WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding health effects

  1. Current Understanding of the Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Tayaba; Kamat, Deepak

    2017-04-01

    There has been an exponential increase in the use of electronic devices over the past few decades. This has led to increased exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Electric fields result from differences in voltage, whereas magnetic fields result from the flow of electric current. Higher-frequency waves of EMF have more energy than lower-frequency waves, and thus generally tend to be more harmful. An EMF activates cellular stress response and also causes breaks in DNA strands. There are many methodological barriers to effectively measuring the associations of EMF and childhood cancers. The consensus from multiple studies is that there is no causal role of extremely low-frequency EMFs in childhood cancers, including brain cancer. A recent study showed a link between EMF radiation and the development of malignant tumors in rats. In light of that study, the American Academy of Pediatrics set out new recommendations to decrease the adverse effects of cellphone exposure on children. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(4):e172-e174.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  3. Towards understanding oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. A transdisciplinary approach to understanding the health effects of wildfire and prescribed fire smoke regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, G. J.; Bowman, D. M. J. S.; Price, O. F.; Henderson, S. B.; Johnston, F. H.

    2016-12-01

    Prescribed burning is used to reduce the occurrence, extent and severity of uncontrolled fires in many flammable landscapes. However, epidemiologic evidence of the human health impacts of landscape fire smoke emissions is shaping fire management practice through increasingly stringent environmental regulation and public health policy. An unresolved question, critical for sustainable fire management, concerns the comparative human health effects of smoke from wild and prescribed fires. Here we review current knowledge of the health effects of landscape fire emissions and consider the similarities and differences in smoke from wild and prescribed fires with respect to the typical combustion conditions and fuel properties, the quality and magnitude of air pollution emissions, and the potential for dispersion to large populations. We further examine the interactions between these considerations, and how they may shape the longer term smoke regimes to which populations are exposed. We identify numerous knowledge gaps and propose a conceptual framework that describes pathways to better understanding of the health trade-offs of prescribed and wildfire smoke regimes.

  5. Towards understanding oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain

  6. Health Insurance: Understanding Your Health Plan's Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, ... MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Health Insurance: Understanding What It CoversUnderstanding Your Medical BillsResources for ...

  7. Understanding the factors that make public participation effective in health policy and planning: a realist synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagatpatan, Celso P; Ward, Paul R

    2017-06-23

    Although researchers argue for the importance of involving the public in developing health policy, there has been little focus on central research questions - such as what techniques of public participation work, in what circumstances, and why. This paper presents a realist synthesis which identifies and explains the underlying mechanisms and specific contextual factors that lead to effective public participation in health policy and planning. Peer-reviewed, English language literature was searched, which resulted in 77 articles for review and synthesis. This synthesis uncovered the underlying mechanism of 'political commitment' that generates public participation effectiveness. The other three possible underlying mechanisms, namely: 'partnership synergy', 'inclusiveness' and 'deliberativeness', were found to potentially provide further explanation on public participation effectiveness for health policy and planning. The findings of this review provide evidence that can be useful to health practitioners and decision-makers to actively involve the public when drafting public health policies and programs and, more importantly, guide them in deciding which strategies to best employ for which contexts.

  8. Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: A global concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahadar, Haji; Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Benzene, as a volatile organic compound, is known as one of the main air pollutants in the environment. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidences on non-cancerous health effects of benzene providing an overview of possible association of exposure to benzene with human chronic diseases, specially, in those regions of the world where benzene concentration is being poorly monitored. Methodology: A bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scirus was conducted with key words of “benzene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants”, “breast cancer and environmental pollution”, “prevalence of lung cancer”, and “diabetes prevalence”. More than 300 peer reviewed papers were examined. Experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting health effects of benzene and volatile organic compounds were included in the study. Results: Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that benzene exposure can lead to numerous non-cancerous health effects associated with functional aberration of vital systems in the body like reproductive, immune, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Conclusion: Chronic diseases have become a health burden of global dimension with special emphasis in regions with poor monitoring over contents of benzene in petrochemicals. Benzene is a well known carcinogen of blood and its components, but the concern of benzene exposure is more than carcinogenicity of blood components and should be evaluated in both epidemiologic and experimental studies. Aspect of interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to diabetes, breast and lung cancers should be followed up. - Highlights: • Benzene is a volatile organic compound and established blood carcinogen. • Exposure to benzene needs to be

  9. Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: A global concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadar, Haji [International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafalou, Sara [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: Benzene, as a volatile organic compound, is known as one of the main air pollutants in the environment. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidences on non-cancerous health effects of benzene providing an overview of possible association of exposure to benzene with human chronic diseases, specially, in those regions of the world where benzene concentration is being poorly monitored. Methodology: A bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scirus was conducted with key words of “benzene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants”, “breast cancer and environmental pollution”, “prevalence of lung cancer”, and “diabetes prevalence”. More than 300 peer reviewed papers were examined. Experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting health effects of benzene and volatile organic compounds were included in the study. Results: Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that benzene exposure can lead to numerous non-cancerous health effects associated with functional aberration of vital systems in the body like reproductive, immune, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Conclusion: Chronic diseases have become a health burden of global dimension with special emphasis in regions with poor monitoring over contents of benzene in petrochemicals. Benzene is a well known carcinogen of blood and its components, but the concern of benzene exposure is more than carcinogenicity of blood components and should be evaluated in both epidemiologic and experimental studies. Aspect of interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to diabetes, breast and lung cancers should be followed up. - Highlights: • Benzene is a volatile organic compound and established blood carcinogen. • Exposure to benzene needs to be

  10. Understanding your health care costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000878.htm Understanding your health care costs To use the sharing features on this page, ... on out-of-pocket costs. Out-of-Pocket Costs The good news is there is a limit ...

  11. Understanding and harnessing the health effects of rapid urbanization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ioannidis, John P A; Li, Hong; Jones, Kevin C; Martin, Francis L

    2011-06-15

    China is undergoing a rapid transition from a rural to an urban society. This societal change is a consequence of a national drive toward economic prosperity. Rapid urbanization impacts on infrastructure, environmental health and human wellbeing. Unlike many cases of urban expansion, Chinese urbanization has led to containment, rather than to increase, in the spread of infectious diseases. Conversely, the incidence of chronic conditions such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases has risen, with higher rates occurring in urban regions. This rural-urban gradient in disease incidence seems not to be a reflection simply of more aggressive diagnosis or healthcare access. Other diseases exhibit little rural versus urban differences (e.g., liver cancer or respiratory disease), or even occur at a higher rate in the rural population (e.g., esophageal cancer). This article examines the impact of this changing demographic on environmental health and human wellbeing in China. Lessons learned from epidemiological studies mostly carried out in Europe and the U.S. may not be directly transferable to China. We advocate that there is now a need to establish robust systems of accurate data collection, a Chinese biobank network to facilitate the profiling of human health effects, and relevant randomized controlled trials to identify effective interventions in the Chinese urbanized setting. Such studies could allow for the future implementation of disease-preventive strategies.

  12. Understanding the psychiatric effects of concussion on constructed identity in hockey players: Implications for health professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ryan; Bhalerao, Shree; Soklaridis, Sophie; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective The following study was undertaken to investigate the effect of concussion and psychiatric illness on athletes and their caregivers. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 20 ice hockey stakeholders (17 men and 3 women) including minor and professional players, coaches, parents, and physicians were conducted over two years (2012–2014). These interviews were analyzed using grounded theory. Results From this analysis, a common biographical theme emerged whereby the subject’s identity as a hockey player, constructed early in life over many years, was disrupted by concussion. Furthermore, some players underwent a biographical deconstruction when they experienced post-concussive mental illness, which was amplified by isolation, stigma from peers, and lack of a clear life trajectory. Many players obtained support from family and peers and were able to recover, as evidenced by the biographical reconstruction of their identity post-hockey concussion. Conclusions and implications for practice Understanding the process of biographical deconstruction and reconstruction has significant psychosocial treatment implications for both healthcare professionals and caregivers of this population. Specifically, the authors suggest that interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) that focuses on role transitions may create opportunities to facilitate the process of biographical reconstruction and life transition. PMID:29466377

  13. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Consumer-Focused Health Information Technology Systems Through eHealth Literacy: A Framework for Understanding Users' Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Lars; Kushniruk, Andre; Osborne, Richard H; Norgaard, Ole; Turner, Paul

    2015-05-20

    eHealth systems and applications are increasingly focused on supporting consumers to directly engage with and use health care services. Involving end users in the design of these systems is critical to ensure a generation of usable and effective eHealth products and systems. Often the end users engaged for these participatory design processes are not actual representatives of the general population, and developers may have limited understanding about how well they might represent the full range of intended users of the eHealth products. As a consequence, resulting information technology (IT) designs may not accommodate the needs, skills, cognitive capacities, and/or contexts of use of the intended broader population of health consumers. This may result in challenges for consumers who use the health IT systems, and could lead to limitations in adoption if the diversity of user attributes has not been adequately considered by health IT designers. The objective of this paper is to propose how users' needs and competences can be taken into account when designing new information and communications technology solutions in health care by expanding the user-task-context matrix model with the domains of a new concept of eHealth literacy. This approach expands an existing method for supporting health IT system development, which advocates use of a three-dimensional user-task-context matrix to comprehensively identify the users of health IT systems, and what their needs and requirements are under differing contexts of use. The extension of this model involved including knowledge about users' competences within the seven domains of eHealth literacy, which had been identified based on systematic engagement with computer scientists, academics, health professionals, and patients recruited from various patient organizations and primary care. A concept map was constructed based on a structured brainstorm procedure, card sorting, and computational analysis. The new eHealth literacy

  14. Understanding and Mitigating Adverse Health Effects in Space Using A System Physiology Software, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's vision for Space Exploration aims for human interplanetary missions that have significant challenges on crew health and safety including fluid shifts, and...

  15. Quality of life and social production functions : A framework for understanding health effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, J.; Lindenberg, S.; Steverink, N.; Vonkorff, M.

    1997-01-01

    Quality of life (QofL) has emerged as a new outcome paradigm. It is now the endpoint in various taxonomies of patient outcomes, in which relationships are modeled amongst biological abnormalities, symptom status, functional status, disability, health perceptions and quality of life. Although current

  16. Strategic alliances: two perspectives for understanding their effects on health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzny, A D; Zuckerman, H S

    1992-01-01

    Strategic alliances are an organizational innovation likely to have profound consequences on the delivery of health services. As an innovation, it is important that attention be given to the fundamental research issues associated with their adoption and outcomes. Using a variance and process perspective, selected research issues are identified for the alliances and participating organizations within the alliances. The variance perspective at both the alliance and participating organization levels considers the explanation of outcomes and specific stages in the adoption process at a particular point in time. The process perspective considers the particular steps or events in the overall adoption process over time. The managerial implications for each perspective are discussed.

  17. Understanding Leisure-related Program Effects by Using Process Data in the HealthWise South Africa Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Linda L; Younker, Anita S; Wegner, Lisa; Patrick, Megan E; Vergnani, Tania; Smith, Edward A; Flisher, Alan J

    2008-01-01

    As the push for evidence-based programming gathers momentum, many human services programs and interventions are under increased scrutiny to justify their effectiveness across different conditions and populations. Government agencies and the public want to be assured that their resources are being put to good use on programs that are effective and efficient (Guskey, 2000). Thus, programs are increasingly based on theory and evaluated through randomized control trials using longitudinal data. Despite this progress, hypothesized outcomes are often not detected and/or their effect sizes are small (Gingiss, Roberts-Gray, Boerm, 2006). Moreover, findings may go against intuition or "gut feelings" on the part of project staff. Given the need to understand how program implementation issues relate to outcomes, this study focuses on whether process measures that focus on program implementation and fidelity can shed light on associated outcomes. In particular, we linked the process evaluation of the HealthWise motivation lesson with outcomes across four waves of data collection. We hypothesized that HealthWise would increase learners' intrinsic and identified forms of motivation, and decrease amotivation and extrinsic motivation. We did not hypothesize a direction of effects on introjected motivation due to its conceptual ambiguity. Data came from youth in four intervention schools (n = 902, 41.1%) and five control schools (n = 1291, 58.9%) who were participating in a multi-cohort, longitudinal study. The schools were in a township near Cape Town, South Africa. For each cohort, baseline data are collected on learners as they begin Grade 8. We currently have four waves of data collected on the first cohort, which is the focus of this paper. The mean age of the sample at Wave 3 was 15.0 years (SD = .86) and 51% of students were female. Results suggested that there was evidence of an overall program effect of the curriculum on amotivation regardless of fidelity of implementation

  18. Determinants of consumer understanding of health claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Scholderer, Joachim; Rogeaux, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The new EU regulation on nutrition and health claims states that claims can be permitted only if they can be expected to be understood by consumers. Investigating determinants of consumer understanding of health claims has therefore become an important topic. Understanding of a health claim...

  19. Understanding healthful eating from a salutogenic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swan, E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The biomedical model of health orients towards pathogenesis, the study of disease origins and causes. The starting point is to understand determinants of ill-health, and health is defined in this model as the absence of disease. When applied to nutrition research, the underlying assumption is that

  20. Understanding healthful eating from a salutogenic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swan, E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The biomedical model of health orients towards pathogenesis, the study of disease origins and causes. The starting point is to understand determinants of ill-health, and health is defined in this model as the absence of disease. When applied to nutrition research, the underlying assumption is

  1. Assessing the effectiveness of the Pesticides and Farmworker Health Toolkit: a curriculum for enhancing farmworkers' understanding of pesticide safety concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePrevost, Catherine E; Storm, Julia F; Asuaje, Cesar R; Arellano, Consuelo; Cope, W Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Among agricultural workers, migrant and seasonal farmworkers have been recognized as a special risk population because these laborers encounter cultural challenges and linguistic barriers while attempting to maintain their safety and health within their working environments. The crop-specific Pesticides and Farmworker Health Toolkit (Toolkit) is a pesticide safety and health curriculum designed to communicate to farmworkers pesticide hazards commonly found in their working environments and to address Worker Protection Standard (WPS) pesticide training criteria for agricultural workers. The goal of this preliminary study was to test evaluation items for measuring knowledge increases among farmworkers and to assess the effectiveness of the Toolkit in improving farmworkers' knowledge of key WPS and risk communication concepts when the Toolkit lesson was delivered by trained trainers in the field. After receiving training on the curriculum, four participating trainers provided lessons using the Toolkit as part of their regular training responsibilities and orally administered a pre- and post-lesson evaluation instrument to 20 farmworker volunteers who were generally representative of the national farmworker population. Farmworker knowledge of pesticide safety messages significantly (PHealth Toolkit is an effective, research-based pesticide safety and health intervention for the at-risk farmworker population and identifies a testing format appropriate for evaluating the Toolkit and other similar interventions for farmworkers in the field.

  2. Industrial Student Apprenticeship: Understanding Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanjuntak, M. V.; Abdullah, A. G.; Puspita, R. H.; Mahdan, D.; Kamaludin, M.

    2018-02-01

    The level of accident in industry is very high caused by lack of knowledge and awareness of workers toward the health and safety. Health and Safety are efforts to create a comfortable and productive atmosphere to accomplish a purpose or goal as maximum risk in the workplace. Vocational Education students must conduct training on business and industry, prior to that they should have a clear understanding on occupational health and safety. The purpose of this research is to analyze the understanding, preparation, and implementation of work health and safety of the students. Method used is descriptive method and data are collected using instrument, observation and interview. The result of study is conclusion of understanding occupational health and safety of vocational education students.

  3. Effectiveness of training workplace managers to understand and support the mental health needs of employees: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayed, Aimée; Milligan-Saville, Josie S; Nicholas, Jennifer; Bryan, Bridget T; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Milner, Allison; Madan, Ira; Calvo, Rafael A; Christensen, Helen; Mykletun, Arnstein; Glozier, Nicholas; Harvey, Samuel B

    2018-03-21

    Managers are in an influential position to make decisions that can impact on the mental health and well-being of their employees. As a result, there is an increasing trend for organisations to provide managers with training in how to reduce work-based mental health risk factors for their employees. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify workplace interventions for managers with an emphasis on the mental health of employees reporting directing to them. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate pooled effect sizes using the random effects model for both manager and employee outcomes. Ten controlled trials were identified as relevant for this review. Outcomes evaluating managers' mental health knowledge (standardised mean difference (SMD)=0.73; 95% CI 0.43 to 1.03; ptraining managers in workplace mental health can improve their knowledge, attitudes and self-reported behaviour in supporting employees experiencing mental health problems. At present, any findings regarding the impact of manager training on levels of psychological distress among employees remain preliminary as only a very limited amount of research evaluating employee outcomes is available. Our review suggests that in order to understand the effectiveness of manager training on employees, an increase in collection of employee level data is required. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Understanding urban green space as a health resource: a qualitative comparison of visit motivation and derived effects among park users in Sheffield, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Katherine N; Warber, Sara L; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-01-22

    With increasing interest in the use of urban green space to promote human health, there is a need to understand the extent to which park users conceptualize these places as a resource for health and well-being. This study sought to examine park users' own reasons for and benefits from green space usage and compare these with concepts and constructs in existing person-environment-health theories and models of health. Conducted in 13 public green spaces in Sheffield, UK, we undertook a qualitative content analysis of 312 park users' responses to open-ended interview questions and identified a breadth, depth and salience of visit motivators and derived effects. Findings highlight a discrepancy between reasons for visiting and derived effects from the use of urban green space. Motivations emphasized walking, green space qualities, and children. Derived effects highlighted relaxation, positive emotions within the self and towards the place, and spiritual well-being. We generate a taxonomy of motivations and derived effects that could facilitate operationalization within empirical research and articulate a conceptual framework linking motivators to outcomes for investigating green space as a resource for human health and well-being.

  5. Understanding Urban Green Space as a Health Resource: A Qualitative Comparison of Visit Motivation and Derived Effects among Park Users in Sheffield, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Gaston

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing interest in the use of urban green space to promote human health, there is a need to understand the extent to which park users conceptualize these places as a resource for health and well-being. This study sought to examine park users’ own reasons for and benefits from green space usage and compare these with concepts and constructs in existing person-environment-health theories and models of health. Conducted in 13 public green spaces in Sheffield, UK, we undertook a qualitative content analysis of 312 park users’ responses to open-ended interview questions and identified a breadth, depth and salience of visit motivators and derived effects. Findings highlight a discrepancy between reasons for visiting and derived effects from the use of urban green space. Motivations emphasized walking, green space qualities, and children. Derived effects highlighted relaxation, positive emotions within the self and towards the place, and spiritual well-being. We generate a taxonomy of motivations and derived effects that could facilitate operationalization within empirical research and articulate a conceptual framework linking motivators to outcomes for investigating green space as a resource for human health and well-being.

  6. Understanding Business Models in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-05-01

    The increasing focus on the costs of care is forcing health care organizations to critically look at their basic set of processes and activities, to determine what type of value they can deliver. A business model describes the resources, processes, and cost assumptions that an organization makes that will lead to the delivery of a unique value proposition to a customer. As health care organizations are beginning to transform their structure in preparation for a value-based delivery system, understanding business model theory can help in the redesign process.

  7. Understanding health policy leaders' training needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Roth Bayer

    Full Text Available We assessed the training needs of health policy leaders and practitioners across career stages; identified areas of core content for health policy training programs; and, identified training modalities for health policy leaders.We convened a focus group of health policy leaders at varying career stages to inform the development of the Health Policy Leaders' Training Needs Assessment tool. We piloted and distributed the tool electronically. We used descriptive statistics and thematic coding for analysis.Seventy participants varying in age and stage of career completed the tool. "Cost implications of health policies" ranked highest for personal knowledge development and "intersection of policy and politics" ranked highest for health policy leaders in general. "Effective communication skills" ranked as the highest skill element and "integrity" as the highest attribute element. Format for training varied based on age and career stage.This study highlighted the training needs of health policy leaders personally as well as their perceptions of the needs for training health policy leaders in general. The findings are applicable for current health policy leadership training programs as well as those in development.

  8. European consumers and health claims: attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Josephine M; Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Kolka, Magdalena; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-05-01

    Health claims on food products are often used as a means to highlight scientifically proven health benefits associated with consuming those foods. But do consumers understand and trust health claims? This paper provides an overview of recent research on consumers and health claims including attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour. A majority of studies investigated selective product-claim combinations, with ambiguous findings apart from consumers' self-reported generic interest in health claims. There are clear indications that consumer responses differ substantially according to the nature of carrier product, the type of health claim, functional ingredient used or a combination of these components. Health claims tend to be perceived more positively when linked to a product with an overall positive health image, whereas some studies demonstrate higher perceived credibility of products with general health claims (e.g. omega-3 and brain development) compared to disease risk reduction claims (e.g. bioactive peptides to reduce risk of heart disease), others report the opposite. Inconsistent evidence also exists on the correlation between having a positive attitude towards products with health claims and purchase intentions. Familiarity with the functional ingredient and/or its claimed health effect seems to result in a more favourable evaluation. Better nutritional knowledge, however, does not automatically lead to a positive attitude towards products carrying health messages. Legislation in the European Union requires that the claim is understood by the average consumer. As most studies on consumers' understanding of health claims are based on subjective understanding, this remains an area for more investigation.

  9. Health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported

  10. Health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L

    1998-07-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported.

  11. Health Literacies: Pedagogies and Understandings of Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrench, Alison; Garrett, Robyne

    2014-01-01

    The development of health literacies, in relation to health, well-being, safety and physical activity, is a key pillar of the "Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education". Implications, therefore, arise for teachers of health and physical education (HPE) and their pedagogical practices. These practices of HPE inform ways of…

  12. Understanding health food messages on Twitter for health literacy promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Liu, F; Zhou, H

    2018-03-01

    With the popularity of social media, Twitter has become an important tool to promote health literacy. However, many health-related messages on Twitter are dead-ended and cannot reach many people. This is unhelpful for health literacy promotion. This article aims to examine the features of online health food messages that people like to retweet. We adopted rumour theory as our theoretical foundation and extracted seven characteristics (i.e. emotional valence, attractiveness, sender's authoritativeness, external evidence, argument length, hashtags, and direct messages). A total of 10,025 health-related messages on Twitter were collected, and 1496 messages were randomly selected for further analysis. Each message was treated as one unit and then coded. All the hypotheses were tested with logistic regression. Emotional valence, attractiveness, sender's authoritativeness, argument length, and direct messages in a Twitter message had positive effects on people's retweet behaviour. The effect of external evidence was negative. Hashtags had no significant effect after consideration of other variables. Online health food messages containing positive emotions, including pictures, containing direct messages, having an authoritative sender, having longer arguments, or not containing external URLs are more likely to be retweeted. However, a message only containing positive or negative emotions or including direct messages without any support information will not be retweeted.

  13. Cardiovascular effects of microgravity: evolution of understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, H. D.

    1998-01-01

    The understanding of cardiovascular effects of spaceflight has evolved throughout the course of the American manned spaceflight program. Originally descriptive in nature, the present understanding is based on empiric measurements of vascular volume, cardiac output, vascular reflexes, and peripheral and central autonomic control. More detailed understanding of cardiovascular effects has allowed us to separate those symptoms from symptoms caused by musculoskeletal or neurovestibular abnormalities.

  14. Understanding Health Research Ethics in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jeevan Raj; Khatri, Rekha; Harper, Ian

    2016-12-01

    Unlike other countries in South Asia, in Nepal research in the health sector has a relatively recent history. Most health research activities in the country are sponsored by international collaborative assemblages of aid agencies and universities. Data from Nepal Health Research Council shows that, officially, 1,212 health research activities have been carried out between 1991 and 2014. These range from addressing immediate health problems at the country level through operational research, to evaluations and programmatic interventions that are aimed at generating evidence, to more systematic research activities that inform global scientific and policy debates. Established in 1991, the Ethical Review Board of the Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC) is the central body that has the formal regulating authority of all the health research activities in country, granted through an act of parliament. Based on research conducted between 2010 and 2013, and a workshop on research ethics that the authors conducted in July 2012 in Nepal as a part of the on-going research, this article highlights the emerging regulatory and ethical fields in this low-income country that has witnessed these increased health research activities. Issues arising reflect this particular political economy of research (what constitutes health research, where resources come from, who defines the research agenda, culture of contract research, costs of review, developing Nepal's research capacity, through to the politics of publication of data/findings) and includes questions to emerging regulatory and ethical frameworks. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Understanding a Value Chain in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2015-10-01

    As the US health care system transitions toward a value-based system, providers and health care organizations will have to closely scrutinize their current processes of care. To do this, a value chain analysis can be performed to ensure that only the most efficient steps are followed in patient care. Ultimately this will produce a higher quality or equal quality product for less cost by eliminating wasteful steps along the way.

  16. Understanding The Resistance to Health Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    David Ackah; Angelito E Alvarado; Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho; Sanglar Polnok; Wiwin Martiningsih

    2017-01-01

    User resistance is users’ opposition to system implementation. Resistance often occurs as a result of a mismatch between management goals and employee preferences. There are two types of resistance to health iformation system namely active resistance and passive resistance. The manifestation of active resistance are being critical,  blaming/accusing, blocking, fault finding, sabotaging, undermining, ridiculing, intimidating/threatening, starting rumors, appealing to fear, manipulating arguing...

  17. Understanding the Effectiveness of Performance Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Stragetic human resource management at Praxair. Human Resources Management , 38 (4), 315-320. Heathfield, S. (2007). Performance appraisals. The...UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES THESIS Ross T. Johnston, Major...M07 UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AFIT-GRD-ENV-10-M07 Presented to the Faculty

  18. Understanding Self-Effects in Social Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to improve understanding of self-effects in social media, and to compare self-effects with reception effects. Self-effects are the effects of messages the cognitions, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors of the message creators/senders themselves. A total of 4 theories have

  19. Understanding The Resistance to Health Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ackah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available User resistance is users’ opposition to system implementation. Resistance often occurs as a result of a mismatch between management goals and employee preferences. There are two types of resistance to health iformation system namely active resistance and passive resistance. The manifestation of active resistance are being critical,  blaming/accusing, blocking, fault finding, sabotaging, undermining, ridiculing, intimidating/threatening, starting rumors, appealing to fear, manipulating arguing, using facts selectively, distorting facts and  raising objections. The manifestation of passive resistance are agreeing verbally but not following through, failing to implement change, procrastinating/dragging feet, feigning ignorance, withholding information, suggestions, help or support, and standing by and allowing the change to fail.

  20. Understanding global health and development partnerships: Perspectives from African and global health system professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Amy; Brown, Garrett W; Harman, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    Partnership is a key idea in current debates about global health and development assistance, yet little is known about what partnership means to those who are responsible for operationalising it or how it is experienced in practice. This is particularly the case in the context of African health systems. This paper explores how health professionals working in global health hubs and the health systems of South Africa, Tanzania and Zambia understand and experience partnership. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 101 professionals based in each country, Washington DC and Geneva between October 2012 and June 2013, the paper makes four key arguments. First, partnership has a legitimating function in global health policy processes for international development institutions, government agencies and civil society organisations alike. Second, the practice of partnership generates idiosyncratic and complicated relationships that health professionals have to manage and navigate, often informally. Third, partnership is shaped by historical legacies, critical events, and independent consultants. Fourth, despite being an accepted part of global health policy, there is little shared understanding of what good partnership is meant to include or resemble in practice. Knowing more about the specific socio-cultural and political dynamics of partnership in different health system contexts is critical to equip health professionals with the skills to build the informal relations that are essential to effective partnership engagement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding Evaluation Training in Schools and Programs of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Leslie A.; Christie, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an understanding of how the coursework required for attaining a Masters of Public Health (MPH) degree in epidemiology or health education from accredited schools or programs of public health prepares students to evaluate programs or interventions. Study data were generated using a content analysis of required coursework…

  2. Are public health organizations tweeting to the choir? Understanding local health department Twitter followership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; Choucair, Bechara; Maier, Ryan C; Jolani, Nina; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2014-02-26

    . Understanding audience characteristics can help public health organizations use this new tool more effectively by tailoring tweet content and dissemination strategies for their audience.

  3. Are Public Health Organizations Tweeting to the Choir? Understanding Local Health Department Twitter Followership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choucair, Bechara; Maier, Ryan C; Jolani, Nina; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2014-01-01

    potential to reach a wide and diverse audience. Understanding audience characteristics can help public health organizations use this new tool more effectively by tailoring tweet content and dissemination strategies for their audience. PMID:24571914

  4. Towards understanding the links between health literacy and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Johnson, Wendy; Murray, Catherine; Wolf, Michael S; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2014-02-01

    Low health literacy predicts poor health, but the underpinnings of the associations are yet to be understood. This study tested the associations between health literacy and three objective health outcomes in older people and investigated the extent to which general (not health-related) cognition and earlier life-course factors such as childhood cognitive ability, educational level and occupational class accounted for these associations. Participants were 730 community-dwelling older people (350 women; mean age 72.50 years, SD = 0.71). Physical fitness (defined by walk time, lung function, and grip strength), body mass index, and count of natural teeth were used as health outcomes. Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), Shortened Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA), and Newest Vital Sign (NVS) were used to measure health literacy. Age 11 and concurrent general cognitive ability, educational level, and occupational social class were used as covariates. Lower REALM, S-TOFHLA and NVS scores were associated with worse scores on all health outcomes (β = .09 to .17). However, cognitive ability in old age and childhood and educational and occupational levels accounted for the majority of these associations: After adjusting for these covariates, only physical fitness was significantly associated with REALM and S-TOFHLA (β = .06 and .11). Low health literacy was associated with poorer health largely because it reflected general cognitive ability, educational and/or occupational levels. These variables plays some role in health beyond their association with the reading and numeracy skills captured by common health literacy measures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of epidemiology , performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study. For radiobiology, the main objectives are: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phase of its development, (2) to assess the genetic risks of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation, (3) to elucidate the mechanisms by which damage to the brain and mental retardation are caused in man after prenatal irradiation. The main achievements in these domains for 1997 are presented

  6. Impacts of Family Rewards on Adolescents' Mental Health and Problem Behavior: Understanding the Full Range of Effects of a Conditional Cash Transfer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pamela A; Aber, J Lawrence; Wolf, Sharon; Berg, Juliette

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines the effects of Opportunity New York City-Family Rewards, the first holistic conditional cash transfer (CCT) program evaluated in the USA, on adolescents' mental health and problem behavior (key outcomes outside of the direct targets of the program) as well as on key potential mechanisms of these effects. The Family Rewards program, launched by the Center for Economic Opportunity in the Mayor's Office of the City of New York in 2007 and co-designed and evaluated by MDRC, offered cash assistance to low-income families to reduce economic hardship. The cash rewards were offered to families in three key areas: children's education, family preventive health care, and parents' employment. Results that rely on the random assignment design of the study find that Family Rewards resulted in statistically significant reductions in adolescent aggression and rates of substance use by program group adolescents as well as their friends, relative to adolescents in the control condition, but no statistically significant impacts on adolescent mental health. One possible mechanism for the benefits to adolescent behavior appears to be time spent with peers, as fewer adolescents in the program group spent time with friends and more adolescents in the program group spent time with family. Findings are discussed with regard to their implication for conditional cash transfer programs as well as for interventions targeting high-risk youth.

  7. Livestock and health: understanding the links between agriculture and health

    OpenAIRE

    Catelo, Maria Angeles

    2006-01-01

    "The linkages between livestock and health are significant, particularly for the poor, whether as livestock raisers or as consumers of meat and milk, or even as users of the environment. The processes of livestock production and consumption bring both benefits and problems for human health... Livestock production and consumption can lead to four main types of human health risks: (1) diseases transmitted from livestock to humans; (2) environmental pollution; (3) foodborne diseases and risks; a...

  8. Pharmaceutical industry marketing: understanding its impact on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrin, Carolyn B; Ross, Joseph S

    2008-09-01

    The delivery of modern health care entails significant involvement from the pharmaceutical industry, including developing and manufacturing drugs. However, the industry also has tremendous influence on the practice of medicine through its considerable marketing efforts, both to patients through direct to consumer advertising, and to physicians through detailing, providing samples, continuing medical education, and other efforts. This article will review the role that pharmaceutical marketing plays in health care, and the substantial evidence surrounding its influence on patient and physician behaviors, with additional discussion of the medical device industry, all with particular attention to women's health. Understanding the effects of pharmaceutical marketing on women's health, through discussion of relevant examples-including oral contraceptive pills, drugs for premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Pap smear cytology techniques, and neonatal herpes prophylaxis-will help ensure that women receive unbiased, evidenced-based care. We will conclude with a discussion of guidelines that have been proposed by professional organizations, policy makers, and universities, to assist physicians in managing exposure to pharmaceutical marketing.

  9. A diagnostic approach to understanding entrepreneurship in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Karl J; Rivers, Patrick A; Schneller, Eugene S

    2006-01-01

    Health care is quite different from other industries because of its organizational structure, service delivery, and financing of health services. Balancing costs, quality, and access presents unique challenges for each stakeholder group committed to promoting the health and healing of its citizens. Using the diagnostic approach to health care entrepreneurship, we created a framework from research in the field to understand the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors most relevant to successful entrepreneurship.

  10. Towards a Common Understanding of the Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, G; Rubinelli, S; Reinhardt, J D; Bickenbach, J E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of health sciences is to maintain and improve the health of individuals and populations and to limit disability. Health research has expanded astoundingly over the last century and a variety of scientific disciplines rooted in very different scientific and intellectual traditions has contributed to these goals. To allow health scientists to fully contextualize their work and engage in interdisciplinary research, a common understanding of the health sciences is needed. The aim of this paper is to respond to the call of the 1986 Ottawa Charter to improve health care by looking both within and beyond health and health care, and to use the opportunity offered by WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for a universal operationalization of health, in order to develop a common understanding and conceptualization of the field of health sciences that account for its richness and vitality. A critical analysis of health sciences based on WHO's ICF, on WHO's definition of health systems and on the content and methodological approaches promoted by the biological, clinical and socio-humanistic traditions engaged in health research. The field of health sciences is presented according to: 1) a specification of the content of the field in terms of people's health needs and the societal response to them, 2) a meta-level framework to exhaustively represent the range of mutually recognizable scientific disciplines engaged in health research and 3) a heuristic framework for the specification of a set of shared methodological approaches relevant across the range of these disciplines. This conceptualization of health sciences is offered to contextualize the work of health researchers, thereby fostering interdisciplinarity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Longitudinal Changes in Psychological States in Online Health Community Members: Understanding the Long-Term Effects of Participating in an Online Depression Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert; Conway, Mike

    2017-03-20

    Major depression is a serious challenge at both the individual and population levels. Although online health communities have shown the potential to reduce the symptoms of depression, emotional contagion theory suggests that negative emotion can spread within a community, and prolonged interactions with other depressed individuals has potential to worsen the symptoms of depression. The goals of our study were to investigate longitudinal changes in psychological states that are manifested through linguistic changes in depression community members who are interacting with other depressed individuals. We examined emotion-related language usages using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program for each member of a depression community from Reddit. To measure the changes, we applied linear least-squares regression to the LIWC scores against the interaction sequence for each member. We measured the differences in linguistic changes against three online health communities focusing on positive emotion, diabetes, and irritable bowel syndrome. On average, members of an online depression community showed improvement in 9 of 10 prespecified linguistic dimensions: "positive emotion," "negative emotion," "anxiety," "anger," "sadness," "first person singular," "negation," "swear words," and "death." Moreover, these members improved either significantly or at least as much as members of other online health communities. We provide new insights into the impact of prolonged participation in an online depression community and highlight the positive emotion change in members. The findings of this study should be interpreted with caution, because participating in an online depression community is not the sole factor for improvement or worsening of depressive symptoms. Still, the consistent statistical results including comparative analyses with different communities could indicate that the emotion-related language usage of depression community members are improving either

  12. Understanding the dynamic interactions driving Zambian health centre performance: a case-based health systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Stephanie M; Chipukuma, Julien M; Hanefeld, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite being central to achieving improved population health outcomes, primary health centres in low- and middle-income settings continue to underperform. Little research exists to adequately explain how and why this is the case. This study aimed to test the relevance and usefulness of an adapted conceptual framework for improving our understanding of the mechanisms and causal pathways influencing primary health centre performance. Methods A theory-driven, case-study approach was adopted. Four Zambian health centres were purposefully selected with case data including health-care worker interviews (n = 60); patient interviews (n = 180); direct observation of facility operations (2 weeks/centre) and key informant interviews (n = 14). Data were analysed to understand how the performance of each site was influenced by the dynamic interactions between system ‘hardware’ and ‘software’ acting on mechanisms of accountability. Findings Structural constraints including limited resources created challenging service environments in which work overload and stockouts were common. Health workers’ frustration with such conditions interacted with dissatisfaction with salary levels eroding service values and acting as a catalyst for different forms of absenteeism. Such behaviours exacerbated patient–provider ratios and increased the frequency of clinical and administrative shortcuts. Weak health information systems and lack of performance data undermined providers’ answerability to their employer and clients, and a lack of effective sanctions undermined supervisors’ ability to hold providers accountable for these transgressions. Weak answerability and enforceability contributed to a culture of impunity that masked and condoned weak service performance in all four sites. Conclusions Health centre performance is influenced by mechanisms of accountability, which are in turn shaped by dynamic interactions between system hardware and system software. Our

  13. Climate Effects on Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidance and Trainings Webinars Data and Tools Publications Climate Effects on Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... effects has been excerpted from the Third National Climate Assessment’s Health Chapter . Additional information regarding the health ...

  14. Knowledge and understanding of health insurance: challenges and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Andrew J; Hanoch, Yaniv

    2017-07-13

    As coverage is expanded in health systems that rely on consumers to choose health insurance plans that best meet their needs, interest in whether consumers possess sufficient understanding of health insurance to make good coverage decisions is growing. The recent IJHPR article by Green and colleagues-examining understanding of supplementary health insurance (SHI) among Israeli consumers-provides an important and timely answer to the above question. Indeed, their study addresses similar problems to the ones identified in the US health care market, with two notable findings. First, they show that overall-regardless of demographic variables-there are low levels of knowledge about SHI, which the literature has come to refer to more broadly as "health insurance literacy." Second, they find a significant disparity in health insurance literacy between different SES groups, where Jews were significantly more knowledgeable about SHI compared to their Arab counterparts.The authors' findings are consistent with a growing body of literature from the U.S. and elsewhere, including our own, presenting evidence that consumers struggle with understanding and using health insurance. Studies in the U.S. have also found that difficulties are generally more acute for populations considered the most vulnerable and consequently most in need of adequate and affordable health insurance coverage.The authors' findings call attention to the need to tailor communication strategies aimed at mitigating health insurance literacy and, ultimately, access and outcomes disparities among vulnerable populations in Israel and elsewhere. It also raises the importance of creating insurance choice environments in health systems relying on consumers to make coverage decisions that facilitate the decision process by using "choice architecture" to, among other things, simplify plan information and highlight meaningful differences between coverage options.

  15. Longitudinal Trajectory of Adolescent Exposure to Community Violence and Depressive Symptoms Among Adolescents and Young Adults: Understanding the Effect of Mental Health Service Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Yi; Corvo, Kenneth; Lee, Yookyong; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2017-01-01

    Research on the impact of exposure to community violence tends to define victimization as a single construct. This study differentiates between direct and indirect violence victimization in their association with mental health problems and mental health service use. This study includes 8947 individuals from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and examines (1) whether sub-types of adolescent victimization are linked to depressive symptoms; (2) whether adolescent victimization is linked with mental health service use; and (3) the role of mental health service use in attenuating symptoms arising from victimizations. Adolescents witnessing community violence were more likely to experience depressive symptoms during adolescence but not during their young adulthood; direct exposure to violence during adolescence does not predict depressive symptoms in adolescence but does in adulthood. Use of mental health service mediates report of depressive symptoms for adolescent witnessing community violence.

  16. Understanding informal payments in health care: motivation of health workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Thomas, Steve; Bidwell, Posy; Mtui, Tina; Mwisongo, Aziza

    2009-06-30

    There is growing evidence that informal payments for health care are fairly common in many low- and middle-income countries. Informal payments are reported to have a negative consequence on equity and quality of care; it has been suggested, however, that they may contribute to health worker motivation and retention. Given the significance of motivation and retention issues in human resources for health, a better understanding of the relationships between the two phenomena is needed. This study attempts to assess whether and in what ways informal payments occur in Kibaha, Tanzania. Moreover, it aims to assess how informal earnings might help boost health worker motivation and retention. Nine focus groups were conducted in three health facilities of different levels in the health system. In total, 64 health workers participated in the focus group discussions (81% female, 19% male) and where possible, focus groups were divided by cadre. All data were processed and analysed by means of the NVivo software package. The use of informal payments in the study area was confirmed by this study. Furthermore, a negative relationship between informal payments and job satisfaction and better motivation is suggested. Participants mentioned that they felt enslaved by patients as a result of being bribed and this resulted in loss of self-esteem. Furthermore, fear of detection was a main demotivating factor. These factors seem to counterbalance the positive effect of financial incentives. Moreover, informal payments were not found to be related to retention of health workers in the public health system. Other factors such as job security seemed to be more relevant for retention. This study suggests that the practice of informal payments contributes to the general demotivation of health workers and negatively affects access to health care services and quality of the health system. Policy action is needed that not only provides better financial incentives for individuals but also

  17. Understanding informal payments in health care: motivation of health workers in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidwell Posy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that informal payments for health care are fairly common in many low- and middle-income countries. Informal payments are reported to have a negative consequence on equity and quality of care; it has been suggested, however, that they may contribute to health worker motivation and retention. Given the significance of motivation and retention issues in human resources for health, a better understanding of the relationships between the two phenomena is needed. This study attempts to assess whether and in what ways informal payments occur in Kibaha, Tanzania. Moreover, it aims to assess how informal earnings might help boost health worker motivation and retention. Methods Nine focus groups were conducted in three health facilities of different levels in the health system. In total, 64 health workers participated in the focus group discussions (81% female, 19% male and where possible, focus groups were divided by cadre. All data were processed and analysed by means of the NVivo software package. Results The use of informal payments in the study area was confirmed by this study. Furthermore, a negative relationship between informal payments and job satisfaction and better motivation is suggested. Participants mentioned that they felt enslaved by patients as a result of being bribed and this resulted in loss of self-esteem. Furthermore, fear of detection was a main demotivating factor. These factors seem to counterbalance the positive effect of financial incentives. Moreover, informal payments were not found to be related to retention of health workers in the public health system. Other factors such as job security seemed to be more relevant for retention. Conclusion This study suggests that the practice of informal payments contributes to the general demotivation of health workers and negatively affects access to health care services and quality of the health system. Policy action is needed that not only

  18. Understanding Digital Health as Public Pedagogy: A Critical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Rich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues on behalf of a public pedagogy approach to developing a critical understanding of digital health technologies. It begins by appraising the hitherto polarised articulations of digital innovation as either techno-utopian or techno-dystopian, examining these expectations of technology and considering the tensions between them. It subsequently outlines how a public pedagogy approach can help mediate between these views, offering a more contextualised, socio-political perspective of mHealth. This approach teases out the nuances of digital health by engaging with the complexities of embodied learning. Furthermore, it urges caution against viewing these pedagogical forces as one of transference, or simple governance. To this end, we therefore contextualise our critique of digital health, within an attempt to reconstitute an understanding of public pedagogies of technology.

  19. "La Palabra Es Salud" (The Word Is Health): Combining Mixed Methods and CBPR to Understand the Comparative Effectiveness of Popular and Conventional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Noelle; Hughes, Adele; Rodriguez, Adriana; Potter, Catherine; Rios-Campos, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the role of social conditions in health has led to calls for methods that can be used to change social conditions. Popular education has demonstrated great promise as a methodology that can be used to address the underlying social and structural determinants of health. To date, most studies of popular education have used…

  20. Understanding Productivity and Technostress for Oncology Nurses Using an Electronic Health Record (EHR) to Increase Safety, Quality, and Effectiveness of Care for Patients with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth M. Wertz

    2013-01-01

    Health information technology has become more prevalent in hospitals, physician offices, clinics, and other areas of medical treatment, especially since the federal government passed legislation to offer incentive payments for the meaningful use of electronic health records (EHRs). Previous research demonstrated a decrease in medical errors as…

  1. Multipollutant health effect simulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Resulting betas (health effects) from a variety of copollutant epidemiologic models used to analyze the impact of exposure measurement error on health effect...

  2. Understanding Citizenship, Understanding Social Media? The effects of digital media on citizenship understanding and political participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; Albæk, Erik

    Is there a connection between increased use of digital media and changing patterns of political participation? This study tests how use of online media for different purposes (social interaction, creative expression, online news use, social media news use) is related to three types of political...... online survey waves and a smartphone-based media diary that documents respondents’ social media use. Results indicate support for a new pathway to participation, but the relationship depends on whether citizens are socialized in a digital media environment....... participation. It examines whether mobilizing effects are partly indirect due to different understandings of citizenship (dutiful, optional, individual, collective) that may be fostered by digital media use. The study is based on a survey of a sample of the Danish population (n=1322), including data from two...

  3. USAGE OF FOOD HEALTH CLAIMS AND RELATED CONSUMER UNDERSTANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima KHURSHID

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies in various countries have been conducted in the context of effect of food health claims onto consumer health and purchase behavior. Health claim messages vary from country to country; but overall consumers view these claims as useful. Generally it is observed that consumers prefer short and concise health claim messages as compared to more long and complex ones. Moreover consumers are of the viewpoint that health claims are more effective if supported and approved by government. Foods with health claims are viewed healthier by consumers, but in some cases consumers may get discouraged by health claims when they are unable to properly comprehend the intended message of nutrition claims. Consumers remain vague between distinguishing health claims, content and structure-function of nutrients. Furthermore there is past evidence that in few instances consumers have improved their dietary choices and knowledge regarding health concern because of use of health claims by manufacturers and governing bodies. This study is a review of contemporary health claim practices in the global upfront.

  4. Understanding the effects of fire management practices on forest health: Implications for weeds and vegetation structure (Project INT-F-04-01) [Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne E. Black; Peter Landres

    2011-01-01

    Current fire policy to restore ecosystem function and resiliency and reduce buildup of hazardous fuels implies a larger future role for fire (both natural and human ignitions) (USDA and USDOI 2000). Yet some fire management (such as building fire line, spike camps, or heli-spots) potentially causes both short- and long-term impacts to forest health. In the short run,...

  5. Understanding mental health through reading selected literature sources: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, A; Gass, J P

    2001-04-01

    The increasing use of the humanities in nurse education provides an alternative means of facilitating students' understanding of health issues. In part, this contributes to a critique of rationalist-technological approaches to education where knowledge is reduced to abstract, discernable and measured units. A more communal approach to education recognises the place of interpretation as part of learning and, within this, the significance of dialogue, identity, tradition, attachment and partnership. The reading of works of literature is one way in which the reader interprets texts in a multiplicity of ways in order to more fully understand the 'real' world. Mental health offers particular opportunities for literary descriptions. The evaluation of a learning unit within a mental health nursing branch programme where students read a number of works of literature is outlined. Results indicate a variety of student responses to use of such an approach. The authors assert the usefulness of these approaches in encouraging deeper understanding of complex issues faced in mental health nursing practice. At the same time, however, careful consideration is given to the place of such approaches within the overall philosophy of a curriculum programme. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  6. Developing an understanding between people: the key to global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Alina

    2010-05-01

    Global health and international health are prominent concepts within development issues today. Health is at the heart of many of the Millennium Development Goals, and the idea of a human right to health and health care has taken more hold in the forefronts of our minds. In acknowledgement of the globalised and interdependent society in which we live, this reflective piece uses personal experiences of anthropology and travel throughout the author's medical education to illustrate the pressing need for a better understanding between health workers and local populations. Experiences in Ecuador, Peru, India and Nepal, highlight the plurality of medicine. They show how medical education in the UK forms only one part of medical knowledge, and in particular how clinical practice requires the appreciation of a wider context. Within a multi-cultural society, it is essential that medical students learn new skills for the future. Teaching Anthropology and Sociology within the curriculum in the UK can educate students about how knowledge is created within a culture and to appreciate the diversity between cultures. Consideration of patients' backgrounds and beliefs allows health workers to develop relationships with the local population, which can be of invaluable use in making global health equality a reality. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Guide for Understanding Health Education and Promotion Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Richard W; Nahar, Vinayak K

    2018-03-01

    Planning, Implementing & Evaluating Health Promotion Programs: A Primer is a versatile and comprehensive resource on the theoretical and practical underpinnings of successful health promotion programs. The requirements for effective health promotion program development are presented with frequent use of practical planning examples, pedagogical devices, and expert rationale. Ideal for undergraduate and graduate students in health education, promotion, and planning courses, this 15-chapter textbook is organized in a manner that specifically addresses the responsibilities and competencies required of health education specialists as published in the Health Education Specialist Practice Analysis of 2015. The authors of this textbook are leaders in the field and provide readers with the skills necessary to carry out the full process of health promotion program execution, while also offering direct preparation for CHES and MCHES licensing exams.

  8. Boot Camp for Occupational Health Nurses: Understanding Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Debra M; Olszewski, Kimberly

    2015-08-01

    Social media is a buzzword frequently referred to in marketing materials, general media, and personal conversations. Although many refer to the term social media, some individuals do not understand its meaning or how it affects their daily lives at work and home. Since the expansion of the Internet to web 2.0, multiple platforms of communication occur virtually through various social media. Understanding and learning how to use these platforms are essential to stay connected with friends, family, and colleagues; advance connections to professional organizations; and extend educational opportunities. This article presents basic information for occupational health nurses to improve their understanding of social media and how to communicate virtually using different platforms safely and securely. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Understanding stigma in chronic health conditions: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, Joan

    2013-10-01

    This article explores the social processes in stigmatization and the theoretical background on the impact in chronic illness. Review of literature from social sciences and applications to health issues. Understanding the social utility of stigmatization in preserving social cohesion and protecting the social order is an important function. However, this process can be harmful when applied to persons with chronic illness, such as HIV-AIDS, and psychiatric illness. These individuals often become shamed, ostracized, isolated, discredited, and socially and economically marginalized. Recent theoretical work on stigma has identified several issues and patient responses that may have implications in many other chronic conditions. Stigma is based on visible or nonvisible health conditions and can be both externally imposed or perceived in a process of self-stigma. Understanding stigma can aid clinicians in providing supportive help for patients with chronic illness. Stigma has been well researched in a few chronic illnesses; however, future studies in other conditions are much needed. Recognizing the underlying social factors has potential use in health-promoting behaviors. Sensitivity to stigma allows health professionals to critically reflect on ways the healthcare environment may add to stigma for their patients. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  10. Assessing Community Leadership: Understanding Community Capacity for Health Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Billie; Wendel, Monica; Kelly Pryor, Brandy N; Ingram, Monique

    The purpose of this study was to pilot a quantitative instrument to measure aspects of community leadership within an assessment framework. The instrument includes 14 Likert-type questions asking residents how they perceive leaders within 5 sectors: Louisville Metro Council/Mayor's Office, the faith community, education, business, and the civic sector. Louisville/Jefferson County, Kentucky, has a population of about 743 000 residents. Respondents were asked to examine leadership within West Louisville, an economically deprived area of the city made up of 9 contiguous neighborhoods. This area is predominantly African American (78% compared with 22% in Louisville Metro), with an overall poverty rate of 43% (compared with 18% in Louisville Metro), and unemployment rate of 23% (compared with 8% in Louisville Metro). Residents of West Louisville are looking to leadership to address many of the inequities. Twenty-seven participants representing 7 community sectors completed the survey, of whom 90% work in West Louisville. The instrument measured local perceptions of leadership strength, effectiveness, trust, communication, community building, and leadership development. The majority of respondents agree that strong leadership exists across the 5 sectors, with variation regarding perceptions of the quality of that leadership. City leadership within the Mayor's Office and Metro Council is largely viewed positively, while the growing tensions within the education sector were reflected in the survey results. The perception of community leadership is important to understanding local community capacity to improve health and also inclusivity of community voice in the assessment and community improvement processes. Results from such assessments can offer useful information for strengthening community capacity and sustaining relationships needed to enact progressive and equitable solutions to address local issues. Leaders in a variety of settings can utilize this instrument to

  11. Lay understandings of the effects of poverty: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, Linda I; Veenstra, Gerry; Stewart, Miriam J; Raphael, Dennis; Love, Rhonda; Makwarimba, Edward; McMurray, Susan

    2005-11-01

    Although there is a large body of research dedicated to exploring public attributions for poverty, considerably less attention has been directed to public understandings about the effects of poverty. In this paper, we describe lay understandings of the effects of poverty and the factors that potentially influence these perceptions, using data from a telephone survey conducted in 2002 on a random sample (n=1671) of adults from eight neighbourhoods in two large Canadian cities (Edmonton and Toronto). These data were supplemented with interview data obtained from 153 people living in these same neighbourhoods. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to determine the effects of basic demographic variables, exposure to poverty and attribution for poverty on three dependent variables relating to the effects of poverty: participation in community life, the relationship between poverty and health and challenges facing low-income people. Ninety-one per cent of survey respondents agreed that poverty is linked to health, while 68% agreed that low-income people are less likely to participate in community life. Affordable housing was deemed especially difficult to obtain by 96%, but other resources (obtaining healthy food, giving children a good start in life, and engaging in healthy behaviours) were also viewed as challenging by at least 70% of respondents. The regression models revealed that when controlling for demographics, exposure to poverty explained some of the variance in recognising the effects of poverty. Media exposure positively influenced recognition of the poverty-health link, and attending formal talks was strongly related to understanding challenges of poverty. Attributions for poverty accounted for slightly more of the variance in the dependent variables. Specifically, structural and sociocultural attributions predicted greater recognition of the effects of poverty, in particular the challenges of poverty, while individualistic attributions

  12. Understanding purposes of regulation: a case example in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenfuss, J T; Hadley, T

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the purposes of governmental regulation and how an exploration of purpose can contribute to our understanding of specific regulations. The primary regulatory purpose is defined as the achievement of quality control of a subject system, its process or its product. Quality control via regulation is achieved through one or a combination of approaches: (1) accountability, (2) organizational development, (3) protectionism. Regulatory purpose and approach is illustrated by a case example of the development of regulations for partial hospitalization mental health services.

  13. Health effects of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure of people to radon has taken on increased interest during the last decade because of the understanding that buildings can serve to trap radon and its daughters, and thereby build up undesirable concentrations of these radioactive elements. Numerous studies of underground miners (often uranium miners) have shown an increased risk of lung cancer in comparison with nonexposed populations. Laboratory animals exposed to radon daughters also develop lung cancer. The abundant epidemiological and experimental data have established the carcinogenicity of radon progeny. Those observations are of considerable importance, because uranium, from which radon and its progeny arise, is ubiquitous in the earth's crust, including coal mines. Risk estimates of the health effects of long-term exposures at relatively low levels require continued development, especially to address the potential health effects of radon and radon daughters in homes and occupational settings where the exposure levels are less than levels in underground uranium and other metal mines that have been the subject of epidemiological studies. Two approaches can be used to characterize the lung-cancer risks associated with radon-daughter exposure: mathematical representations of the respiratory tract that model radiation doses to target cells and epidemiological investigation of exposed populations, mainly underground uranium miners. The mathematically-based dosimetric approach provides an estimate of lung cancer risk related to radon-daughter exposure based specifically on modeling of the dose to target cells. The various dosimetric models all require assumptions, some of which are not subject to direct verification, as to breathing rates; the deposition of radon daughters in the respiratory tract; and the type, nature, and location of the target cells for cancer induction. The most recent large committee effort drawn together to evaluate this issue was sponsored by the National Research Council

  14. Understanding Early Childhood Mental Health: A Practical Guide for Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Susan Janko, Ed.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating infant mental health services into early education programs leads to better child outcomes and stronger parent-child relationships--the big question is how to do it appropriately and effectively. Clear answers are in this accessible textbook, created to prepare early childhood professionals and programs to weave best practices in…

  15. The Crucible simulation: Behavioral simulation improves clinical leadership skills and understanding of complex health policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel; Vlaev, Ivo; McMahon, Laurie; Harvey, Sarah; Mitchell, Andy; Borovoi, Leah; Darzi, Ara

    2017-05-11

    The Health and Social Care Act 2012 represents the most complex National Health Service reforms in history. High-quality clinical leadership is important for successful implementation of health service reform. However, little is known about the effectiveness of current leadership training. This study describes the use of a behavioral simulation to improve the knowledge and leadership of a cohort of medical doctors expected to take leadership roles in the National Health Service. A day-long behavioral simulation (The Crucible) was developed and run based on a fictitious but realistic health economy. Participants completed pre- and postsimulation questionnaires generating qualitative and quantitative data. Leadership skills, knowledge, and behavior change processes described by the "theory of planned behavior" were self-assessed pre- and postsimulation. Sixty-nine medical doctors attended. Participants deemed the simulation immersive and relevant. Significant improvements were shown in perceived knowledge, capability, attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, and leadership competency following the program. Nearly one third of participants reported that they had implemented knowledge and skills from the simulation into practice within 4 weeks. This study systematically demonstrates the effectiveness of behavioral simulation for clinical management training and understanding of health policy reform. Potential future uses and strategies for analysis are discussed. High-quality care requires understanding of health systems and strong leadership. Policymakers should consider the use of behavioral simulation to improve understanding of health service reform and development of leadership skills in clinicians, who readily adopt skills from simulation into everyday practice.

  16. Understanding and managing organizational change: implications for public health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jon M

    2010-01-01

    Managing organizational change has become a significant responsibility of managers. Managing the change process within public health organizations is important because appropriately and systematically managing change is linked to improved organizational performance. However, change is difficult and the change process poses formidable challenges for managers. Managers themselves face increased pressure to respond to environmental influences and provide the necessary leadership to their organizations in the change process. In fact, managing organizational change has become a key competency for healthcare managers. This article addresses the important topic of organizational change in public health organizations. It provides a conceptual foundation for understanding organizational change and its relationship to healthcare organizational performance, and then discusses the types and nature of change, using some examples and evidence from those organizations that have successfully managed change. A framework for guiding public health managers in the change management process is provided. The article concludes with suggested management competencies to establish a change-oriented organization with the culture and capacity for change.

  17. What is a health worker? How spa therapists in a Norwegian health hotel understand their work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderssen, Jorid

    2016-01-01

    In Norway, as in many other wealthy countries, the number of health-related services that are being offered outside of the health sector is increasing. The present paper is based on qualitative interviews that were conducted with providers of health-related services at a commercial health hotel in Norway. The hotel is marketed as a health hotel - that is, a place for people with health problems and for those who need relaxation and an escape from their stressful everyday lives. The paper discusses whether the providers of this kind of service consider it a health service or if they distinguish and distance themselves from the health system. The interviews showed that they consider themselves health workers and refer to themselves as therapists. Even though they use therapy in the health sector as a model, they distinguish themselves from therapists in the health sector. They do not want to treat what they call sick people. Most of their therapy is directed toward cultivating or improving people's bodies and souls. These service providers think that they contribute to improving their guests' health by teaching them how to take care of themselves; enjoying oneself (for instance, by receiving skin treatment or a massage) is an important aspect of good health. According to the therapists, modern-day women, in particular, are often worn-out, and they deserve, and are entitled, to enjoy themselves. In these ways, the therapists use health to legitimize their services, and they challenge the current understanding of health.

  18. Using design principles to foster understanding of complex health concepts in consumer informatics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rupananda; Mark, Jessica H; Khan, Sharib; Kukafka, Rita

    2010-11-13

    Consumer health informatics tools can only be effective if patients comprehend their content. Optimal design may foster better patient comprehension and health literacy, which can improve health outcomes. We developed a patient-centric decision aid, Tailored Lifestyle Conversations (TLC), to help patients comprehend behavioral risks and set behavior change priorities for reducing risk of cardiovascular disease. The TLC decision aid was developed using a design framework based on Gestalt Principles of Perception. Further iteration was informed by qualitative user feedback. Preliminary analysis showed that the TLC decision aid helped patients understand their risk and supported their decisions on health behavior change. We identified design elements that supported patient comprehension, and other elements that were not effective, to inform iterative revision. This paper describes an effective methodology for the development of consumer health informatics tools that includes grounding in design principles complemented by iterative revision based on user testing and feedback.

  19. Environmental justice and health practices: understanding how health inequities arise at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    While empirical evidence continues to show that people living in low socio-economic status neighbourhoods are less likely to engage in health-enhancing behaviour, our understanding of why this is so remains less than clear. We suggest that two changes could take place to move from description to understanding in this field; (i) a move away from the established concept of individual health behaviour to a contextualised understanding of health practices; and (ii) a switch from focusing on health inequalities in outcomes to health inequities in conditions. We apply Pierre Bourdieu's theory on capital interaction but find it insufficient with regard to the role of agency for structural change. We therefore introduce Amartya Sen's capability approach as a useful link between capital interaction theory and action to reduce social inequities in health-related practices. Sen's capability theory also elucidates the importance of discussing unequal chances in terms of inequity, rather than inequality, in order to underscore the moral nature of inequalities. We draw on the discussion in social geography on environmental injustice, which also underscores the moral nature of the spatial distribution of opportunities. The article ends by applying this approach to the 'Interdisciplinary study of inequalities in smoking' framework. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Black South African children's understanding of health and illness: colds, chicken pox, broken arms and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K; Promtussananon, S

    2003-09-01

    To examine the understanding of both health and illness (colds, broken arms, chicken pox, AIDS) in the same black South African children The sample included 60 children (30 were 5-year-olds and 30 were 9-year-olds) selected by simple random sampling from a rural primary school. They were interviewed, using a semi-structured interview schedule, about their understanding of health issues and their exposure to learning about health or sickness. Differences across age in children's expressed understanding of health and illnesses were found. The 9-year-olds were more likely to give objective signs of chicken pox and AIDS than the 5-year-olds. They also knew more about objective symptoms of colds, chicken pox and AIDS, and were more likely to mention non-observable signs of colds and broken arms. Although there were no differences between the two age groups regarding 'knowing' strategies for avoiding illnesses, the older children had a more accurate knowledge about preventive measures than the younger children. The understanding of AIDS followed the same developmental sequence reported for children's understanding of general physical illness. The results have implications for the creation of developmentally appropriate and effective health and AIDS education curricula for primary and elementary grades.

  1. Health Effects of Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pet Shelters Protect Your Pets Health Effects of Tsunamis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... environmental hazards. The majority of deaths associated with tsunamis are related to drownings, but traumatic injuries are ...

  2. Understanding Spanish-Language Response in a National Health Communication Survey: Implications for Health Communication Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, A Susana; Willis, Gordon; Rutten, Lila Finney

    2017-05-01

    Spanish-speaking Latinos account for 13% of the U.S. population yet are chronically under-represented in national surveys; additionally, the response quality suffers from low literacy rates and translation challenges. These are the same issues that health communicators face when understanding how best to communicate important health information to Latinos. The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) offers a unique opportunity to understand the health communication landscape and information needs of the U.S. We describe the challenges in recruiting Spanish-speaking HINTS respondents and strategies used to improve rates and quality of responses among Spanish-speaking Latinos. Cognitive interviewing techniques helped to better understand how Spanish-speaking Latinos were interpreting the survey questions, and the extent to which these interpretations matched English-speaking respondents' interpretations. Some Spanish-speaking respondents had difficulty with the questions because of a lack of access to health care. Additionally, Spanish-speaking respondents had a particularly hard time answering questions that were presented in a grid format. We describe the cognitive interview process, and consider the impact of format changes on Spanish-speaking people's responses and response quality. We discuss challenges that remain in understanding health information needs of non-English-speakers.

  3. Understanding the role of patient organizations in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Tiago

    2015-12-01

    The involvement of patient representatives in health technology assessment is increasingly seen by policy makers and researchers as key for the deployment of patient-centred health care, but there is uncertainty and a lack of theoretical understanding regarding the knowledge and expertise brought by patient representatives and organisations to HTA processes. To propose a conceptually-robust typological model of the knowledge and expertise held by patient organisations. The study followed a case-study design. Data were collected within an international research project on patient organisations' engagement with knowledge, and included archival and documentary data, in-depth interviews with key members of the organisation and participant observation. Data analysis followed standard procedure of qualitative analysis anchored in an analytic induction approach. Analysis identified three stages in the history of the patient organisation under analysis - Alzheimer's Society. In a first period, the focus is on 'caring knowledge' and an emphasis on its volunteer membership. In a transition stage, a combination of experiential, clinical and scientific knowledge is proposed in an attempt to expand its field of activism into HTA. In the most recent phase, there is a deepening of its network of associations to secure its role in the production of evidence. Analysis identified an important relationship between the forms of knowledge deployed by patient organisations and the networks of expertise and policy they mobilise to pursue their activities. A model of this relationship is outlined, for the use of further research and practice on patient involvement. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Understanding physiotherapists' roles in ontario primary health care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Sinéad Patricia; Lucy, S Deborah; Brown, Judith Belle

    2014-01-01

    To understand physiotherapists' roles and how they are enacted within Ontario primary health care (PHC) teams. Following a pragmatic grounded theory approach, 12 physiotherapists practising within Ontario PHC teams participated in 18 semi-structured in-depth in-person interviews. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, then entered into NVIVO-8. Coding followed three progressive analytic stages and was iterative in nature, guided by grounded theory. An explanatory scheme was developed. Physiotherapists negotiate their place within the PHC teams through five interrelated roles: (1) manager; (2) evaluator; (3) collaborator; (4) educator; and (5) advocate. These five roles are influenced by three contextual layers: (1) inter-professional team; (2) community and population served; and (3) organizational structure and funding. Canada's PHC mandate (access, teams, information, and healthy living) frame the contexts that influence role enactment. To fulfill the PHC mandate, physiotherapists carry out multiple roles that are based on a broad holistic perspective of health, within the context of a collaborative inter-professional team and the community, through an evidenced-informed approach to care. There appear to be multiple ways of successfully integrating physiotherapists within PHC teams, provided that role enactment is context sensitive and congruent with the mandate of PHC.

  5. Understanding health literacy for strategic health marketing: eHealth literacy, health disparities, and the digital divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Graham D; Dutta, Mohan Jyoti

    2008-01-01

    Even despite policy efforts aimed at reducing health-related disparities, evidence mounts that population-level gaps in literacy and healthcare quality are increasing. This widening of disparities in American culture is likely to worsen over the coming years due, in part, to our increasing reliance on Internet-based technologies to disseminate health information and services. The purpose of the current article is to incorporate health literacy into an Integrative Model of eHealth Use. We argue for this theoretical understanding of eHealth literacy and propose that macro-level disparities in social structures are connected to health disparities through the micro-level conduits of eHealth literacy, motivation, and ability. In other words, structural inequities reinforce themselves and continue to contribute to healthcare disparities through the differential distribution of technologies that simultaneously enhance and impede literacy, motivation, and ability of different groups (and individuals) in the population. We conclude the article by suggesting pragmatic implications of our analysis.

  6. Pushing the boundaries of research on human resources for health: fresh approaches to understanding health worker motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Aarushi; Scott, Kerry; Govender, Veloshnee; George, Asha

    2018-04-01

    A country's health workforce plays a vital role not only in serving the health needs of the population but also in supporting economic prosperity. Moreover, a well-funded and well-supported health workforce is vital to achieving universal health coverage and Sustainable Development Goal 3 to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. This perspective article highlights the potential of underutilized health policy and systems research (HPSR) approaches for developing more effective human resources for health policy. The example of health worker motivation is used to showcase four types of HPSR (exploratory, influence, explanatory and emancipatory) that move beyond describing the extent of a problem. Most of the current literature aiming to understand determinants and dynamics of motivation is descriptive in nature. While this is an important basis for all research pursuits, it often gives little information about mechanisms to improve motivation and strategies for intervention. Motivation is an essential determinant of health worker performance, particularly for those working in difficult conditions, such as those facing many health workers in low- and middle-income countries. Motivation mediates health workforce performance in multiple ways: internally governing health worker behaviour; informing decisions on becoming a health worker; workplace location and ability to perform; and influencing willingness to engage politically. The four fresh research approaches described can help policy-makers better understand why health workers behave the way they do, how interventions can improve performance, the mechanisms that lead to change, and strategies for empowering health workers to be agents of change themselves.

  7. The importance of social context in understanding and promoting low-income immigrant women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the social context and realities of Cape Verdean women in the U.S. as well as other immigrant and ethnic/racial groups is important to promote their overall health and well-being more effectively. The aim of this study was to gain a contextual understanding from the perspectives of health promoters who work with marginalized women. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine Cape Verdean women health promoters about their perspectives and experiences of health promotion practice with immigrant women in their community. Using a Glaserian grounded theory approach to analysis, six salient themes describing women's social context emerged: community and domestic violence, loss and isolation, economic injustice, immigration-related issues and abuse, unequal gender-based power relations, and cultural taboos. These findings challenge health researchers and practitioners to understand health problems and health promotion not only at an individual level, but at multiple levels of influence including interpersonal, family, neighborhood, and structural levels.

  8. Understanding family health information seeking: a test of the theory of motivated information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R

    2014-01-01

    Although a family health history can be used to assess disease risk and increase health prevention behaviors, research suggests that few people have collected family health information. Guided by the Theory of Motivated Information Management, this study seeks to understand the barriers to and facilitators of interpersonal information seeking about family health history. Individuals who were engaged to be married (N = 306) were surveyed online and in person to understand how factors such as uncertainty, expectations for an information search, efficacy, and anxiety influence decisions and strategies for obtaining family health histories. The results supported the Theory of Motivated Information Management by demonstrating that individuals who experienced uncertainty discrepancies regarding family heath history had greater intention to seek information from family members when anxiety was low, outcome expectancy was high, and communication efficacy was positive. Although raising uncertainty about family health history may be an effective tool for health communicators to increase communication among family members, low-anxiety situations may be optimal for information seeking. Health communication messages must also build confidence in people's ability to communicate with family to obtain the needed health information.

  9. Understanding dementia: effective information access from the Deaf community's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alys; Ferguson-Coleman, Emma; Keady, John

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns older Deaf sign language users in the UK. Its aim was to explore how to enable effective information access and promote awareness and understanding of dementia from a culturally Deaf perspective. A purposive sample of 26 Deaf people without dementia participated in one of three focus groups facilitated directly in British Sign Language (BSL) without an intermediate interpreter. The sample was differentiated by age, role in the Deaf community, and diversity of educational attainment and professional experience. A phenomenological approach underpinned the thematic analysis of data. The findings demonstrate: (i) translation into (BSL) is a necessary but not sufficient condition to support understanding. Attention to culturally preferred means of engagement with information is vital; (ii) the content of information is best presented utilising structures and formats which cohere with Deaf people's visual cognitive strengths; and (iii) the importance of cultural values and cultural practices in raising awareness and building understanding of dementia. These include collective rather than individual responsibility for knowledge transfer and the pan-national nature of knowledge transfer among Deaf people(s). The discussion demonstrates how these specific features of effective information access and awareness building have universal implications relevant to public engagement and the promotion of general knowledge consistent with the National Dementia Strategy (England). © 2014 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Understanding the impact of global trade liberalization on health systems pursuing universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reemerging universalistic approaches to health care, the objective of this article was to contribute to the discussion by highlighting the potential influence of global trade liberalization on the balance between health demand and the capacity of health systems pursuing universal health coverage (UHC) to supply adequate health care. Being identified as a defining feature of globalization affecting health, trade liberalization is analyzed as a complex and multidimensional influence on the implementation of UHC. The analysis adopts a systems-thinking approach and refers to the six building blocks of World Health Organization's current "framework for action," emphasizing their interconnectedness. While offering new opportunities to increase access to health information and care, in the absence of global governance mechanisms ensuring adequate health protection and promotion, global trade tends to have negative effects on health systems' capacity to ensure UHC, both by causing higher demand and by interfering with the interconnected functioning of health systems' building blocks. The prevention of such an impact and the effective implementation of UHC would highly benefit from a more consistent commitment and stronger leadership by the World Health Organization in protecting health in global policymaking fora in all sectors. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. From loquacious to reticent: understanding patient health information communication to guide consumer health IT design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Rupa S; Guterbock, Thomas M; Fitzgibbon, Kara; Williams, Ishan C; Wellbeloved-Stone, Claire A; Bears, Jaime E; Menefee, Hannah K

    2017-07-01

    It is increasingly recognized that some patients self-manage in the context of social networks rather than alone. Consumer health information technology (IT) designed to support socially embedded self-management must be responsive to patients' everyday communication practices. There is an opportunity to improve consumer health IT design by explicating how patients currently leverage social media to support health information communication. The objective of this study was to determine types of health information communication patterns that typify Facebook users with chronic health conditions to guide consumer health IT design. Seven hundred participants with type 2 diabetes were recruited through a commercial survey access panel. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct approaches to health information communication both on and off Facebook. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods were used to identify demographic and behavioral differences among profiles. Secondary analysis of qualitative interviews ( n  = 25) and analysis of open-ended survey questions were conducted to understand participant rationales for each profile. Our analysis yielded 7 distinct health information communication profiles. Five of 7 profiles had consistent patterns both on and off Facebook, while the remaining 2 demonstrated distinct practices, with no health information communication on Facebook but some off Facebook. One profile was distinct from all others in both health information communication practices and demographic composition. Rationales for following specific health information communication practices were categorized under 6 themes: altruism, instrumental support, social support, privacy and stigma, convenience, and Facebook knowledge. Facebook has been widely adopted for health information communication; This study demonstrates that Facebook has been widely adopted for health information communication. It also shows that the ways in which patients communicate health

  12. Understanding health through social practices: performance and materiality in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Cecily Jane

    2015-01-01

    The importance of recognising structure and agency in health research to move beyond methodological individualism is well documented. To progress incorporating social theory into health, researchers have used Giddens' and Bourdieu's conceptualisations of social practice to understand relationships between agency, structure and health. However, social practice theories have more to offer than has currently been capitalised upon. This article delves into contemporary theories of social practice as used in consumption and sustainability research to provide an alternative, and more contextualised means, of understanding and explaining human action in relation to health and wellbeing. Two key observations are made. Firstly, the latest formulations of social practice theory distinguish moments of practice performance from practices as persistent entities across time and space, allowing empirical application to explain practice histories and future trajectories. Secondly, they emphasise the materiality of everyday life, foregrounding things, technologies and other non-humans that cannot be ignored in a technologically dependent social world. In concluding, I argue the value of using contemporary social practice theories in health research is that they reframe the way in which health outcomes can be understood and could inform more effective interventions that move beyond attitudes, behaviour and choices. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Understanding the Health Needs and Barriers to Seeking Health Care of Veteran Students in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra-Hebert, Anita D; Santurri, Laura; DeChant, Richard; Watts, Brook; Rothberg, Michael; Sehgal, Ashwini R; Aron, David C

    2015-08-01

    Access to care at Veterans Affairs facilities may be limited by long wait times; however, additional barriers may prevent US military veterans from seeking help at all. We sought to understand the health needs of veterans in the community to identify possible barriers to health-seeking behavior. Focus groups were conducted with veteran students at a community college until thematic saturation was reached. Qualitative data analysis involved both an inductive content analysis approach and deductive elements. A total of 17 veteran students participated in 6 separate focus groups. Health needs affecting health-seeking behavior were identified. Themes included lack of motivation to improve health, concern about social exclusion and stigma, social interactions and behavior, limited access to affordable and convenient health care, unmet basic needs for self and family, and academics competing with health needs. Veterans face a range of personal, societal, and logistical barriers to accessing care. In addition to decreasing wait times for appointments, efforts to improve the transition to civilian life; reduce stigma; and offer assistance related to work, housing, and convenient access to health care may improve health in veteran students.

  14. Mediation, moderation, and context: Understanding complex relations among cognition, affect, and health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Ellis, Erin M; Hall, Marissa G; Moss, Jennifer L; Lillie, Sarah E; Brewer, Noel T; Klein, William M P

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have historically treated cognition and affect as separate constructs in motivating health behaviour. We present a framework and empirical evidence for complex relations between cognition and affect in predicting health behaviour. Main Outcome, Design and Results: First, affect and cognition can mediate each other's relation to health behaviour. Second, affect and cognition can moderate the other's impact. Third, context can change the interplay of affect and cognition. Fourth, affect and cognition may be indelibly fused in some psychological constructs (e.g. worry, anticipated regret and reactance). These four propositions in our framework are not mutually exclusive. Examination of the types of complex relations described here can benefit theory development, empirical testing of theories and intervention design. Doing so will advance the understanding of mechanisms involved in regulation of health behaviours and the effectiveness of interventions to change health behaviours.

  15. Health-related claims on food labels in Australia: understanding environmental health officers' roles and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon-Paoloni, Deanne; Yeatman, Heather R; Grigonis-Deane, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Health and related claims on food labels can support consumer education initiatives that encourage purchase of healthier foods. A new food Standard on Nutrition, Health and Related Claims became law in January 2013. Implementation will need careful monitoring and enforcement to ensure that claims are truthful and have meaning. The current study explored factors that may impact on environmental health officers' food labelling policy enforcement practices. The study used a mixed-methods approach, using two previously validated quantitative questionnaire instruments that provided measures of the level of control that the officers exercised over their work, as well as qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Local government; Australia. Thirty-seven officers in three Australian states participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews, as well as completing the quantitative questionnaires. Senior and junior officers, including field officers, participated in the study. The officers reported a high level of autonomy and control of their work, but also a heavy workload, dominated by concerns for public health and food safety, with limited time for monitoring food labels. Compliance of labels with proposed health claims regulations was not considered a priority. Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucracy was used to enhance understanding of officers' work practices. Competing priorities affect environmental health officers' monitoring and enforcement of regulations. Understanding officers' work practices and their perceptions of enforcement is important to increase effectiveness of policy implementation and hence its capacity to augment education initiatives to optimize health benefits.

  16. Understanding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies: key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhung; Wilson, Nick; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-11-01

    Pricing policies such as taxes and subsidies are important tools in preventing and controlling a range of threats to public health. This is particularly so in tobacco and alcohol control efforts and efforts to change dietary patterns and physical activity levels as a means of addressing increases in noncommunicable diseases. To understand the potential impact of pricing policies, it is critical to understand the nature of price elasticities for consumer products. For example, price elasticities are key parameters in models of any food tax or subsidy that aims to quantify health impacts and cost-effectiveness. We detail relevant terms and discuss key issues surrounding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies.

  17. INTRAFAMILY VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: UNDERSTANDING OF COMMUNITY HEALTH AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisama Nascimento Rocha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The intrafamily violence against children and adolescents constitutes a public health problem and can present itself in various forms. The professionals who compose the family health team, among them the community health agent (ACS, are in a strategic position to identify risks and potential victims of family violence against children and adolescents. This study has as objective: identify the understanding of ACS about domestic violence against children and adolescents. Descriptive study, with a qualitative nature, which had as scenario two Family Health Units in the city of Jequié/BA, and as subjects nine ACS of these units. Data were analyzed according to content analysis. From empirical data Violência intrafamiliar contra crianças e adolescentes emerged three categories: understanding of intrafamily violence, understanding of intrafamily violence against children and adolescents and types of intrafamily violence against children and adolescents. The results revealed that the ACS have a broad understanding in violence, which enable them to identify cases more easily. In this context, we emphasize that effective coping of violence against children and adolescents can only be done ifsociety gather multiple efforts, congregating areas and creating attention networks, especially at the local level.

  18. Unsafe occupational health behaviours: Understanding mercury-related environmental health risks to artisanal gold miners in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ato Armah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between environmental exposure and health outcomes is complex, multidirectional and dynamic. Therefore, we need an understanding of these linkages for effective health risk communication. Despite the severe health hazards, artisanal gold mining is widespread globally, with an estimated 30 million people engaged in it. In this study, the relationships between artisanal gold miners’ knowledge of environmental and health effects of Hg and compositional, contextual and occupational factors were assessed using generalized linear models (negative log-log regression. A cross-sectional survey in three urban gold mining hubs in Ghana (Prestea, Tarkwa and Damang, was carried out among 588 (482 male and 106 female artisanal gold miners. The results showed that 89% of artisanal gold miners had very low to low levels of knowledge whereas 11% had moderate to very high levels of knowledge of deleterious health effects of Hg. Also, individuals who perceived their health-related work conditions to be excellent had very low to low levels of knowledge of environmental and health effects of Hg. Interestingly, artisanal gold miners who were still working were less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their counterparts who were currently unemployed. Similarly, artisanal gold miners who had attained either primary or secondary education were less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their counterparts who had no formal education. This finding, although counterintuitive, can be understood within the fact that artisanal gold miners in Ghana without formal education tend to have considerably higher number of years of practical experience compared with their counterparts with formal education. Female artisanal gold miners were 68% less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their male counterparts (OR=0.32, p<0.05. Artisanal gold miners who had

  19. Developing Public Health Initiatives through Understanding Motivations of the Audience at Mass-Gathering Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Alison; Ranse, Jamie; Munn, Matthew Brendan

    2018-04-01

    This report identifies what is known about audience motivations at three different mass-gathering events: outdoor music festivals, religious events, and sporting events. In light of these motivations, the paper discusses how these can be harnessed by the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services. Lastly, motivations tell what kinds of interventions can be used to achieve an understanding of audience characteristics and the opportunity to develop tailor-made programs to maximize safety and make long-lasting public health interventions to a particular "cohort" or event population. A lot of these will depend on what the risks/hazards are with the particular populations in order to "target" them with public health interventions. Audience motivations tell the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services about the types of behaviors they should expect from the audience and how this may affect their health while at the event. Through these understandings, health promotion and event safety messages can be developed for a particular type of mass-gathering event based on the likely composition of the audience in attendance. Health promotion and providing public information should be at the core of any mass-gathering event to minimize public health risk and to provide opportunities for the promotion of healthy behaviors in the local population. Audience motivations are a key element to identify and agree on what public health information is needed for the event audience. A more developed understanding of audience behavior provides critical information for event planners, event risk managers, and Emergency Medical Services personnel to better predict and plan to minimize risk and reduce patient presentations at events. Mass-gathering event organizers and designers intend their events to be positive experiences and to have meaning for those who attend. Therefore, continual vigilance to improve public health effectiveness and efficiency can become best practice at events

  20. Effectiveness of CAM therapy: understanding the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staud, Roland

    2011-02-01

    By definition, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) attempts to diagnose and treat illnesses in unconventional ways. CAM has been classified as: (1) alternative medical systems (eg, traditional Chinese medicine [including acupuncture], naturopathic medicine, ayurvedic medicine, and homeopathy); (2) biologic-based therapies (eg, herbal, special dietary, and individual biologic treatments); (3) energy therapies (eg, Reiki, therapeutic touch, magnet therapy, Qi Gong, and intercessory prayer); (4) manipulative and body-based systems (eg, chiropractic, osteopathy, and massage); and (5) mind-body interventions (eg, meditation, biofeedback, hypnotherapy, and the relaxation response). This review focuses on how to assess the effectiveness of CAM therapies for chronic musculoskeletal pains, emphasizing the role of specific and nonspecific analgesic mechanisms, including placebo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding Health and Health-Related Behavior of Users of Internet Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimble, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about how actual use of Internet health-related information is associated with health or health-related behavior. Using a nationally representative sample of 34,525 from 2012, this study examined the demographics of users of Internet health-related information (users), reports estimates of association with several health and behavioral outcomes adjusting for demographic factors, and analyzed the sample by education level, race, gender, and age. Analysis of a large nationally representative sample shows evidence that users of health-related information (users) on the Internet are younger, more educated, more likely to be insured, more likely to be female, and less likely to be African American. After adjusting for demographic differences, users are more likely to have been diagnosed with hypertension, cancer, stroke, and high cholesterol, but no evidence of current hypertension, weight-related issues, or being in fair or poor health. Users are less likely to smoke and among smokers are more likely to attempt quitting. Users are more likely to exercise, get a flu shot, pap smear, mammogram, HIV test, colon cancer screening, blood pressure check, and cholesterol check, but likely to be heavy drinkers. With few exceptions, results appear robust across gender, age groups, level of education, and ethnicity. Use is generally positively associated with prior diagnosis for several conditions and behaviors related to improved health, but I find no relationship with existing health status. The association between use of health-related Internet information and health-related behavior seems robust across levels of education, age, gender, and race.

  2. Quantum effects in the understanding of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameroff, Stuart R; Craddock, Travis J A; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective on the development and application of quantum physics methodology beyond physics, especially in biology and in the area of consciousness studies. Quantum physics provides a conceptual framework for the structural aspects of biological systems and processes via quantum chemistry. In recent years individual biological phenomena such as photosynthesis and bird navigation have been experimentally and theoretically analyzed using quantum methods building conceptual foundations for quantum biology. Since consciousness is attributed to human (and possibly animal) mind, quantum underpinnings of cognitive processes are a logical extension. Several proposals, especially the Orch OR hypothesis, have been put forth in an effort to introduce a scientific basis to the theory of consciousness. At the center of these approaches are microtubules as the substrate on which conscious processes in terms of quantum coherence and entanglement can be built. Additionally, Quantum Metabolism, quantum processes in ion channels and quantum effects in sensory stimulation are discussed in this connection. We discuss the challenges and merits related to quantum consciousness approaches as well as their potential extensions.

  3. Functional health literacy and healthy eating: Understanding the brazilian food guide recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auristela Magalhães Coelho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship between the functional health literacy of Unified Heath System users and the understanding of food servings in the pocket version of the Brazilian Food Guide. Methods: Functional health literacy was assessed by the Brief Test of functional health literacy. Two dialogue rounds were conducted with patients with adequate functional health literacy (Group 1 and inadequate functional health literacy (Group 2. The dialogues were recorded and analyzed according to the discourse of the collective subject. Results: Most (58.0% users had inadequate functional health literacy. Five core areas were identified: understands serving sizes; does not understand serving sizes; serving sizes are confusing; unfamiliar/uncommon foods; small letters. Group 2 had more trouble understanding. Conclusion: Difficulty understanding hinders health promotion. Individuals need to have access to educational materials that are easier to understand and developed taking their functional health literacy into account.

  4. Understanding Digital Learning and Its Variable Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, B.

    2016-12-01

    An increasing proportion of undergraduate courses use an online or blended learning format. This trend signals major changes in the kind of instruction students receive in their STEM courses, yet evidence about the effectiveness of these new approaches is sparse. Existing syntheses and meta-analyses summarize outcomes from experimental or quasi-experimental studies of online and blended courses and document how few studies incorporate proper controls for differences in student characteristics, instructor behaviors, and other course conditions. The evidence that is available suggests that on average blended courses are equal to or better than traditional face-to-face courses and that online courses are equivalent in terms of learning outcomes. But these averages conceal a tremendous underlying variability. Results vary markedly from course to course, even when the same technology is used in both. Some research suggests that online instruction puts lower-achieving students at a disadvantage. It is clear that introducing digital learning per se is no guarantee that student engagement and learning will be enhanced. Getting more consistently positive impacts out of learning technologies is going to require systematic characterization of the features of learning technologies and associated instructional practices as well as attention to context and student characteristics. This presentation will present a framework for characterizing essential features of digital learning resources, implementation practices, and conditions. It will also summarize the research evidence with respect to the learning impacts of specific technology features including spaced practice, immediate feedback, mastery learning based pacing, visualizations and simulations, gaming features, prompts for explanations and reflection, and tools for online collaboration.

  5. Spirituality and personality: understanding their relationship to health resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Melissa N; Labbé, Elise E; Cochran, C Ryan

    2013-06-01

    A growing body of research suggests there are important relationships among spirituality, certain personality traits, and health (organismic) resilience. In the present study, 83 college students from two southeastern universities completed a demographic questionnaire, the NEO Five Factor Inventory, and the Resilience Questionnaire. The Organismic resilience and Relationship with something greater subscales of the Resilience Questionnaire were used for analyses. Health resilience was associated with four of the Big Five personality variables and the spirituality score. Health resilience was positively correlated with ratings of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and spirituality and negatively correlated with neuroticism. Forty-three percent of the variance of the health resilience score was accounted for by two of the predictor variables: spirituality and neuroticism. These findings are consistent with the literature and provide further support for the idea that spirituality and health protective personality characteristics are related to and may promote better health resilience.

  6. Talking about your health to strangers: understanding the use of online social networks by patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colineau, Nathalie; Paris, Cécile

    2010-04-01

    The internet has become a participatory place where everyone can contribute and interact with others. In health in particular, social media have changed traditional patient-physician relationships. Patients are organising themselves in groups, sharing observations and helping each other, although there is still little evidence of the effectiveness of these online communities on people's health. To understand why and how people use health-related sites, we studied these sites and identified three dimensions characterising most of them: informational/supportive; general/focused; and new relationships/existing ones. We conducted an online survey about the use of health-related social networking (SN) sites and learnt that, consistent with previous research, most patients were seeking information about their medical condition online, while, at the same time, still interacting with health professionals to talk about sensitive information and complex issues. We also found that, while people's natural social network played an important role for emotional support, sometimes, people chose to not involve their family, but instead interact with peers online because of their perceived support and ability to understand someone's experience, and also to maintain a comfortable emotional distance. Finally, our results show that people using general SN sites do not necessarily use health-related sites and vice versa.

  7. Toward a better understanding of the impact of mass transit air pollutants on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kumar, Pawan; Szulejko, Jan E; Adelodun, Adedeji A; Junaid, Muhammad Faisal; Uchimiya, Minori; Chambers, Scott

    2017-05-01

    Globally, modern mass transport systems whether by road, rail, water, or air generate airborne pollutants in both developing and developed nations. Air pollution is the primary human health concern originating from modern transportation, particularly in densely-populated urban areas. This review will specifically focus on the origin and the health impacts of carbonaceous traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP), including particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and elemental carbon (EC). We conclude that the greatest current challenge regarding urban TRAP is understanding and evaluating the human health impacts well enough to set appropriate pollution control measures. Furthermore, we provide a detailed discussion regarding the effects of TRAP on local environments and pedestrian health in low and high traffic-density environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding how information and ICTs can improve health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Peter A; Sen, Barbara A; Raptis, Dimitri A; Mettler, Tobias

    2012-02-01

    The 15th International Symposium for Health Information Management Research (ISHIMR) was organized jointly by University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland), the University of St Gallen (St Gallen, Switzerland) and the University of Sheffield (Sheffield, UK). Participants included researchers, healthcare professionals, health service managers and planners. The aim of the ISHIMR series of conferences is to bring together researchers and practitioners to disseminate, share and discuss research into how information and communication technologies can improve the management of information with the health sector.

  9. Understanding cultural and linguistic barriers to health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Kate; Krause, Elizabeth M S

    2010-01-01

    Nurses today are providing care, education, and case management to an increasingly diverse patient population that is challenged with a triad of cultural, linguistic, and health literacy barriers. For these patients, culture and language set the context for the acquisition and application of health literacy skills. Yet the nursing literature offers minimal help in integrating cultural and linguistic considerations into nursing efforts to address patient health literacy. Nurses are in an ideal position to facilitate the interconnections between patient culture, language, and health literacy in order to improve health outcomes for culturally diverse patients. In this article the authors begin by describing key terms that serve as background for the ensuing discussion explaining how culture and language need to be considered in any interaction designed to address health literacy for culturally diverse patients. The authors then discuss the interrelationships between health literacy, culture, and language. Next relevant cultural constructs are introduced as additional background. This is followed by a description of how literacy skills are affected by culture and language, a note about culturally diverse, native-born patients, and a presentation of case examples illustrating how culture and language barriers are seen in patients' healthcare experiences. The authors conclude by offering recommendations for promoting health literacy in the presence of cultural and language barriers and noting the need for nursing interventions that fully integrate health literacy, culture, and language.

  10. Understanding barriers to maternal child health services utilisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings also indicate that although health facility delivery is high in the districts surveyed, only the well-to-do non-literate, urbanite women and the ... rural communities included the need to improve the quality of maternal and child health service through the supply of major logistic deficiencies, the need to provide ...

  11. A system dynamics approach to understanding the One Health concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Xie

    Full Text Available There have been many terms used to describe the One Health concept, including movement, strategy, framework, agenda, approach, among others. However, the inter-relationships of the disciplines engaged in the One Health concept have not been well described. To identify and better elucidate the internal feedback mechanisms of One Health, we employed a system dynamics approach. First, a systematic literature review was conducted via searches in PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and ProQuest with the search terms: 'One Health' and (concept* or approach*. In addition, we used the HistCite® tool to add significant articles on One Health to the library. Then, of the 2368 articles identified, 19 were selected for evaluating the inter-relationships of disciplines engaged in One Health. Herein, we report a visually rich, theoretical model regarding interactions of various disciplines and complex problem descriptors engaged in One Health problem solving. This report provides a conceptual framework for future descriptions of the interdisciplinary engagements involved in One Health.

  12. Health Behavior Change Challenge: Understanding Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Claire F.

    2011-01-01

    This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful health behavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…

  13. The birth of mindpolitics : Understanding nudging in public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Rik; Schuilenburg, Marc

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the question: 'In what ways have nudging and other behavioural techniques entered the realm of policymaking for public health and what does that mean for the way contemporary society is governed?' In our genealogy of Dutch public health policy, we have identified four periods:

  14. Health Literacy: Exploring Nursing Challenges to Providing Support and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Elaine; Ferrell, Betty; Kanter, Elisa; Buller, Haley

    2018-02-01

    As patient advocates, oncology nurses must attend to varying levels of health literacy among patients and families. However, little is known about nurses' experiences and comfort with health literacy assessment and providing health literacy support.
. The purpose of this study is to explore nurse communication and patient health literacy.
. A cross-sectional survey design (N = 74) was used to explore nurse communication challenges with low-literacy patients and to measure nurses' frequency of assisting with patient literacy needs, perceived degree of difficulty communicating with low-literacy populations, and perceived comfort with health literacy support.
. A majority of the nurses reported communication challenges with patients who spoke English as a second language. Oncology nurses did not identify patient communication behaviors that indicated low health literacy. Nurses were least comfortable identifying low-literacy patients and assessing a patient's health literacy level. More experienced nurses reported more difficulty with low-literacy populations than less experienced nurses. Providing health literacy support to patients should be a core nursing skill.

  15. Understanding gender differences in m-health adoption: a modified theory of reasoned action model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Guo, Xitong; Lai, Kee-Hung; Guo, Feng; Li, Chenlei

    2014-01-01

    Mobile health (m-health) services are becoming increasingly popular in healthcare, but research on m-health adoption is rare. This study was designed to obtain a better understanding of m-health adoption intention. We conducted an empirical research of a 481-respondent sample consisting of 44.7% women and 55.3% men and developed a modified theory of reasoned action (TRA) model by incorporating the nonlinearities between attitude and subjective norms and the moderating effect of gender. The results indicate that, based on the study population in China: (1) facilitating conditions, attitude, and subjective norms are significant predictors of m-health adoption intention; (2) the model including the nonlinearities enhances its explanatory ability; (3) males enjoy a higher level of m-health adoption intention compared with females; (4) the modified TRA model can predict men's behavior intention better than that of women; and (5) males have an Edgeworth-Pareto substitutability between attitude and subjective norms in predicting m-health adoption intention. Thus, we found gender differences in m-health adoption from the perspective of social psychology.

  16. Globalization and healthcare: understanding health and medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Percivil M; Bridges, John Fp

    2006-08-01

    Faced with long waiting lists, the high cost of elective treatment and fewer barriers to travel, the idea of availing healthcare in another country is gaining greater appeal to many. The objective of this review is to perform a literature review of health and medical tourism, to define health and medical tourism based on the medical literature and to estimate the size of trade in healthcare. The Medline database was used for our literature review. In our initial search for 'health tourism' and 'medical tourism' we found a paucity of formal literature as well as conceptual ambiguity in the literature. Subsequently, we reviewed the literature on 'tourism' in general and in the context of healthcare. On the basis of 149 papers, we then sought to conceptualize health tourism and medical tourism. Based on our definitions, we likewise sought to estimate market capacity internationally. We defined health tourism as "the organized travel outside one's local environment for the maintenance, enhancement or restoration of an individual's wellbeing in mind and body". A subset of this is medical tourism, which is "the organized travel outside one's natural healthcare jurisdiction for the enhancement or restoration of the individual's health through medical intervention". At the international level, health tourism is an industry sustained by 617 million individuals with an annual growth of 3.9% annually and worth US$513 billion. In conclusion, this paper underscored the issue of a severely limited formal literature that is compounded by conceptual ambiguity facing health and medical tourism scholarship. In clarifying the concepts and standardizing definitions, and providing evidence with regard to the scale of trade in healthcare, we hope to assist in furthering fundamental research tasks, including the further development of reliable and comparable data, the push and pull factors for engaging in health and medical tourism, and the impact of health tourism but, more so, medical

  17. A scoping review to understand the effectiveness of linking schemes from healthcare providers to community resources to improve the health and well-being of people with long-term conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossabir, Rahena; Morris, Rebecca; Kennedy, Anne; Blickem, Christian; Rogers, Anne

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of people living with long-term conditions is increasing, accompanied by an increased expectation that patients will become more involved in self-management. Long-term conditions are associated with increased social isolation and poor physical and mental health. But there remains a gap in health provision between providing medical treatment and effectively addressing psychosocial well-being. One potential way of addressing this gap is by utilising social interventions which link patients from health services to community-based sources of support. However, the mechanisms involved in the delivery of interventions providing that link and their effectiveness remain unclear. This review adopted the methodological framework for conducting scoping studies, searching for both academic and grey literature on social interventions which link people from healthcare settings to a range of community and voluntary sector organisations. A literature search between May and June 2013, involving five electronic databases, hand searching of two journals and the use of Google search engine, identified seven studies relevant to the review question. In terms of key characteristics and mechanisms of the interventions, mental health conditions and social isolation were the most common reasons for referral to the interventions, and referrals were usually made through general practices. Almost all the interventions were facilitator-led, whereby the facilitator worked to identify and link participants to appropriate community-based resources. In regard to health and social outcomes and their cost-effectiveness, studies reported improvement to participants' psychological and social well-being as well as their decreased use of health services, although there were limited measures of participants' physical health outcomes. Interventions for linking patients from healthcare setting to community-based resources target and address psychosocial needs of participants. The review

  18. Understanding the promises and premises of online health platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Van Dijck

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the claims and complexities involved in the platform-based economics of health and fitness apps. We examine a double-edged logic inscribed in these platforms, promising to offer personal solutions to medical problems while also contributing to the public good. On the one hand, online platforms serve as personalized data-driven services to their customers. On the other hand, they allegedly serve public interests, such as medical research or health education. In doing so, many apps employ a diffuse discourse, hinging on terms like “sharing,” “open,” and “reuse” when they talk about data extraction and distribution. The analytical approach we adopt in this article is situated at the nexus of science and technology studies, political economy, and the sociology of health and illness. The analysis concentrates on two aspects: datafication (the use and reuse of data and commodification (a platform’s deployment of governance and business models. We apply these analytical categories to three specific platforms: 23andMe, PatientsLikeMe, and Parkinson mPower. The last section will connect these individual examples to the wider implications of health apps’ data flows, governance policies, and business models. Regulatory bodies commonly focus on the (medical safety and security of apps, but pay scarce attention to health apps’ techno-economic governance. Who owns user-generated health data and who gets to benefit? We argue that it is important to reflect on the societal implications of health data markets. Governments have the duty to provide conceptual clarity in the grand narrative of transforming health care and health research.

  19. Early term birth: understanding the health risks to infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Debra Vela

    2012-01-01

    Early term birth, which occurs at 37 to 38 weeks gestation, is often elective and can carry significant health risks to infants, including short-term and long-term health outcomes. Nurses and other health care providers involved in the care of pregnant women and infants need to be aware of these infants' physiologic vulnerability and potential short- term and long-term care requirements. Nurses can educate patients and raise awareness of the risks associated with early term birth. © 2012 AWHONN.

  20. Understanding Cervical Changes: A Health Guide for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the condition that I have? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment? Which treatment do ... National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact ...

  1. Understanding Prostate Changes: A Health Guide for Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flow. Like TURP, laser surgery requires anesthesia. One advantage of laser surgery over TURP is that laser ... National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact ...

  2. 'Health repertories': an understanding of lay management of minor ailments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nicola J; Cantrill, Judith A; Noyce, Peter R

    2002-07-01

    Data from a programme of research exploring information channels about health and medicines used by young adults (16-24 years old) in the UK were considered, in the light of existing schema and memory theory, to provide a concept of 'health repertories' for self-medication of minor ailments. Focus groups comprising a total of 48 young adults were conducted, followed by structured interviews with 76 young adults who visited a community pharmacy to purchase non-prescription medicines or to ask for advice, and case studies from this cohort. We propose that young adults develop a dynamic 'health repertory' of information for management of minor illness episodes, comprising a number of 'entries', and that these repertories are consistent with schema theory. Each 'repertory' includes description/labelling of symptoms, one or more self-medication strategies, and contingency plans (including formal health care intervention), if these strategies fail. Information in the repertory is drawn from both lay and professional channels.

  3. Using discrete choice experiments to understand preferences in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfarr, Christian; Schmid, Andreas; Schneider, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Whenever processes are reconfigured or new products are designed the needs and preferences of patients and consumers have to be considered. Although at times neglected, this becomes more and more relevant in health care settings: Which modes of health care delivery will be accepted? What are the patients' priorities and what is the willingness to pay? To which degree are patients mobile and for which kind of services are they willing to travel? Preferences, however, are difficult to measure, as they are latent constructs. This becomes even more difficult, when no past choices can be analyzed either as the service or the product is yet to be developed or as in the past there has not been free choice for patients. In such cases, preferences cannot be surveyed directly. Asking individuals openly for their attitudes towards certain services and products, the results are likely biased as individuals are not confronted with budget constraints and trade-offs. For this reason, discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are frequently used to elicit patient preferences. This approach confronts patients with hypothetical scenarios of which only one can be chosen. Over the past few years, this tool to reveal patients' preferences for health care has become very popular in health economics. This contribution aims at introducing the principles of DCEs, highlighting the underlying theory and giving practical guidance for conducting a discrete choice experiment in health economics. Thereby we focus on three major fields of patient demand: designing health insurance, assessing patient utility of new pharmaceuticals and analyzing provider choice. By having a closer look at selected international studies, we discuss the application of this technique for the analysis of the supply and the demand of health care as well as the implications for assessing patient mobility across different health care systems.

  4. Understanding global health governance as a complex adaptive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    The transition from international to global health reflects the rapid growth in the numbers and nature of stakeholders in health, as well as the constant change embodied in the process of globalisation itself. This paper argues that global health governance shares the characteristics of complex adaptive systems, with its multiple and diverse players, and their polyvalent and constantly evolving relationships, and rich and dynamic interactions. The sheer quantum of initiatives, the multiple networks through which stakeholders (re)configure their influence, the range of contexts in which development for health is played out - all compound the complexity of this system. This paper maps out the characteristics of complex adaptive systems as they apply to global health governance, linking them to developments in the past two decades, and the multiple responses to these changes. Examining global health governance through the frame of complexity theory offers insight into the current dynamics of governance, and while providing a framework for making meaning of the whole, opens up ways of accessing this complexity through local points of engagement.

  5. Understanding seasonal mobilities, health and wellbeing to Sanya, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Lirong; Xu, Honggang; Hannam, Kevin

    2017-03-01

    Both the ageing of the Chinese population and elderly mobility impact on the Chinese social infrastructure, triggering challenges to maintain elderly wellbeing. This paper reflects on the notion that seasonal mobility promotes wellbeing, and explores how two crucial factors, namely, forced migration and health conditions, influence the relations between seasonal retirement mobility and wellbeing. This study analyses amenity-led seasonal retired mobilities to Sanya as a case study, and adopts and develops a conceptual framework for relations between mobility and wellbeing in terms of daily activity, sociality, and context through seasonal mobility. Qualitative methods including participant observation, non-participant observation, in-depth interviews, and mobile ethnography were used to collect data. This revealed the heterogeneity of health conditions, and the constrained mobilities of seasonal retirees. Health and willingness for mobility are shown as significant factors in influencing the relations between mobility and wellbeing, which are in turn complicated and dynamic. Seasonal mobilities bring about difficulties for retirees particularly in terms of their efforts to reconstruct their previous life and self-continuities. However, it is argued that these retirees can merely maintain temporary and superficial wellbeing due to constant health concerns and uncertainties over potential temporary or permanent return to their places of origin. Those with serious health problems have more limitations, sacrificing other aspects of wellbeing for physical health. Practical implications from state, destination, and individual levels to better facilitate seasonal mobility and promote wellbeing are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding Determinants of Cardiovascular Health in a Mexican American Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, Karen A; Gulanick, Meg; Penckofer, Sue

    2017-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Hispanic Americans. Social and physical determinants of health unique to this community must be understood before interventions can be designed and implemented. This article describes a CVD risk assessment conducted in a primarily Mexican American community, using Healthy People 2020 as a model. Social (language, culture, awareness of CVD, and socio-economic status) and physical (presence and use of recreation areas, presence of grocery stores, public transportation, and environmental pollution) determinants of health as well as access to health services were assessed. Fifteen community leaders were interviewed using guided interviews. Database searches and direct observations were conducted. Using these methods provided comprehensive assessment of social and physical determinants of health, and access issues that were unique to the community studied. Findings demonstrated greater awareness of diabetes than CVD as a health problem, with little knowledge of CVD risk factors. Lack of access to health services (lack of insurance, lack of a medical home) and presence of cultural and socioeconomic barriers such as language, unemployment, low income, and lack of insurance were identified. The physical determinants such as environment presented fewer barriers, with adequate access to fruits and vegetables, transportation, and parks. Results revealed target areas for intervention.

  7. Understanding Health, Violence, and Acculturation Among South Asian Women in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Nitasha Chaudhary; Vyas, Amita N; McDonnell, Karen A; DiPietro, Loretta

    2017-12-07

    The devastating effects of experiencing violence in childhood are seen well into adulthood. This has been particularly difficult to assess among South Asians living in the U.S., due to a lack of disaggregated data on this ethnic group. In a web-based survey administered to a convenience sample of South Asian women living in the U.S. (n = 535), information was gathered on experience/exposure to childhood violence; adult intimate partner violence; and adverse health outcomes, including ever suicide ideation/attempt, experiences of quality of life and body esteem in adulthood. Further, an individual's acculturation levels were measured specifically looking at cultural identity which was guided by Berry's biculturalism model. This study found that acculturation status is a key factor with respect to childhood verbal, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as body esteem and an individual's well-being. These results suggest that acculturation plays a key role for childhood violence, as well as key adult health indicators. The findings in this study, suggest that more research is warranted to better understand the complex relationships between acculturation status and health. While studies of South Asian immigrants have increased substantially, the study on how acculturation influences family violence and health outcomes has lagged behind. The findings in this study will provide guidance for future work in understanding how acculturation can play a key role in addressing the health and well-being of South Asian women in the U.S.

  8. Health care labor relations law--understanding the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, S P; Keith, C L

    1981-01-01

    The 1974 amendments to the Labor Management Relations Act have created new problems of statutory interpretation in the rapidly evolving area of health care labor law. By including nonprofit hospitals under the auspices of the Act, the amendments have opened up a new area for unionization and have given rise to questions concerning the types of bargaining units that are appropriate in health care facilities. In the following article, the authors discuss these questions and other current issues in health care labor relations law. The issues include the determination of relevant bargaining units, the status of state nursing associations as labor organizations, and the ten-day strike notice requirement of the Labor Management Relations Act.

  9. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at https://www.opm.gov/ . Section navigation The environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Air Health effects of air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more ... The environment and your health Air Health effects of air ...

  10. A Life Course Approach to Understanding Neighbourhood Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vuijst, E.; van Ham, M.; Kleinhans, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Many theories on so-called neighbourhood effectseffects of the residential context on individual outcomes such as employment, education, and health – implicitly, or explicitly suggest lagged effects, duration effects, or for example, intergenerational effects of neighbourhoods. However, these

  11. Effect of Linked Rules on Business Process Model Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Indulska, Marta; Sadiq, Shazia

    2017-01-01

    of business processes has not been empirically evaluated. In this paper, we report on an experiment that investigates the effect of linked rules, a specific rule integration approach, on business process model understanding. Our results indicate that linked rules are associated with better time efficiency......Business process models are widely used in organizations by information systems analysts to represent complex business requirements and by business users to understand business operations and constraints. This understanding is extracted from graphical process models as well as business rules. Prior...... research advocated integrating business rules into business process models to improve the effectiveness of important organizational activities, such as developing shared understanding, effective communication, and process improvement. However, whether such integrated modeling can improve the understanding...

  12. Understanding the promises and premises of online health platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, J.; Poell, T.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the claims and complexities involved in the platform-based economics of health and fitness apps. We examine a double-edged logic inscribed in these platforms, promising to offer personal solutions to medical problems while also contributing to the public good. On the one

  13. Zika and Public Health: Understanding the Epidemiology and Information Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Pia D M; Holden, E Wayne

    2018-02-01

    Because Zika is a newly emerging infectious disease with little previous information known about it, there are many epidemiologic and clinical questions. The complexity of providing care to those who are at risk for infection or are already infected with Zika in this evidence-scarce environment cannot be understated. In this article, we provide an overview of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in the context of public health and pediatric health care. A broad public health focus is used to provide relevant information for addressing important questions about the epidemic and to facilitate communication with patients, parents, and caregivers within the current information environment. We explore issues regarding the epidemiology of the virus (including why ZIKV outbreaks are occurring), what has changed since the sporadic case reports before the outbreaks, why the true incidence is difficult to estimate, why attack rates vary by population and geography, and why the association between Zika and congenital Zika syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome have only come to light recently. Additionally, challenges related to the current information environment, traditional and informal information sources about the ZIKV, and examples of Zika public health communication campaigns are discussed. Importantly, we review the existing findings regarding the US population's Zika-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior by highlighting variations and gaps. We conclude by identifying related research questions that remain critical. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Health Effects of UV Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Topics: Sun Safety Contact Us Share Health Effects of UV Radiation Ozone layer depletion decreases our ... against these invaders. Fact Sheet Download the Health Effects of Overexposure to the Sun (PDF) Did You ...

  15. Understanding Health Seeking Behavior Of Health Care Professionals In Tertiary Care Hospitals In Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bana, Shazia; Yakoob, Javed; Jivany, Nourin; Faisal, Asima; Jawed, Humeira; Awan, Safia

    2016-01-01

    Health seeking behaviour refers to the behaviour of people towards seeking their own health through provided health services. The medical professionals are at a higher risk of avoiding health seeking behaviour because they believe they are aware of the diseases and their symptoms as well as the pharmaceutical management of the disease. The aim of this study was to understand the healthcare seeking behaviour of nurses and doctors as well as the factors affecting it in hospitals of a major city in a developing country. A cross-sectional study was designed and a self-report questionnaire was distributed to healthcare workers at four tertiary care hospitals from July, 2012 to December, 2014. A total of 1015 participants responded. There were 234 (23%) doctors, 664 (65%) nurses, 60 (6%) pharmacist and 57 (6%) paramedical staff. The doctors 194 (83%) had a greater access to medical facilities compared to nurses 278 (42%) (phealth compared to doctors 102 (44%) (phealth check-ups compared to doctor 234 (100%) (pseek healthcare when they get sick. Self-medication is common in both groups.

  16. Applying the reasoned action approach to understanding health protection and health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mark; McEachan, Rosemary; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) developed out of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior but has not yet been widely applied to understanding health behaviors. The present research employed the RAA in a prospective design to test predictions of intention and action for groups of protection and risk behaviors separately in the same sample. To test the RAA for health protection and risk behaviors. Measures of RAA components plus past behavior were taken in relation to eight protection and six risk behaviors in 385 adults. Self-reported behavior was assessed one month later. Multi-level modelling showed instrumental attitude, experiential attitude, descriptive norms, capacity and past behavior were significant positive predictors of intentions to engage in protection or risk behaviors. Injunctive norms were only significant predictors of intention in protection behaviors. Autonomy was a significant positive predictor of intentions in protection behaviors and a negative predictor in risk behaviors (the latter relationship became non-significant when controlling for past behavior). Multi-level modelling showed that intention, capacity, and past behavior were significant positive predictors of action for both protection and risk behaviors. Experiential attitude and descriptive norm were additional significant positive predictors of risk behaviors. The RAA has utility in predicting both protection and risk health behaviors although the power of predictors may vary across these types of health behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Do Americans Understand That Global Warming Is Harmful to Human Health? Evidence From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Kreslake, Jennifer M; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Rosenthal, Seth; Feinberg, Geoff; Leiserowitz, Anthony A

    2015-01-01

    Global warming has significant negative consequences for human health, with some groups at greater risk than others. The extent to which the public is aware of these risks is unclear; the limited extant research has yielded discrepant findings. This paper describes Americans' awareness of the health effects of global warming, levels of support for government funding and action on the issue, and trust in information sources. We also investigate the discrepancy in previous research findings between assessments based on open- versus closed-ended questions. A nationally representative survey of US adults (N = 1275) was conducted online in October 2014. Measures included general attitudes and beliefs about global warming, affective assessment of health effects, vulnerable populations and specific health conditions (open- and closed-ended), perceived risk, trust in sources, and support for government response. Most respondents (61%) reported that, before taking the survey, they had given little or no thought to how global warming might affect people's health. In response to a closed-ended question, many respondents (64%) indicated global warming is harmful to health, yet in response to an open-ended question, few (27%) accurately named one or more specific type of harm. In response to a closed-ended question, 33% indicated some groups are more affected than others, yet on an open-ended question only 25% were able to identify any disproportionately affected populations. Perhaps not surprising given these findings, respondents demonstrated only limited support for a government response: less than 50% of respondents said government should be doing more to protect against health harms from global warming, and about 33% supported increased funding to public health agencies for this purpose. Respondents said their primary care physician is their most trusted source of information on this topic, followed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health

  18. Primary health care professionals understanding on the practices of Occupational Therapy in the family health support center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Saraiva de Andrade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The expansion of the multi-professional team in Primary Health Care (APS input professional categories that have traditionally worked in the service of medium and high complexity. The lack of knowledge on the assignments of these new jobs can be an obstacle to effective interdisciplinary and sharing practices. Objective: The study aimed to analyze the professional healthcare team understanding on the Family and Support Center for Family Health (NASF and the practices of Occupational Therapy in APS, as a member of NASF team. Method: This study is characterized as exploratory and qualitative field, with data collected individually, through semi-structured interviews with professionals of a Family Health Team and a NASF team. We used content analysis for data processing. Results: We identified that the understanding of the teams on the role of the occupational therapist is partial, linking their practices basically with mental health and rehabilitation, confusing their duties with the other team members. Conclusion: It was difficult to differentiate occupational therapist own practices, even when the work is shared. This suggests the need to implement strategies, such as matrix-based strategies to overcome the gaps in knowledge between the team and the specifics of each profession engaged in APS.

  19. The numeracy understanding in medicine instrument: a measure of health numeracy developed using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, Marilyn M; Walker, Cindy M; Cappaert, Kevin J; Ganschow, Pamela S; Fletcher, Kathlyn E; McGinley, Emily L; Del Pozo, Sam; Schauer, Carrie; Tarima, Sergey; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Health numeracy can be defined as the ability to understand and apply information conveyed with numbers, tables and graphs, probabilities, and statistics to effectively communicate with health care providers, take care of one's health, and participate in medical decisions. To develop the Numeracy Understanding in Medicine Instrument (NUMi) using item response theory scaling methods. A 20-item test was formed drawing from an item bank of numeracy questions. Items were calibrated using responses from 1000 participants and a 2-parameter item response theory model. Construct validity was assessed by comparing scores on the NUMi to established measures of print and numeric health literacy, mathematic achievement, and cognitive aptitude. Community and clinical populations in the Milwaukee and Chicago metropolitan areas. Twenty-nine percent of the 1000 respondents were Hispanic, 24% were non-Hispanic white, and 42% were non-Hispanic black. Forty-one percent had no more than a high school education. The mean score on the NUMi was 13.2 (s = 4.6) with a Cronbach α of 0.86. Difficulty and discrimination item response theory parameters of the 20 items ranged from -1.70 to 1.45 and 0.39 to 1.98, respectively. Performance on the NUMi was strongly correlated with the Wide Range Achievement Test-Arithmetic (0.73, P < 0.001), the Lipkus Expanded Numeracy Scale (0.69, P < 0.001), the Medical Data Interpretation Test (0.75, P < 0.001), and the Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test (0.82, P < 0.001). Performance was moderately correlated to the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy (0.43, P < 0.001). The NUMi was found to be most discriminating among respondents with a lower-than-average level of health numeracy. The NUMi can be applied in research and clinical settings as a robust measure of the health numeracy construct.

  20. Health care and social media: What patients really understand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedebecke, Kyle; Beaman, Lindsey; Mugambi, Joy; Shah, Sanam; Mohasseb, Marwa; Vetter, Cheyanne; Yu, Kim; Gergianaki, Irini; Couvillon, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Background : Low health literacy is associated with decreased patient compliance and worse outcomes - with clinicians increasingly relying on printed materials to lower such risks. Yet, many of these documents exceed recommended comprehension levels. Furthermore, patients look increasingly to social media (SoMe) to answer healthcare questions. The character limits built into Twitter encourage users to publish small quantities of text, which are more accessible to patients with low health literacy. The present authors hypothesize that SoMe posts are written at lower grade levels than traditional medical sources, improving patient health literacy. Methods: The data sample consisted of the first 100 original tweets from three trending medical hashtags, leading to a total of 300 tweets. The Flesch-Kincaid Readability Formula (FKRF) was used to derive grade level of the tweets. Data was analyzed via descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The readability scores for the data sample had a mean grade level of 9.45. A notable 47.6% of tweets were above ninth grade reading level. An independent-sample t-test comparing FKRF mean scores of different hashtags found differences between the means of the following: #hearthealth versus #diabetes (t = 3.15, p = 0.002); #hearthealth versus #migraine (t = 0.09, p = 0.9); and #diabetes versus #migraine (t = 3.4, p = 0.001). Conclusions: Tweets from this data sample were written at a mean grade level of 9.45, signifying a level between the ninth and tenth grades. This is higher than desired, yet still better than traditional sources, which have been previously analyzed. Ultimately, those responsible for health care SoMe posts must continue to improve efforts to reach the recommended reading level (between the sixth and eighth grade), so as to ensure optimal comprehension of patients.

  1. Progress in understanding oral health and HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Ll

    2014-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, there have been significant advances in our scientific knowledge of HIV disease, including prevention, detection, medical management, and attempts at cure. Investigations and observations of the oral cavity in individuals with HIV disease have contributed substantially to scientific discovery and innovation. Challenges remain for managing existing and emerging oral diseases associated with HIV and understanding the contribution of latent oral mucosal reservoirs to HIV eradication. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Understanding rural and remote health: a framework for analysis in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Lisa; Humphreys, John S; Wakerman, John; Taylor, Judy

    2012-05-01

    People living in rural and remote areas face challenges in accessing appropriate health services, many of which struggle to recruit and retain staff. While researchers have documented these issues in Australia and internationally, rural health remains reactive to current problems and lacks comprehensive understanding. This paper presents a conceptual framework that can be used to better understand specific rural and remote health situations. The framework consists of six key concepts: geographic isolation, the rural locale, local health responses, broader health systems, social structures and power. Viewed through Giddens' theory of structuration, the framework suggests that rural health is understood as spatial and social relations among local residents as well as the actions of local health professionals/consumers that are both enabled and constrained by broader health systems and social structures. The framework provides a range of stakeholders with a guide to understanding rural and remote health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lay and health care professional understandings of self-management: A systematic review and narrative synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan Sadler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Self-management is widely promoted but evidence of effectiveness is limited. Policy encourages health care professionals to support people with long-term conditions to learn self-management skills, yet little is known about the extent to which both parties share a common understanding of self-management. Thus, we compared health care professional and lay understandings of self-management of long-term conditions. Methods: Systematic review and narrative synthesis of qualitative studies identified from relevant electronic databases, hand-searching of references lists, citation tracking and recommendations by experts. Results: In total, 55 studies were included and quality was assessed using a brief quality assessment tool. Three conceptual themes, each with two subthemes were generated: traditional and shifting models of the professional–patient relationship (self-management as a tool to promote compliance; different expectations of responsibility; quality of relationship between health care professional and lay person (self-management as a collaborative partnership; self-management as tailored support and putting self-management into everyday practice (the lived experience of self-management; self-management as a social practice. Conclusion: Self-management was conceptualised by health care professionals as incorporating both a biomedical model of compliance and individual responsibility. Lay people understood self-management in wider terms, reflecting biomedical, psychological and social domains and different expectations of responsibility. In different ways, both deviated from the dominant model of self-management underpinned by the concept of self-efficacy. Different understandings help to explain how self-management is practised and may help to account for limited evidence of effectiveness of self-management interventions.

  4. How Economic Analysis Can Contribute to Understanding the Links between Housing and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ralph; Preval, Nicholas; Howden-Chapman, Philippa

    2017-08-31

    An economic analysis of housing's linkages to health can assist policy makers and researchers to make better decisions about which housing interventions and policies are the most cost-beneficial. The challenge is to include cobenefits. The adoption in 2015 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals underscores the importance of understanding how policies interact, and the merit of comprehensively evaluating cobenefits. We explain our approach to the empirical assessment of such cobenefits in the housing and health context, and consider lessons from empirical economic appraisals of the impact of housing on health outcomes. Critical assumptions relating to cobenefits are explicitly examined. A key finding is that when wider policy outcome measures are included, such as mental health impacts and carbon emission reductions, it is important that effects of assumptions on outcomes are considered. Another is that differing values underlie appraisal, for example, the weight given to future generations through the discount rate. Cost-benefit analyses (CBAs) can better facilitate meaningful debate when they are based on explicit assumptions about values. In short, the insights drawn from an economic framework for housing-and-health studies are valuable, but nonetheless contingent. Given that housing interventions typically have both health and other cobenefits, and incorporate social value judgements, it is important to take a broad view but be explicit about how such interventions are assessed.

  5. Parental Understanding of Infant Health Information: Health Literacy, Numeracy and the Parental Health Literacy Activities Test (PHLAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Disha; Sanders, Lee; Perrin, Eliana M.; Lokker, Nicole; Patterson, Baron; Gunn, Veronica; Finkle, Joanne; Franco, Vivian; Choi, Leena; Rothman, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess parental health literacy and numeracy skills in understanding instructions for caring for young children, and to develop and validate a new parental health literacy scale, the Parental Health Literacy Activities Test (PHLAT). Methods Caregivers of infants (age 9th-grade numeracy skills. Mean score on the PHLAT was 68% (SD 18); for example, only 47% of caregivers could correctly describe how to mix infant formula from concentrate, and only 69% could interpret a digital thermometer to determine if an infant had a fever. Higher performance on the PHLAT was significantly correlated (p<0.001) with education, literacy skill, and numeracy level (r=0.29, 0.38, and 0.55 respectively). Caregivers with higher PHLAT scores were also more likely to interpret age recommendations for cold medications correctly (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.02, 2.6). Internal reliability on the PHLAT was good (KR-20=0.76). The PHLAT-10 also demonstrated good validity and reliability. Conclusions Many parents do not understand common health information required to care for their infants. The PHLAT, and PHLAT-10 have good reliability and validity and may be useful tools for identifying parents who need better communication of health-related instructions. PMID:20674532

  6. Understanding the working relationships between National Health Service clinicians and finance staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minogue, Virginia; McCaffry, Rebecca

    2017-03-13

    Purpose The Department of Health and the National Health Service (NHS) Future Focused Finance (FFF) programme promotes effective engagement between clinical and finance staff. Surveys undertaken by the Department of Health between 2013 and 2015 found few NHS Trusts reported high levels of engagement. The purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of current working relationships between NHS clinical and finance professionals and how they might be supported to become more effective. Design/methodology/approach Ipsos MORI were commissioned by the NHS FFF programme to undertake an online survey of NHS clinical and finance staff between June and August 2015. Findings The majority of clinicians had a member of a finance team linked to their speciality or directorate. Clinical and finance professionals have a positive view of joint working preferring face-to-face contact. Clinician's confidence in their understanding of finance was generally good and finance staff felt they had a good understanding of clinical issues. Effective working relationships were facilitated by face-to-face contact, a professional relationship, and the availability of clear, well presented finance and activity data. Research limitations/implications Data protection issues limited the accessibility of the survey team to NHS staff resulting in a relatively low-response rate. Other forms of communication, including social media, were utilised to increase access to the survey. Originality/value The FFF programme is a unique programme aimed at making the NHS finance profession fit for the future. The close partnering work stream brings together the finance and clinical perspective to share knowledge, evidence, training, and to develop good practice and engagement.

  7. Health information technology adoption: Understanding research protocols and outcome measurements for IT interventions in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchio, Tiago K; Facelli, Julio C; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Scammon, Debra L; Bowes, Watson A; Narus, Scott P

    2016-10-01

    To classify and characterize the variables commonly used to measure the impact of Information Technology (IT) adoption in health care, as well as settings and IT interventions tested, and to guide future research. We conducted a descriptive study screening a sample of 236 studies from a previous systematic review to identify outcome measures used and the availability of data to calculate these measures. We also developed a taxonomy of commonly used measures and explored setting characteristics and IT interventions. Clinical decision support is the most common intervention tested, primarily in non-hospital-based clinics and large academic hospitals. We identified 15 taxa representing the 79 most commonly used measures. Quality of care was the most common category of these measurements with 62 instances, followed by productivity (11 instances) and patient safety (6 instances). Measures used varied according to type of setting, IT intervention and targeted population. This study provides an inventory and a taxonomy of commonly used measures that will help researchers select measures in future studies as well as identify gaps in their measurement approaches. The classification of the other protocol components such as settings and interventions will also help researchers identify underexplored areas of research on the impact of IT interventions in health care. A more robust and standardized measurement system and more detailed descriptions of interventions and settings are necessary to enable comparison between studies and a better understanding of the impact of IT adoption in health care settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. COSYMA: Health effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.

    1995-02-01

    As one of the main objectives of the MARIA project (''Methods for Assessing the Radiological Impact of Accidents'') initiated by the Commission of the European Communities the program package COSYMA (''COde SYstem from MARIA'') for assessing the radiological and economic off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere has been jointly developed by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK), FRG, and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), UK. COSYMA includes models and data for assessing a broad spectrum of accident consequences, and they are implemented in independent modules. The subject of this report are those modules, which incorporate models and data for assessing individual and collective risks for deterministic and stochastic health effects. It describes the models implemented, the mathematical algorithms and the required data. Examples are given and explained for the input and output part of the modules. (orig.)

  9. Understanding informal payments for health care: the example of Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin

    2002-12-01

    Throughout the 1990s, in response to funding deficits, out-of-pocket payment has grown as a share of total expenditure in countries in transition. A clear policy response to informal payments is, however, lacking. The current study explores informal payments in Bulgaria within a conceptual framework developed by triangulating information using a variety of methodologies. To estimate the scale and determinants of informal payments in the health sector of Bulgaria and to identify who benefits, the characteristics and timing of payments, and the reasons for paying. Data were derived from a national representative survey of 1547 individuals complemented by in-depth interviews and focus groups with over 100 respondents, conducted in Bulgaria in 1997. Informal payments are defined as a monetary or in-kind transaction between a patient and a staff member for services that are officially free of charge in the state sector. Informal payments are relatively common in Bulgaria, especially if in the form of gifts. Informal cash payments are universal for operations and childbirth, clear-cut and life-threatening procedures, in hospitals or elite urban facilities or well-known physicians. Most gifts were given at the end of treatment and most cash payments-before or during treatment. Wealthier, better educated, younger respondents tend to pay more often, as a means of obtaining better-quality treatment in a de facto two-tier system. Since the transition, informal payments had become frequent, explicit, solicited by staff, increasingly in cash, and less affordable. Informal payments stem from the low income of staff, patients seeking better treatment; acute funding shortages; and from tradition. Attitudes to informal payments range from strongly negative (if solicited) to tolerant (if patient-initiated), depending on the circumstances. The study provides important new insights into the incidence and nature of informal payments in the health sector in Bulgaria. Payments were less

  10. A new public health context to understand male sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichiello, Victor; Scott, John; Callander, Denton

    2015-03-24

    Researching male sex work offers insight into the sexual lives of men and women while developing a more realistic appreciation for the changing issues associated with male sex work. This type of research is important because it not only reflects a growing and diversifying consumer demand for male sex work, but also because it enables the construction of knowledge that is up-to-date with changing ideas around sex and sexualities. This paper discusses a range of issues emerging in the male sex industry. Notably, globalisation and technology have contributed to the normalisation of male sex work and reshaped the landscape in which the male sex industry operates. As part of this discussion, we review STI and HIV rates among male sex workers at a global level, which are widely disparate and geographically contextual, with rates of HIV among male sex workers ranging from 0% in some areas to 50% in others. The Internet has reshaped the way that male sex workers and clients connect and has been identified as a useful space for safer sex messages and research that seeks out hidden or commonly excluded populations. We argue for a public health context that recognises the emerging and changing nature of male sex work, which means programs and policies that are appropriate for this population group. Online communities relating to male sex work are important avenues for safer sexual messages and unique opportunities to reach often excluded sub-populations of both clients and male sex workers. The changing structure and organisation of male sex work alongside rapidly changing cultural, academic and medical discourses provide new insight but also new challenges to how we conceive the sexualities of men and male sex workers. Public health initiatives must reflect upon and incorporate this knowledge.

  11. Editorial: eHealth literacy: Emergence of a new concept for creating, evaluating and understanding online health resources for the public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre W. Kushniruk (ACMI Fellow; CAHS Fellow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of consumers of health information to effectively understand, process and apply health information presented to them is a critical factor in improving health knowledge and developing effective health promotion strategies. Nowhere has this become more apparent than in efforts to apply information technology in the development of a range of systems and applications targeted for use by patients, and the general population. Indeed, success and failure of eHealth initiatives has been shown to depend on consideration of how to effectively design and deploy health information to consumers. Health literacy has become an important area of study that focuses on studying how health information can be understood and applied to improve health. In recent years the concept of eHealth literacy has also emerged, that sits at the intersection of health literacy and information technology literacy. In this special issue, a range of papers are presented that focus on the emerging concept of eHealth literacy. The papers in the special issue focus on basic definitional and conceptual issues as well as methodological approaches to studying health and eHealth literacy. A special focus of the issue is on how these concepts apply and can be adapted for improving health information technologies and applications.

  12. Research implications of the Institute of Medicine Report, Epilepsy Across the Spectrum: Promoting Health and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C.; Beck, Vicki; Begley, Charles E.; Bishop, Malachy L.; Cushner-Weinstein, Sandra; Holmes, Gregory L.; Shafer, Patricia O.; Sirven, Joseph I.; Austin, Joan K.

    2012-01-01

    In March 2012 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released the report, Epilepsy Across The Spectrum: Promoting Health And Understanding. This report examined the public health dimensions of the epilepsies with a focus on four areas: public health surveillance and data collection and integration; population and public health research; health policy, health care, and human services; and education for providers, people with epilepsy and their families, and the public. The report provided recommendations and research priorities for future work in the field of epilepsy that relate to: increasing the power of data on epilepsy; prevention of epilepsy; improving health care for people with epilepsy; improving health professional education about epilepsy; improving quality of life for people with epilepsy; improving education about epilepsy for people with epilepsy and families; and raising public awareness about epilepsy. For this article, the authors selected one research priority from each of the major chapter themes in the IOM report: expanding and improving the quality of epidemiological surveillance in epilepsy; developing improved interventions for people with epilepsy and depression; expanding early identification/screening for learning impairments in children with epilepsy; evaluating and promoting effective innovative teaching strategies; accelerating research on the identification of risk factors and interventions that increase employment and improve quality of life for people with epilepsy and their families; assessing the information needs of people with epilepsy and their families associated with epilepsy-related risks, specifically sudden unexpected death in epilepsy; and developing and conducting surveys to capture trends in knowledge, awareness, attitudes, and beliefs about epilepsy over time and in specific population subgroups. For each research priority selected, examples of research are provided that will advance the field of epilepsy and improve the lives

  13. Impact of community capacity on the health status of residents: understanding with the contextual multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Choi, Mankyu

    2013-01-01

    There has been little conceptual understanding as to how community capacity works, although it allows for an important, population-based health promotional strategy. In this study, the mechanism of community capacity was studied through literature reviews to suggest a comprehensive conceptual model. The research results found that the key to community capacity prevailed in how actively the capacities of individuals and their communities are able to interact with one another. Under active interactions, community-based organizations, which are a type of voluntary association, were created within the community, and cohesion among residents was enhanced. In addition, people were more willing to address community issues. During the process, many services were initiated to meet the people's health needs and strengthen their social and psychological ties. The characteristics of community capacity were named as the contextual multilevel effects. Because an increase in community capacity contributes to a boosted health status, encourages health behaviors, and eventually leads to the overall prosperity of the community, more public health-related attention is required.

  14. Understanding the Health Literacy of America Results of the National Assessment of Adult Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Cutilli, Carolyn Crane; Bennett, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Health literacy refers to an individual’s ability to understand healthcare information to make appropriate decisions (S. C Ratzen & R. M. Parker, 2000). Healthcare professionals are obligated to make sure that patients understand information to maximize the benefits of healthcare. The National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) provides information on the literacy/health literacy levels of the U.S. adult population. The NAAL is the only large-scale survey of health literacy. The results of t...

  15. Study protocol of the ASD-Net, the German research consortium for the study of Autism Spectrum Disorder across the lifespan: from a better etiological understanding, through valid diagnosis, to more effective health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp-Becker, Inge; Poustka, Luise; Bachmann, Christian; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hoffmann, Falk; Kanske, Philipp; Kirsch, Peter; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Rietschel, Marcella; Roepke, Stefan; Roessner, Veit; Schad-Hansjosten, Tanja; Singer, Tania; Stroth, Sanna; Witt, Stephanie; Wermter, Anne-Kathrin

    2017-06-02

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a severe, lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder with early onset that places a heavy burden on affected individuals and their families. Due to the need for highly specialized health, educational and vocational services, ASD is a cost-intensive disorder, and strain on health care systems increases with increasing age of the affected individual. The ASD-Net will study Germany's largest cohort of patients with ASD over the lifespan. By combining methodological expertise from all levels of clinical research, the ASD-Net will follow a translational approach necessary to identify neurobiological pathways of different phenotypes and their appropriate identification and treatment. The work of the ASD-Net will be organized into three clusters concentrating on diagnostics, therapy and health economics. In the diagnostic cluster, data from a large, well-characterized sample (N = 2568) will be analyzed to improve the efficiency of diagnostic procedures. Pattern classification methods (machine learning) will be used to identify algorithms for screening purposes. In a second step, the developed algorithm will be tested in an independent sample. In the therapy cluster, we will unravel how an ASD-specific social skills training with concomitant oxytocin administration can modulate behavior through neurobiological pathways. For the first time, we will characterize long-term effects of a social skills training combined with oxytocin treatment on behavioral and neurobiological phenotypes. Also acute effects of oxytocin will be investigated to delineate general and specific effects of additional oxytocin treatment in order to develop biologically plausible models for symptoms and successful therapeutic interventions in ASD. Finally, in the health economics cluster, we will assess service utilization and ASD-related costs in order to identify potential needs and cost savings specifically tailored to Germany. The ASD-Net has been established as part of

  16. Understanding of elder abuse and neglect among health care professionals in Malaysia: An exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Choo, Wan-Yuen; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Hairi, Farizah Mohd; Mohd Mydin, Fadzilah Hanum; Illiani Jaafar, Siti Nur

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse and neglect (EAN) is a hidden public health challenge for Malaysia. This cross-sectional survey studied the awareness of EAN among 148 doctors and nurses from two neighboring states in Malaysia using a self-administered questionnaire exploring their knowledge, perceptions, practices, and experience concerning EAN. Both doctors and nurses demonstrated poor understanding of signs of EAN and exhibited misperceptions on reporting requirements. Both groups perceived EAN as a national burden and reporting it as their responsibility; but most felt they had not been trained to diagnose it. Many were unsure of procedures and whether their own intervention could be effective. Only four (nurses) of 41 participants who suspected abuse during the past year reported the cases. Targeted education and uniform protocols are mandatory to ensure best practice with regards to EAN. Further research is crucial to extend this inquiry into the broader health care workforce.

  17. The importance of economic, social and cultural capital in understanding health inequalities: using a Bourdieu-based approach in research on physical and mental health perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxten, Wouter; Lievens, John

    2014-09-01

    In this article we adopt a Bourdieu-based approach to study social inequalities in perceptions of mental and physical health. Most research takes into account the impact of economic or social capital on health inequalities. Bourdieu, however, distinguishes between three forms of capital that can determine peoples' social position: economic, social and cultural capital. Health research examining the effects of cultural capital is scarce. By simultaneously considering and modelling indicators of each of Bourdieu's forms of capital, we further the understanding of the dynamics of health inequalities. Using data from a large-scale representative survey (N = 1825) in Flanders, Belgium, we find that each of the forms of capital has a net effect on perceptions of physical and mental health, which persists after controlling for the other forms of capital and for the effects of other correlates of perceived health. The only exception is that the cultural capital indicators are not related to mental health. These results confirm the value of a Bourdieu-based approach and indicate the need to consider economic, social and cultural capital to obtain a better understanding of social inequality in health. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Smokeless Tobacco: Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products, such as dissolvables and U.S. snus. References World Health Organization . IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks ... N-Nitrosamines . [ PDF –3.18 MB] Lyon (France): World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2007 [accessed ...

  19. Understanding health care professionals' views of family presence during pediatric resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Barbara L; Parker-Raley, Jessica; Maxson, Todd; Brown, Chris

    2011-05-01

    To examine the conflicting perceptions that health care professionals hold regarding family presence during pediatric resuscitation. In phase 1, 137 health care professionals completed a 23-item questionnaire about their views on family presence and their perceptions of their opponents' views on family presence. In phase 2, 12 phase 1 respondents were interviewed about the effects that family presence may have on patients' families and on trauma teams. All respondents indicated that legal concerns and risks were important factors during family presence; however, respondents in favor of family presence believed that legal concerns and risks were minimized when patients' families were present whereas respondents who were opposed believed the opposite. Respondents who were opposed assumed that respondents who were in favor of family presence were less sympathetic and concerned about families, trauma teams, and health care providers; respondents in favor of family presence assumed that respondents who were opposed were overly preoccupied with legal concerns and potential risks involved with family presence during pediatric resuscitations. All respondents believed that patients' families and trauma teams are affected by family presence. Specifically, respondents in favor of family presence believed that families and trauma team members are positively affected whereas opponents believed the opposite. These findings provide a deeper understanding of the views of health care professionals and how these views might affect the delivery of family-centered care.

  20. Meta-Analysis of the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to Understanding Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachan, Rosemary; Taylor, Natalie; Harrison, Reema; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter; Conner, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Reasoned action approach (RAA) includes subcomponents of attitude (experiential/instrumental), perceived norm (injunctive/descriptive), and perceived behavioral control (capacity/autonomy) to predict intention and behavior. To provide a meta-analysis of the RAA for health behaviors focusing on comparing the pairs of RAA subcomponents and differences between health protection and health-risk behaviors. The present research reports a meta-analysis of correlational tests of RAA subcomponents, examination of moderators, and combined effects of subcomponents on intention and behavior. Regressions were used to predict intention and behavior based on data from studies measuring all variables. Capacity and experiential attitude had large, and other constructs had small-medium-sized correlations with intention; all constructs except autonomy were significant independent predictors of intention in regressions. Intention, capacity, and experiential attitude had medium-large, and other constructs had small-medium-sized correlations with behavior; intention, capacity, experiential attitude, and descriptive norm were significant independent predictors of behavior in regressions. The RAA subcomponents have utility in predicting and understanding health behaviors.

  1. Understanding the broader context: the health of the urban native Canadian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodan-Bhalla, N

    2001-01-01

    The average life expectancy for a Native male is 66, and for a non-Native male, 76. It is undisputed that the health of the Native Canadian is poor, yet substantial inequalities remain. One of the reasons these inequalities remain is the shallow, limited understanding of the poor health of the urban Native Canadian which, in turn, leads to quick fixes and temporary solutions. The purpose of the following paper is to give nursing leaders an accurate description of the poor health status of the urban Native Canadian, as well as a description of the perpetuating events leading up to their current situation. Once this is understood, the nursing profession can work with urban Native Canadians towards sustainable, long-term solutions. The following paper provides an overview of the historical oppression of Native Canadians, a discussion on the effects of marginalization and the subsequent adaptation process, an overview of the current health status of the urban Native Canadian and a practical assessment tool. The paper concludes with practical suggestions and directions for the future.

  2. Understanding the Organization of Public Health Delivery Systems: An Empirical Typology

    OpenAIRE

    Mays, Glen P; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Bhandari, Michelyn W; Smith, Sharla A

    2010-01-01

    Context: Policy discussions about improving the U.S. health care system increasingly recognize the need to strengthen its capacities for delivering public health services. A better understanding of how public health delivery systems are organized across the United States is critical to improvement. To facilitate the development of such evidence, this article presents an empirical method of classifying and comparing public health delivery systems based on key elements of their organizational s...

  3. Understanding the role of health literacy in self-management and health behaviors among older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geboers, Bas

    2017-01-01

    Older adults with low health literacy can improve their health if they learn to self-manage their well-being and improve their physical activity and their dietary pattern. One of the major challenges in health care is the problem of low health literacy. Especially older adults often have low health

  4. Understanding attrition from international Internet health interventions: a step towards global eHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Adam W A; Torres, Leandro D; Leykin, Yan; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2013-09-01

    Worldwide automated Internet health interventions have the potential to greatly reduce health disparities. High attrition from automated Internet interventions is ubiquitous, and presents a challenge in the evaluation of their effectiveness. Our objective was to evaluate variables hypothesized to be related to attrition, by modeling predictors of attrition in a secondary data analysis of two cohorts of an international, dual language (English and Spanish) Internet smoking cessation intervention. The two cohorts were identical except for the approach to follow-up (FU): one cohort employed only fully automated FU (n = 16 430), while the other cohort also used 'live' contact conditional upon initial non-response (n = 1000). Attrition rates were 48.1 and 10.8% for the automated FU and live FU cohorts, respectively. Significant attrition predictors in the automated FU cohort included higher levels of nicotine dependency, lower education, lower quitting confidence and receiving more contact emails. Participants' younger age was the sole predictor of attrition in the live FU cohort. While research on large-scale deployment of Internet interventions is at an early stage, this study demonstrates that differences in attrition from trials on this scale are (i) systematic and predictable and (ii) can largely be eliminated by live FU efforts. In fully automated trials, targeting the predictors we identify may reduce attrition, a necessary precursor to effective behavioral Internet interventions that can be accessed globally.

  5. Understanding health decisions using critical realism: home-dialysis decision-making during chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Lori; Clark, Alexander M

    2012-03-01

    Understanding health decisions using critical realism: home-dialysis decision-making during chronic kidney disease This paper examines home-dialysis decision making in people with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) from the perspective of critical realism. CKD programmes focus on patient education for self-management to delay the progression of kidney disease and the preparation and support for renal replacement therapy e.g.) dialysis and transplantation. Home-dialysis has clear health, societal and economic benefits yet service usage is low despite efforts to realign resources and educate individuals. Current research on the determinants of modality selection is superficial and insufficient to capture the complexities embedded in the process of dialysis modality selection. Predictors of home-dialysis selection and the effect of chronic kidney disease educational programmes provide a limited explanation of this experience. A re-conceptualization of the problem is required in order to fully understand this process. The epistemology and ontology of critical realism guides our knowledge and methodology particularly suited for examination of these complexities. This approach examines the deeper mechanisms and wider determinants associated with modality decision making, specifically who chooses home dialysis and under what circumstances. Until more is known regarding dialysis modality decision making service usage of home dialysis will remain low as interventions will be based on inadequate epistemology. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Understanding multinational companies in public health systems, using a competitive advantage framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper discusses the findings of a study which developed five case studies of five multinational health care companies involved in public health care systems. Strategies were analysed in terms of attitude to marketing, pricing and regulation. The company strategies have been subjected to an analysis using Porter's Five Forces, a business strategy framework, which is unusual in health policy studies. Methods This paper shows how analysing company strategy using a business tool can contribute to understanding the strategies of global capital in national health systems. It shows how social science methodologies can draw from business methods to explain company strategies. Results The five companies considered in this paper demonstrate that their strategies have many dimensions, which fit into Porter's Five Forces of comparative advantage. More importantly the Five Forces can be used to identify factors that influence company entry into public health care systems. Conclusions The process of examining the strategic objectives of five health care companies shows that a business tool can help to explain the actions and motives of health care companies towards public health care systems, and so contribute to a better understanding of the strategies of global capital in national health systems. Health service commissioners need to understand this dynamic process, which will evolve as the nature of public health care systems change. PMID:21722372

  7. Understanding multinational companies in public health systems, using a competitive advantage framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lethbridge Jane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper discusses the findings of a study which developed five case studies of five multinational health care companies involved in public health care systems. Strategies were analysed in terms of attitude to marketing, pricing and regulation. The company strategies have been subjected to an analysis using Porter's Five Forces, a business strategy framework, which is unusual in health policy studies. Methods This paper shows how analysing company strategy using a business tool can contribute to understanding the strategies of global capital in national health systems. It shows how social science methodologies can draw from business methods to explain company strategies. Results The five companies considered in this paper demonstrate that their strategies have many dimensions, which fit into Porter's Five Forces of comparative advantage. More importantly the Five Forces can be used to identify factors that influence company entry into public health care systems. Conclusions The process of examining the strategic objectives of five health care companies shows that a business tool can help to explain the actions and motives of health care companies towards public health care systems, and so contribute to a better understanding of the strategies of global capital in national health systems. Health service commissioners need to understand this dynamic process, which will evolve as the nature of public health care systems change.

  8. Understanding multinational companies in public health systems, using a competitive advantage framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a study which developed five case studies of five multinational health care companies involved in public health care systems. Strategies were analysed in terms of attitude to marketing, pricing and regulation. The company strategies have been subjected to an analysis using Porter's Five Forces, a business strategy framework, which is unusual in health policy studies. This paper shows how analysing company strategy using a business tool can contribute to understanding the strategies of global capital in national health systems. It shows how social science methodologies can draw from business methods to explain company strategies. The five companies considered in this paper demonstrate that their strategies have many dimensions, which fit into Porter's Five Forces of comparative advantage. More importantly the Five Forces can be used to identify factors that influence company entry into public health care systems. The process of examining the strategic objectives of five health care companies shows that a business tool can help to explain the actions and motives of health care companies towards public health care systems, and so contribute to a better understanding of the strategies of global capital in national health systems. Health service commissioners need to understand this dynamic process, which will evolve as the nature of public health care systems change.

  9. Toward a Better Understanding of Patient Health Literacy: A Focus on the Skills Patients Need to Find Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael; Glowacki, Elizabeth M; Donovan, Erin E

    2017-07-01

    While many health literacy assessments exist, this area of research lacks an instrument that isolates and reflects the four components driving this concept (abilities to find, understand, use, and communicate about health information). The purpose of this study was to determine what abilities comprise the first component, how a patient finds health information. Low ( n = 13) and adequate ( n = 14) health literacy patients, and health professionals ( n = 10) described their experiences when looking for health information and the skills they employed to complete these tasks. Major skills/themes elicited included knowing when to search, credibility assessments, finding text and numerical information, interpersonal seeking, technology and online search, and spatial navigation. Findings from this study suggest that each of the dimensions included in the definition of health literacy warrants specific attention and assessment. Given identification of the skills comprising each dimension, interventions targeting deficits across health literacy dimensions could be developed to improve patient health.

  10. Enhancing health-care workers' understanding and thinking about people living with co-occurring mental health and substance use issues through consumer-led training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussy, Véronique; Thomacos, Nikos; Rudd, Annette; Crockett, Belinda

    2015-10-01

    Stigma and judgemental assumptions by health workers have been identified as key barriers to accessing health care for people living with co-occurring mental health and substance use issues (dual diagnosis). To evaluate the effectiveness of consumer-led training by people with dual diagnosis in improving the knowledge, understanding and role adequacy of community health staff to work with this consumer group. A controlled before-and-after study design with four waves of quantitative data collection was used. Qualitative data were collected to explore participants' views about training. Participants were staff from two community health services from Victoria, Australia. Recruitment occurred across various work areas: reception, oral health, allied health, counselling and health promotion. At baseline, all participants attended a 4-h clinician-led training session. The intervention consisted of a 3-h consumer-led training session, developed and delivered by seven individuals living with dual diagnosis. Outcome measures included understanding of dual diagnosis, participants' feelings of role adequacy and role legitimacy, personal views, and training outcomes and relevance. Consumer-led training was associated with a significant increase in understanding. The combination of clinician-led and consumer-led training was associated with a positive change in role adequacy. Consumer-led training is a promising approach to enhance primary health-care workers' understanding of the issues faced by dual-diagnosis consumers, with such positive effects persisting over time. Used alongside other organizational capacity building strategies, consumer-led training has the potential to help address stigma and judgemental attitudes by health workers and improve access to services for this consumer group. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Health Effects of Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Protection Agency was established in 1970 as a regulatory agency charged with the evaluation of air pollutants and emissions “as necessary to protect public health and the environment” and to regulate pollutants “which may reasonably be anticip...

  12. Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

  13. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area

  14. Bringing content understanding into usability testing in complex application domains—a case study in eHealth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Bruntse; Rasmussen, Claire Kirchert; Frøkjær, Erik

    2017-01-01

    A usability evaluation technique, Cooperative Usability Testing with Questions of Understanding (CUT with QU) intended to illuminate users’ ability to understand the content information of an application is proposed. In complex application domains as for instance the eHealth domain, this issue...... the participation of four physiotherapists and four clients in a period of 3.5 months, it was demonstrated how CUT with QU can complement conventional usability testing and provide insight into users’ challenges with understanding of a new complex eHealth application. More experiments in other complex application...... domains involving different kinds of users and evaluators are needed before we can tell whether CUT with QU is an effective usability testing technique of wider applicability. Performing CUT with QU is very demanding by drawing heavily on the evaluators’ ability to respond effectively to openings...

  15. Understanding the Context of Learning in an Online Social Network for Health Professionals' Informal Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Gray, Kathleen; Verspoor, Karin; Barnett, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Online social networks (OSN) enable health professionals to learn informally, for example by sharing medical knowledge, or discussing practice management challenges and clinical issues. Understanding the learning context in OSN is necessary to get a complete picture of the learning process, in order to better support this type of learning. This study proposes critical contextual factors for understanding the learning context in OSN for health professionals, and demonstrates how these contextual factors can be used to analyse the learning context in a designated online learning environment for health professionals.

  16. Putting child mortality on a map: towards an understanding of inequity in health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tottrup, C; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Lindeboom, W

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To map and analyse geographical (spatial) variations of child mortality trends in mainland Tanzania. METHODS: We used a geographic information system to integrate data on child mortality and associated risk factors. We then applied spatial statistics to quantify the spatial component...... of child mortality trends, and employed multivariate analysis to break mortality down into a spatial and a local component. RESULTS: The results support our hypothesis that child mortality trends have a spatial component that can be attributed to broad-scale environmental and social-economic factors....... CONCLUSIONS: The method we used is a cost-effective way to systematically assess geographical variations in health outcomes. It can thus provide researchers and practitioners with a good first-line tool in understanding local contributions to differences in mortality and other indicators, and give authorities...

  17. One Health: Understanding and Improving Human, Animal, and Environmental Health as a Connected System Across NOAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltz, S.; Trtanj, J.; Jones, H.

    2017-12-01

    The One Health concept recognizes that the health of humans is inextricably linked with the health of animals and the environment. With a growing world population, changing climate, and increased global travel One Health approaches are increasingly useful. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides key stakeholders in the public health sector with the environmental intelligence they need to mitigate emerging health threats. The NOAA One Health Working Group's mission is to integrate and coordinate the network of observing systems and in situ sensors, detection and diagnostic capacity, research and modeling efforts, and sustained engagement with health partners to deliver useful information to public health and resource management communities. The NOAA One Health group divides its broad focus into themes: thermal extremes, water-borne disease, seafood security, Arctic, wildlife and zoonotic disease, vector-borne disease, and air quality (including wildfire). The group connects the work being done throughout NOAA to coordinate One Health related efforts, increase information sharing, promote interdisciplinary approaches, and work towards better disease prevention. We are working to enhance NOAA Science and services to deliver useful information on current and emerging health risks and benefits to health decision makers.

  18. Understanding the edge effect in wetting: a thermodynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guoping; Amirfazli, A

    2012-06-26

    Edge effect is known to hinder spreading of a sessile drop. However, the underlying thermodynamic mechanisms responsible for the edge effect still is not well-understood. In this study, a free energy model has been developed to investigate the energetic state of drops on a single pillar (from upright frustum to inverted frustum geometries). An analysis of drop free energy levels before and after crossing the edge allows us to understand the thermodynamic origin of the edge effect. In particular, four wetting cases for a drop on a single pillar with different edge angles have been determined by understanding the characteristics of FE plots. A wetting map describing the four wetting cases is given in terms of edge angle and intrinsic contact angle. The results show that the free energy barrier observed near the edge plays an important role in determining the drop states, i.e., (1) stable or metastable drop states at the pillar's edge, and (2) drop collapse by liquid spilling over the edge completely or staying at an intermediate sidewall position of the pillar. This thermodynamic model presents an energetic framework to describe the functioning of the so-called "re-entrant" structures. Results show good consistency with the literature and expand the current understanding of Gibbs' inequality condition.

  19. Current Challenge in Consumer Health Informatics: Bridging the Gap between Access to Information and Information Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Alpay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of health-related websites has proliferated over the past few years. Health information consumers confront a myriad of health related resources on the internet that have varying levels of quality and are not always easy to comprehend. There is thus a need to help health information consumers to bridge the gap between access to information and information understanding—i.e. to help consumers understand health related web-based resources so that they can act upon it. At the same time health information consumers are becoming not only more involved in their own health care but also more information technology minded. One way to address this issue is to provide consumers with tailored information that is contextualized and personalized e.g. directly relevant and easily comprehensible to the person’s own health situation. This paper presents a current trend in Consumer Health Informatics which focuses on theory-based design and development of contextualized and personalized tools to allow the evolving consumer with varying backgrounds and interests to use online health information efficiently. The proposed approach uses a theoretical framework of communication in order to support the consumer’s capacity to understand health-related web-based resources.

  20. “I feel like I am surviving the health care system”: understanding LGBTQ health in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Colpitts

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is a dearth of baseline data on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ populations in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Historically, LGBTQ health research has tended to focus on individual-level health risks associated with poor health outcomes among these populations, which has served to obscure the ways in which they maintain their own health and wellness across the life course. As such, there is an urgent need to shift the focus of LGBTQ health research towards strengths-based perspectives that explore the complex and resilient ways in which LGBTQ populations promote their health. Methods This paper discusses the findings of our recent scoping review as well as the qualitative data to emerge from community consultations aimed at developing strengths-based approaches to understanding and advancing LGBTQ pathways to health across Nova Scotia. Results Our scoping review findings demonstrated the lack of strengths-based research on LGBTQ health in Nova Scotia. Specifically, the studies examined in our scoping review identified a number of health-promoting factors and a wide variety of measurement tools, some of which may prove useful for future strengths-based health research with LGBTQ populations. In addition, our community consultations revealed that many participants had negative experiences with health care systems and services in Nova Scotia. However, participants also shared a number of factors that contribute to LGBTQ health and suggestions for how LGBTQ pathways to health in Nova Scotia can be improved. Conclusions There is an urgent need to conduct research on the health needs, lived experiences, and outcomes of LGBTQ populations in Nova Scotia to address gaps in our knowledge of their unique health needs. In moving forward, it is important that future health research take an intersectional, strengths-based perspective in an effort to highlight the factors that

  1. Understanding the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in health informatics research: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Nicola; McGuire, Suzanne

    2017-06-23

    The purpose of this literature review is to understand geographical information systems (GIS) and how they can be applied to public health informatics, medical informatics, and epidemiology. Relevant papers that reflected the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in health research were identified from four academic databases: Academic Search Complete, BioMed Central, PubMed Central, and Scholars Portal, as well as Google Scholar. The search strategy used was to identify articles with "geographic information systems", "GIS", "public health", "medical informatics", "epidemiology", and "health geography" as main subject headings or text words in titles and abstracts. Papers published between 1997 and 2014 were considered and a total of 39 articles were included to inform the authors on the use of GIS technologies in health informatics research. The main applications of GIS in health informatics and epidemiology include disease surveillance, health risk analysis, health access and planning, and community health profiling. GIS technologies can significantly improve quality and efficiency in health research as substantial connections can be made between a population's health and their geographical location. Gains in health informatics can be made when GIS are applied through research, however, improvements need to occur in the quantity and quality of data input for these systems to ensure better geographical health maps are used so that proper conclusions between public health and environmental factors may be made.

  2. Supporting mental health in South African HIV-affected communities: primary health care professionals' understandings and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Rochelle Ann

    2015-09-01

    How do practitioners respond to the mental distress of HIV-affected women and communities? And do their understandings of patients' distress matter? The World Health Organization (WHO) along with advocates from the Movement for Global Mental Health (MGMH) champion a primary mental health care model to address burgeoning mental health needs in resource-poor HIV-affected settings. Whilst a minority of studies have begun to explore interventions to target this group of women, there is a dearth of studies that explore the broader contexts that will likely shape service outcomes, such as health sector dynamics and competing definitions of mental ill-health. This study reports on an in-depth case study of primary mental health services in a rural HIV-affected community in Northern KwaZulu-Natal. Health professionals identified as the frontline staff working within the primary mental health care model (n = 14) were interviewed. Grounded thematic analysis of interview data highlighted that practitioners employed a critical and socially anchored framework for understanding their patients' needs. Poverty, gender and family relationships were identified as intersecting factors driving HIV-affected patients' mental distress. In a divergence from existing evidence, practitioner efforts to act on their understandings of patient needs prioritized social responses over biomedical ones. To achieve this whilst working within a primary mental health care model, practitioners employed a series of modifications to services to increase their ability to target the sociostructural realities facing HIV-affected women with mental health issues. This article suggests that beyond attention to the crucial issues of funding and human resources that face primary mental health care, attention must also be paid to promoting the development of policies that provide practitioners with increased and more consistent opportunities to address the complex social realities that frame the mental distress

  3. Employment status and health: understanding the health of the economically inactive population in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Judith

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the association between health and unemployment has been well examined, less attention has been paid to the health of the economically inactive (EI population. Scotland has one of the worst health records compared to any Western European country and the EI population account for 23% of the working age population. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the health outcomes and behaviours of the employed, unemployed and the EI populations (further subdivided into the permanently sick, looking after home and family [LAHF] and others in Scotland. Methods Using data from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey, the differences in health and health behaviours among the employed, unemployed and the subgroups of the EI population were examined. Results Both low educational attainment and residence in a deprived community were more likely in the permanently sick group. The LAHF and the unemployed showed worse self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness compared to the employed but no significant differences were observed between these groups. The permanently sick group had significantly poorer health outcomes than all the other economic groups. Similar to the unemployed and LAHF they are more likely to smoke than the employed but less likely (along with LAHF and ‘others’ to exhibit heavy alcohol consumption. Interestingly, the LAHF showed better mental health than the rest of the EI group, but a similar mental health status to the unemployed. On the physical health element of lung function, the LAHF were no worse than the employed. Conclusion While on-going health promotion and vocational rehabilitation efforts need to be directed towards all, our data suggests that the EI group is at higher risk and policies and strategies directed at this group may need particular attention.

  4. Use of Online Health Information by Geriatric and Adult Emergency Department Patients: Access, Understanding, and Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Grant; McCarthy, Danielle M; Aldeen, Amer Z; Czerniak, Alyssa; Courtney, D Mark; Dresden, Scott M

    2017-07-01

    The objective was to characterize geriatric patients' use of online health information (OHI) relative to younger adults and assess their comfort ith OHI compared to health information (HI) from their physician. This was a prospective cross-sectional survey study of adult emergency department (ED) patients. The survey assessed patients' self-reported use of OHI in the past year and immediately prior to ED visit and analyzed differences across four age groups: 18-39, 40-64, 65-74, and 75+. Patients' ability to access, understand, and trust OHI was assessed using a 7-point Likert scale and compared to parallel questions regarding HI obtained from their doctor. Patient use of OHI was compared across age groups. Comfort with OHI and HI obtained from a doctor was compared across age groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Comparisons between sources of HI were made within age groups using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Of 889 patients who were approached for study inclusion, 723 patients (81.3%) completed the survey. The majority of patients had used OHI in the past year in all age groups, but older patients were less likely to have used OHI: age 18-39, 90.3%; 40-64, 85.3%; 65-74, 76.4%; and 75+, 50.7% (p accessible from their doctor than the Internet, while the youngest patients found HI more accessible on the Internet than from their doctor. Regardless of age, patients noted that information from their physician was both easier to understand and more trustworthy than information found on the Internet. Although many older patients used OHI, they were less likely than younger adults to use the Internet immediately prior to an ED visit. Despite often using OHI, patients of all age groups found healthcare information from their doctor easier to understand and more trustworthy than information from the Internet. As health systems work to efficiently provide information to patients, addressing these perceived deficiencies may be necessary to build effective OHI programs.

  5. [The understanding and implementation of health promotion at higher education institutions in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Cuervo, Clara Y

    2015-12-01

    Objective To characterize the implementation and understanding of health promotion at higher education institutions in Colombia. Methods A qualitative study with an ethnographic approach was carried out at eleven institutions selected in five cities. It was conducted through research tools such as an exploratory survey, interviews, direct observation and review of documents. The information was analyzed considering conceptualizations about health promotion, health settings, and health-promoting universities. Results These institutions have implemented policies and programs and have undertaken actions like education, reorientation of health services, participation and intervention on the environment, as well as research and activities with family and community outreach. Conclusion At these institutions, different scopes related to the development of health promotion were found, i.e. there was a preventive approach along with an inter-sectorial outlook with broad extent. Some of the main challenges for institutions are the training of professionals as agents of change, and fostering health promotion as a process of organizational change.

  6. The Weight of Things: Understanding African American Women's Perceptions of Health, Body Image, and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Nicole Ola; Muldrow, Adrienne Fayola; Stefani, Whitney

    2018-01-01

    Negative attitudes toward being overweight or obese are widespread, and these notions perpetuate into conceptions about one's health. Clinically, being overweight is associated with health problems such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and many other illnesses. African American women, who are generally larger in body size, are a particular target for health interventions. However, these women have resisted the "obesity" label, arguing that dominant measures of health are White norms and oppressive. Through the use of in-depth interviews, this study investigates how African American women understand and experience healthfulness, body image, and barriers to each. Findings show that African American women are ambivalent in their acceptance of dominant markers of health and expressed an almost universal disdain for the thin ideal as a marker of "good" health and a positive body image. Moreover, participants articulated a suspicion of formal medical measurements of obesity.

  7. Understanding experiences of and preferences for service user and carer involvement in physical health care discussions within mental health care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Nicola; Brooks, Helen; Grundy, Andrew; Pedley, Rebecca; Gibbons, Chris; Lovell, Karina; Bee, Penny

    2017-04-13

    People with severe mental illness suffer more physical comorbidity than the general population, which can require a tailored approach to physical health care discussions within mental health care planning. Although evidence pertaining to service user and carer involvement in mental health care planning is accumulating, current understanding of how physical health is prioritised within this framework is limited. Understanding stakeholder experiences of physical health discussions within mental health care planning, and the key domains that underpin this phenomena is essential to improve quality of care. Our study aimed to explore service user, carer and professional experiences of and preferences for service user and carer involvement in physical health discussions within mental health care planning, and develop a conceptual framework of effective user-led involvement in this aspect of service provision. Six focus groups and four telephone interviews were carried out with twelve service users, nine carers, three service users with a dual service user and carer role, and ten mental health professionals recruited from one mental health Trust in the United Kingdom. Data was analysed utilising a thematic approach, analysed separately for each stakeholder group, and combined to aid comparisons. No service users or carers recalled being explicitly involved in physical health discussions within mental health care planning. Six prerequisites for effective service user and carer involvement in physical care planning were identified. Three themes confirmed general mental health care planning requirements: tailoring a collaborative working relationship, maintaining a trusting relationship with a professional, and having access to and being able to edit a living document. Three themes were novel to feeling involved in physical health care planning discussions: valuing physical health equally with mental health; experiencing coordination of care between physical-mental health

  8. Health, stabilization and securitization: towards understanding the drivers of the military role in health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In the post-Cold War world, health issues have become firmly rooted in state foreign policies through initiatives such as the UK's 'Health is Global' strategy. However, since 9/11, there has also been growing interest in the interactions between health sector interventions and state fragility. Whilst fragility clearly has a negative impact upon both health outcomes and the capacity of the state to respond to health issues generally, there has been a growing assumption amongst policy makers and practitioners alike that carefully formulated health programmes contribute both to social stability and more widely to a state- and peace-building agenda. This process risks being co-opted by the debates on 'stabilization'--a discourse configured around addressing state fragility and often associated with the interventions in Iraq and Afghanistan. Consequently, this article explores the emergence of health interventions as 'strategic tools' linked to the stabilization debate, explores the emergence of the 'health as a bridge for peace' (HBP) debate, assesses some of the evidence available for HBP and finally focuses on the issues arising from the use of militarized health interventions, particularly in Helmand.

  9. Toward Better Understanding of Turbulence Effects on Bridge Aerodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyang Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the trend of variable cross-sections for long-span bridges from truss-stiffened to quasi-streamlined, and then to multiple-box cross-section geometries, the importance of aeroelastic performance is becoming increasingly significant in wind-resistant design. This article shows that there is clearly insufficient qualitative as well as quantitative understanding of turbulence effects on bridge aerodynamics, particularly the mechanisms behind them. Although turbulence might help the stabilization of long-span bridges, and is thus not a conclusive parameter in wind-resistant design, turbulence effects on the aerodynamic and aeroelastic behaviors of a bridge need to be better understood because interaction between a bridge and turbulence always exists. This article also briefly introduces a newly developed multiple-fan wind tunnel that is designed to control turbulence to assist the study of turbulence effects.

  10. Understanding local residents of Korea using nuclear effective safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yun Hyung; Lee, Gey Hwi; Hah, Yeonhee; Kim, Beom Jun

    2010-01-01

    The risk perception gap between experts and lay people is based on the use of different concept on risk. It is getting increasingly important for nuclear practitioners to understand the lay people's subjective perception on nuclear safety. We proposed the nuclear effective safety index (NESI) which is based on data of the public survey of local inhabitants. We extracted the four factors for effective safety indicators; communication, trust, plant emergency response capability, and personal emergency coping skills. The latest NESI was 41.54, which was increased from 38.22 but still low. The three-year data of NESI showed the differences between genders and between sites as well as trend. The survey of antecedents of effective safety showed some meaningful events and profound differences between plant employees and local inhabitants. The NESI can be utilized as useful communication tool between the local inhabitants and nuclear practitioners. (authors)

  11. Ozone health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone is a principal component of photochemical air pollution endogenous to numerous metropolitan areas. It is primarily formed by the oxidation of NOx in the presence of sunlight and reactive organic compounds. Ozone is a highly active oxidizing agent capable of causing injury to the lung. Lung injury may take the form of irritant effects on the respiratory tract that impair pulmonary function and result in subjective symptoms of respiratory discomfort. These symptoms include, but are not limited to, cough and shortness of breath, and they can limit exercise performance. The effects of ozone observed in humans have been primarily limited to alterations in respiratory function, and a range of respiratory physiological parameters have been measured as a function of ozone exposure in adults and children. These affects have been observed under widely varying (clinical experimental and environmental settings) conditions

  12. Health Effects of Too Much Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at https://www.opm.gov/ . Section navigation The environment and your health: Green living Sun Health effects of too much sun How to protect yourself from the sun ... Home The environment and your health Sun Health effects of too ...

  13. Undergraduate Nursing Students' Understandings of Mental Health: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Sinead; Ward, Louise

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to identify research and current literature surrounding nursing students' understandings of mental health. The aim is to share findings from an extensive international and national literature review exploring undergraduate nurse education specific to mental health content. Data were collected utilising a comprehensive search of electronic databases including CINAHL (EBSCO), MEDLINE, and PsycINFO 1987-(Ovid) from 2008 to 2016. The initial search terms were altered to include undergraduate, mental health, nursing, education, experience, and knowledge. Three content themes emerged which included: 1. Undergraduate nursing students' knowledge has been considered compromised due to concerns relating to the variation and inconsistencies within the comprehensive nursing curriculums representation of mental health, 2. Undergraduate nursing students knowledge of mental health is thought to be compromised due to the quality of mental health theoretical and experiential learning opportunities, and 3. Research indicates that nursing students' knowledge of mental health was influenced by their experience of undertaking mental health content. Based on these findings greater consideration of students' understandings of mental health is required.

  14. Understanding the Complexities of Food Safety Using a "One Health" Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniel, Kalmia E; Kumar, Deepak; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2018-02-01

    The philosophy of One Health is growing in concept and clarity. The interdependence of human, animal, and environmental health is the basis for the concept of One Health. One Health is a comprehensive approach to ensure the health of people, animals, and the environment through collaborative efforts. Preharvest food safety issues align with the grand concept of One Health. Imagine any food production system, and immediately, parallel images from One Health emerge: for example, transmission of zoonotic diseases, antibiotic residues, or resistance genes in the environment; environmental and animal host reservoirs of disease; challenges with rearing animals and growing fresh produce on the same farm; application and transport of manure or diseased animals. During a recent celebration of #OneHealthDay, information was shared around the globe concerning scientists dedicated to One Health research systems. An ever-growing trade and global commerce system mixed with our incessant desire for food products during the whole year makes it all the more important to take a global view through the One Health lens to solve these growing challenges. The recent explosion of Zika virus around the globe renewed the need for assessing transmissible diseases through the eyes of One Health. It is not good enough to know how a disease affects the human population without a thorough understanding of the environment and vector reservoirs. If 60 to 75% of infectious diseases affecting humans are of animal origin, the need for better One Health research strategies and overdue solutions is imperative.

  15. On the Conceptual Understanding of the Photoelectric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, S. K.; Lee, P.; Wong, D.; Chee, Y. P.

    2010-07-01

    We attempt an in-depth literature review that focuses on some finer aspects of the photoelectric effect that will help build a more coherent understanding of the phenomenon. These include the angular distribution of photoelectrons, multi-photon photoelectron emission and the work function in the photoelectric equation as being that associated with the collector rather than the emitter. We attempt to explain the intricacies of the related concepts in a way that is accessible to teachers and students at the Singapore GCE A-level or pre-university level.

  16. West meets East: psychophysics studies for understanding mysterious Oriental health promoting practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Wen

    2008-04-01

    Based on his early graduated studies in psychophysics, the author has, in recent years, applied psychophysics for studying organic and motor senses (the two sensory systems deeply embedded inside of human body), and tried to understand the scientific foundation of the oriental health promoting practices. The preliminary results are promising and are discussed in detail in this paper. Psychophysics studies of organic and motor senses may be the tool to provide the connection between Western and Eastern medicines to form a balanced holistic medicine approach, and may help us to understand the scientific foundation of mysterious oriental health Promoting practices that serve as alternative medicines for promoting human wellness against illness.

  17. Acrolein health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroon, O; Roney, N; Taylor, J; Ashizawa, A; Lumpkin, M H; Plewak, D J

    2008-08-01

    Acrolein is a chemical used as an intermediate reactive aldehyde in chemical industry. It is used for synthesis of many organic substances, methionine production, and methyl chloride refrigerant. The general population is exposed to acrolein via smoking, second-hand smoke, exposure to wood and plastic smoke. Firefighters and population living or working in areas with heavy automotive traffic may expose to higher level of acrolein via inhalation of smoke or automotive exhaust. Degradation of acrolein in all environmental media occurs rapidly, therefore, environmental accumulation is not expected. Acrolein degrade in 6A days when applied to surface water, and it has not been found as a contaminant in municipal drinking water. Acrolein vapor may cause eye, nasal and respiratory tract irritations in low level exposure. A decrease in breathing rate was reported by volunteers acutely exposed to 0.3A ppm of acrolein. At similar level, mild nasal epithelial dysplasia, necrosis, and focal basal cell metaplasia have been observed in rats. The acrolein effects on gastrointestinal mucosa in the animals include epithelial hyperplasia, ulceration, and hemorrhage. The severity of the effects is dose dependent. Acrolein induces the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal irritations by inducing the release of peptides in nerve terminals innervating these systems. Levels of acrolein between 22 and 249 ppm for 10 min induced a dose-related decrease in substance P (a short-chain polypeptide that functions as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator).

  18. Communicating Numerical Risk: Human Factors That Aid Understanding in Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust-Renck, Priscila G.; Royer, Caisa E.; Reyna, Valerie F.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we review evidence from the human factors literature that verbal and visual formats can help increase the understanding of numerical risk information in health care. These visual representations of risk are grounded in empirically supported theory. As background, we first review research showing that people often have difficulty understanding numerical risks and benefits in health information. In particular, we discuss how understanding the meanings of numbers results in healthier decisions. Then, we discuss the processes that determine how communication of numerical risks can enhance (or degrade) health judgments and decisions. Specifically, we examine two different approaches to risk communication: a traditional approach and fuzzy-trace theory. Applying research on the complications of understanding and communicating risks, we then highlight how different visual representations are best suited to communicating different risk messages (i.e., their gist). In particular, we review verbal and visual messages that highlight gist representations that can better communicate health information and improve informed decision making. This discussion is informed by human factors theories and methods, which involve the study of how to maximize the interaction between humans and the tools they use. Finally, we present implications and recommendations for future research on human factors in health care. PMID:24999307

  19. Understanding Adolescents' Mental Health and Academic Achievement: Does Physical Fitness Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Man; Gu, Xiangli; Jackson, Allen; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Xiaozan; Guo, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Despite consensus that physical fitness (PF) plays an important role in promoting mental health and academic achievement, little is known regarding the mechanisms by which this effect works. Blair, Cheng, and Holder (2001) proposed a conceptual model to identify the behavioral mechanism of health outcomes, in which both health-related PF and…

  20. PARTICULATE MATTER AND HUMAN HEALTH: USING HUMAN STUDIES TO UNDERSTAND SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for experiencing adverse health effects from air pollution particulate matter (PM) exposure is an important public health issue. The World Health Organization has estimated that PM contributes to the deaths of 500,000 people world-wide each year. Epidemiologic stu...

  1. Global health in conflict. Understanding opposition to vitamin A supplementation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sarah K

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin A supplementation is a public health intervention that clinical trials have suggested can significantly improve child survival in the developing world. Yet, prominent scientists in India have questioned its scientific validity, opposed its implementation, and accused its advocates of corruption and greed. It is ironic that these opponents were among the pioneers of populationwide vitamin A supplementation for ocular health. Historically, complex interests have shaped vitamin A supplementation resistance in India. Local social and nutritional revolutions and shifting international paradigms of global health have played a role. Other resistance movements in Indian history, such as those in response to campaigns for bacillus Calmette-Guérin and novel vaccines, have been structured around similar themes. Public health resistance is shaped by the cultural and political context in which it develops. Armed with knowledge of the history of a region and patterns of past resistance, public health practitioners can better understand how to negotiate global health conflicts.

  2. Understanding the health of veterans who are homeless: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jillian; Lee, Rebecca C; Martsolf, Donna

    2017-09-01

    The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development estimates that almost 50,000 veterans are homeless on any given night. Homeless veterans are at greater risk of health disparities than their housed counterparts due to the multifactorial nature of their health and social needs. The Department of Veterans Affairs, in collaboration with more than a dozen other federal agencies, has concentrated efforts to improve the health of this vulnerable population while enacting a plan to eliminate veteran homelessness within the near future. Understanding the unique health needs of veterans who are homeless allows the profession of nursing to better support these efforts. The purpose of this literature review was to provide comprehensive knowledge to nurses about the health of homeless veterans for their use in clinical practice, research, and in contributing to the positive health outcomes for this vulnerable population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Reimbursement decisions in health policy--extending our understanding of the elements of decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Veronika; Cribb, Alan; Barber, Nick

    2005-09-08

    Previous theoretical and empirical work on health policy decisions about reimbursement focuses on specific rationales such as effectiveness, economic considerations and equal access for equal needs. As reimbursement decisions take place in a social and political context we propose that the analysis of decision-making should incorporate factors, which go beyond those commonly discussed. As an example we chose three health technologies (sildenafil, rivastigmine and statins) to investigate how decisions about reimbursement of medicines are made in the United Kingdom National Health Service and what factors influence these decisions. From face-to-face, in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 20 regional and national policy makers and stakeholders we identified two dimensions of decision-making, which extend beyond the rationales conventionally cited. The first dimension relates to the role of 'subjectivity' or 'the personal' in the decisions, including personal experiences of the condition and excitement about the novelty or potential benefit of the technology-these factors affect what counts as evidence, or how evidence is interpreted, in practice. The second dimension relates to the social and political function of decision-making and broadens what counts as the relevant ends of decision-making to include such things as maintaining relationships, avoiding organisational burden, generating politically and legally defensible decisions and demonstrating the willingness to care. More importantly, we will argue that these factors should not be treated as contaminants of an otherwise rational decision-making. On the contrary we suggest that they seem relevant, reasonable and also of substantial importance in considering in decision-making. Complementing the analysis of decision-making about reimbursement by incorporating these factors could increase our understanding and potentially improve decision-making.

  4. Using Computerized Mental Health Programs in Alternative Education: Understanding the Requirements of Students and Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuosmanen, Tuuli; Fleming, Theresa M; Barry, Margaret M

    2018-06-01

    Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) programs have been shown to be both acceptable and effective with youth. However, their use with more vulnerable youth, such as early school leavers, remains relatively unstudied. This study explored student and staff attitudes toward the use of cCBT in an alternative education setting. Student and staff needs were assessed using the Requirements development approach (Van Velsen, Wentzel, & Van Gemert-Pijnen, 2013). An online staff survey (n = 16) was conducted to provide information on the context of delivery, and stakeholder requirements were further explored in four student workshops (n = 32) and staff group discussions (n = 12). Students' requirements in relation to program look and feel were reflective of issues with literacy and concentration. Activity- rather than text-based programs were considered easier to learn from, whereas attractive design with features such as connecting with others were thought necessary to keep young people engaged. Students wanted to learn practical skills on improving their mental health and well-being, using content that is positive, encouraging, and credible and that can be tailored to individual needs. Anonymity and voluntary participation were considered essential when delivering cCBT in the context of alternative education, as well as additional access from home to ensure timeliness of support. Staff required both flexibility and careful planning and timetabling in order to deliver cCBT in the alternative education setting and to support student engagement. The findings provide novel insight into the needs and preferences of vulnerable youth, with important implications for the implementation of computerized mental health programs in alternative education settings. A better understanding of user needs and preferences is critical for improving the uptake and impact of e-mental health resources.

  5. [Understanding local concepts of equity to formulate public health policies in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry

    2006-01-01

    Equity is an essential health promotion concept and must be included at the heart of public health policy making. However, equity, which can also be referred to as social justice, is a polysemic and contextual term which definition must stem from the discourse and values of the society where the policies are implemented. Using a case study from Burkina Faso, we try to show that the non-acknowledgement of the local concept of social justice in the policy making process partly explains the resulting policies' relative failure to achieve social justice. Data collection methods vary (individual and group interviews, concept mapping, participant observation, document analyses) and there are qualitative and quantitative analyses. The four groups of actors who generally participate in the policy making process participated in the data collection. With no intention to generalise the results to the entire country, the results show that mass social mobilisation for justice is egalitarian in type. Health or social inequalities are understood by individuals as facts which we cannot act upon, while the inequalities to access care are qualified as unjust, and it is possible to intervene to reduce them if incentive measures to this effect are taken. We also observed a certain social difficulty to conceive sub-groups of population and fierce will to not destabilise social peace, which can be provoked when looking for justice for the impoverished sectors of the population. This research allows better understanding about the emic aspect of equity and seems to confirm the importance of taking into account local values, especially social justice, when determining public policy.

  6. Review of the Evidence for Oral Health Promotion Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satur, Julie G.; Gussy, Mark G.; Morgan, Michael V.; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss and oral cancers have significant burden of disease effects, quality of life and cost implications for the Australian community. Oral health promotion is a key approach to addressing these conditions endorsed as part of the National Oral Health Plan. Understanding the evidence for effectiveness of…

  7. Health Self-management Among Older Prisoners: Current Understandings and Directions for Policy, Practice, and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiano, Nicole; Lukic, Andreja; Blowers, Anita; Doerner, Jill

    The population of aging prisoners has increased significantly over the past several decades, resulting in concerns about the criminal justice system's ability to address the needs of prisoners and parolees with chronic health conditions. This is troubling, given the health disparities among incarcerated populations. Health self-management has become a strategy within the community-based health care industry to improve health services and outcomes while reducing health care costs for nonincarcerated individuals with chronic conditions. However, to date little research has focused on the practice or promotion of health self-management among current and former incarcerated populations. This article highlights current understandings about chronic health self-management among older prisoners and parolees, with an emphasis on the potential benefits and current challenges in promoting their health self-management practices. Finally, specific recommendations are made for promoting health self-management for these populations through social work practice, policy advocacy, and research to achieve goals in improving health outcomes and reducing healthcare costs.

  8. Social support and physical health: understanding the health consequences of relationships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uchino, Bert N

    2004-01-01

    .... It surveys and assesses the research that shows not only that supportive relationships protect us from a multitude of mental health problems but also that the absence of supportive relationships...

  9. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research. Copyright

  10. Lies, Damned Lies, and Health Inequality Measurements: Understanding the Value Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellsson, Gustav; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Petrie, Dennis

    2015-09-01

    Measuring and monitoring socioeconomic health inequalities are critical for understanding the impact of policy decisions. However, the measurement of health inequality is far from value neutral, and one can easily present the measure that best supports one's chosen conclusion or selectively exclude measures. Improving people's understanding of the often implicit value judgments is therefore important to reduce the risk that researchers mislead or policymakers are misled. While the choice between relative and absolute inequality is already value laden, further complexities arise when, as is often the case, health variables have both a lower and upper bound, and thus can be expressed in terms of either attainments or shortfalls, such as for mortality/survival.We bring together the recent parallel discussions from epidemiology and health economics regarding health inequality measurement and provide a deeper understanding of the different value judgments within absolute and relative measures expressed both in attainments and shortfalls, by graphically illustrating both hypothetical and real examples. We show that relative measures in terms of attainments and shortfalls have distinct value judgments, highlighting that for health variables with two bounds the choice is no longer only between an absolute and a relative measure but between an absolute, an attainment- relative and a shortfall-relative one. We illustrate how these three value judgments can be combined onto a single graph which shows the rankings according to all three measures, and illustrates how the three measures provide ethical benchmarks against which to judge the difference in inequality between populations.

  11. Understanding health systems, health economies and globalization: the need for social science perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan F; Bisht, Ramila; Baru, Rama; Pitchforth, Emma

    2012-08-31

    The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal 'Globalization and Health' over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on 'Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives' is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health.

  12. Health effects of phytoestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, Francesco; Lorenzetti, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring plant-derived phytochemicals, whose common biological roles are to protect plants from stress or to act as part of a plant's defense mechanism. Although composed of a wide group of nonsteroidal compounds of diverse structure, phytoestrogens have been shown to bind estrogen receptors and to behave as weak agonist/antagonist in both animals and humans. Phytoestrogens include mainly isoflavones (IF), coumestans, and lignans. These compounds are known to be present in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains commonly consumed by humans. IF are found in legumes--mainly soybeans--whereas flaxseed is a major source of lignans, and coumestans are significantly present in clover, alfalfa and soybean sprouts. 8-Prenyl flavonoids are common in vegetables. Bioavailability of IF requires an initial hydrolysis of the sugar moiety by intestinal beta-glucosidases to allow the following uptake by enterocytes and the flow through the peripheral circulation. Following absorption, IF are then reconjugated mainly to glucuronic acid and to a lesser degree to sulphuric acid. Gut metabolism seems key to the determination of the potency of action. Several epidemiological studies correlated high dose consumptions of soy IF with multiple beneficial effects on breast and prostate cancers, menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis and stroke, and neurodegeneration. For the relief of menopausal symptoms a consumption of 60 mg aglycones/day has been suggested; for cancer prevention a consumption between 50 and 110 mg aglycones/day is considered beneficial to reduce risks of breast, colon and prostate cancer; to decrease cardiovascular risk a minimum intake of 40-60 mg aglycones/day, together with about 25 g of soy protein has been suggested. For improvement in bone mineral density, 60-100 mg aglycones/day for a period of at least 6-12 months could be beneficial.

  13. Health effects assessment summary tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document is an excellent pointer system to identify current literature or changes in assessment criteria for many chemicals of interest to Superfund. It was prepared for Superfund use by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office (ECAO-Cin) in EPA's Office of Health and Environmental Assessment. Chemicals considered are those for which Health Effects Assessment Documents, Health and Environmental Effects Profiles, Health Assessment Documents or Air Quality Criteria Documents have been prepared by ECAO. Radionuclides considered are those believed to be most common at Superfund sites. Tables summarize reference doses (RfDs) for toxicity from subchronic and chronic inhalation, oral exposure, slope factors and unit risk values for carcinogenicity based on lifetime inhalation and oral exposure, and radionuclide carcinogenicity

  14. Noise Pollution and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geravandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Noise pollution is of particular importance due to the physical and psychological effects on humans. Noise is a stressor that affects the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system. Noise is also a threat to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Health risks from noise are correlated with road traffic. In other words, noise health effects are the health consequences of elevated sound levels. Objectives This study aims to determine the effect of noise pollution (near roadways on health issues in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, equivalent sound pressure level were measured by sound level meters TES-1353 in 75 locations around 4 roadways, which had a high load of traffic in Ahvaz City during day time. During the study, 820 measurements were recorded at measuring stations, for 7 days per week with 1-hour interval between each measurement. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS software. Results According to the research findings, the equivalent sound pressure levels in all stations were 76.28 ± 3.12 dB (Mean ± SD. According to sound measurements and the survey questionnaire, noise pollution is higher than EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency and Iran standard level. Based on result of this study the worst noise health effects were the nervousness and sleep quality during 2012. Conclusions According to the results of this study, with increasing load of traffic, there is an increasing need for proper consideration plans to control noise pollution and prevent its effects.

  15. Youth unemployment and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieselbach, T

    1988-01-01

    Psychological and sociomedical unemployment research have become an important feature of public concern in the industrialised world. This paper focuses on research into youth unemployment and health effects from an international perspective and investigates more closely the following areas: Unemployment and health: research and the political public Youth unemployment: extent and societal coping Young and unemployed--a special problem? a. Skill utilization and social support b. Psychiatric morbidity c. Vulnerability and age d. "Americanization" of youth The demand for a "social guarantee"

  16. Understanding persuasion contexts in health gamification: A systematic analysis of gamified health behavior change support systems literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahäivälä, Tuomas; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2016-12-01

    Gamification is increasingly used as a design strategy when developing behavior change support systems in the healthcare domain. It is commonly agreed that understanding the contextual factors is critical for successful gamification, but systematic analyses of the persuasive contexts have been lacking so far within gamified health intervention studies. Through a persuasion context analysis of the gamified health behavior change support systems (hBCSSs) literature, we inspect how the contextual factors have been addressed in the prior gamified health BCSS studies. The implications of this study are to provide the practitioners and researchers examples of how to conduct a systematic analysis to help guide the design and research on gamified health BCSSs. The ideas derived from the analysis of the included studies will help identify potential pitfalls and shortcomings in both the research and implementations of gamified health behavior change support systems. We systematically analyzed the persuasion contexts of 15 gamified health intervention studies. According to our results, gamified hBCSSs are implemented under different facets of lifestyle change and treatments compliance, and use a multitude of technologies and methods. We present a set of ideas and concepts to help improve endeavors in studying gamified health intervention through comprehensive understanding of the persuasive contextual factors. Future research on gamified hBCSSs should systematically compare the different combinations of contextual factors, related theories, chosen gamification strategies, and the study of outcomes to help understand how to achieve the most efficient use of gamification on the different aspects of healthcare. Analyzing the persuasion context is essential to achieve this. With the attained knowledge, those planning health interventions can choose the 'tried-and-tested' approaches for each particular situation, rather than develop solutions in an ad-hoc manner. Copyright © 2016

  17. Understanding health systems, health economies and globalization: the need for social science perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal ‘Globalization and Health’ over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on ‘Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives’ is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health. PMID:22938504

  18. Understanding Health Professionals' Informal Learning in Online Social Networks: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Verspoor, Karin; Gray, Kathleen; Barnett, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Online social networks (OSNs) enable health professionals to learn informally, for example by sharing medical knowledge, or discussing practice management challenges and clinical issues. Understanding how learning occurs in OSNs is necessary to better support this type of learning. Through a cross-sectional survey, this study found that learning interaction in OSNs is low in general, with a small number of active users. Some health professionals actively used OSNs to support their practice, including sharing practical and experiential knowledge, benchmarking themselves, and to keep up-to-date on policy, advanced information and news in the field. These health professionals had an overall positive learning experience in OSNs.

  19. The Component Model of Infrastructure: A Practical Approach to Understanding Public Health Program Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia P.

    2014-01-01

    Functioning program infrastructure is necessary for achieving public health outcomes. It is what supports program capacity, implementation, and sustainability. The public health program infrastructure model presented in this article is grounded in data from a broader evaluation of 18 state tobacco control programs and previous work. The newly developed Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) addresses the limitations of a previous model and contains 5 core components (multilevel leadership, managed resources, engaged data, responsive plans and planning, networked partnerships) and 3 supporting components (strategic understanding, operations, contextual influences). The CMI is a practical, implementation-focused model applicable across public health programs, enabling linkages to capacity, sustainability, and outcome measurement. PMID:24922125

  20. Changes in health perceptions after exposure to human suffering: using discrete emotions to understand underlying processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia A Paschali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality, as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An experimental group (N = 47 was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N = 47 was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being.

  1. Understanding Undergraduate Student Perceptions of Mental Health, Mental Well-Being and Help-Seeking Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Anita; McLellan, Julie; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2016-01-01

    Despite relatively high levels of psychological distress, many students in higher education do not seek help for difficulties. This study explored undergraduate student understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being and where undergraduate students would seek help for mental well-being difficulties. Semi-structured interviews…

  2. Understanding of Parents and Adults on the Down Syndrome Female Sexual Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhagan, Madhya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the understanding of reproductive health among parents and female adolescents with Down syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 22 parents and 22 female adolescents with Down syndrome in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents were required to fill up the socio-demographic information in questionnaire…

  3. The Placebo Effect in Cardiology: Understanding and Using It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Robert; Opie-Moran, Morwenna

    2017-12-01

    The placebo effect is the clinical benefit caused by interaction with a caregiver and health care system in the absence of a biologically active intervention and has been used successfully for millennia. The placebo response results from the interaction of psychosocial mechanisms, human relationships, and preconceptions functioning in specific neuroanatomic locations with known genes and neurotransmitters. It occurs with or without the administration of an inactive substance to deliberately deceive patients. Our purpose is to review the history, benefits, and mechanisms of the placebo effect. The placebo response results from classic conditioning and positive expectations about outcome expressed by the caregiver. The outcomes are usually symptoms such as pain rather than biological outcomes such as death, and the powerful placebo may account for more than half the effect of treatment in many situations. The placebo effect results from activation of opioid, cannabinoid, and dopaminergic pathways involved in reward, expectancy, conditioning, and pain modulation. Eleven specific anatomic features in the brain identified by positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are involved. Polymorphisms in the structural genes for catecholamine O-methyltransferase and fatty acid amide oxidase significantly influence the placebo response. The placebo effect may be important in symptom suppression in angina, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and congestive heart failure. In the absence of deliberate deception, there are no ethical issues and given its potency, the time has come to consider how best to use the placebo in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Food, health, and complexity: towards a conceptual understanding to guide collaborative public health action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon E. Majowicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background What we eat simultaneously impacts our exposure to pathogens, allergens, and contaminants, our nutritional status and body composition, our risks for and the progression of chronic diseases, and other outcomes. Furthermore, what we eat is influenced by a complex web of drivers, including culture, politics, economics, and our built and natural environments. To date, public health initiatives aimed at improving food-related population health outcomes have primarily been developed within ‘practice silos’, and the potential for complex interactions among such initiatives is not well understood. Therefore, our objective was to develop a conceptual model depicting how infectious foodborne illness, food insecurity, dietary contaminants, obesity, and food allergy can be linked via shared drivers, to illustrate potential complex interactions and support future collaboration across public health practice silos. Methods We developed the conceptual model by first conducting a systematic literature search to identify review articles containing schematics that depicted relationships between drivers and the issues of interest. Next, we synthesized drivers into a common model using a modified thematic synthesis approach that combined an inductive thematic analysis and mapping to synthesize findings. Results The literature search yielded 83 relevant references containing 101 schematics. The conceptual model contained 49 shared drivers and 227 interconnections. Each of the five issues was connected to all others. Obesity and food insecurity shared the most drivers (n = 28. Obesity shared several drivers with food allergy (n = 11, infectious foodborne illness (n = 7, and dietary contamination (n = 6. Food insecurity shared several drivers with infectious foodborne illness (n = 9 and dietary contamination (n = 9. Infectious foodborne illness shared drivers with dietary contamination (n = 8. Fewer drivers were

  5. Understanding the information and resource needs of UK health and social care placement students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Lynne; Doherty, Alan; Lea, Susan J; Webster, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    Students on health and social care degree programmes spend 50% of their time on practice placements. Because of the diversity of settings and the need to evidence their work, it is vital to understand the information and resource needs of placement students. The aim of this investigation was to understand the needs of placement students in terms of accessing resources whilst they are in the field in order to inform a guide to meet these needs. Focus groups were conducted with students on midwifery, social work and post-registration health professions degree programmes on three different sites across the region. Data were analysed using Thematic Content Analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: inequality, user education needs and students' solutions and strategies. It is essential to speak to placement students in order to understand their needs in terms of accessing and using library resources. The timing and content of information skills training is key to meeting student needs while on placement.

  6. Women, weight, poverty and menopause: understanding health practices in a context of chronic disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Mélisa; Dumas, Alex; Binette, Rachelle; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2017-11-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health persist despite major investments in illness prevention campaigns and universal healthcare systems. In this context, the increased risks of chronic diseases of specific sub-groups of vulnerable populations should be further investigated. The objective of this qualitative study is to examine the interaction between socioeconomic status (SES) and body weight in order to understand underprivileged women's increased vulnerability to chronic diseases after menopause. By drawing specifically on Pierre Bourdieu's sociocultural theory of practice, 20 semi-structured interviews were conducted from May to December of 2013 to investigate the health practices of clinically overweight, postmenopausal women living an underprivileged life in Canada. Findings emphasise that poor life conditions undermine personal investment in preventive health and weight loss, showing the importance for policy makers to bring stronger consideration on upstream determinants of health. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  7. The decline and rise of coronary heart disease: understanding public health catastrophism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David S; Greene, Jeremy A

    2013-07-01

    The decline of coronary heart disease mortality in the United States and Western Europe is one of the great accomplishments of modern public health and medicine. Cardiologists and cardiovascular epidemiologists have devoted significant effort to disease surveillance and epidemiological modeling to understand its causes. One unanticipated outcome of these efforts has been the detection of early warnings that the decline had slowed, plateaued, or even reversed. These subtle signs have been interpreted as evidence of an impending public health catastrophe. This article traces the history of research on coronary heart disease decline and resurgence and situates it in broader narratives of public health catastrophism. Juxtaposing the coronary heart disease literature alongside the narratives of emerging and reemerging infectious disease helps to identify patterns in how public health researchers create data and craft them into powerful narratives of progress or pessimism. These narratives, in turn, shape public health policy.

  8. "What We Breathe Impacts Our Health : Improving Understanding of the Link between Air Pollution and Health"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, J Jason; Cohen, Aaron; Dentener, Frank; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Zhu, Tong; Armstrong, Ben; Bell, Michelle L; Brauer, Michael; Carmichael, Gregory; Costa, Dan L; Dockery, Douglas W; Kleeman, Michael; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Künzli, Nino; Liousse, Catherine; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Martin, Randall V; Pöschl, Ulrich; Pope, C Arden; Roberts, James M; Russell, Armistead G; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution contributes to the premature deaths of millions of people each year around the world, and air quality problems are growing in many developing nations. While past policy efforts have succeeded in reducing particulate matter and trace gases in North America and Europe, adverse health

  9. Health effects of natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Arsić Danijela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards have a number of adverse effects - they affect the life and health of humans and the survival of other living beings, destroy material goods and deteriorate socio-economic conditions of life. Without neglecting the impact of natural hazards lower intensity, in this paper emphasis is placed on natural hazards with the strongest effects for human health, that is to natural disasters. It covered the impact of various natural disasters on mortality and morbidity during and immediately after natural disasters, including earthquakes, floods and drought, which is to characterize on the Republic of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  10. Statistical health-effects study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    The main purpose of this program is to analyze the mortality of Hanford workers and to determine the effects of radiation exposure in this population. A secondary purpose is to improve methodology for assessing health effects of chronic low-level exposure to harmful agents or substances, particularly in an occupational setting. In the past year we have updated our analyses, submitted papers for publication in the two areas of methodological research, and have interacted with Hanford Environmental Health Foundation staff to improve data collection procedures

  11. Social determinants of self-reported health in women and men: understanding the role of gender in population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Amin, Avni; Araujo de Carvalho, Islene; Beard, John; Boerma, Ties; Kowal, Paul; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath

    2012-01-01

    Women and men share similar health challenges yet women report poorer health. The study investigates the social determinants of self-reported health in women and men, and male-female differences in health. Data on 103154 men and 125728 women were analysed from 57 countries in the World Health Survey 2002-2004. Item Response Theory was used to construct a composite measure of health. Associations between health and determinants were assessed using multivariate linear regression. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition partitioned the inequality in health between women and men into an "explained" component that arises because men and women differ in social and economic characteristics, and an "unexplained" component due to the differential effects of these characteristics. Decomposition was repeated for 18 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region and 19 countries in the WHO European region. Women's health was significantly lower than men's. Health was associated with education, household economic status, employment, and marital status after controlling for age. In the pooled analysis decomposition showed that 30% of the inequality was "explained", of which almost 75% came from employment, education, marital status. The differential effects of being in paid employment increased the inequality. When countries in Africa and Europe were compared, the "explained" component (31% and 39% respectively) was largely attributed to the social determinants in the African countries and to women's longevity in the European countries. Being in paid employment had a greater positive effect on the health of males in both regions. Ways in which age and the social determinants contribute to the poorer health status of women compared with men varies between groups of countries. This study highlights the need for action to address social structures, institutional discrimination and harmful gender norms and roles that differently influence health with ageing.

  12. Social determinants of self-reported health in women and men: understanding the role of gender in population health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor

    Full Text Available Women and men share similar health challenges yet women report poorer health. The study investigates the social determinants of self-reported health in women and men, and male-female differences in health.Data on 103154 men and 125728 women were analysed from 57 countries in the World Health Survey 2002-2004. Item Response Theory was used to construct a composite measure of health. Associations between health and determinants were assessed using multivariate linear regression. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition partitioned the inequality in health between women and men into an "explained" component that arises because men and women differ in social and economic characteristics, and an "unexplained" component due to the differential effects of these characteristics. Decomposition was repeated for 18 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO African region and 19 countries in the WHO European region.Women's health was significantly lower than men's. Health was associated with education, household economic status, employment, and marital status after controlling for age. In the pooled analysis decomposition showed that 30% of the inequality was "explained", of which almost 75% came from employment, education, marital status. The differential effects of being in paid employment increased the inequality. When countries in Africa and Europe were compared, the "explained" component (31% and 39% respectively was largely attributed to the social determinants in the African countries and to women's longevity in the European countries. Being in paid employment had a greater positive effect on the health of males in both regions.Ways in which age and the social determinants contribute to the poorer health status of women compared with men varies between groups of countries. This study highlights the need for action to address social structures, institutional discrimination and harmful gender norms and roles that differently influence health with ageing.

  13. From Headline to Hard Grind: The Importance of Understanding Public Administration in Achieving Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Flynn, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Many public policy programs fail to translate ambitious headlines to on-the-ground action. The reasons for this are many and varied, but for public administration and management scholars a large part of the gap between ambition and achievement is the challenge associated with the operation of the machinery of government itself, and how it relates to the other parties that it relies on to fulfill these outcomes. In their article, Carey and Friel set out key reasons why public health scholars should seek to better understand important ideas in public administration. In commenting on their contribution, I draw out two critical questions that are raised by this discussion: (i) what are boundaries and what forms do they take? and (ii) why work across boundaries? Expanding on these key questions extends the points made by Carey and Friel on the importance of understanding public administration and will better place public health scholars and practitioners to realise health outcomes. PMID:27694672

  14. The Exposome Research Paradigm: an Opportunity to Understand the Environmental Basis for Human Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck Louis, Germaine M; Smarr, Melissa M; Patel, Chirag J

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the exposome research paradigm with particular application to understanding human reproduction and development and its implications for health across a lifespan. The exposome research paradigm has generated considerable discussion about its feasibility and utility for delineating the impact of environmental exposures on human health. Early initiatives are underway, including smaller proof-of-principle studies and larger concerted efforts. Despite the notable challenges underlying the exposome paradigm, analytic techniques are being developed to handle its untargeted approach and correlated and multi-level or hierarchical data structures such initiatives generate, while considering multiple comparisons. The relatively short intervals for critical and sensitive windows of human reproduction and development seem well suited for exposome research and may revolutionize our understanding of later onset diseases. Early initiatives suggest that the exposome paradigm is feasible, but its utility remains to be established with applications to population human health research.

  15. Understanding noise suppression in heterojunction field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, F.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The enhanced transport properties displayed by quantum-well-confined, two-dimensional, electron systems underpin the success of heterojunction, field-effect transistors. At cryogenic temperatures, these devices exhibit impressive mobilities and, as a result, high signal gain and low noise. Conventional wisdom has it that the same favourable conditions also hold for normal room-temperature operation. In that case, however, high mobilities are precluded by abundant electron-phonon scattering. Our recent study of nonequilibrium current noise shows that quantum confinement, not high mobility, is the principal source of noise in these devices; this opens up new and exciting opportunities in low-noise transistor design. As trends in millimetre-wave technology push frequencies beyond 100 GHz, it is essential to develop a genuine understanding of noise processes in heterojunction devices

  16. Understanding children: a qualitative study on health assets of the Internet in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán-García, Mariano; Botello-Díaz, Blanca; Marcos-Marcos, Jorge; Toro-Cárdenas, Silvia; Gil-García, Eugenia

    2015-02-01

    This research was designed to explore the opinions held by primary school pupils about the Internet as a source of assets for health and well-being. A qualitative study was carried out based on 8 focus groups comprising 64 pupils from 8 primary schools in Spain. Our findings describe the Internet as a tool for learning, communication, fun and health care. In addition, they reveal how children understand influences on health and well-being in relation to their view of the Internet. The results are discussed in terms of the public-health implications of digital literacy, as well as its connection to well-being, especially in relation to health assets. The Internet is an important resource for children's health and well-being, which, through learning, communication, fun and health care, encourages them to make use of it. Digital and health literacy constitutes the foundation required for browsing the Internet in a positive way, as identified by the children interviewed in this study, and especially in relation to the health assets that the Internet can contain.

  17. Understanding and predicting social media use among community health center patients: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Carl L; West, Josh; Thackeray, Rosemary; Barnes, Michael D; Downey, Jordan

    2014-11-26

    The use of social media by health care organizations is growing and provides Web-based tools to connect patients, caregivers, and providers. The aim was to determine the use and factors predicting the use of social media for health care-related purposes among medically underserved primary care patients. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 444 patients of a federally qualified community health center. Community health center patients preferred that their providers use email, cell phones for texting, and Facebook and cell phone apps for sharing health information. Significantly more Hispanic than white patients believed their providers should use Facebook (P=.001), YouTube (P=.01), and Twitter (P=.04) for sharing health information. Use and intentions to use social media for health-related purposes were significantly higher for those patients with higher subjective norm scores. Understanding use and factors predicting use can increase adoption and utilization of social media for health care-related purposes among underserved patients in community health centers.

  18. Applying a complex adaptive system's understanding of health to primary care [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bircher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of a new concept of health. Investigations into the nature of health have led to a new definition that explains health as a complex adaptive system (CAS and is based on five components (a-e. Humans like all biological creatures must satisfactorily respond to (a the demands of life. For this purpose they need (b a biologically given potential (BGP and (c a personally acquired potential (PAP. These properties of individuals are embedded within (d social and (e environmental determinants of health. Between these five components of health there are 10 complex interactions that justify viewing health as a CAS. In each patient, the current state of health as a CAS evolved from the past, will move forward to a new future, and has to be analyzed and treated as an autonomous whole. A diagnostic procedure is suggested as follows: together with the patient, the five components and 10 complex interactions are assessed. This may help patients to better understand their situations and to recognize possible next steps that may be useful in order to evolve toward better health by themselves. In this process mutual trust in the patient-physician interaction is critical. The described approach offers new possibilities for helping patients improve their health prospects.

  19. Understanding the failure of health-care exceptionalism in the Supreme Court's Obamacare decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieff, Abigail R

    2012-09-01

    On June 28, 2012, a mere century after the first presidential proposal for national health insurance, the Supreme Court issued a resounding victory for President Obama and for health-care reform generally, upholding the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act against a serious constitutional challenge. Nevertheless, the Court also struck a potential blow to future health-care reform efforts in refusing to accept the solicitor general's argument that health care is a unique market with unique regulatory needs that justify special constitutional treatment. The failure of health-care exceptionalism in the Court's opinion might render future reform efforts more difficult than they would have been if the solicitor general's argument had carried the day. This commentary seeks to shed light on the Court's hesitation to recognize the uniqueness of health insurance and health care, noting that market-based exceptionalism in constitutional law has a long, dark history that the Court was understandably loath to repeat. Although the result of Chief Justice John Roberts' one-size-fits-all approach to constitutional analysis in this case is an odd holding that elides some genuine uniqueness of American health care, the alternative of health-care exceptionalism might have been much worse for our overall constitutional system.

  20. Understanding why probiotic therapies can be effective in treating IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorak, Richard N

    2008-09-01

    Probiotics, for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, are a group of specific nonpathogenic bacteria that are functionally and genetically defined by their ability to reduce inflammation in the intestine. Although probiotics also seem to have broad beneficial effects in humans, both as a food and as a therapeutic agent, there are specific identified mechanisms in some, but not all, of these bacteria that are important relative to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, studies relative to the mechanism of action of probiotics have identified that these organisms can have a direct effect on epithelial cell function and intestinal health, including enhancing epithelial barrier function, modulating epithelial cytokine secretion into an anti-inflammatory dominant profile, altering mucus production, changing bacterial luminal flora, modifying the innate and systemic immune system, and inducing regulatory T-cell effects. For probiotics to have a therapeutic role in the management of clinical inflammatory bowel disease, their therapeutic mechanism of action must be aligned with the pathogenic mechanism of action of the disease. In this regard, the role of probiotics for the clinical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease is emerging as the mechanisms and pathogenesis are being unraveled. It remains clear that probiotics are able to reduce gastrointestinal inflammation by exerting positive effects on epithelial cell and mucosal immune dysfunction.

  1. Understanding Campus Culture and Student Coping Strategies for Mental Health Issues in Five Canadian Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamos, Dimitris; Lee, Alex Young Soo; Suleiman, Amanda; Stuart, Heather; Chen, Shu-Ping

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand campus mental health culture and student mental health coping strategies, and to identify the mental health needs of students as well as gaps in mental health services within postsecondary education. A videovoice method was used to identify and document health-related issues and advocate for change. Forty-one…

  2. "There is a chain of connections": using syndemics theory to understand HIV treatment side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marilou

    2018-03-12

    Side effects are central to the experience of living longer with HIV but rarely have they been studied alone. Unlike other aspects of that experience, like quality of life, treatment adherence, chronicity, episodic disability, aging, health, and viral load suppression, side effects have not benefited from the same level of empirical and theoretical engagement from qualitative researchers. In this paper, we draw on syndemics theory and 50 qualitative interviews to better understand the experience of HIV treatment side effects. Two main categories were identified in the data: side effects as a product and side effects as a risk factor. The first category suggests that side effects are not just the product of taking antiretroviral drugs. They are also the product of particular conditions and tend to cluster with other health problems. The second category puts forward the idea that side effects can act as a syndemic risk factor by exposing PLWH to a greater risk of developing health problems and creating conditions in which psychosocial issues are more likely to emerge. The paper concludes by calling for more research on the complex nature of side effects and for the development of comprehensive approaches for the assessment and management of side effects.

  3. Consumer understanding and use of health claims: the case of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Azzurra; Mariani, Angela; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    As widely acknowledged functional foods (FFs) may contribute to improve human health due to the presence of specific components useful for their protective action against several diseases. However it is essential that consumers are able to comprehend and assess the properties of FFs health claims play a central role in helping consumers to select among food alternatives, beyond providing protection against unsupported or misleading statements about foods properties. At the same time health claims are the main marketing tool that the food industry could use to differentiate FFs from other products. Clearly, massive investments in research and development are necessary to enter the FF market segment, together with the possibility to protect innovation through patents. Current paper aims to examine factors influencing consumer understanding and use of food health claims on FFs, as well as providing several indications for developers, marketers and policy makers. After a brief review of the literature the results of a quantitative survey conducted online on 650 Italian consumers are presented. Results show that consumer use and understanding of health claims on FFs depend on different variables such as socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and confidence with nutrition information but also wording and variables related specifically to the product. Furthermore, different segments with a diverse degree of use and understanding of health claims have been identified. Therefore, to boost market growth, more efforts are needed by policy makers and marketers to provide better information on nutrition and health aspects of FF using an approach capable to ensure truthful, significant and clear information. Finally some recent patents related to the FFs market with specific regard to components and/or functionality investigated in the current paper are reviewed.

  4. Health and social exclusion in older age: evidence from Understanding Society, the UK household longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacker, Amanda; Ross, Andy; MacLeod, Catherine A; Netuveli, Gopal; Windle, Gill

    2017-07-01

    Social exclusion of the elderly is a key policy focus but evidence on the processes linking health and social exclusion is hampered by the variety of ways that health is used in social exclusion research. We investigated longitudinal associations between health and social exclusion using an analytical framework that did not conflate them. Data employed in this study came from 4 waves of Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study 2009-2013. The sample comprised all adults who took part in all 4 waves, were 65 years or more in Wave 3, and had complete data on our variables of interest for each analysis. We used linear regression to model the relationship between Wave 2/3 social exclusion and Wave1-2 health transitions (N=4312) and logistic regression to model the relationship between Wave2/3 social exclusion and Wave 4 health states, conditional on Wave 3 health (N=4244). There was a dose-response relationship between poor health in Waves 1 and 2 and later social exclusion. Use of a car, mobile phone and the internet moderated the association between poor health and social exclusion. Given the health status in Wave 3, those who were more socially excluded had poorer outcomes on each of the three domains of health in Wave 4. Use of the internet and technology protected older adults in poor health from social exclusion. Age-friendly hardware and software design might have public health benefits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. An ecological public health approach to understanding the relationships between sustainable urban environments, public health and social equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The environmental determinants of public health and social equity present many challenges to a sustainable urbanism-climate change, water shortages and oil dependency to name a few. There are many pathways from urban environments to human health. Numerous links have been described but some underlying mechanisms behind these relationships are less understood. Combining theory and methods is a way of understanding and explaining how the underlying structures of urban environments relate to public health and social equity. This paper proposes a model for an ecological public health, which can be used to explore these relationships. Four principles of an ecological public health-conviviality, equity, sustainability and global responsibility-are used to derive theoretical concepts that can inform ecological public health thinking, which, among other things, provides a way of exploring the underlying mechanisms that link urban environments to public health and social equity. Theories of more-than-human agency inform ways of living together (conviviality) in urban areas. Political ecology links the equity concerns about environmental and social justice. Resilience thinking offers a better way of coming to grips with sustainability. Integrating ecological ethics into public health considers the global consequences of local urban living and thus attends to global responsibility. This way of looking at the relationships between urban environments, public health and social equity answers the call to craft an ecological public health for the twenty-first century by re-imagining public health in a way that acknowledges humans as part of the ecosystem, not separate from it, though not central to it. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Longitudinal health effects of disasters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzermans, C.J.; Donker, G.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aim: We are involved in research on the possible health effects of three disasters in the Netherlands: a plane crash in an Amsterdam neighbourhood, the explosion of a firework factory in the city of Enschede and a fire in a discotheque in Volendam. Which methodologies were used and

  7. Longitudinal health effects of disasters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzermans, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: We carry out prospective, longitudinal studies on the possible health effects of two disasters in the Netherlands: the explosion of fireworks depot in a residential area (Enschede) and a fire in discotheque in Volendam. Learning from the chaotic aftermath previous disasters, the Dutch

  8. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  9. Compreendendo o Efeito Placebo / Understanding the Placebo Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elayne Vieira Dias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Placebo é definido em termos farmacológicos como uma substância inerte, sem propriedades farmacológicas intrínsecas. No entanto, essa definição é superficial, visto que o placebo pode gerar efeitos terapêuticos que dependem de diversos fatores como palavras, rituais, símbolos e significados que acompanham seu uso. Assim, o efeito placebo não diz respeito apenas a uma substância, mas, envolve fatores cognitivos, genéticos e mecanismos de aprendizagem implícita e explícita. Nessa revisão nós abordamos os aspectos gerais do efeito placebo apoiados em diversos estudos com diferentes enfoques, visando uma melhor compreensão desse fenômeno que pode se somar ao tratamento ativo e otimizar os resultados na prática médica. Placebo is pharmacologically defined as an inert substance, with nointrinsic pharmacological properties. However, this is a superficial definition, since placebo may trigger therapeutic effects and its effectiveness depends on various factors such as words, rituals, symbols and meanings following its use. Thus, placebo effect does not refer just to the substance, but it also involves cognitive and genetic factors and learning mechanisms. Here, we review general aspects of the placebo effect supported by several studies with different approaches, to better understand this phenomenon which may contribute to active treatment as well as optimize the results in the clinical practice.

  10. Understanding the organization of public health delivery systems: an empirical typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Glen P; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Bhandari, Michelyn W; Smith, Sharla A

    2010-03-01

    Policy discussions about improving the U.S. health care system increasingly recognize the need to strengthen its capacities for delivering public health services. A better understanding of how public health delivery systems are organized across the United States is critical to improvement. To facilitate the development of such evidence, this article presents an empirical method of classifying and comparing public health delivery systems based on key elements of their organizational structure. This analysis uses data collected through a national longitudinal survey of local public health agencies serving communities with at least 100,000 residents. The survey measured the availability of twenty core public health activities in local communities and the types of organizations contributing to each activity. Cluster analysis differentiated local delivery systems based on the scope of activities delivered, the range of organizations contributing, and the distribution of effort within the system. Public health delivery systems varied widely in organizational structure, but the observed patterns of variation suggested that systems adhere to one of seven distinct configurations. Systems frequently migrated from one configuration to another over time, with an overall trend toward offering a broader scope of services and engaging a wider range of organizations. Public health delivery systems exhibit important structural differences that may influence their operations and outcomes. The typology developed through this analysis can facilitate comparative studies to identify which delivery system configurations perform best in which contexts.

  11. Understanding the health care business model: the financial analysts' point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Nielsen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on how financial analysts understand the strategy of a health care company and which elements, from such a strategy perspective, they perceive as constituting the cornerstone of a health care company's business model. The empirical part of this study is based on semi-structured interviews with analysts following a large health care company listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange. The authors analyse how the financial analysts view strategy and value creation within the framework of a business model. Further, the authors analyze whether the characteristics emerging from a comprehensive literature review are reflected in the financial analysts' perceptions of which information is decision-relevant and important to communicate to the financial markets. Among the conclusions of the study is the importance of distinguishing between the health care companies' business model and the model by which the payment of revenues are allocated between end users and reimbursing organizations.

  12. Understanding professional behavior: experiences of occupational therapy students in mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, M

    1997-09-01

    A phenomenological study explored occupational therapy students' experiences in psychiatric fieldwork. Of particular interest was students' understanding of professional behavior toward persons who use mental health services. Data were gathered from 16 informants via in-depth interviews and participant observation on multiple occasions during fieldwork affiliations. Emerging from informants' views of professional behavior were difficulties in their reconciling conflicting expectations with regard to emotional and social distance from persons who use mental health services. Additionally, the informants experienced a need to assume authority and maintain control in their dealings with service users. Students' encounters with such issues during fieldwork are indicative of challenges they may face as health professionals in a changing climate of mental health services. These data are stimuli for reflection on features of professional relationships with service users, particularly in response to expectations of persons with disabilities regarding control over their lives.

  13. Sexual orientation health inequality: Evidence from Understanding Society, the UK Longitudinal Household Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Cara L; Rieger, Gerulf; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-08-01

    Few studies from the United Kingdom have fully investigated inequalities between members of different sexual minority groups and heterosexuals over range of health outcomes. Using data from over 40,000 individuals, this study explores the health inequalities of sexual minority UK adults. We include respondents who identify as other and those who prefer not to say (PNS). Data come from wave three (2011-2012) of the nationally-representative Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study. Sexual orientation was asked in the self-completion portion of the study. Markers of health include physical and mental functioning, minor psychological distress, self-rated health, substance use and disability. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses tested for differences in markers of health between sexual orientation groups. Overall, heterosexual respondents had the best health while bisexual respondents had the worst. Gay and lesbian respondents reported poorer health than heterosexuals, specifically with regards to mental functioning, distress and illness status. The other and PNS respondents were most similar to each other and generally experienced fewer health inequalities than gay and lesbian respondents; they were less likely to use tobacco or alcohol. In sum, sexual minorities experience health inequality. The inclusion of other and PNS respondents has not been done in other studies and shows that while they may be healthier than gay/lesbian and bisexual respondents they still experiences poorer health than heterosexuals. Health promotion interventions are needed for these other and PNS individuals, who might not participate in interventions targeted toward known sexual minority groups. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A survey of how patient-perceived empathy affects the relationship between health literacy and the understanding of information by orthopedic patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cheng-I; Tseng, Chia-Chih Alex

    2013-02-19

    There is a lack of research examining patient-perceived empathy and its effect on low-literacy patients' understanding of health information. This study investigated the moderating effect of patient-perceived empathy on the relationship between health literacy and understanding of preoperative information. During a 2-month period, a total of 144 patients took a survey that included the Chinese-edition Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory and the Preoperative Information Understanding Scale. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis provided a test of moderator effects. All Cronbach's alphas exceeded 0.6, with REALM at 0.91, BLRI at 0.67, and PIUS at 0.77.The finding that the interaction term was significant suggests perceived empathy is a relevant factor when considering the relationship between health literacy and the understanding of information by patients. The relationship between the health literacy and understanding of information was stronger and positive among patients who perceived greater empathy from their physicians. Our study demonstrates that a focus on improving physician-patient empathy skills could be beneficial in helping to overcome the negative consequences associated with limited health-literacy capabilities. Healthcare providers who wish to improve the understanding of information by low health-literacy patients should first identify components of their empathic communication mechanisms, and then try to refine these skills to better serve their patients.

  15. Project INTEGRATE - a common methodological approach to understand integrated health care in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Cash-Gibson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of case studies in health services research has proven to be an excellent methodology for gaining in-depth understanding of the organisation and delivery of health care. This is particularly relevant when looking at the complexity of integrated healthcare programmes, where multifaceted interactions occur at the different levels of care and often without a clear link between the interventions (new and/or existing and their impact on outcomes (in terms of patients health, both patient and professional satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. Still, integrated care is seen as a core strategy in the sustainability of health and care provision in most societies in Europe and beyond. More specifically, at present, there is neither clear evidence on transferable factors of integrated care success nor a method for determining how to establish these specific success factors. The drawback of case methodology in this case, however, is that the in-depth results or lessons generated are usually highly context-specific and thus brings the challenge of transferability of findings to other settings, as different health care systems and different indications are often not comparable. Project INTEGRATE, a European Commission-funded project, has been designed to overcome these problems; it looks into four chronic conditions in different European settings, under a common methodology framework (taking a mixed-methods approach to try to overcome the issue of context specificity and limited transferability. The common methodological framework described in this paper seeks to bring together the different case study findings in a way that key lessons may be derived and transferred between countries, contexts and patient-groups, where integrated care is delivered in order to provide insight into generalisability and build on existing evidence in this field.Methodology: To compare the different integrated care experiences, a mixed-methods approach has

  16. Understanding the micro and macro politics of health: Inequalities, intersectionality & institutions - A research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkiouleka, Anna; Huijts, Tim; Beckfield, Jason; Bambra, Clare

    2018-01-28

    This essay brings together intersectionality and institutional approaches to health inequalities, suggesting an integrative analytical framework that accounts for the complexity of the intertwined influence of both individual social positioning and institutional stratification on health. This essay therefore advances the emerging scholarship on the relevance of intersectionality to health inequalities research. We argue that intersectionality provides a strong analytical tool for an integrated understanding of health inequalities beyond the purely socioeconomic by addressing the multiple layers of privilege and disadvantage, including race, migration and ethnicity, gender and sexuality. We further demonstrate how integrating intersectionality with institutional approaches allows for the study of institutions as heterogeneous entities that impact on the production of social privilege and disadvantage beyond just socioeconomic (re)distribution. This leads to an understanding of the interaction of the macro and the micro facets of the politics of health. Finally, we set out a research agenda considering the interplay/intersections between individuals and institutions and involving a series of methodological implications for research - arguing that quantitative designs can incorporate an intersectional institutional approach. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypertension: The understanding of bearer’s users, enrolled and monitored in the family health units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilara Maria Mesquita Mendes Pires

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High Blood Pressure (HBP occupies a prominent position, due to its high incidence and prevalence, as a multifactorial disease and mostly asymptomatic, that fundamentally endangers the promote life’s quality. The study aimed to portray the understanding of bearer’s users enrolled and monitored by the HIPERDIA program, in Family Health Units, about their pathology and thus be able to establish strategies that may be closer to their reality to propose policies to encourage the promotion of health. The study with qualitative approach, conducted in the municipality of Jequié -Bahia, with 08 Family Health Teams, with 152 users with hypertension. We used the semi-structured interview and the collective subject speech technique, which enabled us to reconstruct 04 speeches: DSC 01: "To me it is a terrible disease", DSC 02 "do not eat salt, do not eat fat”, DSC 03 "it is to have headaches, vertigo, it causes heart attack, it causes stroke" DSC 04 "I do not know what it exactly is", they reflect the understanding of the study subjects about their pathology. This leads us to think of health actions aimed at health education emerging the need for change in the approach and use of a common language between professionals and service users, ensuring the promotion of life’s quality and, consequently, the co-responsibility in the treatment adherence.

  18. Understanding gender construction: creating space for feminist health care practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia A; Lewis, Judith A

    2005-05-01

    An understanding of imposed cultural norms allows the scientist, researcher, and health care practitioner to move beyond the social construction of gender and illness. From Aristotle's theory of reproduction to neurological and psychological research asserting sex as destiny to present-day attitudes toward intersexuality, we can trace the conceptualization of women in terms of biological inferiority. These theories elucidate the ways in which the cultural assumptions influence the institution of scientific inquiry and vice versa. To assure equal and fair health care practices, a paradigm shift is called for that actively accepts feminist research practices and rejects culturally dominant methods of research in medicine and science.

  19. Medical Drama Viewing and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors: Understanding the Role of Health Locus of Control Beliefs and Education Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungsu; Baek, Young Min

    2017-11-22

    The present study advances the understanding of how medical drama viewing influences healthy lifestyle behaviors (e.g., smoking, exercising, and consuming vegetables) by examining the role of the health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs and education level. An analysis of nationally representative data reveals that watching medical dramas is positively associated with chance and powerful others' HLOC beliefs. In addition, healthy lifestyle behaviors are positively associated with the internal HLOC belief and are negatively associated with the chance and powerful others' HLOC beliefs. Research findings demonstrate that there are indirect effects of medical drama viewing on these behaviors via chance and powerful others' HLOC beliefs. The indirect effect through the powerful others' HLOC belief is also contingent on the education level. The implications for the role of HLOC beliefs and education level in terms of the effects of medical dramas on health-promoting behaviors are discussed.

  20. Understanding the "Weekend Effect" for Emergency General Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Richard S; Go, Derek E; Dhar, Vikrom K; Kim, Young; Hanseman, Dennis J; Wima, Koffi; Shah, Shimul A

    2018-02-01

    Several studies have identified a "weekend effect" for surgical outcomes, but definitions vary and the cause is unclear. Our aim was to better characterize the weekend effect for emergency general surgery using mortality as a primary endpoint. Using data from the University HealthSystem Consortium from 2009 to 2013, we identified urgent/emergent hospital admissions for seven procedures representing 80% of the national burden of emergency general surgery. Patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were compared between cases that were performed on weekdays vs weekends. Hospitals varied widely in the proportion of procedures performed on the weekend. Of the procedures examined, four had higher mortality for weekend cases (laparotomy, lysis of adhesions, partial colectomy, and small bowel resection; p surgery (p surgery procedures that incur higher mortality when performed on weekends. This may be due to acute changes in patient status that require weekend surgery or indications for urgent procedures (ischemia, obstruction) compared to those without a weekend mortality difference (infection). Hospitals that perform weekend surgery must acknowledge and identify ways to manage this increased risk.

  1. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  2. Understanding the Role of Public Administration in Implementing Action on the Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Gemma; Friel, Sharon

    2015-10-11

    Many of the societal level factors that affect health - the 'social determinants of health (SDH)' - exist outside the health sector, across diverse portfolios of government, and other major institutions including non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the private sector. This has created growing interest in how to create and implement public policies which will drive better and fairer health outcomes. While designing policies that can improve the SDH is critical, so too is ensuring they are appropriately administered and implemented. In this paper, we draw attention to an important area for future public health consideration - how policies are managed and implemented through complex administrative layers of 'the state.' Implementation gaps have long been a concern of public administration scholarship. To precipitate further work in this area, in this paper, we provide an overview of the scholarly field of public administration and highlight its role in helping to understand better the challenges and opportunities for implementing policies and programs to improve health equity. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  3. Public health triangulation: approach and application to synthesizing data to understand national and local HIV epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberle-Grasse John

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health triangulation is a process for reviewing, synthesising and interpreting secondary data from multiple sources that bear on the same question to make public health decisions. It can be used to understand the dynamics of HIV transmission and to measure the impact of public health programs. While traditional intervention research and metaanalysis would be ideal sources of information for public health decision making, they are infrequently available, and often decisions can be based only on surveillance and survey data. Methods The process involves examination of a wide variety of data sources and both biological, behavioral and program data and seeks input from stakeholders to formulate meaningful public health questions. Finally and most importantly, it uses the results to inform public health decision-making. There are 12 discrete steps in the triangulation process, which included identification and assessment of key questions, identification of data sources, refining questions, gathering data and reports, assessing the quality of those data and reports, formulating hypotheses to explain trends in the data, corroborating or refining working hypotheses, drawing conclusions, communicating results and recommendations and taking public health action. Results Triangulation can be limited by the quality of the original data, the potentials for ecological fallacy and "data dredging" and reproducibility of results. Conclusions Nonetheless, we believe that public health triangulation allows for the interpretation of data sets that cannot be analyzed using meta-analysis and can be a helpful adjunct to surveillance, to formal public health intervention research and to monitoring and evaluation, which in turn lead to improved national strategic planning and resource allocation.

  4. Understanding Treatment Adherence With the Health Belief Model in Children With Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Nicole R; Wildman, Beth G; Masterson, Tracy L; Omlor, Gregory J

    2017-10-01

    Children's health beliefs are significantly related to their adherence; however, pediatric literature has rarely tested health-related theories as a whole. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the use of the health belief model (HBM) in understanding children's adherence, both globally and to individual treatment components. Thirty-three patient-parent dyads completed questionnaires regarding health beliefs and adherence to medical regimens. Multiple linear regressions found a significant relationship among the HBM variables and reports of global adherence for children and parents. For children, the HBM variables were significantly related to adherence to aerosol medications, aerosol antibiotics, metered dose inhalers, and vitamins. For parents, the HBM variables were significantly related to children's adherence to airway clearance, oral antibiotics, and vitamins. Paired sample t tests found children and parents had significantly discrepant heath beliefs. These findings provide further support for the HBM in evaluating pediatric adherence, with evidence that barriers and cues to action may be targets for early intervention. Future research using this model to identify a comprehensive way to assess, understand, and elicit change in the adherence to medical regimens for youth with chronic illness would be beneficial.

  5. Habits of the Sensory System and Mental Health: Understanding Sensory Dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailliard, Antoine L

    2015-01-01

    In occupational therapy, research has studied sensory function predominantly in relation to sensory disorders. There is a gap in the literature exploring how sensory experiences affect mental health. This study sought to provide a phenomenological understanding of how people relate experiences of sensory dissonance to their mental health. Ten immigrants from Latin America participated in semistructured interviews and video observations of their occupational behavior. Participants' experiences of sensory dissonance provoked negative mental states and distress. Participants reported poor mental health following sensory experiences that were incongruent with their habits of sensing. They also intentionally used sensory anchors to induce positive mental states and connect with past occupational experiences. Occupational therapy practitioners should be mindful of how sensory environments can facilitate or impede intervention. Practitioners are encouraged to harness clients' sensory habits and use sensory anchors as a form of sensory scaffolding to facilitate therapeutic gains. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  6. Student-Developed Simulations: Enhancing Cultural Awareness and Understanding Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Danette S; Randolph, Schenita D; Molloy, Margory A; Carter, Brigit; Cary, Michael P

    2017-04-01

    National and global initiatives to address the social determinants of health (SDH) are on the rise. On a parallel trajectory, increased cultural awareness is emerging as an integral strategy to improve the understanding of these social contributions to disease states, health inequities, and health disparities. Undergraduate nursing students developed modalities and role-played simulations as a teaching and learning strategy. The simulations demonstrated how nurses assess patients' unique needs and offer support and resources regarding patients' socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental needs. The student-developed simulations were an interactive teaching and learning strategy that offered several benefits, such as improved interpersonal skills, learned specific nursing roles, and improved cultural awareness. Student-developed simulations are an innovative teaching strategy for improving cultural awareness and learning more about SDH. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(4):243-246.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Equity and access: understanding emergency health service use by newly arrived refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mohamud; Nugus, Peter I; Gao, Zhanhai; Holdgate, Anna; Short, Alison E; Al Haboub, Ayman; Macintyre, C Raina

    2011-07-18

    To determine issues that affect newly resettled refugees in accessing an emergency department (ED). We conducted a descriptive community survey using a semistructured questionnaire. Newly resettled refugees from the Middle East and Africa were interviewed, statistical analysis was performed, and standard content analysis methods were applied to free-text responses. Emergency health-seeking behaviour, sociocultural barriers and beliefs about Australia's emergency health services. Half the African refugees (53/106) (50%), compared with only 15/49 (31%) of the Middle Eastern refugees, preferred an ED service over other forms of care for an urgent medical condition (P = 0.024). Qualitative data revealed that most newly resettled refugees understand how to use the emergency health services. However, while most indicated that they were able to make a call for emergency medical help, a substantial number of our respondents revealed that they were afraid to make such a call for fear of security implications, on the basis of experiences from their home countries. Reasons for differences in preferences of health care access, and determining how best to educate the community on the use of ED services, warrant further investigation. From a policy perspective, the increasing health care needs of refugees need re-examination when planning health care provision to refugees.

  8. Por Nuestros Ojos: understanding social determinants of health through the eyes of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Johanna Claire; de Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta; Williams, Lacey; Smith, Heather A; Sorensen, Janni; Furuseth, Owen J; Dulin, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the social determinants underlying health disparities benefits from a mixed-methods, participatory research approach. Photovoice was used in a research project seeking to identify and validate existing data and models used to address socio-spatial determinants of health in at-risk neighborhoods. High-risk neighborhoods were identified using geospatial models of pre-identified social determinants of health. Students living within these neighborhoods were trained in Photovoice, and asked to take pictures of elements that influence their neighborhood's health and to create narratives explaining the photographs. Students took 300 photographs showing elements that they perceived affected community health. Negative factors included poor pedestrian access, inadequate property maintenance, pollution, and evidence of gangs, criminal activity, and vagrancy. Positive features included public service infrastructure and outdoor recreation. Photovoice data confirmed and contextualized the geospatial models while building community awareness and capacity. Photovoice can be a useful research tool for building community capacity and validating quantitative data describing social determinants of health.

  9. Understanding Challenges in the Front Lines of Home Health Care: A Human-Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jenay M.; McBride, Sara E.; Mitzner, Tracy L.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    2014-01-01

    A human-systems perspective is a fruitful approach to understanding home health care because it emphasizes major individual components of the system – persons, equipment/technology, tasks, and environments –as well as the interaction between these components. The goal of this research was to apply a human-system perspective to consider the capabilities and limitations of the persons, in relation to the demands of the tasks and equipment/technology in home health care. Identification of challenges and mismatches between the person(s) capabilities and the demands of providing care provide guidance for human factors interventions. A qualitative study was conducted with 8 home health Certified Nursing Assistants and 8 home health Registered Nurses interviewed about challenges they encounter in their jobs. A systematic categorization of the challenges the care providers reported was conducted and human factors recommendations were proposed in response, to improve home health. The challenges inform a human-systems model of home health care. PMID:24958610

  10. Statistical health-effects study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.; Sever, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    A principal objective of this program is to determine if there are demonstrable effects of radiation exposure to the Hanford worker by analyzing mortality records of this population. A secondary purpose is to improve methodology for assessing health effects of chronic low-level exposure to harmful agents or substances, particularly i an occupational setting. In the past year we have updated our analyses and initiated new areas of analysis. Complete documentation was provided for our computer program for the mortality study, and a user's manual is under development. A case-control study of birth defects was started in FY 1982

  11. Health Effects of Exposures to Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mercury in Your Environment Contact Us Share Health Effects of Exposures to Mercury Related Health Information for ... About PDF ; discussion starts on page 20) Methylmercury Effects Effects on People of All Ages Exposure to ...

  12. Understanding disability and the 'social determinants of health': how does disability affect peoples' social determinants of health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frier, Amanda; Barnett, Fiona; Devine, Sue; Barker, Ruth

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how an individual's social determinants of health are affected by the acquisition of physical disability in adulthood. The secondary aim was to report the described facilitators and barriers to living with a disability. This qualitative study used an exploratory, descriptive approach. Nine individuals with a neurologically derived disability were purposively recruited from a rehabilitation center in northern Queensland. Participation in the study involved semi-structured interviews. QSR NVivo was used for the data analysis process. Changes to social determinants of health resulting from the acquisition of disability had substantial flow-on consequences in all aspects of life for the individual and those close to them. Income had the greatest influence over the other social determinant of health. Following the acquisition of disability, the reduced inflow and increased outflow of finances had subsequent negative effects on housing, transport and social interactions, and also personal relationships. When considering changes to the social determinants of health resulting from disability acquisition, it is impractical to view these changes and those affected in isolation. Consideration of this multidimensional effect on life associated with the acquisition of disability will be useful in disability research, advocacy and support services. Implications for Rehabilitation Social determinants of health are known to have a direct influence on health status. As social determinants of health decrease, morbidity and mortality rates increase. Following the acquisition of disability, there is a decline in social determinants of health. This decline affects quality of life for individuals' with a disability, and those closest to them. The effects of declining social determinants of health may inhibit the rehabilitation process. Thus, it is important to acknowledge the multifaceted impact the acquisition of disability has on peoples

  13. Understanding advocacy practice in mental health: a multidimensional scalogram analysis of case records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Paul; Stomski, Norman J; Whitely, Martin; Brennan, Pip

    2018-04-01

    Few studies have examined mental health consumers' motives for seeking advocacy assistance. This study aimed to identify factors that influenced mental health consumers' use of advocacy services. The analysis was based on 60 case records that were sourced from a community advocacy service. Each record was dichotomously coded across 11 variables to generate a series of categorical data profiles. The data set was then analysed using multidimensional scalogram analysis to reveal key relationships between subsets of variables. The results indicated that mental health consumers commonly reported a sense of fear, which motivated them to contact the advocacy service in the hope that advocates could intervene on their behalf through effective communication with health professionals. Advocates often undertook such intervention either through attending meetings between the consumer and health professionals or contacting health professionals outside of meetings, which was typically successful in terms of achieving mental health consumers' desired outcome. The resolution of most concerns suggests that they were often legitimate and not the result of a lack of insight or illness symptoms. Health professionals might consider exploring how they respond when consumers or carers raise concerns about the delivery of mental health care.

  14. Understanding student early departure from a Master of Public Health programme in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Dlungwane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Student departure from university without completing a qualification is a major concern in higher education. Higher Education South Africa reported that in undergraduate studies, 35% of students depart after the first year and only 15% of students who enrol complete their degree within the minimum permissible time. At postgraduate level, the departure from Masters programmes in South Africa (SA ranged from 30% to 67% in 2010. Early departure refers to students who leave an academic programme within the first semester of commencing their studies. At one SA university, there were a total of 109 first-time Master of Public Health (MPH student registrations in 2013 and 2014. By the end of the first semester in the respective years, a total of 27 students actively deregistered from the programme and 11 students did not sit the first-semester examinations, representing an aggregate 35% rate of early departure. The factors associated with early departure at the University of KwaZulu-Natal are not well understood. Objective. To understand factors associated with early departure in the MPH programme at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Method. A mixed-methods design was implemented. Students who departed within the first semester of commencing the MPH programme in 2013/2014 were followed up. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Results. Failure to balance work and academic obligations with poor time management, stress and academic demands related to the programme, and insufficient academic progress were found to be associated with student early departure from the MPH programme. Conclusion. Student early departure from the MPH programme was influenced by multifaceted factors. Senior students can mentor new students as early as possible in their programme. The orientation block should include development activities such as time management, stress management and effective study skills to assist

  15. "I really wanted to be able to contribute something": understanding health science student motivations to create meaningful global health experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Erin; Hatfield, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Global health is an area of increasing interest among health professionals, students and educators. This study aims to explore students' motivations and experiences with an undergraduate global health research program in low and middle-income countries and to assess student learning and areas for program improvement. All students participating in the Global Health Research Program at the University of Calgary in the summer of 2009 were asked to participate in the study (n=11). In-depth interviews were conducted with students prior to departure and upon their return. Discourse analysis was used to identify interpretive repertoires and to determine how the use of repertoires improves our understanding of students' experiences. Prior to departure, students were highly motivated to "give back" to host communities. Upon return, students felt that their experience had been more about "building relationships" with others than individual contributions to hosts. Students' altruistic motivations dominated the discourse, and most students incorporated core concepts from a preparation course only after their international experience. Extensive preparation, supervision and follow-up support can mitigate many of the risks of short-term global health experiences while providing a safe opportunity for significant learning.

  16. Understanding preventive health screening services use in persons with serious mental illness: how does integrated behavioral health primary care compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Glen L; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Suo, Shannon; Mccarron, Robert M; Koike, Alan; Onate, John; Carter, Cameron S

    2015-01-01

    People with serious mental illness have reduced life expectancy, in large part due to reduced access to medical services and underutilization of preventive health services. This is a cross-sectional study that compared preventive services use in an integrated behavioral health primary care clinic (IBHPC) with two existing community mental health programs. Participants completed questionnaires about preventive health services use that contained 33 questions about demographic clinical information, and use of preventive health services, from October 2010 to December 2012. Services examined included mammogram, Papanicolaou Test, prostate specific antigen, digital rectal exam, fecal occult blood test, and flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy; blood pressure, height and weight, cholesterol, and blood sugar for diabetes; and influenza immunization, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) antibodies. A health service utilization score was developed and used as primary outcome for data analyses. In the multivariate analyses female gender (p compared to White), program type (p compared to one community mental health program (p compared another (p = 0.34). There was high variability in use of individual services among the clinical programs. More studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of integrated care in improving use of health screening services. Characteristics of the clinic in relation to use of preventive services deserve further study. © 2015, The Author(s).

  17. Voice and choice in health care in England: understanding citizen responses to dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, Keith; John, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a five-year online survey the paper examines the effects of relative satisfaction with health services on individuals' voice-and-choice activity in the English public health care system. Voice is considered in three parts – individual voice (complaints), collective voice voting and participation (collective action). Exercising choice is seen in terms of complete exit (not using health care), internal exit (choosing another public service provider) and private exit (using private health care). The interaction of satisfaction and forms of voice and choice are analysed over time. Both voice and choice are correlated with dissatisfaction with those who are unhappy with the NHS more likely to privately voice and to plan to take up private health care. Those unable to choose private provision are likely to use private voice. These factors are not affected by items associated with social capital – indeed, being more trusting leads to lower voice activity.

  18. Use, misuse and non-use of health care assistants: understanding the work of health care assistants in a hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilsbury, Karen; Meyer, Julienne

    2004-11-01

    This study is concerned with understanding the work of non-registered nurses (health care assistants) in a UK hospital setting. There are increasing numbers of health care assistants employed by the National Health Service in the UK to support registered nurses providing nursing care. However, little is known about the make-up of the health care assistant workforce and the changing nature of their role. This study addresses some of these gaps in the research-based literature. A single case study design using mixed methods (survey, interviews, participant observations, focus groups and documents) was used to generate an in-depth account of health care assistants' work in one organization. The study is built upon what health care assistants say they do, compared with what they actually do in practice. It explores how and whether the work of health care assistants is adequately supervised, tensions between the work of health care assistants and registered nurses and the subsequent effects on teamwork and patient care. There are policy expectations associated with the work of health care assistants. However, this study reveals significant deviations from these goals. The workplace arena and the negotiations between health care assistants and registered nurses that take place within it, actively shape the health care assistants' work. Findings suggest dynamic patterns of use, misuse and non-use of the health care assistants as a resource to patient care. The changing roles of registered nurses have direct implications for the roles of health care assistants: as registered nurses take on extra duties and responsibilities they are conceding some of their role to health care assistants. This has implications for nurse managers. The competence of health care assistants to carry out nursing work needs to be reassessed and there also needs to be ongoing monitoring and supervision of their work to maximize, and further develop, their contribution to patient care and to ensure

  19. A dual-factor model of mental health: toward a more comprehensive understanding of youth functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaramian, Susan P; Scott Huebner, E; Hills, Kimberly J; Valois, Robert F

    2010-10-01

    Traditional mental health models focus on psychological problems and distress; accordingly, health is viewed as the absence of illness or disability. In contrast, a dual-factor model of mental health incorporates both indicators of positive subjective well-being (SWB) and measures of psychopathological symptoms to comprehensively determine an individual's psychological adjustment. This study used such a dual-factor model to measure the mental health status of young adolescents. A total of 764 middle school students were classified into one of four distinct groups based on having high or low psychopathology and high or low SWB. Furthermore, group differences in student engagement, academic achievement, and environmental support for learning were investigated. Results demonstrated the existence of a traditionally neglected group of adolescents (low SWB and low psychopathology) who are nonetheless at risk for academic and behavior problems in school and who performed no better than the most troubled group of adolescents. Overall, both the presence of positive well-being and the absence of symptoms were necessary for ensuring the most advantageous school performance. These results highlight the importance of incorporating positive indicators of well-being along with traditional negative factors in more fully understanding relationships between individuals' mental health and educational outcomes. © 2010 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  20. The politics of knowledge: implications for understanding and addressing mental health and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Emily K

    2014-03-01

    While knowledge represents a valuable commodity, not all forms of knowledge are afforded equal status. The politics of knowledge, which entails the privileging of particular ways of knowing through linkages between the producers of knowledge and other bearers of authority or influence, represents a powerful force driving knowledge development. Within the health research and practice community, biomedical knowledge (i.e. knowledge pertaining to the biological factors influencing health) has been afforded a privileged position, shaping the health research and practice community's view of health, illness and appropriate intervention. The aim of this study is to spark critical reflection and dialogue surrounding the ways in which the politics of knowledge have constrained progress in addressing mental health and illness, one of today's leading public health issues. I argue that the hegemony of biological knowledge represents an ethical issue as it limits the breadth of knowledge available to support practitioners to 'do good' in terms of addressing mental illness. Given the power and influence inherent within the nursing community, I propose that nurses ought to engage in critical reflection and action in an effort to better situate the health research and practice community to effectively address the mental health of populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Understanding the current status and exploring the potential for distance education in public health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavya; George, Sunil; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Continuing education of health care providers plays an important role in producing a health work force that is efficient and effective. In India public health education has primarily relied on conventional methods of training. However, such methods have limitations in equipping the health workforce of a vast and varied country like India. This paper analyzes the current status of distance education in public health and lists the various courses that are presently available in India through the distance education mode. Presently 25 institutions in India are offering 69 courses in various domains of public health through distance education. The providers of these programs comprised both government and private educational institutions. This paper also points out the role and importance of various stakeholders in the design and delivery of distance education programs in public health and raises key areas that need attention in the governance of such programs. It urges the use of digital technology in the delivery of distance education programs and points out how distance education that is designed and delivered using the latest technology could address the current gap in training human resources for health in India.

  2. Recognition and understanding of goals and roles: The key internal features of mental health court teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Mary; Skubby, David; Bonfine, Natalie; Munetz, Mark R; Teller, Jennifer L S

    2011-01-01

    The increasing involvement of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system has led to the formation of specialty programs such as mental health courts (hereafter MHCs). We discuss MHCs and the teams serving these courts. Specifically, we examine team members' perceptions of MHC goals and their own and others' roles on the MHC team. Using a semi-structured interview instrument, we conducted 59 face-to-face interviews with criminal justice and mental health treatment personnel representing 11 Ohio MHCs. Findings from our qualitative data analyses reveal that MHC personnel understand individuals' roles within the teams, recognize and appreciate the importance of different roles, and share common goals. MHCs could foster this level of understanding and agreement by working to recruit and retain individuals with experience in or willingness to learn about both the criminal justice and mental health systems. Future research should explore the impact of MHC team functioning on client outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Potent health effects of pomegranate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarfeshany, Aida; Asgary, Sedigheh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions. PMID:24800189

  4. Potent health effects of pomegranate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Zarfeshany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions.

  5. Understanding relevance of health research: considerations in the context of research impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrow, Mark J; Miller, Fiona A; Frank, Cy; Brown, Adalsteinn D

    2017-04-17

    With massive investment in health-related research, above and beyond investments in the management and delivery of healthcare and public health services, there has been increasing focus on the impact of health research to explore and explain the consequences of these investments and inform strategic planning. Relevance is reflected by increased attention to the usability and impact of health research, with research funders increasingly engaging in relevance assessment as an input to decision processes. Yet, it is unclear whether relevance is a synonym for or predictor of impact, a necessary condition or stage in achieving it, or a distinct aim of the research enterprise. The main aim of this paper is to improve our understanding of research relevance, with specific objectives to (1) unpack research relevance from both theoretical and practical perspectives, and (2) outline key considerations for its assessment. Our approach involved the scholarly strategy of review and reflection. We prepared a draft paper based on an exploratory review of literature from various fields, and gained from detailed and insightful analysis and critique at a roundtable discussion with a group of key health research stakeholders. We also solicited review and feedback from a small sample of expert reviewers. Research relevance seems increasingly important in justifying research investments and guiding strategic research planning. However, consideration of relevance has been largely tacit in the health research community, often depending on unexplained interpretations of value, fit and potential for impact. While research relevance seems a necessary condition for impact - a process or component of efforts to make rigorous research usable - ultimately, relevance stands apart from research impact. Careful and explicit consideration of research relevance is vital to gauge the overall value and impact of a wide range of individual and collective research efforts and investments. To improve

  6. Understanding India, globalisation and health care systems: a mapping of research in the social sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India – a ‘rising power’ with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health

  7. Understanding India, globalisation and health care systems: a mapping of research in the social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Ramila; Pitchforth, Emma; Murray, Susan F

    2012-09-10

    National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India - a 'rising power' with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health

  8. Understanding the Role of Social Factors in Farmworker Housing and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Ben; Milofsky, Carl; Kissam, Edward; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-11-01

    Differences in social advantage significantly influence health conditions and life expectancy within any population. Such factors reproduce historic class, race, and ethnic disparities in community success. Few populations in the United States face more social and economic disadvantage than farmworkers, and farmworker housing has significant potential to ameliorate or amplify the health impact of those disadvantages. Drawing on the limited direct research on farmworkers, and on additional research about poor, isolated, and immigrant societies, we propose four mechanisms through which housing can be expected to affect farmworker health: quality of social capital within farmworker communities, stress effects of poor housing situations, effects of housing on social support for healthy behaviors, and interactions among these factors, especially effects on children that can last for generations. Policy and planning definitions of "adequate" farmworker housing should take a more holistic view of housing needs to support specific social and community benefits in design decisions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Health effects of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otles, Semih; Ozgoz, Selin

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fibre is a group of food components which is resistant to digestive enzymes and found mainly in cereals, fruits and vegetables. Dietary fi ber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Dietary fi ber which indigestible in human small intestinal, on the other hand digested completely or partially fermented in the large intestine, is examined in two groups: water-soluble and water insoluble organic compounds. Dietary fi ber can be separated into many different fractions. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. Dietary fibres compose the major component of products with low energy value that have had an increasing importance in recent years. Dietary fibres also have technological and functional properties that can be used in the formulation of foods, as well as numerous beneficial effects on human health. Dietary fibre components organise functions of large intestine and have important physiological effects on glucose, lipid metabolism and mineral bioavailability. Today, dietary fibers are known to be protective effect against certain gastrointestinal diseases, constipation, hemorrhoids, colon cancer, gastroesophageal reflux disease, duodenal ulcer, diverticulitis, obesity, diabetes, stroke, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this review the physicochemical and biological properties of dietary fibers and their important implications on human health will be investigated.

  10. Understanding the modifiable health systems barriers to hypertension management in Malaysia: a multi-method health systems appraisal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso-Gill, Isabelle; Balabanova, Dina; Majid, Fadhlina; Ng, Kien Keat; Yusoff, Khalid; Mustapha, Feisul; Kuhlbrandt, Charlotte; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Schwalm, J-D; McCready, Tara; Teo, Koon K; Yusuf, Salim; McKee, Martin

    2015-07-03

    The growing burden of non-communicable diseases in middle-income countries demands models of care that are appropriate to local contexts and acceptable to patients in order to be effective. We describe a multi-method health system appraisal to inform the design of an intervention that will be used in a cluster randomized controlled trial to improve hypertension control in Malaysia. A health systems appraisal was undertaken in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, and poorer-resourced rural sites in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah. Building on two systematic reviews of barriers to hypertension control, a conceptual framework was developed that guided analysis of survey data, documentary review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, health professionals and patients. The analysis followed the patients as they move through the health system, exploring the main modifiable system-level barriers to effective hypertension management, and seeking to explain obstacles to improved access and health outcomes. The study highlighted the need for the proposed intervention to take account of how Malaysian patients seek treatment in both the public and private sectors, and from western and various traditional practitioners, with many patients choosing to seek care across different services. Patients typically choose private care if they can afford to, while others attend heavily subsidised public clinics. Public hypertension clinics are often overwhelmed by numbers of patients attending, so health workers have little time to engage effectively with patients. Treatment adherence is poor, with a widespread belief, stemming from concepts of traditional medicine, that hypertension is a transient disturbance rather than a permanent asymptomatic condition. Drug supplies can be erratic in rural areas. Hypertension awareness and education material are limited, and what exist are poorly developed and ineffective. Despite having a relatively well funded health system offering good access to

  11. Where Lies the Risk? An Ecological Approach to Understanding Child Mental Health Risk and Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Atilola, Olayinka

    2014-01-01

    Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa...

  12. Health effects of biomass exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, S.K.; Husain, Tanveer

    1993-01-01

    Biomass fuels such as coal, wood, crop residues, kerosene oil and dung-cakes meet the energy needs in the household sector in India and other developing countries. Crop residues and dung-cakes are largely used in rural areas, whereas wood forms the major source of fuel in urban as well as rural areas. Combustion of these fuels produces various kinds of poisonous gases such as CO, smoke, nitrogen dioxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and respirable particulates. These gases are released in the domestic environment and they pollute the indoor air. The women and children are the one who suffer most from this air pollution. This results into a variety of health problems principally pertaining to respiratory system among the women and children. Studies on this aspect are reviewed. They point towards the positive relationship between biomass smoke and various health effects, particularly respiratory diseases. Need for research on the ways to prevent pollution due to biomass and resultant health hazards is emphasised. (M.G.B.). 25 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Understanding Health Care Social Media Use From Different Stakeholder Perspectives: A Content Analysis of an Online Health Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjie; Wu, Yang; Liu, Jingfang; Li, Jia; Zhang, Pengzhu

    2017-04-07

    Health care social media used for health information exchange and emotional communication involves different types of users, including patients, caregivers, and health professionals. However, it is difficult to identify different stakeholders because user identification data are lacking due to privacy protection and proprietary interests. Therefore, identifying the concerns of different stakeholders and how they use health care social media when confronted with huge amounts of health-related messages posted by users is a critical problem. We aimed to develop a new content analysis method using text mining techniques applied in health care social media to (1) identify different health care stakeholders, (2) determine hot topics of concern, and (3) measure sentiment expression by different stakeholders. We collected 138,161 messages posted by 39,606 members in lung cancer, diabetes, and breast cancer forums in the online community MedHelp.org over 10 years (January 2007 to October 2016) as experimental data. We used text mining techniques to process text data to identify different stakeholders and determine health-related hot topics, and then analyzed sentiment expression. We identified 3 significantly different stakeholder groups using expectation maximization clustering (3 performance metrics: Rand=0.802, Jaccard=0.393, Fowlkes-Mallows=0.537; Panalysis showed that patients and caregivers gradually changed their emotional state in a positive direction. The hot topics of interest and sentiment expression differed significantly among different stakeholders in different disease forums. These findings could help improve social media services to facilitate diverse stakeholder engagement for health information sharing and social interaction more effectively. ©Yingjie Lu, Yang Wu, Jingfang Liu, Jia Li, Pengzhu Zhang. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 07.04.2017.

  14. Nursing Students' Experiences of Health Care in Swaziland: Transformational Processes in Developing Cultural Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Bethany A

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the experiences of nursing students following a service-learning placement in Swaziland. Students worked in a hospital and implemented community health clinics. Six students were interviewed 1 month after their return from the overseas study experience. A thematic analysis was performed. Four themes emerged. The first theme was transitions-students experienced personal hardships, emotional reactions, and language difficulties that created discomfort. The second theme was perceptions-cultural dissonance was encountered between the health care and nursing cultures of Swaziland and the United States. The third theme was internalization-discomfort and cultural dissonance activated coping mechanisms within students that generated a process of change in attitudes and beliefs. The fourth theme was incorporation-personal and professional growth were demonstrated with greater awareness, compassion, resourcefulness, and comfort with diversity. The stress and cultural dissonance experienced by students led to an increase in cultural understanding and awareness. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Understanding mitochondrial biogenesis through energy sensing pathways and its translation in cardio-metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirwane, Abhijit; Majumdar, Anuradha

    2017-10-26

    Mitochondria play a pivotal role in physiological energy governance. Mitochondrial biogenesis comprises growth and division of pre-existing mitochondria, triggered by environmental stressors such as endurance exercise, caloric restriction, cold exposure and oxidative stress. For normal physiology, balance between energy intake, storage and expenditure is of utmost important for the coordinated regulation of energy homeostasis. In contrast, abnormalities in these regulations render the individual susceptible to cardiometabolic disorders. This review provides a comprehensive coverage and understanding on mitochondrial biogenesis achieved through energy-sensing pathways. This includes the complex coordination of nuclear, cytosolic and mitochondrial events involving energy sensors, transcription factors, coactivators and regulators. It focuses on the importance of mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiometabolic health. Lastly, converging on the benefits of caloric restriction and endurance exercise in achieving cardiometabolic health.

  16. Understanding the effects of short-term international service-learning trips on medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Nauzley C; Gruppen, Larry D; Kolars, Joseph C; Kumagai, Arno K

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand what meaning(s) preclinical students attributed to participation in one-week international service-learning trips (ISLTs) and what specific experiences during the trips accounted for such perspectives. Twenty-four first-year students who had participated in one-week ISLTs at the University of Michigan Medical School during February 2010 were invited to participate. Individual, semistructured interviews were conducted from March to August 2010 with 13 student participants. Using grounded theory analysis, several major themes were identified. Acquisition of clinical/language skills and knowledge of other health care systems were explicit benefits associated with student ISLT experiences. However, in-depth, reflective discussions revealed implicit insights and lessons, the most pervasive of which were student ambivalence concerning the value and effect of ISLTs on communities, issues of privilege and power, and ethical concerns when working with vulnerable populations. These implicit lessons stimulated new insights into future involvement in global health and emphasized the importance of reflection and discussion to enhance ISLT experiences. The current study suggests that one-week ISLTs may engender implicit insights and lessons regarding ethical and societal issues involved with global health and may stimulate the development of critical reflection on current and future professional roles for student participants. Furthermore, these activities should allow time and space for dialogue and reflection to ensure that this implicit understanding can be put to constructive educational and service-oriented uses.

  17. Role understanding and effective communication as core competencies for collaborative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Esther; Arndt, Julia; Arthur, Nancy; Parboosingh, John; Taylor, Elizabeth; Deutschlander, Siegrid

    2009-01-01

    The ability to work with professionals from other disciplines to deliver collaborative, patient-centred care is considered a critical element of professional practice requiring a specific set of competencies. However, a generally accepted framework for collaborative competencies is missing, which makes consistent preparation of students and staff challenging. Some authors have argued that there is a lack of conceptual clarity of the "active ingredients" of collaboration relating to quality of care and patient outcomes, which may be at the root of the competencies issue. As part of a large Health Canada funded study focused on interprofessional education and collaborative practice, our goal was to understand the competencies for collaborative practice that are considered most relevant by health professionals working at the front line. Interview participants comprised 60 health care providers from various disciplines. Understanding and appreciating professional roles and responsibilities and communicating effectively emerged as the two perceived core competencies for patient-centred collaborative practice. For both competencies there is evidence of a link to positive patient and provider outcomes. We suggest that these two competencies should be the primary focus of student and staff education aimed at increasing collaborative practice skills.

  18. Understanding the systemic nature of cities to improve health and climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ralph; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Capon, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Understanding cities comprehensively as systems is a costly challenge and is typically not feasible for policy makers. Nevertheless, focusing on some key systemic characteristics of cities can give useful insights for policy to advance health and well-being outcomes. Moreover, if we take a coevolutionary systems view of cities, some conventional assumptions about the nature of urban development (e.g. the growth in private vehicle use with income) may not stand up. We illustrate this by examining the coevolution of urban transport and land use systems, and institutional change, giving examples of policy implications. At a high level, our concern derives from the need to better understand the dynamics of urban change, and its implications for health and well-being. At a practical level, we see opportunities to use stylised findings about urban systems to underpin policy experiments. While it is now not uncommon to view cities as systems, policy makers appear to have made little use so far of a systems approach to inform choice of policies with consequences for health and well-being. System insights can be applied to intelligently anticipate change - for example, as cities are subjected to increasing natural system reactions to climate change, they must find ways to mitigate and adapt to it. Secondly, systems insights around policy cobenefits are vital for better informing horizontal policy integration. Lastly, an implication of system complexity is that rather than seeking detailed, 'full' knowledge about urban issues and policies, cities would be well advised to engage in policy experimentation to address increasingly urgent health and climate change issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gut microbiota: next frontier in understanding human health and development of biotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Satya Prakash, Laetitia Rodes, Michael Coussa-Charley, Catherine Tomaro-DuchesneauBiomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Artificial Cells and Organs Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: The gut microbiota is a remarkable asset for human health. As a key element in the development and prevention of specific diseases, its study has yielded a new field of promising biotherapeutics. This review provides comprehensive and updated knowledge of the human gut microbiota, its implications in health and disease, and the potentials and limitations of its modification by currently available biotherapeutics to treat, prevent and/or restore human health, and future directions. Homeostasis of the gut microbiota maintains various functions which are vital to the maintenance of human health. Disruption of the intestinal ecosystem equilibrium (gut dysbiosis is associated with a plethora of human diseases, including autoimmune and allergic diseases, colorectal cancer, metabolic diseases, and bacterial infections. Relevant underlying mechanisms by which specific intestinal bacteria populations might trigger the development of disease in susceptible hosts are being explored across the globe. Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota using biotherapeutics, such as prebiotics, probiotics, and antibiotics, may favor health-promoting populations of bacteria and can be exploited in development of biotherapeutics. Other technologies, such as development of human gut models, bacterial screening, and delivery formulations eg, microencapsulated probiotics, may contribute significantly in the near future. Therefore, the human gut microbiota is a legitimate therapeutic target to treat and/or prevent various diseases. Development of a clear understanding of the technologies needed to exploit the gut microbiota is urgently required.Keywords: gut microbiota, human

  20. Understanding consumer participation in mental health: Issues of power and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Wanda; Cross, Wendy; Bloomer, Melissa

    2011-06-01

    Consumer participation occurs in all Victorian public mental health services. Area mental health services employ consumer consultants to enhance consumer participation across the network. Ongoing support of management is essential to the success of consumer participation. This project aimed to explore understandings of consumer participation from a manager's perspective. Semistructured interviews were conducted with seven participants in this qualitative, interpretive study. The thematic analysis revealed the complexities around defining consumer participation and demonstrated the difficulties and possible reasons as to why there is no real clarity between managers, service providers, and consumers as to what consumer participation should look like. Power and change were the primary themes. Power and the overwhelming consensus that the medical model and those working within it hold the most power was strongly represented in this study. Legislation and workplace settings were seen as considerable factors adding to the disempowerment of consumers within an already disempowering mental health system. Change was the other main theme that emerged, with culture and attitudes of the old 'institutionalized' thinking that still pervades some pockets of mental health services being seen as the major barriers to change. The role of the consumer consultant was a prominent subtheme, with their role in training and the education of workers seen as an essential and positive way to progress consumer participation. These findings demonstrate that managers consider there to be hope for consumers, brought about by collective action and lobbying, and through consumer participation in less-restrictive parts of the service (community settings). © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  1. Understanding and Enhancing Soil Biological Health: The Solution for Reversing Soil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Michael Lehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to provide an optimistic strategy for reversing soil degradation by increasing public and private research efforts to understand the role of soil biology, particularly microbiology, on the health of our world’s soils. We begin by defining soil quality/soil health (which we consider to be interchangeable terms, characterizing healthy soil resources, and relating the significance of soil health to agroecosystems and their functions. We examine how soil biology influences soil health and how biological properties and processes contribute to sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem services. We continue by examining what can be done to manipulate soil biology to: (i increase nutrient availability for production of high yielding, high quality crops; (ii protect crops from pests, pathogens, weeds; and (iii manage other factors limiting production, provision of ecosystem services, and resilience to stresses like droughts. Next we look to the future by asking what needs to be known about soil biology that is not currently recognized or fully understood and how these needs could be addressed using emerging research tools. We conclude, based on our perceptions of how new knowledge regarding soil biology will help make agriculture more sustainable and productive, by recommending research emphases that should receive first priority through enhanced public and private research in order to reverse the trajectory toward global soil degradation.

  2. UNDERSTANDING HOW HEALTHY WORKPLACES ARE CREATED: IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING A NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE HEALTHY WORKPLACE PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Katrina M; Brand, Sarah; Ashby-Pepper, Julie; Abraham, Jane; Fleming, Lora E

    2015-01-01

    The workplace is an important setting for promoting health and well-being. We sought to understand how successful workplace health and well-being programs were developed and implemented to inform the development of a program for a National Health Service (NHS) hospital. Case studies of successful healthy workplace programs with 34 semi-structured employee interviews informed 12 interviews with NHS staff. Interviews were thematically analyzed using Nvivo. Themes were fed back to participants for further clarification and validation. Healthy workplace programs were characterized by senior management endorsement; collective sense of ownership; presence of visible "quick wins"; and a sense that participation was easy and fun, not mandated. Programs evolved organically, allowing trust to be built and activities to be developed with employees. Interviews with NHS staff suggested a lack of belief in the possibility of change in their workplace due to time and workload pressures, and a sense of an "us and them" relationship with management, as well as environmental barriers. A consistent pattern of how the conditions for a healthy workplace can be created, which map onto the results from the NHS ward staff, suggest that without creating an enabling environment for health-promoting behaviors, workplace programs will have poor uptake and retention.

  3. Biologising parenting: neuroscience discourse, English social and public health policy and understandings of the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Pam; Lee, Ellie; Macvarish, Jan

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, claims about children's developing brains have become central to the formation of child health and welfare policies in England. While these policies assert that they are based on neuro-scientific discoveries, their relationship to neuroscience itself has been debated. However, what is clear is that they portray a particular understanding of children and childhood, one that is marked by a lack of acknowledgment of child personhood. Using an analysis of key government-commissioned reports and additional advocacy documents, this article illustrates the ways that the mind of the child is reduced to the brain, and this brain comes to represent the child. It is argued that a highly reductionist and limiting construction of the child is produced, alongside the idea that parenting is the main factor in child development. It is concluded that this focus on children's brains, with its accompanying deterministic perspective on parenting, overlooks children's embodied lives and this has implications for the design of children's health and welfare services. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Health effects of radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasimova, K; Azizova, F; Mehdieva, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : A summary of the nature of radiactive contamination would be incomplete without some mention of the human health effects relatied to radioactivity and radioactive materials. Several excellent reviews at the variety of levels of detail have been written and should be consulted by the reader. Internal exposures of alpha and beta particles are important for ingested and inhaled radionuclides. Dosimetry models are used to estimate the dose from internally deposited radioactive particles. As mentioned above weighting parameters that take into account the radiation type, the biological half-life and the tissue or organ at risk are used to convert the physically absorbed dose in units of gray (or red) to the biologically significant committed equivalent dose and effective dose, measured in units of Sv (or rem). There is considerable controversy over the shape of the dose-response curve at the chronic low dose levels important for enviromental contamination. Proposed models include linear models, non-linear models and threshold models. Because risks at low dose must be extrapolated from available date at high doses, the shape of the dose-response curve has important implications for the environmental regulations used to protect the general public. The health effect of radiation damage depends on a combination of events of on the cellular, tissue and systemic levels. These lead to mutations and cellular of the irradiated parent cell. The dose level at which significant damage occurs depends on the cell type. Cells that reproduce rapidily, such as those found in bone marrow or the gastrointestinal tract, will be more sensitive to radiation than those that are longer lived, such as striated muscle or nerve cells. The effects of high radiation doses on an organ depends on the various cell types it contains

  5. #WhyWeTweetMH: Understanding Why People Use Twitter to Discuss Mental Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Natalie; Lobban, Fiona; Belousov, Maksim; Emsley, Richard; Nenadic, Goran; Bucci, Sandra

    2017-04-05

    Use of the social media website Twitter is highly prevalent and has led to a plethora of Web-based social and health-related data available for use by researchers. As such, researchers are increasingly using data from social media to retrieve and analyze mental health-related content. However, there is limited evidence regarding why people use this emerging platform to discuss mental health problems in the first place. The aim of this study was to explore the reasons why individuals discuss mental health on the social media website Twitter. The study was the first of its kind to implement a study-specific hashtag for research; therefore, we also examined how feasible it was to circulate and analyze a study-specific hashtag for mental health research. Text mining methods using the Twitter Streaming Application Programming Interface (API) and Twitter Search API were used to collect and organize tweets from the hashtag #WhyWeTweetMH, circulated between September 2015 and November 2015. Tweets were analyzed thematically to understand the key reasons for discussing mental health using the Twitter platform. Four overarching themes were derived from the 132 tweets collected: (1) sense of community; (2) raising awareness and combatting stigma; (3) safe space for expression; and (4) coping and empowerment. In addition, 11 associated subthemes were also identified. The themes derived from the content of the tweets highlight the perceived therapeutic benefits of Twitter through the provision of support and information and the potential for self-management strategies. The ability to use Twitter to combat stigma and raise awareness of mental health problems indicates the societal benefits that can be facilitated via the platform. The number of tweets and themes identified demonstrates the feasibility of implementing study-specific hashtags to explore research questions in the field of mental health and can be used as a basis for other health-related research. ©Natalie Berry

  6. Up close and real: living and learning in a remote community builds students' cultural capabilities and understanding of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackrah, Rosalie D; Hall, Maeva; Fitzgerald, Kathryn; Thompson, Sandra C

    2017-07-06

    Rural and remote communities in Australia fare worse than their urban counterparts across major health indicators, with geographic isolation, restricted accessibility to health services, socioeconomic disadvantage, lifestyle and behavioural factors all implicated in poorer health outcomes. Health disparities, which are especially stark in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations, underscore the urgent need to build a culturally responsive and respectful rural health workforce. Allied health student placements in settings with high Aboriginal populations provide opportunities for the development of cultural capabilities and observation of the causes and impact of health disparities. A service learning pedagogy underpinned by strong campus-community partnerships can contribute to effective situated learning. Positive placement experiences can also encourage future rural practice alleviating workforce shortages. This article reports on the first stage of a proposed longitudinal investigation into the impact of remote placements on clinical practice and employment choices. In-depth interviews were undertaken with health science students and recent graduates from Australian universities who spent up to 4 weeks at the remote community of Mt. Magnet (Badimaya country) in Western Australia. Interviews, which occurred between two and 12 months following the placement were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed for patterns of meaning. Factors which contributed to positive professional, personal and socially responsive learning experiences were identified. These included pre-placement cultural training to build understanding of the local Aboriginal community, peer support, community engagement, cultural exchanges and interprofessional collaboration. Highlights were associated with relationship-building in the community and opportunities to apply insights into Aboriginal cultural ways to clinical and community practice. The role of the

  7. Understanding the Differences Between Oncology Patients and Oncology Health Professionals Concerning Spirituality/Religiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargos, Mayara Goulart; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Barroso, Eliane Marçon; Carneseca, Estela Cristina; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated whether spirituality/religiosity (S/R) plays an important role in the lives of cancer patients and in the work of health professionals who provide care for these patients. The correlations between spiritual quality of life (QOL) and the other QOL domain scores of patients and health professionals were also assessed. Moreover, QOL domain scores were compared between patients and health professionals. In this cross-sectional study, 1050 participants (525 oncology patients and 525 health professionals) were interviewed. Quality of life was assessed with the World Health Organization quality of life spiritual, religious, and personal beliefs (WHOQOL-SRPB). To compare the groups with respect to the instruments’ domains, a quantile regression and an analysis of covariance model were used. The WHOQOL-Bref and WHOQOL-SRPB domains were correlated by performing Pearson and partial correlation tests. It was demonstrated that 94.1% of patients considered it important that health professionals addressed their spiritual beliefs, and 99.2% of patients relied on S/R to face cancer. Approximately, 99.6% of the patients reported that S/R support is necessary during cancer treatment; 98.3% of health professionals agreed that spiritual and religious support was necessary for oncology patients. Positive correlations between spiritual QOL and the other QOL domains were observed. When compared among themselves, patients exhibited significantly higher levels of spiritual QOL. In conclusion, S/R was an important construct in the minds of cancer patients and health professionals. Both groups often use S/R resources in their daily lives, which seems to positively affect their perceptions of QOL. Further studies are needed to determine how health professionals effectively address S/R during oncology practice. PMID:26632743

  8. Understanding client satisfaction with a health insurance scheme in Nigeria: factors and enrollees experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambo Mohammad N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health insurance schemes have been widely introduced during this last decade in many African countries, which have strived for improvements in health service provision and the promotion of health care utilization. Client satisfaction with health service provision during the implementation of health insurance schemes has often been neglected since numerous activities take place concurrently. The satisfaction of enrollees and its influencing factors have been providing evidence which have assisted in policy and decision making. Our objective is to determine the enrollee's satisfaction with health service provision under a health insurance scheme and the factors which influence the satisfaction. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional survey took place between May and September 2008. Two hundred and eighty (280 enrollees insured for more than one year in Zaria-Nigeria were recruited using two stage sampling. Enrollee's satisfaction was categorized into more satisfied and less satisfied based on positive responses obtained. Satisfaction, general knowledge and awareness of contribution were each aggregated and assessed as composite measure. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze factors that influenced the satisfaction of enrollees. Results A high satisfaction rate with the health insurance scheme was observed (42.1%. Marital status (p Conclusions This study highlighted the potential effects of general health insurance knowledge and awareness of contributions by end-users (beneficiaries of such new program on client satisfaction which have significant importance. The findings provided evidence which have assisted the amendment and re-prioritization of the medium term strategic plan of operations for the scheme. Future planning efforts could consider the client satisfaction and the factors which influenced it regularly.

  9. Understanding consumer health information-seeking behavior from the perspective of the risk perception attitude framework and social support in mobile social media websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhaohua; Liu, Shan

    2017-09-01

    This study integrates the risk perception attitude framework and social support to examine factors influencing consumers' intentions to seek health information in mobile social media websites. We develop a research model consisting of four social support dimensions, perceived health risk, health self-efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. A survey is conducted among patients with non-serious conditions. A two-step approach of structural equation modeling is used to test the research model. Among the four dimensions of social support, tangible support and appraisal support significantly influence perceived risk, whereas emotional support and esteem support significantly influence health self-efficacy. Perceived health risk and health self-efficacy significantly influence the health information-seeking behavior intention of consumers. Specifically, health self-efficacy significantly moderates the relationship between perceived risk and behavior intention. This study highlights the integrated effects of social capital and risk perception attitude framework on health information-seeking intention. It examines relationships among perceived health risk, health self-efficacy, and behavior intention in the mobile social media context. The findings help understand effects of social capital factors on perceived health risk and health self-efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their characterisations of…

  11. The effect of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme on health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study investigates the effect of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) on health care utilisation. Methods: We provide a short history of health insurance in Ghana, and briefly discuss general patterns of enrolment in Ghana as well as in Accra in a first step. In a second step, we use data from the ...

  12. Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes-Entering a new era of investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For over a decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been a leader in the science of beach health. The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The work consists of four science elements-real-time assessments; pathogens and microbial source tracking; coastal processes; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication - which are described in this fact sheet. Some of the key questions for USGS beach research are the following: Are there better ways to inform the public whether they can use a beach without risking their health? How do new rapid analytical methods compare to traditional methods for determining concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria at beaches? Are pathogens present at beaches and, if so, how do they get to the beach, and what is their source? How do sand movement and wave action on the beach affect fecal-indicator-bacteria and pathogen concentrations in the lake water? What are the best indicators of pathogenic microorganisms? With so many potential sources of fecal contamination at a beach, what methods can be used to distinguish the contributions from humans? What characteristics of beaches contribute most to influencing bacterial indicator and pathogen concentrations in beach sands and groundwater?

  13. Health effects and medical surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series which has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, Radiation Protection Officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have a responsibility to ensure the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide adequate training, instruction or information on health effects and medical surveillance for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiations have a large number of applications in the workplace. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not harmful. Some applications involve sources that could deliver more significant radiation doses, particularly when poor methods are practised or an accident occurs. The radiations cannot be seen, felt or sensed by the human body in any way and excessive exposures may cause detriment to the health of a worker in a way that is not immediately apparent. When the symptoms occur, weeks or possibly years later, an untrained worker or inexperienced medical staff probably cannot recognize the effects to be due to the radiation exposure. This Manual explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  14. A New Trilogy to Understand the Relationship among Organizational Climate, Workplace Bullying and Employee Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Qureshi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organizational Climate is a driving force in the organization behavior which provides foundations to many physical and psychological phenomena to the employees. Bullying is one of the major under considered phenomenon, usually caused by the organizational climate. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between organizational climates, workplace bullying and workers’ health in selected higher education institutes of Pakistan. A proportionate random sample of 20 Universities comprising of 10 from public sector and 10 from private sector was selected for the study. The model of workplace bullying, organizational climate and worker's health was estimated by Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS software. The study found a negative relationship between organizational climate and bullying on one hand, while on the other hand, an increased workplace bullying effects employees’ health negatively due to affected sleeping hours. Drug abuse was treated as a moderator between health and affected sleeping hours. The study suggested that organizations should control workplace bullying which may cause physical and psychological effects on employee's health.

  15. Understanding Online Health Groups for Depression: Social Network and Linguistic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ronghua; Zhang, Qingpeng

    2016-03-10

    Mental health problems have become increasingly prevalent in the past decade. With the advance of Web 2.0 technologies, social media present a novel platform for Web users to form online health groups. Members of online health groups discuss health-related issues and mutually help one another by anonymously revealing their mental conditions, sharing personal experiences, exchanging health information, and providing suggestions and support. The conversations in online health groups contain valuable information to facilitate the understanding of their mutual help behaviors and their mental health problems. We aimed to characterize the conversations in a major online health group for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in a popular Chinese social media platform. In particular, we intended to explain how Web users discuss depression-related issues from the perspective of the social networks and linguistic patterns revealed by the members' conversations. Social network analysis and linguistic analysis were employed to characterize the social structure and linguistic patterns, respectively. Furthermore, we integrated both perspectives to exploit the hidden relations between them. We found an intensive use of self-focus words and negative affect words. In general, group members used a higher proportion of negative affect words than positive affect words. The social network of the MDD group for depression possessed small-world and scale-free properties, with a much higher reciprocity ratio and clustering coefficient value as compared to the networks of other social media platforms and classic network models. We observed a number of interesting relationships, either strong correlations or convergent trends, between the topological properties and linguistic properties of the MDD group members. (1) The MDD group members have the characteristics of self-preoccupation and negative thought content, according to Beck's cognitive theory of depression; (2) the social structure

  16. Understanding and Improving Arterial Roads to Support Public Health and Transportation Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrews, Carolyn; Pollack, Keshia M; Berrigan, David; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Christopher, Ed J

    2017-08-01

    Arterials are types of roads designed to carry high volumes of motorized traffic. They are an integral part of transportation systems worldwide and exposure to them is ubiquitous, especially in urban areas. Arterials provide access to diverse commercial and cultural resources, which can positively influence community health by supporting social cohesion as well as economic and cultural opportunities. They can negatively influence health via safety issues, noise, air pollution, and lack of economic development. The aims of public health and transportation partially overlap; efforts to improve arterials can meet goals of both professions. Two trends in arterial design show promise. First, transportation professionals increasingly define the performance of arterials via metrics accounting for pedestrians, cyclists, transit riders, and nearby residents in addition to motor vehicle users. Second, applying traffic engineering and design can generate safety, air quality, and livability benefits, but we need evidence to support these interventions. We describe the importance of arterials (including exposures, health behaviors, effects on equity, and resulting health outcomes) and make the case for public health collaborations with the transportation sector.

  17. Understanding the inverse magnetocaloric effect in antiferro- and ferrimagnetic arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Ranke, P J; De Oliveira, N A; Alho, B P; Plaza, E J R; De Sousa, V S R; Caron, L; Reis, M S

    2009-01-01

    The inverse magnetocaloric effect occurs when a magnetic material cools down under applied magnetic field in an adiabatic process. Although the existence of the inverse magnetocaloric effect was recently reported experimentally, a theoretical microscopic description is almost nonexistent. In this paper we theoretically describe the inverse magnetocaloric effect in antiferro- and ferrimagnetic systems. The inverse magnetocaloric effects were systematically investigated as a function of the model parameters. The influence of the Neel and the compensation temperature on the magnetocaloric effect is also analyzed using a microscopic model.

  18. Understanding the inverse magnetocaloric effect in antiferro- and ferrimagnetic arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Ranke, P J; De Oliveira, N A; Alho, B P; Plaza, E J R; De Sousa, V S R [Instituto de Fisica ' Armando Dias Tavares' , Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro-UERJ, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013, RJ (Brazil); Caron, L [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Reis, M S [CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)], E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.br

    2009-02-04

    The inverse magnetocaloric effect occurs when a magnetic material cools down under applied magnetic field in an adiabatic process. Although the existence of the inverse magnetocaloric effect was recently reported experimentally, a theoretical microscopic description is almost nonexistent. In this paper we theoretically describe the inverse magnetocaloric effect in antiferro- and ferrimagnetic systems. The inverse magnetocaloric effects were systematically investigated as a function of the model parameters. The influence of the Neel and the compensation temperature on the magnetocaloric effect is also analyzed using a microscopic model.

  19. Understanding and Utilizing the Effectiveness of e‐Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack; Ørngreen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    . At the same time, learning and development professionals within public and private organizations are increasingly met with a demand to prove the effectiveness of their learning and development initiatives. This paper investigates the concepts of effectiveness in e-Learning. It broadens the definition......A structured search of librarian databases revealed that the research into the effectiveness of e-Learning has heavily increased within the last 5 years. Taking a closer look at the search results, the authors discovered that researchers define and investigate effectiveness in multiple ways...... of effectiveness and qualifies certain measurements of same. Preliminary results from a literature study and an empirical investigation of ‘the effectiveness of e-Learning’ for science teachers (K12) are combined. The paper discusses the following research questions: How is the effectiveness of e-Learning defined...

  20. Understanding the impact of the economic crisis on child health: the case of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmil, Luis; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Taylor-Robinson, David; Spencer, Nick

    2015-10-14

    The objectives of the study were to explore the effect of the economic crisis on child health using Spain as a case study, and to document and assess the policies implemented in response to the crisis in this context. Serial cross-sectional data from Eurostat, the Spanish Health Interview Survey, and the database of childhood hospitalisation were analysed to explore impacts on child health, and key determinants of child health. A content analysis of National data sources/government legislation, and Spanish literature was used to describe policies implemented following the crisis. Unemployment rates in the general population (8.7% in 2005 and 25.6% in 2013), and children living in unemployed families (5.6% and 13.8%) increased in the study period. The percentage of children living under the poverty line, and income inequalities increased 15-20% from 2005 to 2012. Severe material deprivation rate has worsened in families with Primary Education, while the number of families attending Non-Governmental Organisations has increased. An impact on children's health at the general population level has not currently been detected; however an impact on general health, mental health and use of healthcare services was found in vulnerable groups. Investment in social protection and public policy for children showed a reduction as part of austerity measures taken by the Spanish governments. Despite the impact on social determinants, a short-term impact on child health has been detected only in specific vulnerable groups. The findings suggest the need to urgently protect vulnerable groups of children from the impact of austerity.

  1. Beyond form and functioning: Understanding how contextual factors influence village health committees in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kerry; George, Asha S; Harvey, Steven A; Mondal, Shinjini; Patel, Gupteswar; Ved, Rajani; Garimella, Surekha; Sheikh, Kabir

    2017-01-01

    Health committees are a common strategy to foster community participation in health. Efforts to strengthen committees often focus on technical inputs to improve committee form (e.g. representative membership) and functioning (e.g. meeting procedures). However, porous and interconnected contextual spheres also mediate committee effectiveness. Using a framework for contextual analysis, we explored the contextual features that facilitated or hindered Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committee (VHSNC) functionality in rural north India. We conducted interviews (n = 74), focus groups (n = 18) and observation over 1.5 years. Thematic content analysis enabled the identification and grouping of themes, and detailed exploration of sub-themes. While the intervention succeeded in strengthening committee form and functioning, participant accounts illuminated the different ways in which contextual influences impinged on VHSNC efficacy. Women and marginalized groups navigated social hierarchies that curtailed their ability to assert themselves in the presence of men and powerful local families. These dynamics were not static and unchanging, illustrated by pre-existing cross-caste problem solving, and the committee's creation of opportunities for the careful violation of social norms. Resource and capacity deficits in government services limited opportunities to build relationships between health system actors and committee members and engendered mistrust of government institutions. Fragmented administrative accountability left committee members bearing responsibility for improving local health without access to stakeholders who could support or respond to their efforts. The committee's narrow authority was at odds with widespread community needs, and committee members struggled to involve diverse government services across the health, sanitation, and nutrition sectors. Multiple parallel systems (political decentralization, media and other village groups) presented

  2. Beyond form and functioning: Understanding how contextual factors influence village health committees in northern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Scott

    Full Text Available Health committees are a common strategy to foster community participation in health. Efforts to strengthen committees often focus on technical inputs to improve committee form (e.g. representative membership and functioning (e.g. meeting procedures. However, porous and interconnected contextual spheres also mediate committee effectiveness. Using a framework for contextual analysis, we explored the contextual features that facilitated or hindered Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committee (VHSNC functionality in rural north India. We conducted interviews (n = 74, focus groups (n = 18 and observation over 1.5 years. Thematic content analysis enabled the identification and grouping of themes, and detailed exploration of sub-themes. While the intervention succeeded in strengthening committee form and functioning, participant accounts illuminated the different ways in which contextual influences impinged on VHSNC efficacy. Women and marginalized groups navigated social hierarchies that curtailed their ability to assert themselves in the presence of men and powerful local families. These dynamics were not static and unchanging, illustrated by pre-existing cross-caste problem solving, and the committee's creation of opportunities for the careful violation of social norms. Resource and capacity deficits in government services limited opportunities to build relationships between health system actors and committee members and engendered mistrust of government institutions. Fragmented administrative accountability left committee members bearing responsibility for improving local health without access to stakeholders who could support or respond to their efforts. The committee's narrow authority was at odds with widespread community needs, and committee members struggled to involve diverse government services across the health, sanitation, and nutrition sectors. Multiple parallel systems (political decentralization, media and other village groups

  3. Understanding and motivating health care employees: integrating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, training and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Suzanne G; Dundis, Stephen P

    2003-09-01

    This paper applies Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Model to the challenges of understanding and motivating employees in a rapidly changing health care industry. The perspective that Maslow's Model brings is an essential element that should be considered as the health care arena is faced with reorganization, re-engineering, mergers, acquisitions, increases in learning demands, and the escalating role of technology in training. This paper offers a new perspective related to how Maslow's Model, as used in business/organizational settings, can be directly related to current workforce concerns: the need for security and freedom from stress, social belongingness, self-esteem, self-actualization, altered work/social environments, and new opportunities for learning and self-definition. Changes in health care will continue at an accelerated pace and with these changes will come the need for more and more training. The use of technology in training has heightened access, faster distribution, innovation and increased collaboration. However, with this technology come attendant challenges including keeping up with the technology, the increased pace of training, depersonalization, and fear of the unknown. The Maslow model provides a means for understanding these challenges in terms of universal individual needs. How does one motivate employees in the face of increased demands, particularly when they are being asked to meet these demands with fewer resources? The answer is, in large part, to make the employee feel secure, needed, and appreciated. This is not at all easy, but if leaders take into consideration the needs of the individual, the new technology that provides challenges and opportunities for meeting those needs, and provides the training to meet both sets of needs, enhanced employee motivation and commitment is possible.

  4. Health Communication through Media Narratives : Factors, Processes and Effects — Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bálint, Katalin; Bilandzic, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Understanding of the mechanics underlying the effects of health narratives. Addressing this gap, this Special Section provides a synthesis of knowledge and direction in the field of narrative health communication, bringing together 10 original research articles. The reported studies investigate

  5. How Well Do We Understand the Long-Term Health Implications of Childhood Bullying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate-Garza, Pablo Patricio; Biggs, Bridget K; Croarkin, Paul; Morath, Brooke; Leffler, Jarrod; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo; Tye, Susannah J

    Once dismissed as an innocuous experience of childhood, bullying is now recognized as having significant psychological effects, particularly with chronic exposure. Victims of bullying are at risk for a number of psychiatric disturbances, and growing evidence suggests that the pathophysiological effects of bullying, as with other forms of trauma and chronic stress, create additional health risks. We review the literature on the known sequelae of bullying, including psychiatric and physiological health effects, with a focus on implications for the victim. In addition, since it is now well established that early and chronic exposure to stress has a significant negative impact on health outcomes, we explore the implications of this research in relation to bullying and victimization in childhood. In particular, we examine how aspects of the stress response, via epigenetic, inflammatory, and metabolic mediators, have the capacity to compromise mental and physical health, and to increase the risk of disease. Research on the relevant mechanisms associated with bullying and on potential interventions to decrease morbidity is urgently needed.

  6. Health effects of indoor odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, J E; Shusterman, D

    1991-11-01

    People assess the quality of the air indoors primarily on the basis of its odors and on their perception of associated health risk. The major current contributors to indoor odorants are human occupant odors (body odor), environmental tobacco smoke, volatile building materials, bio-odorants (particularly mold and animal-derived materials), air fresheners, deodorants, and perfumes. These are most often present as complex mixtures, making measurement of the total odorant problem difficult. There is no current method of measuring human body odor, other than by human panel studies of expert judges of air quality. Human body odors have been quantitated in terms of the "olf" which is the amount of air pollution produced by the average person. Another quantitative unit of odorants is the "decipol," which is the perceived level of pollution produced by the average human ventilated by 10 L/sec of unpolluted air or its equivalent level of dissatisfaction from nonhuman air pollutants. The standard regulatory approach, focusing on individual constituents or chemicals, is not likely to be successful in adequately controlling odorants in indoor air. Besides the current approach of setting minimum ventilation standards to prevent health effects due to indoor air pollution, a standard based on the olf or decipol unit might be more efficacious as well as simpler to measure.

  7. Effects of Mental Health on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLind, Ren

    2017-01-01

    Learning can be hindered by students' mental health. Given the increased reports of mental health concerns among college students, it is imperative that we understand how best to provide supports to this population to help them learn and succeed. This is particularly significant given the body of research that demonstrates how mental illness may…

  8. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  9. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  10. E-health: effect on health system efficiency of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Afshan; Rashid, Audil; Kureshi, Nadeem Ishaq

    2014-01-01

    The health system in Pakistan is spraining because of increasing cost and demand gravities. The shortage of skilled health care workers is one of the main factors of health issues. There is a need to move away from the dependency of tools such as pen, paper, and human memory to a milieu where patients and health care providers can reliably access and share health information in real time across geographic and health sector boundaries. The purpose of this research is to observe the effect of e-health on the physician-patient relationship and to analyze the capacity of health professionals by noting information and communication technologies usage as indicators. Structured questionnaire was used to gather data from physicians to judge the success and effect of existing e-health policy. Both categorical and Likert scale variables were used. The analysis of data was per.formed using chi-square test and binary logistic regression. Specialist doctors comprised the major proportion of health care professionals in both male and female categories with good knowledge about Internet usage. E-health-based communication does not seem to be gender specific. Logistic regression revealed that busy doctors whose patients are more than 100 per week believe that e-health would significantly strengthen their communication with patients (OR=3.06; 95% CI=1.05- 8.87). Among other significant impacts of e-health include reduced consultation period and time of diagnosis. E-health technology can play a crucial role in controlling many epidemic diseases through effective surveillance. E-health implementation will result in improving the efficiency, better access of general public to the health care system, and eradication of diseases in Pakistan.

  11. Integrated Experimental and Computational Approach to Understand the Effects of Heavy Ion Radiation on Skin Homeostasis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Neubeck, Claere; Shankaran, Harish; Geniza, Matthew; Kauer, Paula M.; Robinson, Robert J.; Chrisler, William B.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2013-08-08

    The effects of low dose high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on human health are of concern for both space and clinical exposures. As epidemiological data for such radiation exposures are scarce for making relevant predictions, we need to understand the mechanism of response especially in normal tissues. Our objective here is to understand the effects of heavy ion radiation on tissue homeostasis in a realistic model system. Towards this end, we exposed an in vitro three dimensional skin equivalent to low fluences of Neon (Ne) ions (300 MeV/u), and determined the differentiation profile as a function of time following exposure using immunohistochemistry. We found that Ne ion exposures resulted in transient increases in the tissue regions expressing the differentiation markers keratin 10, and filaggrin, and more subtle time-dependent effects on the number of basal cells in the epidermis. We analyzed the data using a mathematical model of the skin equivalent, to quantify the effect of radiation on cell proliferation and differentiation. The agent-based mathematical model for the epidermal layer treats the epidermis as a collection of heterogeneous cell types with different proliferation/differentiation properties. We obtained model parameters from the literature where available, and calibrated the unknown parameters to match the observed properties in unirradiated skin. We then used the model to rigorously examine alternate hypotheses regarding the effects of high LET radiation on the tissue. Our analysis indicates that Ne ion exposures induce rapid, but transient, changes in cell division, differentiation and proliferation. We have validated the modeling results by histology and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The integrated approach presented here can be used as a general framework to understand the responses of multicellular systems, and can be adapted to other epithelial tissues.

  12. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of Situational Analysis, Needs Assessment and the ... and training on three major themes and their related policy frameworks: air pollution and health, occupational health and safety and climate change and health.

  13. Understanding of latent tuberculosis, its treatment and treatment side effects in immigrant and refugee patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Katie; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Leder, Karin; Lemoh, Chris; O'Brien, Daniel; Marshall, Caroline

    2013-08-29

    Isoniazid treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is commonly prescribed in refugees and immigrants. We aimed to assess understanding of information provided about LTBI, its treatment and potential side effects. A questionnaire was administered in clinics at a tertiary hospital. Total Knowledge (TKS) and Total Side Effect Scores (TSES) were derived. Logistic regression analyses were employed to correlate socio-demographic factors with knowledge. Fifty-two participants were recruited, 20 at isoniazid commencement and 32 already on isoniazid. The average TKS were 5.04/9 and 6.23/9 respectively and were significantly associated with interpreter use. Approximately half did not know how tuberculosis was transmitted. The average TSES were 5.0/7 and 3.5/7 respectively, but were not influenced by socio-demographic factors. There was suboptimal knowledge about LTBI. Improvements in health messages delivered via interpreters and additional methods of distributing information need to be developed for this patient population.

  14. Understanding the impact of simulated patients on health care learners' communication skills: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplonyi, Jessica; Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Nestel, Debra; Kiegaldie, Debra; Maloney, Stephen; Haines, Terry; Williams, Cylie

    2017-12-01

    Effective communication skills are at the core of good health care. Simulated patients (SPs) are increasingly engaged as an interactive means of teaching, applying and practising communication skills with immediate feedback. There is a large body of research into the use of manikin-based simulation but a gap exists in the body of research on the effectiveness of SP-based education to teach communication skills that impact patient outcomes. The aim of this systematic review was to critically analyse the existing research, investigating whether SP-based communication skills training improves learner-patient communication, how communication skill improvement is measured, and who measures these improvements. The databases Medline, ProQuest (Health & Medical Complete, Nursing and Allied Health Source) and CINAHL (EBSCOhost) Education Resources Information Centre (ERIC) were searched for articles that investigated the effects of SP-based education on the communication skills of medical, nursing and allied health learners. There were 60 studies included in the review. Only two studies reported direct patient outcomes, one reporting some negative impact, and no studies included an economic analysis. Many studies reported statistically significant third-party ratings of improved communication effectiveness following SP-based education; however, studies were unable to be pooled for meta-analysis because of the outcome collection methods. There were a small number of studies comparing SP with no training at all and there were no differences between communication skills, contradicting the results from studies reporting benefits. Of the 60 studies included for analysis, 54 (90%) met the minimum quality score of 7/11, with four articles (7%) scoring 11/11. SP-based education is widely accepted as a valuable and effective means of teaching communication skills but there is limited evidence of how this translates to patient outcomes and no indication of economic benefit for this

  15. Towards an understanding of staggering effects in dissipative binary collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Morelli, L.; Baiocco, G.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Cannata, F.; Casini, G.; Geraci, E.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Marchi, T.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Raduta, Ad.R.

    2012-01-01

    The reactions 32 S+ 58,64 Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. Evidence is found for important odd–even effects in isotopic observables of selected peripheral collisions corresponding to the decay of a projectile-like source. The influence of secondary decays on the staggering is studied with a correlation function technique. It is shown that this method is a powerful tool to get experimental information on the evaporation chain, in order to constrain model calculations. Specifically, we show that odd–even effects are due to interplay between pairing effects in the nuclear masses and in the level densities.

  16. Virtual reality in the assessment, understanding, and treatment of mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D; Reeve, S; Robinson, A; Ehlers, A; Clark, D; Spanlang, B; Slater, M

    2017-10-01

    Mental health problems are inseparable from the environment. With virtual reality (VR), computer-generated interactive environments, individuals can repeatedly experience their problematic situations and be taught, via evidence-based psychological treatments, how to overcome difficulties. VR is moving out of specialist laboratories. Our central aim was to describe the potential of VR in mental health, including a consideration of the first 20 years of applications. A systematic review of empirical studies was conducted. In all, 285 studies were identified, with 86 concerning assessment, 45 theory development, and 154 treatment. The main disorders researched were anxiety (n = 192), schizophrenia (n = 44), substance-related disorders (n = 22) and eating disorders (n = 18). There are pioneering early studies, but the methodological quality of studies was generally low. The gaps in meaningful applications to mental health are extensive. The most established finding is that VR exposure-based treatments can reduce anxiety disorders, but there are numerous research and treatment avenues of promise. VR was found to be a much-misused term, often applied to non-interactive and non-immersive technologies. We conclude that VR has the potential to transform the assessment, understanding and treatment of mental health problems. The treatment possibilities will only be realized if - with the user experience at the heart of design - the best immersive VR technology is combined with targeted translational interventions. The capability of VR to simulate reality could greatly increase access to psychological therapies, while treatment outcomes could be enhanced by the technology's ability to create new realities. VR may merit the level of attention given to neuroimaging.

  17. Children's understanding of cancer and views on health-related behaviour: a 'draw and write' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighting, K; Rowa-Dewar, N; Malcolm, C; Kearney, N; Gibson, F

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have explored young children's understanding of cancer and health-related behaviours yet this is essential to develop health promotion initiatives that build on young children's current knowledge levels and awareness. An exploratory descriptive design using the 'draw and write' technique was used to investigate children's views of cancer and health behaviours. The sample included 195 children aged eight to 11 years from five schools in deprived, affluent and rural locations in Scotland. When asked about cancer children demonstrated a good level of awareness by responding with text and drawings about the what they understood cancer to be; types of cancer; causes of cancer; what happens to people who have cancer; their personal experience of cancer and the emotions they associated with cancer. Older children, and children attending affluent schools, have more defined ideas about the causes of cancer and awareness of broader issues such as the risk of passive smoking or the potential impact on the family. Factors such as alcohol and illegal drugs were only reported by children attending schools in deprived locations. Children demonstrated considerable knowledge about healthy and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours; however, it is not clear whether this knowledge translates into their behaviours or the choices offered within their home environment. Children view cancer in a negative way from an early age, even without personal experience. There is a need to demystify cancer in terms of its causes, how to recognize it, how it is treated and to publicize improved survival rates. There is a need for targeted and developmentally appropriate approaches to be taken to health education in schools, with an awareness of the influence of the media on children's information. Strategies should take into consideration the socio-economic and cultural contexts of children's lives which influence their choices and behaviours. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Linking electronic health records with community-level data to understand childhood obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, E J; Flood, T L; Tandias, A; Hanrahan, L P

    2015-12-01

    Environmental and socioeconomic factors should be considered along with individual characteristics when determining risk for childhood obesity. To assess relationships and interactions among the economic hardship index (EHI) and race/ethnicity, age and sex in regard to childhood obesity rates in Wisconsin children using an electronic health record dataset. Data were collected using the University of Wisconsin (UW) Public Health Information Exchange database, which links electronic health records with census-derived community-level data. Records from 53,775 children seen at UW clinics from 2007 to 2012 were included. Mixed-effects modelling was used to determine obesity rates and the interaction of EHI with covariates (race/ethnicity, age, sex). When significant interactions were determined, linear regression analyses were performed for each subgroup (e.g. by age groups). The overall obesity rate was 11.7% and significant racial/ethnic disparities were detected. Childhood obesity was significantly associated with EHI at the community level (r = 0.62, P childhood obesity risk in some, but not all, races and ethnicities. Furthermore, the impact of EHI on obesity may be compounded over time. Our findings demonstrate the utility of linking electronic health information with census data to rapidly identify community-specific risk factors in a cost-effective manner. © 2014 World Obesity.

  19. Understanding and Applying the Cognitive Foundations of Effective Teamwork

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noble, David

    2004-01-01

    .... It reviews a theory describing the knowledge that teams need to work together effectively and summarizing how teams use this knowledge when making decisions about collecting and sharing information...

  20. Understanding the inverse magnetocaloric effect through a simple theoretical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranke, P.J. von, E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.b [Instituto de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares-Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, Rio de Janeiro 20550-013 (Brazil); Alho, B.P.; Nobrega, E.P.; Oliveira, N.A. de [Instituto de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares-Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, Rio de Janeiro 20550-013 (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    We investigated the inverse magnetocaloric effect using a theoretical magnetic model formed by two coupled magnetic lattices to describe a ferrimagnetic system. The influence of the compensation temperature, and the ferrimagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition on the magnetocaloric effect was analyzed. Also, a relation between the area under the magnetocaloric curve and the net magnetic moment of a ferrimagnetic system was established in this work.

  1. Health Effects of Petroleum Coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant quantities of fugitive dust from pet coke storage and handling operations present a health risk. EPA’s research suggests that petcoke does not pose a different health risk than similar-sized particulate matter (PM10).

  2. Understanding factors that influence the integration of acute malnutrition interventions into the national health system in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, Hedwig; Hallarou, Mahaman Elh; Pesonen, Anais; Gérard, Jean Christophe; Criel, Bart; Donnen, Philippe; Macq, Jean

    2016-12-01

    Since 2007 to address a high burden, integration of acute malnutrition has been promoted in Niger. This paper studies factors that influenced the integration process of acute malnutrition into the Niger national health system.We used qualitative methods of observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussions at national level, two districts and nine communities selected through convenience sampling, as well as document review. A framework approach constructed around the problem, intervention, adoption system, health system characteristics and broad context guided the analysis. Data were recorded on paper, transcribed in a descriptive record, coded by themes deduced by building on the framework and triangulated for comprehensiveness.Key facilitating factors identified were knowledge and recognition of the problem helped by accurate information; effectiveness of decentralized continuity of care; compatibility with goals, support and involvement of health actors; and leadership for aligning policies and partnerships and mobilizing resources within a favourable political context driven by multisectoral development goals. Key hindering factors identified were not fully understanding severity, causes and consequences of the problem; limited utilization and trust in health interventions; high workload, and health worker turnover and attrition; and high dependence on financial and technical support based on short-term emergency funding within a context of high demographic pressure.The study uncovered influencing factors of integrating acute malnutrition into the national health system and their complex dynamics and relationships. It elicited the need for goal-oriented strategies and alignment of health actors to achieve sustainability, and systems thinking to understand pathways that foster integration. We recommend that context-specific learning of integrating acute malnutrition may expand to include causal modelling and scenario testing to inform strategy

  3. Recent developments in understanding the role of the gut microbiota in brain health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Eoin; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-08-02

    There is a growing appreciation of the role of the gut microbiota in all aspects of health and disease, including brain health. Indeed, roles for the bacterial commensals in various psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as depression, autism, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease, are emerging. Microbiota dysregulation has been documented in all of these conditions or in animal models thereof. Moreover, depletion or modulation of the gut microbiota can affect the severity of the central pathology or behavioral deficits observed in a variety of brain disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying such effects are only slowly being unraveled. Additionally, recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that targeting the microbiota through prebiotic, probiotic, or dietary interventions may be an effective "psychobiotic" strategy for treating symptoms in mood, neurodevelopmental disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, B.

    1989-12-01

    Ionizing radiation is energy that travels through space as electromagnetic waves or a stream of fast moving particles. In the workplace, the sources of ionizing radiation are radioactive substances, nuclear power plants, x-ray machines and nuclear devices used in medicine, research and industry. Commonly encountered types of radiation are alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays. Alpha particles have very little penetrating power and pose a risk only when the radioactive substance is deposited inside the body. Beta particles are more penetrating than alpha particles and can penetrate the outer body tissues causing damage to the skin and the eyes. Gamma rays are highly penetrating and can cause radiation damage to the whole body. The probability of radiation-induced disease depends on the accumulated amount of radiation dose. The main health effects of ionizing radiation are cancers in exposed persons and genetic disorders in the children, grandchildren and subsequent generations of the exposed parents. The fetus is highly sensitive to radiation-induced abnormalities. At high doses, radiation can cause cataracts in the eyes. There is no firm evidence that ionizing radiation causes premature aging. Radiation-induced sterility is highly unlikely for occupational doses. The data on the combined effect of ionizing radiation and other cancer-causing physical and chemical agents are inconclusive

  5. Compositions and joints of the imaginary to the understanding of digital games that deal with health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Márcia C. Lemos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to verify the theme of the imaginary present in the game "Privates", a Serious Game that has as one of the topic the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs. For a broader understanding of the imaginary part of the theoretical reflections of Bakhtin, Durand, Haraway, Leão, Maffessoli, Malrieu, Machado da Silva, among others. In the perspective of virtual games, the references are from Huizinga, Murray and Maietti. The semiotic approach of Gramsci assists in the analysis of figuration, aesthetics and narrativity system. With the articulation between different knowledge was that real can rebuild an imaginary part of female body, take possession heroes figures linked to action and adventure, to teach how to build plural solutions in the fight against STD. It is characterized, as well as a new form of themes of science and health communication.

  6. Bringing content understanding into usability testing in complex application domains—a case study in eHealth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Bruntse; Rasmussen, Claire Kirchert; Frøkjær, Erik

    2017-01-01

    A usability evaluation technique, Cooperative Usability Testing with Questions of Understanding (CUT with QU) intended to illuminate users’ ability to understand the content information of an application is proposed. In complex application domains as for instance the eHealth domain, this issue...... of users’ content understanding is sometimes crucial, and thus should be carefully evaluated. Unfortunately, conventional usability evaluation techniques do not address challenges of content understanding. In a case study within eHealth, specifically the setting of a rehabilitation clinic involving...... the participation of four physiotherapists and four clients in a period of 3.5 months, it was demonstrated how CUT with QU can complement conventional usability testing and provide insight into users’ challenges with understanding of a new complex eHealth application. More experiments in other complex application...

  7. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

  8. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

  9. Understanding doctors' attitudes towards self-disclosure of mental ill health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D; Winstanley, S J; Greene, G

    2016-07-01

    Understanding of doctors' attitudes towards disclosing their own mental illness has improved but assumptions are still made. To investigate doctors' attitudes to disclosing mental illness and the obstacles and enablers to seeking support. An anonymous, UK-wide online survey of doctors with and without a history of mental illness. The main outcome measure was likelihood of workplace disclosure of mental illness. In total, 1954 doctors responded and 60% had experienced mental illness. There was a discrepancy between how doctors think they might behave and how they actually behaved when experiencing mental illness. Younger doctors were least likely to disclose, as were trainees. There were multiple obstacles which varied across age and training grade. For all doctors, regardless of role, this study found that what they think they would do is different to what they actually do when they become unwell. Trainees, staff and associate speciality doctors and locums appeared most vulnerable, being reluctant to disclose mental ill health. Doctors continued to have concerns about disclosure and a lack of care pathways was evident. Concerns about being labelled, confidentiality and not understanding the support structures available were identified as key obstacles to disclosure. Addressing obstacles and enablers is imperative to shape future interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Understanding Graduate School Aspirations: The Effect of Good Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jana M.; Paulsen, Michael B.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of good teaching practices on post-baccalaureate degree aspirations using logistic regression techniques on a multi-institutional, longitudinal sample of students at 4-year colleges and universities in the USA. We examined whether eight good teaching practices (non-classroom interactions with faculty, prompt…

  11. Understanding the stabilizing effects of IT on organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Martin; Huysman, Marleen H.

    1994-01-01

    In the literature, two distinct ways in which the application of IT stabilizes organizations are indicated. The first stabilizing effect concerns the difficult, time-consuming, and costly adjustments of existing ISs when changes to ISs have to be made. Consequently, when circumstances change

  12. Assessing Teacher Quality: Understanding Teacher Effects on Instruction and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Recent educational reforms have promoted accountability systems which attempt to identify "teacher effects" on student outcomes and hold teachers accountable for producing learning gains. But in the complex world of classrooms, it may be difficult to attribute "success" or "failure" to teachers. In this timely…

  13. Understanding the Effects of Climate on Airfield Pavement Deterioration Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    eliminating frost susceptible materials frost heave effects can be minimized. Using properly designed asphalt binders that perform well in cold...processes that operate on or near the surface of our planet ” (de Smith, Goodchild, & Longley, 2007). Spatial interpolation is a spatial analysis

  14. Improving Food Production by Understanding the Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper quantifies the effects of population density and intercropping on the development and growth of nitrogen fixing attributes of soybean and explains how these attributes influence food through yielding process. Information for this study was obtained from a field study conducted over two rainy seasons comprising of ...

  15. Understanding Effectiveness in School Administration: A Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükgöze, Hilal

    2016-01-01

    The current paper primarily aims to investigate and interpret the observations, perceptions, and experiences of an effective school's principal through a qualitative approach. The study was designed as a case study. The participant of the study was a primary science education teacher with 17 years of experience in the profession who has been a…

  16. Understanding electromagnetic effects using printed circuit board demos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields are considered by many students as a difficult subject. Unwanted electromagnetic fields are even tougher for students. We have developed many experiments as demonstrations (demos) to show the effect of electromagnetic fields in real life products. This paper gives a brief

  17. The Effects of Poverty Simulation, an Experiential Learning Modality, on Students' Understanding of Life in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandsburger, Etty; Duncan-Daston, Rana; Akerson, Emily; Dillon, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the impact of the Poverty Simulation Project, an experiential learning modality, on students' understanding of life in poverty. A total of 101 students representing 5 undergraduate majors in the College of Health and Human Services completed measures of critical thinking, understanding of others, and the active learning…

  18. Health and environmental effects of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report briefly reviews previous WHO work on the health consequences of nuclear war and concentrates on current information about the effects of nuclear weapons on health, and related environmental problems. 15 refs

  19. Health, alcohol and EU law: understanding the impact of European single market law on alcohol policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberg, Ben; Anderson, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Many professionals in the alcohol field see the role of the the European Court of Justice (ECJ) as negative for health. This review examines ECJ and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) case law in the context of two broader debates: firstly the extension of European Union (EU) law into alcohol policy (the 'juridification' of alcohol policy), and secondly the extent to which alcohol policy is an example of the dominance of 'negative integration' (the removal of trade-distorting policy) over 'positive integration' (the creation of European alcohol policies). A comprehensive review of all ECJ/EFTA Court cases on alcohol, with interpretation aided by a secondary review on alcohol and EU law and the broader health and trade field. From looking at taxation, minimum pricing, advertising and monopoly policies, the extension of the scope of the these courts over alcohol policy is unquestionable. However, the ECJ and EFTA Court have been prepared to prioritize health over trade concerns when considering alcohol policies, providing certain conditions have been met. While a partial juridification of alcohol policy has led to the negative integration of alcohol policies, this effect is not as strong as sometimes thought; EU law is more health friendly than it is perceived to be, and its impact on levels of alcohol-related harm appears low. Nevertheless, lessons emerge for policymakers concerned about the legality of alcohol policies under EU law. More generally, those concerned with alcohol and health should pay close attention to developments in EU law given their importance for public health policy on alcohol.

  20. Low health literacy: a barrier to effective patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seurer, Andrea C; Vogt, H Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Health literacy is defined in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services initiative Healthy People 2010 as "the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions." It is estimated that 48.8 million Americans are functionally illiterate, making health literacy a major obstacle for providing health care. Although communicating with physicians is a small component of the tasks that are incorporated in a definition of health literacy, it remains the most important aspect of this concept contributing to personal health. Primary care clinics within the Sioux Falls area were provided with both English and Spanish patient education brochures on communicating with physicians. A survey was then distributed to determine how low health literacy was affecting physician practices and what they were doing to remove the obstacles that health literacy presented. Physicians were asked to evaluate the multiple skills and competencies required by patients to access health care services and resources they use to assist patients. A total of 77 surveys were distributed. Twenty-two (28.6 percent) were returned. Of the physicians who returned the survey, the majority (77 percent) thought that low health literacy is a moderate obstacle in their practices. Several physicians stated that their offices had at least one method in place to assist those with low health literacy, but none of them were using a formal test of health literacy. Only six physicians could name a community resource to assist patients with low health literacy. Low health literacy is an unavoidable barrier to effective patient care for physicians across the country. If the full spectrum definition of health literacy is understood by physicians and carefully considered in the context of their own practices, it is likely they would come to the realization that health literacy is a greater obstacle to

  1. Effectiveness of Social Media for Communicating Health Messages in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannor, Richard; Asare, Anthony Kwame; Bawole, Justice Nyigmah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an in-depth understanding of the effectiveness, evolution and dynamism of the current health communication media used in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a multi-method approach which utilizes a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. In-depth interviews are…

  2. Understanding the implementation of complex interventions in health care: the normalization process model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Anne

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Normalization Process Model is a theoretical model that assists in explaining the processes by which complex interventions become routinely embedded in health care practice. It offers a framework for process evaluation and also for comparative studies of complex interventions. It focuses on the factors that promote or inhibit the routine embedding of complex interventions in health care practice. Methods A formal theory structure is used to define the model, and its internal causal relations and mechanisms. The model is broken down to show that it is consistent and adequate in generating accurate description, systematic explanation, and the production of rational knowledge claims about the workability and integration of complex interventions. Results The model explains the normalization of complex interventions by reference to four factors demonstrated to promote or inhibit the operationalization and embedding of complex interventions (interactional workability, relational integration, skill-set workability, and contextual integration. Conclusion The model is consistent and adequate. Repeated calls for theoretically sound process evaluations in randomized controlled trials of complex interventions, and policy-makers who call for a proper understanding of implementation processes, emphasize the value of conceptual tools like the Normalization Process Model.

  3. Understanding the effects of end-loss on linear Fresnelcollectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Chang, Zheng

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the end loss effect of linear Fresnel collector was analyzed. The aim of this work was to investigate the seasonal effects of end losses on the linear Fresnel collectors deployed, and analyze the change of the month average for end loss at different locations. Furthermore, a end loss compensated approach is proposed, and the increased instantaneous thermal efficiency of the experimental system is measured. A two-meter long linear Fresnel collector experimental system with horizontal north-south axis is performed, The result that compensation of the end loss of the linear Fresnel reflector system stands a good improvement for thermal performance. Meanwhile, in comparison with the reflector field prior to the change, an instantaneous thermal efficiency has increased by approximately 50%, and it increased by almost 20% at the afternoon time. All this work can offer some valuable references to the further study on high-efficiency linear Fresnel concentrating system.

  4. Understanding substituent effects in noncovalent interactions involving aromatic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Steven E

    2013-04-16

    Noncovalent interactions involving aromatic rings such as π-stacking, cation/π, and anion/π interactions are central to many areas of modern chemistry. Decades of experimental studies have provided key insights into the impact of substituents on these interactions, leading to the development of simple intuitive models. However, gas-phase computational studies have raised some doubts about the physical underpinnings of these widespread models. In this Account we review our recent efforts to unravel the origin of substituent effects in π-stacking and ion/π interactions through computational studies of model noncovalent dimers. First, however, we dispel the notion that so-called aromatic interactions depend on the aromaticity of the interacting rings by studying model π-stacked dimers in which the aromaticity of one of the monomers can be "switched off". Somewhat surprisingly, the results show that not only is aromaticity unnecessary for π-stacking interactions, but it actually hinders these interactions to some extent. Consequently, when thinking about π-stacking interactions, researchers should consider broader classes of planar molecules, not just aromatic systems. Conventional models maintain that substituent effects in π-stacking interactions result from changes in the aryl π-system. This view suggests that π-stacking interactions are maximized when one ring is substituted with electron-withdrawing groups and the other with electron donors. In contrast to these prevailing models, we have shown that substituent effects in π-stacking interactions can be described in terms of direct, local interactions between the substituents and the nearby vertex of the other arene. As a result, in polysubstituted π-stacked dimers the substituents operate independently unless they are in each other's local environment. This means that in π-stacked dimers in which one arene is substituted with electron donors and the other with electron acceptors the interactions will

  5. Understanding the effects of violent video games on violent crime

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, A. Scott; Engelstätter, Benjamin; Ward, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Psychological studies invariably find a positive relationship between violent video game play and aggression. However, these studies cannot account for either aggressive effects of alternative activities video game playing substitutes for or the possible selection of relatively violent people into playing violent video games. That is, they lack external validity. We investigate the relationship between the prevalence of violent video games and violent crimes. Our results are consistent with t...

  6. Assessing, and understanding, European organic dairy farmers' intentions to improve herd health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P J; Sok, J; Tranter, R B; Blanco-Penedo, I; Fall, N; Fourichon, C; Hogeveen, H; Krieger, M C; Sundrum, A

    2016-10-01

    Many believe the health status of organic dairy herds in Europe should be improved to meet consumers' and legislators' expectations to improve animal welfare. This paper reports on a study in four countries that examined dairy farmers' intentions towards improving the health status of their organic herds through the use of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. It was found that farmers across the countries were positive about taking additional preventative measures to improve the health status of their herds. They believed this would not only improve herd physical performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but also achieve greater cost effectiveness and improved job satisfaction for them. Most study farmers would implement a tailored package of improvement measures designed by the study team with higher uptake most likely being by younger farmers, those who make greater use of veterinarians and professional advisory services, and those supplying specialist milk-marketing chains. Furthermore, farmers will be most likely to take-up additional health promotion if compatible with their everyday activities and if they have strong business performance goals aimed at maximising the physical performance of the herd. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding Barriers to Mental Health Care for Recent War Veterans Through Photovoice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Gala; Rigg, Khary K; Butler, Anneliese

    2015-10-01

    Despite an urgent need for mental health care among U.S. service members returning from deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan, many veterans do not receive timely or adequate treatment. We used photovoice methods to engage veterans in identifying barriers to utilizing mental health services. Veterans described how key aspects of military culture and identity, highly adaptive during deployment, can deter help-seeking behavior and hinder recovery. Veterans' photographs highlighted how mental health symptoms and self-coping strategies operated as barriers to care. Many veterans' photos and stories revealed how negative health care encounters contributed to avoidance and abandonment of treatment; some veterans described these experiences as re-traumatizing. Visual methods can be a powerful tool for engaging recent war veterans in research. In particular, community-based participatory research approaches, which have rarely been used with veterans, hold great promise for informing effective interventions to improve access and enhance provision of patient-centered care for veterans. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Understanding women, health, and social change: the case of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Heeran; Doyal, Lesley; Payne, Sarah; Il-Cho, Sung; Kim, Il-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1960s, South Korea has experienced rapid economic development and an improvement in the health of its population. During this period there have been marked increases in women's educational and occupational opportunities. But despite these improvements, women still suffer higher levels of gender discrimination than their counterparts in many other countries at similar stages of development. Most dramatically, there are still high levels of sex-selective abortion. Women have lower socioeconomic status than men, and their lives are markedly restricted by the cultural values associated with Confucianism. This article explores the effects of these factors on women's health. Despite their greater longevity, South Korean women still report higher rates of morbidity and distress than men. This can be compared with the "gender paradox" in health reported in many developed countries during the 1970s and 1980s. More detailed research is needed on the factors influencing the health of South Korean women and on related trends in other newly industrializing Asian societies.

  9. The art of being healthy: a qualitative study to develop a thematic framework for understanding the relationship between health and the arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christina R; Knuiman, Matthew; Wright, Peter; Rosenberg, Michael

    2014-04-25

    In recent years the health-arts nexus has received increasing attention; however, the relationship is not well understood and the extent of possible positive, negative and unintended outcomes is unknown. Guided by the biopsychosocial model of health and theories of social epidemiology, the aim of this study was to develop a framework pertaining to the relationship between arts engagement and population health that included outcomes, confounders and effect modifiers. A health-arts framework is of value to researchers seeking to build the evidence base; health professionals interested in understanding the health-arts relationship, especially those who use social prescribing for health promotion or to complement treatments; in teaching medical, nursing and health-science students about arts outcomes, as well as artists and health professionals in the development of policy and programmes. A qualitative study was conducted. Semistructured interviews were analysed thematically. Western Australia. 33 Western Australian adults (18+ years). Participants were randomly selected from a pool of general population nominees who engaged in the arts for enjoyment, entertainment or as a hobby (response rate=100%). A thematic analysis was conducted using QSR-NVivo10. The resulting framework contained seven outcome themes and 63 subthemes. Three themes specifically related to health, that is, mental, social and physical health, while economic, knowledge, art and identity outcomes were classified as health determinants. Within each theme, positive, negative and unintended outcomes (subthemes) were identified and categorised as relating to the individual and/or to the community. A list of confounding and/or effect modifying factors, related to both the arts and health, was identified. Given the increasing pressure on health resources, the arts have the potential to assist in the promotion of health and healing. This framework expands on current knowledge, further defines the health

  10. Understanding the Role of Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in Tanzania's Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embrey, Martha; Vialle-Valentin, Catherine; Dillip, Angel; Kihiyo, Bernard; Mbwasi, Romuald; Semali, Innocent A; Chalker, John C; Liana, Jafary; Lieber, Rachel; Johnson, Keith; Rutta, Edmund; Kimatta, Suleiman; Shekalaghe, Elizabeth; Valimba, Richard; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    recommended practices for managing pediatric pneumonia. However, one-third of the dispensers needlessly sold antibiotics for cold symptoms, and 85% sold an antibiotic on request. In addition, the pneumonia scenario elicited more advice on handling the illness than the cold symptoms scenario (61% vs. 15%; pcare system. Poor prescribing in health facilities, poor dispensing at ADDOs, and inappropriate patient demand continue to contribute to inappropriate medicines use. Therefore, while accreditation has attempted to address the quality of pharmaceutical services in private sector drug outlets, efforts to improve access to and use of medicines in Tanzania need to target ADDOs, public/nongovernmental health facilities, and the public to be effective.

  11. Understanding military families who have dependents with special health care and/or educational needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Keith R; Kyler, Sandee J; Moeller, Jeremy D; Perkins, Daniel F

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about military families who have a dependent with special health care and/or educational needs. The Exceptional Family Member Program (EFMP) is designed to link these families to military/community support services through family support provider (FS providers). The aim of this study was to understand FS providers' perspectives on the kinds of current challenges the families with whom they work face. This is the first study to ascertain the perspectives of professionals FS providers. FS providers (N = 160) completed a survey either on the phone or via the web. The survey consisted of four areas regarding EFMP: (1) background information; (2) caseload and work composition; (3) perceptions of Military Family needs; and (4) adequacy of community support services. The most commonly encountered diagnoses in military families were Autism (94%) and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (93%). Between 80% and 90% of FS providers reported working with families dealing with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders, Speech & Language Disorders, Asthma, Developmental Delays, and Mental Health Problems. FS providers noted that relocations are particularly challenging for military families in the EFMP. Training and programming of social service professionals working with military families who have a dependent with special health care and/or educational needs should focus on commonly occurring challenges seen in this population. As much as possible, FS providers should be familiar with evidence-based programs and practices designed to address these pressing problems. The process and execution of relocations should be streamlined so as to enhance continuity of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Retention in STEM: Understanding the Effectiveness of Science Posse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsoe, Kimberly

    One of the major areas of debate in higher education is how to best support underrepresented racial minority students in their study of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. In 2008, Brandeis University began a new program in conjunction with the Posse Foundation for students interested in studying science at the college-level. The research used a mixed methods design. A detailed quantitative analysis was conducted to understand how being part of Science Posse impacted the probability of doing well in initial science classes, influenced perceptions of the difficulty of studying science, and predicted the probability of majoring in STEM at Brandeis. The qualitative data was drawn from 89 student interviews, including 38 Science Posse Scholars, 24 students from backgrounds similar to the Scholars, and 25 students from well-resourced families. The qualitative analysis demonstrated how students had been exposed to the sciences prior to enrollment, how they navigated the sciences at Brandeis, and how they demonstrated resilience when science becomes challenging. This research study had four key findings. The first was in the quantitative analysis which demonstrated that Science Posse Scholars experience strong feelings of doubt about their academic abilities; based on previous research, this should have resulted in their not declaring majors in STEM disciplines. Instead, Science Posse Scholars were more likely to earn a B+ or above in their entry level science courses and declare a major in a STEM discipline, even when factors such as math and verbal SAT scores were included in the analysis. The second finding was in the qualitative analysis, which demonstrated that the cohort model in which Science Posse Scholars participate was instrumental to their success. The third finding was that students who attended academically less rigorous high schools could succeed in the sciences at a highly selective research institution such as Brandeis without academic remediation

  13. Understanding the Effects of Marriage and Divorce on Financial Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schröter; Rangvid, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how changes in marital status affect financial investments and how these effects vary with background risk. We use detailed register-based panel data and difference-in-differences estimators to benchmark common unobserved influences on financial investments. Women increase...... is important for financial risk taking and investment responses to marital transitions....... the fraction of wealth invested in stocks after marriage and decrease it after divorce, whereas men show the opposite behavior. Households whose joint labor income risk is reduced more by marriage have a higher increase in their exposure to risky assets in marriage. Thus income risk sharing in the household...

  14. Effects of Message Framing on Influenza Vaccination: Understanding the Role of Risk Disclosure, Perceived Vaccine Efficacy, and Felt Ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungsu; Pjesivac, Ivanka; Jin, Yan

    2017-10-20

    The current study examined the effects of framing in promotional health messages on intention to vaccinate against seasonal influenza virus. The findings of an experimental study (N = 86) indicated that exposure to both benefits and side effects of vaccination (gain-framed with risk disclosure message) led to lower intention to receive the flu vaccine. This relationship was mediated by both perceived vaccine efficacy and felt ambivalence in a serial order, revealing the underlying psychological mechanisms important for understanding health-related behaviors. Theoretical implications of constructing sub-framed messages are discussed and the concept of second-order framing is introduced.

  15. Understanding cavity QED effects from cavity classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, M.M.; Kort-Kamp, W.J.M.; Farina, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Our work intends to show how cavity classical electrodynamics can be used for achieving results with direct quantum analogues. It is shown how the classical interaction between a real radiating electric dipole and a perfectly-conducting surface can be used to obtain information about some cavity quantum electrodynamics effects related to radiative properties of atomic systems. Based on the case of an oscillating electric dipole (a classical representation of an excited atom) in front of a perfectly-conducting sphere, two main physical quantities can be computed, the classical dipole frequency shift and the change in the rate of energy loss from radiation reaction, both due to the presence of the sphere. The link from classical to quantum can be made via interpreting, for example, the dipole frequency as the atom's dominant transition frequency. The frequency shift due to the sphere can be related through E = (h/2π) to the energy shift of the system, i.e., the dispersive interaction between the atom and the sphere; while the change in energy loss can be related to the alteration of the atom's spontaneous emission due to the sphere. The amazing result is that this classical method, once corresponded classical quantities to quantum ones such as exemplified above with frequency, can predict the two above-mentioned quantum effects analytically with the correct functional dependencies on all geometric and atomic parameters, being off only by a constant pre factor. (author)

  16. Effects of nuclear war on health and health services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report reviews the findings since 1987 in the field of research related to the possible impact of nuclear war and nuclear explosions on health and health services. An annex contains the finding and conclusions of a 1989 United Nations study on the climatic and other effects of nuclear war. 1 tab

  17. Children's experiences of food insecurity can assist in understanding its effect on their well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Carol L; Lofton, Kristi L; Yadrick, Kathy; Rehner, Timothy A

    2005-07-01

    An understanding of the experience of food insecurity by children is essential for better measurement and assessment of its effect on children's nutritional, physical, and mental health. Our qualitative study explored children's perceptions of household food insecurity to identify these perceptions and to use them to establish components of children's food insecurity experience. Children (n = 32; 11-16 y old) from after school programs and a middle school in low-income areas participated in individual semistructured in-depth interviews. Children as young as 11 y could describe behaviors associated with food insecurity if they had experienced it directly or indirectly. Using the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis, children's descriptions of behaviors associated with food insecurity were categorized into components of quantity of food, quality of food, psychological aspects, and social aspects described in the household food insecurity literature. Aspects of quantity included eating less than usual and eating more or eating fast when food was available. Aspects of quality included use of a few kinds of low-cost foods. Psychological aspects included worry/anxiety/sadness about the family food supply, feelings of having no choice in the foods eaten, shame/fear of being labeled as poor, and attempts to shield children. Social aspects of food insecurity centered on using social networks to acquire food or money and social exclusion. These results provide valuable information in understanding the effect of food insecurity on children's well-being especially relative to the social and emotional aspects of well-being.

  18. Contrasting lives, contrasting views? Understandings of health inequalities from children in differing social circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backett-Milburn, Kathryn; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Davis, John

    2003-08-01

    Children's differing socio-economic, cultural and familial circumstances and experiences are part of the pathways implicated in health and illness in adulthood. However, in the existing, mainly survey based, work children's own voices tend to be absent and adult-defined data about health and illness accumulated. Little is known about the social and cultural processes, in children's very different childhoods, which underpin and ultimately constitute these epidemiological findings. This paper reports findings from a qualitative study examining the socio-economic and cultural contexts of children's lifestyles and the production of inequalities in health, carried out in a large Scottish city. Two rounds of semi-structured interviews, using a range of child-friendly techniques (photographs, drawings, vignettes), were carried out with 35 girls and boys aged 9-12 years living in two contrasting but contiguous areas, one relatively advantaged and one relatively disadvantaged. Thirty of their parents were also interviewed and community profiling and observational work undertaken. Children and parents described often starkly contrasting lives and opportunities, regularly involving material differences. However, children appeared to locate inequalities as much in relationships and social life as in material concerns; in this their direct experiences of relationships and unfairness were central to their making sense of inequality and its impact on health. Although children from both areas highlighted several different inequalities, including those related to material resources, they also spoke of the importance of control over their life world; of care and love particularly from parents; of friendship and acceptance by their peer group. Many children challenged straightforward causal explanations for future ill-health, privileging some explanations, such as psychological or lifestyle factors. The accounts of children from both areas displayed considerable resilience to and

  19. Understanding Soliton Spectral Tunneling as a Spectral Coupling Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei; Zeng, Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    Soliton eigenstate is found corresponding to a dispersive phase profile under which the soliton phase changes induced by the dispersion and nonlinearity are instantaneously counterbalanced. Much like a waveguide coupler relying on a spatial refractive index profile that supports mode coupling...... between channels, here we suggest that the soliton spectral tunneling effect can be understood supported by a spectral phase coupler. The dispersive wave number in the spectral domain must have a coupler-like symmetric profile for soliton spectral tunneling to occur. We show that such a spectral coupler...... exactly implies phase as well as group-velocity matching between the input soliton and tunneled soliton, namely a soliton phase matching condition. Examples in realistic photonic crystal fibers are also presented....

  20. Molecular Modeling of Enzyme Dynamics Towards Understanding Solvent Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedberg, Nils Hejle Rasmus Ingemar

    ) in water and organic solvents. The effects of solvent on structural and dynamical enzyme properties are studied, and special attention is given to how enzyme properties in organic solvents are affected by the hydration level, which is shown to be related to the water activity. In experimental studies...... of enzyme kinetics in non-aqueous media, it has been a fruitful approach to fix the enzyme hydration level by controlling the water activity of the medium. In this work, a protocol is therefore developed for determining the water activity in non-aqueous protein simulations. The method relies on determining......This thesis describes the development of a molecular simulation methodology to study properties of enzymes in non-aqueous media at fixed thermodynamic water activities. The methodology is applied in a molecular dynamics study of the industrially important enzyme Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB...

  1. Effects of child and adolescent health on educational progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê, Félice; Diez Roux, Ana; Morgenstern, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how childhood and adolescent health may affect schooling is important for understanding the socioeconomic ramifications of poor early-life health as well as the relations between schooling and adult health. Using three waves of U.S. longitudinal data with extensive covariate information on a national sample of 2368 American children aged 5-14 at baseline, we used regression methods to investigate how patterns of general health status over a 10-year period relate to completed years of schooling at the end of follow-up. As a sensitivity analysis, we used sibling fixed effects models to help control for differences stemming from familial or community factors shared between siblings. The effect of health on years of completed schooling appeared to accumulate over time, and was more evident among children who were older at baseline. Among participants aged 5-7, 8-10, and 11-14 at baseline, average differences in years of completed schooling between participants with poor health in all 3 waves and those with good health in all 3 waves were 0.02 ([95% confidence interval] -0.31, 0.35), -0.50 (-0.88, -0.12), and -1.28 (-1.78, -0.78), respectively. Point estimates from fixed effects models were very similar. Our results document the emergence and compounding over time of health-related disparities in schooling at young ages, suggesting a vicious cycle between poor health and educational outcomes. Future research better characterizing how early-life health affects educational progress will ultimately be necessary for developing effective interventions to reduce educational and health disparities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Mental Health Benefits Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926

  3. From Headline to Hard Grind: The Importance of Understanding Public Administration in Achieving Health OutcomesComment on "Understanding the Role of Public Administration in Implementing Action on the Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequities".

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, Janine

    2016-04-30

    Many public policy programs fail to translate ambitious headlines to on-the-ground action. The reasons for this are many and varied, but for public administration and management scholars a large part of the gap between ambition and achievement is the challenge associated with the operation of the machinery of government itself, and how it relates to the other parties that it relies on to fulfill these outcomes. In their article, Carey and Friel set out key reasons why public health scholars should seek to better understand important ideas in public administration. In commenting on their contribution, I draw out two critical questions that are raised by this discussion: (i) what are boundaries and what forms do they take? and (ii) why work across boundaries? Expanding on these key questions extends the points made by Carey and Friel on the importance of understanding public administration and will better place public health scholars and practitioners to realise health outcomes. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  4. Understanding the Political Economy of the Evolution and Future of Single-Payer Public Health Insurance in Canada (Technical Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Herbert Emery

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Surprisingly little attention has been paid to how we pay for health care affects how much we spend on health care. In this paper, the author discusses how non-contributory finance and effective subsidization of public health care spending with federal cost sharing crowded out demand for private insurance as voters opted for high levels of public health spending.

  5. Sound understanding of environmental, health and safety, clinical, and market aspects is imperative to clinical translation of nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösslein, Matthias; Liptrott, Neill J; Owen, Andrew; Boisseau, Patrick; Wick, Peter; Herrmann, Inge K

    2017-03-01

    Nanotechnology has transformed materials engineering. However, despite much excitement in the scientific community, translation of nanotechnology-based developments has suffered from significant translational gaps, particularly in the field of biomedicine. Of the many concepts investigated, very few have entered routine clinical application. Safety concerns and associated socioeconomic uncertainties, together with the lack of incentives for technology transfer, are undoubtedly imposing significant hurdles to effective clinical translation of potentially game-changing developments. Commercialisation aspects are only rarely considered in the early stages and in many cases, the market is not identified early on in the process, hence precluding market-oriented development. However, methodologies and in-depth understanding of mechanistic processes existing in the environmental, health and safety (EHS) community could be leveraged to accelerate translation. Here, we discuss the most important stepping stones for (nano)medicine development along with a number of suggestions to facilitate future translation.

  6. Predictive modelling: parents’ decision making to use online child health information to increase their understanding and/or diagnose or treat their child’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh Anne M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantum increases in home Internet access and available online health information with limited control over information quality highlight the necessity of exploring decision making processes in accessing and using online information, specifically in relation to children who do not make their health decisions. The aim of this study was to understand the processes explaining parents’ decisions to use online health information for child health care. Methods Parents (N = 391 completed an initial questionnaire assessing the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control, as well as perceived risk, group norm, and additional demographic factors. Two months later, 187 parents completed a follow-up questionnaire assessing their decisions to use online information for their child’s health care, specifically to 1 diagnose and/or treat their child’s suspected medical condition/illness and 2 increase understanding about a diagnosis or treatment recommended by a health professional. Results Hierarchical multiple regression showed that, for both behaviours, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, (less perceived risk, group norm, and (non medical background were the significant predictors of intention. For parents’ use of online child health information, for both behaviours, intention was the sole significant predictor of behaviour. The findings explain 77% of the variance in parents’ intention to treat/diagnose a child health problem and 74% of the variance in their intentions to increase their understanding about child health concerns. Conclusions Understanding parents’ socio-cognitive processes that guide their use of online information for child health care is important given the increase in Internet usage and the sometimes-questionable quality of health information provided online. Findings highlight parents’ thirst for information; there is an

  7. Health effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Human and animal studies have shown an increased incidence of cancer and malformation due to radioactive materials and external radiation. The biological effects of radiation on tissues are the occurrence of morphological and functional changes in the body. The critical parts of the body are those tissues or organs which when irradiated, are likely to influence the health of the individual or its offspring. The probability of these changes depends on the radiation dose. There are two main types of damage due to radiation dose. Radiation Sickness with well-defined symptoms like cancer and inherited disorders which can appear after several years. A second type of damage, namely Acute Radiation Sickness results after exposure of the whole or parts of the body to high doses of radiation greater than 1 Gy. There are safety standards for the amount of dose equivalent that is taken as acceptable. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has given norms in which natural and medical causes were not included. These are given as recommended values (1966) and proposed values (2000), both in mSv/yr: population at large: 1.7 and 0.4; members of the public: 5 and 2; and radiologic workers: 50 and 20, respectively. Taking into account the increased number of reactor accidents, the question is how safe is our safety standards? Even when one is able to connect a quantitative risk with a radiation dose, there are three fundamental principles which we should obey in dealing with risks from radiation. These are: (1) Avoid any risk. (2) The risk should be related to the possible benefit. (3) Any dose below the politically agreed limits is acceptable

  8. Understanding ligand effects in gold clusters using mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes recent research on the influence of phosphine ligands on the size, stability, and reactivity of gold clusters synthesized in solution. Sub-nanometer clusters exhibit size- and composition-dependent properties that are unique from those of larger nanoparticles. The highly tunable properties of clusters and their high surface-to-volume ratio make them promising candidates for a variety of technological applications. However, because “each-atom-counts” toward defining cluster properties it is critically important to develop robust synthesis methods to efficiently prepare clusters of predetermined size. For decades phosphines have been known to direct the size-selected synthesis of gold clusters. Despite the preparation of numerous species it is still not understood how different functional groups at phosphine centers affect the size and properties of gold clusters. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) it is possible to characterize the effect of ligand substitution on the distribution of clusters formed in solution at defined reaction conditions. In addition, ligand exchange reactions on preformed clusters may be monitored using ESI-MS. Collision induced dissociation (CID) may also be employed to obtain qualitative insight into the fragmentation of mixed ligand clusters and the relative binding energies of differently substituted phosphines. Quantitative ligand binding energies and cluster stability may be determined employing surface induced dissociation (SID) in a custom-built Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS). Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) based modeling of the SID data allows dissociation energies and entropy values to be extracted that may be compared with the results of high-level theoretical calculations. The charge reduction and reactivity of atomically precise gold clusters, including partially ligated species generated in the gas-phase by in source CID, on well

  9. Understanding ligand effects in gold clusters using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Grant E; Laskin, Julia

    2016-06-21

    This review summarizes recent research on the influence of phosphine ligands on the size, stability, and reactivity of gold clusters synthesized in solution. Sub-nanometer clusters exhibit size- and composition-dependent properties that are unique from those of larger nanoparticles. The highly tunable properties of clusters and their high surface-to-volume ratio make them promising candidates for a variety of technological applications. However, because "each-atom-counts" toward defining cluster properties it is critically important to develop robust synthesis methods to efficiently prepare clusters of predetermined size. For decades phosphines have been known to direct the size-selected synthesis of gold clusters. Despite the preparation of numerous species it is still not understood how different functional groups at phosphine centers affect the size and properties of gold clusters. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) it is possible to characterize the effect of ligand substitution on the distribution of clusters formed in solution at defined reaction conditions. In addition, ligand exchange reactions on preformed clusters may be monitored using ESI-MS. Collision induced dissociation (CID) may also be employed to obtain qualitative insight into the fragmentation of mixed ligand clusters and the relative binding energies of differently substituted phosphines. Quantitative ligand binding energies and cluster stability may be determined employing surface induced dissociation (SID) in a custom-built Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS). Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) based modeling of the SID data allows dissociation energies and entropy values to be extracted. The charge reduction and reactivity of atomically precise gold clusters, including partially ligated species generated in the gas-phase by in source CID, on well-defined surfaces may be explored using ion soft landing (SL) in a custom

  10. Effect of Health Care Professionals' Continuing Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of educational intervention by health care providers on clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients in a Yemeni health facility. Methods: A prospective, one-group and pre- and post-test design to assess the effects of health care providers' education on clinical patient outcomes was ...

  11. Integrating Gene Transcription-Based Biomarkers to Understand Desert Tortoise and Ecosystem Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A Keith; Drake, K Kristina; Waters, Shannon C; Esque, Todd C; Nussear, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    Tortoises are susceptible to a wide variety of environmental stressors, and the influence of human disturbances on health and survival of tortoises is difficult to detect. As an addition to current diagnostic methods for desert tortoises, we have developed the first leukocyte gene transcription biomarker panel for the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), enhancing the ability to identify specific environmental conditions potentially linked to declining animal health. Blood leukocyte transcript profiles have the potential to identify physiologically stressed animals in lieu of clinical signs. For desert tortoises, the gene transcript profile included a combination of immune or detoxification response genes with the potential to be modified by biological or physical injury and consequently provide information on the type and magnitude of stressors present in the animal's habitat. Blood from 64 wild adult tortoises at three sites in Clark County, NV, and San Bernardino, CA, and from 19 captive tortoises in Clark County, NV, was collected and evaluated for genes indicative of physiological status. Statistical analysis using a priori groupings indicated significant differences among groups for several genes, while multidimensional scaling and cluster analyses of transcription C T values indicated strong differentiation of a large cluster and multiple outlying individual tortoises or small clusters in multidimensional space. These analyses highlight the effectiveness of the gene panel at detecting environmental perturbations as well as providing guidance in determining the health of the desert tortoise.

  12. Integrating gene transcription-based biomarkers to understand desert tortoise and ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Drake, Karla K.; Waters, Shannon C.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Tortoises are susceptible to a wide variety of environmental stressors, and the influence of human disturbances on health and survival of tortoises is difficult to detect. As an addition to current diagnostic methods for desert tortoises, we have developed the first leukocyte gene transcription biomarker panel for the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), enhancing the ability to identify specific environmental conditions potentially linked to declining animal health. Blood leukocyte transcript profiles have the potential to identify physiologically stressed animals in lieu of clinical signs. For desert tortoises, the gene transcript profile included a combination of immune or detoxification response genes with the potential to be modified by biological or physical injury and consequently provide information on the type and magnitude of stressors present in the animal’s habitat. Blood from 64 wild adult tortoises at three sites in Clark County, NV, and San Bernardino, CA, and from 19 captive tortoises in Clark County, NV, was collected and evaluated for genes indicative of physiological status. Statistical analysis using a priori groupings indicated significant differences among groups for several genes, while multidimensional scaling and cluster analyses of transcriptionC T values indicated strong differentiation of a large cluster and multiple outlying individual tortoises or small clusters in multidimensional space. These analyses highlight the effectiveness of the gene panel at detecting environmental perturbations as well as providing guidance in determining the health of the desert tortoise.

  13. Understanding the acceptability of e-mental health - attitudes and expectations towards computerised self-help treatments for mental health problems

    OpenAIRE

    Musiat, Peter; Goldstone, Philip; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Background E-mental health and m-mental health include the use of technology in the prevention, treatment and aftercare of mental health problems. With the economical pressure on mental health services increasing, e-mental health and m-mental health could bridge treatment gaps, reduce waiting times for patients and deliver interventions at lower costs. However, despite the existence of numerous effective interventions, the transition of computerised interventions into care is slow. The aim of...

  14. Understanding the Role of Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in Tanzania's Health System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Embrey

    antimicrobial (54%, a referral (90%, or both (45%, which are recommended practices for managing pediatric pneumonia. However, one-third of the dispensers needlessly sold antibiotics for cold symptoms, and 85% sold an antibiotic on request. In addition, the pneumonia scenario elicited more advice on handling the illness than the cold symptoms scenario (61% vs. 15%; p<0.0001, but overall, only 44% of the dispensers asked any of the shoppers about danger signs potentially associated with pneumonia in a child.ADDOs are the principal source of medicines in Tanzania and an important part of a multi-faceted health care system. Poor prescribing in health facilities, poor dispensing at ADDOs, and inappropriate patient demand continue to contribute to inappropriate medicines use. Therefore, while accreditation has attempted to address the quality of pharmaceutical services in private sector drug outlets, efforts to improve access to and use of medicines in Tanzania need to target ADDOs, public/nongovernmental health facilities, and the public to be effective.

  15. National indicators of health literacy: ability to understand health information and to engage actively with healthcare providers - a population-based survey among Danish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Anne; Friis, Karina; Osborne, Richard H; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2014-10-22

    Health literacy is a multidimensional concept covering a range of cognitive and social skills necessary for participation in health care. Knowledge of health literacy levels in general populations and how health literacy levels impacts on social health inequity is lacking. The primary aim of this study was to perform a population-based assessment of dimensions of health literacy related to understanding health information and to engaging with healthcare providers. Secondly, the aim was to examine associations between socio-economic characteristics with these dimensions of health literacy. A population-based survey was conducted between January and April 2013 in the Central Denmark Region. Postal invitations were sent to a random sample of 46,354 individuals >25 years of age. Two health literacy dimensions were selected from the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ™): i) Understanding health information well enough to know what to do (5 items), and ii) Ability to actively engage with health care providers (5 items). Response options ranged from 1 (very difficult) to 4 (very easy). We investigated the level of perceived difficulty of each task, and the associations between the two dimensions and socio-economic characteristics. A total of 29,473 (63.6%) responded to the survey. Between 8.8%, 95% CI: 8.4-9.2 and 20.2%, 95% CI: 19.6-20.8 of the general population perceived the health literacy tasks as difficult or very difficult at the individual item level. On the scale level, the mean rating for i) understanding health information was 3.10, 95% CI: 3.09-3.10, and 3.07, 95% CI: 3.07-3.08 for ii) engagement with health care providers. Low levels of the two dimensions were associated with low income, low education level, living alone, and to non-Danish ethnicity. Associations with sex and age differed by the specific health literacy dimension. Estimates on two key dimensions of health literacy in a general population are now available. A substantial proportion of the

  16. Understanding the Effects of Host Evolution and Skin Bacteria Composition on Disease Vector Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 14-04-2016 1-Sep-2014 31-Dec-2015 Final Report: Understanding the effects of host evolution and skin bacteria...reviewed journals: Final Report: Understanding the effects of host evolution and skin bacteria composition on disease vector choices Report Title Here...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Here we sought to understand how host biology influences the composition of skin microbes, how skin microbes influence

  17. Development of a social-hydrological-health framework for understanding risks of occurrence of diarrheal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. R. H.; Jutla, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Diarrheal diseases continue to pose a severe health threat in regions where sanitation facilities remain marginal and are prone to destruction. With limited efficacy of vaccines, it is important to device alternate methods to determine environmental conditions favorable for diarrheal diseases. Several vibrios (V. cholerae., V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus) have characteristic signatures that are associated with large scale climatic processes. The interactions of vibrios with humans eventually lead to outbreak of diseases. Here, using cholera as one of the signature diarrheal disease, we present a framework coupling social, hydrological and microbiological understanding with satellite remote sensing data to predict environmental conditions associated with outbreak of disease in several regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Hydroclimatic processes, primarily precipitation and temperature are found to be strongly associated with epidemic and episodic outbreak of cholera. We will present an algorithm to classify regions susceptible to risks of outbreak cholera using profile method in five epidemic regions of Mozambique, Central African Republic, Cameroon, South Sudan and Rwanda. Conditions for occurrence of cholera were detectable at least one month in advance. Using spatial land surface temperature (LST) data from satellites along with water accessibility data and population data, the implementation of the algorithm aid in classification of cholera risk regions.

  18. Understanding Online Health Groups for Depression: Social Network and Linguistic Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ronghua; Zhang, Qingpeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental health problems have become increasingly prevalent in the past decade. With the advance of Web 2.0 technologies, social media present a novel platform for Web users to form online health groups. Members of online health groups discuss health-related issues and mutually help one another by anonymously revealing their mental conditions, sharing personal experiences, exchanging health information, and providing suggestions and support. The conversations in online health groups ...

  19. Nurse-midwives in federally funded health centers: understanding federal program requirements and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Midwives are working in federally funded health centers in increasing numbers. Health centers provide primary and preventive health care to almost 20 million people and are located in every US state and territory. While health centers serve the entire community, they also serve as a safety net for low-income and uninsured individuals. In 2010, 93% of health center patients had incomes below 200% of the Federal Poverty Guidelines, and 38% were uninsured. Health centers, including community health centers, migrant health centers, health care for the homeless programs, and public housing primary care programs, receive grant funding and enjoy other benefits due to status as federal grantees and designation as federally qualified health centers. Clinicians working in health centers are also eligible for financial and professional benefits because of their willingness to serve vulnerable populations and work in underserved areas. Midwives, midwifery students, and faculty working in, or interacting with, health centers need to be aware of the regulations that health centers must comply with in order to qualify for and maintain federal funding. This article provides an overview of health center regulations and policies affecting midwives, including health center program requirements, scope of project policy, provider credentialing and privileging, Federal Tort Claims Act malpractice coverage, the 340B Drug Pricing Program, and National Health Service Corps scholarship and loan repayment programs. © 2012 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  20. On the health effects of transported and resuspended dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudich, Yinon

    2017-04-01

    In the Mediterranean area people are often exposed to high levels of both transported mineral dust and to resuspended urban dust. High exposure to particulate matter is a known risk factor to exposed population, but the detailed understanding of how these dusts affect health remain elusive. In this talk I will describe two aspects of how dust may impact health. First, transport of bacteria by desert dust and its effects on the local microbiome will be described. Then, we will describe the biological effects due to exposing water soluble extracts of fresh and aged dust particles from the Israeli Negev Desert to alveolar macrophages.

  1. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  2. Health in our hands, but not in our heads: understanding hygiene motivation in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Beth; Curtis, Val; Rabie, Tamer; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana

    2007-07-01

    Each year more than 2 million children die from diarrhoeal diseases; the same number again die from acute respiratory infections. The simple hygiene behaviour of washing hands with soap represents an effective way of preventing the transmission of many of these infections. However, rates of handwashing across the globe are low, presenting a challenge for health promotion programmes. Behaviour change is not easy, and past efforts based upon health education have met with limited success. New approaches are needed. We propose that much can be learnt from the world of consumer marketing. Rather than base communications programmes for behaviour change on increasing knowledge, marketers aim to respond to the inner desires and motivations of their target audiences. This study used consumer research to investigate the factors motivating handwashing with soap in order to inform a national communications campaign for Ghana. It revealed that the strongest motivators for handwashing with soap were related to nurturance, social acceptance and disgust of faeces and latrines, especially their smell. Protection from disease is mentioned as a driving force, but was not a key motivator of handwashing behaviour. The ways in which these findings have been translated into a handwash promotion campaign are discussed.

  3. Task force report on health effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.; Hushon, J.

    1978-08-01

    From April to August, 1978 MITRE supported the Health Effects Assessment Task Force sponsored by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for the Environment at DOE. The findings of that Task Force are incorporated in this report and include a detailed definition of health effects assessment, a survey of the mandates for health effects assessments within DOE/EV, a review of current DOE-EV health effects assessment activities, an analysis of the constraints affecting the health effects assessment process and a discussion of the Task Force recommendations. Included as appendices are summaries of two workshops conducted by the Task Force to determine the state-of-the-art of health effects assessment and modeling and a review of risk assessment activities in other federal agencies. The primary recommendation of the panel was that an office be designated or created under the Office of the Assistant Secretary for the Environment to coordinate the Health Effects Risk Assessment effort covering up to 40 program and policy areas; a similar need was expressed for the environmental effects assessment area. 1 tab

  4. Harnessing Reddit to Understand the Written-Communication Challenges Experienced by Individuals With Mental Health Disorders: Analysis of Texts From Mental Health Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert; Conway, Mike

    2018-04-10

    Mental disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are common, incapacitating, and have the potential to be fatal. Despite the prevalence and gravity of mental disorders, our knowledge concerning everyday challenges associated with them is relatively limited. One of the most studied deficits related to everyday challenges is language impairment, yet we do not know how mental disorders can impact common forms of written communication, for example, social media. The aims of this study were to investigate written communication challenges manifest in online mental health communities focusing on depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, as well as the impact of participating in these online mental health communities on written communication. As the control, we selected three online health communities focusing on positive emotion, exercising, and weight management. We examined lexical diversity and readability, both important features for measuring the quality of writing. We used four well-established readability metrics that consider word frequencies and syntactic complexity to measure writers' written communication ability. We then measured the lexical diversity by calculating the percentage of unique words in posts. To compare lexical diversity and readability among communities, we first applied pairwise independent sample t tests, followed by P value adjustments using the prespecified Hommel procedure to adjust for multiple comparison. To measure the changes, we applied linear least squares regression to the readability and lexical diversity scores against the interaction sequence for each member, followed by pairwise independent sample t tests and P value adjustments. Given the large sample of members, we also report effect sizes and 95% CIs for the pairwise comparisons. On average, members of depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia communities showed indications of difficulty expressing their ideas compared with three other

  5. Understanding the Health Burden of Macromastia: Normative Data for the BREAST-Q Reduction Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Lily R.; Homa, Karen; Klassen, Anne F.; Pusic, Andrea L.; Kerrigan, Carolyn L.

    2017-01-01

    Background The BREAST-Q Reduction module is a rigorously developed, well-validated patient reported outcome (PRO) instrument designed specifically for evaluating outcomes in reduction mammoplasty. However, there are currently no published normative scores, limiting the interpretation of BREAST-Q data. Methods The BREAST-Q Reduction module was administered via the Army of Women (AOW), an online community of women (with and without breast cancer) engaged in breast-cancer related research. Normative data were generated from women age 18 and older, without a prior history of breast cancer or breast surgery. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and a linear multivariate regression. Generated normative data were then compared to previously published BREAST-Q Reduction findings. Results The preoperative version of the BREAST-Q Reduction module was completed by 1,206 women. Participant mean age was 55 ±13, mean body mass index (BMI) was 27 ±6, and 40% (n=481) had a bra cup ≥D. Mean normative scores were as follows: Satisfaction with Breasts 57 ±16, Psychosocial Well-being 68 ±19, Sexual Well-being 55 ±19, and Physical Well-being 76 ±11. Normative scores were lower in women with BMI ≥30 and bra cup ≥D. In comparison to normative AOW scores, published BREAST-Q scores for women undergoing reduction mammoplasty were lower (worse) for preoperative patients and higher (better) for postoperative patients. Conclusions These new AOW normative data provides insights into breast-related satisfaction and well-being in women not pursuing breast reduction, giving new clinical context to better understand the health burden of macromastia, and to demonstrate the value of reduction mammoplasty in certain patients. PMID:28350653

  6. Understanding Health Care Social Media Use From Different Stakeholder Perspectives: A Content Analysis of an Online Health Community

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yingjie; Wu, Yang; Liu, Jingfang; Li, Jia; Zhang, Pengzhu

    2017-01-01

    Background Health care social media used for health information exchange and emotional communication involves different types of users, including patients, caregivers, and health professionals. However, it is difficult to identify different stakeholders because user identification data are lacking due to privacy protection and proprietary interests. Therefore, identifying the concerns of different stakeholders and how they use health care social media when confronted with huge amounts of heal...

  7. The Health Effects of Motorization

    OpenAIRE

    Millett, Christopher; Agrawal, Sutapa; Sullivan, Ruth; Vaz, Mario; Kurpad, Anura; Bharathi, A. V.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Kinra, Sanjay; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah

    2013-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity (excessive body fat) are major threats to global health. Every year, more than 36 million people (including 29 million in LMICs) die from NCDs?nearly two-thirds of the world's annual deaths. Cardiovascular diseases (conditions that affect the heart and the circulation), diabetes, cancer, and respiratory diseases are responsible for most NCD-related deaths. Obesity is a risk factor for all these NCDs and the global prevale...

  8. An overview of health effects on noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Y.

    1988-12-01

    Although noise can damage the inner ear and cause other pathological changes, its most common negative effects are non-somatic, such as a perception of noisiness and disturbance of daily activities. According to the definition of health by WHO, this should be considered as a health hazard. These health effects of noise can be classified into the following three categories: (I) hearing loss, perception of noisiness and masking are produced along the auditory pathway and are thus direct and specific effects of noise; (II) interference with performance, rest and sleep, a feeling of discomfort and some physiological effects are produced as indirect and non-specific effects via reticular formation of the midbrain; (III) annoyance is not merely a feeling of unpleasantness but the feeling of being bothered or troubled, and includes the development of a particular attitude toward the noise source. Individual or group behavioral responses will be evoked when annoyance develops. Annoyance and behavioral response are integrated and composite effects. The health effects of noise are modified by many factors related to both the noise and the individual. Noise level, frequency spectrum, duration and impulsiveness modify the effects. Sex, age, health status and mental character also have an influence on the effects. Direct effects of noise are most dependent on the physical nature of the noise and least dependent on human factors. Indirect effects are more dependent, and integrated effects most dependent, on human factors.

  9. Understanding the relational impact of the health care marketing exchange: a review of the social implications of therapeutic communicator style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B C

    1987-09-01

    Though the benefits derived from verbal communication between practitioner and patient often are beyond the control of most health care marketers, this encounter includes nearly all of the personality and social appeals that are critical to the development of a successful and long-lasting marketing exchange. To enable marketers of health care to understand more fully the communication context in which practitioners operate, the author reviews the social implications of therapeutic communicator style.

  10. The Relationship and Understanding Between the Food we eat, Blood and Our Overall Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irwin, Jennifer M

    2005-01-01

    ... to someone's health depending on their blood type and the lifestyle they lead. The Health care profession predominantly focuses on curing disease while the preventative solutions are often overlooked and underestimated. Those who have...

  11. The Relationship and Understanding Between the Food we eat, Blood and Our Overall Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irwin, Jennifer M

    2005-01-01

    ... to someone's health depending on their blood type and the lifestyle they lead. The Health care profession predominantly focuses on curing disease while the preventative solutions are often overlooked and underestimated. Those who have ̀food...

  12. The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: building a foundation for better understanding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Issues and Research Gaps and Opportunities; Board on the Health of Select Populations; Institute of Medicine

    2011-01-01

    ... and researchers are faced with incomplete information about their health status. While LGBT populations often are combined as a single entity for research and advocacy purposes, each is a distinct population group with its own specific health needs...

  13. "It's sort of like being a detective": Understanding how Australian men self-monitor their health prior to seeking help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braunack-Mayer Annette

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is commonly held that men delay help seeking because they are ignorant about and disinterested in their health. However, this discussion has not been informed by men's lay perspectives, which have remained almost entirely absent from scholarship relating to men's help seeking practices. Methods In this qualitative paper, we draw on semi-structured interviews with 36 South Australian men to examine their understandings of help seeking and health service use. Results & Discussion We use participants' talk about self-monitoring to challenge the assumption that men are disinterested in their health, arguing instead that the men in our study monitored their health status and made conscious decisions about when and how to seek help. Using an inductive approach during the thematic analysis we were able to identify four key factors that influenced how men monitored their health and explain how these intersect with the way men sought help and used health services. Conclusion We show that the men in our study were actively engaged in the self-monitoring of their health. We suggest that these findings offer an alternative approach for understanding how we can promote men's interaction with health services.

  14. Healthy living? By whose standards? Engaging mental health service recipients to understand their perspectives of, and barriers to, healthy living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Candida; Griffiths, Brenda; Tillotson, Sherri; Rollings, Crystal

    2013-09-01

    It is well recognized that mental health service recipients experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders, have poorer diets, and exercise less than the general population. This study sought to explore the meaning of a healthy lifestyle for this population and the barriers they experience to healthy living. Focus groups were conducted with 23 individuals who experience serious mental health issues. The meaning of a healthy lifestyle and the barriers participants experience to living healthily were explored. Participants perceived a healthy lifestyle in broader terms than professional guidelines for exercise and diet. A broad framework including friendship, affordable safe housing, employment, spiritual, and emotional good health, as well as healthy eating and exercise, is described. Barriers identified by participants were poor mental and physical health and stigma (structural, social, and self). An unexpected result was the group problem solving that occurred during the focus groups. Health care professionals need to understand mental health service recipients' perspectives of a "healthy lifestyle." An understanding of barriers within this context is required, as only then will we be able to empathize and assist as health care professionals. This study also shows that realistic, innovative, and pragmatic solutions occur when mental health service recipients are empowered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Effect of Dynamic Meditation on Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema

    2016-02-01

    Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects.

  16. Judicialization of Health: A Perspective of Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mota Estabel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is scoped to synthesize the legalization of the right to health, and offer a perspective for shaping effectiveness. Using the inductive method and based on research literature and case law, at first a brief history of the right to health will be presented as well as some of the principles relating to fundamental precept. Per second, from a normative and jurisprudential approach, the right will be presented to health in the judiciary perspective, focused on the instruments already used (court decisions, the number of demands that concern the health issue, and public policies adopted by the judiciary both in its own sphere as administratively. Finally, emphasis shall be the various issues in the legal health procedure regarding the joint responsibility of federal entities and guidelines for proper conformation of the right to health, the effect of promoting citizenship and social justice.

  17. Household structure vs. composition: Understanding gendered effects on educational progress in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Madhavan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demographers have long been interested in the relationship between living arrangements and gendered outcomes for children in sub-Saharan Africa. Most research conflates household structure with composition and has revealed little about the pathways that link these components to gendered outcomes. Objective: We offer a conceptual approach that differentiates structure from composition with a focus on gendered processes that operate in the household in rural South Africa. Methods: We use data from the 2002 round of the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System. Our analytical sample includes 22,997 children aged 6‒18 who were neither parents themselves nor lived with a partner or partner's family. We employ ordinary least squares regression models to examine the effects of structure and composition on educational progress of girls and boys. Results: Non-nuclear structures are associated with similar negative effects for both boys and girls compared to children growing up in nuclear households. However, the presence of other kin in the absence of one or both parents results in gendered effects favouring boys. Conclusions: The absence of any gendered effects when using a household structure typology suggests that secular changes to attitudes about gender equity trump any specific gendered processes stemming from particular configurations. On the other hand, gendered effects that appear when one or both parents are absent show that traditional gender norms and/or resource constraints continue to favour boys. Contribution: We have shown the value of unpacking household structure to better understand how gender norms and gendered resource allocations are linked to an important outcome for children in sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. "Stories Take Your Role Away From You": Understanding the Impact on Health Care Professionals of Viewing Digital Stories of Pediatric and Adolescent/Young Adult Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Catherine M; Moules, Nancy J; Estefan, Andrew; Lang, Mike

    The purpose of this philosophical hermeneutic study was to understand the effects on health care providers (HCPs) of watching digital stories made by (past and present) pediatric and adolescent/young adult (AYA) oncology patients. Twelve HCPs participated in a focus group where they watched digital stories made by pediatric/AYA oncology patients and participated in a discussion related to the impact the stories had on them personally and professionally. Findings from this research revealed that HCPs found digital stories to be powerful, therapeutic, and educational tools. Health care providers described uses for digital stories ranging from education of newly diagnosed families to training of new staff. Digital stories, we conclude, can be an efficient and effective way through which to understand the patient experience, implications from which can range from more efficient patient care delivery to decision making. Recommendations for incorporating digital storytelling into healthcare delivery are offered.

  19. Primary Student-Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: A mixed method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratinen, Ilkka Johannes

    2013-04-01

    The greenhouse effect is a reasonably complex scientific phenomenon which can be used as a model to examine students' conceptual understanding in science. Primary student-teachers' understanding of global environmental problems, such as climate change and ozone depletion, indicates that they have many misconceptions. The present mixed method study examines Finnish primary student-teachers' understanding of the greenhouse effect based on the results obtained via open-ended and closed-form questionnaires. The open-ended questionnaire considers primary student-teachers' spontaneous ideas about the greenhouse effect depicted by concept maps. The present study also uses statistical analysis to reveal respondents' conceptualization of the greenhouse effect. The concept maps and statistical analysis reveal that the primary student-teachers' factual knowledge and their conceptual understanding of the greenhouse effect are incomplete and even misleading. In the light of the results of the present study, proposals for modifying the instruction of climate change in science, especially in geography, are presented.

  20. Health effects of energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Newcombe, H.B.

    1980-01-01

    Our accumulated technology has added roughly 50 years to the average life span of a human being in North America. Most of this increase in life span has occurred within the last 100 years. Cheap and safe supplies of energy are required for the industrial prosperity that has made this possible. The best estimates available all indicate that nuclear power and natural gas are the safest forms of contemporary energy production. The largest potential radiation hazard to which we are currently exposed appears to derive from our houses; increased attention by public health authorities to the control of this particular hazard may be warranted. (Auth)

  1. Understanding and valuing the broader health system benefits of Uganda's national Human Resources for Health Information System investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Julia; Settle, Dykki; Potenziani, David; Tulenko, Kate; Kabocho, Twaha; Wadembere, Ismail

    2015-08-31

    To address the need for timely and comprehensive human resources for health (HRH) information, governments and organizations have been actively investing in electronic health information interventions, including in low-resource settings. The economics of human resources information systems (HRISs) in low-resource settings are not well understood, however, and warrant investigation and validation. This case study describes Uganda's Human Resources for Health Information System (HRHIS), implemented with support from the US Agency for International Development, and documents perceptions of its impact on the health labour market against the backdrop of the costs of implementation. Through interviews with end users and implementers in six different settings, we document pre-implementation data challenges and consider how the HRHIS has been perceived to affect human resources decision-making and the healthcare employment environment. This multisite case study documented a range of perceived benefits of Uganda's HRHIS through interviews with end users that sought to capture the baseline (or pre-implementation) state of affairs, the perceived impact of the HRHIS and the monetary value associated with each benefit. In general, the system appears to be strengthening both demand for health workers (through improved awareness of staffing patterns) and supply (by improving licensing, recruitment and competency of the health workforce). This heightened ability to identify high-value employees makes the health sector more competitive for high-quality workers, and this elevation of the health workforce also has broader implications for health system performance and population health. Overall, it is clear that HRHIS end users in Uganda perceived the system to have significantly improved day-to-day operations as well as longer term institutional mandates. A more efficient and responsive approach to HRH allows the health sector to recruit the best candidates, train employees in

  2. Bernoulli's Principle: The Effects of Instruction on Young Children's Understanding of Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleege, Pamela O.; And Others

    This study examined the effects of hands-on instruction on young children's understanding of an aspect of flight, specifically Bernoulli's principle. First, 137 public school children, ages 5 through 8 years, were interviewed about their understanding of how an airplane flies. Two weeks later, the subjects participated in two hands-on…

  3. Improving Elementary School Students' Understanding of Historical Time: Effects of Teaching with "Timewise"

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot-Reuvekamp, Marjan; Ros, Anje; van Boxtel, Carla

    2018-01-01

    The teaching of historical time is an important aspect in elementary school curricula. This study focuses on the effects of a curriculum intervention with "Timewise," a teaching approach developed to improve students' understanding of historical time using timelines as a basis with which students can develop their understanding of…

  4. Understanding views on everyday use of personal health information: Insights from community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, A L; Osterhage, K; Demiris, G; Phelan, E A; Thielke, S M; Turner, A M

    2017-04-11

    Older adults apply various strategies to pursue healthy aging, but we know little about their views and use of personal health information to accomplish those ends. As a first step in formulating the role of personal health information management (PHIM) in healthy aging, we explored the perspectives of older adults on health and health information used in their everyday lives through four focus groups with 25 community-dwelling adults aged 60 and over. We found that the concept of wellness-the holistic and multidimensional nature of health and wellbeing-plays prominently in how older adults think about health and health information. Participants expressed wellness from a position of personal strength, rather than health-related deficits, by focusing on wellness activities for staying healthy through: (1) personal health practices, (2) social network support, and (3) residential community engagement. Although these themes involve personal health information, existing PHIM systems that focus on disease management are generally not designed to support wellness activities. Substantial opportunity exists to fill this wellness support gap with innovative health information technology designed for older adults. Findings carry implications for the design of PHIM tools that support healthy aging and methods for engaging older adults as co-producers of this critical support.

  5. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  6. Understanding the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in underserved areas: a realist synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vareilles, Ga?lle; Pommier, Jeanine; Marchal, Bruno; Kane, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    Background The recruitment of community health volunteers (CHVs) to support the delivery of health programmes is an established approach in underserved areas and in particular where there are health inequalities due to the scarcity of trained human resources. However, there is a dearth of evidence about what works to improve CHVs? performance. This review aimed to synthesise existing literature to explain why, how and under which circumstances intervention approaches to improve the performanc...

  7. Access to effective health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Access to effective healthcare is in particular challenging for vulnerable and socially disadvantaged patients. Patients with chronic conditions are over-represented in these lower socioeconomic (LSES) groups. No generic review integrating the evidence on Self-Management support interventions...

  8. Understanding School Health Environment through Interviews with Key Stakeholders in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Eun Young; Gittelsohn, Joel; Nkala, Denis; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    Studies on health promoting schools (HPS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. To contribute to the development of HPS in these countries, we conducted formative research to understand the school environment in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Forty-three teachers, 10 government workers and 5 parents participated in…

  9. Petmanship: Understanding Elderly Filipinos' Self-Perceived Health and Self-Esteem Captured from Their Lived Experiences with Pet Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Cucueco, Denise S.; Cuenco, Ian Benedict V.; Cunanan, Nigel Gerome C.; Dabandan, Robel T.; Dacanay, Edgar Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the lived experiences of geriatric clients with pets, particularly in the Western cultures, has been the subject of many studies. However, little is known about how Asian cultures, particularly the Filipino elderly, view their experiences with their pets in regard to their self-esteem and self-perceived health. This…

  10. People Create Health: Effective Health Promotion is a Creative Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, C Robert; Cloninger, Kevin M

    Effective health promotion involves the creative cultivation of physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. Efforts at health promotion produce weak and inconsistent benefits when it does not engage people to express their own goals and values. Likewise, health promotion has been ineffective when it relies only on instruction about facts regarding a healthy lifestyle, or focuses on reduction of disease rather than the cultivation of well-being. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies and experimental interventions shows that improvements in subjective well-being lead to short-term and long-term reductions in medical morbidity and mortality, as well as to healthier functioning and longevity. However, these effects are inconsistent and weak (correlations of about 0.15). The most consistent and strong predictor of both subjective well-being and objective health status in longitudinal studies is a creative personality profile characterized by being highly self-directed, cooperative, and self-transcendent. There is a synergy among these personality traits that enhances all aspects of the health and happiness of people. Experimental interventions to cultivate this natural creative potential of people are now just beginning, but available exploratory research has shown that creativity can be enhanced and the changes are associated with widespread and profound benefits, including greater physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. In addition to benefits mediated by choice of diet, physical activity, and health care utilization, the effect of a creative personality on health may be partly mediated by effects on the regulation of heart rate variability. Creativity promotes autonomic balance with parasympathetic dominance leading to a calm alert state that promotes an awakening of plasticities and intelligences that stress inhibits. We suggest that health, happiness, and meaning can be cultivated by a complex adaptive process that enhances healthy functioning

  11. The Effects of Noise on Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, Charles

    1997-01-01

    .... This is followed by a discussion of noise induced physiological changes, noise as a stress, and on some specialized topics on the effects of impulsive acoustic stimuli, on effects on sleep, and on hearing and health effects of people living under military training routes.

  12. Health effects of vegan diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.

  13. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution Two types of air pollution dominate in the ... So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to imagine that pollution ...

  14. Health effects and bioavailability of dietary flavonols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Katan, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are ubiquitously present in foods of plant origin. Flavonoids are categorised into flavonols, flavones, catechins, flavanones, anthocyanidins, and isoflavonoids. They may have beneficial health effects because of their antioxidant properties and their

  15. Implementation of health promotion programmes in schools: an approach to understand the influence of contextual factors on the process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Emily Joan; Violon, Nolwenn; Jourdan, Didier

    2018-01-22

    Implementing complex and multi-level public health programmes is challenging in school settings. Discrepancies between expected and actual programme outcomes are often reported. Such discrepancies are due to complex interactions between contextual factors. Contextual factors relate to the setting, the community, in which implementation occurs, the stakeholders involved, and the characteristics of the programme itself. This work uses realist evaluation to understand how contextual factors influence the implementation process, to result in variable programme outcomes. This study focuses on identifying contextual factors, pinpointing combinations of contextual factors, and understanding interactions and effects of such factors and combinations on programme outcomes on different levels of the implementation process. Schools which had participated in a school-based health promotion programme between 2012 and 2015 were included. Two sets of qualitative data were collected: semi-structured interviews with school staff and programme coordinators; and written documents about the actions implemented in a selection of four schools. Quantitative data included 1553 questionnaires targeting pupils aged 8 to 11 in 14 schools to describe the different school contexts. The comparison between what was expected from the programme (programme theory) and the outcomes identified in the field data, showed that some of the mechanisms expected to support the implementation of the programme, did not operate as anticipated (e.g. inclusion of training, initiation by decision-maker). Key factors which influenced the implementation process included, amongst other factors, the mode of introduction of the programme, home/school relationship, leadership of the management team, and the level of delegated power. Five types of interactions between contextual factors were put forward: enabling, hindering, neutral, counterbalancing and moderating effects. Recurrent combinations of factors were

  16. Effect of climate change and resource scarcity on health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Janet; Grose, Jane; Jackson, Bethany; Gill, Jamie-Lee; Sadeghian, Hannah Becky; Hertel, Johannes; Kelsey, Janet

    2014-07-15

    Climate change and resource scarcity pose significant threats to healthcare delivery. Nurses should develop the skills to cope with these challenges in the future. Skills sessions using sustainability scenarios can help nursing students to understand the effect climate change and resource scarcity will have on health care. Involving design students in clinical skills sessions can encourage multidisciplinary working and help to find solutions to promote healthcare sustainability.

  17. Experiencing 'pathologized presence and normalized absence'; understanding health related experiences and access to health care among Iraqi and Somali asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mei Lan; Sixsmith, Judith; Lawthom, Rebecca; Mountian, Ilana; Shahrin, Afifa

    2015-09-19

    Asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status have been reported to experience a range of difficulties when accessing public services and supports in the UK. While research has identified health care barriers to equitable access such as language difficulties, it has not considered the broader social contexts of marginalization experienced through the dynamics of 'othering'. The current study explores health and health care experiences of Somali and Iraqi asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status, highlighting 'minoritization' processes and the 'pathologization' of difference as analytical lenses to understand the multiple layers of oppression that contribute to health inequities. For the study, qualitative methods were used to document the lived experiences of asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status. Thirty-five in-depth interviews and five focus groups were used to explore personal accounts, reveal shared understandings and enable social, cognitive and emotional understandings of on-going health problems and challenges when seeking treatment and care. A participatory framework was undertaken which inspired collaborative workings with local organizations that worked directly with asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status. The analysis revealed four key themes: 1) pre-departure histories and post-arrival challenges; 2) legal status; 3) health knowledges and procedural barriers as well as 4) language and cultural competence. Confidentiality, trust, wait times and short doctor-patient consultations were emphasized as being insufficient for culturally specific communications and often translating into inadequate treatment and care. Barriers to accessing health care was associated with social disadvantage and restrictions of the broader welfare system suggesting that a re-evaluation of the asylum seeking process is required to improve the situation. Macro- and micro-level intersections of accustomed societal

  18. The invisibility of informal interpreting in mental health care in South Africa: notes towards a contextual understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Leslie; Kilian, Sanja

    2014-12-01

    Despite South Africa's constitutional commitment to equality, represented by 11 official languages and the promotion of South African Sign Language, many users of the public health system receive treatment from people who cannot speak their language, and there are no formal interpreting services. This is a legacy of service provision from the apartheid era, and interpreting is currently undertaken by nurses, cleaners, security guards, and family members of patients, amongst others. We provide a preliminary outline of proximal and distal issues which may bear upon this situation. Changing understandings of the nature of careers in the health field, international trends in mental health theory and practice toward crude biologism, and ongoing patterns of social exclusion and stigma all contribute not only to a continuing state of compromised linguistic access to mental health care, but also to processes of rendering invisible the actual work of care in the mental health field.

  19. Understanding Parent Perspectives Concerning Adolescents' Online Access to Personal Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Gregory L; Bruce, Janine; Anoshiravani, Arash

    Although today's youth are interested in using the internet to access and manage information related to their health, little information exists about parental attitudes towards the release of health information to adolescents. Structured interviews were conducted with the parents of 83 adolescents detained at a large Northern California juvenile detention facility to examine parental perceptions toward allowing their children online access to their own health information. The majority of parents interviewed (70%) wanted their children to have online access to their own health information. Seventy-nine percent of these parents were also comfortable allowing their children to choose with whom they would share this information. This study is one of the first to examine parental attitudes towards providing adolescents access to their own health information, and the first among parents of underserved youth. This study demonstrates that parents may be quite supportive of allowing their adolescent children to have secure online access to their own health information.

  20. Understanding Contrasting Approaches to Nationwide Implementations of Electronic Health Record Systems: England, the USA and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Morrison

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As governments commit to national electronic health record (EHR systems, there is increasing international interest in identifying effective implementation strategies. We draw on Coiera's typology of national programmes - ‘top-down’, ‘bottom-up’ and ‘middle-out’ - to review EHR implementation strategies in three exemplar countries: England, the USA and Australia. In comparing and contrasting three approaches, we show how different healthcare systems, national policy contexts and anticipated benefits have shaped initial strategies. We reflect on progress and likely developments in the face of continually changing circumstances. Our review shows that irrespective of the initial strategy, over time there is likely to be convergence on the negotiated, devolved middle-out approach, which aims to balance the interests and responsibilities of local healthcare constituencies and national government to achieve national connectivity. We conclude that, accepting the current lack of empirical evidence, the flexibility offered by the middle-out approach may make this the best initial national strategy.

  1. The parallels in understanding of health factors modern and ancient sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Нерубасская, А. А.

    2015-01-01

    Modern generation has faced the global changing of the world which can not but influence human health and moreover - the health of bifurcational personality as they call it nowadays, i.e. personality that has chosen its path running in unsteady conditions and under decreasing stability. Civilizations changed, philosophy and science changed but health has always had its constants. This is what this article is about. In the works of our contemporaries we can find a lot of different techniques o...

  2. Understanding uncertainty in temperature effects on vector-borne disease: a Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leah R; Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D; McNally, Amy; Mordecai, Erin; Paaijmans, Krijn P; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J

    2015-01-01

    Extrinsic environmental factors influence the distribution and population dynamics of many organisms, including insects that are of concern for human health and agriculture. This is particularly true for vector-borne infectious diseases like malaria, which is a major source of morbidity and mortality in humans. Understanding the mechanistic links between environment and population processes for these diseases is key to predicting the consequences of climate change on transmission and for developing effective interventions. An important measure of the intensity of disease transmission is the reproductive number R0. However, understanding the mechanisms linking R0 and temperature, an environmental factor driving disease risk, can be challenging because the data available for parameterization are often poor. To address this, we show how a Bayesian approach can help identify critical uncertainties in components of R0 and how this uncertainty is propagated into the estimate of R0. Most notably, we find that different parameters dominate the uncertainty at different temperature regimes: bite rate from 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C; fecundity across all temperatures, but especially approximately 25-32 degrees C; mortality from 20 degrees C to 30 degrees C; parasite development rate at degrees 15-16 degrees C and again at approximately 33-35 degrees C. Focusing empirical studies on these parameters and corresponding temperature ranges would be the most efficient way to improve estimates of R0. While we focus on malaria, our methods apply to improving process-based models more generally, including epidemiological, physiological niche, and species distribution models.

  3. Understanding uncertainty in temperature effects on vector-borne disease: a Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leah R.; Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D.; McNally, Amy; Mordecai, Erin A.; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2015-01-01

    Extrinsic environmental factors influence the distribution and population dynamics of many organisms, including insects that are of concern for human health and agriculture. This is particularly true for vector-borne infectious diseases like malaria, which is a major source of morbidity and mortality in humans. Understanding the mechanistic links between environment and population processes for these diseases is key to predicting the consequences of climate change on transmission and for developing effective interventions. An important measure of the intensity of disease transmission is the reproductive number R0. However, understanding the mechanisms linking R0 and temperature, an environmental factor driving disease risk, can be challenging because the data available for parameterization are often poor. To address this, we show how a Bayesian approach can help identify critical uncertainties in components of R0 and how this uncertainty is propagated into the estimate of R0. Most notably, we find that different parameters dominate the uncertainty at different temperature regimes: bite rate from 15°C to 25°C; fecundity across all temperatures, but especially ~25–32°C; mortality from 20°C to 30°C; parasite development rate at ~15–16°C and again at ~33–35°C. Focusing empirical studies on these parameters and corresponding temperature ranges would be the most efficient way to improve estimates of R0. While we focus on malaria, our methods apply to improving process-based models more generally, including epidemiological, physiological niche, and species distribution models.

  4. Understanding integrated mental health care in "real-world" primary care settings: What matters to health care providers and clients for evaluation and improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Allyson; Sunderji, Nadiya; Jansz, Gwen; Ghavam-Rassoul, Abbas

    2017-09-01

    The integration of mental health specialists into primary care has been widely advocated to deliver evidence-based mental health care to a defined population while improving access, clinical outcomes, and cost efficiency. Integrated care has been infrequently and inconsistently translated into real-world settings; as a result, the key individual components of effective integrated care remain unclear. This article reports findings from a qualitative study that explored provider and client experiences of integrated care. We conducted in-depth interviews with integrated care providers (n = 13) and clients (n = 9) to understand their perspectives and experiences of integrated care including recommended areas for quality measurement and improvement. The authors used qualitative content and reflexive thematic analytic approaches to synthesize the interview data. Clients and integrated care providers agreed regarding the overarching concepts of the what, how, and why of integrated care including co-location of care; continuity of care; team composition and functioning; client centeredness; and comprehensive care for individuals and populations. Providers and clients proposed a number of dimensions that could be the focus for quality measurement and evaluation, illuminating what is needed for successful context-sensitive spreading and scaling of integrated care interventions. With a mounting gap between the empirical support for integrated care approaches and the implementation of these models, there is a need to clarify the aims of integrated care and the key ingredients required for widespread implementation outside of research settings. This study has important implications for future integrated care research, and health care provider and client engagement in the quality movement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Social determinants of health and local government: understanding and uptake of ideas in two Australian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Angela; Lane, Anna; Lewis, Felicity-Ann; Baum, Fran; Harris, Patrick

    2016-10-23

    To examine the awareness and perceptions of local government staff about the social determinants of health (SDoH) and health inequity and use of these ideas to shape policy and practice. 96 staff at 17 councils in South Australia or New South Wales responded to questions in a pilot online survey concerning: sources of knowledge about, familiarity with the evidence on, attitudes towards, and uses of ideas about the social determinants of health. Eight of 68 SA councils and 16 of 152 NSW councils were randomly selected stratified by state and metropolitan status. Differences between states and metropolitan/non-metropolitan status were explored. The majority of respondents (88.4%) reported some familiarity with ideas about the broad determinants of health and 90% agreed that the impact of policy action on health determinants should be considered in all major government policy and planning initiatives. Research articles, government/professional reports, and professional contacts were rated as important sources of knowledge about the social determinants of health. Resources need to be dedicated to systematic research on practical implementation of interventions on social determinants of health inequities and towards providing staff with more practical information about interventions and tools to evaluate those interventions. The findings suggest there is support for action addressing the social determinants of health in local government. The findings extend similar research regarding SDoH and government in NZ and Canada to Australian local government. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. Hardships of the Great Recession and health: Understanding varieties of vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Kirsch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession of 2007–2009 is regarded as the most severe economic downturn since World War II. This study examined relationships between reported recession hardships and physical health in a national survey of American adults ( N  = 1275. Furthermore, education and psychological resources (perceived control, purpose in life, and conscientiousness were tested as moderators of the health impacts of the recession. A greater number of hardships predicted poorer health, especially among the less educated. Psychological resources interacted with education and hardships to predict health outcomes. Although typically viewed as protective factors, such resources became vulnerabilities among educationally disadvantaged adults experiencing greater recession hardships.

  7. Hardships of the Great Recession and health: Understanding varieties of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Julie A; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-01-01

    The Great Recession of 2007-2009 is regarded as the most severe economic downturn since World War II. This study examined relationships between reported recession hardships and physical health in a national survey of American adults ( N  = 1275). Furthermore, education and psychological resources (perceived control, purpose in life, and conscientiousness) were tested as moderators of the health impacts of the recession. A greater number of hardships predicted poorer health, especially among the less educated. Psychological resources interacted with education and hardships to predict health outcomes. Although typically viewed as protective factors, such resources became vulnerabilities among educationally disadvantaged adults experiencing greater recession hardships.

  8. Hardships of the Great Recession and health: Understanding varieties of vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Julie A; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-01-01

    The Great Recession of 2007–2009 is regarded as the most severe economic downturn since World War II. This study examined relationships between reported recession hardships and physical health in a national survey of American adults (N = 1275). Furthermore, education and psychological resources (perceived control, purpose in life, and conscientiousness) were tested as moderators of the health impacts of the recession. A greater number of hardships predicted poorer health, especially among the less educated. Psychological resources interacted with education and hardships to predict health outcomes. Although typically viewed as protective factors, such resources became vulnerabilities among educationally disadvantaged adults experiencing greater recession hardships. PMID:28070407

  9. Roads to Health in Developing Countries: Understanding the Intersection of Culture and Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ibeneme, BMRPT, MSc, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: In general, we, as human beings, are guided in our health care decisions by past experiences, family and friends, social networks, cultural beliefs, customs, tradition, professional knowledge, and intuition. No medical system has been shown to address all of these elements; hence, the need for collaboration, acceptance, and partnership between all systems of care in cultural communities. In developing countries, the roads to health are incomplete without an examination of the intersection of culture and healing. Perhaps mutual exclusiveness rather inclusiveness of these 2 dominant health systems is the greatest obstacle to health in developing countries.

  10. Reticence in disclosure of HIV infection and reasons for bereavement: impact on perinatally infected adolescents' mental health and understanding of HIV treatment and prevention in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollett, Nataly; Black, Vivian; Cluver, Lucie; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2017-07-01

    Survival rates of perinatally infected HIV-positive adolescents (PIA) are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a gap in understanding how disclosure and bereavement have an impact on PIA beliefs and understanding of their HIV infection and its management. In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 purposively selected adolescents aged 13-19 years from 5 public health clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were analysed using NVivo 10 using a thematic approach. PIA experience incomplete disclosure both of their HIV status and reasons for their bereavements, which limits their understanding of how they became infected, vertical transmission and prevention options like prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Most participants were orphaned and were experiencing complicated grieving (i.e., engaged in unresolved tasks of grieving) which had a negative impact on their mental health, and ability to accept their HIV status and adhere to treatment. PIA need improved communication regarding vertical transmission and how they became HIV-positive, as well as reasons for death of their loved ones to properly understand their HIV status and engage effectively in management. Honest communication about how relatives died and truthful engagement in the process of disclosure of HIV status is necessary to reduce stigma and complicated grieving, and improve mental health in this population.

  11. Understanding soil health by capitalizing on long-term field studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Wang, Zhe; VanZweieten, Lukas; Rose, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Microbial biodiversity in Australian agricultural soils is of paramount importance as it plays a critical role in regulating soil health, plant productivity, and the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and other nutrients. Agricultural practices strongly affect soil microbial communities by changing the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil in which microorganisms live, thereby affecting their abundance, diversity, and activity. Despite its importance, the specific responses of various microbial groups to changing environmental conditions (e.g. increased/decreased carbon in response to land management) in agricultural soils are not well understood. This knowledge gap is largely due to previous methodological limitations that, until recently, did not allow microbial diversity and functioning to be meaningfully investigated on large numbers of samples. We sampled soils from a field trial on the effect of strategic tillage in no-till systems to examine the potential impact of tillage and stubble management on soil microbial composition. To determine the relative abundance of bacteria and fungi, we used quantitative PCR (qPCR), and to analyze the composition and diversity of the bacterial and fungal communities, we used bar-coded high-throughput sequencing. Bioinformatics of the sequencing generated data was performed using a previously scripted and tested pipeline, and involved allocation of the relevant sequences to their samples of origin according to the bar-code. In parallel, changes in soil quality and microbial functionality were determined using multi-enzyme activity assay and multiple substrate-induced respiration. The extracellular enzyme activities that were measured include: β-1,4-glucosidase, β-D-cellobiohydrolase, β-Xylosidase, and α-1,4-glucosidase which are all relevant to the C cycle; β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase and L-leucine aminopeptidase which are both relevant to the N cycle associated and associated with protein catabolism. In this

  12. Understanding Values in a Large Health Care Organization through Work-Life Narratives of High-Performing Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Karnieli-Miller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective— To understand high-performing frontline employees’ values as reflected in their narratives of day-to-day interactions in a large health care organization. Methods— A total of 150 employees representing various roles within the organization were interviewed and asked to share work-life narratives (WLNs about value-affirming situations (i.e. situations in which they believed their actions to be fully aligned with their values and value-challenging situations (i.e. when their actions or the actions of others were not consistent with their values, using methods based on appreciative inquiry. Results— The analysis revealed 10 broad values. Most of the value-affirming WLNs were about the story-teller and team providing care for the patient/family. Half of the value-challenging WLNs were about the story-teller or a patient and barriers created by the organization, supervisor, or physician. Almost half of these focused on “treating others with disrespect/respect”. Only 15% of the value-challenging WLNs contained a resolution reached by the participants, often leaving them describing unresolved and frequently negative feelings. Conclusions— Appreciative inquiry and thematic analysis methods were found to be an effective tool for understanding the important and sometimes competing role personal and institutional values play in day-to-day work. There is remarkable potential in using WLNs as a way to surface and reinforce shared values and, perhaps more importantly, respectfully to identify and discuss conflicting personal and professional values.

  13. Understanding the Usage of Content in a Mental Health Intervention for Depression: An Analysis of Log Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Kelders, Saskia Marion; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Web-based interventions for the early treatment of depressive symptoms can be considered effective in reducing mental complaints. However, there is a limited understanding of which elements in an intervention contribute to effectiveness. For efficiency and effectiveness of interventions,

  14. Effectiveness of total worker health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anger, W Kent; Elliot, Diane L; Bodner, Todd; Olson, Ryan; Rohlman, Diane S; Truxillo, Donald M; Kuehl, Kerry S; Hammer, Leslie B; Montgomery, Dede

    2015-04-01

    Total Worker Health (TWH) was introduced and the term was trademarked in 2011 by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to formally signal the expansion of traditional occupational safety and health (OSH) to include wellness and well-being. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and other databases using keywords TWH, health promotion, health protection, and variants for articles meeting the criteria of (a) employing both occupational safety and/or health (OSH, or health protection) and wellness and/or well-being (health promotion, or HP) in the same intervention study, and (b) reporting both OSH and HP outcomes. Only 17 published studies met these criteria. All but 1 of the 17 TWH interventions improved risk factors for injuries and/or chronic illnesses, and 4 improved 10 or more risk factors. Several TWH interventions reported sustained improvements for over a year, although only 1 is readily available for dissemination. These results suggest that TWH interventions that address both injuries and chronic diseases can improve workforce health effectively and more rapidly than the alternative of separately employing more narrowly focused programs to change the same outcomes in serial fashion. These 17 articles provide useful examples of how TWH interventions can be structured. The promise of simultaneous improvements in safety, health, and well-being leads to the call to pursue TWH research to identify and disseminate best practices. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Understanding the cervical screening behaviour of Chinese women: The role of health care system and health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Can; Chan, Carmen W H; Chow, Ka Ming; Yang, Shengbo; Luo, Yang; Cheng, Huilin; Wang, Honghong

    2018-02-01

    In China, cervical cancer cases are increasing, making an impact on the worldwide burden of cervical cancer. Despite the initiatives undertaken by the Chinese government, the current coverage of cervical screening in China remains suboptimal. There is an urgent need to identify the facilitators and barriers associated with the uptake of cervical cancer screening among the Chinese population. The study aimed to explore the experiences and perceptions of cervical cancer screening of mainland Chinese women in relation to their screening behaviour, particularly in the aspects of health care system and health profession roles. A qualitative research was conducted using semi-structured interviews. A total of 27 Chinese women aged 25 to 50 (both screened and non-screened women) completed the interviews. The analysis of the interview data was undertaken inductively using latent content analysis. Results showed that organised health examination programmes provide a good basis for integrating cervical screening into broader checks on the health of women, and utilising different networks of social support facilitate the utilisation of the screening service. However, education on cervical cancer and screening must be made more generally available. More importantly, there is a need for a more participatory and empowering exchange in the encounter between health professions and these women. Appropriate training program is strongly recommended for health professions about communicate skills with patients. Future work should focus on identifying strategies to overcome the barriers to cervical screening related to health care system and medical professions among this population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The Relationship and Understanding Between the Food we eat, Blood and Our Overall Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irwin, Jennifer M

    2005-01-01

    This thesis examines how an integrative and preventative healing center is necessary for the wellness of our society and military personnel by understanding how food can react positively or negatively...

  17. Child health in Syria: recognising the lasting effects of warfare on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devakumar, Delan; Birch, Marion; Rubenstein, Leonard S; Osrin, David; Sondorp, Egbert; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2015-01-01

    The war in Syria, now in its fourth year, is one of the bloodiest in recent times. The legacy of war includes damage to the health of children that can last for decades and affect future generations. In this article we discuss the effects of the war on Syria's children, highlighting the less documented longer-term effects. In addition to their present suffering, these children, and their own children, are likely to face further challenges as a result of the current conflict. This is essential to understand both for effective interventions and for ethical reasons.

  18. Nonlinearity of radiation health effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Pollycove, M

    1998-01-01

    The prime concern of radiation protection policy since 1959 has been to protect DNA from damage. In 1994 the United Nations Scientific Community on the Effects of Atomic Radiation focused on biosystem response to radiation with its report Adaptive Responses to Radiation of Cells and Organisms. The 1995 National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements report Principles and Application of Collective Dose in Radiation Protection states that because no human data provides direct support ...

  19. Health Care Providers: A Missing Link in Understanding Acceptability of the Female Condom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantell, Joanne E.; West, Brooke S.; Sue, Kimberly; Hoffman, Susie; Exner, Theresa M.; Kelvin, Elizabeth; Stein, Zena A.

    2011-01-01

    Health care providers can play a key role in influencing clients to initiate and maintain use of the female condom, an underused method for HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention. In 2001-2002, based on semistructured interviews with 78 health care providers from four types of settings in New York City, we found that most providers had seen the female…

  20. Assessing, and understanding, European organic dairy farmers’ intentions to improve herd health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, P.J.; Sok, J.; Tranter, R.B.; Blanco-Penedo, I.; Fall, N.; Fourichon, C.; Hogeveen, H.; Krieger, M.C.; Sundrum, A.

    2016-01-01

    Many believe the health status of organic dairy herds in Europe should be improved to meet consumers’ and legislators’ expectations to improve animal welfare. This paper reports on a study in four countries that examined dairy farmers’ intentions towards improving the health status of their

  1. Bachelor of Social Work Students and Mental Health Stigma: Understanding Student Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellmann, Karen T.; Madden, Elissa E.; Aguiniga, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor-level social work students (n = 198) at a midsized Midwestern public university were surveyed to evaluate their attitudes toward those with mental health concerns. Additionally, students were surveyed regarding their willingness to seek treatment for their own mental health needs. Results of the analyses suggest that the majority of…

  2. Understanding and Responding to Youth Substance Use: The Contribution of a Health and Human Rights Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Plafker, Karen; Smith-Estelle, Allison

    2001-01-01

    Describes a health and human rights framework for conceptualizing and responding to the causes and consequences of youth substance use, reviewing international and national efforts to address youth substance use and discussing the intersection between health and human rights. A methodology for modeling vulnerability in relation to harmful…

  3. Is reporting on interventions a weak link in understanding how and why they work? A preliminary exploration using community heart health exemplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Barbara L; MacDonald, JoAnne; Mansi, Omaima; Kothari, Anita; Kurtz, Donna; vonTettenborn, Linda I; Edwards, Nancy C

    2008-05-20

    The persistent gap between research and practice compromises the impact of multi-level and multi-strategy community health interventions. Part of the problem is a limited understanding of how and why interventions produce change in population health outcomes. Systematic investigation of these intervention processes across studies requires sufficient reporting about interventions. Guided by a set of best processes related to the design, implementation, and evaluation of community health interventions, this article presents preliminary findings of intervention reporting in the published literature using community heart health exemplars as case examples. The process to assess intervention reporting involved three steps: selection of a sample of community health intervention studies and their publications; development of a data extraction tool; and data extraction from the publications. Publications from three well-resourced community heart health exemplars were included in the study: the North Karelia Project, the Minnesota Heart Health Program, and Heartbeat Wales. Results are organized according to six themes that reflect best intervention processes: integrating theory, creating synergy, achieving adequate implementation, creating enabling structures and conditions, modifying interventions during implementation, and facilitating sustainability. In the publications for the three heart health programs, reporting on the intervention processes was variable across studies and across processes. Study findings suggest that limited reporting on intervention processes is a weak link in research on multiple intervention programs in community health. While it would be premature to generalize these results to other programs, important next steps will be to develop a standard tool to guide systematic reporting of multiple intervention programs, and to explore reasons for limited reporting on intervention processes. It is our contention that a shift to more inclusive reporting of

  4. Is reporting on interventions a weak link in understanding how and why they work? A preliminary exploration using community heart health exemplars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtz Donna

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The persistent gap between research and practice compromises the impact of multi-level and multi-strategy community health interventions. Part of the problem is a limited understanding of how and why interventions produce change in population health outcomes. Systematic investigation of these intervention processes across studies requires sufficient reporting about interventions. Guided by a set of best processes related to the design, implementation, and evaluation of community health interventions, this article presents preliminary findings of intervention reporting in the published literature using community heart health exemplars as case examples. Methods The process to assess intervention reporting involved three steps: selection of a sample of community health intervention studies and their publications; development of a data extraction tool; and data extraction from the publications. Publications from three well-resourced community heart health exemplars were included in the study: the North Karelia Project, the Minnesota Heart Health Program, and Heartbeat Wales. Results Results are organized according to six themes that reflect best intervention processes: integrating theory, creating synergy, achieving adequate implementation, creating enabling structures and conditions, modifying interventions during implementation, and facilitating sustainability. In the publications for the three heart health programs, reporting on the intervention processes was variable across studies and across processes. Conclusion Study findings suggest that limited reporting on intervention processes is a weak link in research on multiple intervention programs in community health. While it would be premature to generalize these results to other programs, important next steps will be to develop a standard tool to guide systematic reporting of multiple intervention programs, and to explore reasons for limited reporting on intervention

  5. Understanding Motivations for Abstinence among Adolescent Young Women: Insights into Effective Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents’ motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 15–19 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893

  6. A systematic review of the relationships between social capital and socioeconomic inequalities in health: a contribution to understanding the psychosocial pathway of health inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Recent research on health inequalities moves beyond illustrating the importance of psychosocial factors for health to a more in-depth study of the specific psychosocial pathways involved. Social capital is a concept that captures both a buffer function of the social environment on health, as well as potential negative effects arising from social inequality and exclusion. This systematic review assesses the current evidence, and identifies gaps in knowledge, on the associations and interactions between social capital and socioeconomic inequalities in health. Methods Through this systematic review we identified studies on the interactions between social capital and socioeconomic inequalities in health published before July 2012. Results The literature search resulted in 618 studies after removal of duplicates, of which 60 studies were eligible for analysis. Self-reported measures of health were most frequently used, together with different bonding, bridging and linking components of social capital. A large majority, 56 studies, confirmed a correlation between social capital and socioeconomic inequalities in health. Twelve studies reported that social capital might buffer negative health effects of low socioeconomic status and five studies concluded that social capital has a stronger positive effect on health for people with a lower socioeconomic status. Conclusions There is evidence for both a buffer effect and a dependency effect of social capital on socioeconomic inequalities in health, although the studies that assess these interactions are limited in number. More evidence is needed, as identified hypotheses have implications for community action and for action on the structural causes of social inequalities. PMID:23870068

  7. The effect of Phet Simulation media for physics teacher candidate understanding on photoelectric effect concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supurwoko Supurwoko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian new Curriculum for senior high school students required student-centered learning. One of the curriculum implementation constraint was the difficulty of providing learning media. PhET simulations media is one of the options that can help implementation of new curriculum on learning. However, the use of this media in Indonesia still needs to be studied comprehensively. The learning was conducted on students of physics education Study Program in sebelas maret university in 2013. The sample consisted of 62 students that was taking quantum physics course. The method that was used in the research was descriptive qualitative.  The method that was used in learning was demonstration’s method that used PhET media and accompanied by a question and answer and groups discussion. The data was collected using multiple choice test and interview through email. We found that any students still did not understand about photoelectric effect concept. They were confused when asked about the thick material and cross section of the targets as related with the regardless of electrons in the photoelectric effect event. Other than that, the concept of the waves as a particle and its relation with the kinetic energy of the electrons was not understood by most students.

  8. A review and framework for understanding the potential impact of poor solid waste management on health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Mberu, Blessing

    2016-01-01

    The increase in solid waste generated per capita in Africa has not been accompanied by a commensurate growth in the capacity and funding to manage it. It is reported that less than 30% of urban waste in developing countries is collected and disposed appropriately. The implications of poorly managed waste on health are numerous and depend on the nature of the waste, individuals exposed, duration of exposure and availability of interventions for those exposed. To present a framework for understanding the linkages between poor solid waste management, exposure and associated adverse health outcomes. The framework will aid understanding of the relationships, interlinkages and identification of the potential points for intervention. Development of the framework was informed by a review of literature on solid waste management policies, practices and its impact on health in developing countries. A configurative synthesis of literature was applied to develop the framework. Several iterations of the framework were reviewed by experts in the field. Each linkage and outcomes are described in detail as outputs of this study. The resulting framework identifies groups of people at a heightened risk of exposure and the potential health consequences. Using the iceberg metaphor, the framework illustrates the pathways and potential burden of ill-health related to solid waste that is hidden but rapidly unfolding with our inaction. The existing evidence on the linkage between poor solid waste management and adverse health outcomes calls to action by all stakeholders in understanding, prioritizing, and addressing the issue of solid waste in our midst to ensure that our environment and health are preserved. A resulting framework developed in this study presents a clearer picture of the linkages between poor solid waste management and could guide research, policy and action.

  9. Benzene and its Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tozun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon, colorless, sweet-smelling liquid. It is an important industrial solvent, is used in the manufacture of plastics, detergents, pesticides, and other chemicals. Benzene is a carcinogen. Short-term and high level benzene exposure causes symptoms of the central nervous system. Long-term benzene exposure may affect to bone marrow and blood production. Additionally, genotoxic, immunological, and urogenital negative effects may occur with chronicle benzene exposure. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(6.000: 541-546

  10. An efficient approach to understanding and predicting the effects of multiple task characteristics on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Miles

    2017-04-01

    In ergonomics there is often a need to identify and predict the separate effects of multiple factors on performance. A cost-effective fractional factorial approach to understanding the relationship between task characteristics and task performance is presented. The method has been shown to provide sufficient independent variability to reveal and predict the effects of task characteristics on performance in two domains. The five steps outlined are: selection of performance measure, task characteristic identification, task design for user trials, data collection, regression model development and task characteristic analysis. The approach can be used for furthering knowledge of task performance, theoretical understanding, experimental control and prediction of task performance. Practitioner Summary: A cost-effective method to identify and predict the separate effects of multiple factors on performance is presented. The five steps allow a better understanding of task factors during the design process.

  11. Evaluating the effects of ideology on public understanding of climate change science: how to improve communication across ideological divides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Asim; Todd, Anne Marie

    2010-11-01

    While ideology can have a strong effect on citizen understanding of science, it is unclear how ideology interacts with other complicating factors, such as college education, which influence citizens' comprehension of information. We focus on public understanding of climate change science and test the hypotheses: [H1] as citizens' ideology shifts from liberal to conservative, concern for global warming decreases; [H2] citizens with college education and higher general science literacy tend to have higher concern for global warming; and [H3] college education does not increase global warming concern for conservative ideologues. We implemented a survey instrument in California's San Francisco Bay Area, and employed regression models to test the effects of ideology and other socio-demographic variables on citizen concern about global warming, terrorism, the economy, health care and poverty. We are able to confirm H1 and H3, but reject H2. Various strategies are discussed to improve the communication of climate change science across ideological divides.

  12. Understanding the administrative regulation on occupational health and trend in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhijun

    2018-03-27

    With the immense economic growth and social development, China has gained worldwide attention. With the quick growth of industrialization, several international professionals are gaining interest in occupational management system and in the role of the Chinese Government in protecting the worker's health. The Law on Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases and the Work Safety Law are the two most important laws in China, which highlight the responsibilities of the employer, employee, governmental agencies, authorized occupational health service agency, and other stakeholders. The State Council comprises two departments, namely, the State Administration on Work Safety (SAWS) and the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC), which are responsible for governing the occupational health work. A series of regulations and standards have been promulgated by the Chinese Government to encourage or instruct the employers to fulfill their responsibility; however, several issues persist related to occupational health work, including administrative, technological, and sociocultural aspects. At present, the Chinese Government wants to enhance the reform in both economic and administrative structures, and the adjustments for modifying and/or improving the occupational health regulatory system are expected. Notably, the occupational health work in China must be altered for better.

  13. Toward a social capital based framework for understanding the water-health nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisung, Elijah; Elliott, Susan J

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in social capital theory in both research and policy arenas. Social capital has been associated with many aspects of improvements in health, environment and development. This paper assesses the theoretical support for a social capital based analysis of environment and health issues with a focus on the water-health nexus in low and middle income countries. We review conceptualisation of social capital by Pierre Bourdieu in relation to his concepts of "fields" and "habitus" as well as other conceptualisations of social capital by James Coleman and Robert Putnam. We integrate these authors' ideas with ecosocial analysis of social and geographical patterns of access to safe water, adequate sanitation and hygiene and the resulting health impacts. Further, we develop a conceptual framework for linking social capital and health through the water-health nexus. The framework focuses on the role of social capital in improving water-related knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as facilitating collective action towards improving access to water and sanitation. The proposed framework will facilitate critical engagement with the pathways through which social processes and interactions influence health within the context of access to water, sanitation and hygiene in low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stakeholders understanding of the concept of benefit sharing in health research in Kenya: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick Raymond

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of benefit sharing to enhance the social value of global health research in resource poor settings is now a key strategy for addressing moral issues of relevance to individuals, communities and host countries in resource poor settings when they participate in international collaborative health research. The influence of benefit sharing framework on the conduct of collaborative health research is for instance evidenced by the number of publications and research ethics guidelines that require prior engagement between stakeholders to determine the social value of research to the host communities. While such efforts as the production of international guidance on how to promote the social value of research through such strategies as benefit sharing have been made, the extent to which these ideas and guidelines have been absorbed by those engaged in global health research especially in resource poor settings remains unclear. We examine this awareness among stakeholders involved in health related research in Kenya. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants drawn from within the broader health research system in Kenya including researchers from the mainstream health research institutions, networks and universities, teaching hospitals, policy makers, institutional review boards, civil society organisations and community representative groups. Results Our study suggests that although people have a sense of justice and the moral aspects of research, this was not articulated in terms used in the literature and the guidelines on the ethics of global health research. Conclusion This study demonstrates that while in theory several efforts can be made to address the moral issues of concern to research participants and their communities in resource poor settings, quick fixes such as benefit sharing are not going to be straightforward. We suggest a need to pay closer attention to the processes through which

  15. Stakeholders understanding of the concept of benefit sharing in health research in Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairumbi, Geoffrey M; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Mike, English C

    2011-10-03

    The concept of benefit sharing to enhance the social value of global health research in resource poor settings is now a key strategy for addressing moral issues of relevance to individuals, communities and host countries in resource poor settings when they participate in international collaborative health research.The influence of benefit sharing framework on the conduct of collaborative health research is for instance evidenced by the number of publications and research ethics guidelines that require prior engagement between stakeholders to determine the social value of research to the host communities. While such efforts as the production of international guidance on how to promote the social value of research through such strategies as benefit sharing have been made, the extent to which these ideas and guidelines have been absorbed by those engaged in global health research especially in resource poor settings remains unclear. We examine this awareness among stakeholders involved in health related research in Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants drawn from within the broader health research system in Kenya including researchers from the mainstream health research institutions, networks and universities, teaching hospitals, policy makers, institutional review boards, civil society organisations and community representative groups. Our study suggests that although people have a sense of justice and the moral aspects of research, this was not articulated in terms used in the literature and the guidelines on the ethics of global health research. This study demonstrates that while in theory several efforts can be made to address the moral issues of concern to research participants and their communities in resource poor settings, quick fixes such as benefit sharing are not going to be straightforward. We suggest a need to pay closer attention to the processes through which ethical principles are enacted in practice and distil lessons on how best

  16. TBC2health: a database of experimentally validated health-beneficial effects of tea bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shihua; Xuan, Hongdong; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Sicong; Wang, Yijun; Yang, Hua; Tai, Yuling; Song, Youhong; Zhang, Jinsong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Li, Shaowen; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-09-01

    Tea is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Considerable studies show the exceptional health benefits (e.g. antioxidation, cancer prevention) of tea owing to its various bioactive components. However, data from these extensively published papers had not been made available in a central database. To lay a foundation in improving the understanding of healthy tea functions, we established a TBC2health database that currently documents 1338 relationships between 497 tea bioactive compounds and 206 diseases (or phenotypes) manually culled from over 300 published articles. Each entry in TBC2health contains comprehensive information about a bioactive relationship that can be accessed in three aspects: (i) compound information, (ii) disease (or phenotype) information and (iii) evidence and reference. Using the curated bioactive relationships, a bipartite network was reconstructed and the corresponding network (or sub-network) visualization and topological analyses are provided for users. This database has a user-friendly interface for entry browse, search and download. In addition, TBC2health provides a submission page and several useful tools (e.g. BLAST, molecular docking) to facilitate use of the database. Consequently, TBC2health can serve as a valuable bioinformatics platform for the exploration of beneficial effects of tea on human health. TBC2health is freely available at http://camellia.ahau.edu.cn/TBC2health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Health effects and medical surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Source of ionizing radiations have innumerable applications in the work place. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not manifestly harmful. This Module explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit it if forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  18. Industrial wind turbines and adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Roy D; Krogh, Carmen M E; Horner, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Some people living in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWTs) report experiencing adverse health and socioeconomic effects. This review considers the hypothesis that annoyance from audible IWTs is the cause of these adverse health effects. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published since 2000 that included the terms "wind turbine health," "wind turbine infrasound," "wind turbine annoyance," "noise annoyance" or "low frequency noise" in the title or abstract. Industrial wind turbines produce sound that is perceived to be more annoying than other sources of sound. Reported effects from exposure to IWTs are consistent with well-known stress effects from persistent unwanted sound. If placed too close to residents, IWTs can negatively affect the physical, mental and social well-being of people. There is sufficient evidence to support the conclusion that noise from audible IWTs is a potential cause of health effects. Inaudible low-frequency noise and infrasound from IWTs cannot be ruled out as plausible causes of health effects.

  19. Biological effect of radiation. Basis for understanding the risk of Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaoka, Tatsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The radionuclide release in the Fukushima Nuclear Accident has induced a tremendous anxiety on possible health effects of low dose radiation. When radiation hits a cell in an organism, it may induce DNA damages which, if not repaired properly, lead to either cell death or genetic mutation. If function of the tissue is lost as a result of cell death, various tissue responses including dysfunction of hematopoietic tissues, sterility and skin responses may occur; these responses are not manifested if the radiation dose is low enough. Genetic mutation is considered to occur, albeit at a low frequency, even if the radiation dose is very small. Cancer is a result of genetic mutation and its probability is considered to rise, albeit slightly, if radiation induces a small amount of additional mutations. These assumptions lead to a notion that there is no 'safety dose' below which radiation does not cause any cancer. On the other hand, the study of atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki provides the most reliable quantitative information on the relationship between radiation dose and accompanying increase in cancer risk. The analysis so far indicates that cancer risk increases by 0.5-fold, compared to a background level, if a human body is exposed to 1 sievert of radiation; at lower doses, the risk is proportional to the dose, but it is impossible to detect cancer risk associated with 100 milli sievert of exposure because of statistical limitations. Although exposure to atomic bomb radiation occurred in a very little instance, the current situation poses a prolonged (i.e., low dose rate) exposure, probably resulting in still lower cancer risk. Still, since current radiation exposure has no benefit, unlike that in medical situations, it is important to reduce it to a level as low as reasonably achievable. I will explain the biological effect of radiation, including its mechanistic basis and effects on the human body, and wish to help the audience to

  20. A Functional Genomics Approach to Understanding and Evaluating Health in Navy Dolphins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romano, Tracy

    2004-01-01

    ... to chemical, biological and physical stress. To this end we have initialized development of a dolphin gene microarray in order to evaluate its utility as a transcriptomic biosensor in the health assessment of dolphins...

  1. Understanding Latino Parents' Child Mental Health Literacy: Todos a bordo/All Aboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umpierre, Mari; Meyers, Laura V.; Ortiz, Aida; Paulino, Angela; Rodriguez, Anita Rivera; Miranda, Ana; Rodriguez, Raquel; Kranes, Stephanie; McKay, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article describes Phase 1 of a pilot that aims to develop, implement, and test an intervention to educate and simultaneously engage highly stressed Latino parents in child mental health services. A team of Spanish-speaking academic and community co-investigators developed the intervention using a community-based participatory research approach and qualitative methods. Method Through focus groups, the team identified parents' knowledge gaps and their health communication preferences. Results Latino parents from urban communities need and welcome child mental health literacy interventions that integrate printed materials with videos, preferably in their native language, combined with guidance from professionals. Conclusion A 3-minute video in Spanish that integrates education entertainment strategies and a culturally relevant format was produced as part of the intervention to educate and simultaneously engage highly stressed Latino parents in child mental health care. It is anticipated that the intervention will positively impact service use among this group. PMID:26412954

  2. Leaving my religion: Understanding the relationship between religious disaffiliation, health, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Andrew; Danielsen, Sabrina

    2016-05-01

    Religious disaffiliation-leaving the religious tradition in which one was raised for no religious affiliation in adulthood-has become more common in recent years, though few studies have examined its consequences for the health and well-being of individuals. We use an innovative approach, comparing the health and subjective well-being of religious disaffiliates to those who remain affiliated using pooled General Social Survey samples from 1973 through 2012. We find that religious disaffiliates experience poorer health and lower well-being than those consistently affiliated and those who are consistently unaffiliated. We also demonstrate that the disadvantage for those who leave religious traditions is completely mediated by the frequency of church attendance, as disaffiliates attend church less often. Our results point to the importance of the social processes surrounding religious disaffiliation and emphasize the role of dynamics in the relationship between religious affiliation and health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding access to care and health needs of Hispanic women from an urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome-D'Emilia, Bonnie; Dunphy Suplee, Patricia; Gardner, Marcia R

    2014-01-01

    As a first step in a proposed program of community-based participatory research, this study investigated access to care and specific health needs in a population of Hispanic women from a medically underserved, urban community. There were 66 Hispanic women recruited at a local church to complete a 94-item researcher-developed survey. Thirty-two percent of women in the study were not U.S. citizens. Being insured, being a citizen, and having a medical diagnosis were significant in satisfaction with care. The most prevalent health issue for this population was being overweight or obese. This study demonstrates the use of the community needs assessment process in the development of interventions to improve a community's health and health care. This is especially true in the Hispanic community in which large variations based on culture and country of origin will impact the success of planned interventions.

  4. Combining clinical and population-level data to understand the health of neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Earle C; Wong, Barbara C; Riley, Rachael W; Hollingsworth, Nicole; Blank, Arthur E; Myers, Christa; Bedell, Jane; Selwyn, Peter A

    2015-03-01

    From February through December 2012, we examined responses to health behavior questions integrated into the electronic medical record of primary care centers in the Bronx, New York in the context of New York City Community Health Survey data. We saw a higher proportion of unhealthy behaviors among patients than among the neighborhood population. Analyzing clinical data in the neighborhood context can better target at-risk populations.

  5. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment - Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding climate change. In our study, we interviewed 35 secondary school students on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and analysed the conceptions of climate scientists as drawn from textbooks and research reports. We analysed all data by metaphor analysis and qualitative content analysis to gain insight into students' and scientists' resources for understanding. In our analysis, we found that students and scientists refer to the same schemata to understand the greenhouse effect. We categorised their conceptions into three different principles the conceptions are based on: warming by more input, warming by less output, and warming by a new equilibrium. By interrelating students' and scientists' conceptions, we identified the students' learning demand: First, our students were afforded with experiences regarding the interactions of electromagnetic radiation and CO2. Second, our students reflected about the experience-based schemata they use as source domains for metaphorical understanding of the greenhouse effect. By uncovering the-mostly unconscious-deployed schemata, we gave students access to their source domains. We implemented these teaching guidelines in interventions and evaluated them in teaching experiments to develop evidence-based and theory-guided learning activities on the greenhouse effect.

  6. Health status of Mexican-origin persons: do proxy measures of acculturation advance our understanding of health disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Zambrana, Ruth E; Yankelvich, Gillermina; Estrada, Maria; Castillo-Salgado, Carlos; Ortega, Alexander N

    2008-12-01

    This paper compares select health status indicators between the U.S. and Mexico, and within the Mexican-origin population using proxy measures of acculturation. Statistical data were abstracted and a Medline literature review conducted of English-language epidemiologic articles on Mexican-origin groups published during 1976-2005. U.S.-born Mexican-Americans have higher morbidity and mortality compared to Mexico-born immigrants. Mexico has lower healthcare resources, life expectancy, and circulatory system and cancer mortality rates, but similar infant immunization rates compared to the U.S. Along the U.S.-Mexico border, the population on the U.S. side has better health status than the Mexican side. The longer in the U.S., the more likely Mexican-born immigrants engage in behaviors that are not health promoting. Conclusions Researchers should consider SEP, community norms, behavioral risk and protective factors when studying Mexican-origin groups. It is not spending-time in the U.S. that worsens health outcomes but rather changes in health promoting behaviors.

  7. Young people and health: towards a new conceptual framework for understanding empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Grace

    2014-01-01

    In recent times, empowerment has become the focus of much work with young people amidst increasing concerns about their health. Empowerment is often offered as a 'solution' to such concerns, with the uncritical assumption being made that empowerment unproblematically results in positive health outcomes. While much of the health promotion literature advocates 'empowerment', it often does so without offering a clear conceptualisation of the word itself or indeed addressing the thorny theoretical tensions surrounding the concept's root word of power. In light of this omission, this article offers a more theoretically informed conceptualisation of empowerment and considers the relationship to young people's health. This article outlines a more dynamic and generative conceptualisation of empowerment than hitherto articulated in the literature, informed by Lukes' multidimensional perspective of power. Drawing on findings from an ethnographic study on empowerment and young people's health, this article develops six conceptually distinct forms of empowerment (impositional, dispositional, concessional, oppositional, normative and transformative). Data were collected from 55 young men and women aged 15-16 years through group discussions, individual interviews and observational work in a school and surrounding community settings in England. Crucially, these six new forms of empowerment capture and synthesise individual, structural and ideological elements of power that differentially, and sometimes inconsistently, shape the possibilities for young people's empowerment. Of significance is the way in which these different forms of empowerment intersect to (re)produce relations of power and may offer different possibilities for health promotion.

  8. Understanding Health Literacy for People Living With HIV: Locations of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Teri G; Reyes, Darcel; Eller, Lucille; Wantland, Dean; Portillo, Carmen; Holzemer, William L; Matshediso, Ellah; Corless, Inge; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Mogobe, K Dintle; Webel, Allison; Nokes, Kathleen; Nicholas, Patrice; Rivero Mendez, Marta; Reid, Paula; Baez, Solymar Solis; Johnson, Mallory O; Cuca, Yvette; Rose, Carol Dawson

    Health literacy, including people's abilities to access, process, and comprehend health-related information, has become an important component in the management of complex and chronic diseases such as HIV infection. Clinical measures of health literacy that focus on patients' abilities to follow plans of care ignore the multidimensionality of health literacy. Our thematic analysis of 28 focus groups from a qualitative, multisite, multinational study exploring information practices of people living with HIV (PLWH) demonstrated the importance of location as a dimension of health literacy. Clinical care and conceptual/virtual locations (media/Internet and research studies) were used by PLWH to learn about HIV and how to live successfully with HIV. Nonclinical spaces where PLWH could safely discuss issues such as disclosure and life problems were noted. Expanding clinical perspectives of health literacy to include location, assessing the what and where of learning, and trusted purveyors of knowledge could help providers improve patient engagement in care. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Cost of War on Public Health: An Exploratory Method for Understanding the Impact of Conflict on Public Health in Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy A Johnson

    Full Text Available The direct impact of protracted conflict on population health and development is well understood. However, the extent of a war's impact on long-term health, and the opportunity costs, are less well understood. This research sought to overcome this gap by asking whether or not health outcomes in Sri Lanka would have been better in the absence of a 26-year war than they were in the presence of war.A counterfactual model of national and district-level health outcomes was created for Sri Lanka for the period 1982 to 2002. At the national level, the model examined life expectancy, infant mortality rate (IMR, and maternal mortality ratios (MMR. At the district level, it looked at IMR and MMR. The model compared outcomes generated by the counterfactual model to actual obtained health outcomes. It looked at the rate of change and absolute values.The analysis demonstrated that war altered both rate of change and absolute health outcomes for the worse. The impact was most clearly evident at the district level. IMR was poorer than predicted in 10 districts; of these 8 were outside of the conflict zone. The MMR was worse than expected in 11 districts of which 9 were not in the conflict zone. Additionally, the rate of improvement in IMR slowed as a result of war in 16 districts whereas the rate of improvement in MMR slowed in 9.This project showed that protracted conflict degraded the trajectory of public health in Sri Lanka and hurt population health outside of the conflict zone. It further provided a novel methodology with which to better understand the indirect impact of conflict on population health by comparing what is to what could have been achieved in the absence of war. In so doing, this research responded to two public health challenges by providing a tool through which to better understand the human and opportunity costs of war and by answering a call for new methodologies.

  10. Effective coverage: a metric for monitoring Universal Health Coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in monitoring universal health coverage (UHC is identifying an indicator that can adequately capture the multiple components underlying the UHC initiative. Effective coverage, which unites individual and intervention characteristics into a single metric, offers a direct and flexible means to measure health system performance at different levels. We view effective coverage as a relevant and actionable metric for tracking progress towards achieving UHC. In this paper, we review the concept of effective coverage and delineate the three components of the metric - need, use, and quality - using several examples. Further, we explain how the metric can be used for monitoring interventions at both local and global levels. We also discuss the ways that current health information systems can support generating estimates of effective coverage. We conclude by recognizing some of the challenges associated with producing estimates of effective coverage. Despite these challenges, effective coverage is a powerful metric that can provide a more nuanced understanding of whether, and how well, a health system is delivering services to its populations.

  11. Poor housing quality: Prevalen