the usefulness and the life span of built properties. Thomsen and van der Flier (2011) developed a model in which obsolescence is categorised on the basis of two distinctions, i.e. between

  10. Understanding the Federal Proposal Review Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Janis I.

    Information on the peer review process for the evaluation of federal grant proposals is presented to help college grants administrators and faculty develop good proposals. This guidebook provides an overview of the policies and conventions that govern the review and selection of proposals for funding, and details the review procedures of the…

  11. Digital signal and image processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet , Gérard

    2015-01-01

    The most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals, the theory being supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications.   More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLAB® language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject.  Following on from the first volume, this second installation takes a more practical stance, provi

  12. Feature extraction & image processing for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This book is an essential guide to the implementation of image processing and computer vision techniques, with tutorial introductions and sample code in Matlab. Algorithms are presented and fully explained to enable complete understanding of the methods and techniques demonstrated. As one reviewer noted, ""The main strength of the proposed book is the exemplar code of the algorithms."" Fully updated with the latest developments in feature extraction, including expanded tutorials and new techniques, this new edition contains extensive new material on Haar wavelets, Viola-Jones, bilateral filt

  13. Digital signal and image processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet , Gérard

    2014-01-01

    This fully revised and updated second edition presents the most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals. The theory is supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications. More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLABÒ language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject. This fully revised new edition updates : - the

  14. Statistical image processing and multidimensional modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Fieguth, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Images are all around us! The proliferation of low-cost, high-quality imaging devices has led to an explosion in acquired images. When these images are acquired from a microscope, telescope, satellite, or medical imaging device, there is a statistical image processing task: the inference of something - an artery, a road, a DNA marker, an oil spill - from imagery, possibly noisy, blurry, or incomplete. A great many textbooks have been written on image processing. However this book does not so much focus on images, per se, but rather on spatial data sets, with one or more measurements taken over

  15. Image Processing and Features Extraction of Fingerprint Images ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To demonstrate the importance of the image processing of fingerprint images prior to image enrolment or comparison, the set of fingerprint images in databases (a) and (b) of the FVC (Fingerprint Verification Competition) 2000 database were analyzed using a features extraction algorithm. This paper presents the results of ...

  16. Understanding the process of fascial unwinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasny, Budiman

    2009-09-23

    Fascial or myofascial unwinding is a process in which a client undergoes a spontaneous reaction in response to the therapist's touch. It can be induced by using specific techniques that encourage a client's body to move into areas of ease. Unwinding is a popular technique in massage therapy, but its mechanism is not well understood. In the absence of a scientific explanation or hypothesis of the mechanism of action, it can be interpreted as "mystical." This paper proposes a model that builds on the neurobiologic, ideomotor action, and consciousness theories to explain the process and mechanism of fascial unwinding. HYPOTHETICAL MODEL: During fascial unwinding, the therapist stimulates mechanoreceptors in the fascia by applying gentle touch and stretching. Touch and stretching induce relaxation and activate the parasympathetic nervous system. They also activate the central nervous system, which is involved in the modulation of muscle tone as well as movement. As a result, the central nervous system is aroused and thereby responds by encouraging muscles to find an easier, or more relaxed, position and by introducing the ideomotor action. Although the ideomotor action is generated via normal voluntary motor control systems, it is altered and experienced as an involuntary response. Fascial unwinding occurs when a physically induced suggestion by a therapist prompts ideomotor action that the client experiences as involuntary. This action is guided by the central nervous system, which produces continuous action until a state of ease is reached. Consequently, fascial unwinding can be thought of as a neurobiologic process employing the self-regulation dynamic system theory.

  17. Scilab and SIP for Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri, Ricardo; Bruno, Odemir Martinez; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an overview of Image Processing and Analysis using Scilab, a free prototyping environment for numerical calculations similar to Matlab. We demonstrate the capabilities of SIP -- the Scilab Image Processing Toolbox -- which extends Scilab with many functions to read and write images in over 100 major file formats, including PNG, JPEG, BMP, and TIFF. It also provides routines for image filtering, edge detection, blurring, segmentation, shape analysis, and image recognition. Basic ...

  18. The Digital Image Processing And Quantitative Analysis In Microscopic Image Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardisasmita, M. Syamsa

    2000-01-01

    Many electron microscopes although have produced digital images, but not all of them are equipped with a supporting unit to process and analyse image data quantitatively. Generally the analysis of image has to be made visually and the measurement is realized manually. The development of mathematical method for geometric analysis and pattern recognition, allows automatic microscopic image analysis with computer. Image processing program can be used for image texture and structure periodic analysis by the application of Fourier transform. Because the development of composite materials. Fourier analysis in frequency domain become important for measure the crystallography orientation. The periodic structure analysis and crystal orientation are the key to understand many material properties like mechanical strength. stress, heat conductivity, resistance, capacitance and other material electric and magnetic properties. In this paper will be shown the application of digital image processing in microscopic image characterization and analysis in microscopic image

  19. Image processing technology for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Yong Beom; Kim, Woong Ki; Park, Soon Young

    1993-05-01

    Digital image processing technique is being actively studied since microprocessors and semiconductor memory devices have been developed in 1960's. Now image processing board for personal computer as well as image processing system for workstation is developed and widely applied to medical science, military, remote inspection, and nuclear industry. Image processing technology which provides computer system with vision ability not only recognizes nonobvious information but processes large information and therefore this technique is applied to various fields like remote measurement, object recognition and decision in adverse environment, and analysis of X-ray penetration image in nuclear facilities. In this report, various applications of image processing to nuclear facilities are examined, and image processing techniques are also analysed with the view of proposing the ideas for future applications. (Author)

  20. Nuclear medicine imaging and data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, P.R.; Dillon, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Imaging System (ORIS) is a software operating system structure around the Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP-8 minicomputer which provides a complete range of image manipulation procedures. Through its modular design it remains open-ended for easy expansion to meet future needs. Already included in the system are image access routines for use with the rectilinear scanner or gamma camera (both static and flow studies); display hardware design and corresponding software; archival storage provisions; and, most important, many image processing techniques. The image processing capabilities include image defect removal, smoothing, nonlinear bounding, preparation of functional images, and transaxial emission tomography reconstruction from a limited number of views

  1. Eliminating "Hotspots" in Digital Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    Signals from defective picture elements rejected. Image processing program for use with charge-coupled device (CCD) or other mosaic imager augmented with algorithm that compensates for common type of electronic defect. Algorithm prevents false interpretation of "hotspots". Used for robotics, image enhancement, image analysis and digital television.

  2. Image processing unit with fall-back.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    An image processing unit ( 100,200,300 ) for computing a sequence of output images on basis of a sequence of input images, comprises: a motion estimation unit ( 102 ) for computing a motion vector field on basis of the input images; a quality measurement unit ( 104 ) for computing a value of a

  3. Tensors in image processing and computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    De Luis García, Rodrigo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2009-01-01

    Tensor signal processing is an emerging field with important applications to computer vision and image processing. This book presents the developments in this branch of signal processing, offering research and discussions by experts in the area. It is suitable for advanced students working in the area of computer vision and image processing.

  4. Optoelectronic imaging of speckle using image processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjiang; Wang, Pengfei

    2018-01-01

    A detailed image processing of laser speckle interferometry is proposed as an example for the course of postgraduate student. Several image processing methods were used together for dealing with optoelectronic imaging system, such as the partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to reduce the effect of noise, the thresholding segmentation also based on heat equation with PDEs, the central line is extracted based on image skeleton, and the branch is removed automatically, the phase level is calculated by spline interpolation method, and the fringe phase can be unwrapped. Finally, the imaging processing method was used to automatically measure the bubble in rubber with negative pressure which could be used in the tire detection.

  5. Advances in low-level color image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Smolka, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Color perception plays an important role in object recognition and scene understanding both for humans and intelligent vision systems. Recent advances in digital color imaging and computer hardware technology have led to an explosion in the use of color images in a variety of applications including medical imaging, content-based image retrieval, biometrics, watermarking, digital inpainting, remote sensing, visual quality inspection, among many others. As a result, automated processing and analysis of color images has become an active area of research, to which the large number of publications of the past two decades bears witness. The multivariate nature of color image data presents new challenges for researchers and practitioners as the numerous methods developed for single channel images are often not directly applicable to multichannel  ones. The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the early stages of the color image processing pipeline.

  6. UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS AMY MCGOVERN, TIMOTHY SUPINIE, DAVID JOHN GAGNE II, NATHANIEL TROUTMAN,...

  7. Digital image processing techniques in archaeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santanam, K.; Vaithiyanathan, R.; Tripati, S.

    Digital image processing involves the manipulation and interpretation of digital images with the aid of a computer. This form of remote sensing actually began in the 1960's with a limited number of researchers analysing multispectral scanner data...

  8. Mesh Processing in Medical Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The following topics are dealt with: mesh processing; medical image analysis; interactive freeform modeling; statistical shape analysis; clinical CT images; statistical surface recovery; automated segmentation; cerebral aneurysms; and real-time particle-based representation....

  9. Enhancement of image contrast in linacgram through image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Hyun Suk; Shin, Hyun Kyo; Lee, Re Na

    2000-01-01

    Conventional radiation therapy portal images gives low contrast images. The purpose of this study was to enhance image contrast of a linacgram by developing a low--cost image processing method. Chest linacgram was obtained by irradiating humanoid phantom and scanned using Diagnostic-Pro scanner for image processing. Several types of scan method were used in scanning. These include optical density scan, histogram equalized scan, linear histogram based scan, linear histogram independent scan, linear optical density scan, logarithmic scan, and power square root scan. The histogram distribution of the scanned images were plotted and the ranges of the gray scale were compared among various scan types. The scanned images were then transformed to the gray window by pallette fitting method and the contrast of the reprocessed portal images were evaluated for image improvement. Portal images of patients were also taken at various anatomic sites and the images were processed by Gray Scale Expansion (GSE) method. The patient images were analyzed to examine the feasibility of using the GSE technique in clinic. The histogram distribution showed that minimum and maximum gray scale ranges of 3192 and 21940 were obtained when the image was scanned using logarithmic method and square root method, respectively. Out of 256 gray scale, only 7 to 30% of the steps were used. After expanding the gray scale to full range, contrast of the portal images were improved. Experiment performed with patient image showed that improved identification of organs were achieved by GSE in portal images of knee joint, head and neck, lung, and pelvis. Phantom study demonstrated that the GSE technique improved image contrast of a linacgram. This indicates that the decrease in image quality resulting from the dual exposure, could be improved by expanding the gray scale. As a result, the improved technique will make it possible to compare the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) and simulation image for

  10. Image processing for medical diagnosis using CNN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Paolo; Basile, Adriano; Bucolo, Maide; Fortuna, Luigi

    2003-01-01

    Medical diagnosis is one of the most important area in which image processing procedures are usefully applied. Image processing is an important phase in order to improve the accuracy both for diagnosis procedure and for surgical operation. One of these fields is tumor/cancer detection by using Microarray analysis. The research studies in the Cancer Genetics Branch are mainly involved in a range of experiments including the identification of inherited mutations predisposing family members to malignant melanoma, prostate and breast cancer. In bio-medical field the real-time processing is very important, but often image processing is a quite time-consuming phase. Therefore techniques able to speed up the elaboration play an important rule. From this point of view, in this work a novel approach to image processing has been developed. The new idea is to use the Cellular Neural Networks to investigate on diagnostic images, like: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography, and fluorescent cDNA microarray images

  11. Image processing in diabetic related causes

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit

    2016-01-01

    This book is a collection of all the experimental results and analysis carried out on medical images of diabetic related causes. The experimental investigations have been carried out on images starting from very basic image processing techniques such as image enhancement to sophisticated image segmentation methods. This book is intended to create an awareness on diabetes and its related causes and image processing methods used to detect and forecast in a very simple way. This book is useful to researchers, Engineers, Medical Doctors and Bioinformatics researchers.

  12. Automatic comic page image understanding based on edge segment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Yongtao; Tang, Zhi; Li, Luyuan; Gao, Liangcai

    2013-12-01

    Comic page image understanding aims to analyse the layout of the comic page images by detecting the storyboards and identifying the reading order automatically. It is the key technique to produce the digital comic documents suitable for reading on mobile devices. In this paper, we propose a novel comic page image understanding method based on edge segment analysis. First, we propose an efficient edge point chaining method to extract Canny edge segments (i.e., contiguous chains of Canny edge points) from the input comic page image; second, we propose a top-down scheme to detect line segments within each obtained edge segment; third, we develop a novel method to detect the storyboards by selecting the border lines and further identify the reading order of these storyboards. The proposed method is performed on a data set consisting of 2000 comic page images from ten printed comic series. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves satisfactory results on different comics and outperforms the existing methods.

  13. Organization of bubble chamber image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritsaenko, I.A.; Petrovykh, L.P.; Petrovykh, Yu.L.; Fenyuk, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    A programme of bubble chamber image processing is described. The programme is written in FORTRAN, it is developed for the DEC-10 computer and is designed for operation of semi-automation processing-measurement projects PUOS-2 and PUOS-4. Fornalization of the image processing permits to use it for different physical experiments

  14. An Applied Image Processing for Radiographic Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratchason, Surasak; Tuammee, Sopida; Srisroal Anusara

    2005-10-01

    An applied image processing for radiographic testing (RT) is desirable because it decreases time-consuming, decreases the cost of inspection process that need the experienced workers, and improves the inspection quality. This paper presents the primary study of image processing for RT-films that is the welding-film. The proposed approach to determine the defects on weld-images. The BMP image-files are opened and developed by computer program that using Borland C ++ . The software has five main methods that are Histogram, Contrast Enhancement, Edge Detection, Image Segmentation and Image Restoration. Each the main method has the several sub method that are the selected options. The results showed that the effective software can detect defects and the varied method suit for the different radiographic images. Furthermore, improving images are better when two methods are incorporated

  15. Effect of Linked Rules on Business Process Model Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Indulska, Marta; Sadiq, Shazia

    2017-01-01

    Business process models are widely used in organizations by information systems analysts to represent complex business requirements and by business users to understand business operations and constraints. This understanding is extracted from graphical process models as well as business rules. Prior...

  16. A machine learning approach to understand business processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruster, L.

    2003-01-01

    Business processes (industries, administration, hospitals, etc.) become nowadays more and more complex and it is difficult to have a complete understanding of them. The goal of the thesis is to show that machine learning techniques can be used successfully for understanding a process on the basis of

  17. Image processing on the image with pixel noise bits removed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Keh-Shih; Wu, Christine

    1992-06-01

    Our previous studies used statistical methods to assess the noise level in digital images of various radiological modalities. We separated the pixel data into signal bits and noise bits and demonstrated visually that the removal of the noise bits does not affect the image quality. In this paper we apply image enhancement techniques on noise-bits-removed images and demonstrate that the removal of noise bits has no effect on the image property. The image processing techniques used are gray-level look up table transformation, Sobel edge detector, and 3-D surface display. Preliminary results show no noticeable difference between original image and noise bits removed image using look up table operation and Sobel edge enhancement. There is a slight enhancement of the slicing artifact in the 3-D surface display of the noise bits removed image.

  18. Using infrared thermography for understanding and quantifying soil surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, João L. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    At present, our understanding of the soil hydrologic response is restricted by measurement limitations. In the literature, there have been repeatedly calls for interdisciplinary approaches to expand our knowledge in this field and eventually overcome the limitations that are inherent to conventional measuring techniques used, for example, for tracing water at the basin, hillslope and even field or plot scales. Infrared thermography is a versatile, accurate and fast technique of monitoring surface temperature and has been used in a variety of fields, such as military surveillance, medical diagnosis, industrial processes optimisation, building inspections and agriculture. However, many applications are still to be fully explored. In surface hydrology, it has been successfully employed as a high spatial and temporal resolution non-invasive and non-destructive imaging tool to e.g. access groundwater discharges into waterbodies or quantify thermal heterogeneities of streams. It is believed that thermal infrared imagery can grasp the spatial and temporal variability of many processes at the soil surface. Thermography interprets the heat signals and can provide an attractive view for identifying both areas where water is flowing or has infiltrated more, or accumulated temporarily in depressions or macropores. Therefore, we hope to demonstrate the potential for thermal infrared imagery to indirectly make a quantitative estimation of several hydrologic processes. Applications include: e.g. mapping infiltration, microrelief and macropores; estimating flow velocities; defining sampling strategies; identifying water sources, accumulation of waters or even connectivity. Protocols for the assessment of several hydrologic processes with the help of IR thermography will be briefly explained, presenting some examples from laboratory soil flumes and field.

  19. Matching rendered and real world images by digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjà, Carles; Bover, Toni; Bigas, Miquel; Escofet, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    Recent advances in computer-generated images (CGI) have been used in commercial and industrial photography providing a broad scope in product advertising. Mixing real world images with those rendered from virtual space software shows a more or less visible mismatching between corresponding image quality performance. Rendered images are produced by software which quality performance is only limited by the resolution output. Real world images are taken with cameras with some amount of image degradation factors as lens residual aberrations, diffraction, sensor low pass anti aliasing filters, color pattern demosaicing, etc. The effect of all those image quality degradation factors can be characterized by the system Point Spread Function (PSF). Because the image is the convolution of the object by the system PSF, its characterization shows the amount of image degradation added to any taken picture. This work explores the use of image processing to degrade the rendered images following the parameters indicated by the real system PSF, attempting to match both virtual and real world image qualities. The system MTF is determined by the slanted edge method both in laboratory conditions and in the real picture environment in order to compare the influence of the working conditions on the device performance; an approximation to the system PSF is derived from the two measurements. The rendered images are filtered through a Gaussian filter obtained from the taking system PSF. Results with and without filtering are shown and compared measuring the contrast achieved in different final image regions.

  20. Applied medical image processing a basic course

    CERN Document Server

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    A widely used, classroom-tested text, Applied Medical Image Processing: A Basic Course delivers an ideal introduction to image processing in medicine, emphasizing the clinical relevance and special requirements of the field. Avoiding excessive mathematical formalisms, the book presents key principles by implementing algorithms from scratch and using simple MATLAB®/Octave scripts with image data and illustrations on an accompanying CD-ROM or companion website. Organized as a complete textbook, it provides an overview of the physics of medical image processing and discusses image formats and data storage, intensity transforms, filtering of images and applications of the Fourier transform, three-dimensional spatial transforms, volume rendering, image registration, and tomographic reconstruction.

  1. Recognition-by-Components: A Theory of Human Image Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Irving

    1987-01-01

    The theory proposed (recognition-by-components) hypothesizes the perceptual recognition of objects to be a process in which the image of the input is segmented at regions of deep concavity into an arrangement of simple geometric components. Experiments on the perception of briefly presented pictures support the theory. (Author/LMO)

  2. Image processing in nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janney, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    In those applications where the principal desire is for higher throughput, the problem often becomes one of automatic feature extraction and mensuration. Classically these problems can be approached by means of either an optical image processor or an analysis in the digital computer. Optical methods have the advantages of low cost and very high speed, but are often inflexible and are sometimes very difficult to implement due to practical problems. Computerized methods can be very flexible, they can use very powerful mathematical techniques, but usually are difficult to implement for very high throughput. Recent technological developments in microprocessors and in electronic analog image analyzers may furnish the key to resolving the shortcomings of the two classical methods of image analysis

  3. How Digital Image Processing Became Really Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Michael

    1988-02-01

    In the early and mid-1970s, digital image processing was the subject of intense university and corporate research. The research lay along two lines: (1) developing mathematical techniques for improving the appearance of or analyzing the contents of images represented in digital form, and (2) creating cost-effective hardware to carry out these techniques. The research has been very effective, as evidenced by the continued decline of image processing as a research topic, and the rapid increase of commercial companies to market digital image processing software and hardware.

  4. Quantitative image processing in fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Lambertus; Helman, James; Ning, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The current status of digital image processing in fluid flow research is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to a comprehensive approach to the extraction of quantitative data from multivariate databases and examples of recent developments. The discussion covers numerical simulations and experiments, data processing, generation and dissemination of knowledge, traditional image processing, hybrid processing, fluid flow vector field topology, and isosurface analysis using Marching Cubes.

  5. Image processing techniques for remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    interpretation and for processing of scene data for autonomous machine perception. The technique of digital image processing are used for' automatic character/pattern recognition, industrial robots for product assembly and inspection, military recognizance... and spatial co-ordinates into discrete components. The mathematical concepts involved are the sampling and transform theory. Two dimensional transforms are used for image enhancement, restoration, encoding and description too. The main objective of the image...

  6. Task-specific visual cues for improving process model understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusel, Razvan; Mendling, Jan; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2016-01-01

    Context Business process models support various stakeholders in managing business processes and designing process-aware information systems. In order to make effective use of these models, they have to be readily understandable. Objective Prior research has emphasized the potential of visual cues to

  7. Intelligent medical image processing by simulated annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Nagaaki

    1992-01-01

    Image processing is being widely used in the medical field and already has become very important, especially when used for image reconstruction purposes. In this paper, it is shown that image processing can be classified into 4 categories; passive, active, intelligent and visual image processing. These 4 classes are explained at first through the use of several examples. The results show that the passive image processing does not give better results than the others. Intelligent image processing, then, is addressed, and the simulated annealing method is introduced. Due to the flexibility of the simulated annealing, formulated intelligence is shown to be easily introduced in an image reconstruction problem. As a practical example, 3D blood vessel reconstruction from a small number of projections, which is insufficient for conventional method to give good reconstruction, is proposed, and computer simulation clearly shows the effectiveness of simulated annealing method. Prior to the conclusion, medical file systems such as IS and C (Image Save and Carry) is pointed out to have potential for formulating knowledge, which is indispensable for intelligent image processing. This paper concludes by summarizing the advantages of simulated annealing. (author)

  8. Exploring Multi-Modal and Structured Representation Learning for Visual Image and Video Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    As the explosive growth of the visual data, it is particularly important to develop intelligent visual understanding techniques for dealing with a large amount of data. Many efforts have been made in recent years to build highly effective and large-scale visual processing algorithms and systems. One of the core aspects in the research line is how to learn robust representations to better describe the data. In this thesis we study the problem of visual image and video understanding and specifi...

  9. Analysis of Variance in Statistical Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Ludwik; Hafed Benteftifa, M.

    1997-04-01

    A key problem in practical image processing is the detection of specific features in a noisy image. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques can be very effective in such situations, and this book gives a detailed account of the use of ANOVA in statistical image processing. The book begins by describing the statistical representation of images in the various ANOVA models. The authors present a number of computationally efficient algorithms and techniques to deal with such problems as line, edge, and object detection, as well as image restoration and enhancement. By describing the basic principles of these techniques, and showing their use in specific situations, the book will facilitate the design of new algorithms for particular applications. It will be of great interest to graduate students and engineers in the field of image processing and pattern recognition.

  10. Stable image acquisition for mobile image processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Kai-Fabian; Fritze, Alexander; Gillich, Eugen; Mönks, Uwe; Lohweg, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Today, mobile devices (smartphones, tablets, etc.) are widespread and of high importance for their users. Their performance as well as versatility increases over time. This leads to the opportunity to use such devices for more specific tasks like image processing in an industrial context. For the analysis of images requirements like image quality (blur, illumination, etc.) as well as a defined relative position of the object to be inspected are crucial. Since mobile devices are handheld and used in constantly changing environments the challenge is to fulfill these requirements. We present an approach to overcome the obstacles and stabilize the image capturing process such that image analysis becomes significantly improved on mobile devices. Therefore, image processing methods are combined with sensor fusion concepts. The approach consists of three main parts. First, pose estimation methods are used to guide a user moving the device to a defined position. Second, the sensors data and the pose information are combined for relative motion estimation. Finally, the image capturing process is automated. It is triggered depending on the alignment of the device and the object as well as the image quality that can be achieved under consideration of motion and environmental effects.

  11. Cellular automata in image processing and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Sun, Xianfang

    2014-01-01

    The book presents findings, views and ideas on what exact problems of image processing, pattern recognition and generation can be efficiently solved by cellular automata architectures. This volume provides a convenient collection in this area, in which publications are otherwise widely scattered throughout the literature. The topics covered include image compression and resizing; skeletonization, erosion and dilation; convex hull computation, edge detection and segmentation; forgery detection and content based retrieval; and pattern generation. The book advances the theory of image processing, pattern recognition and generation as well as the design of efficient algorithms and hardware for parallel image processing and analysis. It is aimed at computer scientists, software programmers, electronic engineers, mathematicians and physicists, and at everyone who studies or develops cellular automaton algorithms and tools for image processing and analysis, or develops novel architectures and implementations of mass...

  12. ARTIP: Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ravi; Gyanchandani, Dolly; Kulkarni, Sarang; Gupta, Neeraj; Pathak, Vineet; Pande, Arti; Joshi, Unmesh

    2018-02-01

    The Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline (ARTIP) automates the entire process of flagging, calibrating, and imaging for radio-interferometric data. ARTIP starts with raw data, i.e. a measurement set and goes through multiple stages, such as flux calibration, bandpass calibration, phase calibration, and imaging to generate continuum and spectral line images. Each stage can also be run independently. The pipeline provides continuous feedback to the user through various messages, charts and logs. It is written using standard python libraries and the CASA package. The pipeline can deal with datasets with multiple spectral windows and also multiple target sources which may have arbitrary combinations of flux/bandpass/phase calibrators.

  13. Hybrid imaging: Instrumentation and Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal-Gonzalez, Jacobo; Rausch, Ivo; Shiyam Sundar, Lalith K.; Lassen, Martin L.; Muzik, Otto; Moser, Ewald; Papp, Laszlo; Beyer, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    State-of-the-art patient management frequently requires the use of non-invasive imaging methods to assess the anatomy, function or molecular-biological conditions of patients or study subjects. Such imaging methods can be singular, providing either anatomical or molecular information, or they can be combined, thus, providing "anato-metabolic" information. Hybrid imaging denotes image acquisitions on systems that physically combine complementary imaging modalities for an improved diagnostic accuracy and confidence as well as for increased patient comfort. The physical combination of formerly independent imaging modalities was driven by leading innovators in the field of clinical research and benefited from technological advances that permitted the operation of PET and MR in close physical proximity, for example. This review covers milestones of the development of various hybrid imaging systems for use in clinical practice and small-animal research. Special attention is given to technological advances that helped the adoption of hybrid imaging, as well as to introducing methodological concepts that benefit from the availability of complementary anatomical and biological information, such as new types of image reconstruction and data correction schemes. The ultimate goal of hybrid imaging is to provide useful, complementary and quantitative information during patient work-up. Hybrid imaging also opens the door to multi-parametric assessment of diseases, which will help us better understand the causes of various diseases that currently contribute to a large fraction of healthcare costs.

  14. Hybrid Imaging: Instrumentation and Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Cal-Gonzalez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art patient management frequently requires the use of non-invasive imaging methods to assess the anatomy, function or molecular-biological conditions of patients or study subjects. Such imaging methods can be singular, providing either anatomical or molecular information, or they can be combined, thus, providing “anato-metabolic” information. Hybrid imaging denotes image acquisitions on systems that physically combine complementary imaging modalities for an improved diagnostic accuracy and confidence as well as for increased patient comfort. The physical combination of formerly independent imaging modalities was driven by leading innovators in the field of clinical research and benefited from technological advances that permitted the operation of PET and MR in close physical proximity, for example. This review covers milestones of the development of various hybrid imaging systems for use in clinical practice and small-animal research. Special attention is given to technological advances that helped the adoption of hybrid imaging, as well as to introducing methodological concepts that benefit from the availability of complementary anatomical and biological information, such as new types of image reconstruction and data correction schemes. The ultimate goal of hybrid imaging is to provide useful, complementary and quantitative information during patient work-up. Hybrid imaging also opens the door to multi-parametric assessment of diseases, which will help us better understand the causes of various diseases that currently contribute to a large fraction of healthcare costs.

  15. Understanding Aquatic Rhizosphere Processes Through Metabolomics and Metagenomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jian; Mynampati, Kalyan; Drautz, Daniela; Arumugam, Krithika; Williams, Rohan; Schuster, Stephan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    20mg/L of naphthalene and reached a new steady state within 72 hours. An active microbial biofilm was formed during this process, which was imaged by light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy and showed active changes in the biofilm. We have begun to unravel the complexity of rhizobacterial communities associated with aquatic plants. Using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and Illumina Miseq Next Generation Sequencing of metagenomic DNA, we investigated the root-associated microbial community of P. amaryllifolius grown in two different water sources. The community structure of rhizobacteria from plants grown in freshwater lake or rainwater stored in tanks are highly similar. The top three phyla in both setups belonged to Proteobacteria, Bacteriocedes and Actinobacteria, as validated by FISH analyses. This suggests that the rhizosphere have an innate ability to attract and recruit rhizobacterial communities, possibly through the metabolic compounds secreted through root exudation. The selection pressure through plant host is higher compared to environmental pressures that are different between the two water sources. In comparison with the terrestrial rhizosphere, the aquatic rhizosphere microbiome seems more specialised and has a high influence by the host. We are using these findings to further understand the role of microbes in the performance of freshwater aquatic plants.

  16. On some applications of diffusion processes for image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfu, S.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new algorithm inspired by the properties of diffusion processes for image filtering. We show that purely nonlinear diffusion processes ruled by Fisher equation allows contrast enhancement and noise filtering, but involves a blurry image. By contrast, anisotropic diffusion, described by Perona and Malik algorithm, allows noise filtering and preserves the edges. We show that combining the properties of anisotropic diffusion with those of nonlinear diffusion provides a better processing tool which enables noise filtering, contrast enhancement and edge preserving.

  17. The Groningen image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.J.; Ekers, R.D.; Terlouw, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive, integrated software and hardware computer system for the reduction and analysis of astronomical images. A short historical introduction is presented before some examples of the astonomical data currently handled by the system are shown. A description is given of the present hardware and software structure. The system is illustrated by describing its appearance to the user, to the applications programmer, and to the system manager. Some quantitative information on the size and cost of the system is given, and its good and bad features are discussed

  18. Process perspective on image quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisti, Tuomas; Halonen, Raisa; Kokkonen, Anna; Weckman, Hanna; Mettänen, Marja; Lensu, Lasse; Ritala, Risto; Oittinen, Pirkko; Nyman, Göte

    2008-01-01

    The psychological complexity of multivariate image quality evaluation makes it difficult to develop general image quality metrics. Quality evaluation includes several mental processes and ignoring these processes and the use of a few test images can lead to biased results. By using a qualitative/quantitative (Interpretation Based Quality, IBQ) methodology, we examined the process of pair-wise comparison in a setting, where the quality of the images printed by laser printer on different paper grades was evaluated. Test image consisted of a picture of a table covered with several objects. Three other images were also used, photographs of a woman, cityscape and countryside. In addition to the pair-wise comparisons, observers (N=10) were interviewed about the subjective quality attributes they used in making their quality decisions. An examination of the individual pair-wise comparisons revealed serious inconsistencies in observers' evaluations on the test image content, but not on other contexts. The qualitative analysis showed that this inconsistency was due to the observers' focus of attention. The lack of easily recognizable context in the test image may have contributed to this inconsistency. To obtain reliable knowledge of the effect of image context or attention on subjective image quality, a qualitative methodology is needed.

  19. Multispectral image enhancement processing for microsat-borne imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianying; Tan, Zheng; Lv, Qunbo; Pei, Linlin

    2017-10-01

    With the rapid development of remote sensing imaging technology, the micro satellite, one kind of tiny spacecraft, appears during the past few years. A good many studies contribute to dwarfing satellites for imaging purpose. Generally speaking, micro satellites weigh less than 100 kilograms, even less than 50 kilograms, which are slightly larger or smaller than the common miniature refrigerators. However, the optical system design is hard to be perfect due to the satellite room and weight limitation. In most cases, the unprocessed data captured by the imager on the microsatellite cannot meet the application need. Spatial resolution is the key problem. As for remote sensing applications, the higher spatial resolution of images we gain, the wider fields we can apply them. Consequently, how to utilize super resolution (SR) and image fusion to enhance the quality of imagery deserves studying. Our team, the Key Laboratory of Computational Optical Imaging Technology, Academy Opto-Electronics, is devoted to designing high-performance microsat-borne imagers and high-efficiency image processing algorithms. This paper addresses a multispectral image enhancement framework for space-borne imagery, jointing the pan-sharpening and super resolution techniques to deal with the spatial resolution shortcoming of microsatellites. We test the remote sensing images acquired by CX6-02 satellite and give the SR performance. The experiments illustrate the proposed approach provides high-quality images.

  20. Applications of evolutionary computation in image processing and pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas, Erik; Perez-Cisneros, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the use of efficient Evolutionary Computation (EC) algorithms for solving diverse real-world image processing and pattern recognition problems. It provides an overview of the different aspects of evolutionary methods in order to enable the reader in reaching a global understanding of the field and, in conducting studies on specific evolutionary techniques that are related to applications in image processing and pattern recognition. It explains the basic ideas of the proposed applications in a way that can also be understood by readers outside of the field. Image processing and pattern recognition practitioners who are not evolutionary computation researchers will appreciate the discussed techniques beyond simple theoretical tools since they have been adapted to solve significant problems that commonly arise on such areas. On the other hand, members of the evolutionary computation community can learn the way in which image processing and pattern recognition problems can be translated into an...

  1. Imaging process and VIP engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starčević Slađana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It's often quoted that celebrity endorsement advertising has been recognized as "an ubiquitous feature of the modern marketing". The researches have shown that this kind of engagement has been producing significantly more favorable reactions of consumers, that is, a higher level of an attention for the advertising messages, a better recall of the message and a brand name, more favorable evaluation and purchasing intentions of the brand, in regard to engagement of the non-celebrity endorsers. A positive influence on a firm's profitability and prices of stocks has also been shown. Therefore marketers leaded by the belief that celebrities represent the effective ambassadors in building of positive brand image or company image and influence an improvement of the competitive position, invest enormous amounts of money for signing the contracts with them. However, this strategy doesn't guarantee success in any case, because it's necessary to take into account many factors. This paper summarizes the results of previous researches in this field and also the recommendations for a more effective use of this kind of advertising.

  2. Design for embedded image processing on FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Donald G

    2011-01-01

    "Introductory material will consider the problem of embedded image processing, and how some of the issues may be solved using parallel hardware solutions. Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are introduced as a technology that provides flexible, fine-grained hardware that can readily exploit parallelism within many image processing algorithms. A brief review of FPGA programming languages provides the link between a software mindset normally associated with image processing algorithms, and the hardware mindset required for efficient utilization of a parallel hardware design. The bulk of the book will focus on the design process, and in particular how designing an FPGA implementation differs from a conventional software implementation. Particular attention is given to the techniques for mapping an algorithm onto an FPGA implementation, considering timing, memory bandwidth and resource constraints, and efficient hardware computational techniques. Extensive coverage will be given of a range of image processing...

  3. Crack Length Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    1990-01-01

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better then that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  4. Crack Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal, Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better than that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  5. Algorithms for image processing and computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, J R

    2010-01-01

    A cookbook of algorithms for common image processing applications Thanks to advances in computer hardware and software, algorithms have been developed that support sophisticated image processing without requiring an extensive background in mathematics. This bestselling book has been fully updated with the newest of these, including 2D vision methods in content-based searches and the use of graphics cards as image processing computational aids. It's an ideal reference for software engineers and developers, advanced programmers, graphics programmers, scientists, and other specialists wh

  6. Image processing and analysis software development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahnaz, R.

    1999-01-01

    The work presented in this project is aimed at developing a software 'IMAGE GALLERY' to investigate various image processing and analysis techniques. The work was divided into two parts namely the image processing techniques and pattern recognition, which further comprised of character and face recognition. Various image enhancement techniques including negative imaging, contrast stretching, compression of dynamic, neon, diffuse, emboss etc. have been studied. Segmentation techniques including point detection, line detection, edge detection have been studied. Also some of the smoothing and sharpening filters have been investigated. All these imaging techniques have been implemented in a window based computer program written in Visual Basic Neural network techniques based on Perception model have been applied for face and character recognition. (author)

  7. Understanding God images and God concepts: Towards a pastoral hermeneutics of the God attachment experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Counted

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author looks at the God image experience as an attachment relationship experience with God. Hence, arguing that the God image experience is borne originally out of a parent�child attachment contagion, in such a way that God is often represented in either secure or insecure attachment patterns. The article points out that insecure God images often develop head-to-head with God concepts in a believer�s emotional experience of God. On the other hand, the author describes God concepts as indicators of a religious faith and metaphorical standards for regulating insecure attachment patterns. The goals of this article, however, is to highlight the relationship between God images and God concepts, and to provide a hermeneutical process for interpreting and surviving the God image experience.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Given that most scholars within the discipline of Practical Theology discuss the subject of God images from cultural and theological perspectives, this article has discussed God images from an attachment perspective, which is a popular framework in psychology of religion. This is rare. The study is therefore interdisciplinary in this regards. The article further helps the reader to understand the intrapsychic process of the God image experience, and thus provides us with hermeneutical answers for dealing with the God image experience from methodologies grounded in Practical Theology and pastoral care.

  8. Signal and image processing in medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit; Rahim, B Abdul; Kumar, D Sravan

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights recent findings on and analyses conducted on signals and images in the area of medicine. The experimental investigations involve a variety of signals and images and their methodologies range from very basic to sophisticated methods. The book explains how signal and image processing methods can be used to detect and forecast abnormalities in an easy-to-follow manner, offering a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, physicians and bioinformatics researchers alike.

  9. MR imaging of abnormal synovial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, S.F.; Sanchez, R.; Murray, W.T.; Silbiger, M.L.; Ogden, J.; Cochran, C.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging can directly image abnormal synovium. The authors reviewed over 50 cases with abnormal synovial processes. The abnormalities include Baker cysts, semimembranous bursitis, chronic shoulder bursitis, peroneal tendon ganglion cyst, periarticular abscesses, thickened synovium from rheumatoid and septic arthritis, and synovial hypertrophy secondary to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. MR imaging has proved invaluable in identifying abnormal synovium, defining the extent and, to a limited degree, characterizing its makeup

  10. Earth Observation Services (Image Processing Software)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    San Diego State University and Environmental Systems Research Institute, with other agencies, have applied satellite imaging and image processing techniques to geographic information systems (GIS) updating. The resulting images display land use and are used by a regional planning agency for applications like mapping vegetation distribution and preserving wildlife habitats. The EOCAP program provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  11. Morphology and probability in image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author presents an analysis of some concepts which relate morphological attributes of digital objects to statistically meaningful measures. Some elementary transformations of binary images are described and examples of applications are drawn from the geological and image analysis domains. Some of the morphological models applicablle in astronomy are discussed. It is shown that the development of new spatially oriented computers leads to more extensive applications of image processing in the geosciences

  12. Image processing with a cellular nonlinear network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfu, S.

    2005-01-01

    A cellular nonlinear network (CNN) based on uncoupled nonlinear oscillators is proposed for image processing purposes. It is shown theoretically and numerically that the contrast of an image loaded at the nodes of the CNN is strongly enhanced, even if this one is initially weak. An image inversion can be also obtained without reconfiguration of the network whereas a gray levels extraction can be performed with an additional threshold filtering. Lastly, an electronic implementation of this CNN is presented

  13. Selections from 2017: Image Processing with AstroImageJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2017, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume in January.AstroImageJ: Image Processing and Photometric Extraction for Ultra-Precise Astronomical Light CurvesPublished January2017The AIJ image display. A wide range of astronomy specific image display options and image analysis tools are available from the menus, quick access icons, and interactive histogram. [Collins et al. 2017]Main takeaway:AstroImageJ is a new integrated software package presented in a publication led byKaren Collins(Vanderbilt University,Fisk University, andUniversity of Louisville). Itenables new users even at the level of undergraduate student, high school student, or amateur astronomer to quickly start processing, modeling, and plotting astronomical image data.Why its interesting:Science doesnt just happen the momenta telescope captures a picture of a distantobject. Instead, astronomical images must firstbe carefully processed to clean up thedata, and this data must then be systematically analyzed to learn about the objects within it. AstroImageJ as a GUI-driven, easily installed, public-domain tool is a uniquelyaccessible tool for thisprocessing and analysis, allowing even non-specialist users to explore and visualizeastronomical data.Some features ofAstroImageJ:(as reported by Astrobites)Image calibration:generate master flat, dark, and bias framesImage arithmetic:combineimages viasubtraction, addition, division, multiplication, etc.Stack editing:easily perform operations on a series of imagesImage stabilization and image alignment featuresPrecise coordinate converters:calculate Heliocentric and Barycentric Julian DatesWCS coordinates:determine precisely where atelescope was pointed for an image by PlateSolving using Astronomy.netMacro and plugin support:write your own macrosMulti-aperture photometry

  14. Increasing process understanding by analyzing complex interactions in experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naelapaa, Kaisa; Allesø, Morten; Kristensen, Henning Gjelstrup

    2009-01-01

    understanding of a coating process. It was possible to model the response, that is, the amount of drug released, using both mentioned techniques. However, the ANOVAmodel was difficult to interpret as several interactions between process parameters existed. In contrast to ANOVA, GEMANOVA is especially suited...... for modeling complex interactions and making easily understandable models of these. GEMANOVA modeling allowed a simple visualization of the entire experimental space. Furthermore, information was obtained on how relative changes in the settings of process parameters influence the film quality and thereby drug......There is a recognized need for new approaches to understand unit operations with pharmaceutical relevance. A method for analyzing complex interactions in experimental data is introduced. Higher-order interactions do exist between process parameters, which complicate the interpretation...

  15. Understanding Quality in Process Modelling: Towards a Holistic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Recker

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality is one of the main topics in current conceptual modelling research, as is the field of business process modelling. Yet, widely acknowledged academic contributions towards an understanding or measurement of business process model quality are limited at best. In this paper I argue that the development of methodical theories concerning the measurement or establishment of process model quality must be preceded by methodological elaborations on business process modelling. I further argue that existing epistemological foundations of process modelling are insufficient for describing all extrinsic and intrinsic traits of model quality. This in turn has led to a lack of holistic understanding of process modelling. Taking into account the inherent social and purpose-oriented character of process modelling in contemporary organizations I present a socio-pragmatic constructionist methodology of business process modelling and sketch out implications of this perspective towards an understanding of process model quality. I anticipate that, based on this research, theories can be developed that facilitate the evaluation of the ’goodness’ of a business process model.

  16. Voltage imaging to understand connections and functions of neuronal circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antic, Srdjan D.; Empson, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying brain functions such as cognition and emotions requires monitoring of membrane voltage at the cellular, circuit, and system levels. Seminal voltage-sensitive dye and calcium-sensitive dye imaging studies have demonstrated parallel detection of electrical activity across populations of interconnected neurons in a variety of preparations. A game-changing advance made in recent years has been the conceptualization and development of optogenetic tools, including genetically encoded indicators of voltage (GEVIs) or calcium (GECIs) and genetically encoded light-gated ion channels (actuators, e.g., channelrhodopsin2). Compared with low-molecular-weight calcium and voltage indicators (dyes), the optogenetic imaging approaches are 1) cell type specific, 2) less invasive, 3) able to relate activity and anatomy, and 4) facilitate long-term recordings of individual cells' activities over weeks, thereby allowing direct monitoring of the emergence of learned behaviors and underlying circuit mechanisms. We highlight the potential of novel approaches based on GEVIs and compare those to calcium imaging approaches. We also discuss how novel approaches based on GEVIs (and GECIs) coupled with genetically encoded actuators will promote progress in our knowledge of brain circuits and systems. PMID:27075539

  17. Understanding and Managing Process Interaction in IS Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, information systems must be developed and implemented as a part of business change. This is a challenge for the IS project manager, since business change and information systems development usually are performed as separate processes. Thus, there is a need to understand and manage......-technical innovation in a situation where the organisational change process and the IS development process are parallel but incongruent. We also argue that iterative software engineering frameworks are well structured to support process interaction. Finally, we advocate that the IS project manager needs to manage...... the relationship between these two kinds of processes. To understand the interaction between information systems development and planned organisational change we introduce the concept of process interaction. We draw on a longitudinal case study of an IS development project that used an iterative and incremental...

  18. A gamma cammera image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weihua; Mei Jufang; Jiang Wenchuan; Guo Zhenxiang

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputer based gamma camera image processing system has been introduced. Comparing with other systems, the feature of this system is that an inexpensive microcomputer has been combined with specially developed hardware, such as, data acquisition controller, data processor and dynamic display controller, ect. Thus the process of picture processing has been speeded up and the function expense ratio of the system raised

  19. Mapping spatial patterns with morphological image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Vogt; Kurt H. Riitters; Christine Estreguil; Jacek Kozak; Timothy G. Wade; James D. Wickham

    2006-01-01

    We use morphological image processing for classifying spatial patterns at the pixel level on binary land-cover maps. Land-cover pattern is classified as 'perforated,' 'edge,' 'patch,' and 'core' with higher spatial precision and thematic accuracy compared to a previous approach based on image convolution, while retaining the...

  20. Digital image processing in art conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zitová, Barbara; Flusser, Jan

    č. 53 (2003), s. 44-45 ISSN 0926-4981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : art conservation * digital image processing * change detection Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  1. Dictionary of computer vision and image processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fisher, R. B

    2014-01-01

    ... been identified for inclusion since the current edition was published. Revised to include an additional 1000 new terms to reflect current updates, which includes a significantly increased focus on image processing terms, as well as machine learning terms...

  2. Advanced Secure Optical Image Processing for Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Falou, Ayman

    2018-04-01

    New image processing tools and data-processing network systems have considerably increased the volume of transmitted information such as 2D and 3D images with high resolution. Thus, more complex networks and long processing times become necessary, and high image quality and transmission speeds are requested for an increasing number of applications. To satisfy these two requests, several either numerical or optical solutions were offered separately. This book explores both alternatives and describes research works that are converging towards optical/numerical hybrid solutions for high volume signal and image processing and transmission. Without being limited to hybrid approaches, the latter are particularly investigated in this book in the purpose of combining the advantages of both techniques. Additionally, pure numerical or optical solutions are also considered since they emphasize the advantages of one of the two approaches separately.

  3. Imaging partons in exclusive scattering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus

    2012-06-15

    The spatial distribution of partons in the proton can be probed in suitable exclusive scattering processes. I report on recent performance estimates for parton imaging at a proposed Electron-Ion Collider.

  4. Fragmentation measurement using image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang Sereshki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, first of all, the existing problems in fragmentation measurement are reviewed for the sake of its fast and reliable evaluation. Then, the available methods used for evaluation of blast results are mentioned. The produced errors especially in recognizing the rock fragments in computer-aided methods, and also, the importance of determination of their sizes in the image analysis methods are described. After reviewing the previous work done, an algorithm is proposed for the automated determination of rock particles’ boundary in the Matlab software. This method can determinate automatically the particles boundary in the minimum time. The results of proposed method are compared with those of Split Desktop and GoldSize software in two automated and manual states. Comparing the curves extracted from different methods reveals that the proposed approach is accurately applicable in measuring the size distribution of laboratory samples, while the manual determination of boundaries in the conventional software is very time-consuming, and the results of automated netting of fragments are very different with the real value due to the error in separation of the objects.

  5. On Processing Hexagonally Sampled Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    A. Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. (96ABW-2011-0325) Neuromorphic Infrared Sensor (NIFS) 31 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved...J ••• • Drawn chip size Focal plane size Focal plane resolution Pixel type Pixel pit ch Post -pixel circuitry Interface Process Chip ...analog out 12-bit command bus in two 6-bit words 8-bit digital out Optional 3 input chip select Optional analog out Alternat ive 12 bit input

  6. Processing of space images and geologic interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudin, V S

    1981-01-01

    Using data for standard sections, a correlation was established between natural formations in geologic/geophysical dimensions and the form they take in the imaging. With computer processing, important data can be derived from the image. Use of the above correlations has allowed to make a number of preliminary classifications of tectonic structures, and to determine certain ongoing processes in the given section. The derived data may be used for search of useful minerals.

  7. Study on Processing Method of Image Shadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively remove disturbance of shadow and enhance robustness of information processing of computer visual image, this paper makes study on inspection and removal of image shadow. It makes study the continual removal algorithm of shadow based on integration, the illumination surface and texture, it respectively introduces their work principles and realization method, it can effectively carrying processing for shadow by test.

  8. Understanding the Cryosphere of Europa Using Imaging Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, D. L.; Green, R. O.; Hibbitts, C.; Clark, R. N.; Dalton, J. B.; Davies, A. G.; Langevin, Y.; Hedman, M.; Lunine, J. I.; McCord, T. B.; Murchie, S. L.; Paranicas, C.; Seelos, F. P.; Soderblom, J. M.; Diniega, S.

    2017-12-01

    Europa's surface expresses a complex interplay of geologic processes driven by the ocean beneath the cryosphere that are subsequently modified by the Jovian environment once exposed on the surface. Several recent Earth-based observations of Europa's tenuous atmosphere suggest that there may in fact be active plumes [1,2,3]. However, the frequency and the duration of activity at any specific location cannot be precisely determined by these observations, but could be with spacecraft observations. For instance, recently active areas on Europa from plumes or other processes may result in distinctive spectral signatures on the surface. Possible spectral signatures that may indicate recent activity include: differences in ice grain size or ice crystallinity; the lack of radiolytic signatures (e.g. a deficit in species due to implantation, radiation darkening of salts, degradation of organic compounds); and thermal anomalies. The Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa (MISE) on NASA's Europa Clipper Mission will be able to map these species thus enabling the identification of these deposits and other young and/or least processed areas. These signatures may also enable a relative geochronology for Europa to be developed. For example, recent work by Proctor et al [4] finds that bands of different stratigraphic ages have different spectral features potentially due to radiation effects on the deposits. We will explore borrowing analyses techniques from earth observing missions of the Arctic. On Earth, data from the Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Next Generation (AVRIS-NG) (https://avirisng.jpl.nasa.gov/aviris-ng.html) is being used to explore Earth's cryosphere. AVRIS-NG data collected from the Greenland ice sheet and high latitude sea ice is being used to map of key ice properties such as grain size and contaminants. These data and processing approaches will be used to explore and validate imaging spectroscopy approaches which MISE might use on Europa.

  9. The importance of understanding during the teaching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubljanin Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning in the teaching process often goes on without proper understanding which is one of important problems that modern didactics tries to solve. In order to direct the totality of teaching towards understanding it is necessary to answer the question what understanding is, which is why we analysed different philosophical views on the concept of understanding and stressed their semblance to pedagogic explanations. Different kinds of understanding were analyzed as well as their role and contribution in different teaching situations, especially in the context of problem solving. As an alternative to the teaching based on accumulation of knowledge the characteristics and some principles of teaching focused on understanding are described, and the need for stimulating and developing understanding as an important goal of education. The results of our research unequivocally show that learning with understanding enables students to memorize the teaching material better, as well as to understand the whole teaching subject and efficiently apply the acquired knowledge out of school, and leads to more flexible behaviour and better coping in everyday life.

  10. Early skin tumor detection from microscopic images through image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, A.A.; Narejo, G.B.; Khan, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The research is done to provide appropriate detection technique for skin tumor detection. The work is done by using the image processing toolbox of MATLAB. Skin tumors are unwanted skin growth with different causes and varying extent of malignant cells. It is a syndrome in which skin cells mislay the ability to divide and grow normally. Early detection of tumor is the most important factor affecting the endurance of a patient. Studying the pattern of the skin cells is the fundamental problem in medical image analysis. The study of skin tumor has been of great interest to the researchers. DIP (Digital Image Processing) allows the use of much more complex algorithms for image processing, and hence, can offer both more sophisticated performance at simple task, and the implementation of methods which would be impossibly by analog means. It allows much wider range of algorithms to be applied to the input data and can avoid problems such as build up of noise and signal distortion during processing. The study shows that few works has been done on cellular scale for the images of skin. This research allows few checks for the early detection of skin tumor using microscopic images after testing and observing various algorithms. After analytical evaluation the result has been observed that the proposed checks are time efficient techniques and appropriate for the tumor detection. The algorithm applied provides promising results in lesser time with accuracy. The GUI (Graphical User Interface) that is generated for the algorithm makes the system user friendly. (author)

  11. Corner-point criterion for assessing nonlinear image processing imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeau, Stéphane; Pigois, Laurent; Foing, Jean-Paul; Deshors, Gilles; Swiathy, Greggory

    2017-10-01

    Range performance modeling of optronics imagers attempts to characterize the ability to resolve details in the image. Today, digital image processing is systematically used in conjunction with the optoelectronic system to correct its defects or to exploit tiny detection signals to increase performance. In order to characterize these processing having adaptive and non-linear properties, it becomes necessary to stimulate the imagers with test patterns whose properties are similar to the actual scene image ones, in terms of dynamic range, contours, texture and singular points. This paper presents an approach based on a Corner-Point (CP) resolution criterion, derived from the Probability of Correct Resolution (PCR) of binary fractal patterns. The fundamental principle lies in the respectful perception of the CP direction of one pixel minority value among the majority value of a 2×2 pixels block. The evaluation procedure considers the actual image as its multi-resolution CP transformation, taking the role of Ground Truth (GT). After a spatial registration between the degraded image and the original one, the degradation is statistically measured by comparing the GT with the degraded image CP transformation, in terms of localized PCR at the region of interest. The paper defines this CP criterion and presents the developed evaluation techniques, such as the measurement of the number of CP resolved on the target, the transformation CP and its inverse transform that make it possible to reconstruct an image of the perceived CPs. Then, this criterion is compared with the standard Johnson criterion, in the case of a linear blur and noise degradation. The evaluation of an imaging system integrating an image display and a visual perception is considered, by proposing an analysis scheme combining two methods: a CP measurement for the highly non-linear part (imaging) with real signature test target and conventional methods for the more linear part (displaying). The application to

  12. Rotation Covariant Image Processing for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Skibbe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of novel biomedical 3D image acquisition techniques, the efficient and reliable analysis of volumetric images has become more and more important. The amount of data is enormous and demands an automated processing. The applications are manifold, ranging from image enhancement, image reconstruction, and image description to object/feature detection and high-level contextual feature extraction. In most scenarios, it is expected that geometric transformations alter the output in a mathematically well-defined manner. In this paper we emphasis on 3D translations and rotations. Many algorithms rely on intensity or low-order tensorial-like descriptions to fulfill this demand. This paper proposes a general mathematical framework based on mathematical concepts and theories transferred from mathematical physics and harmonic analysis into the domain of image analysis and pattern recognition. Based on two basic operations, spherical tensor differentiation and spherical tensor multiplication, we show how to design a variety of 3D image processing methods in an efficient way. The framework has already been applied to several biomedical applications ranging from feature and object detection tasks to image enhancement and image restoration techniques. In this paper, the proposed methods are applied on a variety of different 3D data modalities stemming from medical and biological sciences.

  13. Fingerprint image enhancement by differential hysteresis processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotta, Eduardo; Moler, Emilce

    2004-05-10

    A new method to enhance defective fingerprints images through image digital processing tools is presented in this work. When the fingerprints have been taken without any care, blurred and in some cases mostly illegible, as in the case presented here, their classification and comparison becomes nearly impossible. A combination of spatial domain filters, including a technique called differential hysteresis processing (DHP), is applied to improve these kind of images. This set of filtering methods proved to be satisfactory in a wide range of cases by uncovering hidden details that helped to identify persons. Dactyloscopy experts from Policia Federal Argentina and the EAAF have validated these results.

  14. Image processing system for flow pattern measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Satoru; Miyanaga, Yoichi; Takeda, Hirofumi

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of an image processing system for measurements of flow patterns occuring in natural circulation water flows. In this method, the motions of particles scattered in the flow are visualized by a laser light slit and they are recorded on normal video tapes. These image data are converted to digital data with an image processor and then transfered to a large computer. The center points and pathlines of the particle images are numerically analized, and velocity vectors are obtained with these results. In this image processing system, velocity vectors in a vertical plane are measured simultaneously, so that the two dimensional behaviors of various eddies, with low velocity and complicated flow patterns usually observed in natural circulation flows, can be determined almost quantitatively. The measured flow patterns, which were obtained from natural circulation flow experiments, agreed with photographs of the particle movements, and the validity of this measuring system was confirmed in this study. (author)

  15. Image processing for HTS SQUID probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Koetitz, R.; Itozaki, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawabe, U.

    2005-01-01

    An HTS SQUID probe microscope has been developed using a high-permeability needle to enable high spatial resolution measurement of samples in air even at room temperature. Image processing techniques have also been developed to improve the magnetic field images obtained from the microscope. Artifacts in the data occur due to electromagnetic interference from electric power lines, line drift and flux trapping. The electromagnetic interference could successfully be removed by eliminating the noise peaks from the power spectrum of fast Fourier transforms of line scans of the image. The drift between lines was removed by interpolating the mean field value of each scan line. Artifacts in line scans occurring due to flux trapping or unexpected noise were removed by the detection of a sharp drift and interpolation using the line data of neighboring lines. Highly detailed magnetic field images were obtained from the HTS SQUID probe microscope by the application of these image processing techniques

  16. Brain's tumor image processing using shearlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Luis; Espinosa, Nikolai; Cadena, Franklin; Korneeva, Anna; Kruglyakov, Alexey; Legalov, Alexander; Romanenko, Alexey; Zotin, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Brain tumor detection is well known research area for medical and computer scientists. In last decades there has been much research done on tumor detection, segmentation, and classification. Medical imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis of brain tumors and nowadays uses methods non-invasive, high-resolution techniques, especially magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans. Edge detection is a fundamental tool in image processing, particularly in the areas of feature detection and feature extraction, which aim at identifying points in a digital image at which the image has discontinuities. Shearlets is the most successful frameworks for the efficient representation of multidimensional data, capturing edges and other anisotropic features which frequently dominate multidimensional phenomena. The paper proposes an improved brain tumor detection method by automatically detecting tumor location in MR images, its features are extracted by new shearlet transform.

  17. Hypercube algorithms suitable for image understanding in uncertain environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntsberger, T.L.; Sengupta, A.

    1988-01-01

    Computer vision in a dynamic environment needs to be fast and able to tolerate incomplete or uncertain intermediate results. An appropriately chose representation coupled with a parallel architecture addresses both concerns. The wide range of numerical and symbolic processing needed for robust computer vision can only be achieved through a blend of SIMD and MIMD processing techniques. The 1024 element hypercube architecture has these capabilities, and was chosen as the test-bed hardware for development of highly parallel computer vision algorithms. This paper presents and analyzes parallel algorithms for color image segmentation and edge detection. These algorithms are part of a recently developed computer vision system which uses multiple valued logic to represent uncertainty in the imaging process and in intermediate results. Algorithms for the extraction of three dimensional properties of objects using dynamic scene analysis techniques within the same framework are examined. Results from experimental studies using a 1024 element hypercube implementation of the algorithm as applied to a series of natural scenes are reported

  18. Understanding r-process nucleosynthesis with dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Alexander P.

    2018-06-01

    The Milky Way's faintest dwarf galaxy satellites each sample short, independent bursts of star formation from the first 1-2 Gyr of the universe. Their simple formation history makes them ideal systems to understand how rare events like neutron star mergers contribute to early enrichment of r-process elements. I will focus on the ultra-faint galaxy Reticulum II, which experienced a single prolific r-process event that left ~80% of its stars extremely enriched in r-process elements. I will present abundances of ~40 elements derived from the highest signal-to-noise high-resolution spectrum ever taken for an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy star. Precise measurements of elements from all three r-process peaks reaffirm the universal nature of the r-process abundance pattern from Ba to Ir. The first r-process peak is significantly lower than solar but matches other r-process enhanced stars. This constrains the neutron-richness of r-process ejecta in neutron star mergers. The radioactive element thorium is detected with a somewhat low abundance. Naive application of currently predicted initial production ratios could imply an age >20 Gyr, but more likely indicates that the initial production ratios require revision. The abundance of lighter elements up to Zn are consistent with extremely metal-poor Milky Way halo stars. These elements may eventually provide a way to test for other hypothesized r-process sites, but only after a more detailed understanding of the chemical evolution in this galaxy. Reticulum II provides a clean view of early r-process enrichment that can be used to understand the increasing number of r-process measurements in other dwarf galaxies.

  19. Cellular Neural Network for Real Time Image Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagliasindi, G.; Arena, P.; Fortuna, L.; Mazzitelli, G.; Murari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1988, Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNNs) have found a key role as image processing instruments. Thanks to their structure they are able of processing individual pixels in a parallel way providing fast image processing capabilities that has been applied to a wide range of field among which nuclear fusion. In the last years, indeed, visible and infrared video cameras have become more and more important in tokamak fusion experiments for the twofold aim of understanding the physics and monitoring the safety of the operation. Examining the output of these cameras in real-time can provide significant information for plasma control and safety of the machines. The potentiality of CNNs can be exploited to this aim. To demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, CNN image processing has been applied to several tasks both at the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) and the Joint European Torus (JET)

  20. Twofold processing for denoising ultrasound medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, P V V; Kumar, K V V; Kumar, D Anil; Prasad, M V D; Goutham, E N D; Rahul, R; Krishna, C B S Vamsi; Sandeep, Y

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound medical (US) imaging non-invasively pictures inside of a human body for disease diagnostics. Speckle noise attacks ultrasound images degrading their visual quality. A twofold processing algorithm is proposed in this work to reduce this multiplicative speckle noise. First fold used block based thresholding, both hard (BHT) and soft (BST), on pixels in wavelet domain with 8, 16, 32 and 64 non-overlapping block sizes. This first fold process is a better denoising method for reducing speckle and also inducing object of interest blurring. The second fold process initiates to restore object boundaries and texture with adaptive wavelet fusion. The degraded object restoration in block thresholded US image is carried through wavelet coefficient fusion of object in original US mage and block thresholded US image. Fusion rules and wavelet decomposition levels are made adaptive for each block using gradient histograms with normalized differential mean (NDF) to introduce highest level of contrast between the denoised pixels and the object pixels in the resultant image. Thus the proposed twofold methods are named as adaptive NDF block fusion with hard and soft thresholding (ANBF-HT and ANBF-ST). The results indicate visual quality improvement to an interesting level with the proposed twofold processing, where the first fold removes noise and second fold restores object properties. Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), normalized cross correlation coefficient (NCC), edge strength (ES), image quality Index (IQI) and structural similarity index (SSIM), measure the quantitative quality of the twofold processing technique. Validation of the proposed method is done by comparing with anisotropic diffusion (AD), total variational filtering (TVF) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for enhancement of US images. The US images are provided by AMMA hospital radiology labs at Vijayawada, India.

  1. From spoken narratives to domain knowledge: mining linguistic data for medical image understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuan; Yu, Qi; Alm, Cecilia Ovesdotter; Calvelli, Cara; Pelz, Jeff B; Shi, Pengcheng; Haake, Anne R

    2014-10-01

    Extracting useful visual clues from medical images allowing accurate diagnoses requires physicians' domain knowledge acquired through years of systematic study and clinical training. This is especially true in the dermatology domain, a medical specialty that requires physicians to have image inspection experience. Automating or at least aiding such efforts requires understanding physicians' reasoning processes and their use of domain knowledge. Mining physicians' references to medical concepts in narratives during image-based diagnosis of a disease is an interesting research topic that can help reveal experts' reasoning processes. It can also be a useful resource to assist with design of information technologies for image use and for image case-based medical education systems. We collected data for analyzing physicians' diagnostic reasoning processes by conducting an experiment that recorded their spoken descriptions during inspection of dermatology images. In this paper we focus on the benefit of physicians' spoken descriptions and provide a general workflow for mining medical domain knowledge based on linguistic data from these narratives. The challenge of a medical image case can influence the accuracy of the diagnosis as well as how physicians pursue the diagnostic process. Accordingly, we define two lexical metrics for physicians' narratives--lexical consensus score and top N relatedness score--and evaluate their usefulness by assessing the diagnostic challenge levels of corresponding medical images. We also report on clustering medical images based on anchor concepts obtained from physicians' medical term usage. These analyses are based on physicians' spoken narratives that have been preprocessed by incorporating the Unified Medical Language System for detecting medical concepts. The image rankings based on lexical consensus score and on top 1 relatedness score are well correlated with those based on challenge levels (Spearman correlation>0.5 and Kendall

  2. Understanding the Process by Which New Employees Enter Work Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Donald B.

    1977-01-01

    The Group Integration Process, described in this article, serves as a broad and guiding set of steps (invitation, induction, orientation, training, relationship, and integration) that helps the supervisor better understand what is to be done in managing a new employee's entrance into a work group. (TA)

  3. Understanding the Advising Learning Process Using Learning Taxonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleck, Jeanette K.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Allen, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the learning that transpires in advising, we used Anderson et al.'s (2001) revision of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's (1964) affective taxonomy to analyze eight student-reported advising outcomes from Smith and Allen (2014). Using the cognitive processes and knowledge domains of Anderson et al.'s…

  4. Understanding the IT/business partnership - a business process perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur

    2014-01-01

    From a business process perspective, the business value of information technologies (IT) stems from how they improve or enable business processes. At the same time, in the field of strategic IT/business alignment, the locus of discussion has been how IT/business partnerships enhance the value of IT....... Despite this apparent relationship, the business process perspective has been absent from the IT/business alignment discussion. In this paper, we use the case of an industrial company to develop a model for understanding IT/business partnerships in business process terms. Based on our findings, we define...... these partnerships by allocating responsibilities between central IT and the local business during two stages of a process lifecycle: formation and standardization. The significance of the findings lies in how the model’s configuration leads to different types of IT units’ process centricity. This in turn affects...

  5. Employing image processing techniques for cancer detection using microarray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan Khalilabad, Nastaran; Hassanpour, Hamid

    2017-02-01

    Microarray technology is a powerful genomic tool for simultaneously studying and analyzing the behavior of thousands of genes. The analysis of images obtained from this technology plays a critical role in the detection and treatment of diseases. The aim of the current study is to develop an automated system for analyzing data from microarray images in order to detect cancerous cases. The proposed system consists of three main phases, namely image processing, data mining, and the detection of the disease. The image processing phase performs operations such as refining image rotation, gridding (locating genes) and extracting raw data from images the data mining includes normalizing the extracted data and selecting the more effective genes. Finally, via the extracted data, cancerous cell is recognized. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, microarray database is employed which includes Breast cancer, Myeloid Leukemia and Lymphomas from the Stanford Microarray Database. The results indicate that the proposed system is able to identify the type of cancer from the data set with an accuracy of 95.45%, 94.11%, and 100%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Document Examination: Applications of Image Processing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopainsky, B

    1989-12-01

    Dealing with images is a familiar business for an expert in questioned documents: microscopic, photographic, infrared, and other optical techniques generate images containing the information he or she is looking for. A recent method for extracting most of this information is digital image processing, ranging from the simple contrast and contour enhancement to the advanced restoration of blurred texts. When combined with a sophisticated physical imaging system, an image pricessing system has proven to be a powerful and fast tool for routine non-destructive scanning of suspect documents. This article reviews frequent applications, comprising techniques to increase legibility, two-dimensional spectroscopy (ink discrimination, alterations, erased entries, etc.), comparison techniques (stamps, typescript letters, photo substitution), and densitometry. Computerized comparison of handwriting is not included. Copyright © 1989 Central Police University.

  7. Traffic analysis and control using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ellappan, Vijayan; Arun, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper shows the work on traffic analysis and control till date. It shows an approach to regulate traffic the use of image processing and MATLAB systems. This concept uses computational images that are to be compared with original images of the street taken in order to determine the traffic level percentage and set the timing for the traffic signal accordingly which are used to reduce the traffic stoppage on traffic lights. They concept proposes to solve real life scenarios in the streets, thus enriching the traffic lights by adding image receivers like HD cameras and image processors. The input is then imported into MATLAB to be used. as a method for calculating the traffic on roads. Their results would be computed in order to adjust the traffic light timings on a particular street, and also with respect to other similar proposals but with the added value of solving a real, big instance.

  8. Fundamental concepts of digital image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twogood, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The field of a digital-image processing has experienced dramatic growth and increasingly widespread applicability in recent years. Fortunately, advances in computer technology have kept pace with the rapid growth in volume of image data in these and other applications. Digital image processing has become economical in many fields of research and in industrial and military applications. While each application has requirements unique from the others, all are concerned with faster, cheaper, more accurate, and more extensive computation. The trend is toward real-time and interactive operations, where the user of the system obtains preliminary results within a short enough time that the next decision can be made by the human processor without loss of concentration on the task at hand. An example of this is the obtaining of two-dimensional (2-D) computer-aided tomography (CAT) images. A medical decision might be made while the patient is still under observation rather than days later.

  9. Fundamental Concepts of Digital Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twogood, R. E.

    1983-03-01

    The field of a digital-image processing has experienced dramatic growth and increasingly widespread applicability in recent years. Fortunately, advances in computer technology have kept pace with the rapid growth in volume of image data in these and other applications. Digital image processing has become economical in many fields of research and in industrial and military applications. While each application has requirements unique from the others, all are concerned with faster, cheaper, more accurate, and more extensive computation. The trend is toward real-time and interactive operations, where the user of the system obtains preliminary results within a short enough time that the next decision can be made by the human processor without loss of concentration on the task at hand. An example of this is the obtaining of two-dimensional (2-D) computer-aided tomography (CAT) images. A medical decision might be made while the patient is still under observation rather than days later.

  10. Digital Signal Processing for Medical Imaging Using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gopi, E S

    2013-01-01

    This book describes medical imaging systems, such as X-ray, Computed tomography, MRI, etc. from the point of view of digital signal processing. Readers will see techniques applied to medical imaging such as Radon transformation, image reconstruction, image rendering, image enhancement and restoration, and more. This book also outlines the physics behind medical imaging required to understand the techniques being described. The presentation is designed to be accessible to beginners who are doing research in DSP for medical imaging. Matlab programs and illustrations are used wherever possible to reinforce the concepts being discussed.  ·         Acts as a “starter kit” for beginners doing research in DSP for medical imaging; ·         Uses Matlab programs and illustrations throughout to make content accessible, particularly with techniques such as Radon transformation and image rendering; ·         Includes discussion of the basic principles behind the various medical imaging tec...

  11. Parallel asynchronous systems and image processing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, D. D.; Perera, A. G. U.

    1989-01-01

    A new hardware approach to implementation of image processing algorithms is described. The approach is based on silicon devices which would permit an independent analog processing channel to be dedicated to evey pixel. A laminar architecture consisting of a stack of planar arrays of the device would form a two-dimensional array processor with a 2-D array of inputs located directly behind a focal plane detector array. A 2-D image data stream would propagate in neuronlike asynchronous pulse coded form through the laminar processor. Such systems would integrate image acquisition and image processing. Acquisition and processing would be performed concurrently as in natural vision systems. The research is aimed at implementation of algorithms, such as the intensity dependent summation algorithm and pyramid processing structures, which are motivated by the operation of natural vision systems. Implementation of natural vision algorithms would benefit from the use of neuronlike information coding and the laminar, 2-D parallel, vision system type architecture. Besides providing a neural network framework for implementation of natural vision algorithms, a 2-D parallel approach could eliminate the serial bottleneck of conventional processing systems. Conversion to serial format would occur only after raw intensity data has been substantially processed. An interesting challenge arises from the fact that the mathematical formulation of natural vision algorithms does not specify the means of implementation, so that hardware implementation poses intriguing questions involving vision science.

  12. Image processing of angiograms: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L. E.; Evans, R. A.; Roehm, J. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The technology transfer application this report describes is the result of a pilot study of image-processing methods applied to the image enhancement, coding, and analysis of arteriograms. Angiography is a subspecialty of radiology that employs the introduction of media with high X-ray absorption into arteries in order to study vessel pathology as well as to infer disease of the organs supplied by the vessel in question.

  13. PCB Fault Detection Using Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Jithendra P. R.; Anitha, K.; Parameshachari, B. D., Dr.; Banu, Reshma, Dr.; Rashmi, P.

    2017-08-01

    The importance of the Printed Circuit Board inspection process has been magnified by requirements of the modern manufacturing environment where delivery of 100% defect free PCBs is the expectation. To meet such expectations, identifying various defects and their types becomes the first step. In this PCB inspection system the inspection algorithm mainly focuses on the defect detection using the natural images. Many practical issues like tilt of the images, bad light conditions, height at which images are taken etc. are to be considered to ensure good quality of the image which can then be used for defect detection. Printed circuit board (PCB) fabrication is a multidisciplinary process, and etching is the most critical part in the PCB manufacturing process. The main objective of Etching process is to remove the exposed unwanted copper other than the required circuit pattern. In order to minimize scrap caused by the wrongly etched PCB panel, inspection has to be done in early stage. However, all of the inspections are done after the etching process where any defective PCB found is no longer useful and is simply thrown away. Since etching process costs 0% of the entire PCB fabrication, it is uneconomical to simply discard the defective PCBs. In this paper a method to identify the defects in natural PCB images and associated practical issues are addressed using Software tools and some of the major types of single layer PCB defects are Pattern Cut, Pin hole, Pattern Short, Nick etc., Therefore the defects should be identified before the etching process so that the PCB would be reprocessed. In the present approach expected to improve the efficiency of the system in detecting the defects even in low quality images

  14. Mathematical foundations of image processing and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pinoli, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical Imaging is currently a rapidly growing field in applied mathematics, with an increasing need for theoretical mathematics. This book, the second of two volumes, emphasizes the role of mathematics as a rigorous basis for imaging sciences. It provides a comprehensive and convenient overview of the key mathematical concepts, notions, tools and frameworks involved in the various fields of gray-tone and binary image processing and analysis, by proposing a large, but coherent, set of symbols and notations, a complete list of subjects and a detailed bibliography. It establishes a bridg

  15. Three-dimensional image signals: processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2010-11-01

    Over the years extensive studies have been carried out to apply coherent optics methods in real-time processing, communications and transmission image. This is especially true when a large amount of information needs to be processed, e.g., in high-resolution imaging. The recent progress in data-processing networks and communication systems has considerably increased the capacity of information exchange. We describe the results of literature investigation research of processing methods for the signals of the three-dimensional images. All commercially available 3D technologies today are based on stereoscopic viewing. 3D technology was once the exclusive domain of skilled computer-graphics developers with high-end machines and software. The images capture from the advanced 3D digital camera can be displayed onto screen of the 3D digital viewer with/ without special glasses. For this is needed considerable processing power and memory to create and render the complex mix of colors, textures, and virtual lighting and perspective necessary to make figures appear three-dimensional. Also, using a standard digital camera and a technique called phase-shift interferometry we can capture "digital holograms." These are holograms that can be stored on computer and transmitted over conventional networks. We present some research methods to process "digital holograms" for the Internet transmission and results.

  16. REMOTE SENSING IMAGE QUALITY ASSESSMENT EXPERIMENT WITH POST-PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly describes the post-processing influence assessment experiment, the experiment includes three steps: the physical simulation, image processing, and image quality assessment. The physical simulation models sampled imaging system in laboratory, the imaging system parameters are tested, the digital image serving as image processing input are produced by this imaging system with the same imaging system parameters. The gathered optical sampled images with the tested imaging parameters are processed by 3 digital image processes, including calibration pre-processing, lossy compression with different compression ratio and image post-processing with different core. Image quality assessment method used is just noticeable difference (JND subject assessment based on ISO20462, through subject assessment of the gathered and processing images, the influence of different imaging parameters and post-processing to image quality can be found. The six JND subject assessment experimental data can be validated each other. Main conclusions include: image post-processing can improve image quality; image post-processing can improve image quality even with lossy compression, image quality with higher compression ratio improves less than lower ratio; with our image post-processing method, image quality is better, when camera MTF being within a small range.

  17. Penn State astronomical image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truax, R.J.; Nousek, J.A.; Feigelson, E.D.; Lonsdale, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The needs of modern astronomy for image processing set demanding standards in simultaneously requiring fast computation speed, high-quality graphic display, large data storage, and interactive response. An innovative image processing system was designed, integrated, and used; it is based on a supermicro architecture which is tailored specifically for astronomy, which provides a highly cost-effective alternative to the traditional minicomputer installation. The paper describes the design rationale, equipment selection, and software developed to allow other astronomers with similar needs to benefit from the present experience. 9 references

  18. Understanding and Managing Process Interaction in IS Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2012-01-01

    Software-based information systems must be developed and implemented as a part of business change. This is a major challenge, since business change and the development of software-based information systems usually are performed in separate processes. Thus, there is a need to understand and manage...... critical events in the case, what led to the events, and what the consequences are. We discuss the implications for information systems research and in particular we discuss the contribution to project management of iterative and incremental software development.......Software-based information systems must be developed and implemented as a part of business change. This is a major challenge, since business change and the development of software-based information systems usually are performed in separate processes. Thus, there is a need to understand and manage...

  19. Evaluating nurse understanding and participation in the informed consent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axson, Sydney A; Giordano, Nicholas A; Hermann, Robin M; Ulrich, Connie M

    2017-01-01

    Informed consent is fundamental to the autonomous decision-making of patients, yet much is still unknown about the process in the clinical setting. In an evolving healthcare landscape, nurses must be prepared to address patient understanding and participate in the informed consent process to better fulfill their well-established role as patient advocates. This study examines hospital-based nurses' experiences and understandings of the informed consent process. This qualitative descriptive study utilized a semi-structured interview approach identifying thematic concerns, experiences, and knowledge of informed consent across a selected population of clinically practicing nurses. Participants and research context: In all, 20 baccalaureate prepared registered nurses practicing in various clinical settings (i.e. critical care, oncology, medical/surgical) at a large northeastern academic medical center in the United States completed semi-structured interviews and a demographic survey. The mean age of participants was 36.6 years old, with a mean of 12.2 years of clinical experience. Ethical considerations: Participation in this study involved minimal risk and no invasive measures. This study received Institutional Review Board approval from the University of Pennsylvania. All participants voluntarily consented. The majority of participants (N = 19) believe patient safety is directly linked to patient comprehension of the informed consent process. However, when asked if nurses have a defined role in the informed consent process, nearly half did not agree (N = 9). Through this qualitative approach, three major nursing roles emerged: the nurse as a communicator, the nurse as an advocate, and the clerical role of the nurse. This investigation contributes to the foundation of ethical research that will better prepare nurses for patient engagement, advance current understanding of informed consent, and allow for future development of solutions. Nurses are at the forefront of

  20. Image processing of early gastric cancer cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamoto, Kazuo; Umeda, Tokuo; Inamura, Kiyonari

    1992-01-01

    Computer image processing was used to enhance gastric lesions in order to improve the detection of stomach cancer. Digitization was performed in 25 cases of early gastric cancer that had been confirmed surgically and pathologically. The image processing consisted of grey scale transformation, edge enhancement (Sobel operator), and high-pass filtering (unsharp masking). Grey scale transformation improved image quality for the detection of gastric lesions. The Sobel operator enhanced linear and curved margins, and consequently, suppressed the rest. High-pass filtering with unsharp masking was superior to visualization of the texture pattern on the mucosa. Eight of 10 small lesions (less than 2.0 cm) were successfully demonstrated. However, the detection of two lesions in the antrum, was difficult even with the aid of image enhancement. In the other 15 lesions (more than 2.0 cm), the tumor surface pattern and margin between the tumor and non-pathological mucosa were clearly visualized. Image processing was considered to contribute to the detection of small early gastric cancer lesions by enhancing the pathological lesions. (author)

  1. Flame analysis using image processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her Jie, Albert Chang; Zamli, Ahmad Faizal Ahmad; Zulazlan Shah Zulkifli, Ahmad; Yee, Joanne Lim Mun; Lim, Mooktzeng

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents image processing techniques with the use of fuzzy logic and neural network approach to perform flame analysis. Flame diagnostic is important in the industry to extract relevant information from flame images. Experiment test is carried out in a model industrial burner with different flow rates. Flame features such as luminous and spectral parameters are extracted using image processing and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Flame images are acquired using FLIR infrared camera. Non-linearities such as thermal acoustic oscillations and background noise affect the stability of flame. Flame velocity is one of the important characteristics that determines stability of flame. In this paper, an image processing method is proposed to determine flame velocity. Power spectral density (PSD) graph is a good tool for vibration analysis where flame stability can be approximated. However, a more intelligent diagnostic system is needed to automatically determine flame stability. In this paper, flame features of different flow rates are compared and analyzed. The selected flame features are used as inputs to the proposed fuzzy inference system to determine flame stability. Neural network is used to test the performance of the fuzzy inference system.

  2. Toward understanding dynamic annealing processes in irradiated ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Michael Thomas [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2013-05-01

    High energy particle irradiation inevitably generates defects in solids. The ballistic formation and thermalization of the defect creation process occur rapidly, and are believed to be reasonably well understood. However, knowledge of the evolution of defects after damage cascade thermalization, referred to as dynamic annealing, is quite limited. Unraveling the mechanisms associated with dynamic annealing is crucial since such processes play an important role in the formation of stable postirradiation disorder in ion-beam-processing of semiconductors, and determines the “radiation tolerance” of many nuclear materials. The purpose of this dissertation is to further our understanding of the processes involved in dynamic annealing. In order to achieve this, two main tasks are undertaken.

  3. Image processing of integrated video image obtained with a charged-particle imaging video monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Takao; Nakajima, Takehiro

    1988-01-01

    A new type of charged-particle imaging video monitor system was constructed for video imaging of the distributions of alpha-emitting and low-energy beta-emitting nuclides. The system can display not only the scintillation image due to radiation on the video monitor but also the integrated video image becoming gradually clearer on another video monitor. The distortion of the image is about 5% and the spatial resolution is about 2 line pairs (lp)mm -1 . The integrated image is transferred to a personal computer and image processing is performed qualitatively and quantitatively. (author)

  4. Intensity-dependent point spread image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornsweet, T.N.; Yellott, J.I.

    1984-01-01

    There is ample anatomical, physiological and psychophysical evidence that the mammilian retina contains networks that mediate interactions among neighboring receptors, resulting in intersecting transformations between input images and their corresponding neural output patterns. The almost universally accepted view is that the principal form of interaction involves lateral inhibition, resulting in an output pattern that is the convolution of the input with a ''Mexican hat'' or difference-of-Gaussians spread function, having a positive center and a negative surround. A closely related process is widely applied in digital image processing, and in photography as ''unsharp masking''. The authors show that a simple and fundamentally different process, involving no inhibitory or subtractive terms can also account for the physiological and psychophysical findings that have been attributed to lateral inhibition. This process also results in a number of fundamental effects that occur in mammalian vision and that would be of considerable significance in robotic vision, but which cannot be explained by lateral inhibitory interaction

  5. Image processing in radiology. Current applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, E.; Caramella, D.; Bartolozzi, C.

    2008-01-01

    Few fields have witnessed such impressive advances as image processing in radiology. The progress achieved has revolutionized diagnosis and greatly facilitated treatment selection and accurate planning of procedures. This book, written by leading experts from many countries, provides a comprehensive and up-to-date description of how to use 2D and 3D processing tools in clinical radiology. The first section covers a wide range of technical aspects in an informative way. This is followed by the main section, in which the principal clinical applications are described and discussed in depth. To complete the picture, a third section focuses on various special topics. The book will be invaluable to radiologists of any subspecialty who work with CT and MRI and would like to exploit the advantages of image processing techniques. It also addresses the needs of radiographers who cooperate with clinical radiologists and should improve their ability to generate the appropriate 2D and 3D processing. (orig.)

  6. Post-processing of digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Luca; Politi, Marco; Foschi, Raffaella; Masini, Valentina; Reale, Francesca; Costantini, Alessandro Maria; Marano, Pasquale

    2003-01-01

    Post-processing of bi- and three-dimensional images plays a major role for clinicians and surgeons in both diagnosis and therapy. The new spiral (single and multislice) CT and MRI machines have allowed better quality of images. With the associated development of hardware and software, post-processing has become indispensable in many radiologic applications in order to address precise clinical questions. In particular, in CT the acquisition technique is fundamental and should be targeted and optimized to obtain good image reconstruction. Multiplanar reconstructions ensure simple, immediate display of sections along different planes. Three-dimensional reconstructions include numerous procedures: multiplanar techniques as maximum intensity projections (MIP); surface rendering techniques as the Shaded Surface Display (SSD); volume techniques as the Volume Rendering Technique; techniques of virtual endoscopy. In surgery computer-aided techniques as the neuronavigator, which with information provided by neuroimaging helps the neurosurgeon in simulating and performing the operation, are extremely interesting.

  7. Image/video understanding systems based on network-symbolic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2004-03-01

    Vision is a part of a larger information system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive vision process, resolve ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback projections, and provide image understanding that is an interpretation of visual information in terms of such knowledge models. Computer simulation models are built on the basis of graphs/networks. The ability of human brain to emulate similar graph/network models is found. Symbols, predicates and grammars naturally emerge in such networks, and logic is simply a way of restructuring such models. Brain analyzes an image as a graph-type relational structure created via multilevel hierarchical compression of visual information. Primary areas provide active fusion of image features on a spatial grid-like structure, where nodes are cortical columns. Spatial logic and topology naturally present in such structures. Mid-level vision processes like perceptual grouping, separation of figure from ground, are special kinds of network transformations. They convert primary image structure into the set of more abstract ones, which represent objects and visual scene, making them easy for analysis by higher-level knowledge structures. Higher-level vision phenomena are results of such analysis. Composition of network-symbolic models combines learning, classification, and analogy together with higher-level model-based reasoning into a single framework, and it works similar to frames and agents. Computational intelligence methods transform images into model-based knowledge representation. Based on such principles, an Image/Video Understanding system can convert images into the knowledge models, and resolve uncertainty and ambiguity. This allows creating intelligent computer vision systems for design and manufacturing.

  8. Speckle pattern processing by digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubarev Fedor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing the method of speckle pattern processing based on the digital image correlation is carried out in the current work. Three the most widely used formulas of the correlation coefficient are tested. To determine the accuracy of the speckle pattern processing, test speckle patterns with known displacement are used. The optimal size of a speckle pattern template used for determination of correlation and corresponding the speckle pattern displacement is also considered in the work.

  9. Digital image processing in neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, S.

    2000-11-01

    Neutron radiography is a method for the visualization of the macroscopic inner-structure and material distributions of various samples. The basic experimental arrangement consists of a neutron source, a collimator functioning as beam formatting assembly and of a plane position sensitive integrating detector. The object is placed between the collimator exit and the detector, which records a two dimensional image. This image contains information about the composition and structure of the sample-interior, as a result of the interaction of neutrons by penetrating matter. Due to rapid developments of detector and computer technology as well as deployments in the field of digital image processing, new technologies are nowadays available which have the potential to improve the performance of neutron radiographic investigations enormously. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop a state-of-the art digital imaging device, suitable for the two neutron radiography stations located at the 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten and furthermore, to identify and develop two and three dimensional digital image processing methods suitable for neutron radiographic and tomographic applications, and to implement and optimize them within data processing strategies. The first step was the development of a new imaging device fulfilling the requirements of a high reproducibility, easy handling, high spatial resolution, a large dynamic range, high efficiency and a good linearity. The detector output should be inherently digitized. The key components of the detector system selected on the basis of these requirements consist of a neutron sensitive scintillator screen, a CCD-camera and a mirror to reflect the light emitted by the scintillator to the CCD-camera. This detector design enables to place the camera out of the direct neutron beam. The whole assembly is placed in a light shielded aluminum box. The camera is controlled by a

  10. Digital image processing in neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, S.

    2000-11-01

    Neutron radiography is a method for the visualization of the macroscopic inner-structure and material distributions of various materials. The basic experimental arrangement consists of a neutron source, a collimator functioning as beam formatting assembly and of a plane position sensitive integrating detector. The object is placed between the collimator exit and the detector, which records a two dimensional image. This image contains information about the composition and structure of the sample-interior, as a result of the interaction of neutrons by penetrating matter. Due to rapid developments of detector and computer technology as well as deployments in the field of digital image processing, new technologies are nowadays available which have the potential to improve the performance of neutron radiographic investigations enormously. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop a state-of-the art digital imaging device, suitable for the two neutron radiography stations located at the 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten and furthermore, to identify and develop two and three dimensional digital image processing methods suitable for neutron radiographic and tomographic applications, and to implement and optimize them within data processing strategies. The first step was the development of a new imaging device fulfilling the requirements of a high reproducibility, easy handling, high spatial resolution, a large dynamic range, high efficiency and a good linearity. The detector output should be inherently digitized. The key components of the detector system selected on the basis of these requirements consist of a neutron sensitive scintillator screen, a CCD-camera and a mirror to reflect the light emitted by the scintillator to the CCD-camera. This detector design enables to place the camera out of the direct neutron beam. The whole assembly is placed in a light shielded aluminum box. The camera is controlled by a

  11. Optimisation in signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Siarry, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the optimization methods most commonly encountered in signal and image processing: artificial evolution and Parisian approach; wavelets and fractals; information criteria; training and quadratic programming; Bayesian formalism; probabilistic modeling; Markovian approach; hidden Markov models; and metaheuristics (genetic algorithms, ant colony algorithms, cross-entropy, particle swarm optimization, estimation of distribution algorithms, and artificial immune systems).

  12. Process for making lyophilized radiographic imaging kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogg, T.W.; Bates, P.E.; Bugaj, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    A process for making a lyophilized composition useful for skeletal imaging whereby an aqueous solution containing an ascorbate, gentisate, or reductate stabilizer is contacted with tin metal or an alloy containing tin and, thereafter, lyophilized. Preferably, such compositions also comprise a tissue-specific carrier and a stannous compound. It is particularly preferred to incorporate stannous oxide as a coating on the tin metal

  13. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  14. Implied Movement in Static Images Reveals Biological Timing Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Nather

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is adapted toward a better understanding of our own movements than those of non-conspecifics. The present study determined whether time perception is affected by pictures of different species by considering the evolutionary scale. Static (“S” and implied movement (“M” images of a dog, cheetah, chimpanzee, and man were presented to undergraduate students. S and M images of the same species were presented in random order or one after the other (S-M or M-S for two groups of participants. Movement, Velocity, and Arousal semantic scales were used to characterize some properties of the images. Implied movement affected time perception, in which M images were overestimated. The results are discussed in terms of visual motion perception related to biological timing processing that could be established early in terms of the adaptation of humankind to the environment.

  15. Image processing in digital chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, H.; Partanen, K.; Lehtovirta, J.; Matsi, P.; Soimakallio, S.

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of digital image processing of chest radiographs was evaluated in a clinical study. In 54 patients, chest radiographs in the posteroanterior projection were obtained by both 14 inch digital image intensifier equipment and the conventional screen-film technique. The digital radiographs (512x512 image format) viewed on a 625 line monitor were processed in 3 different ways: 1.standard display; 2.digital edge enhancement for the standard display; 3.inverse intensity display. The radiographs were interpreted independently by 3 radiologists. Diagnoses were confirmed by CT, follow-up radiographs and clinical records. Chest abnormalities of the films analyzed included 21 primary lung tumors, 44 pulmonary nodules, 16 cases with mediastinal disease, 17 with pneumonia /atelectasis. Interstitial lung disease, pleural plaques, and pulmonary emphysema were found in 30, 18 and 19 cases respectively. Sensitivity of conventional radiography when averaged overall findings was better than that of digital techniques (P<0.001). Differences in diagnostic accuracy measured by sensitivity and specificity between the 3 digital display modes were small. Standard image display showed better sensitivity for pulmonary nodules (0.74 vs 0.66; P<0.05) but poorer specificity for pulmonary emphysema (0.85 vs 0.93; P<0.05) compared with inverse intensity display. It is concluded that when using 512x512 image format, the routine use of digital edge enhancement and tone reversal at digital chest radiographs is not warranted. (author). 12 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Processing Infrared Images For Fire Management Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John R.; Pratt, William K.

    1981-12-01

    The USDA Forest Service has used airborne infrared systems for forest fire detection and mapping for many years. The transfer of the images from plane to ground and the transposition of fire spots and perimeters to maps has been performed manually. A new system has been developed which uses digital image processing, transmission, and storage. Interactive graphics, high resolution color display, calculations, and computer model compatibility are featured in the system. Images are acquired by an IR line scanner and converted to 1024 x 1024 x 8 bit frames for transmission to the ground at a 1.544 M bit rate over a 14.7 GHZ carrier. Individual frames are received and stored, then transferred to a solid state memory to refresh the display at a conventional 30 frames per second rate. Line length and area calculations, false color assignment, X-Y scaling, and image enhancement are available. Fire spread can be calculated for display and fire perimeters plotted on maps. The performance requirements, basic system, and image processing will be described.

  17. Fast image processing on parallel hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, U.

    1988-01-01

    Current digital imaging modalities in the medical field incorporate parallel hardware which is heavily used in the stage of image formation like the CT/MR image reconstruction or in the DSA real time subtraction. In order to image post-processing as efficient as image acquisition, new software approaches have to be found which take full advantage of the parallel hardware architecture. This paper describes the implementation of two-dimensional median filter which can serve as an example for the development of such an algorithm. The algorithm is analyzed by viewing it as a complete parallel sort of the k pixel values in the chosen window which leads to a generalization to rank order operators and other closely related filters reported in literature. A section about the theoretical base of the algorithm gives hints for how to characterize operations suitable for implementations on pipeline processors and the way to find the appropriate algorithms. Finally some results that computation time and usefulness of medial filtering in radiographic imaging are given

  18. Developing improved MD codes for understanding processive cellulases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, M F; Nimlos, M R; Himmel, M E; Uberbacher, E C; Iii, C L Brooks; Walker, R C

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of action of cellulose-degrading enzymes is illuminated through a multidisciplinary collaboration that uses molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and expands the capabilities of MD codes to allow simulations of enzymes and substrates on petascale computational facilities. There is a class of glycoside hydrolase enzymes called cellulases that are thought to decrystallize and processively depolymerize cellulose using biochemical processes that are largely not understood. Understanding the mechanisms involved and improving the efficiency of this hydrolysis process through computational models and protein engineering presents a compelling grand challenge. A detailed understanding of cellulose structure, dynamics and enzyme function at the molecular level is required to direct protein engineers to the right modifications or to understand if natural thermodynamic or kinetic limits are in play. Much can be learned about processivity by conducting carefully designed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the binding and catalytic domains of cellulases with various substrate configurations, solvation models and thermodynamic protocols. Most of these numerical experiments, however, will require significant modification of existing code and algorithms in order to efficiently use current (terascale) and future (petascale) hardware to the degree of parallelism necessary to simulate a system of the size proposed here. This work will develop MD codes that can efficiently use terascale and petascale systems, not just for simple classical MD simulations, but also for more advanced methods, including umbrella sampling with complex restraints and reaction coordinates, transition path sampling, steered molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations of systems the size of cellulose degrading enzymes acting on cellulose

  19. Understanding reliability and some limitations of the images and spectra reconstructed from a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Mayes, D.; Tommasini, R.; Florido, R.

    2015-11-01

    Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI) is an attractive diagnostic for this purpose. The MMI records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2-D space resolution, and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2-D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain temperature and density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and spectra depends not only on the quality of the MMI data but also on the reliability of the post-processing tools. Here, we synthetically quantify the accuracy of images and spectra reconstructed from MMI data. Errors in the reconstructed images are less than a few percent when the space-resolution effect is applied to the modeled images. The errors in the reconstructed 2-D space-resolved spectra are also less than a few percent except those for the peripheral regions. Spectra reconstructed for the peripheral regions have slightly but systematically lower intensities by ˜6% due to the instrumental spatial-resolution effects. However, this does not alter the relative line ratios and widths and thus does not affect the temperature and density diagnostics. We also investigate the impact of the pinhole size variation on the extracted images and spectra. A 10% pinhole size variation could introduce spatial bias to the images and spectra of ˜10%. A correction algorithm is developed, and it successfully reduces the errors to a few percent. It is desirable to perform similar synthetic investigations to fully understand the reliability and limitations of each MMI application.

  20. Understanding reliability and some limitations of the images and spectra reconstructed from a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Mayes, D.; Tommasini, R.; Florido, R.

    2015-01-01

    Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI) is an attractive diagnostic for this purpose. The MMI records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2-D space resolution, and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2-D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain temperature and density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and spectra depends not only on the quality of the MMI data but also on the reliability of the post-processing tools. Here, we synthetically quantify the accuracy of images and spectra reconstructed from MMI data. Errors in the reconstructed images are less than a few percent when the space-resolution effect is applied to the modeled images. The errors in the reconstructed 2-D space-resolved spectra are also less than a few percent except those for the peripheral regions. Spectra reconstructed for the peripheral regions have slightly but systematically lower intensities by ∼6% due to the instrumental spatial-resolution effects. However, this does not alter the relative line ratios and widths and thus does not affect the temperature and density diagnostics. We also investigate the impact of the pinhole size variation on the extracted images and spectra. A 10% pinhole size variation could introduce spatial bias to the images and spectra of ∼10%. A correction algorithm is developed, and it successfully reduces the errors to a few percent. It is desirable to perform similar synthetic investigations to fully understand the reliability and limitations of each MMI application

  1. Understanding reliability and some limitations of the images and spectra reconstructed from a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, T; Mancini, R C; Mayes, D; Tommasini, R; Florido, R

    2015-11-01

    Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI) is an attractive diagnostic for this purpose. The MMI records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2-D space resolution, and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2-D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain temperature and density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and spectra depends not only on the quality of the MMI data but also on the reliability of the post-processing tools. Here, we synthetically quantify the accuracy of images and spectra reconstructed from MMI data. Errors in the reconstructed images are less than a few percent when the space-resolution effect is applied to the modeled images. The errors in the reconstructed 2-D space-resolved spectra are also less than a few percent except those for the peripheral regions. Spectra reconstructed for the peripheral regions have slightly but systematically lower intensities by ∼6% due to the instrumental spatial-resolution effects. However, this does not alter the relative line ratios and widths and thus does not affect the temperature and density diagnostics. We also investigate the impact of the pinhole size variation on the extracted images and spectra. A 10% pinhole size variation could introduce spatial bias to the images and spectra of ∼10%. A correction algorithm is developed, and it successfully reduces the errors to a few percent. It is desirable to perform similar synthetic investigations to fully understand the reliability and limitations of each MMI application.

  2. [Digital thoracic radiology: devices, image processing, limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frija, J; de Géry, S; Lallouet, F; Guermazi, A; Zagdanski, A M; De Kerviler, E

    2001-09-01

    In a first part, the different techniques of digital thoracic radiography are described. Since computed radiography with phosphore plates are the most commercialized it is more emphasized. But the other detectors are also described, as the drum coated with selenium and the direct digital radiography with selenium detectors. The other detectors are also studied in particular indirect flat panels detectors and the system with four high resolution CCD cameras. In a second step the most important image processing are discussed: the gradation curves, the unsharp mask processing, the system MUSICA, the dynamic range compression or reduction, the soustraction with dual energy. In the last part the advantages and the drawbacks of computed thoracic radiography are emphasized. The most important are the almost constant good quality of the pictures and the possibilities of image processing.

  3. Computer Vision and Image Processing: A Paper Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    victor - wiley

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision has been studied from many persective. It expands from raw data recording into techniques and ideas combining digital image processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and computer graphics. The wide usage has attracted many scholars to integrate with many disciplines and fields. This paper provide a survey of the recent technologies and theoretical concept explaining the development of computer vision especially related to image processing using different areas of their field application. Computer vision helps scholars to analyze images and video to obtain necessary information,    understand information on events or descriptions, and scenic pattern. It used method of multi-range application domain with massive data analysis. This paper provides contribution of recent development on reviews related to computer vision, image processing, and their related studies. We categorized the computer vision mainstream into four group e.g., image processing, object recognition, and machine learning. We also provide brief explanation on the up-to-date information about the techniques and their performance.

  4. Imaging for understanding speech communication: Advances and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2005-04-01

    Research in speech communication has relied on a variety of instrumentation methods to illuminate details of speech production and perception. One longstanding challenge has been the ability to examine real-time changes in the shaping of the vocal tract; a goal that has been furthered by imaging techniques such as ultrasound, movement tracking, and magnetic resonance imaging. The spatial and temporal resolution afforded by these techniques, however, has limited the scope of the investigations that could be carried out. In this talk, we focus on some recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging that allow us to perform near real-time investigations on the dynamics of vocal tract shaping during speech. Examples include Demolin et al. (2000) (4-5 images/second, ultra-fast turbo spin echo) and Mady et al. (2001,2002) (8 images/second, T1 fast gradient echo). A recent study by Narayanan et al. (2004) that used a spiral readout scheme to accelerate image acquisition has allowed for image reconstruction rates of 24 images/second. While these developments offer exciting prospects, a number of challenges lie ahead, including: (1) improving image acquisition protocols, hardware for enhancing signal-to-noise ratio, and optimizing spatial sampling; (2) acquiring quality synchronized audio; and (3) analyzing and modeling image data including cross-modality registration. [Work supported by NIH and NSF.

  5. Towards the understanding of network information processing in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay

    Living organisms perform incredibly well in detecting a signal present in the environment. This information processing is achieved near optimally and quite reliably, even though the sources of signals are highly variable and complex. The work in the last few decades has given us a fair understanding of how individual signal processing units like neurons and cell receptors process signals, but the principles of collective information processing on biological networks are far from clear. Information processing in biological networks, like the brain, metabolic circuits, cellular-signaling circuits, etc., involves complex interactions among a large number of units (neurons, receptors). The combinatorially large number of states such a system can exist in makes it impossible to study these systems from the first principles, starting from the interactions between the basic units. The principles of collective information processing on such complex networks can be identified using coarse graining approaches. This could provide insights into the organization and function of complex biological networks. Here I study models of biological networks using continuum dynamics, renormalization, maximum likelihood estimation and information theory. Such coarse graining approaches identify features that are essential for certain processes performed by underlying biological networks. We find that long-range connections in the brain allow for global scale feature detection in a signal. These also suppress the noise and remove any gaps present in the signal. Hierarchical organization with long-range connections leads to large-scale connectivity at low synapse numbers. Time delays can be utilized to separate a mixture of signals with temporal scales. Our observations indicate that the rules in multivariate signal processing are quite different from traditional single unit signal processing.

  6. Understanding earthquakes: The key role of radar images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzori, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of the fault rupture underlying earthquakes greatly improved thanks to the spread of radar images. Following pioneer applications in the eighties, Interferometry from Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) gained a prominent role in geodesy. Its capability to measure millimetric deformations for wide areas and the increased data availability from the early nineties, made InSAR a diffused and accepted analysis tool in tectonics, though several factors contribute to reduce the data quality. With the introduction of analytical or numerical modeling, InSAR maps are used to infer the source of an earthquake by means of data inversion. Newly developed algorithms, known as InSAR time-series, allowed to further improve the data accuracy and completeness, strengthening the InSAR contribution even in the study of the inter- and post-seismic phases. In this work we describe the rationale at the base of the whole processing, showing its application to the New Zealand 2010–2011 seismic sequence

  7. Understanding earthquakes: The key role of radar images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atzori, Simone, E-mail: simone.atzori@ingv.it [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy)

    2013-08-21

    The investigation of the fault rupture underlying earthquakes greatly improved thanks to the spread of radar images. Following pioneer applications in the eighties, Interferometry from Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) gained a prominent role in geodesy. Its capability to measure millimetric deformations for wide areas and the increased data availability from the early nineties, made InSAR a diffused and accepted analysis tool in tectonics, though several factors contribute to reduce the data quality. With the introduction of analytical or numerical modeling, InSAR maps are used to infer the source of an earthquake by means of data inversion. Newly developed algorithms, known as InSAR time-series, allowed to further improve the data accuracy and completeness, strengthening the InSAR contribution even in the study of the inter- and post-seismic phases. In this work we describe the rationale at the base of the whole processing, showing its application to the New Zealand 2010–2011 seismic sequence.

  8. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eFalk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain’s reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both, which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions.

  9. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Way, Baldwin M; Jasinska, Agnes J

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions.

  10. Importance of isotopes for understanding the sedimentation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    Isotopes of either radioactive or stable depending upon radiation emitted or not respectively which have wide applications in understanding not only the history of sedimentation, but also provide information about paleoclimate. Stable isotope mass difference occurs due to changes in physicochemical conditions of the ambient environment, for instance temperature, evaporation, precipitation, redox processes, and changes in the mobility of elements during weathering processes, biological uptake, metabolism, re-mineralization of biogenic material, etc. In contrast, radionuclides emit radiation because of excess of neutrons present in the nucleus when compared to protons of an atom. The decay of radioactive isotopes is unaffected despite changes in physicochemical variations; hence, they are useful for determining ages of different types of materials on earth. The radioisotopes can be classified based on origin and half life into primordial or long-lived, cosmogenic and artificial radionuclides or fission products. In this study, the importance of 137 Cs artificial radionuclides will be highlighted to understand short-term sedimentation processes, particularly in estuaries, deltas/continental shelf of west coast of India. The distribution of 137 Cs in sediments of south-western continental margin of India indicates that coastal marginal environments are filters or sinks for fall-out radionuclides. The sparse of 137 Cs in the open continental shelf environment indicates that most of sediments are either older or sediments being diluted by components generated in the marine environment

  11. ARMA processing for NDE ultrasonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, Y.H.; El-Sherbini, A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes a new method for acoustic image reconstruction for an active multiple sensor system operating in the reflection mode in the Fresnel region. The method is based on the use of an ARMA model for the reconstruction process. Algorithms for estimating the model parameters are presented and computer simulation results are shown. The AR coefficients are obtained independently of the MA coefficients. It is shown that when the ARMA reconstruction method is augmented with the multifrequency approach, it can provide a three-dimensional reconstructed image with high lateral and range resolutions, high signal to noise ratio and reduced sidelobe levels. The proposed ARMA reconstruction method results in high quality images and better performance than that obtainable with conventional methods. The advantages of the method are very high lateral resolution with a limited number of sensors, reduced sidelobes level, and high signal to noise ratio

  12. MIDAS - ESO's new image processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, K.; Crane, P.; Grosbol, P.; Middleburg, F.; Ounnas, C.; Ponz, D.; Waldthausen, H.

    1983-03-01

    The Munich Image Data Analysis System (MIDAS) is an image processing system whose heart is a pair of VAX 11/780 computers linked together via DECnet. One of these computers, VAX-A, is equipped with 3.5 Mbytes of memory, 1.2 Gbytes of disk storage, and two tape drives with 800/1600 bpi density. The other computer, VAX-B, has 4.0 Mbytes of memory, 688 Mbytes of disk storage, and one tape drive with 1600/6250 bpi density. MIDAS is a command-driven system geared toward the interactive user. The type and number of parameters in a command depends on the unique parameter invoked. MIDAS is a highly modular system that provides building blocks for the undertaking of more sophisticated applications. Presently, 175 commands are available. These include the modification of the color-lookup table interactively, to enhance various image features, and the interactive extraction of subimages.

  13. Understanding of how older adults with low vision obtain, process, and understand health information and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Nam

    2017-10-16

    Twenty-five years after the Americans with Disabilities Act, there has still been a lack of advancement of accessibility in healthcare for people with visual impairments, particularly older adults with low vision. This study aims to advance understanding of how older adults with low vision obtain, process, and use health information and services, and to seek opportunities of information technology to support them. A convenience sample of 10 older adults with low vision participated in semi-structured phone interviews, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis. Participants shared various concerns in accessing, understanding, and using health information, care services, and multimedia technologies. Two main themes and nine subthemes emerged from the analysis. Due to the concerns, older adults with low vision tended to fail to obtain the full range of all health information and services to meet their specific needs. Those with low vision still rely on residual vision such that multimedia-based information which can be useful, but it should still be designed to ensure its accessibility, usability, and understandability.

  14. Understanding Measurements Returned by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel Parke; Criscuoli, Serena

    2014-06-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observes the Sun at the FeI 6173 Å line and returns full disk maps of line-of-sight observables including the magnetic field flux, FeI line width, line depth, and continuum intensity. To properly interpret such data it is important to understand any issues with the HMI and the pipeline that produces these observables. At this aim, HMI data were analyzed at both daily intervals for a span of 3 years at disk center in the quiet Sun and hourly intervals for a span of 200 hours around an active region. Systematic effects attributed to issues with instrument adjustments and re-calibrations, variations in the transmission filters and the orbital velocities of the SDO were found while the actual physical evolutions of such observables were difficult to determine. Velocities and magnetic flux measurements are less affected, as the aforementioned effects are partially compensated for by the HMI algorithm; the other observables are instead affected by larger uncertainties. In order to model these uncertainties, the HMI pipeline was tested with synthetic spectra generated through various 1D atmosphere models with radiative transfer code (the RH code). It was found that HMI estimates of line width, line depth, and continuum intensity are highly dependent on the shape of the line, and therefore highly dependent on the line-of-sight angle and the magnetic field associated to the model. The best estimates are found for Quiet regions at disk center, for which the relative differences between theoretical and HMI algorithm values are 6-8% for line width, 10-15% for line depth, and 0.1-0.2% for continuum intensity. In general, the relative difference between theoretical values and HMI estimates increases toward the limb and with the increase of the field; the HMI algorithm seems to fail in regions with fields larger than ~2000 G. This work is carried out through the National Solar Observatory

  15. Understanding and Predicting the Process of Software Maintenance Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor; Briand, Lionel; Condon, Steven; Kim, Yong-Mi; Melo, Walcelio L.; Valett, Jon D.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major concerns of any maintenance organization is to understand and estimate the cost of maintenance releases of software systems. Planning the next release so as to maximize the increase in functionality and the improvement in quality are vital to successful maintenance management. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a case study in which an incremental approach was used to better understand the effort distribution of releases and build a predictive effort model for software maintenance releases. This study was conducted in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center(GSFC). This paper presents three main results: 1) a predictive effort model developed for the FDD's software maintenance release process; 2) measurement-based lessons learned about the maintenance process in the FDD; and 3) a set of lessons learned about the establishment of a measurement-based software maintenance improvement program. In addition, this study provides insights and guidelines for obtaining similar results in other maintenance organizations.

  16. Image Post-Processing and Analysis. Chapter 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkevich, P. A. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    2014-09-15

    For decades, scientists have used computers to enhance and analyse medical images. At first, they developed simple computer algorithms to enhance the appearance of interesting features in images, helping humans read and interpret them better. Later, they created more advanced algorithms, where the computer would not only enhance images but also participate in facilitating understanding of their content. Segmentation algorithms were developed to detect and extract specific anatomical objects in images, such as malignant lesions in mammograms. Registration algorithms were developed to align images of different modalities and to find corresponding anatomical locations in images from different subjects. These algorithms have made computer aided detection and diagnosis, computer guided surgery and other highly complex medical technologies possible. Nowadays, the field of image processing and analysis is a complex branch of science that lies at the intersection of applied mathematics, computer science, physics, statistics and biomedical sciences. This chapter will give a general overview of the most common problems in this field and the algorithms that address them.

  17. Grid Portal for Image and Video Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinitrovski, I.; Kakasevski, G.; Buckovska, A.; Loskovska, S.

    2007-01-01

    Users are typically best served by G rid Portals . G rid Portals a re web servers that allow the user to configure or run a class of applications. The server is then given the task of authentication of the user with the Grid and invocation of the required grid services to launch the user's application. PHP is a widely-used general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited for Web development and can be embedded into HTML. PHP is powerful and modern server-side scripting language producing HTML or XML output which easily can be accessed by everyone via web interface (with the browser of your choice) and can execute shell scripts on the server side. The aim of our work is development of Grid portal for image and video processing. The shell scripts contains gLite and globus commands for obtaining proxy certificate, job submission, data management etc. Using this technique we can easily create web interface to the Grid infrastructure. The image and video processing algorithms are implemented in C++ language using various image processing libraries. (Author)

  18. Process understanding and cooperative design. Keys to high quality automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommila, T.; Heinonen, R.

    1995-01-01

    A systematic approach to the specification of process control systems, and four practical methods supporting user participation and interdisciplinary co-operation are described. The main steps of the design approach are: (1) hierarchical decomposition of the plant to process items of different types; (2) analysis and definition of requirements and control strategies associated with each process item; (3) definition of automation degree; and (4) functional specification of the control system and its user interface. The specification language used for this step is a combination of principles found in object oriented design, structured analysis as well as new language standards for programmable controllers and open information systems. The design review methods presented include structured control strategy meetings, safety analysis of sequential controls, review of graphic displays, and a usability questionnaire for existing plants. These methods can be used to elicit users' needs and operational experience, to gain a common understanding of the process functionality, or to detect errors in design specifications or in existing systems. (8 refs., 9 figs.)

  19. Image quality and dose differences caused by vendor-specific image processing of neonatal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensakovic, William F.; O'Dell, M.C.; Letter, Haley; Kohler, Nathan; Rop, Baiywo; Cook, Jane; Logsdon, Gregory; Varich, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Image processing plays an important role in optimizing image quality and radiation dose in projection radiography. Unfortunately commercial algorithms are black boxes that are often left at or near vendor default settings rather than being optimized. We hypothesize that different commercial image-processing systems, when left at or near default settings, create significant differences in image quality. We further hypothesize that image-quality differences can be exploited to produce images of equivalent quality but lower radiation dose. We used a portable radiography system to acquire images on a neonatal chest phantom and recorded the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). We applied two image-processing systems (Optima XR220amx, by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI; and MUSICA"2 by Agfa HealthCare, Mortsel, Belgium) to the images. Seven observers (attending pediatric radiologists and radiology residents) independently assessed image quality using two methods: rating and matching. Image-quality ratings were independently assessed by each observer on a 10-point scale. Matching consisted of each observer matching GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images with equivalent image quality. A total of 210 rating tasks and 42 matching tasks were performed and effective dose was estimated. Median Agfa-processed image-quality ratings were higher than GE-processed ratings. Non-diagnostic ratings were seen over a wider range of doses for GE-processed images than for Agfa-processed images. During matching tasks, observers matched image quality between GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images acquired at a lower effective dose (11 ± 9 μSv; P < 0.0001). Image-processing methods significantly impact perceived image quality. These image-quality differences can be exploited to alter protocols and produce images of equivalent image quality but lower doses. Those purchasing projection radiography systems or third-party image-processing software should be aware that image processing

  20. Image quality and dose differences caused by vendor-specific image processing of neonatal radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensakovic, William F.; O' Dell, M.C.; Letter, Haley; Kohler, Nathan; Rop, Baiywo; Cook, Jane; Logsdon, Gregory; Varich, Laura [Florida Hospital, Imaging Administration, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Image processing plays an important role in optimizing image quality and radiation dose in projection radiography. Unfortunately commercial algorithms are black boxes that are often left at or near vendor default settings rather than being optimized. We hypothesize that different commercial image-processing systems, when left at or near default settings, create significant differences in image quality. We further hypothesize that image-quality differences can be exploited to produce images of equivalent quality but lower radiation dose. We used a portable radiography system to acquire images on a neonatal chest phantom and recorded the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). We applied two image-processing systems (Optima XR220amx, by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI; and MUSICA{sup 2} by Agfa HealthCare, Mortsel, Belgium) to the images. Seven observers (attending pediatric radiologists and radiology residents) independently assessed image quality using two methods: rating and matching. Image-quality ratings were independently assessed by each observer on a 10-point scale. Matching consisted of each observer matching GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images with equivalent image quality. A total of 210 rating tasks and 42 matching tasks were performed and effective dose was estimated. Median Agfa-processed image-quality ratings were higher than GE-processed ratings. Non-diagnostic ratings were seen over a wider range of doses for GE-processed images than for Agfa-processed images. During matching tasks, observers matched image quality between GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images acquired at a lower effective dose (11 ± 9 μSv; P < 0.0001). Image-processing methods significantly impact perceived image quality. These image-quality differences can be exploited to alter protocols and produce images of equivalent image quality but lower doses. Those purchasing projection radiography systems or third-party image-processing software should be aware that image

  1. Automated synthesis of image processing procedures using AI planning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Mortensen, Helen

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the Multimission VICAR (Video Image Communication and Retrieval) Planner (MVP) (Chien 1994) system, which uses artificial intelligence planning techniques (Iwasaki & Friedland, 1985, Pemberthy & Weld, 1992, Stefik, 1981) to automatically construct executable complex image processing procedures (using models of the smaller constituent image processing subprograms) in response to image processing requests made to the JPL Multimission Image Processing Laboratory (MIPL). The MVP system allows the user to specify the image processing requirements in terms of the various types of correction required. Given this information, MVP derives unspecified required processing steps and determines appropriate image processing programs and parameters to achieve the specified image processing goals. This information is output as an executable image processing program which can then be executed to fill the processing request.

  2. Theory Building- Towards an understanding of business model innovation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taran, Yariv; Boer, Harry; Lindgren, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Companies today, in some industries more than others, invest more capital and resources just to stay competitive, develop more diverse solutions, and increasingly start to think more radically, when considering to innovate their business model. However, the development and innovation of business...... models is a complex venture and has not been widely researched yet. The objective of this paper is therefore 1) to build a [descriptive] theoretical understanding, based on Christensen's (2005) three-step procedure, to business models and their innovation and, as a result of that, 2) to strengthen...... researchers' and practitioners' perspectives as to how the process of business model innovation can be realized. By using various researchers' perspectives and assumptions, we identify relevant inconsistencies, which consequently lead us to propose possible supplementary solutions. We conclude our paper...

  3. Imprecise Arithmetic for Low Power Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes reducing the precision of a numerical processor, by introducing errors, can lead to significant performance (delay, area and power dissipation) improvements without compromising the overall quality of the processing. In this work, we show how to perform the two basic operations, additio...... and multiplication, in an imprecise manner by simplifying the hardware implementation. With the proposed ”sloppy” operations, we obtain a reduction in delay, area and power dissipation, and the error introduced is still acceptable for applications such as image processing.......Sometimes reducing the precision of a numerical processor, by introducing errors, can lead to significant performance (delay, area and power dissipation) improvements without compromising the overall quality of the processing. In this work, we show how to perform the two basic operations, addition...

  4. Experimental Simulations to Understand the Lunar and Martian Surficial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. Y. S.; Li, X.; Tang, H.; Li, Y.; Zeng, X.; Chang, R.; Li, S.; Zhang, S.; Jin, H.; Mo, B.; Li, R.; Yu, W.; Wang, S.

    2016-12-01

    In support with China's Lunar and Mars exploration programs and beyond, our center is dedicated to understand the surficial processes and environments of planetary bodies. Over the latest several years, we design, build and optimize experimental simulation facilities and utilize them to test hypotheses and evaluate affecting mechanisms under controlled conditions particularly relevant to the Moon and Mars. Among the fundamental questions to address, we emphasize on five major areas: (1) Micrometeorites bombardment simulation to evaluate the formation mechanisms of np-Fe0 which was found in lunar samples and the possible sources of Fe. (2) Solar wind implantation simulation to evaluate the alteration/amorphization/OH or H2O formation on the surface of target minerals or rocks. (3) Dusts mobility characteristics on the Moon and other planetary bodies by excitation different types of dust particles and measuring their movements. (4) Mars basaltic soil simulant development (e.g., Jining Martian Soil Simulant (JMSS-1)) and applications for scientific/engineering experiments. (5) Halogens (Cl and Br) and life essential elements (C, H, O, N, P, and S) distribution and speciation on Mars during surficial processes such as sedimentary- and photochemical- related processes. Depending on the variables of interest, the simulation systems provide flexibility to vary source of energy, temperature, pressure, and ambient gas composition in the reaction chambers. Also, simulation products can be observed or analyzed in-situ by various analyzer components inside the chamber, without interrupting the experimental conditions. In addition, behavior of elements and isotopes during certain surficial processes (e.g., evaporation, dissolution, etc.) can be theoretically predicted by our theoretical geochemistry group with thermodynamics-kinetics calculation and modeling, which supports experiment design and result interpretation.

  5. A Science-Based Understanding of Cermet Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarano, III, Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roach, Robert Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kilgo, Alice C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Susan, Donald Francis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van Ornum, David J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stuecker, John N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shollenberger, Kimberly A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This report is a summary of the work completed in FY01 for science-based characterization of the processes used to fabricate 1) cermet vias in source feedthrus using slurry and paste-filling techniques and 2) cermet powder for dry pressing. Common defects found in cermet vias were characterized based on the ability of subsequent processing techniques (isopressing and firing) to remove the defects. Non-aqueous spray drying and mist granulation techniques were explored as alternative methods of creating CND50, the powder commonly used for dry pressed parts. Compaction and flow characteristics of these techniques were analyzed and compared to standard dry-ball-milled CND50. Due to processing changes, changes in microstructure can occur. A microstructure characterization technique was developed to numerically describe cermet microstructure. Machining and electrical properties of dry pressed parts were also analyzed and related to microstructure using this analytical technique.3 Executive SummaryThis report outlines accomplishments in the science-based understanding of cermet processing up to fiscal year 2002 for Sandia National Laboratories. The three main areas of work are centered on 1) increasing production yields of slurry-filled cermets, 2) evaluating the viability of high-solids-loading pastes for the same cermet components, and 3) optimizing cermet powder used in pressing processes (CND50). An additional development that was created as a result of the effort to fully understand the impacts of alternative processing techniques is the use of analytical methods to relate microstructure to physical properties. Recommendations are suggested at the end of this report. Summaries of these four efforts are as follows:1.Increase Production Yields of Slurry-Filled Cermet Vias Finalized slurry filling criteria were determined based on three designs of experiments where the following factors were analyzed: vacuum time, solids loading, pressure drop across the filter paper

  6. Advanced Color Image Processing and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume does much more than survey modern advanced color processing. Starting with a historical perspective on ways we have classified color, it sets out the latest numerical techniques for analyzing and processing colors, the leading edge in our search to accurately record and print what we see. The human eye perceives only a fraction of available light wavelengths, yet we live in a multicolor world of myriad shining hues. Colors rich in metaphorical associations make us “purple with rage” or “green with envy” and cause us to “see red.” Defining colors has been the work of centuries, culminating in today’s complex mathematical coding that nonetheless remains a work in progress: only recently have we possessed the computing capacity to process the algebraic matrices that reproduce color more accurately. With chapters on dihedral color and image spectrometers, this book provides technicians and researchers with the knowledge they need to grasp the intricacies of today’s color imaging.

  7. The Contribution of GGOS to Understanding Dynamic Earth Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Geodesy is the science of the Earth's shape, size, gravity and rotation, including their evolution in time. Geodetic observations play a major role in the solid Earth sciences because they are fundamental for the understanding and modeling of Earth system processes. Changes in the Earth's shape, its gravitational field, and its rotation are caused by external forces acting on the Earth system and internal processes involving mass transfer and exchange of angular and linear momentum. Thus, variations in these geodetic quantities of the Earth reflect and constrain mechanical and thermo-dynamic processes in the Earth system. Mitigating the impact on human life and property of natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, debris flows, landslides, land subsidence, sea level change, tsunamis, floods, storm surges, hurricanes and extreme weather is an important scientific task to which geodetic observations make fundamental contributions. Geodetic observations can be used to monitor the pre-eruptive deformation of volcanoes and the pre-seismic deformation of earthquake fault zones, aiding in the issuance of volcanic eruption and earthquake warnings. They can also be used to rapidly estimate earthquake fault motion, aiding in the modeling of tsunami genesis and the issuance of tsunami warnings. Geodetic observations are also used in other areas of the Earth sciences, not just the solid Earth sciences. For example, geodesy contributes to atmospheric science by supporting both observation and prediction of the weather by geo-referencing meteorological observing data and by globally tracking change in stratospheric mass and lower tropospheric water vapor fields. Geodetic measurements of refraction profiles derived from satellite occultation data are routinely assimilated into numerical weather prediction models. Geodesy contributes to hydrologic studies by providing a unique global reference system for measurements of: sub-seasonal, seasonal and secular movements

  8. Image processing in 60Co container inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhifang; Zhou Liye; Wang Liqiang; Liu Ximing

    1999-01-01

    The authors analyzes the features of 60 Co container inspection image, the design of several special processing methods for container image and some normal processing methods for two-dimensional digital image, including gray enhancement, pseudo-enhancement, space filter, edge enhancement, geometry process, etc. It gives out the way to carry out the above mentioned process in Windows 95 or Win NT. It discusses some ways to improve the image processing speed on microcomputer and good results were obtained

  9. Image processing to optimize wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kyle Marc-Anthony

    The world is turning to renewable energies as a means of ensuring the planet's future and well-being. There have been a few attempts in the past to utilize wave power as a means of generating electricity through the use of Wave Energy Converters (WEC), but only recently are they becoming a focal point in the renewable energy field. Over the past few years there has been a global drive to advance the efficiency of WEC. Placing a mechanical device either onshore or offshore that captures the energy within ocean surface waves to drive a mechanical device is how wave power is produced. This paper seeks to provide a novel and innovative way to estimate ocean wave frequency through the use of image processing. This will be achieved by applying a complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filter bank to satellite images of ocean waves. The complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filterbank provides an equal subband decomposition of the Nyquist bounded discrete time Fourier Transform spectrum. The maximum energy of the 2D complex modulated lapped transform subband is used to determine the horizontal and vertical frequency, which subsequently can be used to determine the wave frequency in the direction of the WEC by a simple trigonometric scaling. The robustness of the proposed method is provided by the applications to simulated and real satellite images where the frequency is known.

  10. Processing computed tomography images by using personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Kazuhiko; Fujishiro, Kazuo; Seki, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuo.

    1994-01-01

    Processing of CT images was attempted by using a popular personal computer. The program for image-processing was made with C compiler. The original images, acquired with CT scanner (TCT-60A, Toshiba), were transferred to the computer by 8-inch flexible diskette. Many fundamental image-processing, such as displaying image to the monitor, calculating CT value and drawing the profile curve. The result showed that a popular personal computer had ability to process CT images. It seemed that 8-inch flexible diskette was still useful medium of transferring image data. (author)

  11. Framework for understanding LENR processes, using conventional condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, Scott R.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C and C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that, implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without. the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C and C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent. processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nano-scale crystals. In the case of PdD x , these fluctuations begin to occur as x → 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdD x the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields. (authors)

  12. Framework for understanding LENR processes, using conventional condensed matter physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, Scott R. [Research Systems Inc., 9822 Pebble Weigh Ct., Burke VA 22015-3378 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C and C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that, implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without. the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C and C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent. processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nano-scale crystals. In the case of PdD{sub x}, these fluctuations begin to occur as x {yields} 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdD{sub x} the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields. (authors)

  13. How do you define body image? Exploring conceptual gaps in understandings of body image at an exercise facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy

    2017-12-01

    The definition of body image has evolved within research; however, less is known about the layperson's understanding of the construct. This study explored how members and student trainees of an exercise facility (designed for older adults, people with physical disability, and those with cardiac complications) defined body image. Nineteen participants completed a one-on-one interview, and seven of those participants took part in six additional focus group meetings. The following main themes were found: stereotypical assumptions about body image (e.g., it is solely a person's weight or merely a woman's issue), body image continua for positive and negative body image, degree of complexity of body image dimensions, broad considerations of body image (e.g., it is self-esteem), and limited knowledge about body image. These findings suggest a need for knowledge translation between researchers and the general public which informs future body image program design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding robustness as an image of sustainable agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The general aim of the research described in this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the conceptualisation of robustness in agricultural science as well as its relevance to sustainability. Robustness rapidly gained attention as a potential solution for a variety of

  15. Low level image processing techniques using the pipeline image processing engine in the flight telerobotic servicer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashman, Marilyn; Chaconas, Karen J.

    1988-01-01

    The sensory processing system for the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model (NASREM) for telerobotic control is described. This control system architecture was adopted by NASA of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer. The control system is hierarchically designed and consists of three parallel systems: task decomposition, world modeling, and sensory processing. The Sensory Processing System is examined, and in particular the image processing hardware and software used to extract features at low levels of sensory processing for tasks representative of those envisioned for the Space Station such as assembly and maintenance are described.

  16. Document Image Parsing and Understanding using Neuromorphic Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    processing speed at different layers. In the pattern matching layer, the computing power of multicore processors is explored to reduce the processing...developed to reduce the processing speed at different layers. In the pattern matching layer, the computing power of multicore processors is explored... cortex where the complex data is reduced to abstract representations. The abstract representation is compared to stored patterns in massively parallel

  17. Digital image processing an algorithmic approach with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Qidwai, Uvais

    2009-01-01

    Introduction to Image Processing and the MATLAB EnvironmentIntroduction Digital Image Definitions: Theoretical Account Image Properties MATLAB Algorithmic Account MATLAB CodeImage Acquisition, Types, and File I/OImage Acquisition Image Types and File I/O Basics of Color Images Other Color Spaces Algorithmic Account MATLAB CodeImage ArithmeticIntroduction Operator Basics Theoretical TreatmentAlgorithmic Treatment Coding ExamplesAffine and Logical Operations, Distortions, and Noise in ImagesIntroduction Affine Operations Logical Operators Noise in Images Distortions in ImagesAlgorithmic Account

  18. A report on digital image processing and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Alex, J.; Haridasan, G.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents developments in software, connected with digital image processing and analysis in the Centre. In image processing, one resorts to either alteration of grey level values so as to enhance features in the image or resorts to transform domain operations for restoration or filtering. Typical transform domain operations like Karhunen-Loeve transforms are statistical in nature and are used for a good registration of images or template - matching. Image analysis procedures segment grey level images into images contained within selectable windows, for the purpose of estimating geometrical features in the image, like area, perimeter, projections etc. In short, in image processing both the input and output are images, whereas in image analyses, the input is an image whereas the output is a set of numbers and graphs. (author). 19 refs

  19. Understanding Stoichiometric Controls in Nutrient Processing Along the River Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayburu-Caruso, V. A.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.; Van Horn, D. J.; Covino, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    Eutrophication is the second most common cause of water impairment across the U.S. Nutrient retention in streams is controlled by physical and biochemical processes, including biomass availability and stoichiometric limitations. Decoupling the interactions between hydrology, nutrient supply and biogeochemical processes remains challenging for the scientific community due to lack of mechanistic understanding. Consequently, more knowledge regarding optimal controls for nutrient retention is needed to implement better management and restoration practices. We conducted column experiments to investigate how stoichiometric limitations influence nutrient spiraling in shallow sediment-water interactions along representative sites of the Jemez River-Rio Grande continuum (which spans eight stream orders), in New Mexico, USA. In each stream order we incubated six columns packed with different sediments (i.e., Silica Cone Density Sand ASTM D 1556 (0.075-2.00 mm), gravel (>2mm) and native sediments) from each site for three months. We performed two laboratory tracer experiments using columns of each substrate under identical flow conditions. In the first experiment we added a short-term pulse of reactive and conservative tracers (i.e. NaNO3 and NaBr). In the second experiment we added a short-term pulse of NaBr and nutrients following Redfield's ratio (106C:16N:1P). We estimated uptake kinetics using the Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC) method and evaluated how ideal stoichiometric conditions controlled efficient nutrient retention along fluvial networks. Our results suggest that biological uptake of nitrate is limited by nitrogen in headwater streams and by phosphorus and carbon in larger stream orders.

  20. Variational PDE Models in Image Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chan, Tony F; Shen, Jianhong; Vese, Luminita

    2002-01-01

    .... These include astronomy and aerospace exploration, medical imaging, molecular imaging, computer graphics, human and machine vision, telecommunication, auto-piloting, surveillance video, and biometric...

  1. Application of Java technology in radiation image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Weifeng; Li Zheng; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Gao Wenhuan

    2002-01-01

    The acquisition and processing of radiation image plays an important role in modern application of civil nuclear technology. The author analyzes the rationale of Java image processing technology which includes Java AWT, Java 2D and JAI. In order to demonstrate applicability of Java technology in field of image processing, examples of application of JAI technology in processing of radiation images of large container have been given

  2. A concise introduction to image processing using C++

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Meiqing

    2008-01-01

    Image recognition has become an increasingly dynamic field with new and emerging civil and military applications in security, exploration, and robotics. Written by experts in fractal-based image and video compression, A Concise Introduction to Image Processing using C++ strengthens your knowledge of fundamentals principles in image acquisition, conservation, processing, and manipulation, allowing you to easily apply these techniques in real-world problems. The book presents state-of-the-art image processing methodology, including current industrial practices for image compression, image de-noi

  3. Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na

    2010-04-01

    Digital radiography has gained popularity in many areas of clinical practice. This transition brings interest in advancing the methodologies for image quality characterization. However, as the methodologies for such characterizations have not been standardized, the results of these studies cannot be directly compared. The primary objective of this study was to standardize methodologies for image quality characterization. The secondary objective was to evaluate affected factors to Modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) according to image processing algorithm. Image performance parameters such as MTF, NPS, and DQE were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) images of hand posterior-anterior (PA) for measuring signal to noise ratio (SNR), slit image for measuring MTF, white image for measuring NPS were obtained and various Multi-Scale Image Contrast Amplification (MUSICA) parameters were applied to each of acquired images. In results, all of modified images were considerably influence on evaluating SNR, MTF, NPS, and DQE. Modified images by the post-processing had higher DQE than the MUSICA=0 image. This suggests that MUSICA values, as a post-processing, have an affect on the image when it is evaluating for image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing could be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study could be guided as a baseline to evaluate imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by measuring MTF, NPS, and DQE.

  4. Image processing system for videotape review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettendroffer, E.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear plant, the areas in which fissile materials are stored or handled, have to be monitored continuously. One method of surveillance is to record pictures of TV cameras with determined time intervals on special video recorders. The 'time lapse' recorded tape is played back at normal speed and an inspector checks visually the pictures. This method requires much manpower and an automated method would be useful. The present report describes an automatic reviewing method based on an image processing system; the system detects scene changes in the picture sequence and stores the reduced data set on a separate video tape. The resulting reduction of reviewing time by inspector is important for surveillance data with few movements

  5. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    OpenAIRE

    Emily eFalk; Emily eFalk; Baldwin eWay; Agnes eJasinska

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain’s reward system. We next review neur...

  6. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Jasinska, Agnes J.

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuro...

  7. Contribution of thermal infrared images on the understanding of the subsurface/atmosphere exchanges on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Teodolina; Antoine, Raphaël; Baratoux, David; Rabinowicz, Michel

    2017-04-01

    High temporal resolution of space-based thermal infrared images (METEOSAT, MODIS) and the development of field thermal cameras have permitted the development of thermal remote sensing in Earth Sciences. Thermal images are influenced by many factors such as atmosphere, solar radiation, topography and physico-chemical properties of the surface. However, considering these limitations, we have discovered that thermal images can be used in order to better understand subsurface hydrology. In order to reduce as much as possible the impact of these perturbing factors, our approach combine 1) field observations and 2) numerical modelling of surface/subsurface thermal processes. Thermal images of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Réunion Island), acquired by hand, show that the Formica Leo inactive scoria cone and some fractures close to the Bory-Dolomieu caldera are always warmer, inducing a thermal difference with the surrounding of at least 5°C and a Self-Potential anomaly [1, 2]. Topography cannot explain this thermal behaviour, but Piton de la Fournaise is known as highly permeable. This fact allows the development of an air convection within the whole permeable structure volcanic edifice [2]. Cold air enters the base of the volcano, and exits warmer upslope, as the air is warmed by the geothermal flow [1,2]. Then, we have decided to understand the interaction between subsurface hydrogeological flows and the humidity in the atmosphere. In the Lake Chad basin, regions on both sides of Lake Chad present a different thermal behaviour during the diurnal cycle and between seasons [3]. We propose that this thermal behaviour can only be explained by lateral variations of the surface permeability that directly impact the process of evaporation/condensation cycle. These studies bring new highlights on the understanding of the exchanges between subsurface and the atmosphere, as the presence of a very permeable media and/or variations of the surface permeability may enhance or

  8. Mesh Processing in Medical-Image Analysis-a Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Joshua A.; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Zhang, Yongjie

    2012-01-01

    Medical-image analysis requires an understanding of sophisticated scanning modalities, constructing geometric models, building meshes to represent domains, and downstream biological applications. These four steps form an image-to-mesh pipeline. For research in this field to progress, the imaging...

  9. Spot restoration for GPR image post-processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W; Beer, N. Reginald

    2014-05-20

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  10. Endemic Images and the Desensitization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigh, Philip A.; Antoun, Fouad T.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the effects of endemic images on levels of anxiety and achievement of 48 high school students. Results suggested that a combination of endemic images and study skills training was as effective as desensitization plus study skills training. Includes the endemic image questionnaire. (JAC)

  11. Image analysis for ophthalmological diagnosis image processing of Corvis ST images using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Koprowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This monograph focuses on the use of analysis and processing methods for images from the Corvis® ST tonometer. The presented analysis is associated with the quantitative, repeatable and fully automatic evaluation of the response of the eye, eyeball and cornea to an air-puff. All the described algorithms were practically implemented in MATLAB®. The monograph also describes and provides the full source code designed to perform the discussed calculations. As a result, this monograph is intended for scientists, graduate students and students of computer science and bioengineering as well as doctors wishing to expand their knowledge of modern diagnostic methods assisted by various image analysis and processing methods.

  12. Image quality and dose differences caused by vendor-specific image processing of neonatal radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensakovic, William F; O'Dell, M Cody; Letter, Haley; Kohler, Nathan; Rop, Baiywo; Cook, Jane; Logsdon, Gregory; Varich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Image processing plays an important role in optimizing image quality and radiation dose in projection radiography. Unfortunately commercial algorithms are black boxes that are often left at or near vendor default settings rather than being optimized. We hypothesize that different commercial image-processing systems, when left at or near default settings, create significant differences in image quality. We further hypothesize that image-quality differences can be exploited to produce images of equivalent quality but lower radiation dose. We used a portable radiography system to acquire images on a neonatal chest phantom and recorded the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). We applied two image-processing systems (Optima XR220amx, by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI; and MUSICA(2) by Agfa HealthCare, Mortsel, Belgium) to the images. Seven observers (attending pediatric radiologists and radiology residents) independently assessed image quality using two methods: rating and matching. Image-quality ratings were independently assessed by each observer on a 10-point scale. Matching consisted of each observer matching GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images with equivalent image quality. A total of 210 rating tasks and 42 matching tasks were performed and effective dose was estimated. Median Agfa-processed image-quality ratings were higher than GE-processed ratings. Non-diagnostic ratings were seen over a wider range of doses for GE-processed images than for Agfa-processed images. During matching tasks, observers matched image quality between GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images acquired at a lower effective dose (11 ± 9 μSv; P < 0.0001). Image-processing methods significantly impact perceived image quality. These image-quality differences can be exploited to alter protocols and produce images of equivalent image quality but lower doses. Those purchasing projection radiography systems or third-party image-processing software should be aware that image

  13. Volumetric image interpretation in radiology: scroll behavior and cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Larissa; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; Vincken, Koen L; Mol, Chris P; Stuijfzand, Bobby G; van der Gijp, Anouk

    2018-05-16

    The interpretation of medical images is a primary task for radiologists. Besides two-dimensional (2D) images, current imaging technologies allow for volumetric display of medical images. Whereas current radiology practice increasingly uses volumetric images, the majority of studies on medical image interpretation is conducted on 2D images. The current study aimed to gain deeper insight into the volumetric image interpretation process by examining this process in twenty radiology trainees who all completed four volumetric image cases. Two types of data were obtained concerning scroll behaviors and think-aloud data. Types of scroll behavior concerned oscillations, half runs, full runs, image manipulations, and interruptions. Think-aloud data were coded by a framework of knowledge and skills in radiology including three cognitive processes: perception, analysis, and synthesis. Relating scroll behavior to cognitive processes showed that oscillations and half runs coincided more often with analysis and synthesis than full runs, whereas full runs coincided more often with perception than oscillations and half runs. Interruptions were characterized by synthesis and image manipulations by perception. In addition, we investigated relations between cognitive processes and found an overall bottom-up way of reasoning with dynamic interactions between cognitive processes, especially between perception and analysis. In sum, our results highlight the dynamic interactions between these processes and the grounding of cognitive processes in scroll behavior. It suggests, that the types of scroll behavior are relevant to describe how radiologists interact with and manipulate volumetric images.

  14. Quaternion Fourier transforms for signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Ell, Todd A; Sangwine, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Based on updates to signal and image processing technology made in the last two decades, this text examines the most recent research results pertaining to Quaternion Fourier Transforms. QFT is a central component of processing color images and complex valued signals. The book's attention to mathematical concepts, imaging applications, and Matlab compatibility render it an irreplaceable resource for students, scientists, researchers, and engineers.

  15. Comparative study of image restoration techniques in forensic image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijhold, Jurrien; Kuijper, Arjan; Westhuis, Jaap-Harm

    1997-02-01

    In this work we investigated the forensic applicability of some state-of-the-art image restoration techniques for digitized video-images and photographs: classical Wiener filtering, constrained maximum entropy, and some variants of constrained minimum total variation. Basic concepts and experimental results are discussed. Because all methods appeared to produce different results, a discussion is given of which method is the most suitable, depending on the image objects that are questioned, prior knowledge and type of blur and noise. Constrained minimum total variation methods produced the best results for test images with simulated noise and blur. In cases where images are the most substantial part of the evidence, constrained maximum entropy might be more suitable, because its theoretical basis predicts a restoration result that shows the most likely pixel values, given all the prior knowledge used during restoration.

  16. A Document Imaging Technique for Implementing Electronic Loan Approval Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manikandan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The image processing is one of the leading technologies of computer applications. Image processing is a type of signal processing, the input for image processor is an image or video frame and the output will be an image or subset of image [1]. Computer graphics and computer vision process uses an image processing techniques. Image processing systems are used in various environments like medical fields, computer-aided design (CAD, research fields, crime investigation fields and military fields. In this paper, we proposed a document image processing technique, for establishing electronic loan approval process (E-LAP [2]. Loan approval process has been tedious process, the E-LAP system attempts to reduce the complexity of loan approval process. Customers have to login to fill the loan application form online with all details and submit the form. The loan department then processes the submitted form and then sends an acknowledgement mail via the E-LAP to the requested customer with the details about list of documents required for the loan approval process [3]. The approaching customer can upload the scanned copies of all required documents. All this interaction between customer and bank take place using an E-LAP system.

  17. Scipion web tools: Easy to use cryo-EM image processing over the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa Mingo, Pablo; Gutierrez, José; Quintana, Adrián; de la Rosa Trevín, José Miguel; Zaldívar-Peraza, Airén; Cuenca Alba, Jesús; Kazemi, Mohsen; Vargas, Javier; Del Cano, Laura; Segura, Joan; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Carazo, Jose María

    2018-01-01

    Macromolecular structural determination by Electron Microscopy under cryogenic conditions is revolutionizing the field of structural biology, interesting a large community of potential users. Still, the path from raw images to density maps is complex, and sophisticated image processing suites are required in this process, often demanding the installation and understanding of different software packages. Here, we present Scipion Web Tools, a web-based set of tools/workflows derived from the Scipion image processing framework, specially tailored to nonexpert users in need of very precise answers at several key stages of the structural elucidation process. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  18. Three-dimensional imaging of atomic four-body processes

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, M; Fischer, D; Kollmus, H; Madison, D H; Jones, S; Ullrich, J

    2003-01-01

    To understand the physical processes that occur in nature we need to obtain a solid concept about the 'fundamental' forces acting between pairs of elementary particles. it is also necessary to describe the temporal and spatial evolution of many mutually interacting particles under the influence of these forces. This latter step, known as the few-body problem, remains an important unsolved problem in physics. Experiments involving atomic collisions represent a useful testing ground for studying the few-body problem. For the single ionization of a helium atom by charged particle impact, kinematically complete experiments have been performed since 1969. The theoretical analysis of such experiments was thought to yield a complete picture of the basic features of the collision process, at least for large collision energies. These conclusions are, however, almost exclusively based on studies of restricted electron-emission geometries. We report three- dimensional images of the complete electron emission pattern for...

  19. Current status on image processing in medical fields in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atsumi, Kazuhiko

    1979-01-01

    Information on medical images are classified in the two patterns. 1) off-line images on films-x-ray films, cell image, chromosome image etc. 2) on-line images detected through sensors, RI image, ultrasonic image, thermogram etc. These images are divided into three characteristic, two dimensional three dimensional and dynamic images. The research on medical image processing have been reported in several meeting in Japan and many fields on images have been studied on RI, thermogram, x-ray film, x-ray-TV image, cancer cell, blood cell, bacteria, chromosome, ultrasonics, and vascular image. Processing on TI image useful and easy because of their digital displays. Software on smoothing, restoration (iterative approximation), fourier transformation, differentiation and subtration. Image on stomach and chest x-ray films have been processed automatically utilizing computer system. Computed Tomography apparatuses have been already developed in Japan and automated screening instruments on cancer cells and recently on blood cells classification have been also developed. Acoustical holography imaging and moire topography have been also studied in Japan. (author)

  20. Fake currency detection using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasti, Tushar; Burand, Gajanan; Wade, Pratik; Chitra, P.

    2017-11-01

    The advancement of color printing technology has increased the rate of fake currency note printing and duplicating the notes on a very large scale. Few years back, the printing could be done in a print house, but now anyone can print a currency note with maximum accuracy using a simple laser printer. As a result the issue of fake notes instead of the genuine ones has been increased very largely. India has been unfortunately cursed with the problems like corruption and black money. And counterfeit of currency notes is also a big problem to it. This leads to design of a system that detects the fake currency note in a less time and in a more efficient manner. The proposed system gives an approach to verify the Indian currency notes. Verification of currency note is done by the concepts of image processing. This article describes extraction of various features of Indian currency notes. MATLAB software is used to extract the features of the note. The proposed system has got advantages like simplicity and high performance speed. The result will predict whether the currency note is fake or not.

  1. Imaging lymphoid tissues in nonhuman primates to understand SIV pathogenesis and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleage, Claire; Turkbey, Baris; Estes, Jacob D

    2016-08-01

    CD4+ T cells are the primary HIV-1 target cell, with the vast majority of these cells residing within lymphoid tissue compartments throughout the body. Predictably, HIV-1 infection, replication, localization, reservoir establishment and persistence, as well as associated host immune and inflammatory responses and disease pathology principally take place within the tissues of the immune system. By virture of the fact that the virus-host struggle is played out within lymphoid and additional tissues compartments in HIV-1 infected individuals it is critical to understand HIV-1 infection and disease within these relevant tissue sites; however, there are obvious limitations to studying these dynamic processes in humans. Nonhuman primate (NHP) research has provided a vital bridge between basic and preclinical research and clinical studies, with experimental SIV infection of NHP models offering unique opportunities to understand key processes of HIV-1 infection and disease that are either not practically feasible or ethical in HIV-1 infected humans. In this review we will discuss current approaches to studying the tissue based immunopathogenesis of AIDS virus infection in NHPs, including both analyses of tissues obtained at biopsy or necropsy and complementary non-invasive imaging approaches that may have practical utility in monitoring HIV-1 disease in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno Né Lehmann, Thomas M; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein Né Fritzsche, Klaus H; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment.

  3. Developments in medical image processing and computational vision

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, Renato

    2015-01-01

    This book presents novel and advanced topics in Medical Image Processing and Computational Vision in order to solidify knowledge in the related fields and define their key stakeholders. It contains extended versions of selected papers presented in VipIMAGE 2013 – IV International ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Computational Vision and Medical Image, which took place in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, 14-16 October 2013.  The twenty-two chapters were written by invited experts of international recognition and address important issues in medical image processing and computational vision, including: 3D vision, 3D visualization, colour quantisation, continuum mechanics, data fusion, data mining, face recognition, GPU parallelisation, image acquisition and reconstruction, image and video analysis, image clustering, image registration, image restoring, image segmentation, machine learning, modelling and simulation, object detection, object recognition, object tracking, optical flow, pattern recognition, pose estimat...

  4. Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno (né Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (né Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment. PMID:24078804

  5. Automatic detection of NIL defects using microscopy and image processing

    KAUST Repository

    Pietroy, David; Gereige, Issam; Gourgon, Cé cile

    2013-01-01

    patterns, sticking. In this paper, microscopic imaging combined to a specific processing algorithm is used to detect numerically defects in printed patterns. Results obtained for 1D and 2D imprinted gratings with different microscopic image magnifications

  6. An image-based approach to understanding the physics of MR artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, John N; Runge, Val M; Ai, Fei; Attenberger, Ulrike; Vu, Lan; Schmeets, Stuart H; Nitz, Wolfgang R; Kirsch, John E

    2011-01-01

    As clinical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging becomes more versatile and more complex, it is increasingly difficult to develop and maintain a thorough understanding of the physical principles that govern the changing technology. This is particularly true for practicing radiologists, whose primary obligation is to interpret clinical images and not necessarily to understand complex equations describing the underlying physics. Nevertheless, the physics of MR imaging plays an important role in clinical practice because it determines image quality, and suboptimal image quality may hinder accurate diagnosis. This article provides an image-based explanation of the physics underlying common MR imaging artifacts, offering simple solutions for remedying each type of artifact. Solutions that have emerged from recent technologic advances with which radiologists may not yet be familiar are described in detail. Types of artifacts discussed include those resulting from voluntary and involuntary patient motion, magnetic susceptibility, magnetic field inhomogeneities, gradient nonlinearity, standing waves, aliasing, chemical shift, and signal truncation. With an improved awareness and understanding of these artifacts, radiologists will be better able to modify MR imaging protocols so as to optimize clinical image quality, allowing greater confidence in diagnosis. Copyright © RSNA, 2011.

  7. Image processing techniques for digital orthophotoquad production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joy J.; Ladner, L. J.; Champion, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Orthophotographs have long been recognized for their value as supplements or alternatives to standard maps. Recent trends towards digital cartography have resulted in efforts by the US Geological Survey to develop a digital orthophotoquad production system. Digital image files were created by scanning color infrared photographs on a microdensitometer. Rectification techniques were applied to remove tile and relief displacement, thereby creating digital orthophotos. Image mosaicking software was then used to join the rectified images, producing digital orthophotos in quadrangle format.

  8. Numerical methods in image processing for applications in jewellery industry

    OpenAIRE

    Petrla, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Presented thesis deals with a problem from the field of image processing for application in multiple scanning of jewelery stones. The aim is to develop a method for preprocessing and subsequent mathematical registration of images in order to increase the effectivity and reliability of the output quality control. For these purposes the thesis summerizes mathematical definition of digital image as well as theoretical base of image registration. It proposes a method adjusting every single image ...

  9. Advances in the Application of Image Processing Fruit Grading

    OpenAIRE

    Fang , Chengjun; Hua , Chunjian

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In the perspective of actual production, the paper presents the advances in the application of image processing fruit grading from several aspects, such as processing precision and processing speed of image processing technology. Furthermore, the different algorithms about detecting size, shape, color and defects are combined effectively to reduce the complexity of each algorithm and achieve a balance between the processing precision and processing speed are keys to au...

  10. Evaluation of processing methods for static radioisotope scan images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakberg, J.A.

    1976-12-01

    Radioisotope scanning in the field of nuclear medicine provides a method for the mapping of a radioactive drug in the human body to produce maps (images) which prove useful in detecting abnormalities in vital organs. At best, radioisotope scanning methods produce images with poor counting statistics. One solution to improving the body scan images is using dedicated small computers with appropriate software to process the scan data. Eleven methods for processing image data are compared

  11. Digital image processing in NDT : Application to industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, J.; Gonzales, C.; Pereira, D.

    1988-01-01

    Digital image processing techniques are applied to image enhancement discontinuity detection and characterization is radiographic test. Processing is performed mainly by image histogram modification, edge enhancement, texture and user interactive segmentation. Implementation was achieved in a microcomputer with video image capture system. Results are compared with those obtained through more specialized equipment main frame computers and high precision mechanical scanning digitisers. Procedures are intended as a precious stage for automatic defect detection

  12. An integral design strategy combining optical system and image processing to obtain high resolution images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaoyang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Ying; Gong, Rui; Shao, Xiaopeng; Liang, Chao; Xu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an integral design that combines optical system with image processing is introduced to obtain high resolution images, and the performance is evaluated and demonstrated. Traditional imaging methods often separate the two technical procedures of optical system design and imaging processing, resulting in the failures in efficient cooperation between the optical and digital elements. Therefore, an innovative approach is presented to combine the merit function during optical design together with the constraint conditions of image processing algorithms. Specifically, an optical imaging system with low resolution is designed to collect the image signals which are indispensable for imaging processing, while the ultimate goal is to obtain high resolution images from the final system. In order to optimize the global performance, the optimization function of ZEMAX software is utilized and the number of optimization cycles is controlled. Then Wiener filter algorithm is adopted to process the image simulation and mean squared error (MSE) is taken as evaluation criterion. The results show that, although the optical figures of merit for the optical imaging systems is not the best, it can provide image signals that are more suitable for image processing. In conclusion. The integral design of optical system and image processing can search out the overall optimal solution which is missed by the traditional design methods. Especially, when designing some complex optical system, this integral design strategy has obvious advantages to simplify structure and reduce cost, as well as to gain high resolution images simultaneously, which has a promising perspective of industrial application.

  13. An application of image processing techniques in computed tomography image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan

    2007-01-01

    number of animals and image slices, automation of the process was desirable. The open-source and free image analysis program ImageJ was used. A macro procedure was created that provided the required functionality. The macro performs a number of basic image processing procedures. These include an initial...... process designed to remove the scanning table from the image and to center the animal in the image. This is followed by placement of a vertical line segment from the mid point of the upper border of the image to the image center. Measurements are made between automatically detected outer and inner...... boundaries of subcutaneous adipose tissue along this line segment. This process was repeated as the image was rotated (with the line position remaining unchanged) so that measurements around the complete circumference were obtained. Additionally, an image was created showing all detected boundary points so...

  14. Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    The evaluation of image quality is an important part of digital radiography. The modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are widely accepted measurements of the digital radiographic system performance. However, as the methodologies for such characterization have not been standardized, it is difficult to compare directly reported the MTF, NPS, and DQE results. In this study, we evaluated the effect of an image processing algorithm for estimating the MTF, NPS, and DQE. The image performance parameters were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) posterior-anterior (PA) images of a hand for measuring the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the slit images for measuring the MTF, and the white images for measuring the NPS were obtained, and various multi-Scale image contrast amplification (MUSICA) factors were applied to each of the acquired images. All of the modifications of the images obtained by using image processing had a considerable influence on the evaluated image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing can be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study should serve as a baseline for based on evaluating imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by MTF, NPS, and DQE measurements.

  15. Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of image quality is an important part of digital radiography. The modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are widely accepted measurements of the digital radiographic system performance. However, as the methodologies for such characterization have not been standardized, it is difficult to compare directly reported the MTF, NPS, and DQE results. In this study, we evaluated the effect of an image processing algorithm for estimating the MTF, NPS, and DQE. The image performance parameters were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) posterior-anterior (PA) images of a hand for measuring the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the slit images for measuring the MTF, and the white images for measuring the NPS were obtained, and various multi-Scale image contrast amplification (MUSICA) factors were applied to each of the acquired images. All of the modifications of the images obtained by using image processing had a considerable influence on the evaluated image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing can be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study should serve as a baseline for based on evaluating imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by MTF, NPS, and DQE measurements.

  16. Signal Processing in Medical Ultrasound B-mode Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tai Kyong

    2000-01-01

    Ultrasonic imaging is the most widely used modality among modern imaging device for medical diagnosis and the system performance has been improved dramatically since early 90's due to the rapid advances in DSP performance and VLSI technology that made it possible to employ more sophisticated algorithms. This paper describes 'main stream' digital signal processing functions along with the associated implementation considerations in modern medical ultrasound imaging systems. Topics covered include signal processing methods for resolution improvement, ultrasound imaging system architectures, roles and necessity of the applications of DSP and VLSI technology in the development of the medical ultrasound imaging systems, and array signal processing techniques for ultrasound focusing

  17. An invertebrate embryologist's guide to routine processing of confocal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dassow, George

    2014-01-01

    It is almost impossible to use a confocal microscope without encountering the need to transform the raw data through image processing. Adherence to a set of straightforward guidelines will help ensure that image manipulations are both credible and repeatable. Meanwhile, attention to optimal data collection parameters will greatly simplify image processing, not only for convenience but for quality and credibility as well. Here I describe how to conduct routine confocal image processing tasks, including creating 3D animations or stereo images, false coloring or merging channels, background suppression, and compressing movie files for display.

  18. The Study of Image Processing Method for AIDS PA Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H J; Wang, Q G

    2006-01-01

    At present, the main test technique of AIDS is PA in China. Because the judgment of PA test image is still depending on operator, the error ration is high. To resolve this problem, we present a new technique of image processing, which first process many samples and get the data including coordinate of center and the rang of kinds images; then we can segment the image with the data; at last, the result is exported after data was judgment. This technique is simple and veracious; and it also turns out to be suitable for the processing and analyzing of other infectious diseases' PA test image

  19. Image processing of airborne geophysical data: a potential exploration tool for atomic minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanti Kumar, C.; Bhairam, C.L.; Kak, S.N.; Achar, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    Data sets obtained from airborne gamma-ray spectrometric (AGRS) and aeromagnetic (AM) surveys, after necessary correction, are usually presented as profiles or as contour maps for interpretation in mineral exploration and geological analysis. Currently, imaging of the geophysical data sets have been extensively used as they have many advantages in their usage compared to conventional techniques. For the application of image processing techniques to the AGRS and AM data, software programs were customized for converting the digital data compatible to the satellite image processing system (SIPS). The geophysical data has been imaged and rectified to a poly conic projection, using cubic convolution resampling technique. While imaging, the radioelemental concentration values are rescaled to 256 grey levels. Software for the statistical information of radioelements and printing of coloured paper image have also been developed. Some of the image processing techniques used include, generation of colour composite images for preparing radioelemental (eU,eTh, and K) images and radioelemental colour composite images (K,eTh, eU) enabling display of a combined radioelemental distribution. Aeromagnetic data on the other hand are displayed in grey tone, pseudo-colours, and shaded relief images. Many other image enhancement techniques used for improving the display for further interpretation comprise, band ratioing, band combinations, filtering, look up table manipulation, and other similar functions. Advanced image processing techniques such as the principal component analysis (PCA) for understanding the geochemical and geological phenomena and the hue saturation and intensity (HSI) transformation for integration of radioelemental data with its corresponding satellite images facilitated display of radioelemental images draped over the satellite image. Statistics of radioelement and inter-elemental relationship has been obtained. The paper deals with the methodology adopted in the

  20. High angular resolution diffusion imaging : processing & visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prckovska, V.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that can map the orientation architecture of neural tissues in a completely non-invasive way by measuring the directional specificity (anisotropy) of the local water diffusion. However, in areas of complex fiber

  1. Understanding human visual processing with Deep Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Thorat, Sushrut

    2016-01-01

    This presentation has 2 parts:1. An introduction to the vision processing - neuroscience, and machine vision.2. Discussion of one of the first papers relating Deep Networks to the visual ventral stream. (Khaligh-Razavi, 2014)

  2. Integrated teaching of anatomy and radiology using three-dimensional image post-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengier, Fabian; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von; Doll, Sara; Kirsch, Joachim; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Giesel, Frederik L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a new way of teaching by integrating both anatomy and radiology using three-dimensional image post-processing tools. One preclinical and one clinical module were developed for integrated teaching of anatomy and radiology. Potential benefits were assessed by anonymous evaluation among the 176 participating students. The students highly appreciated the new approach, especially the high degree of interactivity with the post-processing software and the possibility to correlate the real dissection with the virtual dissection. Students agreed that three-dimensional imaging and post-processing improved their understanding of difficult anatomical topics and topographical relations. We consider the new approach to provide great additional benefits for participating students regarding preparation for everyday clinical practice. In particular, it imparts familiarity with imaging and image post-processing techniques and may improve anatomical understanding, radiological diagnostic skills and three-dimensional appreciation. (orig.)

  3. Medical image processing on the GPU - past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Anders; Dufort, Paul; Forsberg, Daniel; LaConte, Stephen M

    2013-12-01

    Graphics processing units (GPUs) are used today in a wide range of applications, mainly because they can dramatically accelerate parallel computing, are affordable and energy efficient. In the field of medical imaging, GPUs are in some cases crucial for enabling practical use of computationally demanding algorithms. This review presents the past and present work on GPU accelerated medical image processing, and is meant to serve as an overview and introduction to existing GPU implementations. The review covers GPU acceleration of basic image processing operations (filtering, interpolation, histogram estimation and distance transforms), the most commonly used algorithms in medical imaging (image registration, image segmentation and image denoising) and algorithms that are specific to individual modalities (CT, PET, SPECT, MRI, fMRI, DTI, ultrasound, optical imaging and microscopy). The review ends by highlighting some future possibilities and challenges. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Adaptive Algorithms for Automated Processing of Document Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: ADAPTIVE ALGORITHMS FOR AUTOMATED PROCESSING OF DOCUMENT IMAGES Mudit Agrawal, Doctor of Philosophy, 2011...2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adaptive Algorithms for Automated Processing of Document Images 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...ALGORITHMS FOR AUTOMATED PROCESSING OF DOCUMENT IMAGES by Mudit Agrawal Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University

  5. Image Segmentation and Processing for Efficient Parking Space Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tutika, Chetan Sai; Vallapaneni, Charan; R, Karthik; KP, Bharath; Muthu, N Ruban Rajesh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a method to detect vacant parking spaces in an environment with unclear segments and contours with the help of MATLAB image processing capabilities. Due to the anomalies present in the parking spaces, such as uneven illumination, distorted slot lines and overlapping of cars. The present-day conventional algorithms have difficulties processing the image for accurate results. The algorithm proposed uses a combination of image pre-processing and false contour detection ...

  6. PARAGON-IPS: A Portable Imaging Software System For Multiple Generations Of Image Processing Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelione, John

    1989-07-01

    Paragon-IPS is a comprehensive software system which is available on virtually all generations of image processing hardware. It is designed for an image processing department or a scientist and engineer who is doing image processing full-time. It is being used by leading R&D labs in government agencies and Fortune 500 companies. Applications include reconnaissance, non-destructive testing, remote sensing, medical imaging, etc.

  7. Novel welding image processing method based on fractal theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 孙振国; 肖勇; 路井荣

    2002-01-01

    Computer vision has come into used in the fields of welding process control and automation. In order to improve precision and rapidity of welding image processing, a novel method based on fractal theory has been put forward in this paper. Compared with traditional methods, the image is preliminarily processed in the macroscopic regions then thoroughly analyzed in the microscopic regions in the new method. With which, an image is divided up to some regions according to the different fractal characters of image edge, and the fuzzy regions including image edges are detected out, then image edges are identified with Sobel operator and curved by LSM (Lease Square Method). Since the data to be processed have been decreased and the noise of image has been reduced, it has been testified through experiments that edges of weld seam or weld pool could be recognized correctly and quickly.

  8. Algorithms of image processing in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of image restoration from noisy measurements as encountered in Nuclear Medicine is considered. A new approach for treating the measurements wherein they are represented by a spatial noncausal interaction model prior to maximum entropy restoration is given. This model describes the statistical dependence among the image values and their neighbourhood. The particular application of the algorithms presented here relates to gamma ray imaging systems, and is aimed at improving the resolution-noise suppression product. Results for actual gamma camera data are presented and compared with more conventional techniques. (author)

  9. Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

  10. Digital image analysis in breast pathology-from image processing techniques to artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Stephanie; Azizpour, Hossein; Smith, Kevin; Hartman, Johan

    2018-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women worldwide. In recent decades, earlier diagnosis and better adjuvant therapy have substantially improved patient outcome. Diagnosis by histopathology has proven to be instrumental to guide breast cancer treatment, but new challenges have emerged as our increasing understanding of cancer over the years has revealed its complex nature. As patient demand for personalized breast cancer therapy grows, we face an urgent need for more precise biomarker assessment and more accurate histopathologic breast cancer diagnosis to make better therapy decisions. The digitization of pathology data has opened the door to faster, more reproducible, and more precise diagnoses through computerized image analysis. Software to assist diagnostic breast pathology through image processing techniques have been around for years. But recent breakthroughs in artificial intelligence (AI) promise to fundamentally change the way we detect and treat breast cancer in the near future. Machine learning, a subfield of AI that applies statistical methods to learn from data, has seen an explosion of interest in recent years because of its ability to recognize patterns in data with less need for human instruction. One technique in particular, known as deep learning, has produced groundbreaking results in many important problems including image classification and speech recognition. In this review, we will cover the use of AI and deep learning in diagnostic breast pathology, and other recent developments in digital image analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Using Ancient DNA to Understand Evolutionary and Ecological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Cooper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA provides a unique means to record genetic change through time and directly observe evolutionary and ecological processes. Although mostly based on mitochondrial DNA, the increasing availability of genomic sequences is leading to unprecedented levels of resolution. Temporal studies of ...

  12. Understanding the Process of Radicalization: Review of the Empirical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    war, and for violent solutions to conflict. However, the authors contend that TMT does not predict such antagonistic reactions as certain. Instead...advocates that individuals “ ruminate about social exclusion, and this preoccupation with their inner thoughts, distracts them from processing incoming

  13. Towards understanding and managing the learning process in mail sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, M; Karltun, A

    2012-01-01

    This paper was based on case study research at the Swedish Mail Service Division and it addresses learning time to sort mail at new districts and means to support the learning process on an individual as well as organizational level. The study population consisted of 46 postmen and one team leader in the Swedish Mail Service Division. Data were collected through measurements of time for mail sorting, interviews and a focus group. The study showed that learning to sort mail was a much more complex process and took more time than expected by management. Means to support the learning process included clarification of the relationship between sorting and the topology of the district, a good work environment, increased support from colleagues and management, and a thorough introduction for new postmen. The identified means to support the learning process require an integration of human, technological and organizational aspects. The study further showed that increased operations flexibility cannot be reinforced without a systems perspective and thorough knowledge about real work activities and that ergonomists can aid businesses to acquire this knowledge.

  14. Understanding the selection processes of public research projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Materia, V.C.; Pascucci, S.; Kolympiris, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses factors that affect the funding of agricultural research projects by regional governments and other regional public authorities. We study the selection process of agricultural research projects funded by the emilia Romagna regional government in Italy, which follows funding

  15. Satisfaction Formation Processes in Library Users: Understanding Multisource Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xi; Holahan, Patricia J.; Jurkat, M. Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study explores whether disconfirmation theory can explain satisfaction formation processes in library users. Both library users' needs and expectations are investigated as disconfirmation standards. Overall library user satisfaction is predicted to be a function of two independent sources--satisfaction with the information product received…

  16. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in writing to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathleen M; Umanath, Sharda; Thio, Kara; Reilly, Walter B; McDaniel, Mark A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2017-06-01

    Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes. The current experiment examines learning from 3 writing tasks (and 1 nonwriting control), with an emphasis on whether or not the tasks engaged retrieval. Tasks that engaged retrieval (essay writing and free recall) led to better final test performance than those that did not (note taking and highlighting). Individual differences in structure building (the ability to construct mental representations of narratives; Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990) modified this effect; skilled structure builders benefited more from essay writing and free recall than did less skilled structure builders. Further, more essay-like responses led to better performance, implicating the importance of additional cognitive processes such as reorganization and elaboration. The results highlight how both task instructions and individual differences affect the cognitive processes involved when writing-to-learn, with consequences for the effectiveness of the learning strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Understanding the Process of Fibrosis in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Kharraz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosis is the aberrant deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM components during tissue healing leading to loss of its architecture and function. Fibrotic diseases are often associated with chronic pathologies and occur in a large variety of vital organs and tissues, including skeletal muscle. In human muscle, fibrosis is most readily associated with the severe muscle wasting disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, caused by loss of dystrophin gene function. In DMD, skeletal muscle degenerates and is infiltrated by inflammatory cells and the functions of the muscle stem cells (satellite cells become impeded and fibrogenic cells hyperproliferate and are overactivated, leading to the substitution of skeletal muscle with nonfunctional fibrotic tissue. Here, we review new developments in our understanding of the mechanisms leading to fibrosis in DMD and several recent advances towards reverting it, as potential treatments to attenuate disease progression.

  18. Changes in health perceptions after exposure to human suffering: using discrete emotions to understand underlying processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia A Paschali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality, as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An experimental group (N = 47 was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N = 47 was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being.

  19. Microstructure characterisation of processed fruits and vegetables by complementary imaging techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voda, A.; Nijsse, J.; Dalen, van G.; As, van H.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of the microstructural impact of processing on fruits and vegetables is a prerequisite for understanding the relation between processing and textural quality. By combining complementary imaging techniques, one can obtain a multi scale and real-time structural view on the impact of

  20. High-performance method of morphological medical image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabykh M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the article shows the implementation of grayscale morphology vHGW algorithm for selection borders in the medical image. Image processing is executed using OpenMP and NVIDIA CUDA technology for images with different resolution and different size of the structuring element.

  1. Measurement and Image Processing Techniques for Particle Image Velocimetry Using Solid-Phase Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    stereoscopic PIV: the angular displacement configuration and the translation configuration. The angular displacement configuration is most commonly used today...images were processed using ImageJ, an open-source, Java -based image processing software available from the National Institute of Health (NIH). The

  2. An Ibm PC/AT-Based Image Acquisition And Processing System For Quantitative Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongmin; Alexander, Thomas

    1986-06-01

    In recent years, a large number of applications have been developed for image processing systems in the area of biological imaging. We have already finished the development of a dedicated microcomputer-based image processing and analysis system for quantitative microscopy. The system's primary function has been to facilitate and ultimately automate quantitative image analysis tasks such as the measurement of cellular DNA contents. We have recognized from this development experience, and interaction with system users, biologists and technicians, that the increasingly widespread use of image processing systems, and the development and application of new techniques for utilizing the capabilities of such systems, would generate a need for some kind of inexpensive general purpose image acquisition and processing system specially tailored for the needs of the medical community. We are currently engaged in the development and testing of hardware and software for a fairly high-performance image processing computer system based on a popular personal computer. In this paper, we describe the design and development of this system. Biological image processing computer systems have now reached a level of hardware and software refinement where they could become convenient image analysis tools for biologists. The development of a general purpose image processing system for quantitative image analysis that is inexpensive, flexible, and easy-to-use represents a significant step towards making the microscopic digital image processing techniques more widely applicable not only in a research environment as a biologist's workstation, but also in clinical environments as a diagnostic tool.

  3. How does crowdfunding work? Understanding the process through its activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stiver, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Crowdfunding is a process featuring incremental financial donations from a ‘crowd’ of backers to help fund a project initiated by a creator. In recent years, crowdfunding has generated significant revenue as well as great interest from industry, government, and creative entrepreneurs. However, rate of successful funding for crowdfunding projects remains around 35% for global crowdfunding leader Kickstarter1, and lower yet for other platforms.\\ud \\ud The identified gap between crowdfunding gro...

  4. Modeling Dynamic Food Choice Processes to Understand Dietary Intervention Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Christopher Steven; Goldring, Megan R; McBride, Colleen M; Persky, Susan

    2018-02-17

    Meal construction is largely governed by nonconscious and habit-based processes that can be represented as a collection of in dividual, micro-level food choices that eventually give rise to a final plate. Despite this, dietary behavior intervention research rarely captures these micro-level food choice processes, instead measuring outcomes at aggregated levels. This is due in part to a dearth of analytic techniques to model these dynamic time-series events. The current article addresses this limitation by applying a generalization of the relational event framework to model micro-level food choice behavior following an educational intervention. Relational event modeling was used to model the food choices that 221 mothers made for their child following receipt of an information-based intervention. Participants were randomized to receive either (a) control information; (b) childhood obesity risk information; (c) childhood obesity risk information plus a personalized family history-based risk estimate for their child. Participants then made food choices for their child in a virtual reality-based food buffet simulation. Micro-level aspects of the built environment, such as the ordering of each food in the buffet, were influential. Other dynamic processes such as choice inertia also influenced food selection. Among participants receiving the strongest intervention condition, choice inertia decreased and the overall rate of food selection increased. Modeling food selection processes can elucidate the points at which interventions exert their influence. Researchers can leverage these findings to gain insight into nonconscious and uncontrollable aspects of food selection that influence dietary outcomes, which can ultimately improve the design of dietary interventions.

  5. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions.

  6. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Herrera

    Full Text Available There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions.

  7. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  8. Use of personal computer image for processing a magnetic resonance image (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    1988-01-01

    Image processing of MR imaging was attempted by using a popular personal computer as 16-bit model. The computer processed the images on a 256 x 256 matrix and 512 x 512 matrix. The softwer languages for image-processing were those of Macro-Assembler performed by (MS-DOS). The original images, acuired with an 0.5 T superconducting machine (VISTA MR 0.5 T, Picker International) were transfered to the computer by the flexible disket. Image process are the display of image to monitor, other the contrast enhancement, the unsharped mask contrast enhancement, the various filter process, the edge detections or the color histogram was obtained in 1.6 sec to 67 sec, indicating that commercialzed personal computer had ability for routine clinical purpose in MRI-processing. (author)

  9. Understanding movement data and movement processes: current and emerging directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S

    2008-12-01

    Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability.

  10. Problems and image processing in X-ray film digitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Syousuke; Yoshita, Hisashi; Kuranishi, Makoto; Itoh, Hajime; Mori, Kouichi; Konishi, Minoru

    1992-01-01

    Aiming at the realization of PACS, a study was conducted on the present state of, and various problems associated with, X-ray film digitization using a He-Ne laser-type film digitizer. Image quality was evaluated physically and clinically. With regard to the gradation specificity, the linear specificity was shown in a dynamic range of 4 figures. With regard to resolution specificity, visual evaluation was performed using a Hawlet Chart, with almost no difference being found between the CRT and laser printer output images and the decrease in resolution becoming more pronounced as the sampling pitch became greater. Clinical evaluation was performed with reference to the literature. The general evaluation of the clinicians was that although there was some deterioration for all of the shadows, (I have read this many times, but could not understand the last part.) by performing each of the kinds of image-processing enhancement of diagnostic ability was achieved, with a diagnosis being possible. The problem of unhindered diagnosis due to the development of artifacts from optical interference of the grid images projected onto the clinical pictures and digitizer sampling pitch was studied. As countermeasures, the use of a high density grid and adoption of a low-pass filter were useful in impending the development of artifacts. Regarding the operating problems, the inputting of index information requires a considerable number of manhours and a method of automatic recognition from digital data was introduced to overcome this problem. As future-prospects, the concepts of a practical system of X-ray film digitization and a film-screen system adapted to digitization were described. (author)

  11. Problems and image processing in X-ray film digitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Syousuke; Yoshita, Hisashi; Kuranishi, Makoto; Itoh, Hajime; Mori, Kouichi; Konishi, Minoru (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Hospital)

    1992-11-01

    Aiming at the realization of PACS, a study was conducted on the present state of, and various problems associated with, X-ray film digitization using a He-Ne laser-type film digitizer. Image quality was evaluated physically and clinically. With regard to the gradation specificity, the linear specificity was shown in a dynamic range of 4 figures. With regard to resolution specificity, visual evaluation was performed using a Hawlet Chart, with almost no difference being found between the CRT and laser printer output images and the decrease in resolution becoming more pronounced as the sampling pitch became greater. Clinical evaluation was performed with reference to the literature. The general evaluation of the clinicians was that although there was some deterioration for all of the shadows, (I have read this many times, but could not understand the last part.) by performing each of the kinds of image-processing enhancement of diagnostic ability was achieved, with a diagnosis being possible. The problem of unhindered diagnosis due to the development of artifacts from optical interference of the grid images projected onto the clinical pictures and digitizer sampling pitch was studied. As countermeasures, the use of a high density grid and adoption of a low-pass filter were useful in impending the development of artifacts. Regarding the operating problems, the inputting of index information requires a considerable number of manhours and a method of automatic recognition from digital data was introduced to overcome this problem. As future-prospects, the concepts of a practical system of X-ray film digitization and a film-screen system adapted to digitization were described. (author).

  12. Apparatus and method X-ray image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for X-ray image processing. The radiation passed through the object is transformed into an electric image signal from which the logarithmic value is determined and displayed by a display device. Its main objective is to provide a method and apparatus that renders X-ray images or X-ray subtraction images with strong reduction of stray radiation. (Auth.)

  13. Advances and applications of optimised algorithms in image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Oliva, Diego

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a study of the use of optimization algorithms in complex image processing problems. The problems selected explore areas ranging from the theory of image segmentation to the detection of complex objects in medical images. Furthermore, the concepts of machine learning and optimization are analyzed to provide an overview of the application of these tools in image processing. The material has been compiled from a teaching perspective. Accordingly, the book is primarily intended for undergraduate and postgraduate students of Science, Engineering, and Computational Mathematics, and can be used for courses on Artificial Intelligence, Advanced Image Processing, Computational Intelligence, etc. Likewise, the material can be useful for research from the evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence and image processing co.

  14. Embedded processor extensions for image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenin, Mathieu; Paindavoine, Michel; Letellier, Laurent; Heyrman, Barthélémy

    2008-04-01

    The advent of camera phones marks a new phase in embedded camera sales. By late 2009, the total number of camera phones will exceed that of both conventional and digital cameras shipped since the invention of photography. Use in mobile phones of applications like visiophony, matrix code readers and biometrics requires a high degree of component flexibility that image processors (IPs) have not, to date, been able to provide. For all these reasons, programmable processor solutions have become essential. This paper presents several techniques geared to speeding up image processors. It demonstrates that a gain of twice is possible for the complete image acquisition chain and the enhancement pipeline downstream of the video sensor. Such results confirm the potential of these computing systems for supporting future applications.

  15. Statistical processing of large image sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khellah, F; Fieguth, P; Murray, M J; Allen, M

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic estimation of large-scale stochastic image sequences, as frequently encountered in remote sensing, is important in a variety of scientific applications. However, the size of such images makes conventional dynamic estimation methods, for example, the Kalman and related filters, impractical. In this paper, we present an approach that emulates the Kalman filter, but with considerably reduced computational and storage requirements. Our approach is illustrated in the context of a 512 x 512 image sequence of ocean surface temperature. The static estimation step, the primary contribution here, uses a mixture of stationary models to accurately mimic the effect of a nonstationary prior, simplifying both computational complexity and modeling. Our approach provides an efficient, stable, positive-definite model which is consistent with the given correlation structure. Thus, the methods of this paper may find application in modeling and single-frame estimation.

  16. The operation technology of realtime image processing system (Datacube)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, Nam Ho; Choi, Young Soo; Park, Soon Yong; Park, Jin Seok

    1997-02-01

    In this project, a Sparc VME-based MaxSparc system, running the solaris operating environment, is selected as the dedicated image processing hardware for robot vision applications. In this report, the operation of Datacube maxSparc system, which is high performance realtime image processing hardware, is systematized. And image flow example programs for running MaxSparc system are studied and analyzed. The state-of-the-arts of Datacube system utilizations are studied and analyzed. For the next phase, advanced realtime image processing platform for robot vision application is going to be developed. (author). 19 refs., 71 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Automated processing of X-ray images in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babij, Ya.S.; B'yalyuk, Ya.O.; Yanovich, I.A.; Lysenko, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical and practical achievements in application of computing technology means for processing of X-ray images in medicine were generalized. The scheme of the main directions and tasks of processing of X-ray images was given and analyzed. The principal problems appeared in automated processing of X-ray images were distinguished. It is shown that for interpretation of X-ray images it is expedient to introduce a notion of relative operating characteristic (ROC) of a roentgenologist. Every point on ROC curve determines the individual criteria of roentgenologist to put a positive diagnosis for definite situation

  18. The vision guidance and image processing of AGV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tongqing; Jiao, Bin

    2017-08-01

    Firstly, the principle of AGV vision guidance is introduced and the deviation and deflection angle are measured by image coordinate system. The visual guidance image processing platform is introduced. In view of the fact that the AGV guidance image contains more noise, the image has already been smoothed by a statistical sorting. By using AGV sampling way to obtain image guidance, because the image has the best and different threshold segmentation points. In view of this situation, the method of two-dimensional maximum entropy image segmentation is used to solve the problem. We extract the foreground image in the target band by calculating the contour area method and obtain the centre line with the least square fitting algorithm. With the help of image and physical coordinates, we can obtain the guidance information.

  19. Image processing for drift compensation in fluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Thiagarajan, Viruthachalam; Coutinho, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is characterized by low background noise, thus a fluorescent object appears as an area of high signal/noise. Thermal gradients may result in apparent motion of the object, leading to a blurred image. Here, we have developed an image processing methodology that may remove....../reduce blur significantly for any type of microscopy. A total of ~100 images were acquired with a pixel size of 30 nm. The acquisition time for each image was approximately 1second. We can quantity the drift in X and Y using the sub pixel accuracy computed centroid location of an image object in each frame....... We can measure drifts down to approximately 10 nm in size and a drift-compensated image can therefore be reconstructed on a grid of the same size using the “Shift and Add” approach leading to an image of identical size asthe individual image. We have also reconstructed the image using a 3 fold larger...

  20. Lumbar spinal imaging in radicular pain and related conditions. Understanding diagnostic images in a clinical context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmink, Jan T.

    2010-01-01

    There is general agreement that lumbosacral nerve root compression is a prime factor in the pathogenesis of sciatica and neurogenic claudication, although humoral and vascular factors certainly play a role as well. This book focuses on imaging of the various ways in which nerve root compression can come about, and assessing which anatomic features are reliably associated with the occurrence of radicular pain, as opposed to morphologic findings which are probably coincidental. After a discussion of the nature of radicular pain and related symptoms, spinal imaging techniques and options are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of MR myelography in assessing the condition of the intradural nerve roots. A chapter on normal topographic, sectional, and functional (dynamic) radiologic anatomy is followed by a presentation on pathologic anatomy, addressing the various mechanisms of nerve root compression. In the chapter on pre- and postoperative imaging, features which may help to predict the evolution of the symptoms are discussed, with an eye to selecting candidates for surgical treatment. This is followed by a discussion of the role and limitations of imaging studies in various adverse postoperative conditions. In illustrations involving patient studies, imaging features are linked where possible to the clinical symptoms and history of the individuals involved. (orig.)

  1. Lumbar spinal imaging in radicular pain and related conditions. Understanding diagnostic images in a clinical context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmink, Jan T. [University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. Radiology

    2010-07-01

    There is general agreement that lumbosacral nerve root compression is a prime factor in the pathogenesis of sciatica and neurogenic claudication, although humoral and vascular factors certainly play a role as well. This book focuses on imaging of the various ways in which nerve root compression can come about, and assessing which anatomic features are reliably associated with the occurrence of radicular pain, as opposed to morphologic findings which are probably coincidental. After a discussion of the nature of radicular pain and related symptoms, spinal imaging techniques and options are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of MR myelography in assessing the condition of the intradural nerve roots. A chapter on normal topographic, sectional, and functional (dynamic) radiologic anatomy is followed by a presentation on pathologic anatomy, addressing the various mechanisms of nerve root compression. In the chapter on pre- and postoperative imaging, features which may help to predict the evolution of the symptoms are discussed, with an eye to selecting candidates for surgical treatment. This is followed by a discussion of the role and limitations of imaging studies in various adverse postoperative conditions. In illustrations involving patient studies, imaging features are linked where possible to the clinical symptoms and history of the individuals involved. (orig.)

  2. Digital image sequence processing, compression, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Todd R

    2004-01-01

    IntroductionTodd R. ReedCONTENT-BASED IMAGE SEQUENCE REPRESENTATIONPedro M. Q. Aguiar, Radu S. Jasinschi, José M. F. Moura, andCharnchai PluempitiwiriyawejTHE COMPUTATION OF MOTIONChristoph Stiller, Sören Kammel, Jan Horn, and Thao DangMOTION ANALYSIS AND DISPLACEMENT ESTIMATION IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAINLuca Lucchese and Guido Maria CortelazzoQUALITY OF SERVICE ASSESSMENT IN NEW GENERATION WIRELESS VIDEO COMMUNICATIONSGaetano GiuntaERROR CONCEALMENT IN DIGITAL VIDEOFrancesco G.B. De NataleIMAGE SEQUENCE RESTORATION: A WIDER PERSPECTIVEAnil KokaramVIDEO SUMMARIZATIONCuneyt M. Taskiran and Edward

  3. Some results of automatic processing of images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golenishchev, I.A.; Gracheva, T.N.; Khardikov, S.V.

    1975-01-01

    The problems of automatic deciphering of the radiographic picture the purpose of which is making a conclusion concerning the quality of the inspected product on the basis of the product defect images in the picture are considered. The methods of defect image recognition are listed, and the algorithms and the class features of defects are described. The results of deciphering of a small radiographic picture by means of the ''Minsk-22'' computer are presented. It is established that the sensitivity of the method of the automatic deciphering is close to that obtained for visual deciphering

  4. Understanding the process of greening of Brazilian business schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.; De Sousa Jabbour, A.B.L.

    2013-01-01

    activities; (d) paradoxically, the analyzed business schools can be considered academic leaders in the field, but have had difficulties in adopting environmental management practices internally; (e) there is a "path dependence" effect in this process; (f) there are barriers to organizational change towards...... conducted at Brazilian business schools. The results were analyzed using the conceptual background of barriers to organizational change, transition to a more sustainable society, and path dependence. The main findings indicate that: (a) the incorporation of environmental management issues tends to begin......This study analyses business schools' incorporating environmental management issues into their core activities, defined through teaching, research, outreach and management. Taking into account the relative lack of literature on this theme, case study fieldwork is utilized. Two case studies were...

  5. Understanding the process by which female entrepreneurs create INVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Gitte Ohrt; Hannibal, Martin

    around the world and their increasing contribution to economic growth and employment (Baughn et al., 2006). As it is generally acknowledged that female entrepreneurs exhibit many differences from their male counterparts (Anna et al., 2000; Buttner & Moore, 1997), this omission in the INV literature...... and behave in such crucial entrepreneurial processes as new venture creation. In this regard, and only recently, female entrepreneurship scholars have begun to recognize that there may be differences between male and female nascent entrepreneurs in terms of, for example, psychological attributes, education...... opportunities on (foreign) markets. As such, the specific focus of this paper will be on how answers to the series of “Who am I?, What do I know? Whom do I know?” questions in the founding stage helped the focal female entrepreneurs to recognize and create opportunities in foreign markets. In doing...

  6. Surface Distresses Detection of Pavement Based on Digital Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang , Aiguo; Luo , Chagen; Zhou , Chao

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Pavement crack is the main form of early diseases of pavement. The use of digital photography to record pavement images and subsequent crack detection and classification has undergone continuous improvements over the past decade. Digital image processing has been applied to detect the pavement crack for its advantages of large amount of information and automatic detection. The applications of digital image processing in pavement crack detection, distresses classificati...

  7. Bayesian image processing in two and three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, H.; Liang, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Tomographic image processing customarily analyzes data acquired over a series of projective orientations. If, however, the point source function (the matrix R) of the system is strongly depth dependent, tomographic information is also obtainable from a series of parallel planar images corresponding to different ''focal'' depths. Bayesian image processing (BIP) was carried out for two and three dimensional spatially uncorrelated discrete amplitude a priori source distributions

  8. The study of image processing of parallel digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie

    2000-01-01

    The author analyzes the basic characteristic of parallel DSP (digital signal processor) TMS320C80 and proposes related optimized image algorithm and the parallel processing method based on parallel DSP. The realtime for many image processing can be achieved in this way

  9. IDAPS (Image Data Automated Processing System) System Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-24

    This document describes the physical configuration and components used in the image processing system referred to as IDAPS (Image Data Automated ... Processing System). This system was developed by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) for Eglin Air Force Base. The system is designed

  10. A fuzzy art neural network based color image processing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To improve the learning process from the input data, a new learning rule was suggested. In this paper, a new method is proposed to deal with the RGB color image pixels, which enables a Fuzzy ART neural network to process the RGB color images. The application of the algorithm was implemented and tested on a set of ...

  11. Digital image processing software system using an array processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, R.J.; Portnoff, M.R.; Journeay, C.H.; Twogood, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    A versatile array processor-based system for general-purpose image processing was developed. At the heart of this system is an extensive, flexible software package that incorporates the array processor for effective interactive image processing. The software system is described in detail, and its application to a diverse set of applications at LLNL is briefly discussed. 4 figures, 1 table

  12. Digital Data Processing of Images | Lotter | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digital data processing was investigated to perform image processing. Image smoothing and restoration were explored and promising results obtained. The use of the computer, not only as a data management device, but as an important tool to render quantitative information, was illustrated by lung function determination.

  13. Towards an Understanding of Enabling Process Knowing in Global Software Development: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Shared understanding of Software Engineering (SE) processes, that we call process knowing, is required for effective communication and coordination and communication within a team in order to improve team performance. SE Process knowledge can include roles, responsibilities and flow of informatio...... challenges of lack of process knowing and how an organization can enable process knowing for achieving the desired results that also help in increasing social interactions and positive behavioral changes......Shared understanding of Software Engineering (SE) processes, that we call process knowing, is required for effective communication and coordination and communication within a team in order to improve team performance. SE Process knowledge can include roles, responsibilities and flow of information...... over a project lifecycle. Developing and sustaining process knowledge can be more challenging in Global Software Development (GSD). GSD distances can limit the ability of a team to develop a common understanding of processes. Anecdotes of the problems caused by lack of common understanding of processes...

  14. Efficient morphological tools for astronomical image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschini, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, many applications rely on a huge quantity of images at high resolution and with high quantity of information per pixel, due either to the technological improvements of the instruments or to the type of measurement observed. This thesis is focused on exploring and developing tools and new

  15. SlideJ: An ImageJ plugin for automated processing of whole slide images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Mea, Vincenzo; Baroni, Giulia L; Pilutti, David; Di Loreto, Carla

    2017-01-01

    The digital slide, or Whole Slide Image, is a digital image, acquired with specific scanners, that represents a complete tissue sample or cytological specimen at microscopic level. While Whole Slide image analysis is recognized among the most interesting opportunities, the typical size of such images-up to Gpixels- can be very demanding in terms of memory requirements. Thus, while algorithms and tools for processing and analysis of single microscopic field images are available, Whole Slide images size makes the direct use of such tools prohibitive or impossible. In this work a plugin for ImageJ, named SlideJ, is proposed with the objective to seamlessly extend the application of image analysis algorithms implemented in ImageJ for single microscopic field images to a whole digital slide analysis. The plugin has been complemented by examples of macro in the ImageJ scripting language to demonstrate its use in concrete situations.

  16. SlideJ: An ImageJ plugin for automated processing of whole slide images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Della Mea

    Full Text Available The digital slide, or Whole Slide Image, is a digital image, acquired with specific scanners, that represents a complete tissue sample or cytological specimen at microscopic level. While Whole Slide image analysis is recognized among the most interesting opportunities, the typical size of such images-up to Gpixels- can be very demanding in terms of memory requirements. Thus, while algorithms and tools for processing and analysis of single microscopic field images are available, Whole Slide images size makes the direct use of such tools prohibitive or impossible. In this work a plugin for ImageJ, named SlideJ, is proposed with the objective to seamlessly extend the application of image analysis algorithms implemented in ImageJ for single microscopic field images to a whole digital slide analysis. The plugin has been complemented by examples of macro in the ImageJ scripting language to demonstrate its use in concrete situations.

  17. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott

    2005-03-01

    As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.

  18. Deep architecture neural network-based real-time image processing for image-guided radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shinichiro

    2017-08-01

    To develop real-time image processing for image-guided radiotherapy, we evaluated several neural network models for use with different imaging modalities, including X-ray fluoroscopic image denoising. Setup images of prostate cancer patients were acquired with two oblique X-ray fluoroscopic units. Two types of residual network were designed: a convolutional autoencoder (rCAE) and a convolutional neural network (rCNN). We changed the convolutional kernel size and number of convolutional layers for both networks, and the number of pooling and upsampling layers for rCAE. The ground-truth image was applied to the contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) method of image processing. Network models were trained to keep the quality of the output image close to that of the ground-truth image from the input image without image processing. For image denoising evaluation, noisy input images were used for the training. More than 6 convolutional layers with convolutional kernels >5×5 improved image quality. However, this did not allow real-time imaging. After applying a pair of pooling and upsampling layers to both networks, rCAEs with >3 convolutions each and rCNNs with >12 convolutions with a pair of pooling and upsampling layers achieved real-time processing at 30 frames per second (fps) with acceptable image quality. Use of our suggested network achieved real-time image processing for contrast enhancement and image denoising by the use of a conventional modern personal computer. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A modeling process to understand complex system architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Santiago Balestrini

    2009-12-01

    In recent decades, several tools have been developed by the armed forces, and their contractors, to test the capability of a force. These campaign level analysis tools, often times characterized as constructive simulations are generally expensive to create and execute, and at best they are extremely difficult to verify and validate. This central observation, that the analysts are relying more and more on constructive simulations to predict the performance of future networks of systems, leads to the two central objectives of this thesis: (1) to enable the quantitative comparison of architectures in terms of their ability to satisfy a capability without resorting to constructive simulations, and (2) when constructive simulations must be created, to quantitatively determine how to spend the modeling effort amongst the different system classes. The first objective led to Hypothesis A, the first main hypotheses, which states that by studying the relationships between the entities that compose an architecture, one can infer how well it will perform a given capability. The method used to test the hypothesis is based on two assumptions: (1) the capability can be defined as a cycle of functions, and that it (2) must be possible to estimate the probability that a function-based relationship occurs between any two types of entities. If these two requirements are met, then by creating random functional networks, different architectures can be compared in terms of their ability to satisfy a capability. In order to test this hypothesis, a novel process for creating representative functional networks of large-scale system architectures was developed. The process, named the Digraph Modeling for Architectures (DiMA), was tested by comparing its results to those of complex constructive simulations. Results indicate that if the inputs assigned to DiMA are correct (in the tests they were based on time-averaged data obtained from the ABM), DiMA is able to identify which of any two

  20. Understanding the physiology of complex congenital heart disease using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappanayil, Mahesh; Kannan, Rajesh; Kumar, Raman Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Complex congenital heart diseases are often associated with complex alterations in hemodynamics. Understanding these key hemodynamic changes is critical to making management decisions including surgery and postoperative management. Existing tools for imaging and hemodynamic assessment like echocardiography, computed tomography and cardiac catheterization have inherent limitations. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as a powerful bouquet of tools that allow not only excellent imaging, but also a unique insight into hemodynamics. This article introduces the reader to cardiac MRI and its utility through the clinical example of a child with a complex congenital cyanotic heart disease

  1. Energy-Driven Image Interpolation Using Gaussian Process Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Image interpolation, as a method of obtaining a high-resolution image from the corresponding low-resolution image, is a classical problem in image processing. In this paper, we propose a novel energy-driven interpolation algorithm employing Gaussian process regression. In our algorithm, each interpolated pixel is predicted by a combination of two information sources: first is a statistical model adopted to mine underlying information, and second is an energy computation technique used to acquire information on pixel properties. We further demonstrate that our algorithm can not only achieve image interpolation, but also reduce noise in the original image. Our experiments show that the proposed algorithm can achieve encouraging performance in terms of image visualization and quantitative measures.

  2. Graphical user interface for image acquisition and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2002-01-01

    An event-driven GUI-based image acquisition interface for the IDL programming environment designed for CCD camera control and image acquisition directly into the IDL environment where image manipulation and data analysis can be performed, and a toolbox of real-time analysis applications. Running the image acquisition hardware directly from IDL removes the necessity of first saving images in one program and then importing the data into IDL for analysis in a second step. Bringing the data directly into IDL creates an opportunity for the implementation of IDL image processing and display functions in real-time. program allows control over the available charge coupled device (CCD) detector parameters, data acquisition, file saving and loading, and image manipulation and processing, all from within IDL. The program is built using IDL's widget libraries to control the on-screen display and user interface.

  3. Image processing. Volumetric analysis with a digital image processing system. [GAMMA]. Bildverarbeitung. Volumetrie mittels eines digitalen Bildverarbeitungssystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindler, M; Radtke, F; Demel, G

    1986-01-01

    The book is arranged in seven sections, describing various applications of volumetric analysis using image processing systems, and various methods of diagnostic evaluation of images obtained by gamma scintigraphy, cardic catheterisation, and echocardiography. A dynamic ventricular phantom is explained that has been developed for checking and calibration for safe examination of patient, the phantom allowing extensive simulation of volumetric and hemodynamic conditions of the human heart: One section discusses the program development for image processing, referring to a number of different computer systems. The equipment described includes a small non-expensive PC system, as well as a standardized nuclear medical diagnostic system, and a computer system especially suited to image processing.

  4. Acquisition and Post-Processing of Immunohistochemical Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgewick, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    Augmentation of digital images is almost always a necessity in order to obtain a reproduction that matches the appearance of the original. However, that augmentation can mislead if it is done incorrectly and not within reasonable limits. When procedures are in place for insuring that originals are archived, and image manipulation steps reported, scientists not only follow good laboratory practices, but avoid ethical issues associated with post processing, and protect their labs from any future allegations of scientific misconduct. Also, when procedures are in place for correct acquisition of images, the extent of post processing is minimized or eliminated. These procedures include white balancing (for brightfield images), keeping tonal values within the dynamic range of the detector, frame averaging to eliminate noise (typically in fluorescence imaging), use of the highest bit depth when a choice is available, flatfield correction, and archiving of the image in a non-lossy format (not JPEG).When post-processing is necessary, the commonly used applications for correction include Photoshop, and ImageJ, but a free program (GIMP) can also be used. Corrections to images include scaling the bit depth to higher and lower ranges, removing color casts from brightfield images, setting brightness and contrast, reducing color noise, reducing "grainy" noise, conversion of pure colors to grayscale, conversion of grayscale to colors typically used in fluorescence imaging, correction of uneven illumination (flatfield correction), merging color images (fluorescence), and extending the depth of focus. These corrections are explained in step-by-step procedures in the chapter that follows.

  5. Target recognition and scene interpretation in image/video understanding systems based on network-symbolic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2004-08-01

    Vision is only a part of a system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive the vision process, resolving ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback, and provide image understanding, which is an interpretation of visual information in terms of these knowledge models. These mechanisms provide a reliable recognition if the object is occluded or cannot be recognized as a whole. It is hard to split the entire system apart, and reliable solutions to the target recognition problems are possible only within the solution of a more generic Image Understanding Problem. Brain reduces informational and computational complexities, using implicit symbolic coding of features, hierarchical compression, and selective processing of visual information. Biologically inspired Network-Symbolic representation, where both systematic structural/logical methods and neural/statistical methods are parts of a single mechanism, is the most feasible for such models. It converts visual information into relational Network-Symbolic structures, avoiding artificial precise computations of 3-dimensional models. Network-Symbolic Transformations derive abstract structures, which allows for invariant recognition of an object as exemplar of a class. Active vision helps creating consistent models. Attention, separation of figure from ground and perceptual grouping are special kinds of network-symbolic transformations. Such Image/Video Understanding Systems will be reliably recognizing targets.

  6. Image processing based detection of lung cancer on CT scan images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdillah, Bariqi; Bustamam, Alhadi; Sarwinda, Devvi

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we implement and analyze the image processing method for detection of lung cancer. Image processing techniques are widely used in several medical problems for picture enhancement in the detection phase to support the early medical treatment. In this research we proposed a detection method of lung cancer based on image segmentation. Image segmentation is one of intermediate level in image processing. Marker control watershed and region growing approach are used to segment of CT scan image. Detection phases are followed by image enhancement using Gabor filter, image segmentation, and features extraction. From the experimental results, we found the effectiveness of our approach. The results show that the best approach for main features detection is watershed with masking method which has high accuracy and robust.

  7. Gaussian Process Interpolation for Uncertainty Estimation in Image Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachinger, Christian; Golland, Polina; Reuter, Martin; Wells, William

    2014-01-01

    Intensity-based image registration requires resampling images on a common grid to evaluate the similarity function. The uncertainty of interpolation varies across the image, depending on the location of resampled points relative to the base grid. We propose to perform Bayesian inference with Gaussian processes, where the covariance matrix of the Gaussian process posterior distribution estimates the uncertainty in interpolation. The Gaussian process replaces a single image with a distribution over images that we integrate into a generative model for registration. Marginalization over resampled images leads to a new similarity measure that includes the uncertainty of the interpolation. We demonstrate that our approach increases the registration accuracy and propose an efficient approximation scheme that enables seamless integration with existing registration methods. PMID:25333127

  8. Entropy-Based Block Processing for Satellite Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhyun Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Image registration is an important task in many computer vision applications such as fusion systems, 3D shape recovery and earth observation. Particularly, registering satellite images is challenging and time-consuming due to limited resources and large image size. In such scenario, state-of-the-art image registration methods such as scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT may not be suitable due to high processing time. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on block processing via entropy to register satellite images. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated using different real images. The comparative analysis shows that it not only reduces the processing time but also enhances the accuracy.

  9. Diagnosis of skin cancer using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Rosas, Esperanza; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué; Coronel-Beltrán, Ángel

    2014-10-01

    In this papera methodology for classifying skin cancerin images of dermatologie spots based on spectral analysis using the K-law Fourier non-lineartechnique is presented. The image is segmented and binarized to build the function that contains the interest area. The image is divided into their respective RGB channels to obtain the spectral properties of each channel. The green channel contains more information and therefore this channel is always chosen. This information is point to point multiplied by a binary mask and to this result a Fourier transform is applied written in nonlinear form. If the real part of this spectrum is positive, the spectral density takeunit values, otherwise are zero. Finally the ratio of the sum of the unit values of the spectral density with the sum of values of the binary mask are calculated. This ratio is called spectral index. When the value calculated is in the spectral index range three types of cancer can be detected. Values found out of this range are benign injure.

  10. Theoretical analysis of radiographic images by nonstationary Poisson processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kazuo; Uchida, Suguru; Yamada, Isao.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the noise analysis of radiographic images obtained in the usual fluorescent screen-film system. The theory of nonstationary Poisson processes is applied to the analysis of the radiographic images containing the object information. The ensemble averages, the autocorrelation functions, and the Wiener spectrum densities of the light-energy distribution at the fluorescent screen and of the film optical-density distribution are obtained. The detection characteristics of the system are evaluated theoretically. Numerical examples one-dimensional image are shown and the results are compared with those obtained under the assumption that the object image is related to the background noise by the additive process. (author)

  11. Image processing tensor transform and discrete tomography with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoryan, Artyom M

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on mathematical methods in computer tomography, Image Processing: Tensor Transform and Discrete Tomography with MATLAB(R) introduces novel approaches to help in solving the problem of image reconstruction on the Cartesian lattice. Specifically, it discusses methods of image processing along parallel rays to more quickly and accurately reconstruct images from a finite number of projections, thereby avoiding overradiation of the body during a computed tomography (CT) scan. The book presents several new ideas, concepts, and methods, many of which have not been published elsewhere. New co

  12. Computer vision applications for coronagraphic optical alignment and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savransky, Dmitry; Thomas, Sandrine J; Poyneer, Lisa A; Macintosh, Bruce A

    2013-05-10

    Modern coronagraphic systems require very precise alignment between optical components and can benefit greatly from automated image processing. We discuss three techniques commonly employed in the fields of computer vision and image analysis as applied to the Gemini Planet Imager, a new facility instrument for the Gemini South Observatory. We describe how feature extraction and clustering methods can be used to aid in automated system alignment tasks, and also present a search algorithm for finding regular features in science images used for calibration and data processing. Along with discussions of each technique, we present our specific implementation and show results of each one in operation.

  13. Roles of medical image processing in medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka

    2011-01-01

    Image processing techniques including pattern recognition techniques play important roles in high precision diagnosis and radiation therapy. The author reviews a symposium on medical image information, which was held in the 100th Memorial Annual Meeting of the Japan Society of Medical Physics from September 23rd to 25th. In this symposium, we had three invited speakers, Dr. Akinobu Shimizu, Dr. Hideaki Haneishi, and Dr. Hirohito Mekata, who are active engineering researchers of segmentation, image registration, and pattern recognition, respectively. In this paper, the author reviews the roles of the medical imaging processing in medical physics field, and the talks of the three invited speakers. (author)

  14. Suitable post processing algorithms for X-ray imaging using oversampled displaced multiple images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thim, J; Reza, S; Nawaz, K; Norlin, B; O'Nils, M; Oelmann, B

    2011-01-01

    X-ray imaging systems such as photon counting pixel detectors have a limited spatial resolution of the pixels, based on the complexity and processing technology of the readout electronics. For X-ray imaging situations where the features of interest are smaller than the imaging system pixel size, and the pixel size cannot be made smaller in the hardware, alternative means of resolution enhancement require to be considered. Oversampling with the usage of multiple displaced images, where the pixels of all images are mapped to a final resolution enhanced image, has proven a viable method of reaching a sub-pixel resolution exceeding the original resolution. The effectiveness of the oversampling method declines with the number of images taken, the sub-pixel resolution increases, but relative to a real reduction of imaging pixel sizes yielding a full resolution image, the perceived resolution from the sub-pixel oversampled image is lower. This is because the oversampling method introduces blurring noise into the mapped final images, and the blurring relative to full resolution images increases with the oversampling factor. One way of increasing the performance of the oversampling method is by sharpening the images in post processing. This paper focus on characterizing the performance increase of the oversampling method after the use of some suitable post processing filters, for digital X-ray images specifically. The results show that spatial domain filters and frequency domain filters of the same type yield indistinguishable results, which is to be expected. The results also show that the effectiveness of applying sharpening filters to oversampled multiple images increase with the number of images used (oversampling factor), leaving 60-80% of the original blurring noise after filtering a 6 x 6 mapped image (36 images taken), where the percentage is depending on the type of filter. This means that the effectiveness of the oversampling itself increase by using sharpening

  15. Sequential spatial processes for image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N.M. van Lieshout (Marie-Colette); V. Capasso

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractWe give a brief introduction to sequential spatial processes. We discuss their definition, formulate a Markov property, and indicate why such processes are natural tools in tackling high level vision problems. We focus on the problem of tracking a variable number of moving objects

  16. Sequential spatial processes for image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.N.M.; Capasso, V.

    2009-01-01

    We give a brief introduction to sequential spatial processes. We discuss their definition, formulate a Markov property, and indicate why such processes are natural tools in tackling high level vision problems. We focus on the problem of tracking a variable number of moving objects through a video

  17. Database development for understanding the wet deposition and dispersion processes after the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. Radar data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatagai, Akiyo; Takara, Kaoru; Ishihara, Masahito; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Akira; Murata, Ken T.

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes datasets of meteorological information being developed for understanding the dispersion and deposition process of radionuclides associated with the Fukushima accident in March 2011. Among several products, this paper reports mainly our original radar data images including the X-band radar data from Fukushima University as well as the three-dimensional reflectivity data from the Japan Meteorological Agency C-band radar network. (author)

  18. WE-E-304-01: SBRT Credentialing: Understanding the Process From Inquiry to Approval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Followill, D.

    2015-01-01

    SBRT is having a dramatic impact on radiation therapy of early-stage, locally advanced cancers. A number of national protocols have been and are being developed to assess the clinical efficacy of SBRT for various anatomical sites, such as lung and spine. Physics credentialing for participating and implementation of trial protocols involve a broad spectrum of requirements from image guidance, motion management, to planning technology and dosimetric constrains. For radiation facilities that do not have extensive experiences in SBRT treatment and protocol credentialing, these complex processes of credentialing and implementation could be very challenging and, sometimes, may lead to ineffective even unsuccessful execution of these processes. In this proposal, we will provide comprehensive review of some current SBRT protocols, explain the requirements and their underline rationales, illustrate representative failed and successful experiences, related to SBRT credentialing, and discuss strategies for effective SBRT credentialing and implementation. Learning Objectives: Understand requirements and challenges of SBRT credentailing and implentation Discuss processes and strategies of effective SBRT credentailing Discuss practical considerations, potential pitfalls and solutions of SBRT implentation

  19. WE-E-304-01: SBRT Credentialing: Understanding the Process From Inquiry to Approval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Followill, D. [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    SBRT is having a dramatic impact on radiation therapy of early-stage, locally advanced cancers. A number of national protocols have been and are being developed to assess the clinical efficacy of SBRT for various anatomical sites, such as lung and spine. Physics credentialing for participating and implementation of trial protocols involve a broad spectrum of requirements from image guidance, motion management, to planning technology and dosimetric constrains. For radiation facilities that do not have extensive experiences in SBRT treatment and protocol credentialing, these complex processes of credentialing and implementation could be very challenging and, sometimes, may lead to ineffective even unsuccessful execution of these processes. In this proposal, we will provide comprehensive review of some current SBRT protocols, explain the requirements and their underline rationales, illustrate representative failed and successful experiences, related to SBRT credentialing, and discuss strategies for effective SBRT credentialing and implementation. Learning Objectives: Understand requirements and challenges of SBRT credentailing and implentation Discuss processes and strategies of effective SBRT credentailing Discuss practical considerations, potential pitfalls and solutions of SBRT implentation.

  20. An Image Processing Approach to Linguistic Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubatur, Shruthi; Sreehari, Suhas; Hegde, Rajeshwari

    2011-12-01

    The art of translation is as old as written literature. Developments since the Industrial Revolution have influenced the practice of translation, nurturing schools, professional associations, and standard. In this paper, we propose a method of translation of typed Kannada text (taken as an image) into its equivalent English text. The National Instruments (NI) Vision Assistant (version 8.5) has been used for Optical character Recognition (OCR). We developed a new way of transliteration (which we call NIV transliteration) to simplify the training of characters. Also, we build a special type of dictionary for the purpose of translation.

  1. Detecting jaundice by using digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Ramos, J.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Villa Manriquez, F.; Orozco-Guillen, E.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Sánchez-Escobar, JJ.

    2014-03-01

    When strong Jaundice is presented, babies or adults should be subject to clinical exam like "serum bilirubin" which can cause traumas in patients. Often jaundice is presented in liver disease such as hepatitis or liver cancer. In order to avoid additional traumas we propose to detect jaundice (icterus) in newborns or adults by using a not pain method. By acquiring digital images in color, in palm, soles and forehead, we analyze RGB attributes and diffuse reflectance spectra as the parameter to characterize patients with either jaundice or not, and we correlate that parameters with the level of bilirubin. By applying support vector machine we distinguish between healthy and sick patients.

  2. High performance image processing of SPRINT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGroot, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    This talk will describe computed tomography (CT) reconstruction using filtered back-projection on SPRINT parallel computers. CT is a computationally intensive task, typically requiring several minutes to reconstruct a 512x512 image. SPRINT and other parallel computers can be applied to CT reconstruction to reduce computation time from minutes to seconds. SPRINT is a family of massively parallel computers developed at LLNL. SPRINT-2.5 is a 128-node multiprocessor whose performance can exceed twice that of a Cray-Y/MP. SPRINT-3 will be 10 times faster. Described will be the parallel algorithms for filtered back-projection and their execution on SPRINT parallel computers.

  3. Image processing and pattern recognition with CVIPtools MATLAB toolbox: automatic creation of masks for veterinary thermographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Deependra K.; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Lama, Norsang; Dahal, Rohini; Marino, Dominic J.; Sackman, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    CVIPtools is a software package for the exploration of computer vision and image processing developed in the Computer Vision and Image Processing Laboratory at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. CVIPtools is available in three variants - a) CVIPtools Graphical User Interface, b) CVIPtools C library and c) CVIPtools MATLAB toolbox, which makes it accessible to a variety of different users. It offers students, faculty, researchers and any user a free and easy way to explore computer vision and image processing techniques. Many functions have been implemented and are updated on a regular basis, the library has reached a level of sophistication that makes it suitable for both educational and research purposes. In this paper, the detail list of the functions available in the CVIPtools MATLAB toolbox are presented and how these functions can be used in image analysis and computer vision applications. The CVIPtools MATLAB toolbox allows the user to gain practical experience to better understand underlying theoretical problems in image processing and pattern recognition. As an example application, the algorithm for the automatic creation of masks for veterinary thermographic images is presented.

  4. Effects of optimization and image processing in digital chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheddache, S.; Maansson, L.G.; Angelhed, J.E.; Denbratt, L.; Gottfridsson, B.; Schlossman, D.

    1991-01-01

    A digital system for chest radiography based on a large image intensifier was compared to a conventional film-screen system. The digital system was optimized with regard to spatial and contrast resolution and dose. The images were digitally processed for contrast and edge enhancement. A simulated pneumothorax and two and two simulated nodules were positioned over the lungs and the mediastinum of an anthro-pomorphic phantom. Observer performance was evaluated with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Five observers assessed the processed digital images and the conventional full-size radiographs. The time spent viewing the full-size radiographs and the digital images was recorded. For the simulated pneumothorax, the results showed perfect performance for the full-size radiographs and detectability was high also for the processed digital images. No significant differences in the detectability of the simulated nodules was seen between the two imaging systems. The results for the digital images showed a significantly improved detectability for the nodules in the mediastinum as compared to a previous ROC study where no optimization and image processing was available. No significant difference in detectability was seen between the former and the present ROC study for small nodules in the lung. No difference was seen in the time spent assessing the conventional full-size radiographs and the digital images. The study indicates that processed digital images produced by a large image intensifier are equal in image quality to conventional full-size radiographs for low-contrast objects such as nodules. (author). 38 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Scene matching based on non-linear pre-processing on reference image and sensed image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Sheng; Zhang Tianxu; Sang Nong

    2005-01-01

    To solve the heterogeneous image scene matching problem, a non-linear pre-processing method for the original images before intensity-based correlation is proposed. The result shows that the proper matching probability is raised greatly. Especially for the low S/N image pairs, the effect is more remarkable.

  6. Image Harvest: an open-source platform for high-throughput plant image processing and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Avi C; Campbell, Malachy T; Caprez, Adam; Swanson, David R; Walia, Harkamal

    2016-05-01

    High-throughput plant phenotyping is an effective approach to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype gap in crops. Phenomics experiments typically result in large-scale image datasets, which are not amenable for processing on desktop computers, thus creating a bottleneck in the image-analysis pipeline. Here, we present an open-source, flexible image-analysis framework, called Image Harvest (IH), for processing images originating from high-throughput plant phenotyping platforms. Image Harvest is developed to perform parallel processing on computing grids and provides an integrated feature for metadata extraction from large-scale file organization. Moreover, the integration of IH with the Open Science Grid provides academic researchers with the computational resources required for processing large image datasets at no cost. Image Harvest also offers functionalities to extract digital traits from images to interpret plant architecture-related characteristics. To demonstrate the applications of these digital traits, a rice (Oryza sativa) diversity panel was phenotyped and genome-wide association mapping was performed using digital traits that are used to describe different plant ideotypes. Three major quantitative trait loci were identified on rice chromosomes 4 and 6, which co-localize with quantitative trait loci known to regulate agronomically important traits in rice. Image Harvest is an open-source software for high-throughput image processing that requires a minimal learning curve for plant biologists to analyzephenomics datasets. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Image Harvest: an open-source platform for high-throughput plant image processing and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Avi C.; Campbell, Malachy T.; Caprez, Adam; Swanson, David R.; Walia, Harkamal

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput plant phenotyping is an effective approach to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype gap in crops. Phenomics experiments typically result in large-scale image datasets, which are not amenable for processing on desktop computers, thus creating a bottleneck in the image-analysis pipeline. Here, we present an open-source, flexible image-analysis framework, called Image Harvest (IH), for processing images originating from high-throughput plant phenotyping platforms. Image Harvest is developed to perform parallel processing on computing grids and provides an integrated feature for metadata extraction from large-scale file organization. Moreover, the integration of IH with the Open Science Grid provides academic researchers with the computational resources required for processing large image datasets at no cost. Image Harvest also offers functionalities to extract digital traits from images to interpret plant architecture-related characteristics. To demonstrate the applications of these digital traits, a rice (Oryza sativa) diversity panel was phenotyped and genome-wide association mapping was performed using digital traits that are used to describe different plant ideotypes. Three major quantitative trait loci were identified on rice chromosomes 4 and 6, which co-localize with quantitative trait loci known to regulate agronomically important traits in rice. Image Harvest is an open-source software for high-throughput image processing that requires a minimal learning curve for plant biologists to analyzephenomics datasets. PMID:27141917

  8. Poisson point processes imaging, tracking, and sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Streit, Roy L

    2010-01-01

    This overview of non-homogeneous and multidimensional Poisson point processes and their applications features mathematical tools and applications from emission- and transmission-computed tomography to multiple target tracking and distributed sensor detection.

  9. Research in Image Understanding as Applied to 3-D Microwave Tomographic Imaging with Near Optical Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Oct. 1985. 28. D.L. Jaggard, K. Schultz, Y. Kim and P. Frangos , "Inverse Scattering for Dielectric Media", Annual OSA Meeting, Wash. D.C., Oct. 1985...T.H. Chu - Graduate Student (50%) C.Y. Ho - Graduate Student (50%) Y. Kim - Graduate Student (50%) K S. Lee - Graduate Student (50%) P. Frangos ...1982. 3. P. Frangos (Ph.D.) - "One-Dimensional Inverse Scattering: Exact Methods and Applications". 4. C.L. Werner (Ph.D.) - ŗ-D Imaging of Coherent and

  10. Evaluation of clinical image processing algorithms used in digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanca, Federica; Jacobs, Jurgen; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Claus, Filip; Celis, Valerie; Geniets, Catherine; Provost, Veerle; Pauwels, Herman; Marchal, Guy; Bosmans, Hilde

    2009-03-01

    Screening is the only proven approach to reduce the mortality of breast cancer, but significant numbers of breast cancers remain undetected even when all quality assurance guidelines are implemented. With the increasing adoption of digital mammography systems, image processing may be a key factor in the imaging chain. Although to our knowledge statistically significant effects of manufacturer-recommended image processings have not been previously demonstrated, the subjective experience of our radiologists, that the apparent image quality can vary considerably between different algorithms, motivated this study. This article addresses the impact of five such algorithms on the detection of clusters of microcalcifications. A database of unprocessed (raw) images of 200 normal digital mammograms, acquired with the Siemens Novation DR, was collected retrospectively. Realistic simulated microcalcification clusters were inserted in half of the unprocessed images. All unprocessed images were subsequently processed with five manufacturer-recommended image processing algorithms (Agfa Musica 1, IMS Raffaello Mammo 1.2, Sectra Mamea AB Sigmoid, Siemens OPVIEW v2, and Siemens OPVIEW v1). Four breast imaging radiologists were asked to locate and score the clusters in each image on a five point rating scale. The free-response data were analyzed by the jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) method and, for comparison, also with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. JAFROC analysis revealed highly significant differences between the image processings (F = 8.51, p < 0.0001), suggesting that image processing strongly impacts the detectability of clusters. Siemens OPVIEW2 and Siemens OPVIEW1 yielded the highest and lowest performances, respectively. ROC analysis of the data also revealed significant differences between the processing but at lower significance (F = 3.47, p = 0.0305) than JAFROC. Both statistical analysis methods revealed that the

  11. The Pan-STARRS PS1 Image Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnier, E.

    The Pan-STARRS PS1 Image Processing Pipeline (IPP) performs the image processing and data analysis tasks needed to enable the scientific use of the images obtained by the Pan-STARRS PS1 prototype telescope. The primary goals of the IPP are to process the science images from the Pan-STARRS telescopes and make the results available to other systems within Pan-STARRS. It also is responsible for combining all of the science images in a given filter into a single representation of the non-variable component of the night sky defined as the "Static Sky". To achieve these goals, the IPP also performs other analysis functions to generate the calibrations needed in the science image processing, and to occasionally use the derived data to generate improved astrometric and photometric reference catalogs. It also provides the infrastructure needed to store the incoming data and the resulting data products. The IPP inherits lessons learned, and in some cases code and prototype code, from several other astronomy image analysis systems, including Imcat (Kaiser), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (REF), the Elixir system (Magnier & Cuillandre), and Vista (Tonry). Imcat and Vista have a large number of robust image processing functions. SDSS has demonstrated a working analysis pipeline and large-scale databasesystem for a dedicated project. The Elixir system has demonstrated an automatic image processing system and an object database system for operational usage. This talk will present an overview of the IPP architecture, functional flow, code development structure, and selected analysis algorithms. Also discussed is the HW highly parallel HW configuration necessary to support PS1 operational requirements. Finally, results are presented of the processing of images collected during PS1 early commissioning tasks utilizing the Pan-STARRS Test Camera #3.

  12. Signal and image processing for monitoring and testing at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.; Garreau, D.

    1992-04-01

    The quality of monitoring and non destructive testing devices in plants and utilities today greatly depends on the efficient processing of signal and image data. In this context, signal or image processing techniques, such as adaptive filtering or detection or 3D reconstruction, are required whenever manufacturing nonconformances or faulty operation have to be recognized and identified. This paper reviews the issues of industrial image and signal processing, by briefly considering the relevant studies and projects under way at EDF. (authors). 1 fig., 11 refs

  13. Application of image processing technology in yarn hairiness detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong ZHANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital image processing technology is one of the new methods for yarn detection, which can realize the digital characterization and objective evaluation of yarn appearance. This paper overviews the current status of development and application of digital image processing technology used for yarn hairiness evaluation, and analyzes and compares the traditional detection methods and this new developed method. Compared with the traditional methods, the image processing technology based method is more objective, fast and accurate, which is the vital development trend of the yarn appearance evaluation.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal marrow: Basic understanding of the normal marrow pattern and its variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouh, Mohamed Ragab; Eid, Ahmed Fathi

    2015-01-01

    For now, magnetic resonance (MR) is the best noninvasive imaging modality to evaluate vertebral bone marrow thanks to its inherent soft-tissue contrast and non-ionizing nature. A daily challenging scenario for every radiologist interpreting MR of the vertebral column is discerning the diseased from normal marrow. This requires the radiologist to be acquainted with the used MR techniques to judge the spinal marrow as well as its normal MR variants. Conventional sequences used basically to image marrow include T1W, fat-suppressed T2W and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) imaging provides gross morphological data. Interestingly, using non-routine MR sequences; such as opposed phase, diffusion weighted, MR spectroscopy and contrasted-enhanced imaging; may elucidate the nature of bone marrow heterogeneities; by inferring cellular and chemical composition; and adding new functional prospects. Recalling the normal composition of bone marrow elements and the physiologic processes of spinal marrow conversion and reconversion eases basic understanding of spinal marrow imaging. Additionally, orientation with some common variants seen during spinal marrow MR imaging as hemangiomas and bone islands is a must. Moreover, awareness of the age-associated bone marrow changes as well as changes accompanying different variations of the subject’s health state is essential for radiologists to avoid overrating normal MR marrow patterns as pathologic states and metigate unnecessary further work-up. PMID:26753060

  15. 1st International Conference on Computer Vision and Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Roy, Partha; Sen, Debashis

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume contains technical contributions in the field of computer vision and image processing presented at the First International Conference on Computer Vision and Image Processing (CVIP 2016). The contributions are thematically divided based on their relation to operations at the lower, middle and higher levels of vision systems, and their applications. The technical contributions in the areas of sensors, acquisition, visualization and enhancement are classified as related to low-level operations. They discuss various modern topics – reconfigurable image system architecture, Scheimpflug camera calibration, real-time autofocusing, climate visualization, tone mapping, super-resolution and image resizing. The technical contributions in the areas of segmentation and retrieval are classified as related to mid-level operations. They discuss some state-of-the-art techniques – non-rigid image registration, iterative image partitioning, egocentric object detection and video shot boundary detection. Th...

  16. Seafloor Eruptions Offer a Teachable Moment to Help SEAS Students Understand Important Geological and Ecological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, L.; Williams, C. S.

    2006-12-01

    In education parlance, a teachable moment is an opportunity that arises when students are engaged and primed to learn, typically in response to some memorable event. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, even natural disasters, if meaningful to the student, often serve to catalyze intense learning. Recent eruptions at the East Pacific Rise offer a potential teachable moment for students and teachers involved with SEAS, a Ridge 2000 education outreach program. SEAS uses a combination of web-facilitated and teacher-directed activities to make the remote deep-sea environment and the process of science relevant and meaningful. SEAS is a web-based, inquiry-oriented education program for middle and high school students. It features the science associated with Ridge 2000 research. Since 2003, SEAS has focused on the integrated study site at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) to help students understand geological and ecological processes at mid-ocean ridges and hydrothermal vents. SEAS students study EPR bathymetry maps, images of lava formations, photomosaics of diffuse flow communities, succession in the Bio-Geo Transect, as well as current research conducted during spring cruises. In the Classroom to Sea Lab, students make direct comparisons between shallow-water mussels and vent mussels (from the EPR) to understand differences in feeding strategies. The recent eruptions and loss of seafloor fauna at this site offer the Ridge 2000 program the opportunity to help students better understand the ephemeral and episodic nature of ridge environments, as well as the realities and processes of science (particularly field science). In January 2007, the SEAS program will again sail with a Ridge 2000 research team, and will work with scientists to report findings through the SEAS website. The eruptions at the EPR covered much of the study site, and scientists' instruments and experiments, in fresh lava. We intend to highlight the recency and effect of the eruptions, using the students

  17. Optimization of super-resolution processing using incomplete image sets in PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Guoping; Pan, Tinsu; Clark, John W; Mawlawi, Osama R

    2008-12-01

    Super-resolution (SR) techniques are used in PET imaging to generate a high-resolution image by combining multiple low-resolution images that have been acquired from different points of view (POVs). The number of low-resolution images used defines the processing time and memory storage necessary to generate the SR image. In this paper, the authors propose two optimized SR implementations (ISR-1 and ISR-2) that require only a subset of the low-resolution images (two sides and diagonal of the image matrix, respectively), thereby reducing the overall processing time and memory storage. In an N x N matrix of low-resolution images, ISR-1 would be generated using images from the two sides of the N x N matrix, while ISR-2 would be generated from images across the diagonal of the image matrix. The objective of this paper is to investigate whether the two proposed SR methods can achieve similar performance in contrast and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the SR image generated from a complete set of low-resolution images (CSR) using simulation and experimental studies. A simulation, a point source, and a NEMA/IEC phantom study were conducted for this investigation. In each study, 4 (2 x 2) or 16 (4 x 4) low-resolution images were reconstructed from the same acquired data set while shifting the reconstruction grid to generate images from different POVs. SR processing was then applied in each study to combine all as well as two different subsets of the low-resolution images to generate the CSR, ISR-1, and ISR-2 images, respectively. For reference purpose, a native reconstruction (NR) image using the same matrix size as the three SR images was also generated. The resultant images (CSR, ISR-1, ISR-2, and NR) were then analyzed using visual inspection, line profiles, SNR plots, and background noise spectra. The simulation study showed that the contrast and the SNR difference between the two ISR images and the CSR image were on average 0.4% and 0.3%, respectively. Line profiles of

  18. Digital image processing for radiography in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidt, H.; Rose, P.; Raabe, P.; Daum, W.

    1985-01-01

    With the help of digital processing of radiographic images from reactor-components it is possible to increase the security and objectiveness of the evaluation. Several examples of image processing procedures (contrast enhancement, density profiles, shading correction, digital filtering, superposition of images etc.) show the advantages for the visualization and evaluation of radiographs. Digital image processing can reduce some of the restrictions of radiography in nuclear power plants. In addition a higher degree of automation can be cost-saving and increase the quality of radiographic evaluation. The aim of the work performed was to to improve the readability of radiographs for the human observer. The main problem is lack of contrast and the presence of disturbing structures like weld seams. Digital image processing of film radiographs starts with the digitization of the image. Conventional systems use TV-cameras or scanners and provide a dynamic range of 1.5. to 3 density units, which are digitized to 256 grey levels. For the enhancement process it is necessary that the grey level range covers the density range of the important regions of the presented film. On the other hand the grey level coverage should not be wider than necessary to minimize the width of digitization steps. Poor digitization makes flaws and cracks invisible and spoils all further image processing

  19. Processing of hyperspectral medical images applications in dermatology using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Koprowski, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This book presents new methods of analyzing and processing hyperspectral medical images, which can be used in diagnostics, for example for dermatological images. The algorithms proposed are fully automatic and the results obtained are fully reproducible. Their operation was tested on a set of several thousands of hyperspectral images and they were implemented in Matlab. The presented source code can be used without licensing restrictions. This is a valuable resource for computer scientists, bioengineers, doctoral students, and dermatologists interested in contemporary analysis methods.

  20. Subband/Transform MATLAB Functions For Processing Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, D.

    1995-01-01

    SUBTRANS software is package of routines implementing image-data-processing functions for use with MATLAB*(TM) software. Provides capability to transform image data with block transforms and to produce spatial-frequency subbands of transformed data. Functions cascaded to provide further decomposition into more subbands. Also used in image-data-compression systems. For example, transforms used to prepare data for lossy compression. Written for use in MATLAB mathematical-analysis environment.

  1. A very high energy imaging for radioactive wastes processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, V.; Pettier, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The X imaging occurs at a lot of steps of the radioactive wastes processing: selection for conditioning, physical characterization with a view to radiological characterization, quality control of the product before storage, transport or disposal. Size and volume of the objects considered here necessitate to work with very high energy systems. Here is shown, through some examples, in which conditions this X imaging is carried out as well as the contribution of the obtained images. (O.M.)

  2. Digital Image Processing Overview For Helmet Mounted Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Michael J.

    1989-09-01

    Digital image processing provides a means to manipulate an image and presents a user with a variety of display formats that are not available in the analog image processing environment. When performed in real time and presented on a Helmet Mounted Display, system capability and flexibility are greatly enhanced. The information content of a display can be increased by the addition of real time insets and static windows from secondary sensor sources, near real time 3-D imaging from a single sensor can be achieved, graphical information can be added, and enhancement techniques can be employed. Such increased functionality is generating a considerable amount of interest in the military and commercial markets. This paper discusses some of these image processing techniques and their applications.

  3. Hyperspectral imaging in medicine: image pre-processing problems and solutions in Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents problems and solutions related to hyperspectral image pre-processing. New methods of preliminary image analysis are proposed. The paper shows problems occurring in Matlab when trying to analyse this type of images. Moreover, new methods are discussed which provide the source code in Matlab that can be used in practice without any licensing restrictions. The proposed application and sample result of hyperspectral image analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Color sensitivity of the multi-exposure HDR imaging process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenseigne, Boris; Jacobs, Valéry Ann; Withouck, Martijn; Hanselaer, Peter; Jonker, Pieter P.

    2013-04-01

    Multi-exposure high dynamic range(HDR) imaging builds HDR radiance maps by stitching together different views of a same scene with varying exposures. Practically, this process involves converting raw sensor data into low dynamic range (LDR) images, estimate the camera response curves, and use them in order to recover the irradiance for every pixel. During the export, applying white balance settings and image stitching, which both have an influence on the color balance in the final image. In this paper, we use a calibrated quasi-monochromatic light source, an integrating sphere, and a spectrograph in order to evaluate and compare the average spectral response of the image sensor. We finally draw some conclusion about the color consistency of HDR imaging and the additional steps necessary to use multi-exposure HDR imaging as a tool to measure the physical quantities such as radiance and luminance.

  5. Image recognition on raw and processed potato detection: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yan-nan; Lü, Cheng-xu; Zhang, Jun-ning; Li, Ya-shuo; Zeng, Zhen; Mao, Wen-hua; Jiang, Han-lu; Yang, Bing-nan

    2018-02-01

    Objective: Chinese potato staple food strategy clearly pointed out the need to improve potato processing, while the bottleneck of this strategy is technology and equipment of selection of appropriate raw and processed potato. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the advanced raw and processed potato detection methods. Method: According to consult research literatures in the field of image recognition based potato quality detection, including the shape, weight, mechanical damage, germination, greening, black heart, scab potato etc., the development and direction of this field were summarized in this paper. Result: In order to obtain whole potato surface information, the hardware was built by the synchronous of image sensor and conveyor belt to achieve multi-angle images of a single potato. Researches on image recognition of potato shape are popular and mature, including qualitative discrimination on abnormal and sound potato, and even round and oval potato, with the recognition accuracy of more than 83%. Weight is an important indicator for potato grading, and the image classification accuracy presents more than 93%. The image recognition of potato mechanical damage focuses on qualitative identification, with the main affecting factors of damage shape and damage time. The image recognition of potato germination usually uses potato surface image and edge germination point. Both of the qualitative and quantitative detection of green potato have been researched, currently scab and blackheart image recognition need to be operated using the stable detection environment or specific device. The image recognition of processed potato mainly focuses on potato chips, slices and fries, etc. Conclusion: image recognition as a food rapid detection tool have been widely researched on the area of raw and processed potato quality analyses, its technique and equipment have the potential for commercialization in short term, to meet to the strategy demand of development potato as

  6. Some aspects of image processing using foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufaile, A.; Freire, M.V.; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2014-01-01

    We have explored some concepts of chaotic dynamics and wave light transport in foams. Using some experiments, we have obtained the main features of light intensity distribution through foams. We are proposing a model for this phenomenon, based on the combination of two processes: a diffusive process and another one derived from chaotic dynamics. We have presented a short outline of the chaotic dynamics involving light scattering in foams. We also have studied the existence of caustics from scattering of light from foams, with typical patterns observed in the light diffraction in transparent films. The nonlinear geometry of the foam structure was explored in order to create optical elements, such as hyperbolic prisms and filters. - Highlights: • We have obtained the light scattering in foams using experiments. • We model the light transport in foams using a chaotic dynamics and a diffusive process. • An optical filter based on foam is proposed

  7. Predictive images of postoperative levator resection outcome using image processing software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawatari, Yuki; Fukushima, Mikiko

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of processed images to predict postoperative appearance following levator resection. Analysis involved 109 eyes from 65 patients with blepharoptosis who underwent advancement of levator aponeurosis and Müller's muscle complex (levator resection). Predictive images were prepared from preoperative photographs using the image processing software (Adobe Photoshop ® ). Images of selected eyes were digitally enlarged in an appropriate manner and shown to patients prior to surgery. Approximately 1 month postoperatively, we surveyed our patients using questionnaires. Fifty-six patients (89.2%) were satisfied with their postoperative appearances, and 55 patients (84.8%) positively responded to the usefulness of processed images to predict postoperative appearance. Showing processed images that predict postoperative appearance to patients prior to blepharoptosis surgery can be useful for those patients concerned with their postoperative appearance. This approach may serve as a useful tool to simulate blepharoptosis surgery.

  8. A novel data processing technique for image reconstruction of penumbral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongwei; Li, Hongyun; Xu, Zeping; Song, Guzhou; Zhang, Faqiang; Zhou, Lin

    2011-06-01

    CT image reconstruction technique was applied to the data processing of the penumbral imaging. Compared with other traditional processing techniques for penumbral coded pinhole image such as Wiener, Lucy-Richardson and blind technique, this approach is brand new. In this method, the coded aperture processing method was used for the first time independent to the point spread function of the image diagnostic system. In this way, the technical obstacles was overcome in the traditional coded pinhole image processing caused by the uncertainty of point spread function of the image diagnostic system. Then based on the theoretical study, the simulation of penumbral imaging and image reconstruction was carried out to provide fairly good results. While in the visible light experiment, the point source of light was used to irradiate a 5mm×5mm object after diffuse scattering and volume scattering. The penumbral imaging was made with aperture size of ~20mm. Finally, the CT image reconstruction technique was used for image reconstruction to provide a fairly good reconstruction result.

  9. Processed images in human perception: A case study in ultrasound breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Moi Hoon [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FH09, Ergonomics and Safety Research Institute, Holywell Park (United Kingdom)], E-mail: M.H.Yap@lboro.ac.uk; Edirisinghe, Eran [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FJ.05, Garendon Wing, Holywell Park, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Bez, Helmut [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, Room N.2.26, Haslegrave Building, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Two main research efforts in early detection of breast cancer include the development of software tools to assist radiologists in identifying abnormalities and the development of training tools to enhance their skills. Medical image analysis systems, widely known as Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) systems, play an important role in this respect. Often it is important to determine whether there is a benefit in including computer-processed images in the development of such software tools. In this paper, we investigate the effects of computer-processed images in improving human performance in ultrasound breast cancer detection (a perceptual task) and classification (a cognitive task). A survey was conducted on a group of expert radiologists and a group of non-radiologists. In our experiments, random test images from a large database of ultrasound images were presented to subjects. In order to gather appropriate formal feedback, questionnaires were prepared to comment on random selections of original images only, and on image pairs consisting of original images displayed alongside computer-processed images. We critically compare and contrast the performance of the two groups according to perceptual and cognitive tasks. From a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, we conclude that the provision of computer-processed images alongside the original ultrasound images, significantly improve the perceptual tasks of non-radiologists but only marginal improvements are shown in the perceptual and cognitive tasks of the group of expert radiologists.

  10. Processed images in human perception: A case study in ultrasound breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Moi Hoon; Edirisinghe, Eran; Bez, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Two main research efforts in early detection of breast cancer include the development of software tools to assist radiologists in identifying abnormalities and the development of training tools to enhance their skills. Medical image analysis systems, widely known as Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) systems, play an important role in this respect. Often it is important to determine whether there is a benefit in including computer-processed images in the development of such software tools. In this paper, we investigate the effects of computer-processed images in improving human performance in ultrasound breast cancer detection (a perceptual task) and classification (a cognitive task). A survey was conducted on a group of expert radiologists and a group of non-radiologists. In our experiments, random test images from a large database of ultrasound images were presented to subjects. In order to gather appropriate formal feedback, questionnaires were prepared to comment on random selections of original images only, and on image pairs consisting of original images displayed alongside computer-processed images. We critically compare and contrast the performance of the two groups according to perceptual and cognitive tasks. From a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, we conclude that the provision of computer-processed images alongside the original ultrasound images, significantly improve the perceptual tasks of non-radiologists but only marginal improvements are shown in the perceptual and cognitive tasks of the group of expert radiologists.

  11. Image processing. A system for the automatic sorting of chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najai, Amor

    1977-01-01

    The present paper deals with two aspects of the system: - an automata (specialized hardware) dedicated to image processing. Images are digitized, divided into sub-units and computations are carried out on their main parameters. - A software for the automatic recognition and sorting of chromosomes is implemented on a Multi-20 minicomputer, connected to the automata. (author) [fr

  12. Rapid, low-cost, image analysis through video processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, R.A.; Marrs, R.W.; Grantham, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    Remote Sensing now provides the data necessary to solve many resource problems. However, many of the complex image processing and analysis functions used in analysis of remotely-sensed data are accomplished using sophisticated image analysis equipment. High cost of this equipment places many of these techniques beyond the means of most users. A new, more economical, video system capable of performing complex image analysis has now been developed. This report describes the functions, components, and operation of that system. Processing capability of the new video image analysis system includes many of the tasks previously accomplished with optical projectors and digital computers. Video capabilities include: color separation, color addition/subtraction, contrast stretch, dark level adjustment, density analysis, edge enhancement, scale matching, image mixing (addition and subtraction), image ratioing, and construction of false-color composite images. Rapid input of non-digital image data, instantaneous processing and display, relatively low initial cost, and low operating cost gives the video system a competitive advantage over digital equipment. Complex pre-processing, pattern recognition, and statistical analyses must still be handled through digital computer systems. The video system at the University of Wyoming has undergone extensive testing, comparison to other systems, and has been used successfully in practical applications ranging from analysis of x-rays and thin sections to production of color composite ratios of multispectral imagery. Potential applications are discussed including uranium exploration, petroleum exploration, tectonic studies, geologic mapping, hydrology sedimentology and petrography, anthropology, and studies on vegetation and wildlife habitat

  13. Detection of optimum maturity of maize using image processing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A CCD camera for image acquisition of the different green colorations of the maize leaves at maturity was used. Different color features were extracted from the image processing system (MATLAB) and used as inputs to the artificial neural network that classify different levels of maturity. Keywords: Maize, Maturity, CCD ...

  14. On-board processing of video image sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl; Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Forchhammer, Søren

    2008-01-01

    and evaluated. On-board there are six video cameras each capturing images of 1024times1024 pixels of 12 bpp at a frame rate of 15 fps, thus totalling 1080 Mbits/s. In comparison the average downlink data rate for these images is projected to be 50 kbit/s. This calls for efficient on-board processing to select...

  15. Automatic image processing as a means of safeguarding nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahnmeyer, W.; Willuhn, K.; Uebel, W.

    1985-01-01

    Problems involved in computerized analysis of pictures taken by automatic film or video cameras in the context of international safeguards implementation are described. They include technical ones as well as the need to establish objective criteria for assessing image information. In the near future automatic image processing systems will be useful in verifying the identity and integrity of IAEA seals. (author)

  16. Pattern recognition and expert image analysis systems in biomedical image processing (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlinck, A.; Suetens, P.; Wu, Q.; Baird, M.; F. M., C.

    1987-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of pattern recoanition techniques (P.R.) used in biomedical image processing and problems related to the different P.R. solutions. Also the use of knowledge based systems to overcome P.R. difficulties, is described. This is illustrated by a common example ofabiomedical image processing application.

  17. Understanding everyday life of morbidly obese adults-habits and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørg Christiansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morbid obesity is a progressive, chronic condition associated with failed attempts at change and repeated relapses. Aim: There seems to be little previous research into the understanding of the everyday life of morbidly obese adults. We wanted to gain more knowledge about characteristics of eating habits and body image as well as motivational forces for change. Methods: A qualitative approach was chosen in order to gain insight into how morbidly obese adults experience everyday life. Qualitative interviews are well suited to provide insight into themes from the interviewee's life story from the subjects’ own perspectives. To gain insight into such processes, a narrative approach that allowed the informants to give voice to their ways of doing, thinking and feeling in daily life, was adopted. The informants comprised seven women and four men aged of 26–56 years, recruited from a population of obese individuals who had participated in a weight reduction course. A hermeneutic approach was used where the research question was the basis for a reflective interpretation. Results: The following meaning-units were identified: to be perceived as overweight; and to see oneself as overweight. Ingrained habits: the struggle between knowing and doing; acting without knowing; and eating is soothing. Conclusions: Seeing oneself as an obese person is a gradual process that implied experiencing oneself as different from significant others, such as (slim siblings and friends. To experience a gap between knowing and doing concerning food habits in everyday life indicates that informants value they have a choice. This is an important insight to consider when framing interventions to support this vulnerable group.

  18. Parallel Hyperspectral Image Processing on Distributed Multi-Cluster Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Seinstra, F.J.; Plaza, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Computationally efficient processing of hyperspectral image cubes can be greatly beneficial in many application domains, including environmental modeling, risk/hazard prevention and response, and defense/security. As individual cluster computers often cannot satisfy the computational demands of

  19. Mathematical methods in time series analysis and digital image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Kurths, J; Maass, P; Timmer, J

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this volume is to bring together research directions in theoretical signal and imaging processing developed rather independently in electrical engineering, theoretical physics, mathematics and the computer sciences. In particular, mathematically justified algorithms and methods, the mathematical analysis of these algorithms, and methods as well as the investigation of connections between methods from time series analysis and image processing are reviewed. An interdisciplinary comparison of these methods, drawing upon common sets of test problems from medicine and geophysical/enviromental sciences, is also addressed. This volume coherently summarizes work carried out in the field of theoretical signal and image processing. It focuses on non-linear and non-parametric models for time series as well as on adaptive methods in image processing.

  20. The Digital Microscope and Its Image Processing Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wahyu Supardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many institutions, including high schools, own a large number of analog or ordinary microscopes. These microscopes are used to observe small objects. Unfortunately, object observations on the ordinary microscope require precision and visual acuity of the user. This paper discusses the development of a high-resolution digital microscope from an analog microscope, including the image processing utility, which allows the digital microscope users to capture, store and process the digital images of the object being observed. The proposed microscope is constructed from hardware components that can be easily found in Indonesia. The image processing software is capable of performing brightness adjustment, contrast enhancement, histogram equalization, scaling and cropping. The proposed digital microscope has a maximum magnification of 1600x, and image resolution can be varied from 320x240 pixels up to 2592x1944 pixels. The microscope was tested with various objects with a variety of magnification, and image processing was carried out on the image of the object. The results showed that the digital microscope and its image processing system were capable of enhancing the observed object and other operations in accordance with the user need. The digital microscope has eliminated the need for direct observation by human eye as with the traditional microscope.

  1. Halftoning processing on a JPEG-compressed image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibade, Cedric; Barizien, Stephane; Akil, Mohamed; Perroton, Laurent

    2003-12-01

    Digital image processing algorithms are usually designed for the raw format, that is on an uncompressed representation of the image. Therefore prior to transforming or processing a compressed format, decompression is applied; then, the result of the processing application is finally re-compressed for further transfer or storage. The change of data representation is resource-consuming in terms of computation, time and memory usage. In the wide format printing industry, this problem becomes an important issue: e.g. a 1 m2 input color image, scanned at 600 dpi exceeds 1.6 GB in its raw representation. However, some image processing algorithms can be performed in the compressed-domain, by applying an equivalent operation on the compressed format. This paper is presenting an innovative application of the halftoning processing operation by screening, to be applied on JPEG-compressed image. This compressed-domain transform is performed by computing the threshold operation of the screening algorithm in the DCT domain. This algorithm is illustrated by examples for different halftone masks. A pre-sharpening operation, applied on a JPEG-compressed low quality image is also described; it allows to de-noise and to enhance the contours of this image.

  2. Understanding the creative processes of phenomenological research: The life philosophy of Løgstrup

    OpenAIRE

    Annelise Norlyk; Pia Dreyer; Anita Haahr; Bente Martinsen

    2011-01-01

    The creative processes of understanding patients’ experiences in phenomenological research are difficult to articulate. Drawing on life philosophy as represented by the Danish philosopher K.E. Løgstrup (1905-1981), this article aims to illustrate Løgstrup’s thinking as a way to elaborate the creation of cognition and understanding of patients’ experiences. We suggest that Løgstrup’s thoughts on sensation can add new dimensions to an increased understanding of the creative process of phenomeno...

  3. Digital image processing applied Rock Art tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero Ruiz, Ignacio

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Adequate graphic recording has been one of the main objectives of rock art research. Photography has increased its role as a documentary technique. Now, digital image and its treatment allows new ways to observe the details of the figures and to develop a recording procedure which is as, or more, accurate than direct tracing. This technique also avoid deterioration of the rock paintings. The mathematical basis of this method is also presented.

    La correcta documentación del arte rupestre ha sido una preocupación constante por parte de los investigadores. En el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas de registro, directas e indirectas, la fotografía ha ido adquiriendo mayor protagonismo. La imagen digital y su tratamiento permiten nuevas posibilidades de observación de las figuras representadas y, en consecuencia, una lectura mediante la realización de calcos indirectos de tanta o mayor fiabilidad que la observación directa. Este sistema evita los riesgos de deterioro que provocan los calcos directos. Se incluyen las bases matemáticas que sustentan el método.

  4. Arabidopsis Growth Simulation Using Image Processing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a method to represent the virtual Arabidopsis plant at each growth stage. It includes simulating the shape and providing growth parameters. The shape is described with elliptic Fourier descriptors. First, the plant is segmented from the background with the chromatic coordinates. With the segmentation result, the outer boundary series are obtained by using boundary tracking algorithm. The elliptic Fourier analysis is then carried out to extract the coefficients of the contour. The coefficients require less storage than the original contour points and can be used to simulate the shape of the plant. The growth parameters include total area and the number of leaves of the plant. The total area is obtained with the number of the plant pixels and the image calibration result. The number of leaves is derived by detecting the apex of each leaf. It is achieved by using wavelet transform to identify the local maximum of the distance signal between the contour points and the region centroid. Experiment result shows that this method can record the growth stage of Arabidopsis plant with fewer data and provide a visual platform for plant growth research.

  5. SIP: A Web-Based Astronomical Image Processing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, J. H.

    1999-12-01

    I have written an astronomical image processing and analysis program designed to run over the internet in a Java-compatible web browser. The program, Sky Image Processor (SIP), is accessible at the SIP webpage (http://www.phys.vt.edu/SIP). Since nothing is installed on the user's machine, there is no need to download upgrades; the latest version of the program is always instantly available. Furthermore, the Java programming language is designed to work on any computer platform (any machine and operating system). The program could be used with students in web-based instruction or in a computer laboratory setting; it may also be of use in some research or outreach applications. While SIP is similar to other image processing programs, it is unique in some important respects. For example, SIP can load images from the user's machine or from the Web. An instructor can put images on a web server for students to load and analyze on their own personal computer. Or, the instructor can inform the students of images to load from any other web server. Furthermore, since SIP was written with students in mind, the philosophy is to present the user with the most basic tools necessary to process and analyze astronomical images. Images can be combined (by addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division), multiplied by a constant, smoothed, cropped, flipped, rotated, and so on. Statistics can be gathered for pixels within a box drawn by the user. Basic tools are available for gathering data from an image which can be used for performing simple differential photometry, or astrometry. Therefore, students can learn how astronomical image processing works. Since SIP is not part of a commercial CCD camera package, the program is written to handle the most common denominator image file, the FITS format.

  6. Survey: interpolation methods for whole slide image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowiak, L; Korzynska, A; Zak, J; Pijanowska, D; Swiderska-Chadaj, Z; Markiewicz, T

    2017-02-01

    Evaluating whole slide images of histological and cytological samples is used in pathology for diagnostics, grading and prognosis . It is often necessary to rescale whole slide images of a very large size. Image resizing is one of the most common applications of interpolation. We collect the advantages and drawbacks of nine interpolation methods, and as a result of our analysis, we try to select one interpolation method as the preferred solution. To compare the performance of interpolation methods, test images were scaled and then rescaled to the original size using the same algorithm. The modified image was compared to the original image in various aspects. The time needed for calculations and results of quantification performance on modified images were also compared. For evaluation purposes, we used four general test images and 12 specialized biological immunohistochemically stained tissue sample images. The purpose of this survey is to determine which method of interpolation is the best to resize whole slide images, so they can be further processed using quantification methods. As a result, the interpolation method has to be selected depending on the task involving whole slide images. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. University Students' Understanding of Chemistry Processes and the Quality of Evidence in Their Written Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung, Eulsun; Choi, Aeran; Pestel, Beverly

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a process-oriented chemistry laboratory curriculum for non-science majors. The purpose of this study is both to explore university students' understanding of chemistry processes and to evaluate the quality of evidence students use to support their claims regarding chemistry processes in a process-oriented chemistry laboratory…

  8. Application of digital image processing to industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodson; Varcin; Crescenzo; Theulot

    1985-01-01

    Radiography is widely used for quality control of fabrication of large reactor components. Image processing methods are applied to industrial radiographs in order to help to take a decision as well as to reduce costs and delays for examination. Films, performed in representative operating conditions, are used to test results obtained with algorithms for the restauration of images and for the detection, characterisation of indications in order to determine the possibility of an automatic radiographs processing [fr

  9. Automated measurement of pressure injury through image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Mathews, Carol

    2017-11-01

    To develop an image processing algorithm to automatically measure pressure injuries using electronic pressure injury images stored in nursing documentation. Photographing pressure injuries and storing the images in the electronic health record is standard practice in many hospitals. However, the manual measurement of pressure injury is time-consuming, challenging and subject to intra/inter-reader variability with complexities of the pressure injury and the clinical environment. A cross-sectional algorithm development study. A set of 32 pressure injury images were obtained from a western Pennsylvania hospital. First, we transformed the images from an RGB (i.e. red, green and blue) colour space to a YC b C r colour space to eliminate inferences from varying light conditions and skin colours. Second, a probability map, generated by a skin colour Gaussian model, guided the pressure injury segmentation process using the Support Vector Machine classifier. Third, after segmentation, the reference ruler - included in each of the images - enabled perspective transformation and determination of pressure injury size. Finally, two nurses independently measured those 32 pressure injury images, and intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated. An image processing algorithm was developed to automatically measure the size of pressure injuries. Both inter- and intra-rater analysis achieved good level reliability. Validation of the size measurement of the pressure injury (1) demonstrates that our image processing algorithm is a reliable approach to monitoring pressure injury progress through clinical pressure injury images and (2) offers new insight to pressure injury evaluation and documentation. Once our algorithm is further developed, clinicians can be provided with an objective, reliable and efficient computational tool for segmentation and measurement of pressure injuries. With this, clinicians will be able to more effectively monitor the healing process of pressure

  10. Executable business process modeling as a tool for increasing the understanding of business processes in an organization

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Ersin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of business processes is becoming an important key factor for successful businesses and today many organizations are facing the lack of knowledge about the business processes that they are working on. Since the interaction between different business processes and different actors are becoming more common it is not only enough for employees to have knowledge about the business processes that they involve directly, but also they need to know about the other business processes in t...

  11. Contour extraction of echocardiographic images based on pre-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Zinah Rajab; Rahmat, Rahmita Wirza; Abdullah, Lili Nurliyana [Department of Multimedia, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Department of Computer and Communication Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zamrin, D M [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Saripan, M Iqbal

    2011-02-15

    In this work we present a technique to extract the heart contours from noisy echocardiograph images. Our technique is based on improving the image before applying contours detection to reduce heavy noise and get better image quality. To perform that, we combine many pre-processing techniques (filtering, morphological operations, and contrast adjustment) to avoid unclear edges and enhance low contrast of echocardiograph images, after implementing these techniques we can get legible detection for heart boundaries and valves movement by traditional edge detection methods.

  12. Contour extraction of echocardiographic images based on pre-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Zinah Rajab; Rahmat, Rahmita Wirza; Abdullah, Lili Nurliyana; Zamrin, D M; Saripan, M Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a technique to extract the heart contours from noisy echocardiograph images. Our technique is based on improving the image before applying contours detection to reduce heavy noise and get better image quality. To perform that, we combine many pre-processing techniques (filtering, morphological operations, and contrast adjustment) to avoid unclear edges and enhance low contrast of echocardiograph images, after implementing these techniques we can get legible detection for heart boundaries and valves movement by traditional edge detection methods.

  13. Active vision and image/video understanding with decision structures based on the network-symbolic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2003-08-01

    Vision is a part of a larger information system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive vision process, resolve ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback projections, and provide image understanding that is an interpretation of visual information in terms of such knowledge models. The ability of human brain to emulate knowledge structures in the form of networks-symbolic models is found. And that means an important shift of paradigm in our knowledge about brain from neural networks to "cortical software". Symbols, predicates and grammars naturally emerge in such active multilevel hierarchical networks, and logic is simply a way of restructuring such models. Brain analyzes an image as a graph-type decision structure created via multilevel hierarchical compression of visual information. Mid-level vision processes like clustering, perceptual grouping, separation of figure from ground, are special kinds of graph/network transformations. They convert low-level image structure into the set of more abstract ones, which represent objects and visual scene, making them easy for analysis by higher-level knowledge structures. Higher-level vision phenomena are results of such analysis. Composition of network-symbolic models works similar to frames and agents, combines learning, classification, analogy together with higher-level model-based reasoning into a single framework. Such models do not require supercomputers. Based on such principles, and using methods of Computational intelligence, an Image Understanding system can convert images into the network-symbolic knowledge models, and effectively resolve uncertainty and ambiguity, providing unifying representation for perception and cognition. That allows creating new intelligent computer vision systems for robotic and defense industries.

  14. Image processing by use of the digital cross-correlator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katou, Yoshinori

    1982-01-01

    We manufactured for trial an instrument which achieved the image processing using digital correlators. A digital correlator perform 64-bit parallel correlation at 20 MH. The output of a digital correlator is a 7-bit word representing. An A-D converter is used to quantize it a precision of six bits. The resulting 6-bit word is fed to six correlators, wired in parallel. The image processing achieved in 12 bits, whose digital outputs converted an analog signal by a D-A converter. This instrument is named the digital cross-correlator. The method which was used in the image processing system calculated the convolution with the digital correlator. It makes various digital filters. In the experiment with the image processing video signals from TV camera were used. The digital image processing time was approximately 5 μs. The contrast was enhanced and smoothed. The digital cross-correlator has the image processing of 16 sorts, and was produced inexpensively. (author)

  15. Dielectric barrier discharge image processing by Photoshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lifang; Li, Xuechen; Yin, Zengqian; Zhang, Qingli

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, the filamentary pattern of dielectric barrier discharge has been processed by using Photoshop, the coordinates of each filament can also be obtained. By using Photoshop two different ways have been used to analyze the spatial order of the pattern formation in dielectric barrier discharge. The results show that the distance of the neighbor filaments at U equals 14 kV and d equals 0.9 mm is about 1.8 mm. In the scope of the experimental error, the results from the two different methods are similar.

  16. Textural Analysis of Fatique Crack Surfaces: Image Pre-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lauschmann

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For the fatique crack history reconstitution, new methods of quantitative microfractography are beeing developed based on the image processing and textural analysis. SEM magnifications between micro- and macrofractography are used. Two image pre-processing operatins were suggested and proved to prepare the crack surface images for analytical treatment: 1. Normalization is used to transform the image to a stationary form. Compared to the generally used equalization, it conserves the shape of brightness distribution and saves the character of the texture. 2. Binarization is used to transform the grayscale image to a system of thick fibres. An objective criterion for the threshold brightness value was found as that resulting into the maximum number of objects. Both methods were succesfully applied together with the following textural analysis.

  17. Tumor image signatures and habitats: a processing pipeline of multimodality metabolic and physiological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Daekeun; Kim, Michelle M; Aryal, Madhava P; Parmar, Hemant; Piert, Morand; Lawrence, Theodore S; Cao, Yue

    2018-01-01

    To create tumor "habitats" from the "signatures" discovered from multimodality metabolic and physiological images, we developed a framework of a processing pipeline. The processing pipeline consists of six major steps: (1) creating superpixels as a spatial unit in a tumor volume; (2) forming a data matrix [Formula: see text] containing all multimodality image parameters at superpixels; (3) forming and clustering a covariance or correlation matrix [Formula: see text] of the image parameters to discover major image "signatures;" (4) clustering the superpixels and organizing the parameter order of the [Formula: see text] matrix according to the one found in step 3; (5) creating "habitats" in the image space from the superpixels associated with the "signatures;" and (6) pooling and clustering a matrix consisting of correlation coefficients of each pair of image parameters from all patients to discover subgroup patterns of the tumors. The pipeline was applied to a dataset of multimodality images in glioblastoma (GBM) first, which consisted of 10 image parameters. Three major image "signatures" were identified. The three major "habitats" plus their overlaps were created. To test generalizability of the processing pipeline, a second image dataset from GBM, acquired on the scanners different from the first one, was processed. Also, to demonstrate the clinical association of image-defined "signatures" and "habitats," the patterns of recurrence of the patients were analyzed together with image parameters acquired prechemoradiation therapy. An association of the recurrence patterns with image-defined "signatures" and "habitats" was revealed. These image-defined "signatures" and "habitats" can be used to guide stereotactic tissue biopsy for genetic and mutation status analysis and to analyze for prediction of treatment outcomes, e.g., patterns of failure.

  18. Defects quantization in industrial radiographs by image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briand, F.Y.; Brillault, B.; Philipp, S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper refers to the industrial application of image processing using Non Destructive Testing by radiography. The various problems involved by the conception of a numerical tool are described. This tool intends to help radiograph experts to quantify defects and to follow up their evolution, using numerical techniques. The sequences of processings that achieve defect segmentation and quantization are detailed. They are based on the thorough knowledge of radiographs formation techniques. The process uses various methods of image analysis, including textural analysis and morphological mathematics. The interface between the final product and users will occur in an explicit language, using the terms of radiographic expertise without showing any processing details. The problem is thoroughly described: image formation, digitization, processings fitted to flaw morphology and finally product structure in progress. 12 refs [fr

  19. Video image processing for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.A.; Howell, J.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Brislawn, C.M.; Bradley, J.N.; Chare, P.; Gorten, J.

    1995-01-01

    The field of nuclear safeguards has received increasing amounts of public attention since the events of the Iraq-UN conflict over Kuwait, the dismantlement of the former Soviet Union, and more recently, the North Korean resistance to nuclear facility inspections by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The role of nuclear safeguards in these and other events relating to the world's nuclear material inventory is to assure safekeeping of these materials and to verify the inventory and use of nuclear materials as reported by states that have signed the nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty throughout the world. Nuclear safeguards are measures prescribed by domestic and international regulatory bodies such as DOE, NRC, IAEA, and EURATOM and implemented by the nuclear facility or the regulatory body. These measures include destructive and non destructive analysis of product materials/process by-products for materials control and accountancy purposes, physical protection for domestic safeguards, and containment and surveillance for international safeguards

  20. A software package for biomedical image processing and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, J.G.M.; Mealha, O.

    1988-01-01

    The decreasing cost of computing power and the introduction of low cost imaging boards justifies the increasing number of applications of digital image processing techniques in the area of biomedicine. There is however a large software gap to be fulfilled, between the application and the equipment. The requirements to bridge this gap are twofold: good knowledge of the hardware provided and its interface to the host computer, and expertise in digital image processing and analysis techniques. A software package incorporating these two requirements was developed using the C programming language, in order to create a user friendly image processing programming environment. The software package can be considered in two different ways: as a data structure adapted to image processing and analysis, which acts as the backbone and the standard of communication for all the software; and as a set of routines implementing the basic algorithms used in image processing and analysis. Hardware dependency is restricted to a single module upon which all hardware calls are based. The data structure that was built has four main features: hierchical, open, object oriented, and object dependent dimensions. Considering the vast amount of memory needed by imaging applications and the memory available in small imaging systems, an effective image memory management scheme was implemented. This software package is being used for more than one and a half years by users with different applications. It proved to be an excellent tool for helping people to get adapted into the system, and for standardizing and exchanging software, yet preserving flexibility allowing for users' specific implementations. The philosophy of the software package is discussed and the data structure that was built is described in detail

  1. Do brain image databanks support understanding of normal ageing brain structure? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickie, David Alexander; Job, Dominic E.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Poole, Ian; Ahearn, Trevor S.; Staff, Roger T.; Murray, Alison D.

    2012-01-01

    To document accessible magnetic resonance (MR) brain images, metadata and statistical results from normal older subjects that may be used to improve diagnoses of dementia. We systematically reviewed published brain image databanks (print literature and Internet) concerned with normal ageing brain structure. From nine eligible databanks, there appeared to be 944 normal subjects aged ≥60 years. However, many subjects were in more than one databank and not all were fully representative of normal ageing clinical characteristics. Therefore, there were approximately 343 subjects aged ≥60 years with metadata representative of normal ageing, but only 98 subjects were openly accessible. No databank had the range of MR image sequences, e.g. T2*, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), required to effectively characterise the features of brain ageing. No databank supported random subject retrieval; therefore, manual selection bias and errors may occur in studies that use these subjects as controls. Finally, no databank stored results from statistical analyses of its brain image and metadata that may be validated with analyses of further data. Brain image databanks require open access, more subjects, metadata, MR image sequences, searchability and statistical results to improve understanding of normal ageing brain structure and diagnoses of dementia. (orig.)

  2. Integrating digital topology in image-processing libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Julien

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a method to integrate digital topology informations in image-processing libraries. This additional information allows a library user to write algorithms respecting topological constraints, for example, a seed fill or a skeletonization algorithm. As digital topology is absent from most image-processing libraries, such constraints cannot be fulfilled. We describe and give code samples for all the structures necessary for this integration, and show a use case in the form of a homotopic thinning filter inside ITK. The obtained filter can be up to a hundred times as fast as ITK's thinning filter and works for any image dimension. This paper mainly deals of integration within ITK, but can be adapted with only minor modifications to other image-processing libraries.

  3. Reducing the absorbed dose in analogue radiography of infant chest images by improving the image quality, using image processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimian, A.; Yazdani, S.; Askari, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiographic inspection is one of the most widely employed techniques for medical testing methods. Because of poor contrast and high un-sharpness of radiographic image quality in films, converting radiographs to a digital format and using further digital image processing is the best method of enhancing the image quality and assisting the interpreter in their evaluation. In this research work, radiographic films of 70 infant chest images with different sizes of defects were selected. To digitise the chest images and employ image processing the two algorithms (i) spatial domain and (ii) frequency domain techniques were used. The MATLAB environment was selected for processing in the digital format. Our results showed that by using these two techniques, the defects with small dimensions are detectable. Therefore, these suggested techniques may help medical specialists to diagnose the defects in the primary stages and help to prevent more repeat X-ray examination of paediatric patients. (authors)

  4. Application of two-dimensional crystallography and image processing to atomic resolution Z-contrast images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David G; Ramasse, Quentin M; Browning, Nigel D

    2009-06-01

    Zone axis images recorded using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM or Z-contrast imaging) reveal the atomic structure with a resolution that is defined by the probe size of the microscope. In most cases, the full images contain many sub-images of the crystal unit cell and/or interface structure. Thanks to the repetitive nature of these images, it is possible to apply standard image processing techniques that have been developed for the electron crystallography of biological macromolecules and have been used widely in other fields of electron microscopy for both organic and inorganic materials. These methods can be used to enhance the signal-to-noise present in the original images, to remove distortions in the images that arise from either the instrumentation or the specimen itself and to quantify properties of the material in ways that are difficult without such data processing. In this paper, we describe briefly the theory behind these image processing techniques and demonstrate them for aberration-corrected, high-resolution HAADF-STEM images of Si(46) clathrates developed for hydrogen storage.

  5. An image processing pipeline to detect and segment nuclei in muscle fiber microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanen; Xu, Xiaoyin; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yaming; Xia, Shunren; Yang, Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Muscle fiber images play an important role in the medical diagnosis and treatment of many muscular diseases. The number of nuclei in skeletal muscle fiber images is a key bio-marker of the diagnosis of muscular dystrophy. In nuclei segmentation one primary challenge is to correctly separate the clustered nuclei. In this article, we developed an image processing pipeline to automatically detect, segment, and analyze nuclei in microscopic image of muscle fibers. The pipeline consists of image pre-processing, identification of isolated nuclei, identification and segmentation of clustered nuclei, and quantitative analysis. Nuclei are initially extracted from background by using local Otsu's threshold. Based on analysis of morphological features of the isolated nuclei, including their areas, compactness, and major axis lengths, a Bayesian network is trained and applied to identify isolated nuclei from clustered nuclei and artifacts in all the images. Then a two-step refined watershed algorithm is applied to segment clustered nuclei. After segmentation, the nuclei can be quantified for statistical analysis. Comparing the segmented results with those of manual analysis and an existing technique, we find that our proposed image processing pipeline achieves good performance with high accuracy and precision. The presented image processing pipeline can therefore help biologists increase their throughput and objectivity in analyzing large numbers of nuclei in muscle fiber images. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Automatic tissue image segmentation based on image processing and deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhenglun; Luo, Junyi; Xu, Shengpu; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Image segmentation plays an important role in multimodality imaging, especially in fusion structural images offered by CT, MRI with functional images collected by optical technologies or other novel imaging technologies. Plus, image segmentation also provides detailed structure description for quantitative visualization of treating light distribution in the human body when incorporated with 3D light transport simulation method. Here we used image enhancement, operators, and morphometry methods to extract the accurate contours of different tissues such as skull, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) on 5 fMRI head image datasets. Then we utilized convolutional neural network to realize automatic segmentation of images in a deep learning way. We also introduced parallel computing. Such approaches greatly reduced the processing time compared to manual and semi-automatic segmentation and is of great importance in improving speed and accuracy as more and more samples being learned. Our results can be used as a criteria when diagnosing diseases such as cerebral atrophy, which is caused by pathological changes in gray matter or white matter. We demonstrated the great potential of such image processing and deep leaning combined automatic tissue image segmentation in personalized medicine, especially in monitoring, and treatments.

  7. Some computer applications and digital image processing in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowinger, T.

    1981-01-01

    Methods of digital image processing are applied to problems in nuclear medicine imaging. The symmetry properties of central nervous system lesions are exploited in an attempt to determine the three-dimensional radioisotope density distribution within the lesions. An algorithm developed by astronomers at the end of the 19th century to determine the distribution of matter in globular clusters is applied to tumors. This algorithm permits the emission-computed-tomographic reconstruction of spherical lesions from a single view. The three-dimensional radioisotope distribution derived by the application of the algorithm can be used to characterize the lesions. The applicability to nuclear medicine images of ten edge detection methods in general usage in digital image processing were evaluated. A general model of image formation by scintillation cameras is developed. The model assumes that objects to be imaged are composed of a finite set of points. The validity of the model has been verified by its ability to duplicate experimental results. Practical applications of this work involve quantitative assessment of the distribution of radipharmaceuticals under clinical situations and the study of image processing algorithms

  8. Bio-inspired approach to multistage image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, Leonid I.; Pavlov, Sergii V.; Kokryatskaya, Natalia I.; Poplavska, Anna A.; Kobylyanska, Iryna M.; Burdenyuk, Iryna I.; Wójcik, Waldemar; Uvaysova, Svetlana; Orazbekov, Zhassulan; Kashaganova, Gulzhan

    2017-08-01

    Multistage integration of visual information in the brain allows people to respond quickly to most significant stimuli while preserving the ability to recognize small details in the image. Implementation of this principle in technical systems can lead to more efficient processing procedures. The multistage approach to image processing, described in this paper, comprises main types of cortical multistage convergence. One of these types occurs within each visual pathway and the other between the pathways. This approach maps input images into a flexible hierarchy which reflects the complexity of the image data. The procedures of temporal image decomposition and hierarchy formation are described in mathematical terms. The multistage system highlights spatial regularities, which are passed through a number of transformational levels to generate a coded representation of the image which encapsulates, in a computer manner, structure on different hierarchical levels in the image. At each processing stage a single output result is computed to allow a very quick response from the system. The result is represented as an activity pattern, which can be compared with previously computed patterns on the basis of the closest match.

  9. Understanding decision-making in cardiac imaging: determinants of appropriate use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ricardo; Jose, Kim; Marwick, Thomas H

    2018-03-01

    Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for echocardiography were developed in 2007 to facilitate decision-making, reduce variability in test utilization, and encourage rational use of imaging. However, there is little evidence that the AUC have favourably influenced ordering behaviour. This study explores the factors that contribute to clinicians requesting echocardiograms with a focus on appropriate use. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews with cardiologists and non-cardiologists who had requested echocardiograms were conducted at an Australian tertiary hospital. The interview guide included hypothetical clinical scenarios to better understand decision-making in ordering echocardiograms and the actions they could take when receiving test reports. Interviews underwent thematic analysis. Seventeen clinicians were interviewed, ten of whom were cardiologists. All participants ordered echocardiograms to support their clinical decision-making. Awareness of the AUC was low. The categorization of tests as 'appropriate' or 'inappropriate' was considered ineffective as it failed to reflect the decision-making process. The decision to request echocardiograms was influenced by a number of personal and systemic factors as well as guidelines and protocols. Training and experience, patients' expectations, and management of uncertainty were key personal factors. Systemic factors involved the accessibility of services and health insurance status of the patient. Factors that influenced the ordering of echocardiograms by clinicians at a tertiary care hospital did not appear to be amenable to control with AUC. Alternative approaches may be more effective than the AUC in addressing the overuse of echocardiography. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. An overview of medical image processing methods | Maras | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various standards were formed regarding these instruments and end products that are being used more frequently everyday. Personal computers (PCs) have reached a significant level in image processing, carried analysis and visualization processes which could be done with expensive hardware on doctors' desktops.

  11. Image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. K.; Hammill, H. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new technique for image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation was developed. It was entirely objective, quantitative, and general, and should prove useful in system design and quality control. The technique and its application to determination of quality control procedures for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite NASA Data Processing Facility are described.

  12. IDP: Image and data processing (software) in C++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    IDP++(Image and Data Processing in C++) is a complied, multidimensional, multi-data type, signal processing environment written in C++. It is being developed within the Radar Ocean Imaging group and is intended as a partial replacement for View. IDP++ takes advantage of the latest object-oriented compiler technology to provide `information hiding.` Users need only know C, not C++. Signals are treated like any other variable with a defined set of operators and functions in an intuitive manner. IDP++ is being designed for real-time environment where interpreted signal processing packages are less efficient.

  13. Performance Measure as Feedback Variable in Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Danijela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the view of image processing performance measure presenting the use of this measure as an actual value in a feedback structure. The idea behind is that the control loop, which is built in that way, drives the actual feedback value to a given set point. Since the performance measure depends explicitly on the application, the inclusion of feedback structures and choice of appropriate feedback variables are presented on example of optical character recognition in industrial application. Metrics for quantification of performance at different image processing levels are discussed. The issues that those metrics should address from both image processing and control point of view are considered. The performance measures of individual processing algorithms that form a character recognition system are determined with respect to the overall system performance.

  14. SPARX, a new environment for Cryo-EM image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Michael; Tang, Grant; Goodyear, Grant; Baldwin, P R; Huang, Zhong; Penczek, Pawel A; Yang, Chao; Glaeser, Robert M; Adams, Paul D; Ludtke, Steven J

    2007-01-01

    SPARX (single particle analysis for resolution extension) is a new image processing environment with a particular emphasis on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) structure determination. It includes a graphical user interface that provides a complete graphical programming environment with a novel data/process-flow infrastructure, an extensive library of Python scripts that perform specific TEM-related computational tasks, and a core library of fundamental C++ image processing functions. In addition, SPARX relies on the EMAN2 library and cctbx, the open-source computational crystallography library from PHENIX. The design of the system is such that future inclusion of other image processing libraries is a straightforward task. The SPARX infrastructure intelligently handles retention of intermediate values, even those inside programming structures such as loops and function calls. SPARX and all dependencies are free for academic use and available with complete source.

  15. Understanding process behaviours in a large insurance company in Australia : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suriadi, S.; Wynn, M.T.; Ouyang, C.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; van Dijk, N.J.; Salinesi, C.; Norrie, M.C.; Pastor, O.

    2013-01-01

    Having a reliable understanding about the behaviours, problems, and performance of existing processes is important in enabling a targeted process improvement initiative. Recently, there has been an increase in the application of innovative process mining techniques to facilitate evidence-based

  16. Advances in image processing and pattern recognition. Proceedings of the international conference, Pisa, Italy, December 10-12, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappellini, V [Florence Univ. (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Florence (Italy). Ist. di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche); Marconi, R [IBM Scientific Center, Pisa (Italy); eds.

    1986-01-01

    The conference papers reported provide an authorative and permanent record of the contributions. Some papers are more theoretical or of review nature, while others contain new implementations and applications. They are conveniently grouped into the following 7 fields (after a general overview): Acquisition and Presentation of 2-D and 3-D Images; Static and Dynamic Image Processing; Determination of Object's Position and Orientation; Objects and Characters Recognition; Semantic Models and Image Understanding; Robotics and Computer Vision in Manufacturing; Specialized Processing Techniques and Structures. In particular, new digital image processing and recognition methods, implementation architectures and special advanced applications (industrial automation, robotics, remote sensing, biomedicine, etc.) are presented. (Auth.).

  17. Understanding the effects of diffusion and relaxation in magnetic resonance imaging using computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Greg

    The work described in this dissertation was motivated by a desire to better understand the cellular pathology of ischemic stroke. Two of the three bodies of research presented herein address and issue directly related to the investigation of ischemic stroke through the use of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) methods. The first topic concerns the development of a computationally efficient finite difference method, designed to evaluate the impact of microscopic tissue properties on the formation of DWMRI signal. For the second body of work, the effect of changing the intrinsic diffusion coefficient of a restricted sample on clinical DWMRI experiments is explored. The final body of work, while motivated by the desire to understand stroke, addresses the issue of acquiring large amounts of MRI data well suited for quantitative analysis in reduced scan time. In theory, the method could be used to generate quantitative parametric maps, including those depicting information gleaned through the use of DWMRI methods. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to several topics. A description of the use of DWMRI methods in the study of ischemic stroke is covered. An introduction to the fundamental physical principles at work in MRI is also provided. In this section the means by which magnetization is created in MRI experiments, how MRI signal is induced, as well as the influence of spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation are discussed. Attention is also given to describing how MRI measurements can be sensitized to diffusion through the use of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the process. Finally, the reader is given a brief introduction to the use of numerical methods for solving partial differential equations. In Chapters 2, 3 and 4, three related bodies of research are presented in terms of research papers. In Chapter 2, a novel computational method is described. The method reduces the computation resources required to simulate DWMRI experiments. In

  18. Volumetric image processing: A new technique for three-dimensional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, E.K.; Drebin, B.; Magid, D.; St Ville, J.A.; Zerhouni, E.A.; Siegelman, S.S.; Ney, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Volumetric three-dimensional (3D) image processing was performed on CT scans of 25 normal hips, and image quality and potential diagnostic applications were assessed. In contrast to surface detection 3D techniques, volumetric processing preserves every pixel of transaxial CT data, replacing the gray scale with transparent ''gels'' and shading. Anatomically, accurate 3D images can be rotated and manipulated in real time, including simulated tissue layer ''peeling'' and mock surgery or disarticulation. This pilot study suggests that volumetric rendering is a major advance in signal processing of medical image data, producing a high quality, uniquely maneuverable image that is useful for fracture interpretation, soft-tissue analysis, surgical planning, and surgical rehearsal

  19. A multifaceted approach to understanding dynamic urban processes: satellites, surveys, and censuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; Balk, D.; Montgomery, M.; Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization will arguably be the most significant demographic trend of the 21st century, particularly in fast-growing regions of the developing world. Characterizing urbanization in a spatial context, however, is a difficult task given only the moderate resolution data provided by traditional sources of demographic data (i.e., censuses and surveys). Using a sample of five world "mega-cities" we demonstrate how new satellite data products and new analysis of existing satellite data, when combined with new applications of census and survey microdata, can reveal more about cities and urbanization in combination than either data type can by itself. In addition to the partially modelled Global Urban-Rural Mapping Project (GRUMP) urban extents we consider four sources of remotely sensed data that can be used to estimate urban extents; the NOAA Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) intercallibrated nighttime lights time series data, the newer NOAA Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) nighttime lights data, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) radar satellite data, and Dense Sampling Method (DSM) analysis of the NASA scatterometer data. Demographic data come from national censuses and/or georeferenced survey data from the Demographic & Health Survey (DHS) program. We overlay demographic and remotely sensed data (e.g., Figs 1, 2) to address two questions; (1) how well do satellite derived measures of urban intensity correlate with demographic measures, and (2) how well are temporal changes in the data correlated. Using spatial regression techniques, we then estimate statistical relationships (controlling for influences such as elevation, coastal proximity, and economic development) between the remotely sensed and demographic data and test the ability of each to predict the other. Satellite derived imagery help us to better understand the evolution of the built environment and urban form, while the underlying demographic

  20. Functional imaging of interleukin 1 beta expression in inflammatory process using bioluminescence imaging in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhihui

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β plays an important role in a number of chronic and acute inflammatory diseases. To understand the role of IL-1β in disease processes and develop an in vivo screening system for anti-inflammatory drugs, a transgenic mouse line was generated which incorporated the transgene firefly luciferase gene driven by a 4.5-kb fragment of the human IL-1β gene promoter. Luciferase gene expression was monitored in live mice under anesthesia using bioluminescence imaging in a number of inflammatory disease models. Results In a LPS-induced sepsis model, dramatic increase in luciferase activity was observed in the mice. This transgene induction was time dependent and correlated with an increase of endogenous IL-1β mRNA and pro-IL-1β protein levels in the mice. In a zymosan-induced arthritis model and an oxazolone-induced skin hypersensitivity reaction model, luciferase expression was locally induced in the zymosan injected knee joint and in the ear with oxazolone application, respectively. Dexamethasone suppressed the expression of luciferase gene both in the acute sepsis model and in the acute arthritis model. Conclusion Our data suggest that the transgenic mice model could be used to study transcriptional regulation of the IL-1β gene expression in the inflammatory process and evaluation the effect of anti-inflammatory drug in vivo.

  1. Low-level processing for real-time image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, R.; Wilf, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A system that detects object outlines in television images in real time is described. A high-speed pipeline processor transforms the raw image into an edge map and a microprocessor, which is integrated into the system, clusters the edges, and represents them as chain codes. Image statistics, useful for higher level tasks such as pattern recognition, are computed by the microprocessor. Peak intensity and peak gradient values are extracted within a programmable window and are used for iris and focus control. The algorithms implemented in hardware and the pipeline processor architecture are described. The strategy for partitioning functions in the pipeline was chosen to make the implementation modular. The microprocessor interface allows flexible and adaptive control of the feature extraction process. The software algorithms for clustering edge segments, creating chain codes, and computing image statistics are also discussed. A strategy for real time image analysis that uses this system is given.

  2. Data processing for registered multimodal images and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Hinako; Kobayashi, Akio; Uemura, Kouji

    1998-01-01

    We have developed two kinds of data processing methods for co-registered PET and MR images. The 3D-brain surface, representing the cortical rim in the transaxial images, was projected on a 2D-plane by utilizing Mollweide projection, which is an area-conserving method of displaying the globe as a world map. A quantitative ROI analysis on the brain surface and 3D superimposed surface display were performed by means of the 2D projection image. A clustered brain image was created by referring to the clustered 3D correlation map of resting CBF, the acetazolamide response and the hyperventilatory response, where each pixel in the brain was labeled with the color representing its cluster number. With this method, the stage of hemodynamic deficiency was evaluated in a patient with the occlusion of internal carotid artery. The differences in the brain images obtained before and after revascularized surgery was also evaluated. (author)

  3. Concrete Crack Identification Using a UAV Incorporating Hybrid Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjun; Lee, Junhwa; Ahn, Eunjong; Cho, Soojin; Shin, Myoungsu; Sim, Sung-Han

    2017-09-07

    Crack assessment is an essential process in the maintenance of concrete structures. In general, concrete cracks are inspected by manual visual observation of the surface, which is intrinsically subjective as it depends on the experience of inspectors. Further, it is time-consuming, expensive, and often unsafe when inaccessible structural members are to be assessed. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technologies combined with digital image processing have recently been applied to crack assessment to overcome the drawbacks of manual visual inspection. However, identification of crack information in terms of width and length has not been fully explored in the UAV-based applications, because of the absence of distance measurement and tailored image processing. This paper presents a crack identification strategy that combines hybrid image processing with UAV technology. Equipped with a camera, an ultrasonic displacement sensor, and a WiFi module, the system provides the image of cracks and the associated working distance from a target structure on demand. The obtained information is subsequently processed by hybrid image binarization to estimate the crack width accurately while minimizing the loss of the crack length information. The proposed system has shown to successfully measure cracks thicker than 0.1 mm with the maximum length estimation error of 7.3%.

  4. Dehydration process of fish analyzed by neutron beam imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanoi, K.; Hamada, Y.; Seyama, S.; Saito, T.; Iikura, H.; Nakanishi, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Since regulation of water content of the dried fish is an important factor for the quality of the fish, water-losing process during drying (squid and Japanese horse mackerel) was analyzed through neutron beam imaging. The neutron image showed that around the shoulder of mackerel, there was a part where water content was liable to maintain high during drying. To analyze water-losing process more in detail, spatial image was produced. From the images, it was clearly indicated that the decrease of water content was regulated around the shoulder part. It was suggested that to prevent deterioration around the shoulder part of the dried fish is an important factor to keep quality of the dried fish in the storage.

  5. Dynamic CT perfusion image data compression for efficient parallel processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Renan Sales; Olabarriaga, Silvia Delgado; Borst, Jordi; van Walderveen, Marianne A A; Posthuma, Jorrit S; Streekstra, Geert J; van Herk, Marcel; Majoie, Charles B L M; Marquering, Henk A

    2016-03-01

    The increasing size of medical imaging data, in particular time series such as CT perfusion (CTP), requires new and fast approaches to deliver timely results for acute care. Cloud architectures based on graphics processing units (GPUs) can provide the processing capacity required for delivering fast results. However, the size of CTP datasets makes transfers to cloud infrastructures time-consuming and therefore not suitable in acute situations. To reduce this transfer time, this work proposes a fast and lossless compression algorithm for CTP data. The algorithm exploits redundancies in the temporal dimension and keeps random read-only access to the image elements directly from the compressed data on the GPU. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to present a GPU-ready method for medical image compression with random access to the image elements from the compressed data.

  6. Automatic detection of NIL defects using microscopy and image processing

    KAUST Repository

    Pietroy, David

    2013-12-01

    Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) is a promising technology for low cost and large scale nanostructure fabrication. This technique is based on a contact molding-demolding process, that can produce number of defects such as incomplete filling, negative patterns, sticking. In this paper, microscopic imaging combined to a specific processing algorithm is used to detect numerically defects in printed patterns. Results obtained for 1D and 2D imprinted gratings with different microscopic image magnifications are presented. Results are independent on the device which captures the image (optical, confocal or electron microscope). The use of numerical images allows the possibility to automate the detection and to compute a statistical analysis of defects. This method provides a fast analysis of printed gratings and could be used to monitor the production of such structures. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MATLAB-based Applications for Image Processing and Image Quality Assessment – Part II: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krasula

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of some possible usage of the software described in the Part I. It contains the real examples of image quality improvement, distortion simulations, objective and subjective quality assessment and other ways of image processing that can be obtained by the individual applications.

  8. Establishing an international reference image database for research and development in medical image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, A.D.; Prinz, M.; Schneider, S.; Sipilä, O; Spinnler, K.; Vallée, J-P; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I; Vogl, R.; Wittenberg, T.; Zahlmann, G.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The lack of comparability of evaluation results is one of the major obstacles of research and development in Medical Image Processing (MIP). The main reason for that is the usage of different image datasets with different quality, size and Gold standard. OBJECTIVES: Therefore, one of

  9. Automatic Optimization of Hardware Accelerators for Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Reiche, Oliver; Häublein, Konrad; Reichenbach, Marc; Hannig, Frank; Teich, Jürgen; Fey, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    In the domain of image processing, often real-time constraints are required. In particular, in safety-critical applications, such as X-ray computed tomography in medical imaging or advanced driver assistance systems in the automotive domain, timing is of utmost importance. A common approach to maintain real-time capabilities of compute-intensive applications is to offload those computations to dedicated accelerator hardware, such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Programming such arc...

  10. Anesthesia Experiences During Magnetic Imaging Process on Pediatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürk, Ömür; Üstebay, Sefer; Bilge, Ali

    2017-01-01

    We aim to study the quality of sedation and complications ratios during anesthesia applied with sodium thiopental and propofol and the reason of the magnetic imaging requests on pediatric patients retrospectively according to the hospital data. Material and Method: In this study, 109 patients, aged from 3 months to 5 years, that have been applied magnetic imaging process under anesthesia, have been examined retrospectively. Results: Pentotal sodium has been applied to 53 patients and propofol...

  11. Markov Processes: Exploring the Use of Dynamic Visualizations to Enhance Student Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuch, Maxine; Budgett, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Finding ways to enhance introductory students' understanding of probability ideas and theory is a goal of many first-year probability courses. In this article, we explore the potential of a prototype tool for Markov processes using dynamic visualizations to develop in students a deeper understanding of the equilibrium and hitting times…

  12. Once upon a time : Understanding team processes as relational event networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, R.T.A.J.; Contractor, N.; DeChurch, L.

    2016-01-01

    For as long as groups and teams have been the subject of scientific inquiry, researchers have been interested in understanding the relationships that form within them, and the pace at which these relationships develop and change. Despite this interest in understanding the process underlying the

  13. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2011-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  14. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    OpenAIRE

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2011-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Paper presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  15. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2012-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Paper presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  16. Pre-analytic process control: projecting a quality image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Mark D

    2006-09-26

    Within the health-care system, the term "ancillary department" often describes the laboratory. Thus, laboratories may find it difficult to define their image and with it, customer perception of department quality. Regulatory requirements give laboratories who so desire an elegant way to address image and perception issues--a comprehensive pre-analytic system solution. Since large laboratories use such systems--laboratory service manuals--I describe and illustrate the process for the benefit of smaller facilities. There exist resources to help even small laboratories produce a professional service manual--an elegant solution to image and customer perception of quality.

  17. SENTINEL-2 Level 1 Products and Image Processing Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillarin, S. J.; Meygret, A.; Dechoz, C.; Petrucci, B.; Lacherade, S.; Tremas, T.; Isola, C.; Martimort, P.; Spoto, F.

    2012-07-01

    In partnership with the European Commission and in the frame of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) program, the European Space Agency (ESA) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. While ensuring data continuity of former SPOT and LANDSAT multi-spectral missions, Sentinel-2 will also offer wide improvements such as a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290 km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10 m, 20 m and 60 m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). In this context, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) supports ESA to define the system image products and to prototype the relevant image processing techniques. This paper offers, first, an overview of the Sentinel-2 system and then, introduces the image products delivered by the ground processing: the Level-0 and Level-1A are system products which correspond to respectively raw compressed and uncompressed data (limited to internal calibration purposes), the Level-1B is the first public product: it comprises radiometric corrections (dark signal, pixels response non uniformity, crosstalk, defective pixels, restoration, and binning for 60 m bands); and an enhanced physical geometric model appended to the product but not applied, the Level-1C provides ortho-rectified top of atmosphere reflectance with a sub-pixel multi-spectral and multi-date registration; a cloud and land/water mask is associated to the product. Note that the cloud mask also provides an indication about cirrus. The ground sampling distance of Level-1C product will be 10 m, 20 m or 60 m according to the band. The final Level-1C product is tiled following a pre-defined grid of 100x100 km2, based on UTM/WGS84 reference frame. The

  18. SENTINEL-2 LEVEL 1 PRODUCTS AND IMAGE PROCESSING PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Baillarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In partnership with the European Commission and in the frame of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES program, the European Space Agency (ESA is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. While ensuring data continuity of former SPOT and LANDSAT multi-spectral missions, Sentinel-2 will also offer wide improvements such as a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290 km, a high revisit (5 days with two satellites, a high resolution (10 m, 20 m and 60 m and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains. In this context, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES supports ESA to define the system image products and to prototype the relevant image processing techniques. This paper offers, first, an overview of the Sentinel-2 system and then, introduces the image products delivered by the ground processing: the Level-0 and Level-1A are system products which correspond to respectively raw compressed and uncompressed data (limited to internal calibration purposes, the Level-1B is the first public product: it comprises radiometric corrections (dark signal, pixels response non uniformity, crosstalk, defective pixels, restoration, and binning for 60 m bands; and an enhanced physical geometric model appended to the product but not applied, the Level-1C provides ortho-rectified top of atmosphere reflectance with a sub-pixel multi-spectral and multi-date registration; a cloud and land/water mask is associated to the product. Note that the cloud mask also provides an indication about cirrus. The ground sampling distance of Level-1C product will be 10 m, 20 m or 60 m according to the band. The final Level-1C product is tiled following a pre-defined grid of 100x100 km2, based on UTM/WGS84 reference frame

  19. Predictive images of postoperative levator resection outcome using image processing software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawatari Y

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Yuki Mawatari,1 Mikiko Fukushima2 1Igo Ophthalmic Clinic, Kagoshima, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Life Science, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, Japan Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of processed images to predict postoperative appearance following levator resection.Methods: Analysis involved 109 eyes from 65 patients with blepharoptosis who underwent advancement of levator aponeurosis and Müller’s muscle complex (levator resection. Predictive images were prepared from preoperative photographs using the image processing software (Adobe Photoshop®. Images of selected eyes were digitally enlarged in an appropriate manner and shown to patients prior to surgery.Results: Approximately 1 month postoperatively, we surveyed our patients using questionnaires. Fifty-six patients (89.2% were satisfied with their postoperative appearances, and 55 patients (84.8% positively responded to the usefulness of processed images to predict postoperative appearance.Conclusion: Showing processed images that predict postoperative appearance to patients prior to blepharoptosis surgery can be useful for those patients concerned with their postoperative appearance. This approach may serve as a useful tool to simulate blepharoptosis surgery. Keywords: levator resection, blepharoptosis, image processing, Adobe Photoshop® 

  20. An ImageJ plugin for ion beam imaging and data processing at AIFIRA facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devès, G.; Daudin, L. [Univ. Bordeaux, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Bessy, A.; Buga, F.; Ghanty, J.; Naar, A.; Sommar, V. [Univ. Bordeaux, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Michelet, C.; Seznec, H.; Barberet, P. [Univ. Bordeaux, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)

    2015-04-01

    Quantification and imaging of chemical elements at the cellular level requires the use of a combination of techniques such as micro-PIXE, micro-RBS, STIM, secondary electron imaging associated with optical and fluorescence microscopy techniques employed prior to irradiation. Such a numerous set of methods generates an important amount of data per experiment. Typically for each acquisition the following data has to be processed: chemical map for each element present with a concentration above the detection limit, density and backscattered maps, mean and local spectra corresponding to relevant region of interest such as whole cell, intracellular compartment, or nanoparticles. These operations are time consuming, repetitive and as such could be source of errors in data manipulation. In order to optimize data processing, we have developed a new tool for batch data processing and imaging. This tool has been developed as a plugin for ImageJ, a versatile software for image processing that is suitable for the treatment of basic IBA data operations. Because ImageJ is written in Java, the plugin can be used under Linux, Mas OS X and Windows in both 32-bits and 64-bits modes, which may interest developers working on open-access ion beam facilities like AIFIRA. The main features of this plugin are presented here: listfile processing, spectroscopic imaging, local information extraction, quantitative density maps and database management using OMERO.